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Sample records for multidrug efflux genes

  1. Regulation of the aceI multidrug efflux pump gene in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Hassan, Karl A; Ashwood, Heather E; Gamage, Hasinika K A H; Li, Liping; Mabbutt, Bridget C; Paulsen, Ian T

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the function of AceR, a putative transcriptional regulator of the chlorhexidine efflux pump gene aceI in Acinetobacter baumannii. Chlorhexidine susceptibility and chlorhexidine induction of aceI gene expression were determined by MIC and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively, in A. baumannii WT and ΔaceR mutant strains. Recombinant AceR was prepared as both a full-length protein and as a truncated protein, AceR (86-299), i.e. AceRt, which has the DNA-binding domain deleted. The binding interaction of the purified AceR protein and its putative operator region was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays. The binding of AceRt with its putative ligand chlorhexidine was examined using surface plasmon resonance and tryptophan fluorescence quenching assays. MIC determination assays indicated that the ΔaceI and ΔaceR mutant strains both showed lower resistance to chlorhexidine than the parental strain. Chlorhexidine-induced expression of aceI was abolished in a ΔaceR background. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated chlorhexidine-stimulated binding of AceR with two sites upstream of the putative aceI promoter. Surface plasmon resonance and tryptophan fluorescence quenching assays suggested that the purified ligand-binding domain of the AceR protein was able to bind with chlorhexidine with high affinity. This study provides strong evidence that AceR is an activator of aceI gene expression when challenged with chlorhexidine. This study is the first characterization, to our knowledge, of a regulator controlling expression of a PACE family multidrug efflux pump.

  2. Expression of multidrug resistance efflux pump gene norA is iron responsive in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Deng, Xin; Sun, Fei; Ji, Quanjiang; Liang, Haihua; Missiakas, Dominique; Lan, Lefu; He, Chuan

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus utilizes efflux transporter NorA to pump out a wide range of structurally dissimilar drugs, conferring low-level multidrug resistance. The regulation of norA expression has yet to be fully understood although past studies have revealed that this gene is under the control of the global transcriptional regulator MgrA and the two-component system ArlRS. To identify additional regulators of norA, we screened a transposon library in strain Newman expressing the transcriptional fusion norA-lacZ for altered β-galactosidase activity. We identify a transposon insertion in fhuB, a gene that encodes a ferric hydroxamate uptake system permease, and propose that the norA transcription is iron responsive. In agreement with this observation, addition of FeCl(3) repressed the induction of norA-lacZ, suggesting that bacterial iron uptake plays an important role in regulating norA transcription. In addition, a fur (ferric uptake regulator) deletion exhibited compromised norA transcription and reduced resistance to quinolone compared to the wild-type strain, indicating that fur functions as a positive regulator of norA. A putative Fur box identified in the promoter region of norA was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase I footprint assays. Finally, by employing a siderophore secretion assay, we reveal that NorA may contribute to the export of siderophores. Collectively, our experiments uncover some novel interactions between cellular iron level and norA regulation in S. aureus.

  3. Drug efflux proteins in multidrug resistant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanVeen, HW; Konings, WN

    Bacteria contain an array of transport proteins in their cytoplasmic membrane. Many of these proteins play an important role in conferring resistance to toxic compounds. The multidrug efflux systems encountered in prokaryotic cells are very similar to those observed in eukaryotic cells. Therefore, a

  4. RND multidrug efflux pumps: what are they good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Olivares, Jorge; Martínez, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps are chromosomally encoded genetic elements capable of mediating resistance to toxic compounds in several life forms. In bacteria, these elements are involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibiotics. Unlike other well-known horizontally acquired antibiotic resistance determinants, genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps belong to the core of bacterial genomes and thus have evolved over millions of years. The selective pressure stemming from the use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections is relatively recent in evolutionary terms. Therefore, it is unlikely that these elements have evolved in response to antibiotics. In the last years, several studies have identified numerous functions for efflux pumps that go beyond antibiotic extrusion. In this review we present some examples of these functions that range from bacterial interactions with plant or animal hosts, to the detoxification of metabolic intermediates or the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. PMID:23386844

  5. Distribution of different efflux pump genes in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and their correlation with antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Feng; Lin, Yun-You; Tu, Chi-Chao; Lan, Chung-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Efflux pumps are one of the major mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. This study aimed to understand the distribution of different types of pump genes in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) and to reveal the relationship between their presence and expression with antimicrobial resistance. MDRAB isolates were collected from five hospitals in Taiwan. Different categories of pump genes, including adeB, adeJ, macB, abeM, abeS, emrA-like, emrB-like, and craA, were chosen, and their presence in the collected isolates was determined. Three induced resistant strains of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 to tigecycline, imipenem, and amikacin were also included. The expressions of the selected pump genes were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-one MDRAB clinical isolates were obtained from five hospitals. All of the studied pump genes were present in the collected MDRAB isolates except one isolate that lacked the emrA-like gene. The gene expression of these efflux pumps was variable among the strains. The upregulation of the adeB, adeJ, and macB genes was responsible for tigecycline resistance, and the increased abeS expression was strongly related to amikacin resistance. Of all the antibiotics studied, tigecycline was the strongest inducer of gene expression for many efflux pumps in A. baumannii. Efflux pump genes are universally present in the collected clinical MDRAB isolates. The upregulation of the adeB, adeJ, macB and abeS genes is more related with antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps i...

  7. Multidrug efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical implications.

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    Jang, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is rapidly spreading among bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in humans. For the last two decades, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps have drawn attention due to their potential association with clinical multidrug resistance. Numerous researchers have demonstrated efflux-mediated resistance in vitro and in vivo and found novel multidrug transporters using advanced genomic information about bacteria. This article aims to provide a concise summary of multidrug efflux pumps and their important clinical implications, focusing on recent findings concerning S. aureus efflux pumps.

  8. The Acinetobacter baumannii Two-Component System AdeRS Regulates Genes Required for Multidrug Efflux, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Strain-Specific Manner

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    Grace E. Richmond

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to persist in the environment and is often multidrug resistant (MDR, causing difficulties in the treatment of infections. Here, we show that the two-component system AdeRS, which regulates the production of the AdeABC multidrug resistance efflux pump, is required for the formation of a protective biofilm in an ex vivo porcine mucosal model, which mimics a natural infection of the human epithelium. Interestingly, deletion of adeB impacted only on the ability of strain AYE to form a biofilm on plastic and only on the virulence of strain Singapore 1 for Galleria mellonella. RNA-Seq revealed that loss of AdeRS or AdeB significantly altered the transcriptional landscape, resulting in the changed expression of many genes, notably those associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence interactions. For example, A. baumannii lacking AdeRS displayed decreased expression of adeABC, pil genes, com genes, and a pgaC-like gene, whereas loss of AdeB resulted in increased expression of pil and com genes and decreased expression of ferric acinetobactin transport system genes. These data define the scope of AdeRS-mediated regulation, show that changes in the production of AdeABC mediate important phenotypes controlled by AdeRS, and suggest that AdeABC is a viable target for antimicrobial drug and antibiofilm discovery.

  9. Tripartite assembly of RND multidrug efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daury, Laetitia; Orange, François; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Verchère, Alice; Monlezun, Laura; Gounou, Céline; Marreddy, Ravi K R; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle; Pos, Klaas M; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-02-12

    Tripartite multidrug efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria are composed of an inner membrane transporter, an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein. They are assumed to form ducts inside the periplasm facilitating drug exit across the outer membrane. Here we present the reconstitution of native Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM and Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC tripartite Resistance Nodulation and cell Division (RND) efflux systems in a lipid nanodisc system. Single-particle analysis by electron microscopy reveals the inner and outer membrane protein components linked together via the periplasmic adaptor protein. This intrinsic ability of the native components to self-assemble also leads to the formation of a stable interspecies AcrA-MexB-TolC complex suggesting a common mechanism of tripartite assembly. Projection structures of all three complexes emphasize the role of the periplasmic adaptor protein as part of the exit duct with no physical interaction between the inner and outer membrane components.

  10. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants.

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    Blanco, Paula; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sanchez, Maria Blanca; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2016-02-16

    Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics.

  11. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps: mechanisms, physiology and pharmacological exploitations.

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    Sun, Jingjing; Deng, Ziqing; Yan, Aixin

    2014-10-17

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the capability of bacterial pathogens to withstand lethal doses of structurally diverse drugs which are capable of eradicating non-resistant strains. MDR has been identified as a major threat to the public health of human being by the World Health Organization (WHO). Among the four general mechanisms that cause antibiotic resistance including target alteration, drug inactivation, decreased permeability and increased efflux, drug extrusion by the multidrug efflux pumps serves as an important mechanism of MDR. Efflux pumps not only can expel a broad range of antibiotics owing to their poly-substrate specificity, but also drive the acquisition of additional resistance mechanisms by lowering intracellular antibiotic concentration and promoting mutation accumulation. Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps have been increasingly found to be associated with clinically relevant drug resistance. On the other hand, accumulating evidence has suggested that efflux pumps also have physiological functions in bacteria and their expression is subject tight regulation in response to various of environmental and physiological signals. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of drug extrusion, and regulation and physiological functions of efflux pumps is essential for the development of anti-resistance interventions. In this review, we summarize the development of these research areas in the recent decades and present the pharmacological exploitation of efflux pump inhibitors as a promising anti-drug resistance intervention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to an...

  13. Enhancement of antibiotic activity by efflux inhibitors against multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Brazil

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    Tatiane eCoelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant tuberculosis continues to increase and new approaches for its treatment are necessary. The identification of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates presenting efflux as part of their resistant phenotype has a major impact in tuberculosis treatment. In this work, we used a checkerboard procedure combined with the tetrazolium microplate-based assay (TEMA to study single combinations between antituberculosis drugs and efflux inhibitors (EIs against multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates using the fully susceptible strain H37Rv as reference. Efflux activity was studied on a real-time basis by a fluorometric method that uses ethidium bromide as efflux substrate. Quantification of efflux pump genes mRNA transcriptional levels were performed by RT-qPCR. The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC indicated synergistic activity for the interactions between isoniazid, rifampicin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and ethidium bromide plus the EIs verapamil, thioridazine and chlorpromazine. The FICs ranged from 0.25, indicating a four-fold reduction on the MICs, to 0.015, 64-fold reduction. The detection of active efflux by real-time fluorometry showed that all strains presented intrinsic efflux activity that contributes to the overall resistance which can be inhibited in the presence of the EIs. The quantification of the mRNA levels of the most important efflux pump genes on these strains shows that they are intrinsically predisposed to expel toxic compounds as the exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were not necessary to increase the pump mRNA levels when compared with the non-exposed counterpart. The results obtained in this study confirm that the intrinsic efflux activity contributes to the overall resistance in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and that the inhibition of efflux pumps by the EIs can enhance the clinical effect of antibiotics that are their substrates.

  14. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria and their potential role in the appearance of MDR phenotypes, by the extrusion of multiple, unrelated compounds. Recent studies suggest that efflux pumps may be used by the cell as a first-line defense mechanism, avoiding the drug to reach lethal concentrations, until a stable, more efficient alteration occurs, that allows survival in the presence of that agent. In this paper we review the current knowledge on MDR efflux pumps and their intricate regulatory network in Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, responsible from mild to life-threatening infections. Particular emphasis will be given to the potential role that S. aureus MDR efflux pumps, either chromosomal or plasmid-encoded, have on resistance towards different antimicrobial agents and on the selection of drug - resistant strains. We will also discuss the many questions that still remain on the role of each specific efflux pump and the need to establish appropriate methodological approaches to address all these questions. PMID:23569469

  15. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria and their potential role in the appearance of MDR phenotypes, by the extrusion of multiple, unrelated compounds. Recent studies suggest that efflux pumps may be used by the cell as a first-line defense mechanism, avoiding the drug to reach lethal concentrations, until a stable, more efficient alteration occurs, that allows survival in the presence of that agent. In this paper we review the current knowledge on MDR efflux pumps and their intricate regulatory network in Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, responsible from mild to life-threatening infections. Particular emphasis will be given to the potential role that S. aureus MDR efflux pumps, either chromosomal or plasmid-encoded, have on resistance towards different antimicrobial agents and on the selection of drug - resistant strains. We will also discuss the many questions that still remain on the role of each specific efflux pump and the need to establish appropriate methodological approaches to address all these questions.

  16. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF MULTIDRUG RND EFFLUX PUMPS

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    Paolo Ruggerone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps of the Resistance Nodulation Division (RND protein super family counts among the main causes for microbial resistance against pharmaceuticals. Understanding the molecular basis of this process is one of the major challenges of modern biomedical research, involving a broad range of experimental and computational techniques. Here we review the current state of RND transporter investigation employing molecular dynamics simulations providing conformational samples of transporter components to obtain insights into the functional mechanism underlying efflux pump-mediated antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Molecular Dynamics Computer Simulations of Multidrug RND Efflux Pumps

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    Paolo Ruggerone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps of the Resistance Nodulation Division (RND protein super family counts among the main causes for microbial resistance against pharmaceuticals. Understanding the molecular basis of this process is one of the major challenges of modern biomedical research, involving a broad range of experimental and computational techniques. Here we review the current state of RND transporter investigation employing molecular dynamics simulations providing conformational samples of transporter components to obtain insights into the functional mechanism underlying efflux pump-mediated antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  18. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily as Targets for Modulation.

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    Kumar, Sanath; He, Guixin; Kakarla, Prathusha; Shrestha, Ugina; Ranjana, K C; Ranaweera, Indrika; Willmon, T Mark; Barr, Sharla R; Hernandez, Alberto J; Varela, Manuel F

    2016-01-01

    Causative agents of infectious disease that are multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens represent a serious public health concern due to the increasingly difficult nature of achieving efficacious clinical treatments. Of the various acquired and intrinsic antimicrobial agent resistance determinants, integral-membrane multidrug efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily constitute a major mechanism of bacterial resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) encompasses thousands of known related secondary active and passive solute transporters, including multidrug efflux pumps, from bacteria to humans. This review article addresses recent developments involving the targeting by various modulators of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps from the major facilitator superfamily. It is currently of tremendous interest to modulate bacterial multidrug efflux pumps in order to eventually restore the clinical efficacy of therapeutic agents against recalcitrant bacterial infections. Such MFS multidrug efflux pumps are good targets for modulation.

  19. Fluoroquinolone resistance protein NorA of Staphylococcus aureus is a multidrug efflux transporter.

    OpenAIRE

    Neyfakh, A A; Borsch, C M; Kaatz, G W

    1993-01-01

    The gene of the Staphylococcus aureus fluoroquinolone efflux transporter protein NorA confers resistance to a number of structurally dissimilar drugs, not just to fluoroquinolones, when it is expressed in Bacillus subtilis. NorA provides B. subtilis with resistance to the same drugs and to a similar extent as the B. subtilis multidrug transporter protein Bmr does. NorA and Bmr share 44% sequence similarity. Both the NorA- and Bmr-conferred resistances can be completely reversed by reserpine.

  20. Antibiotics: Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, resistance and multidrug efflux pumps.

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    Yılmaz, Çiğdem; Özcengiz, Gülay

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health. The efficiency of antimicrobial treatment is determined by both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In spite of their selective toxicity, antibiotics still cause severe, life-threatening adverse reactions in host body mostly due to defective drug metabolism or excessive dosing regimen. The present article aims at updating current knowledge on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics concepts and models, toxicity of antibiotics as well as antibiotic resistance mechanisms, resistome analyses and search for novel antibiotic resistance determinants with special emphasis given to the-state-of-the-art regarding multidrug efflux pumps and their additional physiological functions in stress adaptation and virulence of bacteria. All these issues are highly linked to each other and not only important for most efficient and prolonged use of current antibiotics, but also for discovery and development of new antibiotics and novel inhibitors of antibiotic resistance determinants of pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multidrug Efflux Pumps at the Crossroad between Antibiotic Resistance and Bacterial Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Blanco, Paula; Martínez, José L

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps can be involved in bacterial resistance to antibiotics at different levels. Some efflux pumps are constitutively expressed at low levels and contribute to intrinsic resistance. In addition, their overexpression may allow higher levels of resistance. This overexpression can be transient, in the presence of an effector (phenotypic resistance), or constitutive when mutants in the regulatory elements of the expression of efflux pumps are selected (acquired resistance). Efflux pumps are present in all cells, from human to bacteria and are highly conserved, which indicates that they are ancient elements in the evolution of different organisms. Consequently, it has been suggested that, besides antibiotic resistance, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps would likely contribute to other relevant processes of the microbial physiology. In the current article, we discuss some specific examples of the role that efflux pumps may have in the bacterial virulence of animals' and plants' pathogens, including the processes of intercellular communication. Based in these evidences, we propose that efflux pumps are at the crossroad between resistance and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the comprehensive study of multidrug efflux pumps requires addressing these functions, which are of relevance for the bacterial-host interactions during infection.

  2. Multidrug efflux pumps at the crossroad between antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence

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    Manuel Alcalde-Rico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug efflux pumps can be involved in bacterial resistance to antibiotics at different levels. Some efflux pumps are constitutively expressed at low levels and contribute to intrinsic resistance. In addition, their overexpression may allow higher levels of resistance. This overexpression can be transient, in the presence of an effector (phenotypic resistance, or constitutive when mutants in the regulatory elements of the expression of efflux pumps are selected (acquired resistance. Efflux pumps are present in all cells, from human to bacteria and are highly conserved, which indicates that they are ancient elements in the evolution of different organisms. Consequently, it has been suggested that, besides antibiotic resistance, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps would likely contribute to other relevant process of the microbial physiology. In the current article, we discuss some specific examples of the role that efflux pumps may have in the bacterial virulence of animals' and plants' pathogens, including the processes of intercellular communication. Based in these evidences, we propose that efflux pumps are at the crossroad between resistance and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the comprehensive study of multidrug efflux pumps requires addressing these functions, which are of relevance for the bacterial-host interactions during infection.

  3. Crystal structure of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrD inner membrane multidrug efflux pump.

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    Jani Reddy Bolla

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually-transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. The MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here report the crystal structure of the inner membrane MtrD multidrug efflux pump, which reveals a novel structural feature that is not found in other RND efflux pumps.

  4. New Roads Leading to Old Destinations: Efflux Pumps as Targets to Reverse Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria

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    Gabriella Spengler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR has appeared in response to selective pressures resulting from the incorrect use of antibiotics and other antimicrobials. This inappropriate application and mismanagement of antibiotics have led to serious problems in the therapy of infectious diseases. Bacteria can develop resistance by various mechanisms and one of the most important factors resulting in MDR is efflux pump-mediated resistance. Because of the importance of the efflux-related multidrug resistance the development of new therapeutic approaches aiming to inhibit bacterial efflux pumps is a promising way to combat bacteria having over-expressed MDR efflux systems. The definition of an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI includes the ability to render the bacterium increasingly more sensitive to a given antibiotic or even reverse the multidrug resistant phenotype. In the recent years numerous EPIs have been developed, although so far their clinical application has not yet been achieved due to their in vivo toxicity and side effects. In this review, we aim to give a short overview of efflux mediated resistance in bacteria, EPI compounds of plant and synthetic origin, and the possible methods to investigate and screen EPI compounds in bacterial systems.

  5. Optimized efflux assay for the NorA multidrug efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Zimmermann, Saskia; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Rödel, Jürgen; Löffler, Bettina; Bohnert, Jürgen A

    2017-11-01

    Real-time fluorescent efflux assays are commonly used for measuring the efflux of bacterial pumps. Here we describe an optimized protocol for the NorA efflux pump in S. aureus using DiOC 3 instead of ethidium bromide. Glucose and sodium formate were tested as energy carriers. This novel method is fast and reproducible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological characterisation of the efflux pump system of antibiotic-susceptible and multidrug-resistant

    OpenAIRE

    Martins , A.; Spengler , G.; Martins , M.; Rodrigues , L.; Viveiros , M.; Davin-Regli , A.; Chevalier , J.; Couto , I.; Pagès , J.M.; Amaral , L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Enterobacter aerogenes predominates among Enterobacteriaceae species that are increasingly reported as producers of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases. Although this mechanism of resistance to ?-lactams is important, other mechanisms bestowing a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype in this species are now well documented. Among these mechanisms is the overexpression of efflux pumps that extrude structurally unrelated antibiotics prior to their reaching their targets. Interestin...

  7. Current Advances in Developing Inhibitors of Bacterial MultidrugEfflux Pumps

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    Mahmood, Hannah Y.; Jamshidi, Shirin; Sutton, J. Mark; Rahman, Khondaker M.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance represents a significant challenge to future healthcare provision. An acronym ESKAPEE has been derived from the names of the organisms recognised as the major threats although there are a number of other organisms, notably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that have become equally challenging to treat in the clinic. These pathogens are characterised by the ability to rapidly develop and/or acquire resistance mechanisms in response to exposure to different antimicrobial agents. A key part of the armoury of these pathogens is a series of efflux pumps, which effectively exclude or reduce the intracellular concentration of a large number of antibiotics, making the pathogens significantly more resistant. These efflux pumps are the topic of considerable interest, both from the perspective of basic understanding of efflux pump function, and its role in drug resistance but also as targets for the development of novel adjunct therapies. The necessity to overcome antimicrobial resistance has encouraged investigations into the characterisation of resistance-modifying efflux pump inhibitors to block the mechanisms of drug extrusion, thereby restoring antibacterial susceptibility and returning existing antibiotics into the clinic. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. This review discusses different bacterial EPIs originating from both natural source and chemical synthesis and examines the challenges to designing successful EPIs that can be useful against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:26947776

  8. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux systems.

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    Hassan, Karl A; Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J F; Paulsen, Ian T

    2015-02-10

    Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are an important class of resistance determinants that can be found in every bacterial genome sequenced to date. These transport proteins have important protective functions for the bacterial cell but are a significant problem in the clinical setting, since a single efflux system can mediate resistance to many structurally and mechanistically diverse antibiotics and biocides. In this study, we demonstrate that proteins related to the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter are a new class of multidrug

  9. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

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    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  10. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody L. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations.

  11. Development of novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance mediated by efflux transporters and intracellular bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriakose, Jerrin

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the condition where cancer cells or microorganisms cease to respond to multiple drugs. MDR conferred by efflux transporters, that deprive the bioavailability of drugs at their site of action, are a threat to cancer and malarial chemotherapy. Specifically, the mammalian ABC transporter Pglycoprotein (P-gp) has undermined many drugs in treatment of cancer and other disease states. Mutations in the parasitic transporter Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance t...

  12. Structures and transport dynamics of a Campylobacter jejuni multidrug efflux pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chih-Chia; Yin, Linxiang; Kumar, Nitin; Dai, Lei; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Delmar, Jared A.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Zhang, Qijing; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Yu, Edward W. (Cornell); (Iowa State)

    2017-08-01

    Resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux pumps are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the export of substrates across cell membranes. Within the hydrophobe-amphiphile efflux subfamily, these resistance-nodulation-cell division proteins largely form trimeric efflux pumps. The drug efflux process has been proposed to entail a synchronized motion between subunits of the trimer to advance the transport cycle, leading to the extrusion of drug molecules. Here we use X-ray crystallography and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to elucidate the structures and functional dynamics of the Campylobacter jejuni CmeB multidrug efflux pump. We find that the CmeB trimer displays a very unique conformation. A direct observation of transport dynamics in individual CmeB trimers embedded in membrane vesicles indicates that each CmeB subunit undergoes conformational transitions uncoordinated and independent of each other. On the basis of our findings and analyses, we propose a model for transport mechanism where CmeB protomers function independently within the trimer.

  13. Multidrug resistance gene expression is controlled by steroid hormones in the secretory epithelium of the uterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arceci, R. J.; Baas, F.; Raponi, R.; Horwitz, S. B.; Housman, D.; Croop, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The multidrug resistance (mdr) gene family has been shown to encode a membrane glycoprotein, termed the P-glycoprotein, which functions as a drug efflux pump with broad substrate specificity. This multigene family is expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic

  14. The MerR-like regulator BrlR confers biofilm tolerance by activating multidrug efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Julie; Schurr, Michael J; Sauer, Karin

    2013-08-01

    A defining characteristic of biofilms is antibiotic tolerance that can be up to 1,000-fold greater than that of planktonic cells. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm tolerance to antimicrobial agents requires the biofilm-specific MerR-type transcriptional regulator BrlR. However, the mechanism by which BrlR mediates biofilm tolerance has not been elucidated. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling indicated that brlR was required for maximal expression of genes associated with antibiotic resistance, in particular those encoding the multidrug efflux pumps MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed a direct regulation of these genes by BrlR, with DNA binding assays confirming BrlR binding to the promoter regions of the mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN operons. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis further indicated BrlR to be an activator of mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN gene expression. Moreover, immunoblot analysis confirmed increased MexA abundance in cells overexpressing brlR. Inactivation of both efflux pumps rendered biofilms significantly more susceptible to five different classes of antibiotics by affecting MIC but not the recalcitrance of biofilms to killing by bactericidal agents. Overexpression of either efflux pump in a ΔbrlR strain partly restored tolerance of ΔbrlR biofilms to antibiotics. Expression of brlR in mutant biofilms lacking both efflux pumps partly restored antimicrobial tolerance of biofilms to wild-type levels. Our results indicate that BrlR acts as an activator of multidrug efflux pumps to confer tolerance to P. aeruginosa biofilms and to resist the action of antimicrobial agents.

  15. Vitamin K3 Induces the Expression of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SmeVWX Multidrug Efflux Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, P; Corona, F; Sánchez, M B; Martínez, J L

    2017-05-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen with increasing prevalence, which is able to cause infections in immunocompromised patients or in those with a previous pathology. The treatment of the infections caused by this bacterium is often complicated due to the several intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms that it presents. Multidrug efflux pumps are among the best-studied mechanisms of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistance. Some of these efflux pumps have a basal expression level but, in general, their expression is often low and only reaches high levels when the local regulator is mutated or bacteria are in the presence of an effector. In the current work, we have developed a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based sensor with the aim to identify effectors able to trigger the expression of SmeVWX, an efflux pump that confers resistance to quinolones, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline when it is expressed at high levels. With this purpose in mind, we tested a variety of different compounds and analyzed the fluorescence signal given by the expression of YFP under the control of the smeVWX promoter. Among the tested compounds, vitamin K 3 , which is a compound belonging to the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone family, is produced by plants in defense against infection, and has increasing importance in human therapy, was able to induce the expression of the SmeVWX efflux pump. In addition, a decrease in the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to ofloxacin and chloramphenicol was observed in the presence of vitamin K 3 , in both wild-type and smeW -deficient strains. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Substrate binding accelerates the conformational transitions and substrate dissociation in multidrug efflux transporter AcrB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tripartite efflux pump assembly AcrAB-TolC is the major multidrug resistance transporter in E. coli. The inner membrane transporter AcrB is a homotrimer, energized by the proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The asymmetric crystal structures of AcrB with three monomers in distinct conformational states (access (A, binding (B and extrusion (E support a functional rotating mechanism, in which each monomer of AcrB cycles among the three states in a concerted way. However, the relationship between the conformational changes during functional rotation and drug translocation has not been totally understood. Here, we explored the conformational changes of the AcrB homotrimer during the ABE→BEA transition in different substrate-binding states using targeted MD simulations. It was found that the dissociation of substrate from the distal binding pocket of B monomer is closely related to the concerted conformational changes in the translocation pathway, especially the side chain reorientation of Phe628 and Tyr327. A second substrate binding at the proximal binding pocket of A monomer evidently accelerates the conformational transitions as well as substrate dissociation in B monomer. The acceleration effect of the multi-substrate binding mode provides a molecular explanation for the positive cooperativity observed in the kinetic studies of substrate efflux and deepens our understanding of the functional rotating mechanism of AcrB.

  17. The Prevalence of the OqxAB Multidrug Efflux Pump amongst Olaquindox-Resistant Escherichia coli in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Jørgensen, Helle S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC = 64 µg/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  18. The prevalence of the OqxAB amongst olaquindox-resistant multidrug efflux pump Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Sørensen, S.J.; Jørgensen, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC >= 64 mu g/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  19. The AcrB efflux pump: conformational cycling and peristalsis lead to multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus A; Diederichs, Kay; Eicher, Thomas; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Schiefner, André; Verrey, François; Pos, Klaas M

    2008-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of human pathogenic bacteria is an emerging problem for global public health. This resistance is often associated with the overproduction of membrane transport proteins that are capable to pump chemotherapeutics, antibiotics, detergents, dyes and organic solvents out of the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tripartite multidrug efflux systems extrude a large variety of cytotoxic substances from the cell membrane directly into the medium bypassing the periplasm and the outer membrane. In E. coli, the tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the pump in charge of the efflux of multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The trimeric outer membrane factor (OMF) TolC forms a beta-barrel pore in the outer membrane and exhibits a long periplasmic alpha-helical conduit. The periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP) AcrA serves as a linker between TolC and the trimeric resistance nodulation cell division (RND) pump AcrB, located in the inner membrane acting as a proton/drug antiporter. The newly elucidated asymmetric structure of trimeric AcrB reveals three different monomer conformations representing consecutive states in a transport cycle. The monomers show tunnels with occlusions at different sites leading from the lateral side through the periplasmic porter (pore) domains towards the funnel of the trimer and TolC. The structural changes create a hydrophobic pocket in one monomer, which is not present in the other two monomers. Minocyclin and doxorubicin, both AcrB substrates, specifically bind to this pocket substantiating its role as drug binding pocket. The energy transduction from the proton motive force into drug efflux includes proton binding in (and release from) the transmembrane part. The conformational changes observed within a triad of essential, titratable residues (Asp407/Asp408/Lys940) residing in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain appear to be transduced by

  20. Switch-loop flexibility affects transport of large drugs by the promiscuous AcrB multidrug efflux transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-08-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å(2) are less well transported than other substrates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Efflux pump genes of the resistance-nodulation-division family in Burkholderia cenocepacia genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manina Giulia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia is recognized as opportunistic pathogen that can cause lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A hallmark of B. cenocepacia infections is the inability to eradicate the organism because of multiple intrinsic antibiotic resistance. As Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND efflux systems are responsible for much of the intrinsic multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, this study aims to identify RND genes in the B. cenocepacia genome and start to investigate their involvement into antimicrobial resistance. Results Genome analysis and homology searches revealed 14 open reading frames encoding putative drug efflux pumps belonging to RND family in B. cenocepacia J2315 strain. By reverse transcription (RT-PCR analysis, it was found that orf3, orf9, orf11, and orf13 were expressed at detectable levels, while orf10 appeared to be weakly expressed in B. cenocepacia. Futhermore, orf3 was strongly induced by chloramphenicol. The orf2 conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones, tetraphenylphosphonium, streptomycin, and ethidium bromide when cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli KAM3, a strain lacking the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB. The orf2-overexpressing E. coli also accumulate low concentrations of ethidium bromide, which was restored to wild type level in the presence of CCCP, an energy uncoupler altering the energy of the drug efflux pump. Conclusion The 14 RND pumps gene we have identified in the genome of B. cenocepacia suggest that active efflux could be a major mechanism underlying antimicrobial resistance in this microorganism. We have characterized the ORF2 pump, one of these 14 potential RND efflux systems. Its overexpression in E. coli conferred resistance to several antibiotics and to ethidium bromide but it remains to be determined if this pump play a significant role in the antimicrobial intrinsic resistance of B. cenocepacia. The characterization of antibiotic efflux pumps in B

  2. Expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea and its role in drug efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Quinn, Tim L; Herndon, Betty L; Thomas, Priscilla; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the presence of nucleoside/nucleotide efflux transporter in cornea and to evaluate the role in ocular drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining were employed to establish molecular presence of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea. Corneal efflux by MRP5 was studied with bis(POM)-PMEA and acyclovir using rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MRP5 over expressing cells (MDCKII-MRP5). Ex vivo studies using excised rabbit cornea and in vivo ocular microdialysis in male New Zealand white rabbits were used to further evaluate the role of MRP5 in conferring ocular drug resistance. RT-PCR confirms the expression of MRP5 in both rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis using a rat (M511-54) monoclonal antibody that reacts with human epitope confirms the expression of MRP5 protein in human corneal epithelial cells and MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunostaining performed on human cornea indicates the localization of this efflux pump on both epithelium and endothelium. Efflux studies reveal that depletion of ATP decreased PMEA efflux significantly. MRP5 inhibitors also diminished PMEA and acyclovir efflux. However, depletion of glutathione did not alter efflux. MDR1 and MRP2 did not contribute to PMEA efflux. However, MRP2 is involved in acyclovir efflux while MDR1 do not participate in this process. TLC/autoradiography suggested the conversion of bis(POM)-PMEA to PMEA in rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells. Two well known antiglaucoma drugs, bimatoprost and latanoprost were rapidly effluxed by MRP5. Ex vivo study on intact rabbit corneas demonstrated accumulation of PMEA in cornea in the presence of ATP-depleting medium. In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics also revealed a significant increase in maximum aqueous humor concentration (C(max)) and area under the

  3. Dual effects of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 on multidrug efflux pumps in resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Divya; Callaghan, Richard

    2017-11-15

    ZSTK474 is a potent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor that reduces cell proliferation via G 1 -arrest. However, there is little information on the susceptibility of this anticancer drug to resistance conferred by the multidrug pumps P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and ABCG2. We have demonstrated that ZSTK474 generated cytotoxicity in cells over-expressing either pump with potency similar to that in drug sensitive cells. In addition, the co-administration of ZSTK474 with the cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and mitoxantrone caused a potentiated cytotoxic effect in both drug sensitive and efflux pump expressing cells. These observations suggest that ZSTK474 is unaffected by the presence of multidrug efflux pumps and may circumvent their activities. Indeed, ZSTK474 increased the cellular accumulation of calcein-AM and mitoxantrone in cells expressing ABCB1 and ABCG2, respectively. ZSTK474 treatment also resulted in reduced expression of both efflux pumps in multidrug resistant cancer cells. Measurement of ABCB1 or ABCG2 mRNA levels demonstrated that the reduction was not due to altered transcription. Similarly, inhibitor studies showed that the proteasomal degradation pathway for ABCB1 and the lysosomal route for ABCG2 degradation were unaffected by ZSTK474. Thus the mechanism underlying reduced ABCB1 and ABCG2 levels caused by ZSTK474 was due to a reduction in overall protein synthesis; a process influenced by the PI3K pathway. In summary, ZSTK474 is not susceptible to efflux by the resistance mediators ABCB1 and ABCG2. Moreover, it inhibits the drug transport function of the pumps and leads to a reduction in their cellular expression levels. Our observations demonstrate that ZSTK474 is a powerful anticancer drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional study of the novel multidrug resistance gene HA117 and its comparison to multidrug resistance gene 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingfu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel gene HA117 is a multidrug resistance (MDR gene expressed by all-trans retinoic acid-resistant HL-60 cells. In the present study, we compared the multidrug resistance of the HA117 with that of the classical multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 in breast cancer cell line 4T1. Methods Transduction of the breast cancer cell line 4T1 with adenoviral vectors encoding the HA117 gene and the green fluorescence protein gene (GFP (Ad-GFP-HA117, the MDR1 and GFP (Ad-GFP-MDR1 or GFP (Ad-GFP was respectively carried out. The transduction efficiency and the multiplicity of infection (MOI were detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The transcription of HA117 gene and MDR1 gene were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp but the expression of HA117 could not be analyzed as it is a novel gene and its antibody has not yet been synthesized. The drug-excretion activity of HA117 and MDR1 were determined by daunorubicin (DNR efflux assay. The drug sensitivities of 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 to chemotherapeutic agents were detected by Methyl-Thiazolyl-Tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results The transducted efficiency of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 were 75%-80% when MOI was equal to 50. The transduction of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 could increase the expression of HA117 and MDR1. The drug resistance index to Adriamycin (ADM, vincristine (VCR, paclitaxel (Taxol and bleomycin (BLM increased to19.8050, 9.0663, 9.7245, 3.5650 respectively for 4T1/HA117 and 24.2236, 11.0480, 11.3741, 0.9630 respectively for 4T1/MDR1 as compared to the control cells. There were no significant differences in drug sensitivity between 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 for the P-gp substrates (ADM, VCR and Taxol (P Conclusions These results confirm that HA117 is a strong MDR gene in both HL-60 and 4T1 cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that the MDR

  5. Efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2005-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to plague antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease. And while true biocide resistance is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are common and the history of antibiotic resistance should not be ignored in the development and use of biocidal agents. Efflux mechanisms of resistance, both drug specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials, with some accommodating both antibiotics and biocides. This latter raises the spectre (as yet generally unrealized) of biocide selection of multiple antibiotic-resistant organisms. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are broadly conserved in bacteria, are almost invariably chromosome-encoded and their expression in many instances results from mutations in regulatory genes. In contrast, drug-specific efflux mechanisms are generally encoded by plasmids and/or other mobile genetic elements (transposons, integrons) that carry additional resistance genes, and so their ready acquisition is compounded by their association with multidrug resistance. While there is some support for the latter efflux systems arising from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Streptomyces spp. and, thus, intended as drug exporters, increasingly, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, appear not to be intended as drug exporters but as exporters with, perhaps, a variety of other roles in bacterial cells. Still, given the clinical significance of multidrug (and drug-specific) exporters, efflux must be considered in formulating strategies/approaches to treating drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux and in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  6. New methods for the identification of efflux mediated MDR bacteria, genetic assessment of regulators and efflux pump constituents, characterization of efflux systems and screening for inhibitors of efflux pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viveiros, M; Martins, M; Couto, I

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a number of methods that identify efflux pump mediated multi-drug resistant bacteria, characterize efflux systems and screen for inhibitors of efflux pumps. These approaches were complemented by the quantification of the expression of genes that regulate and code for constituents...

  7. pH-induced conformational changes of AcrA, the membrane fusion protein of Escherichia coli multidrug efflux system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hermia; Stratton, Kelly; Zgurskaya, Helen; Liu, Jun

    2003-12-12

    The multidrug efflux system AcrA-AcrB-TolC of Escherichia coli expels a wide range of drugs directly into the external medium from the bacterial cell. The mechanism of the efflux process is not fully understood. Of an elongated shape, AcrA is thought to span the periplasmic space coordinating the concerted operation of the inner and outer membrane proteins AcrB and TolC. In this study, we used site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy to investigate the molecular conformations of AcrA in solution. Ten AcrA mutants, each with an alanine to cysteine substitution, were engineered, purified, and labeled with a nitroxide spin label. EPR analysis of spin-labeled AcrA variants indicates that the side chain mobilities are consistent with the predicted secondary structure of AcrA. We further demonstrated that acidic pH induces oligomerization and conformational change of AcrA, and that the structural changes are reversible. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of AcrA in drug efflux is similar to the viral membrane fusion proteins, and that AcrA actively mediates the efflux of substrates.

  8. Gallic acid-based indanone derivative interacts synergistically with tetracycline by inhibiting efflux pump in multidrug resistant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Gaurav Raj; Tiwari, Nimisha; Singh, Aastha; Kumar, Akhil; Roy, Sudeep; Negi, Arvind Singh; Pal, Anirban; Chanda, Debabrata; Sharma, Ashok; Darokar, Mahendra P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the synergy potential of gallic acid-based derivatives in combination with conventional antibiotics using multidrug resistant cultures of Escherichia coli. Gallic acid-based derivatives significantly reduced the MIC of tetracycline against multidrug resistant clinical isolate of E. coli. The best representative, 3-(3',4,'5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,5,6-trimethoxyindanone-1, an indanone derivative of gallic acid, was observed to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux and ATPase which was also supported by in silico docking. This derivative extended the post-antibiotic effect and decreased the mutation prevention concentration of tetracycline. This derivative in combination with TET was able to reduce the concentration of TNFα up to 18-fold in Swiss albino mice. This derivative was nontoxic and well tolerated up to 300 mg/kg dose in subacute oral toxicity study in mice. This is the first report of gallic acid-based indanone derivative as drug resistance reversal agent acting through ATP-dependent efflux pump inhibition.

  9. Multidrug resistance transporters Snq2p and Pdr5p mediate caffeine efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Otake, Kazuya; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Okada, Ryutaro; Miyazaki, Toshitaka; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2015-01-01

    SNQ2 was identified as a caffeine-resistance gene by screening a genomic library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a multicopy vector YEp24. SNQ2 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter and is highly homologous to PDR5. Multicopy of PDR5 also conferred resistance to caffeine, while its resistance was smaller than that of SNQ2. Residual caffeine contents were analyzed after transiently exposing cells to caffeine. The ratios of caffeine contents were 21.3 ± 8.8% (YEp24-SNQ2) and 81.9 ± 8.7% (YEp24-PDR5) relative to control (YEp24, 100%). In addition, multicopies of SNQ2 or PDR5 conferred resistance to rhodamine 6G (R6G), which was widely used as a substrate for transport assay. R6G was exported by both transporters, and their efflux activities were inhibited by caffeine with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 5.3 ± 1.9 (YEp24-SNQ2) and 17.2 ± 9.6 mM (YEp24-PDR5). These results demonstrate that Snq2p is a more functional transporter of caffeine than Pdr5p in yeast cells.

  10. Efflux pumps as antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to hamper antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease, and while biocide resistance outside of the laboratory is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are not uncommon. Efflux mechanisms, both drug-specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials in important human pathogens. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are generally chromosome-encoded, with their expression typically resultant from mutations in regulatory genes, while drug-specific efflux mechanisms are encoded by mobile genetic elements whose acquisition is sufficient for resistance. While it has been suggested that drug-specific efflux systems originated from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, are appreciated as having an intended housekeeping function unrelated to drug export and resistance. Thus, it will be important to elucidate the intended natural function of these efflux mechanisms in order, for example, to anticipate environmental conditions or circumstances that might promote their expression and, so, compromise antimicrobial chemotherapy. Given the clinical significance of antimicrobial exporters, it is clear that efflux must be considered in formulating strategies for treatment of drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux or in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  11. Evaluation of multidrug efflux pump inhibitors by a new method using microfluidic channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Fluorescein-di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG, a fluorogenic compound, is hydrolyzed by β-galactosidase in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli to produce a fluorescent dye, fluorescein. We found that both FDG and fluorescein were substrates of efflux pumps, and have developed a new method to evaluate efflux-inhibitory activities in E. coli using FDG and a microfluidic channel device. We used E. coli MG1655 wild-type, ΔacrB (ΔB, ΔtolC (ΔC and ΔacrBΔtolC (ΔBC harboring plasmids carrying the mexAB-oprM (pABM or mexXY-oprM (pXYM genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two inhibitors, MexB-specific pyridopyrimidine (D13-9001 and non-specific Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN were evaluated. The effects of inhibitors on pumps were observed using the microfluidic channel device under a fluorescence microscope. AcrAB-TolC and analogous pumps effectively prevented FDG influx in wild-type cells, resulting in no fluorescence. In contrast, ΔB or ΔC easily imported and hydrolyzed FDG to fluorescein, which was exported by residual pumps in ΔB. Consequently, fluorescent medium in ΔB and fluorescent cells of ΔC and ΔBC were observed in the microfluidic channels. D13-9001 substantially increased fluorescent cell number in ΔBC/pABM but not in ΔBC/pXYM. PAβN increased medium fluorescence in all strains, especially in the pump deletion mutants, and caused fluorescein accumulation to disappear in ΔC. The checkerboard method revealed that D13-9001 acts synergistically with aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin only against the MexAB-OprM producer (ΔBC/pABM, and PAβN acts synergistically, especially with erythromycin, in all strains including the pump deletion mutants. The results obtained from PAβN were similar to the results from membrane permeabilizer, polymyxin B or polymyxin B nonapeptide by concentration. The new method clarified that D13-9001 specifically inhibited MexAB-OprM in contrast to PAβN, which appeared to be a substrate of the pumps and

  12. Structural and functional aspects of the multidrug efflux pump AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Thomas; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Pos, Klaas M

    2009-08-01

    The tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the main pump in Escherichia coli for the efflux of multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB is central to substrate recognition and energy transduction and acts as a proton/drug antiporter. Recent structural studies show that homotrimeric AcrB can adopt different monomer conformations representing consecutive states in an allosteric functional rotation transport cycle. The conformational changes create an alternate access drug transport tunnel including a hydrophobic substrate binding pocket in one of the cycle intermediates.

  13. Bafetinib (INNO-406) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux function of ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhang, Guan-Nan; Wang, Yi-Jun; Patel, Bhargav A.; Talele, Tanaji T.; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters are involved in the efflux of xenobiotic compounds and are responsible for decreasing drug accumulation in multidrug resistant (MDR) cells. Discovered by structure-based virtual screening algorithms, bafetinib, a Bcr-Abl/Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was found to have inhibitory effects on both ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR in this in-vitro investigation. Bafetinib significantly sensitized ABCB1 and ABCG2 overexpressing MDR cells to their anticancer substrates and increased the intracellular accumulation of anticancer drugs, particularly doxorubicin and [3H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells; mitoxantrone and [3H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2 overexpressing cells, respectively. Bafetinib stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activities while inhibited ABCG2 ATPase activities. There were no significant changes in the expression level or the subcellular distribution of ABCB1 and ABCG2 in the cells exposed to 3 μM of bafetinib. Overall, our study indicated that bafetinib reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR by blocking the drug efflux function of these transporters. These findings might be useful in developing combination therapy for MDR cancer treatment.

  14. Coupling of remote alternating-access transport mechanisms for protons and substrates in the multidrug efflux pump AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Thomas; Seeger, Markus A; Anselmi, Claudio; Zhou, Wenchang; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Verrey, François; Diederichs, Kay; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-09-19

    Membrane transporters of the RND superfamily confer multidrug resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and are essential for cholesterol metabolism and embryonic development in humans. We use high-resolution X-ray crystallography and computational methods to delineate the mechanism of the homotrimeric RND-type proton/drug antiporter AcrB, the active component of the major efflux system AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli, and one most complex and intriguing membrane transporters known to date. Analysis of wildtype AcrB and four functionally-inactive variants reveals an unprecedented mechanism that involves two remote alternating-access conformational cycles within each protomer, namely one for protons in the transmembrane region and another for drugs in the periplasmic domain, 50 Å apart. Each of these cycles entails two distinct types of collective motions of two structural repeats, coupled by flanking α-helices that project from the membrane. Moreover, we rationalize how the cross-talk among protomers across the trimerization interface might lead to a more kinetically efficient efflux system.

  15. Identification of natural compound inhibitors for multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using in silico high-throughput virtual screening and in vitro validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, Vasudevan; Dineshkumar, Kesavan; Mohanalakshmi, Narasumani; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Hopper, Waheeta

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are resistant to wide range of antibiotics rendering the treatment of infections very difficult. A main mechanism attributed to the resistance is the function of efflux pumps. MexAB-OprM and AcrAB-TolC are the tripartite efflux pump assemblies, responsible for multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Substrates that are more susceptible for efflux are predicted to have a common pharmacophore feature map. In this study, a new criterion of excluding compounds with efflux substrate-like features was used, thereby refining the selection process and enriching the inhibitor identification process. An in-house database of phytochemicals was created and screened using high-throughput virtual screening against AcrB and MexB proteins and filtered by matching with the common pharmacophore models (AADHR, ADHNR, AAHNR, AADHN, AADNR, AAADN, AAADR, AAANR, AAAHN, AAADD and AAADH) generated using known efflux substrates. Phytochemical hits that matched with any one or more of the efflux substrate models were excluded from the study. Hits that do not have features similar to the efflux substrate models were docked using XP docking against the AcrB and MexB proteins. The best hits of the XP docking were validated by checkerboard synergy assay and ethidium bromide accumulation assay for their efflux inhibition potency. Lanatoside C and diadzein were filtered based on the synergistic potential and validated for their efflux inhibition potency using ethidium bromide accumulation study. These compounds exhibited the ability to increase the accumulation of ethidium bromide inside the bacterial cell as evidenced by these increase in fluorescence in the presence of the compounds. With this good correlation between in silico screening and positive efflux inhibitory activity in vitro, the two compounds, lanatoside C and diadzein could be promising efflux pump inhibitors and effective to use in combination therapy against drug

  16. Identification of natural compound inhibitors for multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using in silico high-throughput virtual screening and in vitro validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Aparna

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are resistant to wide range of antibiotics rendering the treatment of infections very difficult. A main mechanism attributed to the resistance is the function of efflux pumps. MexAB-OprM and AcrAB-TolC are the tripartite efflux pump assemblies, responsible for multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Substrates that are more susceptible for efflux are predicted to have a common pharmacophore feature map. In this study, a new criterion of excluding compounds with efflux substrate-like features was used, thereby refining the selection process and enriching the inhibitor identification process. An in-house database of phytochemicals was created and screened using high-throughput virtual screening against AcrB and MexB proteins and filtered by matching with the common pharmacophore models (AADHR, ADHNR, AAHNR, AADHN, AADNR, AAADN, AAADR, AAANR, AAAHN, AAADD and AAADH generated using known efflux substrates. Phytochemical hits that matched with any one or more of the efflux substrate models were excluded from the study. Hits that do not have features similar to the efflux substrate models were docked using XP docking against the AcrB and MexB proteins. The best hits of the XP docking were validated by checkerboard synergy assay and ethidium bromide accumulation assay for their efflux inhibition potency. Lanatoside C and diadzein were filtered based on the synergistic potential and validated for their efflux inhibition potency using ethidium bromide accumulation study. These compounds exhibited the ability to increase the accumulation of ethidium bromide inside the bacterial cell as evidenced by these increase in fluorescence in the presence of the compounds. With this good correlation between in silico screening and positive efflux inhibitory activity in vitro, the two compounds, lanatoside C and diadzein could be promising efflux pump inhibitors and effective to use in combination

  17. Detection of potential AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump inhibitor in calyces extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehaya Al-Karablieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate occurrence of potential efflux pump inhibitor (EPI against AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa. Materials and Methods: Calyces of H. sabdariffa were purchased from the local market in April 2014, methanol extract of H. sabdariffa was subjected to agar plate diffusion against Escherichia coli TG1 and its ∆acrB-∆tolC and thin layer chromatography (TLC bioassay. The corresponding EPI fraction was eluted by methanol. The synergistic effect of antimicrobials and EPI fraction was measured by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination for E. coli and Erwinia amylovora strains, and the ability of EPI fraction to enhance EtBr accumulation was conducted. Results: E. coli TG1 was more sensitive to the methanol extracts of H. sabdariffa than E. coli ∆acrB-∆tolC, and inhibition zone corresponding to flavones on TLC bioassay plate has been formed which might be related to the fraction of potential EPI. The MIC values revealed that EPI fraction enhanced the activity of the used antimicrobials by 4 to 8 folds in E. coli TG1 and by 4 to 10 folds in E. amylovora 1189. Addition of EPI fraction in a dose-dependent manner increased the intercellular accumulation of Ethidium Bromide (EtBr in the wild type stains of E. coli TG1 and E. amylovora 1189. Conclusion: EPI fraction behaves like a multidrug efflux pump inhibitor and further investigation should be conducted for determination of the chemical structure of EPI fraction. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 357-363

  18. The human multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP is a plasma membrane drug-efflux pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, G. J.; Flens, M. J.; van Leusden, M. R.; de Haas, M.; Mülder, H. S.; Lankelma, J.; Pinedo, H. M.; Scheper, R. J.; Baas, F.; Broxterman, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    The multidrug-resistance associated protein MRP is a 180- to 195-kDa membrane protein associated with resistance of human tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs. We have investigated how MRP confers drug resistance in SW-1573 human lung carcinoma cells by generating a subline stably transfected with an

  19. Evaluation of HP0605 and HP0971 genes of efflux pumps in Helicobacter pylori resistance to Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hasan Shirazi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in H.pylori and it is a major cause of treatment failure. Five families of multidrug efflux pumps are defined in bacteria and resistance-nodulation-division (RND pumps are found mainly in gram negative bacteria. TolC is one of RND pump components and play a critical role in drug resistance. It hasn’t been established that RND family has a role in drug resistance in H.pylori. In this study, we assessed the role of two efflux genes in resistant to metronidazole in H.pylori by evaluation of overexpression TolC genes by RT-PCR method. Methods: In five metronidazole resistant strains of H.pylori, total RNA was extracted. RNA treated with DNase and RNA reverse transcribed to cDNA. Aliquots of the cDNA solution were assayed by RT- PCR for HP0605 and HP0971 genes. The levels of mRNA expression were evaluated by densitometry analysis. Results: All five strains displayed overexpression for HP0605 basis of increased concentration of metronidazole. Three strains showed transcripts for HP0971. One of these had transcripts for HP0971 only in Metronidazole concentration equaled to 16 µg/ml but two strains overexpressed adapt to increase concentration of metronidazole. Conclusion: According to current study, HP0605 and HP0971 genes overexpressed due to increase metronidazole. So, increasing of Metronidazole affects in H.pylori΄s efflux system in transcription level.

  20. Interaction of dipeptide prodrugs of saquinavir with multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2): evasion of MRP-2 mediated efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ritesh; Agarwal, Sheetal; Mandava, Nanda Kishore; Sheng, Ye; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), the first protease inhibitor approved by FDA to treat HIV-1 infection. This drug is a well-known substrate for multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2). The objective of this study was to investigate whether derivatization of SQV to dipeptide prodrugs, valine-valine-saquinavir (Val-Val-SQV) and glycine-valine-saquinavir (Gly-Val-SQV), targeting peptide transporter can circumvent MRP-2 mediated efflux. Uptake and transport studies were carried out across MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers to investigate the interaction of SQV and its prodrugs with MRP-2. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion experiments in rat jejunum were performed to calculate intestinal absorption rate constants and permeabilities of SQV, Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV. Uptake studies demonstrated that the prodrugs have significantly lower interaction with MRP-2 relative to SQV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV across MDCKII-MRP2 cells exhibited an enhanced absorptive flux and reduced secretory flux as compared to SQV. Intestinal perfusion studies revealed that synthesized prodrugs have higher intestinal permeabilities relative to SQV. Enhanced absorption of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV relative to SQV can be attributed to their translocation by the peptide transporter in the jejunum. In the presence of MK-571, a MRP family inhibitor, there was a significant increase in the permeabilities of SQV and Gly-Val-SQV indicating that these compounds are probably substrates for MRP-2. However, there was no change in the permeability of Val-Val-SQV with MK-571 indicating lack of any interaction of Val-Val-SQV with MRP-2. In conclusion, peptide transporter targeted prodrug modification of MRP-2 substrates may lead to shielding of these drug molecules from MRP-2 efflux pumps.

  1. From phenothiazine to 3-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine derivatives as inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA multidrug efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Kaatz, Glenn W; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Brandini, David; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2008-07-24

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade effects of substrate antimicrobial agents and inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux pump, the activity of which confers decreased susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 1,4-benzothiazine derivatives were designed and synthesized as a minimized structural template of phenothiazine MDR efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. Almost all derivatives evaluated showed good activity in combination with ciprofloxacin against S. aureus ATCC 25923; some were capable of completely restoring ciprofloxacin activity in a norA-overexpressing strain (SA-K2378). Compounds 6k and 7j displayed good activity against SA-1199B, a strain that also overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide (EtBr) efflux inhibition assay.

  2. bmr3, a third multidrug transporter gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohki, R; Murata, M

    1997-01-01

    A third multidrug transporter gene named bmr3 was cloned from Bacillus subtilis. Although Bmr3 shows relatively low homology to Bmr and Blt, the substrate specificities of these three transporters overlap. Northern hybridization analysis showed that expression of the bmr3 gene was dependent on the growth phase.

  3. Natural lignans from Arctium lappa modulate P-glycoprotein efflux function in multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    Arctium lappa is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in China (TCM) and Europe that has been used for thousands of years to treat arthritis, baldness or cancer. The plant produces lignans as secondary metabolites which have a wide range of bioactivities. Yet, their ability to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells has not been explored. In this study, we isolated six lignans from A. lappa seeds, namely arctigenin, matairesinol, arctiin, (iso)lappaol A, lappaol C, and lappaol F. The MDR reversal potential of the isolated lignans and the underlying mechanism of action were studied using two MDR cancer cell lines, CaCo2 and CEM/ADR 5000 which overexpress P-gp and other ABC transporters. In two-drug combinations of lignans with the cytotoxic doxorubicin, all lignans exhibited synergistic effects in CaCo2 cells and matairesinol, arctiin, lappaol C and lappaol F display synergistic activity in CEM/ADR 5000 cells. Additionally, in three-drug combinations of lignans with the saponin digitonin and doxorubicin MDR reversal activity was even stronger enhanced. The lignans can increase the retention of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in CEM/ADR 5000 cells, indicating that lignans can inhibit the activity of P-gp. Our study provides a first insight into the potential chemosensitizing activity of a series of natural lignans, which might be candidates for developing novel adjuvant anticancer agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Coarse-grained Simulations of Substrate Export through Multidrug Efflux Transporter AcrB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewel, Yead; Dutta, Prashanta; Liu, Jin

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of bacterial infectious diseases hampered by the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) systems. The MDR system actively pumps the antibiotic drugs as well as other toxic compounds out of the cells. During the pumping, AcrB (one of the key MDR components) undergoes a series of large-scale proton/substrate dependent conformational changes. In this work, we implement a hybrid coarse-grained PACE force field that couples the united-atom protein model with the coarse-grained MARTINI water/lipid, to investigate the conformational changes of AcrB. We first develop the substrate force field which is compatible with PACE, then we implement the force field to explore large scale structural changes of AcrB in microsecond simulations. The effects of the substrate and the protonation states of two key residues: Asp407 and Asp408, are investigated. Our results show that the drug export through AcrB is proton as well as substrate dependent. Our simulations explain molecular mechanisms of substrate transport through AcrB complex, as well as provide valuable insights for designing proper antibiotic drugs. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01GM122081.

  5. Bacillus subtilis from Soybean Food Shows Antimicrobial Activity for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by Affecting the adeS Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tieshan; Su, Jianrong

    2016-12-28

    Exploring novel antibiotics is necessary for multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Because the probiotics in soybean food have antimicrobial activities, we investigated their effects on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . Nineteen multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains were clinifcally isolated as an experimental group and 11 multidrug-sensitive strains as controls. The growth rates of all bacteria were determined by using the analysis for xCELLigence Real-Time Cell. The combination of antibiotics showed synergistic effects on the strains in the control group but no effect on the strains in the experimental group. Efflux pump gene adeS was absent in all the strains from the control group, whereas it exists in all the strains from the experimental group. Furthermore, all the strains lost multidrug resistance when an adeS inhibitor was used. One strain of probiotics isolated from soybean food showed high antimicrobial activity for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii . The isolated strain belongs to Bacillus subtilis according to 16S RNA analysis. Furthermore, E. coli showed multidrug resistance when it was transformed with the adeS gene from A. baumannii whereas the resistant bacteria could be inhibited completely by isolated Bacillus subtilis . Thus, probiotics from soybean food provide potential antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

  6. [Antimicrobial activity of fosfomycin under various conditions against standard strains, beta-lactam resistant strains, and multidrug efflux system mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuniya, Takeshi; Hiraishi, Toru; Maebashi, Kazunori; Ida, Takashi; Takata, Toshihiko; Hikida, Muneo; Yamada, Sakuo; Gotoh, Naomasa; Nishino, Takeshi

    2005-04-01

    -positive and Gram-negative bacteria causing postoperative infections. Further, FOM would not select/concentrate beta-lactamase producing bacteria in the clinical fields and would not be a substrate for multidrug efflux system of P. aeruginosa.

  7. Contribution of efflux pumps in fluroquinolone resistance in multi-drug resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomanas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital in north east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Choudhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading opportunistic pathogen and its ability to acquire resistance against series of antimicrobial agents confine treatment option for nosocomial infections. Increasing resistance to fluroquinolone (FQ agents has further worsened the scenario. The major mechanism of resistance to FQs includes mutation in FQs target genes in bacteria (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerases and overexpression of antibiotic efflux pumps. Objective: We have investigated the role of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance in nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital in north eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 non-duplicate, consecutive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from a tertiary referral hospital of north-east India. An efflux pump inhibitor (EPI, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP based method was used for determination of efflux pump activity and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for molecular characterisation of efflux pump. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC reduction assay was also performed for all the isolates. Results and Conclusion: A total number of 56 (23% have shown efflux mediated FQ resistance. MexAB-OprM efflux system was predominant type. This is the first report of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance from this part of the world and the continued emergence of these mutants with such high MIC range from this part of the world demands serious awareness, diagnostic intervention, and proper therapeutic option.

  8. Fluconazole Resistance Associated with Drug Efflux and Increased Transcription of a Drug Transporter Gene, PDH1, in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Haruko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Geber, Antonia; Parkinson, Tanya; Hitchcock, Christopher; Falconer, Derek J.; Ward, Douglas J.; Marsden, Katherine; Bennett, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Sequential Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the mouth of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who was receiving high doses of fluconazole for oropharyngeal thrush. Fluconazole-susceptible colonies were replaced by resistant colonies that exhibited both increased fluconazole efflux and increased transcripts of a gene which codes for a protein with 72.5% identity to Pdr5p, an ABC multidrug transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced protein had a molecular mass of 175 kDa and was composed of two homologous halves, each with six putative transmembrane domains and highly conserved sequences of ATP-binding domains. When the earliest and most azole-susceptible isolate of C. glabrata from this patient was exposed to fluconazole, increased transcripts of the PDR5 homolog appeared, linking azole exposure to regulation of this gene. PMID:9661006

  9. Modulation of the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from Vibrio cholerae by Allium sativum extract and the bioactive agent allyl sulfide plus synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial susceptibility by A. sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Merissa M; Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared T; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ponce, Robert C; Garcia, John A; Ranaweera, Indrika; Sanford, Leslie M; Hernandez, Alberto J; Willmon, T Mark; Tolson, Grace L; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-10-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux. Thus, we tested whether A. sativum extract acts in synergy with antimicrobials and that a main bioactive component allyl sulfide inhibits EmrD-3 efflux. We found that A. sativum extract and allyl sulfide inhibited ethidium bromide efflux in cells harboring EmrD-3 and that A. sativum lowered the MICs of multiple antibacterials. We conclude that A. sativum and allyl sulfide inhibit EmrD-3 and that A. sativum extract synergistically enhances antibacterial agents.

  10. Modulation of human multidrug-resistance MDR-1 gene by natural curcuminoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhasukh Duang

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug resistance (MDR is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in patient's tumor cells resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is related to the overexpression of a membrane protein, P-glycoprotein (Pgp-170, thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. A variety of studies have tried to find MDR modulators which increase drug accumulation in cancer cells. Methods In this study, natural curcuminoids, pure curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn, were compared for their potential ability to modulate the human MDR-1 gene expression in multidrug resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line, KB-V1 by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Results Western blot analysis and RT-PCR showed that all the three curcuminoids inhibited MDR-1 gene expression, and bisdemethoxycurcumin produced maximum effect. In additional studies we found that commercial grade curcuminoid (approximately 77% curcumin, 17% demethoxycurcumin and 3% bisdemthoxycurcumin decreased MDR-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and had about the same potent inhibitory effect on MDR-1 gene expression as our natural curcuminoid mixtures. Conclusion These results indicate that bisdemethoxycurcumin is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric for modulation of MDR-1 gene. Treatment of drug resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with a decreased MDR-1 gene product, a P-glycoprotein, on the cell plasma membrane. Although many drugs that prevent the P-glycoprotein function have been reported, this report describes the inhibition of MDR-1 expression by a phytochemical. The modulation of MDR-1 expression may be an attractive target for new chemosensitizing agents.

  11. Modulation of human multidrug-resistance MDR-1 gene by natural curcuminoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Buddhasukh, Duang

    2004-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in patient's tumor cells resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is related to the overexpression of a membrane protein, P-glycoprotein (Pgp-170), thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. A variety of studies have tried to find MDR modulators which increase drug accumulation in cancer cells. In this study, natural curcuminoids, pure curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), were compared for their potential ability to modulate the human MDR-1 gene expression in multidrug resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line, KB-V1 by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR showed that all the three curcuminoids inhibited MDR-1 gene expression, and bisdemethoxycurcumin produced maximum effect. In additional studies we found that commercial grade curcuminoid (approximately 77% curcumin, 17% demethoxycurcumin and 3% bisdemthoxycurcumin) decreased MDR-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and had about the same potent inhibitory effect on MDR-1 gene expression as our natural curcuminoid mixtures. These results indicate that bisdemethoxycurcumin is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric for modulation of MDR-1 gene. Treatment of drug resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with a decreased MDR-1 gene product, a P-glycoprotein, on the cell plasma membrane. Although many drugs that prevent the P-glycoprotein function have been reported, this report describes the inhibition of MDR-1 expression by a phytochemical. The modulation of MDR-1 expression may be an attractive target for new chemosensitizing agents

  12. Single-step selection of drug resistant Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 mutants reveals a functional redundancy in the recruitment of multidrug efflux systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Acinetobacter have been the focus recent attention due to both their clinical significance and application to molecular biology. The soil commensal bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a model system for molecular and genetic studies, whereas in a clinical environment, Acinetobacter spp. are of increasing importance due to their propensity to cause serious and intractable systemic infections. Clinically, a major factor in the success of Acinetobacter spp. as opportunistic pathogens can be attributed to their ability to rapidly evolve resistance to common antimicrobial compounds. Whole genome sequencing of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter spp. isolates has revealed the presence of numerous multidrug transporters within the core and accessory genomes, suggesting that efflux is an important host defense response in this genus. In this work, we used the drug-susceptible organism A. baylyi ADP1 as a model for studies into the evolution of efflux mediated resistance in genus Acinetobacter, due to the high level of conservation of efflux determinants across four diverse Acinetobacter strains, including clinical isolates. A single exposure of therapeutic concentrations of chloramphenicol to populations of A. baylyi ADP1 cells produced five individual colonies displaying multidrug resistance. The major facilitator superfamily pump craA was upregulated in one mutant strain, whereas the resistance nodulation division pump adeJ was upregulated in the remaining four. Within the adeJ upregulated population, two different levels of adeJ mRNA transcription were observed, suggesting at least three separate mutations were selected after single-step exposure to chloramphenicol. In the craA upregulated strain, a T to G substitution 12 nt upstream of the craA translation initiation codon was observed. Subsequent mRNA stability analyses using this strain revealed that the half-life of mutant craA mRNA was significantly

  13. Circumvention of the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP-1) by an antitumor drug through specific inhibition of gene transcription in breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Sylvia; Rojas, Marta; Bataller, Marc; Priebe, Waldemar; Portugal, José

    2007-04-01

    Multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) confers resistance to a number of clinically important chemotherapeutic agents. The promoter of the mrp-1 gene contains an Sp1-binding site, which we targeted using the antitumor bis-anthracycline WP631. When MCF-7/VP breast cancer cells, which overexpress MRP-1 protein, were incubated with WP631 the expression of the multidrug-resistance protein gene decreased. Conversely, doxorubicin did not alter mrp-1 gene expression. The inhibition of gene expression was followed by a decrease in the activity of the MRP-1 protein. The IC(75) for WP631 (drug concentration required to inhibit cell growth by 75%) circumvented the drug-efflux pump, without addition of resistant modifiers. After treatment with WP631, MCF-7/VP cells were committed to die after entering mitosis (mitotic catastrophe), while treatment with doxorubicin did not affect cell growth. This is the first report on an antitumor drug molecule inhibiting the mrp-1 gene directly, rather than being simply a poor substrate for the transporter-mediated efflux. However, both situations appeared to coexist, thereby a superior cytotoxic effect was attained. Ours results suggest that WP631 offers great potential for the clinical treatment of tumors displaying a multidrug-resistance phenotype.

  14. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR.

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    Adrianna Raczkowska

    Full Text Available OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches.

  15. An ace up their sleeve: a transcriptomic approach exposes the AceI efflux protein of Acinetobacter baumannii and reveals the drug efflux potential hidden in many microbial pathogens

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    Karl A Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The era of antibiotics as a cure-all for bacterial infections appears to be coming to an end. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many hospital-associated pathogens has resulted in superbugs that are effectively untreatable. Multidrug efflux pumps are well known mediators of bacterial drug resistance. Genome sequencing efforts have highlighted an abundance of putative efflux pump genes in bacteria. However, it is not clear how many of these pumps play a role in antimicrobial resistance. Several studies have demonstrated that efflux pump genes that participate in drug resistance are typically under tight regulatory control and expressed only in response to their substrates. Consequently, changes in gene expression following antimicrobial shock treatments may be used to identify efflux pumps that mediate antimicrobial resistance, informing targeted functional analyses of these proteins. Using this approach we have characterised novel efflux pumps in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, we recently applied this strategy to characterise the AceI efflux pump from Acinetobacter. AceI is a prototype for a new family of multidrug efflux proteins that is conserved across many proteobacterial lineages. Different efflux pumps in this family have been shown to confer resistance to biocides including chlorhexidine, dequalinium, benzalkonium, proflavine and/or acriflavine. The discovery of this novel family of multidrug efflux proteins raises the possibility that additional undiscovered intrinsic resistance proteins may be encoded in the core genomes of pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Quantitative analysis of MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene expression in human tumors by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, K.E.; Beck, C.; Holzmayer, T.A.; Chin, J.E.; Roninson, I.B.; Wunder, J.S.; Andrulis, I.L.; Gazdar, A.F.; Willman, C.L.; Griffith, B.; Von Hoff, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The resistance of tumor cells ot chemotheraprutic drugs is a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy. In human cells, expression of the MDR1 gene, encoding a transmembrane efflux pump (P-glycoprotein), leads to decreased intracellular accumulation and resistance to a variety of lipophilic drugs (multidrug resistance; MDR). The levels of MDR in cell lines selected in bitro have been shown to correlate with the steady-state levels of MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein. In cells with a severalfold increase in cellular drug resistance, MDR1 expression levels are close to the limits of detection by conventional assays. MDR1 expression has been frequently observed in human tumors after chemotherapy and in some but not all types of clinically refactory tumors untreated with chemotherapeutic drugs. The authors have devised a highly sensitive, specific, and quantitative protocol for measuring the levels of MDR1 mRNA in clincal samples, based on the polymerase chain reaction. They have used this assay to measure MDR1 gene expression in MDR cell lines and >300 normal tissues, tumor-derived cell lines, and clinical specimens of untreated tumors of the types in which MDR1 expression was rarely observed by standard assays. Low levels of MDR1 expression were found by polymerase chain reaction in most solid tumors and leukemias tested. The frequency of samples without detectable MDR1 expression varied among different types of tumors; MDR1-negative samples were ost common among tumor types known to be relatively responsive to chemotherapy

  17. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells.

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    Gordillo, Gayle M; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-05-06

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M.; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. PMID:26961872

  19. Effect of iron on expression of efflux pump (adeABC) and quorum sensing (luxI, luxR) genes in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresi, Farzan; Azizi, Omid; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Valibeigi, Behnaz; Mansouri, Shahla

    2015-11-01

    Resistance-nodulation-division efflux system (RND) adeABC contributes to intrinsic resistance to various drug classes in Acinetobacter baumannii. Similarly, quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in the biofilm formation and pathogenicity of this bacterium. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of iron limitation on the expression of efflux pump (adeABC) genes and QS (luxI, luxR) system by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, DNA sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) gene was also investigated. Sixty-five multidrug-resistant isolates of A. baumannii were recovered from ICU patients of three hospitals in Kerman, Iran. The isolates were highly resistant to at least 11 antibiotics (MIC ≥64 μg/mL); however, 87% and 89% were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline, respectively (MIC 0.05 μg/mL) (p ≤ 0.05). We detected the presence of RND efflux pump, QS, and bap genes with the frequencies of 92% (adeA), 61.5% (adeB), 84.6% (adeC), 80% (luxI), 61% (luxR), and 66% (bap), respectively. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in some isolates, expression of both adeABC and luxI/R was increased more than fourfold in the presence of low iron (20 μm), suggesting the additional regulatory role of iron on both efflux pump and QS system. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis on the strong biofilm forming isolates confirmed that the fragments amplified were indeed part of bap gene and deduced sequence was similar to A. baumannii K9B410. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Global regulator SoxR is a negative regulator of efflux pump gene expression and affects antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ruobing; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    SoxR is a global regulator contributing to multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. However, the contribution of SoxR to antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii has not yet been studied. Comparisons of molecular characteristics were performed between 32 multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates and 11 susceptible isolates. A soxR overexpression mutant was constructed, and its resistance phenotype was analyzed. The impact of SoxR on efflux pump gene expression was measured at the transcription level. The effect of SoxR on the growth and fitness of A. baumannii was analyzed using a growth rate assay and an in vitro competition assay. The frequency of the Gly39Ser mutation in soxR was higher in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, whereas the soxS gene was absent in all strains analyzed. SoxR overexpression led to increased susceptibility to chloramphenicol (4-fold), tetracycline (2-fold), tigecycline (2-fold), ciprofloxacin (2-fold), amikacin (2-fold), and trimethoprim (2-fold), but it did not influence imipenem susceptibility. Decreased expression of abeS (3.8-fold), abeM (1.3-fold), adeJ (2.4-fold), and adeG (2.5-fold) were correlated with soxR overexpression (P baumannii.

  1. The role of multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1) as an active efflux transporter on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingineni, Karthik; Belekar, Vilas; Tangadpalliwar, Sujit R; Garg, Prabha

    2017-05-01

    Drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS) may take longer duration to reach the market as these compounds have a higher attrition rate in clinical trials due to the complexity of the brain, side effects, and poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability compared to non-CNS-acting compounds. The roles of active efflux transporters with BBB are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to develop a predictive model for BBB permeability that includes the MRP-1 transporter, which is considered as an active efflux transporter. A support vector machine model was developed for the classification of MRP-1 substrates and non-substrates, which was validated with an external data set and Y-randomization method. An artificial neural network model has been developed to evaluate the role of MRP-1 on BBB permeation. A total of nine descriptors were selected, which included molecular weight, topological polar surface area, ClogP, number of hydrogen bond donors, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, number of rotatable bonds, P-gp, BCRP, and MRP-1 substrate probabilities for model development. We identified 5 molecules that fulfilled all criteria required for passive permeation of BBB, but they all have a low logBB value, which suggested that the molecules were effluxed by the MRP-1 transporter.

  2. Distribution of adeB and NDM-1 genes in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from infected wound of patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M J; Shamsuzzaman, S M

    2017-12-01

    The adeB gene in Acinetobacter baumannii regulates the bacterial internal drug efflux pump that plays a significant role in drug resistance. The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of adeB gene in multidrug resistant and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM- 1) gene in imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wound swab samples in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified by culture and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases were screened using the double disc synergy technique. Gene encoding AdeB efflux pump and NDM-1 were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A total 22 (6.37%) Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from 345 wound swab samples and 20 (91%) of them were multidrug resistant. High resistance rates to some antibiotics were seen namely, cefotaxime (95%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%) and ceftriaxone (82%). All the identified Acinetobacter baumannii were sensitive to colistin and 82% to imipenem. Two (9%) ESBL producing Acinetobacter baumannii strains were detected. adeB gene was detected in 16 (80%) out of 20 multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 4 (18%) of 22 Acinetobacter baumannii were imipenem resistant. NDM-1 gene was detected in 2 (50%) of the imipenem resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. The results of this study provide insight into the role of adeB gene as a potential regulator of drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumanni in Bangladesh. NDM-1 gene also contributes in developing such resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii.

  3. Complex interplay between the P-glycoprotein multidrug efflux pump and the membrane: its role in modulating protein function

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    Frances Jane Sharom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance in cancer is linked to expression of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter (Pgp, ABCB1, which exports many structurally diverse compounds from cells. Substrates first partition into the bilayer and then interact with a large flexible binding pocket within the transporter’s transmembrane regions. Pgp has been described as a hydrophobic vacuum cleaner or an outwardly-directed drug/lipid flippase. Recent X-ray crystal structures have shed some light on the nature of the drug-binding pocket and suggested routes by which substrates can enter it from the membrane. Detergents have profound effects on Pgp function, and several appear to be substrates. Biochemical and biophysical studies in vitro, some using purified reconstituted protein, have explored the effects of the membrane environment. They have demonstrated that Pgp is involved in a complex relationship with its lipid environment, which modulates the behaviour of its substrates, as well as various functions of the protein, including ATP hydrolysis, drug binding and drug transport. Membrane lipid composition and fluidity, phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain length all influence Pgp function. Recent studies focusing on thermodynamics and kinetics have revealed some important principles governing Pgp-lipid and substrate-lipid interactions, and how these affect drug binding and transport. In some cells, Pgp is associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains which may modulate its functions. The relationship between Pgp and cholesterol remains an open question; however it clearly affects several aspects of its function in addition to substrate-membrane partitioning. The action of Pgp modulators appears to depend on their membrane permeability, and membrane fluidizers and surfactants reverse drug resistance, likely via an indirect mechanism. A detailed understanding of how the membrane affects Pgp substrates and Pgp’s catalytic cycle may lead to new strategies to combat

  4. Genome analysis of urease positive Serratia marcescens, co-producing SRT-2 and AAC(6')-Ic with multidrug efflux pumps for antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Vijaya Bharathi; Rajamohan, Govindan

    2018-04-05

    In this study, we present the genome sequence of Serratia marcescens SM03, recovered from a human gut in India. The final assembly consists of 26 scaffolds (4620 coding DNA sequences, 5.08 Mb, 59.6% G + C ratio) and 79 tRNA genes. Analysis identified novel genes associated with lactose utilization, virulence, P-loop GTPases involved in urease production, CFA/I fimbriae apparatus and Yersinia - type CRISPR proteins. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated drug tolerant phenotype and inhibition assays demonstrated involvement of extrusion in resistance. Presence of enzymes SRT-2, AAC(6')-Ic, with additional Ybh transporter and EamA-like efflux pumps signifies the genetic plasticity observed in S. marcescens SM03. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Chlorine Exposure on the Survival and Antibiotic Gene Expression of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Water

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    Deepti Prasad Karumathil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of clinical conditions in humans. Acinetobacter spp. is ubiquitously found in different water sources. Chlorine being the most commonly used disinfectant in water, the study investigated the effect of chlorine on the survival of A. baumannii in water and transcription of genes conferring antibiotic resistance. Eight clinical isolates of A. baumannii, including a fatal meningitis isolate (ATCC 17978 (~108 CFU/mL were separately exposed to free chlorine concentrations (0.2, 1, 2, 3 and 4 ppm with a contact time of 30, 60, 90 and 120 second. The surviving pathogen counts at each specified contact time were determined using broth dilution assay. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis of the antibiotic resistance genes (efflux pump genes and those encoding resistance to specific antibiotics of three selected A. baumannii strains following exposure to chlorine was performed. Results revealed that all eight A. baumannii isolates survived the tested chlorine levels during all exposure times (p > 0.05. Additionally, there was an up-regulation of all or some of the antibiotic resistance genes in A. baumannii, indicating a chlorine-associated induction of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen.

  6. Role of bacterial efflux pumps in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alav, Ilyas; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz

    2018-02-28

    Efflux pumps are widely implicated in antibiotic resistance because they can extrude the majority of clinically relevant antibiotics from within cells to the extracellular environment. However, there is increasing evidence from many studies to suggest that the pumps also play a role in biofilm formation. These studies have involved investigating the effects of efflux pump gene mutagenesis and efflux pump inhibitors on biofilm formation, and measuring the levels of efflux pump gene expression in biofilms. In particular, several key pathogenic species associated with increasing multidrug resistance, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, have been investigated, whilst other studies have focused on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model organism and problematic pathogen. Studies have shown that efflux pumps, including AcrAB-TolC of E. coli, MexAB-OprM of P. aeruginosa, AdeFGH of A. baumannii and AcrD of S. enterica, play important roles in biofilm formation. The substrates for such pumps, and whether changes in their efflux activity affect biofilm formation directly or indirectly, remain to be determined. By understanding the roles that efflux pumps play in biofilm formation, novel therapeutic strategies can be developed to inhibit their function, to help disrupt biofilms and improve the treatment of infections. This review will discuss and evaluate the evidence for the roles of efflux pumps in biofilm formation and the potential approaches to overcome the increasing problem of biofilm-based infections.

  7. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

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    Ana Teresa P. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047. A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009, whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094. In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010. However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  8. Efflux as a mechanism of antimicrobial drug resistance in clinical relevant microorganisms: the role of efflux inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Clarissa; Wentzel, Johannes Frederik; du Plessis, Lissinda Hester; Gouws, Chrisna; Hamman, Josias Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Microbial resistance against antibiotics is a serious threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases. Several mechanisms exist through which microorganisms can develop resistance against antimicrobial drugs, of which the overexpression of genes to produce efflux pumps is a major concern. Several efflux transporters have been identified in microorganisms, which infer resistance against specific antibiotics and even multidrug resistance. Areas covered: This paper focuses on microbial resistance against antibiotics by means of the mechanism of efflux and gives a critical overview of studies conducted to overcome this problem by combining efflux pump inhibitors with antibiotics. Information was obtained from a literature search done with MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, OneSearch and EBSCO host. Expert opinion: Efflux as a mechanism of multidrug resistance has presented a platform for improved efficacy against resistant microorganisms by co-administration of efflux pump inhibitors with antimicrobial agents. Although proof of concept has been shown for this approach with in vitro experiments, further research is needed to develop more potent inhibitors with low toxicity which is clinically effective.

  9. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus that overexpresses efflux protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Laênia Angélica Andrade; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Jéssica Bezerra; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Siqueira-Júnior, José P

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of glycone (myricitrin, hesperidin and phloridzin) and aglycone flavonoids (myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin) in inhibiting biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B that overexpress the msrA and norA efflux protein genes, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC 50 - defined as the lowest concentration that resulted in ≥50% inhibition of biofilm formation) of flavonoids were determined using microdilution in broth procedures. The flavonoids showed MIC >1024 μg/mL against S. aureus RN4220 and S. aureus SA1199B; however, these compounds at lower concentrations (1-256 μg/mL) showed inhibitory effects on biofilm formation by these strains. Aglycone flavonoids showed lower MBIC 50 values than their respective glycone forms. The lowest MBIC 50 values (1 and 4 μg/mL) were observed against S. aureus RN4220. Myricetin, hesperetin and phloretin exhibited biofilm formation inhibition >70% for S. aureus RN4220, and lower biofilm formation inhibition against S. aureus SA1199B. These results indicate that sub-MICs of the tested flavonoids inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus strains that overexpress efflux protein genes. These effects are more strongly established by aglycone flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Molecular evolution of the sulphite efflux gene SSU1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Xin; Sun, Fei-Fei; Huang, Yan-Yan; Li, Zhen-Chong

    2013-11-01

    The SSU1 gene encoding a membrane sulfite pump is a main facilitator invovled in sulfite efflux. In Saccharomyce cerevisiae, various range of resistance to sulfite was observed among strains. To explore the evolution traits of SSU1 gene, the population data of S. cerevisiae were collected and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. cerevisiae population can be classified into three sub-populations, and the positive selection was detected in population by McDonald-Kreitman test. The anaylsis of Ka/Ks ratios further showed that S. cerevisiae sub-population was undergoing positive selection. This finding was also supported by PAML branch model. Nine potential positive selection sites were predicted by branch-site model, and four sites exclusively belong to the sub-population under positive seletion. The data from ssulp protein structure demonstrated that three sites are substitutions between polar and hydrophobic amino acids, and only one site of substitutaion from basic amino acid to basic amino acid (345R/K). Because amino acid pKa values are crucial for sulfite pump to maintain their routine function, positive selection of these amino acid substitutions might affect sulfite efflux efficient.

  11. Evidence of MexT-independent overexpression of MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of metabolic stress.

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    Ayush Kumar

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexEF-OprN efflux pump confers resistance to clinically significant antibiotics. Regulation of mexEF-oprN operon expression is multifaceted with the MexT activator being one of the most prominent regulatory proteins.We have exploited the impaired metabolic fitness of a P. aeruginosa mutant strain lacking several efflux pump of the resistance nodulation cell division superfamily and the TolC homolog OpmH, and isolated derivatives (large colony variants that regained fitness by incubation on nutrient-rich medium in the absence of antibiotics. Although the mexEF-oprN operon is uninducible in this mutant due to a 8-bp mexT insertion present in some P. aeruginosa PAO1 strains, the large colony variants expressed high levels of MexEF-OprN. Unlike large colony variants obtained after plating on antibiotic containing medium which expressed mexEF-oprN in a MexT-dependent fashion as evidenced by clean excision of the 8-bp insertion from mexT, mexEF-oprN expression was MexT-independent in the large colony variants obtained by plating on LB alone since the mexT gene remained inactivated. A search for possible regulators of mexEF-oprN expression using transposon mutagenesis and genomic library expression approaches yielded several candidates but proved inconclusive.Our results show that antibiotic and metabolic stress lead to up-regulation of MexEF-OprN expression via different mechanisms and that MexEF-OprN does not only extrude antimicrobials but rather serves other important metabolic functions.

  12. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

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    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  13. Dual repression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC by CosR and CmeR in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Grinnage-Pulley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown. To answer these questions, we conducted various experiments utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays. CosR and CmeR bound independently to two separate sites of the cmeABC promoter, simultaneously repressing cmeABC expression. This dual binding of CosR and CmeR is optimal with a 17 base pair space between the two binding sites as mutations that shortened the distance between the binding sites decreased binding by CmeR and enhanced cmeABC expression. Additionally, the single cysteine residue (C218 of CosR was sensitive to oxidation, which altered the DNA-binding activity of CosR and dissociated CosR from the cmeABC promoter as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Replacement of C218 with serine rendered CosR insensitive to oxidation, suggesting a potential role of C218 in sensing oxidative stress and providing a possible mechanism for CosR-mediated response to oxidative stress. These findings reveal a dual regulatory role of CosR and CmeR in modulating cmeABC expression and suggest a potential mechanism that may explain overexpression of cmeABC in response to oxidative stress. Differential expression of cmeABC mediated by CmeR and CosR in response to different signals may facilitate adaptation of Campylobacter to various environmental conditions.

  14. Multidrug resistance in enteric and other gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A M

    1996-05-15

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug resistance is a term that is used to describe mechanisms of resistance by chromosomal genes that are activated by induction or mutation caused by the stress of exposure to antibiotics in natural and clinical environments. Unlike plasmid-borne resistance genes, there is no alteration or degradation of drugs or need for genetic transfer. Exposure to a single drug leads to cross-resistance to many other structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. The only mechanism identified for multidrug resistance in bacteria is drug efflux by membrane transporters, even though many of these transporters remain to be identified. The enteric bacteria exhibit mostly complex multidrug resistance systems which are often regulated by operons or regulons. The purpose of this review is to survey molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in enteric and other Gram-negative bacteria, and to speculate on the origins and natural physiological functions of the genes involved.

  15. High efflux pump activity and gene expression at baseline linked to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic TB drug resistance, also known as drug tolerance, has been previously attributed to slowed bacterial growth in vivo. The increased activity and expression of efflux systems can lower the intracellular concentration of many antibiotics thus reducing their efficacy. We hypothesized that efflux pump activation and ...

  16. Substrate specificities and efflux efficiencies of RND efflux pumps of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leus, Inga V; Weeks, Jon W; Bonifay, Vincent; Smith, Lauren; Richardson, Sophie; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2018-04-16

    Antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections that are extremely difficult to treat. A significant role in these resistance profiles is attributed to multidrug efflux pumps, especially those belonging to Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division (RND) superfamily of transporters. In this study, we analyzed functions and properties of RND efflux pumps in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. This strain is susceptible to antibiotics and does not contain mutations that are commonly selected upon exposure to high concentrations of antibiotics. We constructed derivatives of ATCC 17978 lacking chromosomally encoded RND pumps and complemented these strains by the plasmid-borne genes. We analyzed the substrate selectivities and efficiencies of the individual pumps in the context of native outer membranes and their hyperporinated variants. Our results show that inactivation of AdeIJK provides the strongest potentiation of antibiotic activities, whereas inactivation of AdeFGH triggers the overexpression of AdeAB. The plasmid-borne overproduction complements the hypersusceptible phenotypes of the efflux deletion mutants to the levels of the parental ATCC 17978. Only a few antibiotics strongly benefitted from the overproduction of efflux pumps and antibacterial activities of some of those depended on the synergistic interaction with the low permeability barrier of the outer membrane. Either overproduction or inactivation of efflux pumps change dramatically the lipidome of ATCC 17978. We conclude that efflux pumps of A. baumannii are tightly integrated into physiology of this bacterium and that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii isolates are unlikely to be reached solely due to overproduction of RND efflux pumps. Importance RND-type efflux pumps are important contributors in development of clinical antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii However, their specific roles and the extent of contribution to antibiotic resistance remain unclear. We analyzed

  17. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and multidrug resistance 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B; Stepniewska, Kasia

    2014-01-01

    Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated...... with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized...

  18. Multidrug efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae obtained from wholesome broiler carcasses Sistemas de efluxo multidroga em Escherichia coli e Enterobacter cloacae obtidas de carcaças de frangos sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida S. Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are present in the intestines of man and animals as commensals or are important disease causing agents. Bacteria bearing multidrug efflux systems (MDR are able to survive adverse ecological niches. Multiresistant Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates from wholesome broiler carcasses were investigated for the presence of MDR. Lowering of Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for antimicrobials in the presence of a proton-motive force (PMF uncoupler was tested as a potential display of the MDR phenotype. PCR amplification of the genes encoding AcrA and AcrB, components of a MDR system was performed. Diversity of each species was ascertained by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE of DNA digested with endonuclease XbaI. For all the isolates, except E. coli 1 and E. cloacae 9, lowering of MIC or of the growth rate in the presence of antimicrobials was observed, indicating a PMF dependent resistance mechanism. Expected products of DNA amplification with acrAB derived primers was obtained with all E. coli strains and with two of the five E. cloacae strains. Dendrogram generated shows diverse pulsetypes, confirming the genetic diversity among the strains. An important issue and related public health is the fact that different models and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance are present in a small number of non-pathogenic strains and isolated from the same origin. These may be sources of resistance genes to others microorganisms, among them, pathogenic strains.Os membros da família Enterobacteriaceae estão presentes no intestino do homem e dos animais como comensais ou agentes causadores de doença importantes. Bactérias multirresistentes podem possuir sistemas de efluxo multidrogas (MDR sendo capazes de sobreviver em nichos ecológicos adversos. Escherichia coli e Enterobacter cloacae, multirresistentes, isoladas de frangos sadios foram investigadas quanto à presença de MDR. A diminuição da

  19. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  20. Effect of Promoter Region Mutations and mgrA Overexpression on Transcription of norA, Which Encodes a Staphylococcus aureus Multidrug Efflux Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, Glenn W.; Thyagarajan, Rama V.; Seo, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug transporter that confers resistance to structurally distinct compounds. The MgrA global regulatory protein is reported to augment norA expression when mgrA is overexpressed from an undefined plasmid-based promoter. Further details about norA regulatory mechanisms are scant. A chromosomal norA::lacZ transcriptional fusion was constructed in different S. aureus strains, and allele replacement was used to define the relevance of promoter region sequences...

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  2. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ziqing; Shan, Yue; Pan, Qing; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Aixin

    2013-01-01

    The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of Escherichia coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF in the operon has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798 bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full-length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  3. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing eDeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of E. coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  4. Effects of L-arabinose efflux on λ Red recombination-mediated gene knockout in multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shi-Wei; Lee, Jen-Jie; Ptak, Christopher P; Wu, Ying-Chen; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Chen, Ter-Hsin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, six swine-derived multiple-antimicrobial-resistant (MAR) strains of Salmonella Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) were demonstrated to possess higher efflux pump activity than the wild-type (WT). L-Arabinose, a common inducer for gene expression, modulated S. Choleraesuis efflux pump activity in a dose-dependent manner. At low L-arabinose concentrations, increasing L-arabinose led to a corresponding increase in fluorophore efflux, while at higher L-arabinose concentrations, increasing L-arabinose decreased fluorophore efflux activity. The WT S. Choleraesuis that lacks TolC (ΔtolC), an efflux protein associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance and virulence, was demonstrated to possess a significantly reduced ability to extrude L-arabinose. Further, due to the rapid export of L-arabinose, an efficient method for recombination-mediated gene knockout, the L-arabinose-inducible bacteriophage λ Red recombinase system, has a reduced recombination frequency (~ 12.5%) in clinically isolated MAR Salmonella strains. An increased recombination frequency (up to 60%) can be achieved using a higher concentration of L-arabinose (fivefold) for genetic manipulation and functional analysis for MAR Salmonella using the λ Red system. The study suggests that L-arabinose serves not only as an inducer of the TolC-dependent efflux system but also acts as a competitive substrate of the efflux system. In addition, understanding the TolC-dependent efflux of L-arabinose should facilitate the optimization of L-arabinose induction in strains with high efflux activity.

  5. Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the efflux transporters involved in the intestinal permeability of the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine and to evaluate the role of these transporters in limiting its oral absorption. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on colchicine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibiting one versus multiple transporters simultaneously. Colchicine permeability was then investigated in different regions of the rat small intestine by in situ single-pass perfusion. Correlation with the P-gp/MRP2 expression level throughout different intestinal segments was investigated by immunoblotting. P-gp inhibitors [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), verapamil, and quinidine], and MRP2 inhibitors [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), indomethacin, and p-aminohippuric acid (p-AH)] significantly increased apical (AP)-basolateral (BL) and decreased BL-AP Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was obtained by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole. P-gp/MRP2 inhibitors combinations greatly reduced colchicine mucosal secretion, including complete abolishment of efflux (GF120918/MK571). Colchicine displayed low (versus metoprolol) and constant permeability along the rat small-intestine. GF120918 significantly increased colchicine permeability in the ileum with no effect in the jejunum, whereas MK571 augmented jejunal permeability without changing the ileal transport. The GF120918/MK571 combination caused an effect similar to that of MK571 alone in the jejunum and to that of GF120918 alone in the ileum. P-gp expression followed a gradient increasing from

  6. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika; Sanglard, Dominique; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. → First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. → Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. → CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using

  7. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  8. Characterization of putative multidrug resistance transporters of the major facilitator-superfamily expressed in Salmonella Typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Ismat, Fouzia; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by efflux pumps is a well-known phenomenon in infectious bacteria. Although much work has been carried out to characterize multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, such information is still lacking for many deadly pathogens. The aim...... of this study was to gain insight into the substrate specificity of previously uncharacterized transporters of Salmonella Typhi to identify their role in the development of multidrug resistance. S. Typhi genes encoding putative members of the major facilitator superfamily were cloned and expressed in the drug......-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM42, and tested for transport of 25 antibacterial compounds, including representative antibiotics of various classes, antiseptics, dyes and detergents. Of the 15 tested putative transporters, STY0901, STY2458 and STY4874 exhibited a drug-resistance phenotype. Among these, STY4874...

  9. Role of the Caenorhabditis elegans multidrug resistance gene, mrp-4, in gut granule differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin; King, Brian; Lawrenson, Andrea L; Schroeder, Lena K; Kershner, Aaron M; Hermann, Greg J

    2007-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are lysosome-related organelles with birefringent contents. mrp-4, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter homologous to mammalian multidrug resistance proteins, functions in the formation of gut granule birefringence. mrp-4(-) embryos show a delayed appearance of birefringent material in the gut granule but otherwise appear to form gut granules properly. mrp-4(+) activity is required for the extracellular mislocalization of birefringent material, body-length retraction, and NaCl sensitivity, phenotypes associated with defective gut granule biogenesis exhibited by embryos lacking the activity of GLO-1/Rab38, a putative GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor GLO-4, and the AP-3 complex. Multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-4 localizes to the gut granule membrane, consistent with it playing a direct role in the transport of molecules that compose and/or facilitate the formation of birefringent crystals within the gut granule. However, MRP-4 is also present in oocytes and early embryos, and our genetic analyses indicate that its site of action in the formation of birefringent material may not be limited to just the gut granule in embryos. In a search for genes that function similarly to mrp-4(+), we identified WHT-2, another ABC transporter that acts in parallel to MRP-4 for the formation of birefringent material in the gut granule.

  10. Kaempferol increases apoptosis in human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and inhibits multidrug resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Maliheh; Tabarraei, Alijan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Erfanian, Saiedeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2018-02-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is one of the most life-threatening hematological malignancies. Defects in the cell growth and apoptotic pathways are responsible for both disease pathogenesis and treatment resistance. Therefore, pro-apoptotic agents are potential candidates for APL treatment. Kaempferol is a flavonoid with antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic, pro-apoptotic, and differentiation-inducing effects of kaempferol on HL-60 and NB4 leukemia cells. Resazurin assay was used to determine cell viability following treatment with kaempferol (12.5-100 μM) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10 μM; used as a positive control). Apoptosis and differentiation were also detected using propidium iodide and NBT staining techniques, respectively. Furthermore, the expression levels of genes involved in apoptosis (PI3 K, AKT, BCL2, BAX, p53, p21, PTEN, CASP3, CASP8, and CASP9), differentiation (PML-RAR and HDAC1), and multi-drug resistance (ABCB1 and ABCC1) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expressions of Bax/Bcl2 and casp3 were confirmed using Western blot. The results showed that kaempferol decreased cell viability and increased subG1 population in the tested leukemic cells. This effect was associated with decreased expression of Akt, BCL2, ABCB1, and ABCC1 genes, while the expression of CASP3 and BAX/BCL-2 ratio were significantly increased at both gene and protein levels. Kaempferol promoted apoptosis and inhibited multidrug resistance in a concentration-dependent manner, without any differential effect on leukemic cells. In conclusion, this study suggested that kaempferol may be utilized as an appropriate alternative for ATRA in APL patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. pH-Responsive therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles for reducing P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux of multidrug resistant cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen HH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-Hung Chen,1 Wen-Chia Huang,2 Wen-Hsuan Chiang,2 Te-I Liu,2 Ming-Yin Shen,2,3 Yuan-Hung Hsu,4 Sung-Chyr Lin,1 Hsin-Cheng Chiu2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 3Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital-Hsinchu Branch, 4Pharmaceutical Optimization Technology Division, Biomedical Technology and Device Research Laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan Abstract: In this study, a novel pH-responsive cholesterol-PEG adduct-coated solid lipid nanoparticles (C-PEG-SLNs carrying doxorubicin (DOX capable of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR breast cancer cells is presented. The DOX-loaded SLNs have a mean hydrodynamic diameter of ~100 nm and a low polydispersity index (under 0.20 with a high drug-loading efficiency ranging from 80.8% to 90.6%. The in vitro drug release profiles show that the DOX-loaded SLNs exhibit a pH-controlled drug release behavior with the maximum and minimum unloading percentages of 63.4% at pH 4.7 and 25.2% at pH 7.4, respectively. The DOX-loaded C-PEG-SLNs displayed a superior ability in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7/MDR cells. At a DOX concentration of 80 µM, the cell viabilities treated with C-PEG-SLNs were approximately one-third of the group treated with free DOX. The inhibition activity of C-PEG-SLNs could be attributed to the transport of C-PEG to cell membrane, leading to the change of the composition of the cell membrane and thus the inhibition of permeability glycoprotein activity. This hypothesis is supported by the confocal images showing the accumulation of DOX in the nuclei of cancer cells and the localization of C-PEG on the cell membranes. The results of in vivo study further demonstrated that the DOX delivered by the SLNs accumulates predominantly in tumor via enhanced permeability and retention effect, the

  12. Deletion of the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 gene in acute myeloid leukemia : the impact on MRP activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellenga, E; van der Veen, AY; Noordhoek, L; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Ossenkoppele, GJ; Raymakers, RA; Muller, M; van den Berg, E; de Vries, EGE

    2000-01-01

    Deletion of the multidrug resistance gene MRP1 has been demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with inversion of chromosome 16 (inv[16]), These AML patients are known to have a relatively favorable prognosis, which suggests that MRP1 might play an important role In determining

  13. Resistência a antimicrobianos dependente do sistema de efluxo multidrogas em Escherichia coli isoladas de leite mastítico Antimicrobial resistance dependent on multidrugs efflux in Escherichia coli isolated from the mastitic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S. Moreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificaram-se e caracterizaram-se a resistência e a multirresistência aos principais antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina causada por Escherichia coli. A concentração inibitória mínima (MIC e o sistema de efluxo foram detectados pelas curvas de crescimento, com base na densidade óptica, em diferentes concentrações da droga e na presença e na ausência do desacoplador da força próton-motora (PMF. E. coli 1 foi resistente à neomicina e à gentamicina; E. coli 3 e 4, à tetraciclina e à estreptomicina; e E. coli 2 e 6 à gentamicina. E. coli 5 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade. Observou-se que MICs de todos os antimicrobianos dos multirresistentes (E. coli 1, 3 e 4 diminuíram na presença do desacoplador, o que sugere sistema de efluxo multidrogas. Após cura, apenas E. coli 1 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade, porém não houve alterações das MICs, antes e após adição do desacoplador. Os resultados indicam possível presença de mecanismo de resistência dependente da PMF codificado, ou parte dele, em plasmídeo.Resistance and multiresistance to main antimicrobials used for treating bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli were identified and characterized. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and efflux systems were detected by the use of growth curves based on optical density at different drug concentrations and both presence and absence of uncoupler of the proton-motive force (PMF. E. coli 1 was resistant to neomycin and gentamycin, E. coli 3 and 4 were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin, whereas E. coli 2 and 6 were resistant to gentamycin. E. coli 5 showed sensibility model. MICs of all antimicrobials of the multiresistant samples (E. coli 1, 3, and 4 were decreased in presence of the uncoupler, therefore suggesting the presence of the multidrug efflux system. After healing, only E. coli 1 showed sensibility model, however no alteration occurred in MIC(s before and after adding the

  14. Lack of AcrB Efflux Function Confers Loss of Virulence on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang-Kan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AcrAB-TolC is the paradigm resistance-nodulation-division (RND multidrug resistance efflux system in Gram-negative bacteria, with AcrB being the pump protein in this complex. We constructed a nonfunctional AcrB mutant by replacing D408, a highly conserved residue essential for proton translocation. Western blotting confirmed that the AcrB D408A mutant had the same native level of expression of AcrB as the parental strain. The mutant had no growth deficiencies in rich or minimal medium. However, compared with wild-type SL1344, the mutant had increased accumulation of Hoechst 33342 dye and decreased efflux of ethidium bromide and was multidrug hypersusceptible. The D408A mutant was attenuated in vivo in mouse and Galleria mellonella models and showed significantly reduced invasion into intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro. A dose-dependent inhibition of invasion was also observed when two different efflux pump inhibitors were added to the wild-type strain during infection of epithelial cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq revealed downregulation of bacterial factors necessary for infection, including those in the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1, 2, and 4; quorum sensing genes; and phoPQ. Several general stress response genes were upregulated, probably due to retention of noxious molecules inside the bacterium. Unlike loss of AcrB protein, loss of efflux function did not induce overexpression of other RND efflux pumps. Our data suggest that gene deletion mutants are unsuitable for studying membrane transporters and, importantly, that inhibitors of AcrB efflux function will not induce expression of other RND pumps.

  15. Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes in multidrug-resistant clinical Bacteroides fragilis isolates by whole genome shotgun sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Sóki, József; Hasman, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis constitutes the most frequent anaerobic bacterium causing bacteremia in humans. The genetic background for antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis is diverse with some genes requiring insertion sequence (IS) elements inserted upstream for increased expression. To evaluate whole...... genome shotgun sequencing as a method for predicting antimicrobial resistance properties, one meropenem resistant and five multidrug-resistant blood culture isolates were sequenced and antimicrobial resistance genes and IS elements identified using ResFinder 2.1 (http...

  16. Expression of the human multidrug transporter in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, U.A.; Willingham, M.C.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma membrane associated human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene product, known as the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein or the multidrug transporter, acts as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for various cytotoxic agents. The authors expressed recombinant human multidrug transporter in a baculovirus expression system to obtain large quantities and further investigate its structure and mechanism of action. MDR1 cDNA was inserted into the genome of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells synthesized high levels of recombinant multidrug transporter 2-3 days after infection. The transporter was localized by immunocytochemical methods on the external surface of the plasma membranes, in the Golgi apparatus, and within the nuclear envelope. The human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is not susceptible to endoglycosidase F treatment and has a lower apparent molecular weight of 140,000, corresponding to the nonglycosylated precursor of its authentic counterpart expressed in multidrug-resistant cells. Labeling experiments showed that the recombinant multidrug transporter is phosphorylated and can be photoaffinity labeled by [ 3 H]azidopine, presumably at the same two sites as the native protein. Various drugs and reversing agents compete with the [ 3 H]azidopine binding reaction when added in excess, indicating that the recombinant human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is functionally similar to its authentic counterpart

  17. Virulence Genes Profile of Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iranian Children with UTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Heidary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Virulent and resistant strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is one of the most important cause of UTIs in pediatrics. The present study was carried to investigate the frequency of virulence factors in the multi-drug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from pediatrics hospitalized due to the UTIs. One - hundred and forty three urine samples were collected from pediatric patients suffered from UTIs. Samples were cultured and those that were P. aeruginosa positive were analyzed for the presence of putative virulence genes. Seventy one out of 143 samples (49.65% were positive for P. aeruginosa. Monthly, sex and age-dependent prevalence were seen for P. aeruginosa. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (95.77%, gentamicin (92.95% and ciprofloxacin (81.69%. Of 71 P. aeruginosa isolates, 12 strains were resistant to more than 9 antibiotics (16.90%. The most commonly detected virulence factors in the cases of urethral infections were exoU and plcH while those of pyelonephritis and cystitis were were exoS and lasB. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in hospitalized pediatrics with UTIs in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution in prescribing antibiotics, especially in cases of UTIs. Such information can help in identifying these virulence genes as useful diagnostic markers for clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from UTIs.

  18. A new tetracycline efflux gene, tet(40), is located in tandem with tet(O/32/O) in a human gut firmicute bacterium and in metagenomic library clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Katarzyna A; Rincon, Marco T; Patterson, Andrea J; Martin, Jennifer C; Young, Pauline; Flint, Harry J; Scott, Karen P

    2008-11-01

    The bacterium Clostridium saccharolyticum K10, isolated from a fecal sample obtained from a healthy donor who had received long-term tetracycline therapy, was found to carry three tetracycline resistance genes: tet(W) and the mosaic tet(O/32/O), both conferring ribosome protection-type resistance, and a novel, closely linked efflux-type resistance gene designated tet(40). tet(40) encodes a predicted membrane-associated protein with 42% amino acid identity to tetA(P). Tetracycline did not accumulate in Escherichia coli cells expressing the Tet(40) efflux protein, and resistance to tetracycline was reduced when cells were incubated with an efflux pump inhibitor. E. coli cells carrying tet(40) had a 50% inhibitory concentration of tetracycline of 60 microg/ml. Analysis of a transconjugant from a mating between donor strain C. saccharolyticum K10 and the recipient human gut commensal bacterium Roseburia inulinivorans suggested that tet(O/32/O) and tet(40) were cotransferred on a mobile element. Sequence analysis of a 37-kb insert identified on the basis of tetracycline resistance from a metagenomic fosmid library again revealed a tandem arrangement of tet(O/32/O) and tet(40), flanked by regions with homology to parts of the VanG operon previously identified in Enterococcus faecalis. At least 10 of the metagenomic inserts that carried tet(O/32/O) also carried tet(40), suggesting that tet(40), although previously undetected, may be an abundant efflux gene.

  19. ramR Mutations Affecting Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eCloeckaert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n=30, covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin resistance in serovar Kentucky ST198 is thus currently mainly due to multiple target gene mutations.

  20. MarA-like regulator of multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Rupa A; Levy, Stuart B

    2006-09-01

    MarA47(Yp) from Yersinia pestis, showing 47% identity to Escherichia coli MarA in its N terminus, caused resistance to antibiotics and to organic solvents when expressed in both E. coli and Y. pestis. Resistance was linked to increased expression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump. In four of five spontaneous multidrug-resistant mutants of Y. pestis independently selected by growth on tetracycline, the marA47(Yp) gene was overexpressed. The findings suggest that marA47(Yp) is a marA ortholog in Y. pestis.

  1. Detection of efflux pump activity among clinical isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To detect efflux pump activity (EPA) and screening a suspected efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) [1- (3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-piperazine (TFMBP)], which could help in reducing multi-drug resistance (MDR). Methods: Eighteen isolates, viz, 14 S. aureus, 2 S. lentus, 1 S. xylosus and 1 Micrococcus species from various ...

  2. Deciphering the role of RND efflux transporters in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bazzini

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 is representative of a highly problematic group of cystic fibrosis (CF pathogens. Eradication of B. cenocepacia is very difficult with the antimicrobial therapy being ineffective due to its high resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents and disinfectants. RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division efflux pumps are known to be among the mediators of multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Since the significance of the 16 RND efflux systems present in B. cenocepacia (named RND-1 to -16 has been only partially determined, the aim of this work was to analyze mutants of B. cenocepacia strain J2315 impaired in RND-4 and RND-9 efflux systems, and assess their role in the efflux of toxic compounds. The transcriptomes of mutants deleted individually in RND-4 and RND-9 (named D4 and D9, and a double-mutant in both efflux pumps (named D4-D9, were compared to that of the wild-type B. cenocepacia using microarray analysis. Microarray data were confirmed by qRT-PCR, phenotypic experiments, and by Phenotype MicroArray analysis. The data revealed that RND-4 made a significant contribution to the antibiotic resistance of B. cenocepacia, whereas RND-9 was only marginally involved in this process. Moreover, the double mutant D4-D9 showed a phenotype and an expression profile similar to D4. The microarray data showed that motility and chemotaxis-related genes appeared to be up-regulated in both D4 and D4-D9 strains. In contrast, these gene sets were down-regulated or expressed at levels similar to J2315 in the D9 mutant. Biofilm production was enhanced in all mutants. Overall, these results indicate that in B. cenocepacia RND pumps play a wider role than just in drug resistance, influencing additional phenotypic traits important for pathogenesis.

  3. Nucleotide sequence of pOLA52: a conjugative IncX1 plasmid from Escherichia coli which enables biofilm formation and multidrug efflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; She, Qunxin

    2008-01-01

    . The plasmid was also classified as IncX1 with incompatibility testing. The conjugal transfer and plasmid maintenance regions of pOLA52 therefore seem to represent IncX1 orthologues of the well-characterized IncX2 plasmid R6K. Sequence homology searches in GenBank also suggested a considerably higher...... of type 3 fimbriae (mrkABCDF). The plasmid was found to be 51,602 bp long with 68 putative genes. About half of the plasmid constituted a conserved IncX1-type backbone with predicted regions for conjugation, replication and partitioning, as well as a toxin/antitoxin (TA) plasmid addiction system...... prevalence of IncX1 group plasmids than IncX2. The 21 kb 'genetic load' region of pOLA52 was shown to consist of a mosaic, among other things a fragmented Tn3 transposon encoding ampicillin resistance. Most notably the oqxAB and mrkABCDF cassettes were contained within two composite transposons (Tn6010...

  4. Expression of multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein in nasopharyngealcarcinoma cells after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruoyu; Wang Hui; Fan Kai; Lv Shen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To mimick a clinical fractionated protocol of exposure to X-radiation in vitro in order to investigate the changes in the function of MDR1 and P-gp in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE cell before and after irradiation to determine the sequential order of radiotherapy and chemotherapy or the time of chemotherapy after radiotherapy in the treatment of NPC. Methods: Exponentially growing CNE cells were treated with fractionated X-radiation with total dose of 10 Gy (2 Gy per day for 5 days consecutively) in vitro. The expression of MDR1 gene was examined in CNE cells before irradiation and on days 4,8,13,17 and 21 after irradiation by RT-PCR, and its protein P-gp were detected by immunocytochemistry. The function of multidrug resistance protein P-gp was examined by MTT method. Results: Expression of MDR1 gene was below the level of detection before irradiation. Irradiation induced an overexpression of MDR1 gene on day 4, expression of MDR1 was decreased from day 8 to day 21. The overall expression of MDR1 was significantly more than that before irradiation (P<0.05) Expression of P-gp was below the level of detection before irradiation, which demonstrated that irradiation induced an overexpression of P-gp. This overexpression was increased from day 8 to day 21. The overpression of MDR1 gene was maintained dining a short period, however, the emergence of overpression of protein P-gp was later than that of MDR1 gene. Resistance index was 1 for both pre-irradiation and on day 8, and up to 8,10,11.2 on days 13, 17 and 21, respectively. The change of resistance index was accordant with the condition of overexpression of P-gp . Conclusions: Expression of P-gp in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE cell was below the level of detection before irradiation. Irradiation can induce an overexpression of MDR1 gene and its protein P-gp in CNE cells. The overexpression of MDR1 gene and its protein P-gp lasted a long term. (authors)

  5. Surveillance of multidrug resistance-associated genes in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients

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    Zhe DONG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To understand the status of multidrug resistance-associated genes carried by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients in our hospital in order to provide a basis for surveillance of drug-resistance and inflection control. Methods One hundred and twenty A. baumannii isolates were collected from elderly patients between 2008 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 85 (65 to 95 years. Whonet 5.6 software was used to analyze the resistance rate of 16 antimicrobial agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the sequencing method were adopted to detect 10 kinds of resistance genes (blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA- 23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1, intI 1, and intI 2. The corresponding resistance gene profiling(RGP was analyzed and designated according to the status of resistance genes. Results The resistance rates to the remaining 15 kinds of antibiotics varied between 70.8% and 97.5%, with the exception of the sensitivity rate to polymyxin B by up to more than 90%. The positivity rates of blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1 and intI 1 were 100%, 81.7%, 0.8%, 10.8%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 86.7%, and 83.3% respectively. A total of 18 kinds of drug-resistant gene maps were found, but blaOXA-24-like and intI 2 were not detected. Among these gene maps, the rate of RGP1 (blaOXA-23-like+blaampC+armA+ISAba1+ intI 1 was as high as 60.8%. Conclusions A. baumannii isolates from elderly patients have a higher carrying rate of drug-resistant genes, resulting in severe multidrugresistant conditions. Therefore, full-time infection control personnel and clinical physicians should actively participate in the surveillance, prevention, and control of infections caused by A. baumannii in the elderly.

  6. Multidrug-Resistant CTX-M-(15, 9, 2)- and KPC-2-Producing Enterobacter hormaechei and Enterobacter asburiae Isolates Possessed a Set of Acquired Heavy Metal Tolerance Genes Including a Chromosomal sil Operon (for Acquired Silver Resistance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo N; Siqueira, Thiago E S; Martinez, Roberto; Darini, Ana Lucia C

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is concern in healthcare-associated infections. On the other hand, bacterial tolerance to other antimicrobials, like heavy metals, has been neglected and underestimated in hospital pathogens. Silver has long been used as an antimicrobial agent and it seems to be an important indicator of heavy metal tolerance. To explore this perspective, we searched for the presence of acquired silver resistance genes ( sil operon: silE, silS, silR, silC, silF, silB, silA , and silP ) and acquired extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance genes ( bla CTX-M and bla KPC ) in Enterobacter cloacae Complex (EcC) ( n = 27) and Enterobacter aerogenes ( n = 8) isolated from inpatients at a general hospital. Moreover, the genetic background of the silA (silver-efflux pump) and the presence of other acquired heavy metal tolerance genes, pcoD (copper-efflux pump), arsB (arsenite-efflux pump), terF (tellurite resistance protein), and merA (mercuric reductase) were also investigated. Outstandingly, 21/27 (78%) EcC isolates harbored silA gene located in the chromosome. Complete sil operon was found in 19/21 silA -positive EcC isolates. Interestingly, 8/20 (40%) E. hormaechei and 5/6 (83%) E. asburiae co-harbored silA/pcoD genes and bla CTX-M-(15,2,or9) and/or bla KPC-2 genes. Frequent occurrences of arsB, terF , and merA genes were detected, especially in silA/pcoD -positive, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and/or CTX-M-producing isolates. Our study showed co-presence of antibiotic and heavy metal tolerance genes in MDR EcC isolates. In our viewpoint, there are few studies regarding to bacterial heavy metal tolerance and we call attention for more investigations and discussion about this issue in different hospital pathogens.

  7. Multidrug-Resistant CTX-M-(15, 9, 2- and KPC-2-Producing Enterobacter hormaechei and Enterobacter asburiae Isolates Possessed a Set of Acquired Heavy Metal Tolerance Genes Including a Chromosomal sil Operon (for Acquired Silver Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo N. Andrade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is concern in healthcare-associated infections. On the other hand, bacterial tolerance to other antimicrobials, like heavy metals, has been neglected and underestimated in hospital pathogens. Silver has long been used as an antimicrobial agent and it seems to be an important indicator of heavy metal tolerance. To explore this perspective, we searched for the presence of acquired silver resistance genes (sil operon: silE, silS, silR, silC, silF, silB, silA, and silP and acquired extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance genes (blaCTX−M and blaKPC in Enterobacter cloacae Complex (EcC (n = 27 and Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 8 isolated from inpatients at a general hospital. Moreover, the genetic background of the silA (silver-efflux pump and the presence of other acquired heavy metal tolerance genes, pcoD (copper-efflux pump, arsB (arsenite-efflux pump, terF (tellurite resistance protein, and merA (mercuric reductase were also investigated. Outstandingly, 21/27 (78% EcC isolates harbored silA gene located in the chromosome. Complete sil operon was found in 19/21 silA-positive EcC isolates. Interestingly, 8/20 (40% E. hormaechei and 5/6 (83% E. asburiae co-harbored silA/pcoD genes and blaCTX−M−(15,2,or9 and/or blaKPC−2 genes. Frequent occurrences of arsB, terF, and merA genes were detected, especially in silA/pcoD-positive, multidrug-resistant (MDR and/or CTX-M-producing isolates. Our study showed co-presence of antibiotic and heavy metal tolerance genes in MDR EcC isolates. In our viewpoint, there are few studies regarding to bacterial heavy metal tolerance and we call attention for more investigations and discussion about this issue in different hospital pathogens.

  8. Influence of doxorubicin on fluconazole susceptibility and efflux pump gene expression of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schulz, Bettina

    2012-05-01

    The effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the fluconazole (FLU) susceptibility of C. dubliniensis was investigated. Isolates were exposed to DOX and FLU in a chequerboard assay and resistance gene expressions were analysed after DOX exposure. The susceptibility of the yeast to FLU was decreased in the presence of DOX in the chequerboard assay with FIC indices suggesting an antagonistic effect. Gene expression analyses showed an overexpression of CdCDR2. Hence, DOX was found to have an impact on resistance mechanisms in C. dubliniensis isolates.

  9. Biocide Selective TolC-Independent Efflux Pumps in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipski, Carmine J; Zhanel, George G; Bay, Denice C

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to biocides used as antiseptics, dyes, and disinfectants is a growing concern in food preparation, agricultural, consumer manufacturing, and health care industries, particularly among Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, some of the most common community and healthcare-acquired bacterial pathogens. Biocide resistance is frequently associated with antimicrobial cross-resistance leading to reduced activity and efficacy of both antimicrobials and antiseptics. Multidrug resistant efflux pumps represent an important biocide resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae. An assortment of structurally diverse efflux pumps frequently co-exist in these species and confer both unique and overlapping biocide and antimicrobial selectivity. TolC-dependent multicomponent systems that span both the plasma and outer membranes have been shown to confer clinically significant resistance to most antimicrobials including many biocides, however, a growing number of single component TolC-independent multidrug resistant efflux pumps are specifically associated with biocide resistance: small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator superfamily (MFS), multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE), cation diffusion facilitator (CDF), and proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) families. These efflux systems are a growing concern as they are rapidly spread between members of Enterobacteriaceae on conjugative plasmids and mobile genetic elements, emphasizing their importance to antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we will summarize the known biocide substrates of these efflux pumps, compare their structural relatedness, Enterobacteriaceae distribution, and significance. Knowledge gaps will be highlighted in an effort to unravel the role that these apparent "lone wolves" of the efflux-mediated resistome may offer.

  10. Relation of the Allelic Variants of Multidrug Resistance Gene to Agranulocytosis Associated With Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anıl Yağcioğlu, A Elif; Yoca, Gökhan; Ayhan, Yavuz; Karaca, R Özgür; Çevik, Lokman; Müderrisoğlu, Ahmet; Göktaş, Mustafa T; Eni, Nurhayat; Yazıcı, M Kâzım; Bozkurt, Atilla; Babaoğlu, Melih O

    2016-06-01

    Clozapine use is associated with leukopenia and more rarely agranulocytosis, which may be lethal. The drug and its metabolites are proposed to interact with the multidrug resistance transporter (ABCB1/MDR1) gene product, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Among various P-glycoprotein genetic polymorphisms, nucleotide changes in exons 26 (C3435T), 21 (G2677T), and 12 (C1236T) have been implicated for changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many substrate drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between these specific ABCB1 polymorphisms and clozapine-associated agranulocytosis (CAA). Ten patients with a history of CAA and 91 control patients without a history of CAA, despite 10 years of continuous clozapine use, were included. Patient recruitment and blood sample collection were conducted at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, in collaboration with the members of the Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Section of the Psychiatric Association of Turkey, working in various psychiatry clinics. After DNA extraction from peripheral blood lymphocytes, genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease digestion. Patients with CAA had shorter duration of clozapine use but did not show any significant difference in other clinical, sociodemographic characteristics and in genotypic or allelic distributions of ABCB1 variants and haplotypes compared with control patients. Among the 10 patients with CAA, none carried the ABCB1 all-variant haplotype (TT-TT-TT), whereas the frequency of this haplotype was approximately 12% among the controls. Larger sample size studies and thorough genetic analyses may reveal both genetic risk and protective factors for this serious adverse event.

  11. Identification of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) as a molecular gate for cellular export of cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm-Ebsen, Rasmus; van de Wetering, Koen; Hardlei, Tore

    2010-01-01

    transporters by cellular gene silencing showed a role in cellular Cbl efflux of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-drug transporter, ABCC1, alias multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), which is present in the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelium and in other cells. The ability of MRP1 to mediate ATP...... and kidney. In contrast, Cbl accumulates in the terminal part of the intestine of these mice, suggesting a functional malabsorption because of a lower epithelial basolateral Cbl efflux. The identification of this Cbl export mechanism now allows the delineation of a coherent pathway for Cbl trafficking from...

  12. Correlation Between qacE and qacE∆1 Efflux Pump Genes, Antibiotic and Disinfectant Resistant Among Clinical Isolates of E.coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaati, Maryam; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Nowroozi, Jamileh; Amiri, Pouya; Kazemian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptics and disinfectants have been used widely in hospitals and other health care settings to control the growth of microorganisms. However, some disinfectant resistant strains were reported. The objectives of our study were to evaluate correlation between the efflux pump genes, drugs and disinfectant resistant among clinical isolates of E.coli. A total of 102 of E. coli strains were isolated from urine sample of hospitalized patients. The antibiotic susceptibility was carried out by disc diffusion method. Didecyl di-methyl ammonium chloride (DDDMAC) was used as Quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectant which was used in Heart Center Hospital. PCR reaction was carried out for detection of qacE and qac∆E efflux pump genes. Almost all the strains had higher resistance to ampicillin, ciproflaxacin, cotrimaxazole and cephalothin. Totally 49% (n: 50) of strains were produced ESBL. Almost all the strains have MIC value between 0.00195 to 0.0078 mg/l for DDDMAC. Correlation between presence of qacE and qac∆E genes and antibiotic resistance was perceived. Presence of qacE and qac∆E genes among strains that have high disinfectant MIC value were 96.9% and 93.7% respectively. In addition, 98% of ESBL producing strains harbored qacE gene and 94% of ESBL producing strains harbored qac∆E gene. Our study indicated that there was a strong correlation between presence of qacE and qac∆E genes with resistance to some antibiotics and growth in media which contain high concentration of disinfectant. In conclusion, other mechanisms also play important role in resistant to antimicrobial agents but the role of efflux pumps in resistant to antimicrobial agents should not be neglected. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Differential roles of RND efflux pumps in antimicrobial drug resistance of sessile and planktonic Burkholderia cenocepacia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroni, Silvia; Matthijs, Nele; Spadaro, Francesca; Van Acker, Heleen; Scoffone, Viola C; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Riccardi, Giovanna; Coenye, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is notorious for causing respiratory tract infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Infections with this organism are particularly difficult to treat due to its high level of intrinsic resistance to most antibiotics. Multidrug resistance in B. cenocepacia can be ascribed to different mechanisms, including the activity of efflux pumps and biofilm formation. In the present study, the effects of deletion of the 16 operons encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux pumps in B. cenocepacia strain J2315 were investigated by determining the MICs of various antibiotics and by investigating the antibiofilm effect of these antibiotics. Finally, the expression levels of selected RND genes in treated and untreated cultures were investigated using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data indicate that the RND-3 and RND-4 efflux pumps are important for resistance to various antimicrobial drugs (including tobramycin and ciprofloxacin) in planktonic B. cenocepacia J2315 populations, while the RND-3, RND-8, and RND-9 efflux systems protect biofilm-grown cells against tobramycin. The RND-8 and RND-9 efflux pumps are not involved in ciprofloxacin resistance. Results from the RT-qPCR experiments on the wild-type strain B. cenocepacia J2315 suggest that there is little regulation at the level of mRNA expression for these efflux pumps under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Anaplasia and drug selection-independent overexpression of the multidrug resistance gene, MDR1, in Wilms' tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, G G; Willingham, M C; el Bahtimi, R; Brownlee, N A; Hazen-Martin, D J; Garvin, A J

    1997-02-01

    One reason for the failure of chemotherapy is the overexpression of the multidrug resistance gene, MDR1. The product of this gene is the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein, an ATP-dependent pump that extrudes drugs from the cytoplasm. Some tumors inherently express P-glycoprotein, whereas others acquire the ability to do so after exposure to certain chemotherapeutic agents, often by the mechanism of gene amplification. Classical Wilms' tumors (nephroblastoma) typically respond to therapy and have a good prognosis. On the contrary, anaplastic Wilms' tumors are generally refractory to chemotherapy. These anaplastic variants are rare (4.5% of all Wilms' tumors reported in the United States), aggressive, and often fatal forms of tumor, which are commonly thought to result from the progression of classical Wilms' tumors. To investigate the basis for this differential response to therapy, we examined a number of classical and anaplastic Wilms' tumors for the expression of the MDR1 gene by immunohistochemical and mRNA analysis. Classical Wilms' tumors consistently did not express P-glycoprotein except in areas of tubular differentiation, as in normal kidney. Similarly, two of three anaplastic tumors failed to show P-glycoprotein expression. In contrast, cultured cells derived from a third anaplastic tumor, W4, exhibited strong P-glycoprotein expression and were drug resistant in vitro. Southern analysis revealed that W4 cells contained a single copy of the MDR1 gene per haploid genome similar to normal cells, demonstrating that the overexpression of MDR1 was not caused by gene amplification. Transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene would be in keeping with the concept that p53 might act as a transcriptional repressor of the MDR1 gene.

  15. Molecular detection of genes encoding AcrAB , Qep A efflux pumps in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in selected hospitals in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Heidary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Increasing emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae  (K. pneumoniae, has limited the treatment options for treatment of infections caused by these bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the dissemination of genes encoding AcrAB and QepA efflux pumps among K. pneumoniae strains. Methods: This study was carried out on 117 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients hospitalized in selected hospitals in Tehran city, 2015-2016, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion method (based on CLSI guidelines and identification of acr A, acr B and qep A genes using PCR assay. Results: In this study, colistin and tigecycline had the best effect against clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. According to PCR results, 110 (94% isolates had acrA gene and 102 (87% isolates had acrB gene, respectively. The qepA gene was not found in any of the K. pneumoniae strains. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, dissemination of the genes encoding AcrAB efflux pumps among K. pneumoniae strains, which cause resistance to fluoroquinolones, is a matter of concern. Therefore, infection control and prevention of the spread of drug-resistant bacteria requires careful management in drug prescription and identification of resistant isolates.

  16. [Efflux systems in Serratia marcescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanova, A M; Bogomol'naia, L M; Romanova, Iu D; Sharipova, M R

    2014-01-01

    A widespread bacterium Serratia marcescens (family Enterobacteriaceae) is an opportunistic and exhibits multiple drug resistance. Active removal of antibiotics and other antimicrobials from pathogen and exhibits multiple drug resistance. Active removal of antibiotics and other antimicrobials from the cells by efflux systems is one of the mechanisms responsible for microbial resistance to these compounds. Among enterobacteria, efflux systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium have been studied most extensively. Few efflux systems that belong to different families have been reported for S. marcescens. In this review, we analyzed available literature about S. marcescens efflux systems and carried out the comparative analysis of the genes encoding the RND type systems in different Serratia species and in other enterobacteria. Bioinformatical analysis of the S. marcescens genome allowed us to identify the previously unknown efflux systems based on their homology with the relevant E. coli genes. Identification of additional efflux systems in S. marcescens genome will promote our understanding of physiology of these bacteria, will detect new molecular mechanisms of resistance and will reveal their resistance potential.

  17. The barley MATE gene, HvAACT1, increases citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance when expressed in wheat and barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Ryan, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Aluminium is toxic in acid soils because the soluble Al3+ inhibits root growth. A mechanism of Al3+ tolerance discovered in many plant species involves the release of organic anions from root apices. The Al3+-activated release of citrate from the root apices of Al3+-tolerant genotypes of barley is controlled by a MATE gene named HvAACT1 that encodes a citrate transport protein located on the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expressing HvAACT1 with a constitutive promoter in barley and wheat can increase citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance of these important cereal species. Methods HvAACT1 was over-expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) using the maize ubiquitin promoter. Root apices of transgenic and control lines were analysed for HvAACT1 expression and organic acid efflux. The Al3+ tolerance of transgenic and control lines was assessed in both hydroponic solution and acid soil. Key Results and Conclusions Increased HvAACT1 expression in both cereal species was associated with increased citrate efflux from root apices and enhanced Al3+ tolerance, thus demonstrating that biotechnology can complement traditional breeding practices to increase the Al3+ tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:23798600

  18. Different phenotypic and molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance in Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy OM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omneya M Helmy, Mona T Kashef Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: We set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms, and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance (MDR among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt.Materials and methods: A total of 118 third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates were included in this study. Their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Efflux pump-mediated resistance was tested by the efflux-pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chlorpromazine. Detection of different aminoglycoside-, β-lactam-, and quinolone-resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using random amplification of polymorphic DNA.Results: Most of the tested isolates exhibited MDR phenotypes (84.75%. The occurrence of efflux pump-mediated resistance in the different MDR species tested was 40%–66%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed resistance to most of the tested antibiotics, including imipenem. The blaOXA-23-like gene was detected in 69% of the MDR A. baumannii isolates. The MDR phenotype was detected in 65% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which only 23% exhibited efflux pump-mediated resistance. On the contrary, efflux-mediated resistance to piperacillin and gentamicin was recorded in 47.5% of piperacillin-resistant and 25% of gentamicin-resistant MDR Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes (aac(6’-Ib-cr, qnrB, and qnrS were detected in 57.6% and 83.33% of quinolone-resistant MDR Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, respectively. The β-lactamase-resistance gene blaSHV-31 was detected for the first time in one MDR K. pneumoniae isolate from an endotracheal tube specimen in Egypt

  19. A bacterial antibiotic-resistance gene that complements the human multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Callaghan, R; Soceneantu, L; Sardini, A; Konings, WN; Higgins, CF

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria have developed many fascinating antibiotic-resistance mechanisms(1,2). A protein in Lactococcus lactis, LmrA, mediates antibiotic resistance by extruding amphiphilic compounds from the inner leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane(3,4). Unlike other known bacterial multidrug-resistance

  20. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujević, Ivana; Bušelić, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation

  1. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bošnjak, Ivana [Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, Zagreb (Croatia); Borra, Marco [Molecular Biology Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna [Electron Microscopy Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Ujević, Ivana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Bušelić, Ivana [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Roje-Busatto, Romana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Mladineo, Ivona, E-mail: mladineo@izor.hr [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Assemble Marine Laboratory, Stazione Zoological Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation.

  2. Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Pereira, Raimundo L; Costa, Maria do S; Braga, Maria Flaviana B M; Limaverde, Paulo W; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Balbino, Valdir Q; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure.

  3. Isolation and Cloning of cDNA Fragment of Gene Encoding for Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein from M. affine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyastuti Suharsono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and Cloning of cDNA Fragment of Gene Encoding for Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein from M. affine. M. affine can grow well in acid soil with high level of soluble aluminum. One of the important proteins in the detoxifying xenobiotic stress including acid and Al stresses is a multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP encoded by mrp gene. The objective of this research is to isolate and clone the cDNA fragment of MaMrp encoding MRP from M. affine. By reverse transcription, total cDNA had been synthesized from the total RNA as template. The fragment of cDNA MaMrp had been successfully isolated by PCR by using total cDNA as template and mrp primer designed from A. thaliana, yeast, and human. This fragment was successfully inserted into pGEM-T Easy and the recombinant plasmid was successfully introduced into E. coli DH5α. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the lenght of MaMrp fragment is 633 bp encoding 208 amino acids. Local alignment analysis based on nucleotide of mRNA showed that MaMrp fragment is 69% identical to AtMrp1 and 63% to AtMrp from A. thaliana. Based on deduced amino acid sequence, MaMRP is 84% identical to part of AtMRP13, 77% to AtMRP12, and 73% to AtMRP1 from A. thaliana respectively. Alignment analysis with AtMRP1 showed that MaMRP fragment is located in TM1 and NBF1 domains and has a specific amino acid sequence QCKAQLQNMEEE.

  4. Gradient phenomenon of multidrug resistance gene expression in breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy is related to disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Litviakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined 106 patients with breast cancer (BC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NАС. In the biopsy material, derived from primary tumor before NAC and surgical samples after chemotherapy the expression of 8 multidrug resistance genes (MDR ABCB1, АВСВ2, ABCC1, ABCC2, АВСС5, ABCG1, ABCG2 и MVP was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. During the NAC course 75 % of patients manifested gradient phenomenon for gene expression that means a unidirectional change in the expression of all five MDR genes ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1 и ABCG2 closely associated with the NAC efficacy: the reduction in MDR gene expression was related to good response to NAC while the expression increase associated with poor response to NAC. In 25% of patients there was no such change in studied gene expression that means the lack of a gradient phenomenon. The objective was to study whether gradient phenomenon for MDR gene expression during NAC is related to disease free survival in breast cancer patients. Five-year metastasis-free survival in patients having a gradient phenomenon was 73 % versus 39 % in patients who lack a gradient phenomenon (log-rank test p=0,0018. So, the presence of a gradient phenomenon in patients is appeared to be associated with a good disease prognosis. It is assumed that the gradiThe paper examined 106 patients with breast cancer (BC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NАС. In the biopsy material, derived from primary tumor before NAC and surgical samples after chemotherapy the expression of 8 multidrug resistance genes (MDR ABCB1, АВСВ2, ABCC1, ABCC2, АВСС5, ABCG1, ABCG2 и MVP was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. During the NAC course 75 % of patients manifested gradient phenomenon for gene expression that means a unidirectional change in the expression of all five MDR genes ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1 и ABCG2 closely associated with the NAC efficacy: the reduction in MDR gene expression was related to good

  5. The 95ΔG mutation in the 5'untranslated region of the norA gene increases efflux activity in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; Jaso-Vera, Marcos E; Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A; Alcántar-Curiel, María D; Zenteno, Juan C; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Peralta, Humberto; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Díaz, Mario E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C

    2017-02-01

    In the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 strain, the flqB mutation in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) of the norA gene causes increased norA mRNA expression and high efflux activity (HEA). The involvement of the norA gene 5'UTR in HEA has not been explored in S. epidermidis; therefore, we examined the function of this region in S. epidermidis clinical isolates. The selection of isolates with HEA was performed based on ethidium bromide (EtBr) MIC values and efflux efficiency (EF) using the semi-automated fluorometric method. The function of the 5'UTR was studied by quantifying the levels of norA expression (RT-qPCR) and by identifying 5'UTR mutations by sequence analysis. Only 10 isolates from a total of 165 (6.1%) had HEA (EtBr MIC = 300 μg/ml and EF ranged from 48.4 to 97.2%). Eight of 10 isolates with HEA had the 5'UTR 95 Δ G mutation. Isolates carrying the 95 Δ G mutation had higher levels of norA expression compared with those that did not. To corroborate that the 95 Δ G mutation is involved in HEA, a strain adapted to EtBr was obtained in vitro. This strain also presented the 95 Δ G mutation and had a high level of norA expression and EF, indicating that the 95 Δ G mutation is important for the HEA phenotype. The 95 Δ G mutation produces a different structure in the Shine-Dalgarno region, which may promote better translation of norA mRNA. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the participation of the 5'UTR 95 Δ G mutation of the norA gene in the HEA phenotype of S. epidermidis isolates. Here, we propose that the efflux of EtBr is caused by an increment in the transcription and/or translation of the norA gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microarray-based analysis of IncA/C plasmid-associated genes from multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Frye, Jonathan G; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Meinersmann, Richard J

    2011-10-01

    In the family Enterobacteriaceae, plasmids have been classified according to 27 incompatibility (Inc) or replicon types that are based on the inability of different plasmids with the same replication mechanism to coexist in the same cell. Certain replicon types such as IncA/C are associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). We developed a microarray that contains 286 unique 70-mer oligonucleotide probes based on sequences from five IncA/C plasmids: pYR1 (Yersinia ruckeri), pPIP1202 (Yersinia pestis), pP99-018 (Photobacterium damselae), pSN254 (Salmonella enterica serovar Newport), and pP91278 (Photobacterium damselae). DNA from 59 Salmonella enterica isolates was hybridized to the microarray and analyzed for the presence or absence of genes. These isolates represented 17 serovars from 14 different animal hosts and from different geographical regions in the United States. Qualitative cluster analysis was performed using CLUSTER 3.0 to group microarray hybridization results. We found that IncA/C plasmids occurred in two lineages distinguished by a major insertion-deletion (indel) region that contains genes encoding mostly hypothetical proteins. The most variable genes were represented by transposon-associated genes as well as four antimicrobial resistance genes (aphA, merP, merA, and aadA). Sixteen mercury resistance genes were identified and highly conserved, suggesting that mercury ion-related exposure is a stronger pressure than anticipated. We used these data to construct a core IncA/C genome and an accessory genome. The results of our studies suggest that the transfer of antimicrobial resistance determinants by transfer of IncA/C plasmids is somewhat less common than exchange within the plasmids orchestrated by transposable elements, such as transposons, integrating and conjugative elements (ICEs), and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs), and thus pose less opportunity for exchange of antimicrobial resistance.

  7. The multidrug resistance 1 gene Abcb1 in brain and placenta: comparative analysis in human and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Jane J; Petropoulos, Sophie; Suderman, Matthew; Iqbal, Majid; Moisiadis, Vasilis; Turecki, Gustavo; Matthews, Stephen G; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1; alternatively ABCB1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transporter, extrudes multiple endogenous and exogenous substrates from the cell, playing an important role in normal physiology and xenobiotic distribution and bioavailability. To date, the predominant animal models used to investigate the role of P-gp have been the mouse and rat, which have two distinct genes, Abcb1a and Abcb1b. In contrast, the human has a single gene, ABCB1, for which only a single isoform has been validated. We and others have previously shown important differences between Abcb1a and Abcb1b, limiting the extrapolation from rodent findings to the human. Since the guinea pig has a relatively long gestation, hemomonochorial placentation and neuroanatomically mature offspring, it is more similar to the human, and may provide a more comparable model for investigating the regulation of P-gp in the brain and placenta, however, to date, the Abcb1 gene in the guinea pig remains to be characterized. The placenta and fetal brain are barrier sites that express P-gp and that play a critical role of protection of the fetus and the fetal brain from maternally administered drugs and other xenobiotics. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (QPCR) to sequence the expressed isoforms of guinea pig Abcb1, we demonstrate that like the human, the guinea pig genome contains one gene for Abcb1 but that it is expressed as at least three different isoforms via alternative splicing and alternate exon usage. Further, we demonstrate that these isoforms are more closely related to human than to rat or mouse isoforms. This striking, overall similarity and evolutionary relatedness between guinea pig Abcb1 and human ABCB1 indicate that the guinea pig represents a relevant animal model for investigating the function and regulation of P-gp in the placenta and brain.

  8. Antibiotic combination therapy can select for broad-spectrum multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm; Marvig, Rasmus L.

    2016-01-01

    with the resistance evolved after single-drug exposure. Combination therapy selected for mutants that displayed broad-spectrum resistance, and a major resistance mechanism was mutational inactivation of the repressor gene mexR that regulates the multidrug efflux operon mexAB–oprM. Deregulation of this operon led...... to a broad-spectrum resistance phenotype that decreased susceptibility to the combination of drugs applied during selection as well as to unrelated antibiotic classes. Mutants isolated after single-drug exposure displayed narrow-spectrum resistance and carried mutations in the MexCD–OprJ efflux pump...... regulator gene nfxB conferring ciprofloxacin resistance, or in the gene encoding the non-essential penicillin-binding protein DacB conferring ceftazidime resistance. Reconstruction of resistance mutations by allelic replacement and in vitro fitness assays revealed that in contrast to single antibiotic use...

  9. Distribution of the multidrug resistance gene cfr in Staphylococcus species isolates from swine farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Wanjiang; Wang, Juan; Wu, Congming; Shen, Zhangqi; Fu, Xiao; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Qijing; Schwarz, Stefan; Shen, Jianzhong

    2012-03-01

    A total of 149 porcine Staphylococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥ 16 μg/ml were screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. In total, 125 isolates carried either cfr (16 isolates), fexA (92 isolates), or both genes (17 isolates). The 33 cfr-carrying staphylococci, which included isolates of the species Staphylococcus cohnii, S. arlettae, and S. saprophyticus in which the cfr gene has not been described before, exhibited a wide variety of SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. In 18 cases, the cfr gene was located on plasmids. Four different types of cfr-carrying plasmids--pSS-01 (n = 2; 40 kb), pSS-02 (n = 3; 35.4 kb), pSS-03 (n = 10; 7.1 kb), and pBS-01 (n = 3; 16.4 kb)--were differentiated on the basis of their sizes, restriction patterns, and additional resistance genes. Sequence analysis revealed that in plasmid pSS-01, the cfr gene was flanked in the upstream part by a complete aacA-aphD-carrying Tn4001-like transposon and in the downstream part by a complete fexA-carrying transposon Tn558. In plasmid pSS-02, an insertion sequence IS21-558 and the cfr gene were integrated into transposon Tn558 and thereby truncated the tnpA and tnpB genes. The smallest cfr-carrying plasmid pSS-03 carried the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance gene erm(C). Plasmid pBS-01, previously described in Bacillus spp., harbored a Tn917-like transposon, including the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance gene erm(B) in the cfr downstream region. Plasmids, which in part carry additional resistance genes, seem to play an important role in the dissemination of the gene cfr among porcine staphylococci.

  10. Whole genome sequence to decipher the resistome of Shewanella algae, a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for pneumonia, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Teresa; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    We characterize and decipher the resistome and the virulence factors of Shewanella algae MARS 14, a multidrug-resistant clinical strain using the whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy. The bacteria were isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage of a hospitalized patient in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France who developed pneumonia after plunging into the Mediterranean Sea. The genome size of S. algae MARS 14 was 5,005,710 bp with 52.8% guanine cytosine content. The resistome includes members of class C and D beta-lactamases and numerous multidrug-efflux pumps. We also found the presence of several hemolysins genes, a complete flagellum system gene cluster and genes responsible for biofilm formation. Moreover, we reported for the first time in a clinical strain of Shewanella spp. the presence of a bacteriocin (marinocin). The WGS analysis of this pathogen provides insight into its virulence factors and resistance to antibiotics.

  11. Co-ordinate regulation of the cystic fibrosis and multidrug resistance genes in cystic fibrosis knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, A E; Ratcliff, R; Hawkins, T E; Evans, M J; Freeman, T C; Romano, P R; Higgins, C F; Colledge, W H

    1997-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis (Cftr and multidrug resistance (Mdr1) genes encode structurally similar proteins which are members of the ABC transporter superfamily. These genes exhibit complementary patterns of expression in vivo, suggesting that the regulation of their expression may be co-ordinated. We have tested this hypothesis in vivo by examining Cftr and Mdr1 expression in cystic fibrosis knockout transgenic mice (Cftr(tm1CAM)). Cftr mRNA expression in Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice was 4-fold reduced in the intestine, as compared with littermate wild-type mice. All other Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mouse tissues examined showed similar reductions in Cftr expression. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold increase in Mdr1 mRNA expression in the intestines of neonatal and 3- to 4-week-old Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice, as compared with age-matched +/+ mice, and an intermediate level of Mdr1 mRNA in heterozygous Cftr(tm1CAM) mice. In 10-week-old, Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice and in contrast to the younger mice, Mdr1 mRNA expression was reduced, by 3-fold. The expression of two control genes, Pgk-1 and Mdr2, was similar in all genotypes, suggesting that the changes in Mdr1 mRNA levels observed in the Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice are specific to the loss of Cftr expression and/or function. These data provide further evidence supporting the hypothesis that the regulation Cftr and Mdr1 expression is co-ordinated in vivo, and that this co-ordinate regulation is influenced by temporal factors.

  12. RND-type Drug Efflux Pumps from Gram-negative bacteria: Molecular Mechanism and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrietta eVenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug efflux protein complexes confer multidrug resistance on bacteria by transporting a wide spectrum of structurally diverse antibiotics. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of an active efflux pump. The substrate range of drug efflux pumps is not limited to antibiotics, but it also includes toxins, dyes, detergents, lipids and molecules involved in quorum sensing; hence efflux pumps are also associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Inhibitors of efflux pumps are therefore attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. Recent successes on the structure determination and functional analysis of the AcrB and MexB components of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM drug efflux systems as well as the structure of the fully assembled, functional triparted AcrAB-TolC complex significantly contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of substrate transport and the options for inhibition of efflux. These data, combined with the well-developed methodologies for measuring efflux pump inhibition, could allow the rational design and subsequent experimental verification of potential efflux pump inhibitors. In this review we will explore how the available biochemical and structural information can be translated into the discovery and development of new compounds that could reverse drug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. The current literature on efflux pump inhibitors will also be analysed and the reasons why no compounds have yet progressed into clinical use will be explored.

  13. Identification of an Efflux Transporter LmrB Regulating Stress Response and Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium’s ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB in S. mutans through cloning the lmrB gene into Escherichia coli. Introducing lmrB into E. coli conferred a multidrug-resistant phenotype and resulted in higher EtBr efflux activity which could be suppressed by efflux inhibitor. To explore whether LmrB was involved in S. mutans virulence properties regulation, we constructed the lmrB inactivation mutant and examined the phenotypes of the mutant. It was found that LmrB deficiency resulted in increased IPS storage and prolonged acid production. Enhanced biofilm formation characterized by increased extracellular polysaccharides (EPS production and elevated resistance to hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobials were also observed in lmrB mutant. To gain a better understanding of the global role of LmrB, a transcriptome analysis was performed using lmrB mutant strain. The expression of 107 genes was up- or down-regulated in the lmrB mutant compared with the wild type. Notably, expression of genes in several genomic islands was differentially modulated, such as stress-related GroELS and scnRK, sugar metabolism associated glg operons and msmREFGK transporter. The results presented here indicate that LmrB plays a vital global role in the regulation of several important virulence properties in S. mutans.

  14. Association of the multidrug resistance-1 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with the tacrolimus dose requirements in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglicheau, Dany; Verstuyft, Céline; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Becquemont, Laurent; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Cassinat, Bruno; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Thervet, Eric

    2003-07-01

    The immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus, whose pharmacokinetic characteristics display large interindividual variations, is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene. Some of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MDR1 reported correlated with the in vivo activity of P-gp. Because P-gp is known to control tacrolimus intestinal absorption, it was postulated that these polymorphisms are associated with tacrolimus pharmacokinetic variations in renal transplant recipients. The objective of this study was to evaluate in a retrospective study of 81 renal transplant recipients the effect on tacrolimus dosages and concentration/dose ratio of four frequent MDR1 SNP possibly associated with P-gp function (T-129C in exon 1b, 1236C>T in exon 12, 2677G>T,A in exon 21, and 3435C>T in exon 26). As in the general population, the SNP in exons 12, 21, and 26 were frequent (16, 17.3, and 22.2% for the variant homozygous genotype, respectively) and exhibited incomplete linkage disequilibrium. One month after tacrolimus introduction, exon 21 SNP correlated significantly with the daily tacrolimus dose (P < or = 0.05) and the concentration/dose ratio (P < or = 0.02). Tacrolimus dose requirements were 40% higher in homozygous than wild-type patients for this SNP. The concentration/dose ratio was 36% lower in the wild-type patients, suggesting that, for a given dose, their tacrolimus blood concentration is lower. Haplotype analysis substantiated these results and suggested that exons 26 and 21 SNP may be associated with tacrolimus dose requirements. Genotype monitoring of the MDR1 gene reliably predicts the optimal dose of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients and may predict the initial daily dose needed by individual patients to obtain adequate immunosuppression.

  15. Mutations in rpoB and katG genes of multidrug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tuberculosis remains the leading causes of death worldwide with frequencies of mutations in rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates varying according to geographical location. There is limited information in Zimbabwe on specific antibiotic resistance gene mutation patterns in ...

  16. Maize ZmALMT2 is a root anion transporter that mediates constitutive root malate efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Maron, Lyza; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    Root efflux of organic acid anions underlies a major mechanism of plant aluminium (Al) tolerance on acid soils. This efflux is mediated by transporters of the Al-activated malate transporter (ALMT) or the multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) families. ZmALMT2 was previously suggested to be involved in Al tolerance based on joint association-linkage mapping for maize Al tolerance. In the current study, we functionally characterized ZmALMT2 by heterologously expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transgenic Arabidopsis. In oocytes, ZmALMT2 mediated an Al-independent electrogenic transport product of organic and inorganic anion efflux. Ectopic overexpression of ZmALMT2 in an Al-hypersensitive Arabidopsis KO/KD line lacking the Al tolerance genes, AtALMT1 and AtMATE, resulted in Al-independent constitutive root malate efflux which partially restored the Al tolerance phenotype. The lack of correlation between ZmALMT2 expression and Al tolerance (e.g., expression not localized to the root tip, not up-regulated by Al, and higher in sensitive versus tolerance maize lines) also led us to question ZmALMT2's role in Al tolerance. The functional properties of the ZmALMT2 transporter presented here, along with the gene expression data, suggest that ZmALMT2 is not involved in maize Al tolerance but, rather, may play a role in mineral nutrient acquisition and transport. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Genetic diversity and natural selection of Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistant gene (pvmdr1) in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cerón, Lilia; Montoya, Alberto; Corzo-Gómez, Josselin C; Cerritos, Rene; Santillán, Frida; Sandoval, Marco A

    2017-07-01

    The Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistant 1 gene (pvmdr1) codes for a transmembrane protein of the parasite's digestive vacuole. It is likely that the pvmdr1 gene mutations occur at different sites by convergent evolution. In here, the genetic variation of pvmdr1 at three sites of the Mesoamerican region was studied. Since 1950s, malarious patients of those areas have been treated only with chloroquine and primaquine. Blood samples from patients infected with P. vivax were obtained in southern Mexico (SMX), in the Northwest (NIC-NW) and in the northeast (NIC-NE) of Nicaragua. Genomic DNA was obtained and fragments of pvmdr1 were amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid changes as well as the haplotype frequency in pvmdr1 were determined per strain and per geographic site. The sequences of pvmdr1 obtained from the studied regions were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank database to explore the P. vivax genetic structure. In 141 parasites, eight nucleotide changes (two changes were synonymous and other six were nonsynonymous) were detected in 1536 bp. The PvMDR1 amino acid changes Y976F, F1076FL were predominant in endemic parasites from NIC-NE and outbreak parasites in NIC-NW but absent in SMX. Thirteen haplotypes were resolved, and found to be closely related, but their frequency at each geographic site was different (P = 0.0001). The pvmdr1 codons 925-1083 gene fragment showed higher genetic and haplotype diversity in parasites from NIC-NE than the other areas outside Latin America. The haplotype networks suggested local diversification of pvmdr1 and no significant departure from neutrality. The F ST values were low to moderate regionally, but high between NIC-NE or NIC-NW and other regions inside and outside Latin America. The pvmdr1 gene might have diversified recently at regional level. In the absence of significant natural, genetic drift might have caused differential pvmdr1 haplotype frequencies at different geographic sites

  18. Genetic relatedness and molecular characterization of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in central Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii have been described with an increasing trend towards multidrug resistance, mostly in intensive care units. The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relatedness of clinical isolates and to elucidate the genetic basis of imipenem resistance. Methods A. baumannii isolates (n = 83 originated from two hospital settings in central Ohio were used in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for clinically relevant antimicrobials were performed. Resistance determinants were characterized by using different phenotypic (accumulation assay for efflux and genotypic (PCR, DNA sequencing, plasmid analysis and electroporation approaches. Results The isolates were predominantly multidrug resistant (>79.5% and comprised of thirteen unique pulsotypes, with genotype VII circulating in both hospitals. The presence of blaOXA-23 in 13% (11/83 and ISAba1 linked blaOXA-66 in 79.5% (66/83 of clinical isolates was associated with high level imipenem resistance. In this set of OXA producing isolates, multidrug resistance was bestowed by blaADC-25, class 1 integron-borne aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, presence of sense mutations in gyrA/parC and involvement of active efflux (with evidence for the presence of adeB efflux gene. Conclusion This study underscores the major role of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases, and in particular the acquired OXA-23, in the dissemination of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii. The co-occurrence of additional resistance determinant could also be a significant threat.

  19. UDP-galactose and acetyl-CoA transporters as Plasmodium multidrug resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Michelle Yi-Xiu; LaMonte, Gregory; Lee, Marcus C S; Reimer, Christin; Tan, Bee Huat; Corey, Victoria; Tjahjadi, Bianca F; Chua, Adeline; Nachon, Marie; Wintjens, René; Gedeck, Peter; Malleret, Benoit; Renia, Laurent; Bonamy, Ghislain M C; Ho, Paul Chi-Lui; Yeung, Bryan K S; Chow, Eric D; Lim, Liting; Fidock, David A; Diagana, Thierry T; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Bifani, Pablo

    2016-09-19

    A molecular understanding of drug resistance mechanisms enables surveillance of the effectiveness of new antimicrobial therapies during development and deployment in the field. We used conventional drug resistance selection as well as a regime of limiting dilution at early stages of drug treatment to probe two antimalarial imidazolopiperazines, KAF156 and GNF179. The latter approach permits the isolation of low-fitness mutants that might otherwise be out-competed during selection. Whole-genome sequencing of 24 independently derived resistant Plasmodium falciparum clones revealed four parasites with mutations in the known cyclic amine resistance locus (pfcarl) and a further 20 with mutations in two previously unreported P. falciparum drug resistance genes, an acetyl-CoA transporter (pfact) and a UDP-galactose transporter (pfugt). Mutations were validated both in vitro by CRISPR editing in P. falciparum and in vivo by evolution of resistant Plasmodium berghei mutants. Both PfACT and PfUGT were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by fluorescence microscopy. As mutations in pfact and pfugt conveyed resistance against additional unrelated chemical scaffolds, these genes are probably involved in broad mechanisms of antimalarial drug resistance.

  20. [¹⁸F]Altanserin and small animal PET: impact of multidrug efflux transporters on ligand brain uptake and subsequent quantification of 5-HT₂A receptor densities in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Tina; Elmenhorst, David; Matusch, Andreas; Celik, A Avdo; Wedekind, Franziska; Weisshaupt, Angela; Beer, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2a receptor (5-HT(2A)R) radiotracer [(18)F]altanserin is a promising ligand for in vivo brain imaging in rodents. However, [(18)F]altanserin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in rats. Its applicability might therefore be constrained by both a differential expression of P-gp under pathological conditions, e.g. epilepsy, and its relatively low cerebral uptake. The aim of the present study was therefore twofold: (i) to investigate whether inhibition of multidrug transporters (MDT) is suitable to enhance the cerebral uptake of [(18)F]altanserin in vivo and (ii) to test different pharmacokinetic, particularly reference tissue-based models for exact quantification of 5-HT(2A)R densities in the rat brain. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats, either treated with the MDT inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA, 50 mg/kg, n=8) or vehicle (n=10) underwent 180-min PET scans with arterial blood sampling. Kinetic analyses of tissue time-activity curves (TACs) were performed to validate invasive and non-invasive pharmacokinetic models. CsA application lead to a two- to threefold increase of [(18)F]altanserin uptake in different brain regions and showed a trend toward higher binding potentials (BP(ND)) of the radioligand. MDT inhibition led to an increased cerebral uptake of [(18)F]altanserin but did not improve the reliability of BP(ND) as a non-invasive estimate of 5-HT(2A)R. This finding is most probable caused by the heterogeneous distribution of P-gp in the rat brain and its incomplete blockade in the reference region (cerebellum). Differential MDT expressions in experimental animal models or pathological conditions are therefore likely to influence the applicability of imaging protocols and have to be carefully evaluated. © 2013.

  1. Lack of Association of Multidrug Resistance Gene-1 Polymorphisms with Treatment Outcome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients Treated with Imatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Kassogue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the impressive results obtained with imatinib, inadequate response or resistance are observed in certain patients. It is known that imatinib is a substrate of a multidrug resistance gene (MDR1. Thus, interindividual genetic differences linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in MDR1 may influence the metabolism of imatinib. The present study has aimed to examine the impact of MDR1 polymorphisms on the hematologic and cytogenetic responses in 70 chronic myeloid leukemia patients who received imatinib. Methods: We used a polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism to identify different profiles of 1236C>T, 2677G>T and 3435C>T in MDR1. Results: The distribution of the three SNPs in responders and poor responders did not show any particular trend (P>0.05. The T allele was slightly higher in responders, but not significantly regardless of the type of SNP (40.3% vs. 33.8% for 1236C>T; 25% vs. 14.7% for 2677G>T and 33.3% vs. 22% for 3435C>T. The dominant model showed a similar trend (P>0.05. Diplotypes composed by the T allele in different exons were frequent in responders. Haplotype analysis showed that 1236C-2677G-3435C was slightly higher in poor responders (60.02% compared to responders (50.42%. However, 1236T-2677T-3435T was frequent in responders (16.98% compared to poor responders (13.1%. Overall, none of the haplotypes were associated with IM response in our cohort (global haplotype association test, P=0.39. Conclusion: The identification of 1236C>T, 2677G>T and 3435C>T polymorphisms may not be advantageous to predict imatinib response for our chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

  2. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balganesh, Meenakshi; Dinesh, Neela; Sharma, Sreevalli; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Nair, Anju V; Sharma, Umender

    2012-05-01

    Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PAβN. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.

  3. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Fiona; Duffy, Brion

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) resistance genes) were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  4. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Walsh

    Full Text Available Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR resistance genes were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  5. Visualization of multidrug resistance in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrikse, N.H.; Franssen, E.J.F.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Vries, E.G.E. de; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) for chemotherapeutic drugs, such as the drug efflux pumps, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). In this review the mechanisms involved in MDR are described and results are reviewed with particular attention to the in vivo imaging of Pgp and MRP. Various detection assays provide information about the presence of drug efflux pumps at the mRNA and protein levels. However, these methods do not yield information about the dynamic function of Pgp and MRP in vivo. For the study of Pgp- and MRP-mediated transport, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) are available. Technetium-99m sestamibi is a substrate for Pgp and MRP, and has been used in clinical studies for tumour imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of the Pgp pump. Other 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals, such as 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and several 99 Tc-Q complexes, are also substrates for Pgp, but to date only results from in vitro and animal studies are available for these compounds. Several agents, including [ 11 C]colchicine, [ 11 C]verapamil and [ 11 C]daunorubicin, have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo. The results suggest that radiolabelled colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin are feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumours. Uptake of [ 11 C]colchicine and [ 11 C]verapamil is relatively high in the chest area, reducing the value of both tracers for monitoring Pgp-mediated drug transport in tumours located in this region. In addition, it has to be borne in mind that only comparison of Pgp-mediated transport of radioalabelled substrates in the absence and in the presence of Pgp blockade gives quantitative information on Pgp-mediated pharmacokinetics. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP. Therefore, N-[ 11 C]acetyl-leukotriene E 4 provides an opportunity to study MRP

  6. Structures of BmrR-Drug Complexes Reveal a Rigid Multidrug Binding Pocket And Transcription Activation Through Tyrosine Expulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, K.J.; Huffman, J.L.; Miller, M.C.; Vazquez-Laslop, N.; Neyfakh, A.A.; Brennan, R.G.

    2009-05-22

    BmrR is a member of the MerR family and a multidrug binding transcription factor that up-regulates the expression of the bmr multidrug efflux transporter gene in response to myriad lipophilic cationic compounds. The structural mechanism by which BmrR binds these chemically and structurally different drugs and subsequently activates transcription is poorly understood. Here, we describe the crystal structures of BmrR bound to rhodamine 6G (R6G) or berberine (Ber) and cognate DNA. These structures reveal each drug stacks against multiple aromatic residues with their positive charges most proximal to the carboxylate group of Glu-253 and that, unlike other multidrug binding pockets, that of BmrR is rigid. Substitution of Glu-253 with either alanine (E253A) or glutamine (E253Q) results in unpredictable binding affinities for R6G, Ber, and tetraphenylphosphonium. Moreover, these drug binding studies reveal that the negative charge of Glu-253 is not important for high affinity binding to Ber and tetraphenylphosphonium but plays a more significant, but unpredictable, role in R6G binding. In vitro transcription data show that E253A and E253Q are constitutively active, and structures of the drug-free E253A-DNA and E253Q-DNA complexes support a transcription activation mechanism requiring the expulsion of Tyr-152 from the multidrug binding pocket. In sum, these data delineate the mechanism by which BmrR binds lipophilic, monovalent cationic compounds and suggest the importance of the redundant negative electrostatic nature of this rigid drug binding pocket that can be used to discriminate against molecules that are not substrates of the Bmr multidrug efflux pump.

  7. Fluorometric determination of ethidium bromide efflux kinetics in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Gabriel A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efflux pump activity has been associated with multidrug resistance phenotypes in bacteria, compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The development of methods for the early detection and quantification of drug transport across the bacterial cell wall is a tool essential to understand and overcome this type of drug resistance mechanism. This approach was developed to study the transport of the efflux pump substrate ethidium bromide (EtBr across the cell envelope of Escherichia coli K-12 and derivatives, differing in the expression of their efflux systems. Results EtBr transport across the cell envelope of E. coli K-12 and derivatives was analysed by a semi-automated fluorometric method. Accumulation and efflux of EtBr was studied under limiting energy supply (absence of glucose and low temperature and in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, chlorpromazine. The bulk fluorescence variations were also observed by single-cell flow cytometry analysis, revealing that once inside the cells, leakage of EtBr does not occur and that efflux is mediated by active transport. The importance of AcrAB-TolC, the main efflux system of E. coli, in the extrusion of EtBr was evidenced by comparing strains with different levels of AcrAB expression. An experimental model was developed to describe the transport kinetics in the three strains. The model integrates passive entry (influx and active efflux of EtBr, and discriminates different degrees of efflux between the studied strains that vary in the activity of their efflux systems, as evident from the calculated efflux rates: = 0.0173 ± 0.0057 min-1; = 0.0106 ± 0.0033 min-1; and = 0.0230 ± 0.0075 min-1. Conclusion The combined use of a semi-automated fluorometric method and an experimental model allowed quantifying EtBr transport in E. coli strains that differ in their overall efflux activity. This methodology can be used for the early detection of differences in

  8. The lactococcal secondary multidrug transporter LmrP confers resistance to lincosamides, macrolides, streptogramins and tetracyclines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, M; van Veen, HW; Degener, JE; Konings, WN

    2001-01-01

    The active efflux of toxic compounds by (multi)drug transporters is one of the mechanisms that bacteria have developed to resist cytotoxic drugs. The authors describe the role of the lactococcal secondary multidrug transporter LmrP in the resistance to a broad range of clinically important

  9. Chlortetracycline and florfenicol induce expression of genes associated with pathogenicity in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a serious public health threat as infections caused by these strains are more difficult and expensive to treat. Livestock serve as a reservoir for MDR Salmonella, and the antibiotics chlortetracycline an...

  10. The role of efflux pumps in Bacteroides fragilis resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Yekani, Mina; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2018-05-01

    The resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to the most antimicrobial agents has been reported in the world. Identification of the microbial resistance mechanisms can play an important role in controlling these resistances. Currently, B. fragilis is resistant to most antibiotics. The multi-drug efflux pumps have been shown to underlie the antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis strains. Two types of these efflux pumps including RND and MATE can be regarded as main structures responsible for antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the strategy for suppressing of this efflux system may be useful in the treatment and control of the multidrug-resistant B. fragilis. The purpose of this study is to review the B. fragilis efflux pumps and their functions in the resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection and characterization of multidrug-resistant enterobacteria bearing aminoglycoside-modifying gene in a university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, along three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Gonçalves, Verônica; Bohrer-Lengruber, Françoise; Oliveira-Fonseca, Bianca; Santos-Pereira, Renata Meirelles; Barbosa de Melo, Luis Dione; Gazos-Lopes, Ulisses; Ribeiro-Bello, Alexandre; Adler-Pereira, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, particularly those resistant to gentamicin, have become one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. We sought to investigate the presence of genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, specially to gentamicin, in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli multidrug-resistant strains isolated from different clinical materials among patients hospitalized in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten colonization strains and 20 infection strains were evaluated during three decades (1980 to 2010) using selective media containing 8 µg/ml of gentamicin. Thirty strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Twenty two strains were subjected to plasmid DNA extraction and 12 to hybridization assays using as probe a 1.9 kb plasmid DNA fragment from one of the K. pneumoniae strains isolated from faecal samples. This fragment was sequenced and assigned to the GQ422439 GenBank record. PCR was also performed using oligonucleotides designed for aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. An accC2 acetylase, besides transposons and insertion sequences, were evidenced. Twenty-four (80%) of the isolates were positive for the aacC2 gene in agreement with antibiotic susceptibility testing profiles, indicating the persistent presence of this gene throughout the three decades. We detected high molecular weight plasmids in 54,5% of the strains. Of the tested strains, 91% showed positive signal in the hybridization assays. A gene codifying for one specific aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme was detected all throughout the three decades. Our data back the adoption of preventive measures, such as a more conscious use of antimicrobial agents in hospital environments, which can contribute to control the dissemination of microorganisms harboring resistance gene plasmids.

  12. The Reversal Effects of 3-Bromopyruvate on Multidrug Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo Derived from Human Breast MCF-7/ADR Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Long; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Weiqi; Wu, Baojian; Wang, Hao; Liu, Guangquan; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound. Methods The in vitro and in vivo activity wa...

  13. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients with rifampicin resistance using GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Appiah, Justice K; Steinmetz, Alexis R; Pupulampu, Peter; Ofori-Yirenkyi, Stephen; Tetteh, Ishmael; Frimpong, Michael; Oppong, Patrick; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Norman, Betty R; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip S; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Bonsu, Frank; Obeng-Baah, Joseph; Phillips, Richard O

    2016-06-01

    Drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) represent a major threat to global TB control. In low- and middle-income countries, resource constraints make it difficult to identify and monitor cases of resistance using drug susceptibility testing and culture. Molecular assays such as the GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin may prove to be a cost-effective solution to this problem in these settings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of GeneXpert in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB since it was introduced into two tertiary hospitals in Ghana in 2013. A 2-year retrospective audit of clinical cases involving patients who presented with clinically suspected TB or documented TB not improving on standard therapy and had samples sent for GeneXpert testing. GeneXpert identified 169 cases of TB, including 17 cases of rifampicin-resistant TB. Of the seven cases with final culture and drug susceptibility testing results, six demonstrated further drug resistance and five of these were multidrug-resistant TB. These findings call for a scale-up of TB control in Ghana and provide evidence that the expansion of GeneXpert may be an optimal means to improve case finding and guide treatment of drug-resistant TB in this setting. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Antibacterial activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and its synergism with β-lactam antibiotics sensitizing carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Spencer; Razqan, Ghaida Saleh Al; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-01-15

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii were responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy. However, recently, carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates have been reported worldwide and present a major therapeutic challenge. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea exhibits antibacterial activity. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of EGCG and possible synergism with antibiotics in carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii. A potential mechanism for synergism was also explored. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected from geographically different areas were analyzed by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EGCG. Checkerboard and time-killing assays were performed to exam the synergism between EGCG and antibiotics. The effects of EGCG on a multidrug efflux pump inhibitor (1-[1-naphthylmethyl] piperazine; NMP) and β-lactamase production were also examined in A. baumannii. Sixty-three of 70 clinical isolates of A. baumannii carried carbapenemase-encoding genes with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistance. Levels of MIC and MBC of EGCG ranged from 64 to 512µg/ml and from 128 to ≥1024µg/ml, respectively among the clinical isolates. MIC 90 and MBC 86 levels were 256µg/ml and 512µg/ml of EGCG, respectively. Subinhibitory concentration of EGCG in combination with all antibiotics tested, including carbapenem, sensitized (MICs fall≤1.0µg/ml) all carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. Checkerboard and time-killing assays showed synergism between EGCG and meropenem (or carbenicillin) counted as fractional inhibitory concentration of 2log10 within 12h, respectively. EGCG significantly increased the effect of NMP but was unrelated to β-lactamase production in A. baumannii, suggesting EGCG may be associated with inhibition of efflux pumps. Overall we suggest that EGCG-antibiotic combinations might provide an alternative approach to treat

  15. Reversal of multidrug resistance by surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, D. M.; Linsenmeyer, M. E.; Chojnowski, G.; Kriegler, A. B.; Nink, V.; Webster, L. K.; Sawyer, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Cremophor EL, a pharmacologically inactive solubilising agent, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Using flow cytometric evaluation of equilibrium intracellular levels of daunorubicin (DNR), we found that eight other surface active agents will also reverse MDR. All the active detergents contain polyethoxylated moieties but have no similarities in their hydrophobic components. The properties of three polyethoxylated surfactants that showed the lowest toxicities, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Solutol HS15, were examined in more detail. The concentrations of Tween 80 and Solutol required to reverse DNR exclusion were 10-fold lower than for Cremophor. However while concentrations greater than or equal to 1:10(2) of the former two surfactants resulted in breakdown of cells, even 1:10 of Cremophor did not lyse cells. Studies of the effects of Cremophor on the uptake and efflux of DNR in normal and MDR cell types showed that Cremophor increases intracellular DNR primarily by locking the rapid efflux from the cells. This blockage of drug efflux may be mediated by a substantial alteration in the fluidity of cell membranes induced by Cremophor, as shown by decreased fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane probe. Consistent with these data, coinjection of adriamycin plus Cremophor into mice carrying a multidrug resistant P388 transplantable tumour significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared with adriamycin treatment alone. PMID:1637678

  16. Rapid selection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene and multidrug resistance gene-1 haplotypes associated with past chloroquine and present artemether-lumefantrine use in Inhambane District, southern Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thomas T; Madsen, Laura B; Hansson, Helle H

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) use in Mozambique was stopped in 2002 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was implemented in 2008. In light of no use of CQ and extensive use of AL, we determined the frequency of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance/tolerance to CQ and AL in persons living...... in Linga-Linga, an isolated peninsula and in Furvela village, which is located 8 km inland. The P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK wild type increased in frequency from 43.9% in 2009 to 66.4% in 2010 (P = 0.001), and combined P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 N86-184F-D1246...... haplotype increased significantly between years (P = 0.039). The combination of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK and P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene NFD increased from 24.3% (2009) to 45.3% in (2010, P = 0.017). The rapid changes observed may largely be caused by decreased...

  17. Expression of multi-drug resistance-related genes MDR3 and MRP as prognostic factors in clinical liver cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng; Peng, Sun; Hong-Ming, Pan; Kai-Feng, Wang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the expression of multi-drug resistance-related genes, MDR3 and MRP, in clinical specimens of primary liver cancer and their potential as prognostic factors in liver cancer patients. A total of 26 patients with primary liver cancer were enrolled. The expression of MDR3 and MRP genes was measured by real-time PCR and the association between gene expression and the prognosis of patients was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and COX regression model. This study showed that increases in MDR3 gene expression were identified in cholangiocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and HBsAg-positive patients, while MRP expression increased in hepatocellular carcinoma, non-cirrhosis and HBsAg-negative patients. Moreover, conjugated bilirubin and total bile acid in the serum were significantly reduced in patients with high MRP expression compared to patients with low expression. The overall survival tended to be longer in patients with high MDR3 and MRP expression compared to the control group. MRP might be an independent prognostic factor in patients with liver cancer by COX regression analysis. MDR3 and MRP may play important roles in liver cancer patients as prognostic factors and their underlying mechanisms in liver cancer are worthy of further investigation.

  18. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  19. Multiple drug resistance protein (MDR-1, multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP and lung resistance protein (LRP gene expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Terci Valera

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the advances in the cure rate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, approximately 25% of affected children suffer relapses. Expression of genes for the multiple drug resistance protein (MDR-1, multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP, and lung resistance protein (LRP may confer the phenotype of resistance to the treatment of neoplasias. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of the MDR-1, MRP and LRP genes in children with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia via the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to determine the correlation between expression and event-free survival and clinical and laboratory variables. DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study. SETTING: Laboratory of Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Bone marrow aspirates from 30 children with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were assessed for the expression of messenger RNA for the MDR-1, MRP and LRP genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: In the three groups studied, only the increased expression of LRP was related to worsened event-free survival (p = 0.005. The presence of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA was correlated with increased LRP expression (p = 0.009 and increased risk of relapse or death (p = 0.05. The relative risk of relapse or death was six times higher among children with high LRP expression upon diagnosis (p = 0.05, as confirmed by multivariate analysis of the three genes studied (p = 0.035. DISCUSSION: Cell resistance to drugs is a determinant of the response to chemotherapy and its detection via RT-PCR may be of clinical importance. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the expression of genes for resistance to antineoplastic drugs in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia upon diagnosis, and particularly the expression of the LRP gene, may be of clinical relevance, and should be the

  20. Molecular assessment of artemisinin resistance markers, polymorphisms in the k13 propeller, and a multidrug-resistance gene in the eastern and western border areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Myat Htut; Hlaing, Thaung; Oo, Htet Wai; Tin-Oo, Lu-Lu Kyaw; Phway, Hnin Phyu; Wang, Bo; Zaw, Ni Ni; Han, Soe Soe; Tun, Thurein; San, Kyaw Kyaw; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-04-15

    As K13 propeller mutations have been recently reported to serve as molecular markers, assessment of K13 propeller polymorphisms in multidrug-resistant gene in isolates from Myanmar, especially the eastern and western border areas, is crucial if we are to understand the spread of artemisinin resistance. A 3-day surveillance study was conducted in the eastern and western border areas in Myanmar, and K13 propeller and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (pfmrp1) mutations were analyzed. Among the 1761 suspected malaria cases screened, a total of 42 uncomplicated falciparum cases from the eastern border and 49 from the western border were subjected to 3 days of surveillance after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. No parasitemic case showing positivity on day 3 was noted from the western border, but 26.2% (11/42) of cases were positive in the eastern border. Although we found no marked difference in the prevalence of the pfmrp1 mutation in the eastern and western borders (36% vs 31%, respectively), K13 mutations were more frequent in the eastern border area (where the 3-day persistent cases were detected; 48% vs 14%). C580Y, M476I, A481V, N458Y, R539T, and R516Y accounted for 68.9% of all K13 mutations significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia. The K13 mutations were significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia, emphasizing the importance of K13 surveillance. The low prevalence of K13 mutations and the absence of day 3 parasitaemic cases indicate that artemisinin resistance may not have spread to the western Myanmar border region. Although analysis of multiple K13 mutations is challenging, it should be done at various sentinel sites in Myanmar. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Identification of antibiotic resistance genes in the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain, MDR-SHH02, using whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualiang; Wang, Jinghua; Yu, Peijuan; Ge, Ping; Jiang, Yanqun; Xu, Rong; Chen, Rong; Liu, Xuejie

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance genes in the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumanii) strain, MDR-SHH02, using whole‑genome sequencing (WGS). The antibiotic resistance of MDR-SHH02 isolated from a patient with breast cancer to 19 types of antibiotics was determined using the Kirby‑Bauer method. WGS of MDR-SHH02 was then performed. Following quality control and transcriptome assembly, functional annotation of genes was conducted, and the phylogenetic tree of MDR-SHH02, along with another 5 A. baumanii species and 2 Acinetobacter species, was constructed using PHYLIP 3.695 and FigTree v1.4.2. Furthermore, pathogenicity islands (PAIs) were predicted by the pathogenicity island database. Potential antibiotic resistance genes in MDR-SHH02 were predicted based on the information in the Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB). MDR-SHH02 was found to be resistant to all of the tested antibiotics. The total draft genome length of MDR-SHH02 was 4,003,808 bp. There were 74.25% of coding sequences to be annotated into 21 of the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of protein terms, such as 'transcription' and 'amino acid transport and metabolism'. Furthermore, there were 45 PAIs homologous to the sequence MDRSHH02000806. Additionally, a total of 12 gene sequences in MDR-SHH02 were highly similar to the sequences of antibiotic resistance genes in ARDB, including genes encoding aminoglycoside‑modifying enzymes [e.g., aac(3)-Ia, ant(2'')‑Ia, aph33ib and aph(3')-Ia], β-lactamase genes (bl2b_tem and bl2b_tem1), sulfonamide-resistant dihydropteroate synthase genes (sul1 and sul2), catb3 and tetb. These results suggest that numerous genes mediate resistance to various antibiotics in MDR-SHH02, and provide a clinical guidance for the personalized therapy of A. baumannii-infected patients.

  2. Co-ordinate loss of protein kinase C and multidrug resistance gene expression in revertant MCF-7/Adr breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budworth, J; Gant, T W; Gescher, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between protein kinase C (PKC) and multidrug resistance (mdr) phenotype. The expression of both was studied in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells as they reverted to the wild-type phenotype when cultured in the absence of drug. The following parameters were measured in cells 4, 10, 15, 20 and 24 weeks after removal of doxorubicin; (1) sensitivity of the cells towards doxorubicin; (2) levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR1 mRNA; (3) levels and cellular localization of PKC isoenzyme proteins alpha, theta and epsilon; and (4) gene copy number of PKC-alpha and MDR1 genes. Cells lost their resistance gradually with time, so that by week 24 they had almost completely regained the drug sensitivity seen in wild-type MCF-7 cells. P-gp levels measured by Western blot mirrored the change in doxorubicin sensitivity. By week 20, P-gp had decreased to 18% of P-gp protein levels at the outset, and P-gp was not detectable at week 24. Similarly, MDR1 mRNA levels had disappeared by week 24. MCF-7/Adr cells expressed more PKCs-alpha and -theta than wild-type cells and possessed a different cellular localization of PKC-epsilon. The expression and distribution pattern of these PKCs did not change for up to 20 weeks, but reverted back to that seen in wild-type cells by week 24. MDR1 gene amplification remained unchanged until week 20, but then was lost precipitously between weeks 20 and 24. The PKC-alpha gene was not amplified in MCF-7/Adr cells. The results suggest that MCF-7/Adr cells lose MDR1 gene expression and PKC activity in a co-ordinate fashion, consistent with the existence of a mechanistic link between MDR1 and certain PKC isoenzymes.

  3. Divide and conquer: processive transport enables multidrug transporters to tackle challenging drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Fluman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug transporters are membrane proteins that catalyze efflux of antibiotics and other toxic compounds from cells, thereby conferring drug resistance on various organisms. Unlike most solute transporters that transport a single type of compound or similar analogues, multidrug transporters are extremely promiscuous. They transport a broad spectrum of dissimilar drugs and represent a serious obstacle to antimicrobial or anticancer chemotherapy. Many challenging aspects of multidrug transporters, which are unique, have been studied in detail, including their ability to interact with chemically unrelated drugs, and how they utilize energy to drive efflux of compounds that are not only structurally but electrically different. A new and surprising dimension of the promiscuous nature of multidrug transporters has been described recently: they can move long molecules through the membrane in a processive manner.

  4. Computer simulations of the activity of RND efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Ramaswamy, Venkata Krishnan; Malloci, Giuliano; Malvacio, Ivana; Atzori, Alessio; Ruggerone, Paolo

    2018-01-31

    The putative mechanism by which bacterial RND-type multidrug efflux pumps recognize and transport their substrates is a complex and fascinating enigma of structural biology. How a single protein can recognize a huge number of unrelated compounds and transport them through one or just a few mechanisms is an amazing feature not yet completely unveiled. The appearance of cooperativity further complicates the understanding of structure-dynamics-activity relationships in these complex machineries. Experimental techniques may have limited access to the molecular determinants and to the energetics of key processes regulating the activity of these pumps. Computer simulations are a complementary approach that can help unveil these features and inspire new experiments. Here we review recent computational studies that addressed the various molecular processes regulating the activity of RND efflux pumps. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  5. Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major impediment to successful cancer chemotherapy. Co-delivery of novel MDR-reversing agents and anticancer drugs to cancer cells holds great promise for cancer treatment. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 overexpression is associated with the development and progression of MDR in breast cancer, and it is emerging as a novel and promising MDR-reversing target. In this study, a multifunctional nanocomplex, composed of polyethylenimine (PEI/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonates (PSS/graphene oxide (GO and termed PPG, was prepared using the layer-by-layer assembly method to evaluate the reversal effects of PPG as a carrier for adriamycin (ADR along with miR-21 targeted siRNA (anti-miR-21 in cancer drug resistance. ADR was firstly loaded onto the PPG surface (PPGADR by physical mixing and anti-miR-21 was sequentially loaded onto PPGADR through electric absorption to form (anti-miR-21PPGADR. Cell experiments showed that PPG significantly enhanced the accumulation of ADR in MCF-7/ADR cells (an ADR resistant breast cancer cell line and exhibited much higher cytotoxicity than free ADR, suggesting that PPG could effectively reverse ADR resistance of MCF-7/ADR. Furthermore, the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of PPG could be correlated with effective silencing of miR-21 and with increased accumulation of ADR in drug-resistant tumor cells. The endocytosis study confirmed that PPG could effectively carry drug molecules into cells via the caveolae and clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathways. These results suggest that this PPG could be a potential and efficient non-viral vector for reversing MDR, and the strategy of combining anticancer drugs with miRNA therapy to overcome MDR could be an attractive approach in cancer treatment.

  6. Interplay between Mutations and Efflux in Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Viveiros

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show efflux as a universal bacterial mechanism contributing to antibiotic resistance and also that the activity of the antibiotics subject to efflux can be enhanced by the combined use of efflux inhibitors. Nevertheless, the contribution of efflux to the overall drug resistance levels of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly understood and still is ignored by many. Here, we evaluated the contribution of drug efflux plus target-gene mutations to the drug resistance levels in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. A panel of 17 M. tuberculosis clinical strains were characterized for drug resistance associated mutations and antibiotic profiles in the presence and absence of efflux inhibitors. The correlation between the effect of the efflux inhibitors and the resistance levels was assessed by quantitative drug susceptibility testing. The bacterial growth/survival vs. growth inhibition was analyzed through the comparison between the time of growth in the presence and absence of an inhibitor. For the same mutation conferring antibiotic resistance, different MICs were observed and the different resistance levels found could be reduced by efflux inhibitors. Although susceptibility was not restored, the results demonstrate the existence of a broad-spectrum synergistic interaction between antibiotics and efflux inhibitors. The existence of efflux activity was confirmed by real-time fluorometry. Moreover, the efflux pump genes mmr, mmpL7, Rv1258c, p55, and efpA were shown to be overexpressed in the presence of antibiotics, demonstrating the contribution of these efflux pumps to the overall resistance phenotype of the M. tuberculosis clinical isolates studied, independently of the genotype of the strains. These results showed that the drug resistance levels of multi- and extensively-drug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical strains are a combination between drug efflux and the presence of target-gene mutations, a reality

  7. Over expression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems confers tigecycline resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yuhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to the wide use of tigecycline in the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria, clinical resistance to tigecycline has increased in recent years. Here, we investigated the relationship between tigecycline resistance and the expression of efflux pumps. METHODS: Clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were consecutively collected from hospitalized patients in three hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of tigecycline was determined using the broth microdilution method. Expression levels of efflux pump genes and regulators were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlations between tigecycline MICs and gene expression levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 1,026 A. baumannii and 725 K. pneumoniae strains were collected. Most strains were isolated from sputum. The tigecycline resistance rate was 13.4% in A. baumannii isolates and 6.5% in K. pneumoniae isolates. Overexpression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems was observed found in clinical tigecycline-resistant isolates. The tigecycline MIC had a linear relationship with the adeB expression level in A. baumannii isolates, but not with the acrB expression level in K. pneumoniae isolates. There were significant linear trends in the overexpression of ramA as the tigecycline MIC increased in K. pneumoniae isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Tigecycline resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae was strongly associated with the overexpression of efflux systems. More studies are needed to elucidate whether there are other regulators that affect the expression of adeB in A. baumannii and how ramA affects the expression of acrB in K. pneumoniae.

  8. Whole genome sequencing for deciphering the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes, an emerging multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient in Marseille, France

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    T. Cimmino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We decipher the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes MARS15, an emerging multidrug-resistant clinical strain, using the whole genome sequencing strategy. The bacterium was isolated from the sputum of a hospitalized patient with cystic fibrosis in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France. Genome sequencing was done with Illumina MiSeq using a paired-end strategy. The in silico analysis was done by RAST, the resistome by the ARG-ANNOT database and detection of polyketide synthase (PKS by ANTISMAH. The genome size of C. indologenes MARS15 is 4 972 580 bp with 36.4% GC content. This multidrug-resistant bacterium was resistant to all β-lactams, including imipenem, and also to colistin. The resistome of C. indologenes MARS15 includes Ambler class A and B β-lactams encoding blaCIA and blaIND-2 genes and MBL (metallo-β-lactamase genes, the CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and the multidrug efflux pump AcrB. Specific features include the presence of an urease operon, an intact prophage and a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, we report for the first time in C. indologenes a PKS cluster that might be responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, similar to erythromycin. The whole genome sequence analysis provides insight into the resistome and the discovery of new details, such as the PKS cluster.

  9. Whole genome sequencing for deciphering the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes, an emerging multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, T; Rolain, J-M

    2016-07-01

    We decipher the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes MARS15, an emerging multidrug-resistant clinical strain, using the whole genome sequencing strategy. The bacterium was isolated from the sputum of a hospitalized patient with cystic fibrosis in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France. Genome sequencing was done with Illumina MiSeq using a paired-end strategy. The in silico analysis was done by RAST, the resistome by the ARG-ANNOT database and detection of polyketide synthase (PKS) by ANTISMAH. The genome size of C. indologenes MARS15 is 4 972 580 bp with 36.4% GC content. This multidrug-resistant bacterium was resistant to all β-lactams, including imipenem, and also to colistin. The resistome of C. indologenes MARS15 includes Ambler class A and B β-lactams encoding bla CIA and bla IND-2 genes and MBL (metallo-β-lactamase) genes, the CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene and the multidrug efflux pump AcrB. Specific features include the presence of an urease operon, an intact prophage and a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, we report for the first time in C. indologenes a PKS cluster that might be responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, similar to erythromycin. The whole genome sequence analysis provides insight into the resistome and the discovery of new details, such as the PKS cluster.

  10. Expression of multidrug resistance genes MVP, MDR1, and MRP1 determined sequentially before, during, and after hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion of soft tissue sarcoma and melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ulrike; Jürchott, Karsten; Schläfke, Matthias; Hohenberger, Peter

    2002-08-01

    Isolated, hyperthermic limb perfusion (ILP) with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan is a highly effective treatment for advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and locoregional metastatic malignant melanoma. Multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated genes are known to be inducible by heat and drugs; expression levels of the major vault protein (MVP), MDR1, and MDR-associated protein 1 (MRP1) were determined sequentially before, during, and after ILP of patients. Twenty-one STS or malignant melanoma patients were treated by ILP. Tumor tissue temperatures were recorded continuously and ranged from 33.4 degrees C initially to peak values of 40.4 degrees C during ILP. Serial true-cut biopsy specimens from tumor tissues were routinely microdissected. Expression analyses for MDR genes were performed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In 83% of the patients, MVP expression was induced during hyperthermic ILP. MVP-mRNA inductions often paralleled the increase in temperature during ILP. Increased MVP protein expressions either were observed simultaneously with the MVP-mRNA induction or were delayed until after the induction at the transcriptional level. Inductions of MDR1 and MRP1 were observed in only 13% and 27% of the specimens analyzed. Temperatures and drugs applied preferentially led to an induction of MVP and were not sufficient to induce MDR1 and MRP1 in the majority of tumors. This study is the first to analyze the expression of MDR-associated genes sequentially during ILP of patients and demonstrates that treatment might lead to increased levels of MVP, whereas enhanced levels of MDR1 and MRP1 remain rare events.

  11. The drug-binding activity of the multidrug-responding transcriptional regulator BmrR resides in its C-terminal domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Markham, P N; Ahmed, M; Neyfakh, A A

    1996-01-01

    Rhodamine and tetraphenylphosphonium, the substrates of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug efflux transporter Bmr, induce the expression of Bmr through direct interaction with its transcriptional activator BmrR. Here we show that the C-terminal domain of BmrR, expressed individually, binds both these compounds and therefore can be used as a model for molecular analysis of the phenomenon of multidrug recognition.

  12. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujević, Ivana; Bušelić, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

    2014-11-01

    Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100nM and 4μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vivo Exposure of Kaempferol Is Driven by Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Efflux Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Min; Shi, Jian; Li, Yuhuan; Yu, Jia; Jiang, Huangyu; Wu, Jinjun; Tong, Yunli; Liu, Yuting; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-09-01

    Kaempferol is a well-known flavonoid; however, it lacks extensive pharmacokinetic studies. Phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters play an important role in the disposition of flavonoids. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters determine the in vivo exposure of kaempferol. Pharmacokinetic analysis in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that kaempferol was mostly biotransformed to conjugates, namely, kaempferol-3-glucuronide (K-3-G), kaempferol-7-glucuronide (K-7-G), and kaempferol-7-sulfate, in plasma. K-3-G represented the major metabolite. Compared with that in wild-type mice, pharmacokinetics in knockout FVB mice demonstrated that the absence of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) of the conjugates. The lack of MRP1 resulted in a much lower AUC of the conjugates. Intestinal perfusion in rats revealed that the glucuronide conjugates were mainly excreted in the small intestine, but 7-sulfate was mainly excreted in the colon. In Caco-2 monolayers, K-7-G efflux toward the apical (AP) side was significantly higher than K-3-G efflux. In contrast, K-3-G efflux toward the basolateral (BL) side was significantly higher than K-7-G efflux. The BL-to-AP efflux was significantly reduced in the presence of the MRP2 inhibitor LTC4. The AP-to-BL efflux was significantly decreased in the presence of the BL-side MRPs inhibitor MK571. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143 decreased the glucuronide conjugate efflux. Therefore, kaempferol is mainly exposed as K-3-G in vivo, which is driven by phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters (i.e., BCRP and MRPs).

  14. Interaction of antibacterial compounds with RND efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg eDreier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to intrinsic antibiotic resistance and the propensity of this pathogen to accumulate diverse resistance mechanisms. Hyperexpression of efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-Division-type multidrug efflux pumps (e.g. MexAB-OprM, chromosomally encoded by mexAB-oprM, mexCD-oprJ, mexEF-oprN, and mexXY (-oprA is often detected in clinical isolates and contributes to worrying multi-drug resistance phenotypes.Not all antibiotics are affected to the same extent by the aforementioned RND efflux pumps. The impact of efflux on antibiotic activity varies not only between different classes of antibiotics but also between members of the same family of antibiotics. Subtle differences in physicochemical features of compound-pump and compound-solvent interactions largely determine how compounds are affected by efflux activity.The combination of different high-resolution techniques helps to gain insight into the functioning of these molecular machineries. This review discusses substrate recognition patterns based on experimental evidence and computer simulations with a focus on MexB, the pump subunit of the main RND transporter in P. aeruginosa.

  15. Distribution of the Multidrug Resistance Gene cfr in Staphylococcus Isolates from Pigs, Workers, and the Environment of a Hog Market and a Slaughterhouse in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lin, Da-Chuan; Guo, Xiao-Mu; Wei, Hong-Kun; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Jie; Guo, Jian-Ying; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria harboring cfr, a multidrug resistance gene, have high prevalence in livestock in China and might be transmitted to humans through direct contact or via contaminated food products. To better understand the epidemiology of cfr producers in the food chain, the prevalence and genetic analysis of Staphylococcus isolates recovered from pigs, workers, and meat-handling facilities (a slaughterhouse and a hog market in Guangzhou, China) were examined. Twenty (4.5%) cfr-positive Staphylococcus isolates (18 Staphylococcus simulans, 1 S. cohnii, and 1 S. aureus) were derived from pigs (16/312), the environment (2/52), and workers (2/80). SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 26 staphylococcal strains (22 S. simulans and 4 S. cohnii), including previously reported cfr-carrying staphylococci of animal food origin, exhibited 19 major pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (A-S). Clonal spread of cfr-carrying staphylococci among pigs, workers, and meat products was detected. The genetic contexts of cfr in plasmids (pHNKF3, pHNZT2, and pHNCR35) obtained from S. simulans of swine or human origin were similar to that of Staphylococcus species isolated from human clinics and animal-derived food. The cfr-carrying S. aureus strain isolated from floor swabs of the hog market was spa-type t889 and belonged to the ST9 clonal lineage. In summary, both clonal spread and horizontal transmission via mobile elements contributed to cfr dissemination among staphylococcal isolates obtained from different sources. To monitor potential outbreaks of cfr-positive bacteria, continued surveillance of this gene in animals at slaughter and in animal-derived food is warranted.

  16. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Transcriptional Repressor, MtrR, of the mtrCDE Efflux Pump Operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Can Also Serve as an Activator of “off Target” Gene (glnE Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. T. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MtrR is a well-characterized repressor of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae mtrCDE efflux pump operon. However, results from a previous transcriptional profiling study suggested that MtrR also represses or activates expression of at least sixty genes outside of the mtr locus. Evidence that MtrR can directly repress so-called “off target” genes has previously been reported; in particular, MtrR was shown to directly repress glnA, which encodes glutamine synthetase. In contrast, evidence for the ability of MtrR to directly activate expression of gonococcal genes has been lacking; herein, we provide such evidence. We now report that MtrR has the ability to directly activate expression of glnE, which encodes the dual functional adenyltransferase/deadenylase enzyme GlnE that modifies GlnA resulting in regulation of its role in glutamine biosynthesis. With its capacity to repress expression of glnA, the results presented herein emphasize the diverse and often opposing regulatory properties of MtrR that likely contributes to the overall physiology and metabolism of N. gonorrhoeae.

  18. The ins and outs of RND efflux pumps in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, João; McCusker, Matthew P.; Fanning, Séamus; Martins, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Relevant authorities including the WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. They have also reaffirmed the urgent need for investment in the discovery and development of new antibiotics and therapeutic approaches to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The extensive use of antimicrobial compounds in diverse environments, including farming and healthcare, has been identified as one of the main causes for the emergence of MDR bacteria. Induced selective pressure has led bacteria to develop new strategies of defense against these chemicals. Bacteria can accomplish this by several mechanisms, including enzymatic inactivation of the target compound; decreased cell permeability; target protection and/or overproduction; altered target site/enzyme and increased efflux due to over-expression of efflux pumps. Efflux pumps can be specific for a single substrate or can confer resistance to multiple antimicrobials by facilitating the extrusion of a broad range of compounds including antibiotics, heavy metals, biocides and others, from the bacterial cell. To overcome antimicrobial resistance caused by active efflux, efforts are required to better understand the fundamentals of drug efflux mechanisms. There is also a need to elucidate how these mechanisms are regulated and how they respond upon exposure to antimicrobials. Understanding these will allow the development of combined therapies using efflux inhibitors together with antibiotics to act on Gram-negative bacteria, such as the emerging globally disseminated MDR pathogen Escherichia coli ST131 (O25:H4). This review will summarize the current knowledge on resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux mechanisms in E. coli, a bacteria responsible for community and hospital-acquired infections, as well as foodborne outbreaks worldwide

  19. The ins and outs of RND efflux pumps in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, João; McCusker, Matthew P; Fanning, Séamus; Martins, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Relevant authorities including the WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. They have also reaffirmed the urgent need for investment in the discovery and development of new antibiotics and therapeutic approaches to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The extensive use of antimicrobial compounds in diverse environments, including farming and healthcare, has been identified as one of the main causes for the emergence of MDR bacteria. Induced selective pressure has led bacteria to develop new strategies of defense against these chemicals. Bacteria can accomplish this by several mechanisms, including enzymatic inactivation of the target compound; decreased cell permeability; target protection and/or overproduction; altered target site/enzyme and increased efflux due to over-expression of efflux pumps. Efflux pumps can be specific for a single substrate or can confer resistance to multiple antimicrobials by facilitating the extrusion of a broad range of compounds including antibiotics, heavy metals, biocides and others, from the bacterial cell. To overcome antimicrobial resistance caused by active efflux, efforts are required to better understand the fundamentals of drug efflux mechanisms. There is also a need to elucidate how these mechanisms are regulated and how they respond upon exposure to antimicrobials. Understanding these will allow the development of combined therapies using efflux inhibitors together with antibiotics to act on Gram-negative bacteria, such as the emerging globally disseminated MDR pathogen Escherichia coli ST131 (O25:H4). This review will summarize the current knowledge on resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux mechanisms in E. coli, a bacteria responsible for community and hospital-acquired infections, as well as foodborne outbreaks worldwide.

  20. The Ins and Outs of RND Efflux Pumps in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João eAnes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Relevant authorities including the WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. They have also reaffirmed the urgent need for investment in the discovery and development of new antibiotics and therapeutic approaches to treat multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria.The extensive use of antimicrobial compounds in diverse environments, including farming and healthcare, has been identified as one of the main causes for the emergence of MDR bacteria. Induced selective pressure has led bacteria to develop new strategies of defence against these chemicals. Bacteria can accomplish this by several mechanisms, including enzymatic inactivation of the target compound; decreased cell permeability; target protection and/or overproduction; altered target site/enzyme and increased efflux due to over-expression of efflux pumps.Efflux pumps can be specific for a single substrate or can confer resistance to multiple antimicrobials by facilitating the extrusion of a broad range of compounds including antibiotics, heavy metals, biocides and others, from the bacterial cell. To overcome antimicrobial resistance caused by active efflux, efforts are required to better understand the fundamentals of drug efflux mechanisms. There is also a need to elucidate how these mechanisms are regulated and how they respond upon exposure to antimicrobials. Understanding these will allow the development of combined therapies using efflux inhibitors together with antibiotics to act on Gram-negative bacteria, such as the emerging globally disseminated MDR pathogen Escherichia coli ST131 (O25:H4. This review will summarise the current knowledge on resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux mechanisms in E. coli, a bacteria responsible for community and hospital-acquired infections, as well as foodborne

  1. Distribution and physiology of ABC-Type transporters contributing to multidrug resistance in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelski, Jacek; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    Membrane proteins responsible for the active efflux of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs were first characterized in higher eukalyotes. To date, a vast number of transporters contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR transporters) have been reported for a large variety of organisms.

  2. Evaluation of the tannic acid inhibitory effect against the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera D M; Campina, Fábia F; Silva, Raimundo L P; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2016-08-01

    During the early periods of antibiotic usage, bacterial infections were considered tamed. However, widespread antibiotic use has promoted the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including multidrug resistant strains. Active efflux is a mechanism for bacterial resistance to inhibitory substances, known simply as drug efflux pumps. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of infections. The NorA efflux pump has been shown to be responsible for moderate fluoroquinolone resistance of S. aureus. The inhibition of the efflux pump was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of standard efflux pump inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), where its capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due to the possible inhibitory effect of these substances was observed. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly reduced in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this agent against the efflux pumps of both strains causing a three-fold reduction of the MIC when compared with the control. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2, multidrug resistance 1, and breast cancer resistance protein gene polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette; Ernst, Anja; Labouriau, Rodrigo S.

    2009-01-01

    =0.006) and 1.39 ((0.99-1.92) p=0.054), respectively, and for UC of 2.63 ((1.33-5.26) p=0.005) and 1.28 ((0.96-1.51) p=0.093), respectively, assuming complete dominance. No association was found for BCRP or other MDR1 SNPs, or for selected MDR1 haplotypes. No effect-modification of smoking habit......OBJECTIVE: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by an impaired mucosal defence to normal constituents of the intestinal flora and a dysregulated inflammatory response. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes....../A, C3435T and G-rs3789243-A (intron 3) were assessed in a Danish case-control study comprising 373 CD and 541 UC patients and 796 healthy controls. RESULTS: Carriers of the homozygous COX-2 and MDR1 intron 3 variant had a relatively high risk of CD, odds ratio (95% CI) (OR (95% CI))=2.86 ((1.34-5.88) p...

  4. Multi-drug resistance (MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein influence on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodymanic of therapeutic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardi Renata Lehn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (MDR1 gene expressed in tumor cells and also in several normal tissues, such as intestine, liver, kidney, blood-brain barrier, spinal cord, and placenta. P-gp has been identified in mice, rat, bovine, monkey, rodents, and human beings and has been receiving a particular clinical relevance because this protein expression limits brain access and intestinal absorption of many drugs. This protein plays a role as a protective barrier against a wide variety of substrates, avoiding drug entry into the central nervous system. P-glycoprotein also interferes with drug bioavailability and disposition, including absorption, distribution, metabolization, and excretion, influencing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of drugs. Modulation of P-gp may help the efficacy of treatment of several diseases and can explain some adverse central nervous system effects induced by drugs after intravenous administration and the poor response of oral administration in patients. Alteration in P-gp expression or function has been associated with several diseases susceptibility in humans and animals. Furthermore, additional studies relating MDR1 and P-gp expression has an important clinical implication also in terms of treatment efficacy.

  5. Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression during human prosthetic joint infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2016-01-01

    and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark 2: Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark Aim: ”The aim of this study was to gain insight into the in vivo expression of virulence and metabolic genes of Staphylococcus aureus in a prosthetic joint infection in a human subject” Method: ”Deep RNA......Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression during human prosthetic joint infection Xu, Yijuan1; Nielsen, Per H.1; Nielsen, Jeppe L.1; Thomsen, Trine R. 1,2; Nielsen, Kåre L.1 and the PRIS study group 1: Center for Microbial Communities, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry...... involved overexpression of various enzymes related to cell-wall synthesis and multidrug efflux pumps. Interestingly, these efflux pumps are only known to be related to fluoroquinolone resistance. Many of the genes encoding virulence factors were upregulated, including toxins and superantigen-like proteins...

  6. The TolC protein of Legionella pneumophila plays a major role in multi-drug resistance and the early steps of host invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Ferhat

    Full Text Available Pneumonia associated with Iegionnaires's disease is initiated in humans after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the environment, Legionella pneumophila is thought to survive and multiply as an intracellular parasite within free-living amoeba. In the genome of L. pneumophila Lens, we identified a unique gene, tolC, encoding a protein that is highly homologous to the outer membrane protein TolC of Escherichia coli. Deletion of tolC by allelic exchange in L. pneumophila caused increased sensitivity to various drugs. The complementation of the tolC mutation in trans restored drug resistance, indicating that TolC is involved in multi-drug efflux machinery. In addition, deletion of tolC caused a significant attenuation of virulence towards both amoebae and macrophages. Thus, the TolC protein appears to play a crucial role in virulence which could be mediated by its involvement in efflux pump mechanisms. These findings will be helpful in unraveling the pathogenic mechanisms of L. pneumophila as well as in developing new therapeutic agents affecting the efflux of toxic compounds.

  7. Non-p-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in detransformed rat cells selected for resistance to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J M; Sircar, S; Horvath, J; Dion, P

    1989-11-01

    Three independent variants (G2, G4, G5), resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), an anticancer drug, have been isolated by single step selection from an adenovirus-transformed rat brain cell line (1). These variants display selective cross-resistance to several natural product drugs of dissimilar structure and action. Multidrug resistance has recently been shown to be caused by overexpression of the membrane-associated p-glycoprotein, most often caused by amplification of the mdr gene. Several types of experiments were conducted to determine whether the observed drug resistance in our cell lines could be due to changes at the mdr locus. The following results were obtained: (a) the mdr locus was not amplified; (b) transcription of the mdr gene and p-glycoprotein synthesis were not increased; (c) multidrug resistance cell lines, which carry an amplified mdr locus, were not cross-resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone); (d) verapamil did not reverse the resistance of G cells or mdr cells to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), nor that of G cells to vincristine; and (e) methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) resistance was recessive and depended on a block to drug uptake, as opposed to mdr cells which are dominant and express increased drug efflux. The results obtained suggest that the drug resistance in the G2, G4, and G5 cells was atypical and may be due to a mechanism distinct from that mediated by the mdr locus.

  8. Exploring the contribution of efflux on the resistance to fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costa, Sofia SANTOS

    2011-10-27

    Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance mediated by efflux systems is still poorly characterized in Staphylococcus aureus, despite the description of several efflux pumps (EPs) for this bacterium. In this work we used several methodologies to characterize the efflux activity of 52 S. aureus isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin collected in a hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, in order to understand the role played by these systems in the resistance to fluoroquinolones. Results Augmented efflux activity was detected in 12 out of 52 isolates and correlated with increased resistance to fluoroquinolones. Addition of efflux inhibitors did not result in the full reversion of the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype, yet it implied a significant decrease in the resistance levels, regardless of the type(s) of mutation(s) found in the quinolone-resistance determining region of grlA and gyrA genes, which accounted for the remaining resistance that was not efflux-mediated. Expression analysis of the genes coding for the main efflux pumps revealed increased expression only in the presence of inducing agents. Moreover, it showed that not only different substrates can trigger expression of different EP genes, but also that the same substrate can promote a variable response, according to its concentration. We also found isolates belonging to the same clonal type that showed different responses towards drug exposure, thus evidencing that highly related clinical isolates may diverge in the efflux-mediated response to noxious agents. The data gathered by real-time fluorometric and RT-qPCR assays suggest that S. aureus clinical isolates may be primed to efflux antimicrobial compounds. Conclusions The results obtained in this work do not exclude the importance of mutations in resistance to fluoroquinolones in S. aureus, yet they underline the contribution of efflux systems for the emergence of high-level resistance. All together, the results presented in this study show the potential

  9. Involvement of the efflux pumps in chloramphenicol selected strains of Burkholderia thailandensis: proteomic and mechanistic evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice V Biot

    Full Text Available Burkholderia is a bacterial genus comprising several pathogenic species, including two species highly pathogenic for humans, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. B. thailandensis is a weakly pathogenic species closely related to both B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. It is used as a study model. These bacteria are able to exhibit multiple resistance mechanisms towards various families of antibiotics. By sequentially plating B. thailandensis wild type strains on chloramphenicol we obtained several resistant variants. This chloramphenicol-induced resistance was associated with resistance against structurally unrelated antibiotics including quinolones and tetracyclines. We functionally and proteomically demonstrate that this multidrug resistance phenotype, identified in chloramphenicol-resistant variants, is associated with the overexpression of two different efflux pumps. These efflux pumps are able to expel antibiotics from several families, including chloramphenicol, quinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and some β-lactams, and present a partial susceptibility to efflux pump inhibitors. It is thus possible that Burkholderia species can develop such adaptive resistance mechanisms in response to antibiotic pressure resulting in emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Antibiotics known to easily induce overexpression of these efflux pumps should be used with discernment in the treatment of Burkholderia infections.

  10. Multidrug resistance in Botrytis cinerea associated with decreased accumulation of the azole fungicide oxpoconazole and increased transcription of the ABC transporter gene BcatrD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Sugiura, H.; Waard, De M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Azole-resistant mutants of Botrytis cinerea have a multidrug resistance phenotype since they exhibit cross-resistance to unrelated chemicals. These mutants also display resistance to the new azole fungicide oxpoconazole. Resistance to oxpoconazole is associated with decreased accumulation of the

  11. Chalcone inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus whole cells and enriched everted membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Jes Gitz; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Mølgaard, Per; Olsen, Carl Erik; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2012-07-15

    A library of 117 chalcones was screened for efflux pump inhibitory (EPI) activity against NorA mediated ethidium bromide efflux. Five of the chalcones (5-7, 9, and 10) were active and two chalcones (9 and 10) were equipotent to reserpine with IC(50)-values of 9.0 and 7.7 μM, respectively. Twenty chalcones were subsequently proved to be inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump in everted membrane vesicles. Compounds 5, 7, and 9 synergistically increased the effect of ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that chalcones might be developed into drugs for overcoming multidrug resistance based on efflux transporters of microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Khan, Inshad Ali; Koul, Surrinder

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of novel synthetic analogues of piperine as inhibitors of multidrug efflux pump NorA of Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: A library of piperine-derived compounds was evaluated for their potential to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux in NorA-overexpressing S. aureus SA 1199B...... inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump. These inhibitors acted in a synergistic manner with ciprofloxacin, by substantially increasing its activity against both NorA-overexpressing and wild-type S. aureus isolates. These analogues were 2- to 4-fold more potent than piperine at a significantly lower minimal...... of ciprofloxacin through the inhibition of the NorA efflux pump. These molecules may prove useful in augmenting the antibacterial activities of fluoroquinolones in a clinical setting....

  13. The role of active efflux in antibiotic - resistance of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori

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    Falsafi T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In gram-negative bacteria, active efflux pumps that excrete drugs can confer resistance to antibiotics however, in Helicobacter pylori this role is not well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of active efflux in resistance of H. pylori isolates to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Twelve multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR isolates resistant to at least four antibiotics, including β-lactams, metronidazole, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin; three resistant to only β-lactams, and two hyper-susceptible isolates, were obtained from screening of 96 clinical isolates of H. pylori . Their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for antibiotics and ethidium-bromide (EtBr were compared in the presence- and absence of a proton-conductor, carbonyl cyanide-m chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP using agar-dilution and disc diffusion. Drug accumulation studies for EtBr and antibiotics were assessed in the presence and absence of CCCP using spectrofluorometry. Results: MIC of EtBr for eight MAR-isolates was decreased two- to four-folds in the presence of CCCP, of which five showed reduced MICs for β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin with CCCP. Accumulation of EtBr by the MAR-isolates was rapid and not dependant on the pattern of multiple resistance. Antibiotic accumulation assay confirmed the presence of energy-dependant efflux of β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin, but no erythromycin in five MAR isolates. Energy-dependant efflux of EtBr or antibiotics was not observed for four MAR-isolates, and three isolates were resistant only to β-lactams. Conclusion: Energy-dependant efflux plays a role in the resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates to structurally unrelated antibiotics in a broadly specific multidrug efflux manner. Difference in the efflux potential of MAR isolates may be related to the presence or absence of functional efflux-pumps in diverse H. pylori

  14. Expression of the CDR1 efflux pump in clinical Candida albicans isolates is controlled by a negative regulatory element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Naseem Akhtar; Manoharlal, Raman; Saini, Preeti; Prasad, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Hoefer, Milan; Morschhaeuser, Joachim; Prasad, Rajendra

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to azole antifungal drugs in clinical isolates of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is often caused by constitutive overexpression of the CDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the ABC transporter superfamily. To understand the relevance of a recently identified negative regulatory element (NRE) in the CDR1 promoter for the control of CDR1 expression in the clinical scenario, we investigated the effect of mutation or deletion of the NRE on CDR1 expression in two matched pairs of azole-sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. Expression of GFP or lacZ reporter genes from the wild type CDR1 promoter was much higher in the azole-resistant C. albicans isolates than in the azole-susceptible isolates, reflecting the known differences in CDR1 expression in these strains. Deletion or mutation of the NRE resulted in enhanced reporter gene expression in azole-sensitive strains, but did not further increase the already high CDR1 promoter activity in the azole-resistant strains. In agreement with these findings, electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed a reduced binding to the NRE of nuclear extracts from the resistant C. albicans isolates as compared with extracts from the sensitive isolates. These results demonstrate that the NRE is involved in maintaining CDR1 expression at basal levels and that this repression is overcome in azole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates, resulting in constitutive CDR1 overexpression and concomitant drug resistance

  15. Effect of methylglyoxal on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko eHayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey has a complex chemistry, and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity varies with floral source, climate, and harvesting conditions. Methylglyoxal was identified as the dominant antibacterial component of manuka honey. Although it has been known that methylglyoxal has antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, there is not much information describing its activity against gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report the effect of methylglyoxal against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP using 53 clinically isolated strains. We also assessed the effect of deleting the five multidrug efflux systems in P. aeruginosa, as well as the efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, on MICs of methylglyoxal. Our results indicate that methylglyoxal inhibits the growth of MDRP at concentrations of 128–512 µg/ml (1.7–7.1 mM and is not recognized by drug efflux systems.

  16. The reversal effects of 3-bromopyruvate on multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo derived from human breast MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound.The in vitro and in vivo activity was determined using the MTT assay and human breast cancer xenograft models. The gene and protein expression of P-glycoprotein were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the Western blotting technique, respectively. ABCB-1 bioactivity was tested by fluorescence microscopy, multi-mode microplate reader, and flow cytometry. The intracellular levels of ATP, HK-II, and ATPase activity were based on an assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions.3-Bromopyruvate treatment led to marked decreases in the IC50 values of selected chemotherapeutic drugs [e.g., doxorubicin (283 folds, paclitaxel (85 folds, daunorubicin (201 folds, and epirubicin (171 folds] in MCF-7/ADR cells. 3-Bromopyruvate was found also to potentiate significantly the antitumor activity of epirubicin against MCF-7/ADR xenografts. The intracellular level of ATP decreased 44%, 46% in the presence of 12.5.25 µM 3-Bromopyruvate, whereas the accumulation of rhodamine 123 and epirubicin (two typical P-glycoprotein substrates in cells was significantly increased. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA and the total protein level of P-glycoprotein were slightly altered by 3-Bromopyruvate. Moreover, the ATPase activity was significantly inhibited when 3-Bromopyruvate was applied.We demonstrated that 3-Bromopyruvate can reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux in MCF-7/ADR cells. Multidrug resistance reversal by 3-Bromopyruvate occurred through at least three approaches, namely, a decrease in the

  17. The reversal effects of 3-bromopyruvate on multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo derived from human breast MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Weiqi; Wu, Baojian; Wang, Hao; Liu, Guangquan; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound. The in vitro and in vivo activity was determined using the MTT assay and human breast cancer xenograft models. The gene and protein expression of P-glycoprotein were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the Western blotting technique, respectively. ABCB-1 bioactivity was tested by fluorescence microscopy, multi-mode microplate reader, and flow cytometry. The intracellular levels of ATP, HK-II, and ATPase activity were based on an assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. 3-Bromopyruvate treatment led to marked decreases in the IC50 values of selected chemotherapeutic drugs [e.g., doxorubicin (283 folds), paclitaxel (85 folds), daunorubicin (201 folds), and epirubicin (171 folds)] in MCF-7/ADR cells. 3-Bromopyruvate was found also to potentiate significantly the antitumor activity of epirubicin against MCF-7/ADR xenografts. The intracellular level of ATP decreased 44%, 46% in the presence of 12.5.25 µM 3-Bromopyruvate, whereas the accumulation of rhodamine 123 and epirubicin (two typical P-glycoprotein substrates) in cells was significantly increased. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA and the total protein level of P-glycoprotein were slightly altered by 3-Bromopyruvate. Moreover, the ATPase activity was significantly inhibited when 3-Bromopyruvate was applied. We demonstrated that 3-Bromopyruvate can reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux in MCF-7/ADR cells. Multidrug resistance reversal by 3-Bromopyruvate occurred through at least three approaches, namely, a decrease in the intracellular

  18. A New Natural Product Analog of Blasticidin S Reveals Cellular Uptake Facilitated by the NorA Multidrug Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Jack R; Lohith, Katheryn M; Wang, Xiaoning; Bobyk, Kostyantyn; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara R; Lee, Su-Lin; Cencic, Regina; Nelson, Justin; Simpkins, Scott; Frank, Karen M; Pelletier, Jerry; Myers, Chad L; Piotrowski, Jeff; Smith, Harold E; Bewley, Carole A

    2017-06-01

    The permeation of antibiotics through bacterial membranes to their target site is a crucial determinant of drug activity but in many cases remains poorly understood. During screening efforts to discover new broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds from marine sponge samples, we identified a new analog of the peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic blasticidin S that exhibited up to 16-fold-improved potency against a range of laboratory and clinical bacterial strains which we named P10. Whole-genome sequencing of laboratory-evolved strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to blasticidin S and P10, combined with genome-wide assessment of the fitness of barcoded Escherichia coli knockout strains in the presence of the antibiotics, revealed that restriction of cellular access was a key feature in the development of resistance to this class of drug. In particular, the gene encoding the well-characterized multidrug efflux pump NorA was found to be mutated in 69% of all S. aureus isolates resistant to blasticidin S or P10. Unexpectedly, resistance was associated with inactivation of norA , suggesting that the NorA transporter facilitates cellular entry of peptidyl nucleosides in addition to its known role in the efflux of diverse compounds, including fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Exploring the HME and HAE1 efflux systems in the genus Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasca Maria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Burkholderia includes a variety of species with opportunistic human pathogenic strains, whose increasing global resistance to antibiotics has become a public health problem. In this context a major role could be played by multidrug efflux pumps belonging to Resistance Nodulation Cell-Division (RND family, which allow bacterial cells to extrude a wide range of different substrates, including antibiotics. This study aims to i identify rnd genes in the 21 available completely sequenced Burkholderia genomes, ii analyze their phylogenetic distribution, iii define the putative function(s that RND proteins perform within the Burkholderia genus and iv try tracing the evolutionary history of some of these genes in Burkholderia. Results BLAST analysis of the 21 Burkholderia sequenced genomes, using experimentally characterized ceoB sequence (one of the RND family counterpart in the genus Burkholderia as probe, allowed the assembly of a dataset comprising 254 putative RND proteins. An extensive phylogenetic analysis revealed the occurrence of several independent events of gene loss and duplication across the different lineages of the genus Burkholderia, leading to notable differences in the number of paralogs between different genomes. A putative substrate [antibiotics (HAE1 proteins/heavy-metal (HME proteins] was also assigned to the majority of these proteins. No correlation was found between the ecological niche and the lifestyle of Burkholderia strains and the number/type of efflux pumps they possessed, while a relation can be found with genome size and taxonomy. Remarkably, we observed that only HAE1 proteins are mainly responsible for the different number of proteins observed in strains of the same species. Data concerning both the distribution and the phylogenetic analysis of the HAE1 and HME in the Burkholderia genus allowed depicting a likely evolutionary model accounting for the evolution and spreading of HME and HAE

  20. A Transcriptomic Approach to Identify Novel Drug Efflux Pumps in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Tetu, Sasha G; Paulsen, Ian T; Hassan, Karl A

    2018-01-01

    The core genomes of most bacterial species include a large number of genes encoding putative efflux pumps. The functional roles of most of these pumps are unknown, however, they are often under tight regulatory control and expressed in response to their substrates. Therefore, one way to identify pumps that function in antimicrobial resistance is to examine the transcriptional responses of efflux pump genes to antimicrobial shock. By conducting complete transcriptomic experiments following antimicrobial shock treatments, it may be possible to identify novel drug efflux pumps encoded in bacterial genomes. In this chapter we describe a complete workflow for conducting transcriptomic analyses by RNA sequencing, to determine transcriptional changes in bacteria responding to antimicrobials.

  1. The cellular uptake mechanism, intracellular transportation, and exocytosis of polyamidoamine dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Mengjun; Sun, Yuqi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Guan, Guannan; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Hu, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Polyamidoamine dendrimers, which can deliver drugs and genetic materials to resistant cells, are attracting increased research attention, but their transportation behavior in resistant cells remains unclear. In this paper, we performed a systematic analysis of the cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and efflux of PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR cells) using sensitive breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) as the control. We found that the uptake rate of PAMAM-NH2 was much lower and exocytosis of PAMAM-NH2 was much greater in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells due to the elimination of PAMAM-NH2 from P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein in MCF-7/ADR cells. Macropinocytosis played a more important role in its uptake in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells. PAMAM-NH2 aggregated and became more degraded in the lysosomal vesicles of the MCF-7/ADR cells than in those of the MCF-7 cells. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex were found to participate in the exocytosis rather than endocytosis process of PAMAM-NH2 in both types of cells. Our findings clearly showed the intracellular transportation process of PAMAM-NH2 in MCF-7/ADR cells and provided a guide of using PAMAM-NH2 as a drug and gene vector in resistant cells.

  2. Amurensin G, a potent natural SIRT1 inhibitor, rescues doxorubicin responsiveness via down-regulation of multidrug resistance 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Won Keun; Cho, Kyoung Bin; Hien, Tran Thi

    2010-01-01

    The transition from a chemotherapy-responsive cancer to a chemotherapy-resistant one is accompanied by increased expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1, p-glycoprotein), which plays an important role in the efflux from the target cell of many anticancer agents. We recently showed that a Forkh...

  3. Contribution of AcrAB-ToIC to multidrug resistance in an Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, Sabine; Vavra, Martina; Schweigger, Tobias M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kern, Winfried V.

    Drug efflux by resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type transporters, such as AcrAB-ToIC of Escherichia can, is an important resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria; however, its contribution to multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical isolates is poorly defined. We inactivated acrB of a

  4. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) limits net intestinal uptake of quercetin in rats by facilitating apical efflux of glucuronides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.A.; Arts, I.C.W.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Breedveld, P.; Schellens, J.H.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of the flavonoid quercetin in rats is limited by the secretion of glucuronidated metabolites back into the gut lumen. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the intestinal efflux transporters breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1)/Abcg2 and multidrug

  5. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) limits net intestinal uptake of quercetin in rats by facilitating apical efflux of glucuronides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.; Arts, I.C.; Boer, V.C. de; Breedveld, P.; Schellens, J.H.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of the flavonoid quercetin in rats is limited by the secretion of glucuronidated metabolites back into the gut lumen. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the intestinal efflux transporters breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1)/Abcg2 and multidrug

  6. Association of Allelic Interaction of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Influx and Efflux Transporters Genes With Nonhematologic Adverse Events of Docetaxel in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Rafid Salim; Ho, Gwo Fuang; Annuar, Muhammad Azrif Bin Ahmad; Stanslas, Johnson

    2018-05-04

    Nonhematologic adverse events (AEs) of docetaxel constitute an extra burden in the treatment of cancer patients and necessitate either a dose reduction or an outright switch of docetaxel for other regimens. These AEs are frequently associated with genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding for proteins involved docetaxel disposition. Therefore, we investigated that association in Malaysian breast cancer patients. A total of 110 Malaysian breast cancer patients were enrolled in the present study, and their blood samples were investigated for different single nucleotide polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. AEs were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Fatigue, nausea, oral mucositis, and vomiting were the most common nonhematologic AEs. Rash was associated with heterozygous and mutant genotypes of ABCB1 3435C>T (P A/T reported more fatigue than those carrying the heterozygous genotype GA (P T polymorphism could be a potential predictive biomarker of docetaxel-induced rash, and homozygous wild-type ABCB1 2677G>A/T might predict for a greater risk of fatigue. In addition, the concurrent presence of specific alleles could be predictive of vomiting, nausea, and oral mucositis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of the marA, soxS, acrB and ramA genes related to the AcrAB/TolC efflux pump in Salmonella entérica strains with and without quinolone resistance-determining regions gyrA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Ferrari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility, with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.

  8. Expression of the marA, soxS, acrB and ramA genes related to the AcrAB/TolC efflux pump in Salmonella entérica strains with and without quinolone resistance-determining regions gyrA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Ferrari

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility, with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.

  9. Prognostic significance of multidrug-resistance protein (MDR-1 in renal clear cell carcinomas: A five year follow-up analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazzullo Viviana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of renal cancer patients shows poor or partial response to chemotherapy and the mechanisms have not been still understood. Multi-drug resistance is the principal mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapic drugs. The role of the multi-drug resistant transporter (MDR-1/P-glycoprotein, the gene product of MDR-1, and that one of the so-called multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP, two energy-dependent efflux pumps, are commonly known to confer drug resistance. We studied MDR-1 expression in selected cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, clear cell type, with long-term follow-up, in order to establish its prognostic role and its possible contribution in the choice of post-surgical therapy. Methods MDR-1 has been studied by standard LSAB-HRP immunohistochemical technique, in paraffin embedded RCC samples. Protein expression has been compared to clinical and histopathological data and to disease specific survival of RCC patients, by Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses. Results Two groups of RCCs were obtained by esteeming MDR-1 expression and disease specific survival (obtained with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses: the first one presents low or absent MDR-1 expression and good survival; the second one is characterized by high MDR-1 expression and significant poor outcome (p p p p Conclusion In our opinion, the results of this study well prove the relationship between MDR-1 expression and worse clinical prognosis in RCC, because MDR-1 over-expressing RCCs can be considered a group of tumours with a more aggressive behavior. This finding outlines a possible role of MDR-1 as prognostic factor, dependent and independent of multidrug resistance. These results could be useful to predict cancer evolution and to choose the appropriate treatment: this is another step that can stimulate further promising and interesting investigations on broader

  10. A Novel TetR-Like Transcriptional Regulator Is Induced in Acid-Nitrosative Stress and Controls Expression of an Efflux Pump in Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Perrone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive inside macrophages under acid-nitrosative stress. M. tuberculosis Rv1685c and its ortholog in M. smegmatis, MSMEG_3765, are induced on exposure to acid-nitrosative stress. Both genes are annotated as TetR transcriptional regulators, a family of proteins that regulate a wide range of cellular activities, including multidrug resistance, carbon catabolism and virulence. Here, we demonstrate that MSMEG_3765 is co-transcribed with the upstream genes MSMEG_3762 and MSMEG_3763, encoding efflux pump components. RTq-PCR and GFP-reporter assays showed that the MSMEG_3762/63/65 gene cluster, and the orthologous region in M. tuberculosis (Rv1687c/86c/85c, was up-regulated in a MSMEG_3765 null mutant, suggesting that MSMEG_3765 acts as a repressor, typical of this family of regulators. We further defined the MSMEG_3765 regulon using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and used reporter assays to confirm that the MSMEG_3762/63/65 promoter was induced under acid-nitrosative stress. A putative 36 bp regulatory motif was identified upstream of the gene clusters in both M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis and purified recombinant MSMEG_3765 protein was found to bind to DNA fragments containing this motif from both M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis upstream regulatory regions. These results suggest that the TetR repressor MSMEG_3765/Rv1685c controls expression of an efflux pump with an, as yet, undefined role in the mycobacterial response to acid-nitrosative stress.

  11. The effects of clobazam treatment in rats on the expression of genes and proteins encoding glucronosyltransferase 1A/2B (UGT1A/2B) and multidrug resistance‐associated protein-2 (MRP2), and development of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Izuru, E-mail: izuru-miyawaki@ds-pharma.co.jp; Tamura, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Izumi; Inada, Hiroshi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2012-12-15

    Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes (UGT1A and UGT2B) and efflux transporter (multidrug resistance–associated protein-2; MRP2) in the CLB-induced acceleration of T4-clearance using two mutant rat strains, UGT1A-deficient mutant (Gunn) and MRP2-deficient mutant (EHBR) rats, especially focusing on thyroid morphology, levels of circulating hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and mRNA or protein expressions of UGTs (Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt2b1/2) and MRP2 (Mrp). CLB induced thyroid morphological changes with increases in TSH in SD and Gunn rats, but not in EHBR rats. T4 was slightly decreased in SD and Gunn rats, and T3 was decreased in Gunn rats, whereas these hormones were maintained in EHBR rats. Hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt2b1/2, and Mrp2 mRNAs were upregulated in SD rats. In Gunn rats, UGT1A mRNAs (Ugt1a1/6) and protein levels were quite low, but UGT2B mRNAs (Ugt2b1/2) and protein were prominently upregulated. In SD and Gunn rats, MRP2 mRNA and protein were upregulated to the same degree. These results suggest that MRP2 is an important contributor in development of the thyroid cellular hypertrophy in CLB-treated rats, and that UGT1A and UGT2B work in concert with MRP2 in the presence of MRP2 function to enable the effective elimination of thyroid hormones. -- Highlights: ► Role of UGT and MRP2 in thyroid pathology was investigated in clobazam-treated rats. ► Clobazam induced thyroid cellular hypertrophy in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Hepatic Mrp2 gene and protein were upregulated in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Neither serum thyroid hormones (T3/T4

  12. The effects of clobazam treatment in rats on the expression of genes and proteins encoding glucronosyltransferase 1A/2B (UGT1A/2B) and multidrug resistance‐associated protein-2 (MRP2), and development of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Izuru; Tamura, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Izumi; Inada, Hiroshi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes (UGT1A and UGT2B) and efflux transporter (multidrug resistance–associated protein-2; MRP2) in the CLB-induced acceleration of T4-clearance using two mutant rat strains, UGT1A-deficient mutant (Gunn) and MRP2-deficient mutant (EHBR) rats, especially focusing on thyroid morphology, levels of circulating hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and mRNA or protein expressions of UGTs (Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt2b1/2) and MRP2 (Mrp). CLB induced thyroid morphological changes with increases in TSH in SD and Gunn rats, but not in EHBR rats. T4 was slightly decreased in SD and Gunn rats, and T3 was decreased in Gunn rats, whereas these hormones were maintained in EHBR rats. Hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt2b1/2, and Mrp2 mRNAs were upregulated in SD rats. In Gunn rats, UGT1A mRNAs (Ugt1a1/6) and protein levels were quite low, but UGT2B mRNAs (Ugt2b1/2) and protein were prominently upregulated. In SD and Gunn rats, MRP2 mRNA and protein were upregulated to the same degree. These results suggest that MRP2 is an important contributor in development of the thyroid cellular hypertrophy in CLB-treated rats, and that UGT1A and UGT2B work in concert with MRP2 in the presence of MRP2 function to enable the effective elimination of thyroid hormones. -- Highlights: ► Role of UGT and MRP2 in thyroid pathology was investigated in clobazam-treated rats. ► Clobazam induced thyroid cellular hypertrophy in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Hepatic Mrp2 gene and protein were upregulated in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Neither serum thyroid hormones (T3/T4

  13. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  14. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.

  15. Architecture and roles of periplasmic adaptor proteins in tripartite efflux assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliy N. Bavro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen major advances in the structural understanding of the different components of tripartite efflux assemblies, which encompass the multidrug efflux (MDR pumps and type I secretion systems. The majority of these investigations have focused on the role played by the inner membrane transporters and the outer membrane factor (OMF, leaving the third component of the system – the Periplasmic Adaptor Proteins (PAPs - relatively understudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge of these versatile proteins which, far from being passive linkers between the OMF and the transporter, emerge as active architects of tripartite assemblies, and play diverse roles in the transport process. Recognition between the PAPs and OMFs is essential for pump assembly and function, and targeting this interaction may provide a novel avenue for combating multidrug resistance. With the recent advances elucidating the drug-efflux and energetics of the tripartite assemblies, the understanding of the interaction between the OMFs and PAPs is the last piece remaining in the complete structure of the tripartite pump assembly puzzle.

  16. Identification and characterization of the multidrug resistance gene cfr in a Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive sequence type 8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus IVa (USA300) isolate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2010-12-01

    The staphylococcal cfr gene mediates resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins, and streptogramin A, a phenotype that has been termed PhLOPS(A). The cfr gene has mainly been associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from animals, and only a few cfr-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates have been described so far. This study reports the first description of a cfr-positive MRSA isolate (M05\\/0060) belonging to the pandemic Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type 8 MRSA IVa\\/USA300 (ST8-MRSA-IVa\\/USA300) clone. The cfr gene was detected in M05\\/0060 using a DNA microarray which was used to screen PVL-positive MRSA isolates for the presence of virulence genes, typing markers, and antimicrobial resistance genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that M05\\/0060 exhibited the cfr-associated resistance phenotype. Molecular analysis identified the presence of cfr and a second phenicol resistance gene, fexA, on a novel 45-kb conjugative plasmid, which was designated pSCFS7. Within pSCFS7, a DNA segment consisting of cfr, a truncated copy of insertion sequence IS21-558, and a region with homology to the DNA invertase gene bin3 of transposon Tn552 from Bacillus mycoides was integrated into the transposase gene tnpB of the fexA-carrying transposon Tn558. The emergence of a multidrug-resistant cfr-positive variant of ST8-MRSA-IVa\\/USA300 is alarming and requires ongoing surveillance. Moreover, the identification of a novel conjugative plasmid carrying the cfr gene indicates the ability of cfr to spread to other MRSA strains.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Efflux drug transporters at the forefront of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahmina; Yarnall, Benjamin; Doyle, Declan A

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is rapidly becoming a major world health consideration. To combat antibiotics, microorganisms employ their pre-existing defence mechanisms that existed long before man's discovery of antibiotics. Bacteria utilise levels of protection that range from gene upregulation, mutations, adaptive resistance, and production of resistant phenotypes (persisters) to communal behaviour, as in swarming and the ultimate defence of a biofilm. A major part of all of these responses involves the use of antibiotic efflux transporters. At the single cell level, it is becoming apparent that the use of efflux pumps is the first line of defence against an antibiotic, as these pumps decrease the intracellular level of antibiotic while the cell activates the various other levels of protection. This frontline of defence involves a coordinated network of efflux transporters. In the future, inhibition of this efflux transporter network, as a target for novel antibiotic therapy, will require the isolation and then biochemical/biophysical characterisation of each pump against all known and new antibiotics. This depth of knowledge is required so that we can fully understand and tackle the mechanisms of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  19. Role of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux pumps and class 1 integrons in resistance to antibiotics in burn and Intensive Care Unit isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Hamid Reza; Nahaei, Mohammad Reza; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Hasani, Alka; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Nikbakht, Mojtaba; Khalili, Younes

    2017-10-06

    The overexpression of efflux pumps and existence of class 1 integrons are the most important mechanisms that contribute to antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa especially in burn and Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The present study evaluated the role of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux pumps and class 1 integrons in resistance to antibiotics in burn and ICU isolates of P. aeruginosa. Fifteen burn and forty-two ICU isolates were obtained from four hospitals in Northwest Iran. The isolates were identified and evaluated by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods for determining antibiotic resistances. The presence of class 1 integrons and associated resistance gene cassettes were detected by PCR and sequencing of the products. The expression levels of efflux pumps were evaluated by phenotypic and genotypic (Quantitative Real-time PCR) methods. The isolates were genotyped by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Typing (RAPD-PCR). All burn isolates were integron positive and Multi-drug resistant (MDR), while 78.5% and 69% of ICU isolates were found as MDR and integron positive, respectively. The aadB gene was the most prevalent gene cassette (63.6%) followed by aacA4 (47.7%). Thirty-nine (68.4%) and 43 (75.4%) isolates exhibited an overexpression of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM. Among burn isolates, 80% and 86.6% of them were mexB and mexY overexpressed, while 64.2% and 71.4% of ICU isolates exhibited mexB and mexY overexpression, correspondingly. The isolates were genotyped as 24 different RAPD profiles and were grouped into 15 clusters. The data suggested that class 1 integron had a more significant role than efflux pumps in resistance to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides in burn and ICUs except for gentamicin in burn isolates. Based on our data, it is possible that efflux pumps were not the main cause of high-level resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The expression and significance of multi-drug resistance genes in breast cancer stem cells%乳腺癌干细胞多药耐药基因的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Li; Chunping Liu; Yanli He; Jinghui Zhang; Tao Huang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To approach the expressions of MDR1 and BCRP in breast cancer stem cells and differentiated cells.Methods:The breast cancer stem calls were separated from human breast cancer primary tissues and MCF-7 by flow cytometry.Then we measured the expressions of MDR1 and BCRP with different subset cells by Realtime-PCR.Results:Contrasted with breast cancer differentiated cells,the expressions of MDR1 and BCRP in breast cancer stem calls were higher (P<0.01),and the proportion of stem cells rose after chemotherapy (P<0.01).Conclusion:Contrasted with breast cancer differentiated cells,breast cancer stem cells have stronger ability of clrug-resistanca with higher level of multi-drug resistance genes,and it is one of key points for chemotherapy failure of breast cancer.

  1. The multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphism G-rs3789243-A is not associated with disease susceptibility in Norwegian patients with colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer; a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Agerstjerne, L.; Jensen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Smoking, dietary factors, and alcohol consumption are known life style factors contributing to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in carcinogen handling may affect cancer risk. The multidrug resistance 1(MDR1/ABCB1) gene encodes the transport protein P-glycoprotein (a...... in inflammation, and may thereby affect the risk of malignity. Hence, genetic variations that modify the function of P-glycoprotein may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have previously found an association between the MDR1 intron 3 G-rs3789243-A polymorphism and the risk of CRC...... of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas in the Norwegian population was assessed in 167 carcinomas, 990 adenomas, and 400 controls. Genotypes were determined by allelic discrimination. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. Results: No association...

  2. Enhanced Efflux Pump Activity in Old Candida glabrata Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effect of replicative aging on antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata Our studies demonstrate significantly increased transcription of ABC transporters and efflux pump activity in old versus young C. glabrata cells of a fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strain. In addition, higher tolerance to killing by micafungin and amphotericin B was noted and is associated with higher transcription of glucan synthase gene FKS1 and lower ergosterol content in older cells. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria.

  4. Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.

    OpenAIRE

    Klyachko, K A; Schuldiner, S; Neyfakh, A A

    1997-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr, a member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters, causes the efflux of a number of structurally unrelated toxic compounds from cells. We have shown previously that the activity of Bmr can be inhibited by the plant alkaloid reserpine. Here we demonstrate that various substitutions of residues Phe143 and Phe306 of Bmr not only reduce its sensitivity to reserpine inhibition but also significantly change its substrate specificity. Cros...

  5. Regulation of Multidrug Resistance Proteins by Genistein in a Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line: Impact on Sorafenib Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ciriaci, Nadia; Arias, Agostina; Ceballos, Mar?a Paula; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris; Luquita, Marcelo Gabriel; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; Ghanem, Carolina In?s; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Ruiz, Mar?a Laura

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide. Sorafenib is the only drug available that improves the overall survival of HCC patients. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 and 3) and Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are efflux pumps that play a key role in cancer chemoresistance. Their modulation by dietary compounds may affect the intracellular accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of drugs that are substrates of t...

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  7. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  8. Efflux pump induction by quaternary ammonium compounds and fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet-Bataillon, Sylvie; Tattevin, Pierre; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). To date, little attention has been paid to potential implications of QAC use in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in patients and in the environment. QAC-induced overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to: cross resistance with fluoroquinolones mediated by multidrug efflux pumps; stress response facilitating mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region; and biofilm formation increasing the risk of transfer of mobile genetic elements carrying fluoroquinolone or QAC resistance determinants. By following the European Biocidal Product Regulation, manufacturers of QAC are required to ensure that their QAC-based biocidal products are safe and will not contribute to emerging bacterial resistance.

  9. Effect of ABCG2/BCRP Expression on Efflux and Uptake of Gefitinib in NSCLC Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricla Galetti

    Full Text Available BCRP/ABCG2 emerged as an important multidrug resistance protein, because it confers resistance to several classes of cancer chemotherapeutic agents and to a number of novel molecularly-targeted therapeutics such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gefitinib is an orally active, selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC carrying activating EGFR mutations. Membrane transporters may affect the distribution and accumulation of gefitinib in tumour cells; in particular a reduced intracellular level of the drug may result from poor uptake, enhanced efflux or increased metabolism.The present study, performed in a panel of NSCLC cell lines expressing different ABCG2 plasma membrane levels, was designed to investigate the effect of the efflux transporter ABCG2 on intracellular gefitinib accumulation, by dissecting the contribution of uptake and efflux processes.Our findings indicate that gefitinib, in lung cancer cells, inhibits ABCG2 activity, as previously reported. In addition, we suggest that ABCG2 silencing or overexpression affects intracellular gefitinib content by modulating the uptake rather than the efflux. Similarly, overexpression of ABCG2 affected the expression of a number of drug transporters, altering the functional activities of nutrient and drug transport systems, in particular inhibiting MPP, glucose and glutamine uptake.Therefore, we conclude that gefitinib is an inhibitor but not a substrate for ABCG2 and that ABCG2 overexpression may modulate the expression and activity of other transporters involved in the uptake of different substrates into the cells.

  10. Synthesis of Nanodiamond-Daunorubicin Conjugates to Overcome Multidrug Chemoresistance in Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Han B.; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Ho-Joong; Robinson, Erik; Liu, Wing Kam; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Ho, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising candidates in nanomedicine, demonstrating significant potential as gene/drug delivery platforms for cancer therapy. We have synthesized ND vectors capable of chemotherapeutic loading and delivery with applications towards chemoresistant leukemia. The loading of Daunorubicin (DNR) onto NDs was optimized by adjusting reaction parameters such as acidity and concentration. The resulting conjugate, a novel therapeutic payload for NDs, was characterized extensively for size, surface charge, and loading efficiency. A K562 human myelogenous leukemia cell line, with multidrug resistance conferred by incremental DNR exposure, was used to demonstrate the efficacy enhancement resulting from ND-based delivery. While resistant K562 cells were able to overcome treatment from DNR alone, as compared with non-resistant K562 cells, NDs were able to improve DNR delivery into resistant K562 cells. By overcoming efflux mechanisms present in this resistant leukemia line, ND-enabled therapeutics have demonstrated the potential to improve cancer treatment efficacy, especially towards resistant strains. PMID:23916889

  11. Differential gene expression by RamA in ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    Full Text Available Overexpression of ramA has been implicated in resistance to multiple drugs in several enterobacterial pathogens. In the present study, Salmonella Typhimurium strain LTL with constitutive expression of ramA was compared to its ramA-deletion mutant by employing both DNA microarrays and phenotype microarrays (PM. The mutant strain with the disruption of ramA showed differential expression of at least 33 genes involved in 11 functional groups. The study confirmed at the transcriptional level that the constitutive expression of ramA was directly associated with increased expression of multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC and decreased expression of porin protein OmpF, thereby conferring multiple drug resistance phenotype. Compared to the parent strain constitutively expressing ramA, the ramA mutant had increased susceptibility to over 70 antimicrobials and toxic compounds. The PM analysis also uncovered that the ramA mutant was better in utilization of 10 carbon sources and 5 phosphorus sources. This study suggested that the constitutive expression of ramA locus regulate not only multidrug efflux pump and accessory genes but also genes involved in carbon metabolic pathways.

  12. Functions of some capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH K-2044.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yuan Ho

    Full Text Available The growing number of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, commonly acquired in hospitals, has drawn great concern. It has been shown that the K1 and K2 capsular serotypes are the most detrimental strains, particularly to those with diabetes. The K1 cps (capsular polysaccharide locus in the NTUH-2044 strain of the pyogenic liver abscess (PLA K. pneumoniae has been identified recently, but little is known about the functions of the genes therein. Here we report characterization of a group of cps genes and their roles in the pathogenesis of K1 K. pneumoniae. By sequential gene deletion, the cps gene cluster was first re-delimited between genes galF and ugd, which serve as up- and down-stream ends, respectively. Eight gene products were characterized in vitro and in vivo to be involved in the syntheses of UDP-glucose, UDP-glucuronic acid and GDP-fucose building units. Twelve genes were identified as virulence factors based on the observation that their deletion mutants became avirulent or lost K1 antigenicity. Furthermore, deletion of kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 (ΔwcaI, ΔwcaG or Δatf, respectively, which are all involved in fucose biosynthesis, led to a broad range of transcriptional suppression for 52 upstream genes. The genes suppressed include those coding for unknown regulatory membrane proteins and six multidrug efflux system proteins, as well as proteins required for the K1 CPS biosynthesis. In support of the suppression of multidrug efflux genes, we showed that these three mutants became more sensitive to antibiotics. Taken together, the results suggest that kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 genes are strongly related to the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae K1.

  13. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  14. Functional analysis of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein related multidrug resistance in AML-blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, D; Herbart, H; Gekeler, V; Seitz, G; Liu, C; Klingebiel, T; Orlikowsky, T; Einsele, H; Denzlinger, C; Bader, P; Niethammer, D; Beck, J F

    1999-05-01

    Despite the high effectiveness of various P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulating substances in vitro their clinical value e.g. for combination treatment of acute myelogenous leukemias (AML) remains still unclear. This might be explainable by recent findings that other factors than P-gp (e.g. the multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP)) may also be involved in clinical occurring drug resistance. To study P-gp and MRP mediated MDR in AML blasts from patients with relapses at the functional level we measured rhodamine 123 (RHO) efflux in combination with a P-gp specific (SDZ PSC 833) or a MRP specific (MK571) modulator, respectively. Furthermore, direct antineoplastic drug action was monitored by determination of damaged cell fraction of a blast population using flow cytometry. We generally found strongly modulated RHO efflux by SDZ PSC 833 but slight RHO-efflux modulation by MK571 in blasts from relapsed states of AML expressing MDR1 or MRP mRNA at various levels. We could not demonstrate, though, significant PSC 833 or MK571 mediated modulation of the cytotoxic effects of etoposide. The results point to the possibility that combination of etoposide and a modulator might not improve responses to chemotherapy by targeting P-gp or MRP exclusively.

  15. Study of the role of efflux pump in ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are increasing reports on failure of clinical response to ciprofloxacin in typhoid fever despite the strain being sensitive to drug in in-vitro using standard guidelines and showing mutations in DNA gyrase. But this increased MIC and clinical failures with ciprofloxacin are not always co-related with mutations presently identified in gyrA and parC genes. This shows that there may be other mechanisms such as an active drug efflux pump responsible as has been shown in other Enterobacteriaceae. This study was carried out to determine the role of efflux pump in Salmonella Typhi isolates. Materials and Methods : Total 25 already characterized nalidixic acid sensitive and nalidixic acid resistant S. Typhi strains with different range of ciprofloxacin MIC were included to study the role of efflux pump in the presence of CCCP (efflux pump inhibitor. For genotypic characterization, the entire acrR gene was sequenced to confirm the presence of any mutation in the gene. Results: The MIC of ciprofloxacin remained same in the presence and absence of CCCP in the studied strains and no significant mutations were found in the acrR gene in any of the isolates studied. Conclusions: No role of efflux pump in ciprofloxacin resistance was found in strains studied. There is a need to explore further mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella Typhi.

  16. Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Khan, Inshad Ali; Koul, Surrinder; Koul, Jawahir Lal; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Ali, Intzar; Ali, Furqan; Sharma, Sandeep; Mirza, Zahid Mehmood; Kumar, Manoj; Sangwan, Pyare Lal; Gupta, Pankaj; Thota, Niranjan; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2008-06-01

    Evaluation of novel synthetic analogues of piperine as inhibitors of multidrug efflux pump NorA of Staphylococcus aureus. A library of piperine-derived compounds was evaluated for their potential to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux in NorA-overexpressing S. aureus SA 1199B. The active compounds were then individually combined with ciprofloxacin to study the potentiation of ciprofloxacin's activity. Based on the efflux inhibition assay, a library of 200 compounds was screened. Three piperine analogues, namely SK-20, SK-56 and SK-29, were found to be the most potent inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump. These inhibitors acted in a synergistic manner with ciprofloxacin, by substantially increasing its activity against both NorA-overexpressing and wild-type S. aureus isolates. These analogues were 2- to 4-fold more potent than piperine at a significantly lower minimal effective concentration. Furthermore, these inhibitors also significantly suppressed the in vitro emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus. A newly identified class of compounds derived from a natural amide, piperine, is more potent than the parent molecule in potentiating the activity of ciprofloxacin through the inhibition of the NorA efflux pump. These molecules may prove useful in augmenting the antibacterial activities of fluoroquinolones in a clinical setting.

  17. Tannic acid affects the phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin by inhibition of efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Pereira, Pedro S; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Leal-Balbino, Teresa C; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2017-10-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics created selective pressure for the emergence of strains that would persist despite antibiotic toxicity. The bacterial resistance mechanisms are several, with efflux pumps being one of the main ones. These pumps are membrane proteins with the function of removing antibiotics from the cell cytoplasm. Due to this importance, the aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of tannic acid against efflux pumps expressed by the Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and IS-58 strains. The efflux pump inhibition was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of efflux pump standard inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), observing their capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due the possible inhibitory effect of these substances. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly different in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this product against efflux pumps of both strains. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid asan inhibitor and an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama eSzmolka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of E. coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these bad genes in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  19. In vitro activity of rifampicin alone and in combination with imipenem against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii harboring the blaOXA-72 resistance gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Piotr; Ojdana, Dominika; Sacha, Paweł Tomasz; Wieczorek, Anna; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta Anna

    2014-04-01

    The growing incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in bacteria is an emerging challenge in the treatment of infections. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen prone to exhibit MDR that contributes significantly to nosocomial infections, particularly in severely ill patients. Thus, we performed research on rifampicin activity against selected MDR OXA-72 carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii strains. Since it is widely accepted that rifampicin should not be used as monotherapy in order to avoid the rapid development of rifampicin resistance, we evaluated the efficacy of combination therapy with imipenem. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both rifampicin and imipenem were determined by use of the broth microdilution method. Evaluations of the interactions between rifampicin and imipenem were performed by analysis of the fractional inhibitory concentration index (∑FIC), determined using the checkerboard titration method. All tested isolates showed full susceptibility to rifampicin. The checkerboard method revealed synergism in 5 isolates (29%) and an additive effect in another 5 isolates (29%); no difference was reported in the remaining 7 isolates (41%). Strains moderately resistant to imipenem (MIC ≤ 64 mg/l) tended to show synergy or additive interaction. We conclude that in vitro synergism or an additive interaction between rifampicin and imipenem most likely occurs in A. baumannii strains showing moderate resistance to imipenem (MIC ≤ 64 mg/l). Moreover, utilizing this combination in the therapy of infections caused by strains exhibiting higher levels of resistance (MIC > 64 mg/l) is not recommended since in this setting imipenem could not prevent the development of rifampicin resistance.

  20. The Widespread Multidrug-Resistant Serotype O12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clone Emerged through Concomitant Horizontal Transfer of Serotype Antigen and Antibiotic Resistance Gene Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Taylor, Véronique L.; Freschi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    . aeruginosa O12 OSA gene cluster, an antibiotic resistance determinant (gyrAC248T), and other genes that have been transferred between P. aeruginosa strains with distinct core genome architectures. We showed that these genes were likely acquired from an O12 serotype strain that is closely related to P...... in clinical settings and outbreaks. These serotype O12 isolates exhibit high levels of resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Here, we explore how the P. aeruginosa OSA biosynthesis gene clusters evolve in the population by investigating the association between the phylogenetic relationships among 83 P....... aeruginosa strains and their serotypes. While most serotypes were closely linked to the core genome phylogeny, we observed horizontal exchange of OSA biosynthesis genes among phylogenetically distinct P. aeruginosa strains. Specifically, we identified a "serotype island" ranging from 62 kb to 185 kb containing the P...

  1. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots. I. Efflux in water culture under various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H; Kojima, S [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1977-09-01

    The efflux of elements from the roots of hydropomically grown young barley plants was studied. The effects of different mutrient compositions and pH values of the solutions was also studied using /sup 22/Na and /sup 45/Ca as the indexes. In all culture conditions, there was efflux of both elements. In two media with dilute hydrochloric acid and AlCl/sub 3/, respectively, the tendencies of Na and Ca efflux were similar in both media at first, but after 72 hr, the Na efflux in AlCl/sub 3/ decreased and that in dilute hydrochloric acid medium increased. The Ca efflux was high in AlCl/sub 3/ medium,however. The efflux of both Na and Ca was higher in the standard medium than in the media with some bases of high concentrations.

  2. Drug transport mechanism of the AcrB efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Klaas M

    2009-05-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tripartite multidrug efflux systems extrude cytotoxic substances from the cell directly into the medium bypassing periplasm and the outer membrane. In E. coli, the tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the pump that extrudes multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB, a member of the Resistance Nodulation cell Division (RND) family, is the major site for substrate recognition and energy transduction of the entire tripartite system. The drug/proton antiport processes in this secondary transporter are suggested to be spatially separated, a feature frequently observed for primary transporters like membrane-bound ATPases. The recently elucidated asymmetric structure of the AcrB trimer reveals three different monomer conformations proposed to represent consecutive states in a directional transport cycle. Each monomer shows a distinct tunnel system with entrances located at the boundary of the outer leaflet of the inner membrane and the periplasm through the periplasmic porter (pore) domain towards the funnel of the trimer and TolC. In one monomer a hydrophobic pocket is present which has been shown to bind the AcrB substrates minocyclin and doxorubicin. The energy conversion from the proton motive force into drug efflux includes proton binding in (and release from) the transmembrane part. The conformational changes observed within a triad of essential, titratable residues (D407/D408/K940) residing in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain appear to be transduced by transmembrane helix 8 and associated with the conformational changes seen in the periplasmic domain. From the asymmetric structure a possible peristaltic pump transport mechanism based on a functional rotation of the AcrB trimer has been postulated. The novel drug transport model combines the alternate access pump mechanism with the rotating site catalysis of F(1)F(o) ATPase as

  3. Co-occurrence of colistin-resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-3 among multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, Spain, September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marta; Iglesias, M Rocío; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Gallardo, Alejandro; Quijada, Narciso; Miguela-Villoldo, Pedro; Campos, Maria Jorge; Píriz, Segundo; López-Orozco, Gema; de Frutos, Cristina; Sáez, José Luis; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto

    2017-08-03

    Colistin resistance genes mcr-3 and mcr-1 have been detected in an Escherichia coli isolate from cattle faeces in a Spanish slaughterhouse in 2015. The sequences of both genes hybridised to same plasmid band of ca 250 kb, although colistin resistance was non-mobilisable. The isolate was producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and belonged to serotype O9:H10 and sequence type ST533. Here we report an mcr-3 gene detected in Europe following earlier reports from Asia and the United States. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  4. Selection of Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance Gene 1 Alleles in Asexual Stages and Gametocytes by Artemether-Lumefantrine in Nigerian Children with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Happi, C. T.; Gbotosho, G. O.; Folarin, O. A.; Sowunmi, A.; Hudson, T.; O'Neil, M.; Milhous, W.; Wirth, D. F.; Oduola, A. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 (Pfmdr1) gene polymorphisms and copy numbers as well as P. falciparum Ca2+ ATPase (PfATPase6) gene polymorphisms in 90 Nigerian children presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and enrolled in a study of the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). The nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the quantitative real-time PCR methodologies were used to determine the alleles of the Pfmdr1 and PfATPase6 genes and the Pfmdr1 copy numbe...

  5. Efflux Pump‑Mediated Resistance in Chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to elucidate their structure and mechanisms of action so as to integrate the efflux pump mechanisms in the ... resistance. c. Alteration of the penicillin binding protein (PBP) in ..... Perloff MD, von Moltke LL, Fahey JM, Daily JP, Greenblat. DJ.

  6. Multidrug resistance in amoebiasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Devendra; Sehgal, Rakesh; Chawla, Yogesh; Malla, Nancy; Mahajan, R C

    2006-08-01

    Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba sp. a protozoan parasite, is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. The symptomatic patients are treated by specific chemotherapy. However, there are reports of treatment failure in some cases suggesting the possibility of drug resistance. The present study was therefore planned to assess the presence and expression of mRNA of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene in clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. Forty five clinical isolates of Entamoeba sp. [E. histolytica (15) and E. dispar (30)] were maintained in polyxenic followed by monoxenic medium. DNA and total RNA were extracted from clinical isolates of Entamoeba sp. and from sensitive strain of E. histolytica (HM1: IMSS) and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR techniques. The 344 bp segment of E. histolytica DNA was seen by PCR using primers specific to EhPgp1 in all clinical isolates and sensitive strain of E. histolytica. Over expression of EhPgp1 was observed only in resistant mutant of E. histolytica; however, transcription of EhPgp1 was not seen in any clinical isolates and sensitive strain of E. histolytica. The findings of the present study indicate that, so far, drug resistance in clinical isolates of E. histolytica does not seem to be a major problem in this country. However, susceptibility of clinical isolates of E. histolytica against various antiamoebic drugs needs to be investigated for better management.

  7. Evaluation of 11C-Acetate and 18 F-FDG PET/CT in mouse multidrug resistance gene-2 deficient mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Territo, Paul R.; Maluccio, Mary; Riley, Amanda A.; McCarthy, Brian P.; Fletcher, James; Tann, Mark; Saxena, Romil; Skill, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a global health problem with unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, including difficulties in identifying the highest risk patients. Previous work from our lab has established the murine multidrug resistance-2 mouse (MDR2) model of HCC as a reasonable preclinical model that parallels the changes seen in human inflammatory associated HCC. The purpose of this study is to evaluate modalities of PET/CT in MDR2 −/− mice in order to facilitate therapeutic translational studies from bench to bedside. 18 F-FDG and 11 C-acetate PET/CT was performed on 12 m MDR2 −/− mice (n = 3/tracer) with HCC and 12 m MDR2 −/+ control mice (n = 3/tracer) without HCC. To compare PET/CT to biological markers of HCC and cellular function, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), cAMP and hepatic tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were quantified in 3-12 m MDR2 −/− (n = 10) mice using commercially available ELISA analysis. To translate results in mice to patients 11 C-acetate PET/CT was also performed in 8 patents suspected of HCC recurrence following treatment and currently on the liver transplant wait list. Hepatic 18 F-FDG metabolism was not significantly increased in MDR2 −/− mice. In contrast, hepatic 11 C-acetate metabolism was significantly elevated in MDR2 −/− mice when compared to MDR2 −/+ controls. Serum AFP and LPA levels increased in MDR2 −/− mice contemporaneous with the emergence of HCC. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in serum cAMP levels and an increase in hepatic TNFα. In patients suspected of HCC recurrence there were 5 true positives, 2 true negatives and 1 suspected false 11 C-acetate negative. Hepatic 11 C-acetate PET/CT tracks well with HCC in MDR2 −/− mice and patients with underlying liver disease. Consequently 11 C-acetate PET/CT is well suited to study 1) HCC emergence/progression in patients and 2) reduce animal numbers required to study new

  8. Energetics of sodium efflux from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbolla, M.G.; Rosen, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    When energy-starved cells of Escherichia coli were passively loaded with 22 Na+, efflux of sodium could be initiated by addition of a source of metabolic energy. Conditions were established where the source of energy was phosphate bond energy, an electrochemical proton gradient, or both. Only an electrochemical proton gradient was required for efflux from intact cells. These results are consistent with secondary exchange of Na+ for H+ catalyzed by a sodium/proton antiporter

  9. Selection of Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance Gene 1 Alleles in Asexual Stages and Gametocytes by Artemether-Lumefantrine in Nigerian Children with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi, C. T.; Gbotosho, G. O.; Folarin, O. A.; Sowunmi, A.; Hudson, T.; O'Neil, M.; Milhous, W.; Wirth, D. F.; Oduola, A. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 (Pfmdr1) gene polymorphisms and copy numbers as well as P. falciparum Ca2+ ATPase (PfATPase6) gene polymorphisms in 90 Nigerian children presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and enrolled in a study of the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). The nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the quantitative real-time PCR methodologies were used to determine the alleles of the Pfmdr1 and PfATPase6 genes and the Pfmdr1 copy number variation, respectively, in patients samples collected prior to treatment and at the reoccurrence of parasites during a 42-day follow-up. The Pfmdr1 haplotype 86N-184F-1246D was significantly associated (P copy of the Pfmdr1 gene and the wild-type allele (L89) at codon 89 of the PfATPase6 gene. These findings suggest that polymorphisms in the Pfmdr1 gene are under AL selection pressure. Pfmdr1 polymorphisms may result in reduction in the therapeutic efficacy of this newly adopted combination treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Saharan countries of Africa. PMID:19075074

  10. Selection of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 alleles in asexual stages and gametocytes by artemether-lumefantrine in Nigerian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi, C T; Gbotosho, G O; Folarin, O A; Sowunmi, A; Hudson, T; O'Neil, M; Milhous, W; Wirth, D F; Oduola, A M J

    2009-03-01

    We assessed Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 (Pfmdr1) gene polymorphisms and copy numbers as well as P. falciparum Ca(2+) ATPase (PfATPase6) gene polymorphisms in 90 Nigerian children presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and enrolled in a study of the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). The nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the quantitative real-time PCR methodologies were used to determine the alleles of the Pfmdr1 and PfATPase6 genes and the Pfmdr1 copy number variation, respectively, in patients samples collected prior to treatment and at the reoccurrence of parasites during a 42-day follow-up. The Pfmdr1 haplotype 86N-184F-1246D was significantly associated (P copy of the Pfmdr1 gene and the wild-type allele (L89) at codon 89 of the PfATPase6 gene. These findings suggest that polymorphisms in the Pfmdr1 gene are under AL selection pressure. Pfmdr1 polymorphisms may result in reduction in the therapeutic efficacy of this newly adopted combination treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Saharan countries of Africa.

  11. Evaluation of a series of 2-napthamide derivatives as inhibitors of the drug efflux pump AcrB for the reversal of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhu; Mowla, Rumana; Guo, Liwei; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Rahman, Taufiq; De Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Ma, Shutao; Venter, Henrietta

    2017-02-15

    Drug efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance to dangerous pathogens which makes these pumps important drug targets. We have synthesised a novel series of compounds based on a 2-naphthamide pharmacore aimed at inhibiting the efflux pumps from Gram-negative bacteria. The archeatypical transporter AcrB from Escherichia coli was used as model efflux pump as AcrB is widely conserved throughout Gram-negative organisms. The compounds were tested for their antibacterial action, ability to potentiate the action of antibiotics and for their ability to inhibit Nile Red efflux by AcrB. None of the compounds were antimicrobial against E. coli wild type cells. Most of the compounds were able to inhibit Nile Red efflux indicating that they are substrates of the AcrB efflux pump. Three compounds were able to synergise with antibiotics and reverse resistance in the resistant phenotype. Compound A3, 4-(isopentyloxy)-2-naphthamide, reduced the MICs of erythromycin and chloramphenicol to the MIC levels of the drug sensitive strain that lacks an efflux pump. A3 had no effect on the MIC of the non-substrate rifampicin indicating that this compound acts specifically through the AcrB efflux pump. A3 also does not act through non-specific mechanisms such as outer membrane or inner membrane permeabilisation and is not cytotoxic against mammalian cell lines. Therefore, we have designed and synthesised a novel chemical compound with great potential to further optimisation as inhibitor of drug efflux pumps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nose-to-Brain Delivery of Antiviral Drugs: A Way to Overcome Their Active Efflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dalpiaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several viruses can easily infect the central nervous system (CNS, antiviral drugs often show dramatic difficulties in penetrating the brain from the bloodstream since they are substrates of active efflux transporters (AETs. These transporters, located in the physiological barriers between blood and the CNS and in macrophage membranes, are able to recognize their substrates and actively efflux them into the bloodstream. The active transporters currently known to efflux antiviral drugs are P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 or P-gp or MDR1, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC1 or MRP1, ABCC4 or MRP4, ABCC5 or MRP5, and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2 or BCRP. Inhibitors of AETs may be considered, but their co-administration causes serious unwanted effects. Nasal administration of antiviral drugs is therefore proposed in order to overcome the aforementioned problems, but innovative devices, formulations (thermoreversible gels, polymeric micro- and nano-particles, solid lipid microparticles, nanoemulsions, absorption enhancers (chitosan, papaverine, and mucoadhesive agents (chitosan, polyvinilpyrrolidone are required in order to selectively target the antiviral drugs and, possibly, the AET inhibitors in the CNS. Moreover, several prodrugs of antiretroviral agents can inhibit or elude the AET systems, appearing as interesting substrates for innovative nasal formulations able to target anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV agents into macrophages of the CNS, which are one of the most important HIV Sanctuaries of the body.

  13. Focus on the Outer Membrane Factor OprM, the Forgotten Player from Efflux Pumps Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Phan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been used extensively during several decades and we are now facing the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. It has become a major public concern, urging the need to discover new strategies to combat them. Among the different ways used by bacteria to resist antibiotics, the active efflux is one of the main mechanisms. In Gram-negative bacteria the efflux pumps are comprised of three components forming a long edifice crossing the complete cell wall from the inside to the outside of the cell. Blocking these pumps would permit the restoration of the effectiveness of the current antibiotherapy which is why it is important to increase our knowledge on the different proteins involved in these complexes. A tremendous number of experiments have been performed on the inner membrane protein AcrB from Escherichia coli and, to a lesser extent, the protein partners forming the AcrAB-TolC pump, but less information is available concerning the efflux pumps from other virulent Gram-negative bacteria. The present review will focus on the OprM outer membrane protein from the MexAB-OprM pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, highlighting similarities and differences compare to the archetypal AcrAB-TolC in terms of structure, function, and assembly properties.

  14. A Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division Family Xenobiotic Efflux Pump in an Obligate Anaerobe, Porphyromonas gingivalis

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2002-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative obligate anaerobe, contains two homologs of an Escherichia coli resistance-nodulation-cell division-type multidrug exporter gene, acrB, in putative operons, together with homologs of membrane fusion protein gene acrA and outer membrane channel gene tolC. MIC determination and accumulation assays with mutants with disruptions of one or more genes showed that one cluster, named xepCAB, pumped out multiple agents including rifampin, puromycin, and ethidi...

  15. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients with rifampicin resistance using GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justice K Boakye-Appiah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings call for a scale-up of TB control in Ghana and provide evidence that the expansion of GeneXpert may be an optimal means to improve case finding and guide treatment of drug-resistant TB in this setting.

  16. Detection and characterisation of multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) in human mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, E A; Burchill, S A

    2012-03-13

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) can lead to multidrug resistance. In this study, we describe for the first time the expression of mitochondrial MRP-1 in untreated human normal and cancer cells and tissues. MRP-1 expression and subcellular localisation in normal and cancer cells and tissues was examined by differential centrifugation and western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Viable mitochondria were isolated and MRP-1 efflux activity measured using the calcein-AM functional assay. MRP-1 expression was increased using retroviral infection and specific overexpression confirmed by RNA array. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V-propidium iodide labelling of cells. MRP-1 was detected in the mitochondria of cancer and normal cells and tissues. The efflux activity of mitochondrial MRP-1 was more efficient (55-64%) than that of plasma membrane MRP-1 (11-22%; PMRP-1 expression resulted in a preferential increase in mitochondrial MRP-1, suggesting selective targeting to this organelle. Treatment with a non-lethal concentration of doxorubicin (0.85 nM, 8 h) increased mitochondrial and plasma membrane MRP-1, increasing resistance to MRP-1 substrates. For the first time, we have identified MRP-1 with efflux activity in human mitochondria. Mitochondrial MRP-1 may be an exciting new therapeutic target where historically MRP-1 inhibitor strategies have limited clinical success.

  17. Structure, mechanism and cooperation of bacterial multidrug transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dijun; van Veen, Hendrik W; Murakami, Satoshi; Pos, Klaas M; Luisi, Ben F

    2015-08-01

    Cells from all domains of life encode energy-dependent trans-membrane transporters that can expel harmful substances including clinically applied therapeutic agents. As a collective body, these transporters perform as a super-system that confers tolerance to an enormous range of harmful compounds and consequently aid survival in hazardous environments. In the Gram-negative bacteria, some of these transporters serve as energy-transducing components of tripartite assemblies that actively efflux drugs and other harmful compounds, as well as deliver virulence agents across the entire cell envelope. We draw together recent structural and functional data to present the current models for the transport mechanisms for the main classes of multi-drug transporters and their higher-order assemblies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene Nørby

    2015-01-01

    The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some...... described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while...... qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence...

  19. Clonal diversity and detection of carbapenem resistance encoding genes among multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered from patients and environment in two intensive care units in a Moroccan hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Uwingabiye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has recently been defined by the World Health Organization as a critical pathogen. The aim of this study was to compare clonal diversity and carbapenemase-encoding genes of A. baumannii isolates collected from colonized or infected patients and hospital environment in two intensive care units (ICUs in Morocco. Methods The patient and environmental sampling was carried out in the medical and surgical ICUs of Mohammed V Military teaching hospital from March to August 2015. All A. baumannii isolates recovered from clinical and environmental samples, were identified using routine microbiological techniques and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disc diffusion method. The carbapenemase-encoding genes were screened for by PCR. Clonal relatedness was analyzed by digestion of the DNA with low frequency restriction enzymes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and the multi locus sequence typing (MLST was performed on two selected isolates from two major pulsotypes. Results A total of 83 multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates were collected: 47 clinical isolates and 36 environmental isolates. All isolates were positive for the bla OXA51-like and bla OXA23-like genes. The coexistence of bla NDM-1 /bla OXA-23-like and bla OXA 24-like /bla OXA-23-like were detected in 27 (32.5% and 2 (2.4% of A. baumannii isolates, respectively. The environmental samples and the fecally-colonized patients were significantly identified (p < 0.05 as the most common sites of isolation of NDM-1-harboring isolates. PFGE grouped all isolates into 9 distinct clusters with two major groups (0007 and 0008 containing up to 59% of the isolates. The pulsotype 0008 corresponds to sequence type (ST 195 while pulsotype 0007 corresponds to ST 1089.The genetic similarity between the clinical and environmental isolates

  20. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ze-Qi; Flavin, Michael T; Flavin, John

    2014-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, especially those caused by Gram-negative pathogens, have emerged as one of the world's greatest health threats. The development of novel antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria has, however, stagnated over the last half century. This review provides an overview of recent R&D activities in the search for novel antibiotics against MDR Gram-negatives. It provides emphasis in three key areas. First, the article looks at new analogs of existing antibiotic molecules such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, and aminoglycoside as well as agents against novel bacterial targets such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and peptide deformylase. Second, it also examines alternative strategies to conventional approaches including cationic antimicrobial peptides, siderophores, efflux pump inhibitors, therapeutic antibodies, and renewed interest in abandoned treatments or those with limited indications. Third, the authors aim to provide an update on the current clinical development status for each drug candidate. The traditional analog approach is insufficient to meet the formidable challenge brought forth by MDR superbugs. With the disappointing results of the genomics approach for delivering novel targets and drug candidates, alternative strategies to permeate the bacterial cell membrane, enhance influx, disrupt efflux, and target specific pathogens via therapeutic antibodies are attractive and promising. Coupled with incentivized business models, governmental policies, and a clarified regulatory pathway, it is hoped that the antibiotic pipeline will be filled with an effective armamentarium to safeguard global health.

  1. Efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs as new antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momen Askoura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The difficulty in treatment of pseudomonas infections arises from being multidrug resistant (MDR and exhibits resistance to most antimicrobial agents due to the expression of different mechanisms overcoming their effects. Of these resistance mechanisms, the active efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that belong to the resistance nodulation division (RND plays a very important role in extruding the antibiotics outside the bacterial cells providing a protective means against their antibacterial activity. Beside its role against the antimicrobial agents, these pumps can extrude biocides, detergents, and other metabolic inhibitors. It is clear that efflux pumps can be targets for new antimicrobial agents. Peptidomimetic compounds such as phenylalanine arginyl β-naphthylamide (PAβN have been introduced as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs; their mechanism of action is through competitive inhibition with antibiotics on the efflux pump resulting in increased intracellular concentration of antibiotic, hence, restoring its antibacterial activity. The advantage of EPIs is the difficulty to develop bacterial resistance against them, but the disadvantage is their toxic property hindering their clinical application. The structure activity relationship of these compounds showed other derivatives from PAβN that are higher in their activity with higher solubility in biological fluids and decreased toxicity level. This raises further questions on how can we compact Pseudomonas infections. Of particular importance, the recent resurgence in the use of older antibiotics such as polymyxins and probably applying stricter control measures in order to prevent their spread in clinical sittings.

  2. Virulence profiles and innate immune responses against highly lethal, multidrug-resistant nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a tertiary care hospital in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayosso-Vázquez, Catalina; Fernández-Vázquez, José Luis; Jarillo-Quijada, Ma Dolores; Rivera-Benítez, César; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Virulence profiles and innate immune responses were studied in Acinetobacter baumannii from nosocomial infections collected over one year in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. A. baumannii were identified by VITEK 2 System followed by susceptibility tests. Carbapenemase genes, active efflux mechanism to imipenem and meropenem and outer membrane proteins profile were analyzed to evaluate their role on the activity of carbapenem resistance. All isolates were genotyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The ability to form biofilm was determined on a polystyrene surface. The resistance to complement was determined with a pooled human normal serum and TNFα release by infected macrophages was determined by ELISA. The 112 isolates from this study were associated with a 52% of mortality. All were resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethroprim-sulfamethoxal, 96 and 90% were resistant to meropenem and imipenem, respectively, but with high susceptibility to polymyxin B, colistin and tigecyclin. Isolates were classified in 11 different clones. Most isolates, 88% (99/112), were metallo-β-lactamases and carbapenemases producers, associated in 95% with the presence of blaOXA-72 gene. Only 4/99 and 1/99 of the carbapenem-resistant isolates were related to efflux mechanism to meropenem or imipenem resistance, respectively. The loss of expression of 22, 29, and/or 33-36-kDa proteins was detected in 8/11 of the clinical isolates with resistance to carbapenem. More than 96% (108/112) of the isolates were high producers of biofilms on biotic surfaces. Finally, all isolates showed variable resistance to normal human serum activity and were high inductors of TNFα release by macrophages. In summary, these results suggest that multidrug-resistant A. baumannii can persist in the hospital environment through its ability to form biofilms. The high mortality observed was due to their ability to survive normal human serum activity and capability to induce potent

  3. Functional imaging of the multidrug resistance in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae

    2001-01-01

    Although diverse mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance for chemotherapeutic drugs, the development of cellular P-glycoprotein(Pgp) and multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) are improtant factors in the chemotherapy failure to cancer. Various detection assays provide information about the presence of drug efflux pumps at the mRNA and protein levels. However these methods do not yield information about dynamic function of Pgp and MRP in vivo. Single photon emission tomograpy (SPECT) and positron emission tomograpy (PET) are available for the detection of Pgp and MRP-mediated transport. 99m Tc-sestaMIBI and other 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals are substrates for Pgp and MRP, and have been used in clinical studies of tumor imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of Pgp pump. Colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin labeled with 11 C have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo and reported to be feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumors. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP and N- (11 C]acetyl-leukotriene E4 provides an opportunity to study MRP function non-invasively in vivo. Results obtained from recent publications are reviewed to confirm the feasibility of using SPECT and PET to study the functionality of MDR transportes in vivo

  4. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

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    Kamela O. Alegre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters.

  5. The roles of variants in human multidrug resistance (MDR1 gene and their haplotypes on antiepileptic drugs response: a meta-analysis of 57 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported the associations between the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1, also known as MDR1 polymorphisms and their haplotypes with risk of response to antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy, however, the results were inconclusive.The Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and Chinese Biomedicine databases were searched up to July 15, 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model based on heterogeneity tests. Meta-regression and Galbraith plot analysis were carried out to explore the possible heterogeneity.A total of 57 studies involving 12407 patients (6083 drug-resistant and 6324 drug-responsive patients with epilepsy were included in the pooled-analysis. For all three polymorphisms (C3435T, G2677T/A, and C1236T, we observed a wide spectrum of minor allele frequencies across different ethnicities. A significantly decreased risk of AEDs resistance was observed in Caucasian patients with T allele of C3435T variant, which was still significant after adjusted by multiple testing corrections (T vs C: OR=0.83, 95%CI=0.71-0.96, p=0.01. However, no significant association was observed between the other two variants and AEDs resistance. Of their haplotypes in ABCB1 gene (all studies were in Indians and Asians, no significant association was observed with AEDs resistance. Moreover, sensitivity and Cumulative analysis showed that the results of this meta-analysis were stable.In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrated that effect of C3435T variant on risk of AEDs resistance was ethnicity-dependent, which was significant in Caucasians. Additionally, further studies in different ethnic groups are warranted to clarify possible roles of haplotypes in ABCB1 gene in AEDs resistance, especially in Caucasians.

  6. Efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobing; Yu, Tao; Liang, Yu; Ji, Shengdong; Guo, Xiaowei; Ma, Jianmin; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-18

    In this study, efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride (BC) resistance, including plasmid-encoded (Qac protein family and BcrABC) and chromosome-borne efflux pumps, was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes from retail food in China. Among the 59 L. monocytogenes strains, 13 (22.0%) strains were resistant to BC. The PCR results showed that bcrABC was harbored by 2 of 13 BC resistant strains. However, none of the qac genes were detected among the 59 strains. The bcrABC was absent in both of the plasmid cured strains, indicating that this BC resistance determinant was plasmid-encoded in the two bcrABC-positive strains. In the presence of reserpine, most of the bcrABC-negative strains had decreases in the MICs of BC, suggesting the existence of other efflux pumps and their role in BC resistance. After exposed to reserpine, the reduction in BC MICs was observed in the two cured strains, indicating that efflux pumps located on chromosome was also involved in BC resistance. Our findings suggest that food products may act as reservoirs for BC resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes and plasmid- and chromosome-encoded efflux pumps could mediate the BC resistance of L. monocytogenes, which is especially relevant to the adaption of this organism in food-related environments with frequent BC use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione and its synergism on antibiotics sensitize carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbe, Roaa; Almansour, Ayidh; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-10-01

    A major clinical impact of A. baumannii is hospital-acquired infections including ventilator-associated pneumonia. The treatment of this pathogen is often difficult due to its innate and acquired resistance to almost all commercially available antibiotics. Infections with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii is the most problematic. Glutathione is a tripeptide thiol-antioxidant and antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione was reported in some bacteria. However, clinical relevance and molecular details of the antibacterial activity of glutathione are currently unclear. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii including 63 carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates and a type strain A. baumannii ATCC 19606 were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and time-killing activity with meropenem and/or glutathione were also determined in the carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. In addition, the roles of exogenous glutathione in multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were examined. Levels of MIC and MBC were ranged from 10 to 15mM of exogenous glutathione. All tested carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were sensitized by all tested antibiotics in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of glutathione. FIC levels of glutathione with carbapenem (meropenem) were allcarbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were killed by subinhibitory concentrations of both glutathione and meropenem at>2log10 within 12h, suggesting glutathione synergistically interacts with meropenem. The roles of multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were excluded for the glutathione-mediated antibiotic susceptibility. Overall results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of glutathione is clinically relevant and its synergism on antibiotics sensitizes clinical isolates of A. baumannii regardless

  8. Functional evidence of multidrug resistance transporters (MDR in rodent olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Molinas

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1 are membrane transporter proteins which function as efflux pumps at cell membranes and are considered to exert a protective function against the entry of xenobiotics. While evidence for Pgp and MRP transporter activity is reported for olfactory tissue, their possible interaction and participation in the olfactory response has not been investigated.Functional activity of putative MDR transporters was assessed by means of the fluorometric calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM accumulation assay on acute rat and mouse olfactory tissue slices. Calcein-AM uptake was measured as fluorescence intensity changes in the presence of Pgp or MRP specific inhibitors. Epifluorescence microscopy measured time course analysis in the olfactory epithelium revealed significant inhibitor-dependent calcein uptake in the presence of each of the selected inhibitors. Furthermore, intracellular calcein accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons was also significantly increased in the presence of either one of the Pgp or MRP inhibitors. The presence of Pgp or MRP1 encoding genes in the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was confirmed by RT-PCR with appropriate pairs of species-specific primers. Both transporters were expressed in both newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of both species. To assess a possible involvement of MDR transporters in the olfactory response, we examined the electrophysiological response to odorants in the presence of the selected MDR inhibitors by recording electroolfactograms (EOG. In both animal species, MRPs inhibitors induced a marked reduction of the EOG magnitude, while Pgp inhibitors had only a minor or no measurable effect.The findings suggest that both Pgp and MRP transporters are functional in the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. Pgp and MRPs may be cellular constituents of olfactory receptor neurons and represent potential mechanisms for modulation

  9. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  10. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  11. CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Shi, Donghong; Zhou, Xianguang; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiang; Zeng, Zhiyong; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Jing; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Longjiang; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles are synthesized. • The mechanism of CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles is revealed. • This new delivery system increased the drug accumulation in vitro and in vivo. • This new delivery system offers an effective approach to treat multidrug resistance. - Abstract: Multidrug resistance is a major impediment for the successful chemotherapy in breast cancer. CD44 is over-expressed in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells. CD44 monoclonal antibody exhibits anticancer potential by inhibiting proliferation and regulating P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux activity in multidrug resistant cells. Thereby, CD44 monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapeutic drug might be result in enhancing chemosensitivity and overcoming multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the CD44 monoclonal antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing doxorubicin on human breast resistant cancer MCF-7 cells. The data showed that CD44-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles increased cytotoxicity and enhanced the downregulation of P-glycoprotein in comparison to CD44 antibody. Moreover, CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles provided active target, which promoted more cellular uptake of DOX in the resistant cells and more retention of DOX in tumor tissues than unengineered counterpart. Animal studies of the resistant breast cancer xenografts demonstrated that CD44-engineered drug delivery system remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Our results indicated that the CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system offers an effective approach to overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer

  12. Influence of multidrug resistance on 18F-FCH cellular uptake in a glioblastoma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanpouille, Claire; Jeune, Nathalie le; Clotagatide, Anthony; Dubois, Francis; Kryza, David; Janier, Marc; Perek, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug resistance, aggressiveness and accelerated choline metabolism are hallmarks of malignancy and have motivated the development of new PET tracers like 18 F-FCH, an analogue of choline. Our aim was to study the relationship of multidrug resistance of cultured glioma cell lines and 18 F-FCH tracer uptake. We used an in vitro multidrug-resistant (MDR) glioma model composed of sensitive parental U87MG and derived resistant cells U87MG-CIS and U87MG-DOX. Aggressiveness, choline metabolism and transport were studied, particularly the expression of choline kinase (CK) and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1). FCH transport studies were assessed in our glioblastoma model. As expected, the resistant cell lines express P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein isoform 1 (MRP1) and elevated glutathione (GSH) content and are also more mobile and more invasive than the sensitive U87MG cells. Our results show an overexpression of CK and CHT1 in the resistant cell lines compared to the sensitive cell lines. We found an increased uptake of FCH (in % of uptake per 200,000 cells) in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive ones (U87MG: 0.89±0.14; U87MG-CIS: 1.27±0.18; U87MG-DOX: 1.33±0.13) in line with accelerated choline metabolism and aggressive phenotype. FCH uptake is not influenced by the two ATP-dependant efflux pumps: Pgp and MRP1. FCH would be an interesting probe for glioma imaging which would not be effluxed from the resistant cells by the classic MDR ABC transporters. Our results clearly show that FCH uptake reflects accelerated choline metabolism and is related to tumour aggressiveness and drug resistance. (orig.)

  13. Cationic compounds with activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria: interest of a new compound compared with two older antiseptics, hexamidine and chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grare, M; Dibama, H Massimba; Lafosse, S; Ribon, A; Mourer, M; Regnouf-de-Vains, J-B; Finance, C; Duval, R E

    2010-05-01

    Use of antiseptics and disinfectants is essential in infection control practices in hospital and other healthcare settings. In this study, the in vitro activity of a new promising compound, para-guanidinoethylcalix[4]arene (Cx1), has been evaluated in comparison with hexamidine (HX) and chlorhexidine (CHX), two older cationic antiseptics. The MICs for 69 clinical isolates comprising methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (with or without mecA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae producing various beta-lactamases and non-fermenting bacilli (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were determined. Cx1 showed similar activity against S. aureus, CoNS and Enterococcus spp., irrespective of the presence of mecA or van genes, or associated resistance genes, with very good activity against CoNS (MIC compound against all strains, with broad-spectrum and conserved activity against multidrug-resistant strains. HX showed a lower activity, essentially against Gram-positive strains. Consequently, the differences observed with respect to Cx1 suggest that they are certainly not the consequence of antibiotic resistance phenotypes, but rather the result of membrane composition modifications (e.g. of lipopolysaccharide), or of the presence of (activated) efflux-pumps. These results raise the possibility that Cx1 may be a potent new antibacterial agent of somewhat lower activity but significantly lower toxicity than CHX.

  14. Multidrug resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Hendrik

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) was initially recongnized as the major cause of the failure of the drug-based treatment of human cancers. It has become increasingly clear that MDR occurs in mammalian cells but also in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The appearance of multiple antibiotic resistant

  15. Lapatinib potentiates cytotoxicity of YM155 in neuroblastoma via inhibition of the ABCB1 efflux transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Halasz, Melinda; Huber, Kilian V. M.

    2017-01-01

    and simultaneously help to overcome drug resistance. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infancy and extremely heterogeneous in clinical presentation and features. Applying a systematic pairwise drug combination screen we observed a highly potent synergy in neuroblastoma cells between the EGFR kinase...... inhibitor lapatinib and the anticancer compound YM155 that is preserved across several neuroblastoma variants. Mechanistically, the synergy was based on a lapatinib induced inhibition of the multidrug-resistance efflux transporter ABCB1, which is frequently expressed in resistant neuroblastoma cells, which...... allowed prolonged and elevated cytotoxicity of YM155. In addition, the drug combination (i.e. lapatinib plus YM155) decreased neuroblastoma tumor size in an in vivo model....

  16. Water-mediated interactions enable smooth substrate transport in a bacterial efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Ramaswamy, Venkata Krishnan; Malvacio, Ivana; Malloci, Giuliano; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Ruggerone, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division superfamily confer multi-drug resistance to Gram-negative bacteria. The most-studied polyspecific transporter belonging to this class is the inner-membrane trimeric antiporter AcrB of Escherichia coli. In previous studies, a functional rotation mechanism was proposed for its functioning, according to which the three monomers undergo concerted conformational changes facilitating the extrusion of substrates. However, the molecular determinants and the energetics of this mechanism still remain unknown, so its feasibility must be proven mechanistically. A computational protocol able to mimic the functional rotation mechanism in AcrB was developed. By using multi-bias molecular dynamics simulations we characterized the translocation of the substrate doxorubicin driven by conformational changes of the protein. In addition, we estimated for the first time the free energy profile associated to this process. We provided a molecular view of the process in agreement with experimental data. Moreover, we showed that the conformational changes occurring in AcrB enable the formation of a layer of structured waters on the internal surface of the transport channel. This water layer, in turn, allows for a fairly constant hydration of the substrate, facilitating its diffusion over a smooth free energy profile. Our findings reveal a new molecular mechanism of polyspecific transport whereby water contributes by screening potentially strong substrate-protein interactions. We provided a mechanistic understanding of a fundamental process related to multi-drug transport. Our results can help rationalizing the behavior of other polyspecific transporters and designing compounds avoiding extrusion or inhibitors of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lack of efflux mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eBaucheron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates from human patients in France displaying different levels of resistance to quinolones or fluoroquinolones were studied for resistance mechanisms to these antimicrobial agents. All resistant isolates carried either single or multiple target gene mutations (i.e. in gyrA, gyrB, or parC correlating with the resistance levels observed. Active efflux, through upregulation of multipartite efflux systems, has also been previously reported as contributing mechanism for other serovars. Therefore, we investigated also the occurrence of non-target gene mutations in regulatory regions affecting efflux pump expression. However, no mutation was detected in these regions in both Typhi and Paratyphi isolates of this study. Besides, no overexpression of the major efflux systems was observed for these isolates. Nevertheless, a large deletion of 2334 bp was identified in the acrS-acrE region of all S. Typhi strains but which did not affect the resistance phenotype. As being specific to S. Typhi, this deletion could be used for specific molecular detection purposes. In conclusion, the different levels of quinolone or FQ resistance in both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A seem to rely only on target modifications.

  18. Virulence and genomic feature of multidrug resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in multidrug resistance and virulence of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens. The virulence of six multidrug resistant C. jejuni was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the multidrug resistance and virulence of a selected isolate (C. jejuni 1655. The comparative genomic analyses revealed a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in C. jejuni 1655 compared to reference C. jejuni genomes. The co-emergence of Thr-86-Ile mutation in gyrA gene, A2075G mutation in 23S rRNA gene, tetO, aphA and aadE genes and pTet plasmid in C. jejuni 1655 contributed its multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracycline and aminoglycosides. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in C. jejuni 1655. The co-existence of mobile gene elements (e.g. pTet and CRISPR-Cas system in C. jejuni 1655 may play an important role in the gene transfer and immune defense. The present study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of C. jejuni 1655, a strain recently isolated from a chicken displaying multidrug resistance and relatively high level of virulence.

  19. Emergence of carbapenem non-susceptible multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains of clonal complexes 103(B) and 92(B) harboring OXA-type carbapenemases and metallo-β-lactamases in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Vasanth, Vaidyanathan; Vasanth, Thamodharan; Shabareesh, Pidathala Raghavendra Venkata; Shashikala, P; Devi, Chandrakesan Sheela; Kalaivani, Ramakrishnan; Asir, Johny; Sudhakar, Pagal; Prashanth, K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from a south Indian tertiary care hospital were investigated by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Analysis of resistant determinants was achieved by PCR screening for the presence of genes encoding OXA-carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and efflux pumps. REP-PCR generated around eight clusters of high heterogeneity; of these, two major clusters (I and V) appeared to be clonal in origin. Analysis of representative isolates from different clusters by MLST revealed that most of the isolates belonged to sequence type 103 of CC103(B) . Second most prevalent ST belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92(B) which is also referred to as international clone II. Most of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, being susceptible only to polymyxin-B and newer quinolones. Class D β-lactamases such as blaOXA-51-like (100%), blaOXA-23-like (56.8%) and blaOXA-24-like (14.8%) were found to be predominant, followed by a class B β-lactamase, namely blaIMP-1 (40.7%); none of the isolates had blaOXA-58 like, blaNDM-1 or blaSIM-1 . Genes of efflux-pump adeABC were predominant, most of isolates being biofilm producers that were PCR-positive for autoinducer synthase gene (>94%). Carbapenem non-susceptible isolates were highly diverse and present throughout the hospital irrespective of type of ward or intensive care unit. Although previous reports have documented diverse resistant mechanisms in A. baumannii, production of MBL and OXA-type of carbapenamases were found to be the predominant mechanism(s) of carbapenem resistance identified in strains isolated from Southern India. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Molecular evidence and functional expression of multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Pal, Dananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) is a major family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify if the role of efflux transporters. MRP-2 is a major homologue of MRP family and found to express on the apical side of cell membrane. Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells (rCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium. [14C]-erythromycin which is a proven substrate for MRP-2 was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. MK-571, a known specific and potent inhibitor for MRP-2 was added to inhibit MRP mediated efflux. Membrane fraction of rCEC was used for western blot analysis. Polarized transport of [14C]-erythromycin was observed in rCEC and transport from B-->A was significantly high than from A-->B. Permeability's increased significantly from A-->B in the presence of MK-571 and ketoconozole. Uptake of [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly higher than control in rCEC. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at approximately 498 bp corresponding to MRP-2 in rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at approximately 190 kDa in membrane fraction of rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. For the first time we have demonstrated high expression of MRP-2 in rabbit corneal epithelium and its functional activity causing drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis further confirms the result.

  1. Inhibition of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus by synthetic riparins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L M; de Macedo, E V; Oliveira, F A A; Ferreira, J H L; Gutierrez, S J C; Peláez, W J; Lima, F C A; de Siqueira Júnior, J P; Coutinho, H D M; Kaatz, G W; de Freitas, R M; Barreto, H M

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to increase knowledge about the antimicrobial activity of some synthetic Riparin-derived compounds, alone or in combination with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, against a strain of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fluoroquinolone by way of overexpression of the NorA efflux pump. Microdilution tests showed that Riparins A and B did not show any significant antibacterial activity against Staph. aureus strains. On the other hand, the intrinsic antibacterial activity increased with increasing lipophilicity of the compounds, in the following order: Riparin-D (MIC 256 μg ml -1 ; Log P 2·95) NorA-overexpressing test strain. Riparin-B, which has two methoxyl groups at the phenethyl moiety, showed the best modulatory effect. Riparin-E is a good anti-staphylococci agent, while Riparin-B functions as a NorA efflux pump inhibitor. Our data suggest the possibility of using Riparin-B in combination with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin for therapy of infections caused by multi-drug resistant Staph. aureus. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  3. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  4. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  5. Expression of Sme efflux pumps and multilocus sequence typing in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye Hyun; Sung, Ji Youn; Kwon, Kye Chul; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen, which causes infections that are often difficult to manage because of the inherent resistance of the pathogen to a variety of antimicrobial agents. In this study, we analyzed the expressions of smeABC and smeDEF and their correlation with antimicrobial susceptibility. We also evaluated the genetic relatedness and epidemiological links among 33 isolates of S. maltophilia. In total, 33 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from patients in a tertiary hospital in Daejeon. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 antimicrobial agents were determined by using agar dilution method and E-test (BioMérieux, France). Real-time PCR analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of the Sme efflux systems in the S. maltophilia isolates. Additionally, an epidemiological investigation was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays. The findings of susceptibility testing showed that the majority of the S. maltophilia isolates were resistant to β-lactams and aminoglycosides. Twenty-one clinical isolates overexpressed smeABC and showed high resistance to ciprofloxacin. Moreover, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed among the S. maltophilia isolates; 3 sequence types (STs) and 23 allelic profiles were observed. The smeABC efflux pump was associated with multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of S. maltophilia. In particular, smeABC efflux pumps appear to perform an important role in ciprofloxacin resistance of S. maltophilia. The MLST scheme for S. maltophilia represents a discriminatory typing method with stable markers and is appropriate for studying population structures.

  6. Attaching the NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitor INF55 to Methylene Blue Enhances Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineh, Ardeshir; Dolla, Naveen K; Ball, Anthony R; Magana, Maria; Bremner, John B; Hamblin, Michael R; Tegos, George P; Kelso, Michael J

    2017-10-13

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) uses photosensitizers (PSs) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill microbes. Multidrug efflux systems can moderate the phototoxic effects of PSs by expelling the compounds from cells. We hypothesized that increasing intracellular concentrations of PSs by inhibiting efflux with a covalently attached efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) would enhance bacterial cell phototoxicity and reduce exposure of neighboring host cells to damaging ROS. In this study, we tested the hypothesis by linking NorA EPIs to methylene blue (MB) and examining the photoantimicrobial activity of the EPI-MB hybrids against the human pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Photochemical/photophysical and in vitro microbiological evaluation of 16 hybrids carrying four different NorA EPIs attached to MB via four linker types identified INF55-(Ac)en-MB 12 as a lead. Compound 12 showed increased uptake into S. aureus cells and enhanced aPDI activity and wound healing effects (relative to MB) in a murine model of an abrasion wound infected by MRSA. The study supports a new approach for treating localized multidrug-resistant MRSA infections and paves the way for wider exploration of the EPI-PS hybrid strategy in aPDI.

  7. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus i>species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene Nørby

    2015-01-01

    described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while...... variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting...... antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family...

  8. 22Na and 86Rb effluxes from bull spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.; Steffens, T.; Bernhardt, I.

    1986-01-01

    Active transport of sodium and potassium has been postulated for bull sperms by various authors. In the present paper the sodium and rubidium efflux was determined by tracer kinetics. For uninhibited sodium and rubidium efflux a rate constant of 8.9 +- 2.13/min and 13.9 +- 3.89 min, respectively, was found for a bull sperm suspension (20 vol.%, 310 K). After ouabain treatment (0.1 mM), a reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux to 5.1 +- 1.06/min was found. After cryopreserving (pelletizing process) the majority of samples investigated did not exhibit any inhibition of sodium and rubidium efflux as compared with fresh bull sperms. The inhibition of sodium efflux observed in some cases corresponds to the reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux caused by ouabain. At storage in seminal plasma (24 h, 278 K) the rate constant of sodium efflux is reduced to 2.7 +- 0.25/min. Both after ouabain treatment and after cryopreserving of sperms having a reduced rate constant the motility of bull sperms is reduced. It is concluded from the results that in bull sperms there exists an ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, the inhibition of which reduces the rate constant of sodium efflux by 42%. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux is related to the motility of the bull sperm cell. (author)

  9. Role of efflux pumps and intracellular thiols in natural antimony resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Rai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In view of the recent upsurge in the phenomenon of therapeutic failure, drug resistance in Leishmania, developed under natural field conditions, has become a great concern yet little understood. Accordingly, the study of determinants of antimony resistance is urgently warranted. Efflux transporters have been reported in Leishmania but their role in clinical resistance is still unknown. The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of natural antimony resistance in L. donovani field isolates by analyzing the functionality of efflux pump(s and expression profiles of known genes involved in transport and thiol based redox metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 7 clinical isolates (2 sensitive and 5 resistant in addition to laboratory sensitive reference and SbIII resistant mutant strains for the present study. Functional characterization using flow cytometry identified efflux pumps that transported substrates of both P-gp and MRPA and were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. For the first time, verapamil sensitive efflux pumps for rhodamine 123 were observed in L. donovani that were differentially active in resistant isolates. RT-PCR confirmed the over-expression of MRPA in isolates with high resistance index only. Resistant isolates also exhibited consistent down regulation of AQP1 and elevated intracellular thiol levels which were accompanied with increased expression of ODC and TR genes. Interestingly, γ-GCS is not implicated in clinical resistance in L. donovani isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we demonstrate for the first time, the role of P-gp type plasma membrane efflux transporter(s in antimony resistance in L. donovani field isolates. Further, decreased levels of AQP1 and elevated thiols levels have emerged as biomarkers for clinical resistance.

  10. Efflux protein expression in human stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Juuti-Uusitalo

    Full Text Available Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in the back of the eye nourish photoreceptor cells and form a selective barrier that influences drug transport from the blood to the photoreceptor cells. At the molecular level, ATP-dependent efflux transporters have a major role in drug delivery in human RPE. In this study, we assessed the relative expression of several ATP-dependent efflux transporter genes (MRP1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, p-gp, and BCRP, the protein expression and localization of MRP1, MRP4, and MRP5, and the functionality of MRP1 efflux pumps at different maturation stages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC and RPE derived from the hESC (hESC-RPE. Our findings revealed that the gene expression of ATP-dependent efflux transporters MRP1, -3, -4, -5, and p-gp fluctuated during hESC-RPE maturation from undifferentiated hESC to fusiform, epithelioid, and finally to cobblestone hESC-RPE. Epithelioid hESC-RPE had the highest expression of MRP1, -3, -4, and P-gp, whereas the most mature cobblestone hESC-RPE had the highest expression of MRP5 and MRP6. These findings indicate that a similar efflux protein profile is shared between hESC-RPE and the human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, and suggest that hESC-RPE cells are suitable in vitro RPE models for drug transport studies. Embryonic stem cell model might provide a novel tool to study retinal cell differentiation, mechanisms of RPE-derived diseases, drug testing and targeted drug therapy.

  11. First identification of boronic species as novel potential inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Fanny; Hequet, Arnaud; Voisin-Chiret, Anne-Sophie; Bouillon, Alexandre; Lesnard, Aurélien; Cresteil, Thierry; Jolivalt, Claude; Rault, Sylvain

    2014-03-27

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism of bacterial resistance that results in the extrusion of antimicrobial agents outside the bacterial cell. Inhibition of such pumps appears to be a promising strategy that could restore the potency of existing antibiotics. The NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus confers resistance to a wide range of unrelated substrates, such as hydrophilic fluoroquinolones, leading to a multidrug-resistance phenotype. In this work, approximately 150 heterocyclic boronic species were evaluated for their activity against susceptible and resistant strains of S. aureus. Twenty-four hit compounds, although inactive when tested alone, were found to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity by a 4-fold increase at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 8 μg/mL against S. aureus 1199B, which overexpresses NorA. Boron-free analogues showed no biological activity, thus revealing that the boron atom is crucial for biological activity. This work describes the first reported efflux pump inhibitory activity of boronic acid derivatives.

  12. YnfA , a SMR family efflux pump is abundant in Escherichia coli isolates from urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative study was undertaken to determine the expression level of different efflux pumps in multi-drug-resistant (MDR Escherichia coli isolates from urinary infection. We have determined the presence of different efflux pumps and measured the expression level of tolC, mdfA, norE and ynfA genes among 48 isolates by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression level of tolC and ynfA was constantly high and observed among 75-80% of isolates, whereas mdfA and norE were expressed occasionally. Our findings suggest that ynfA, a new SMR efflux pump gene family member increases the antibiotics′ resistance in E. coli.

  13. Inhibition of the NorA multi-drug transporter by oxygenated monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coêlho, Mayara Ladeira; Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto; Kaatz, Glenn W; Barreto, Humberto Medeiros; de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Ana Amélia

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate intrinsic antimicrobial activity of three monoterpenes nerol, dimethyl octanol and estragole, against bacteria and yeast strains, as well as, investigate if these compounds are able to inhibit the NorA efflux pump related to fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the monoterpenes against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans strains were determined by micro-dilution assay. MICs of the norfloxacin against a S. aureus strain overexpressing the NorA protein were determined in the absence or in the presence of the monoterpenes at subinhibitory concentrations, aiming to verify the ability of this compounds act as efflux pump inhibitors. The monoterpenes were inactive against S. aureus however the nerol was active against E. coli and C. albicans. The addition of the compounds to growth media at sub-inhibitory concentrations enhanced the activity of norfloxacin against S. aureus SA1199-B. This result shows that bioactives tested, especially the nerol, are able to inhibit NorA efflux pump indicating a potential use as adjuvants of norfloxacin for therapy of infections caused by multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The commensal infant gut meta-mobilome as a potential reservoir for persistent multidrug resistance integrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Anuradha; Avershina, Ekaterina; Foley, Steven L; Ludvigsen, Jane; Storrø, Ola; Øien, Torbjørn; Johnsen, Roar; McCartney, Anne L; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M; Rudi, Knut

    2015-10-28

    Despite the accumulating knowledge on the development and establishment of the gut microbiota, its role as a reservoir for multidrug resistance is not well understood. This study investigated the prevalence and persistence patterns of an integrase gene (int1), used as a proxy for integrons (which often carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes), in the fecal microbiota of 147 mothers and their children sampled longitudinally from birth to 2 years. The study showed the int1 gene was detected in 15% of the study population, and apparently more persistent than the microbial community structure itself. We found int1 to be persistent throughout the first two years of life, as well as between mothers and their 2-year-old children. Metagenome sequencing revealed integrons in the gut meta-mobilome that were associated with plasmids and multidrug resistance. In conclusion, the persistent nature of integrons in the infant gut microbiota makes it a potential reservoir of mobile multidrug resistance.

  15. Coupling of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and multidrug resistance-associated proteins is responsible for the intestinal disposition and poor bioavailability of emodin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Qian; Li, Ye; Ye, Ling; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    Emodin is a poorly bioavailable but promising plant-derived anticancer drug candidate. The low oral bioavailability of emodin is due to its extensive glucuronidation in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cell culture model was used to investigate the interplay between UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and efflux transporters in the intestinal disposition of emodin. Bidirectional transport assays of emodin at different concentrations were performed in the Caco-2 monolayers with or without multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux transporter chemical inhibitors. The bidirectional permeability of emodin and its glucuronide in the Caco-2 monolayers was determined. Emodin was rapidly metabolized to emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. LTC4, a potent inhibitor of MRP2, decreased the efflux of emodin glucuronide and also substantially increased the intracellular glucuronide level in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction. MK-571, chemical inhibitor of MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4, significantly reduced the efflux of glucuronide in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) and B–A directions in a dose-dependent manner. However, dipyridamole, a BCRP chemical inhibitor demonstrated no effect on formation and efflux of emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, UGT is a main metabolic pathway for emodin in the intestine, and the MRP family is composed of major efflux transporters responsible for the excretion of emodin glucuronide in the intestine. The coupling of UGTs and MRP efflux transporters causes the extensive metabolism, excretion, and low bioavailability of emodin. -- Highlights: ► Glucuronidation is the main reason for the poor oral bioavailability of emodin. ► Efflux transporters are involved in the excretion of emodin glucuronide. ► The intestine is the main organ for metabolism of emodin.

  16. Coupling of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and multidrug resistance-associated proteins is responsible for the intestinal disposition and poor bioavailability of emodin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Qian; Li, Ye; Ye, Ling [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Hu, Ming, E-mail: mhu@uh.edu [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 1441 Moursund Street, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Liu, Zhongqiu, E-mail: liuzq@smu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2012-12-15

    Emodin is a poorly bioavailable but promising plant-derived anticancer drug candidate. The low oral bioavailability of emodin is due to its extensive glucuronidation in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cell culture model was used to investigate the interplay between UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and efflux transporters in the intestinal disposition of emodin. Bidirectional transport assays of emodin at different concentrations were performed in the Caco-2 monolayers with or without multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux transporter chemical inhibitors. The bidirectional permeability of emodin and its glucuronide in the Caco-2 monolayers was determined. Emodin was rapidly metabolized to emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. LTC4, a potent inhibitor of MRP2, decreased the efflux of emodin glucuronide and also substantially increased the intracellular glucuronide level in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction. MK-571, chemical inhibitor of MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4, significantly reduced the efflux of glucuronide in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) and B–A directions in a dose-dependent manner. However, dipyridamole, a BCRP chemical inhibitor demonstrated no effect on formation and efflux of emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, UGT is a main metabolic pathway for emodin in the intestine, and the MRP family is composed of major efflux transporters responsible for the excretion of emodin glucuronide in the intestine. The coupling of UGTs and MRP efflux transporters causes the extensive metabolism, excretion, and low bioavailability of emodin. -- Highlights: ► Glucuronidation is the main reason for the poor oral bioavailability of emodin. ► Efflux transporters are involved in the excretion of emodin glucuronide. ► The intestine is the main organ for metabolism of emodin.

  17. Natural and Synthetic Polymers as Inhibitors of Drug Efflux Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of efflux pumps is an emerging approach in cancer therapy and drug delivery. Since it has been discovered that polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as Tweens® or Pluronics® can inhibit efflux pumps, various other polymers have been investigated regarding their potential efflux pump inhibitory activity. Among them are polysaccharides, polyethylene glycols and derivatives, amphiphilic block copolymers, dendrimers and thiolated polymers. In the current review article, natural and synthetic polymers that are capable of inhibiting efflux pumps as well as their application in cancer therapy and drug delivery are discussed. PMID:17896100

  18. Evolution from a natural flavones nucleus to obtain 2-(4-Propoxyphenyl)quinoline derivatives as potent inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Patel, Diixa; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2011-08-25

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of substrate antimicrobial agents. Inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolone and 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, obtained by modifying the flavone nucleus of known efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), were synthesized in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. The 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives 28f and 29f display potent EPI activity against SA-1199B, a strain that overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide efflux inhibition assay. The same compounds, in combination with ciprofloxacin, were able to completely restore its antibacterial activity against both S. aureus SA-K2378 and SA-1199B, norA-overexpressing strains. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. The emergence and outbreak of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meiying; Li, Xinlan; Liao, Qiaohong; Li, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Kan, Biao

    2016-06-22

    Typhoid fever remains a severe public health problem in developing countries. The emergence of resistant typhoid, particularly multidrug-resistant typhoid infections, highlights the necessity of monitoring the resistance characteristics of this invasive pathogen. In this study, we report a typhoid fever outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains with an ACSSxtT pattern. Resistance genes conferring these phenotypes were harbored by a large conjugative plasmid, which increases the threat of Salmonella Typhi and thus requires close surveillance for dissemination of strains containing such genes.

  20. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the ... lactam resistance in multidrug resistant E. coli in ESBL and non-ESBL isolates. .... and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, particularly ertapenem (Perez et al.,.

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity of rifampicin in combination with imipenem, meropenem and doripenem against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Chang-Pan; Wang, Nai-Yu; Shih, Shou-Chuan

    2016-08-24

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as one of the most important healthcare-associated pathogens. Colistin is regarded as the last-resort antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but is associated with high rates of acute kidney injury. The aim of this in vitro study is to search for an alternative treatment to colistin for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa infections. Multidrug and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were collected between January 2009 and December 2012 at MacKay Memorial Hospital. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for various antibiotic combinations. Carbapenemase-producing genes including bla VIM, other β-lactamase genes and porin mutations were screened by PCR and sequencing. The efficacy of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem) with or without rifampicin was correlated with the type of porin mutation (frameshift mutation, premature stop codon mutation) in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates without carbapenemase-producing genes. Of the 71 multidrug-resistant clinical P. aeruginosa isolates, only six harboured the bla VIM gene. Imipenem, meropenem and doripenem were significantly more effective (reduced fold-change of MICs) when combined with rifampicin in bla VIM-negative isolates, especially in isolates with porin frameshift mutation. Imipenem + rifampicin combination has a low MIC against multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, especially in isolates with porin frameshift mutation. The imipenem + rifampicin combination may provide an alternative treatment to colistin for multidrug -resistant P. aeruginosa infections, especially for patients with renal insufficiency.

  2. Phosphorylation of MgrA and its effect on expression of the NorA and NorB efflux pumps of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Hooper, David C

    2010-05-01

    MgrA is a global regulator in Staphylococcus aureus that controls the expression of diverse genes encoding virulence factors and multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporters. We identified pknB, which encodes the (Ser/Thr) kinase PknB, in the S. aureus genome. PknB was able to autophosphorylate as well as phosphorylate purified MgrA. We demonstrated that rsbU, which encodes a Ser/Thr phosphatase and is involved in the activation of the SigB regulon, was able to dephosphorylate MgrA-P but not PknB-P. Serines 110 and 113 of MgrA were found to be phosphorylated, and Ala substitutions at these positions resulted in reductions in the level of phosphorylation of MgrA. DNA gel shift binding assays using norA and norB promoters showed that MgrA-P was able to bind the norB promoter but not the norA promoter, a pattern which was the reverse of that for unphosphorylated MgrA. The double mutant MgrA(S110A-S113A) bound to the norA promoter but not the norB promoter. The double mutant led to a 2-fold decrease in norA transcripts and a 2-fold decrease in the MICs of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin in strain RN6390. Thus, phosphorylation of MgrA results in loss of binding to the norA promoter, but with a gain of the ability to bind the norB promoter. Loss of the ability to phosphorylate MgrA by Ala substitution resulted in increased repression of norA expression and in reductions in susceptibilities to NorA substrates.

  3. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W P; Hua, H Y; Sun, P C; Zhao, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells.

  4. Sponge microbiota are a reservoir of functional antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Versluis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n=6, gentamicin (n=1, amikacin (n=7, trimethoprim (n=17, chloramphenicol (n=1, rifampicin (n=2 and ampicillin (n=3. Fifteen of 37 inserts harboured resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria.

  5. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solida Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  6. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are essential in the treatment of infectious diseases. A better understanding of transport processes involved in drug disposition will improve the predictability of drug-drug interactions with consequences for drug response. Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are efflux transporters mediating the excretion of several antimicrobial drugs as well as other organic compounds into bile and urine, thereby contributing to drug disposition. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including their functional role in drug transport with a specific focus on antimicrobial drugs. The PubMed database was searched using the terms "MATE1," "MATE-2K," "MATE2," "SLC47A1," "SLC47A2," and "toxin extrusion protein" (up to June 2012). MATE proteins have been recognized as important transporters mediating the final excretion step of cationic drugs into bile and urine. These include the antiviral drugs acyclovir, amprenavir, and ganciclovir, the antibiotics cephalexin, cephradine and levofloxacin, as well as the antimalarial agents chloroquine and quinine. It is therefore important to enhance our understanding of the role of MATEs in drug extrusion with particular emphasis on the functional consequences of genetic variants on disposition of these antimicrobial drugs.

  7. Efflux Pumps Might Not Be the Major Drivers of QAC Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Megan C; Forman, Megan E; Duggan, Stephanie M; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2017-08-17

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used antiseptics that are now known to be subject to bacterial resistance. The prevalence and mechanisms of such resistance, however, remain underexplored. We investigated a variety of QACs, including those with multicationic structures (multiQACs), and the resistance displayed by a variety of Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without genes encoding efflux pumps, the purported main driver of bacterial resistance in MRSA. Through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-, kinetic-, and efflux-based assays, we found that neither the qacR/qacA system present in S. aureus nor another efflux pump system is the main reason for bacterial resistance to QACs. Our findings suggest that membrane composition could be the predominant driver that allows CA-MRSA to withstand the assault of conventional QAC antiseptics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-08-15

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kojima, Shigeru

    1977-01-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the 22 Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl 3 or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed. (Mori, K.)

  10. The secondary resistome of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Bimal; Cain, Amy K; Doerrler, William T; Boinett, Christine J; Fookes, Maria C; Parkhill, Julian; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-02-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe lung and bloodstream infections that are difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. We hypothesized that antimicrobial resistance can be reversed by targeting chromosomal non-essential genes that are not responsible for acquired resistance but essential for resistant bacteria under therapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. Conditional essentiality of individual genes to antimicrobial resistance was evaluated in an epidemic multidrug-resistant clone of K. pneumoniae (ST258). We constructed a high-density transposon mutant library of >430,000 unique Tn5 insertions and measured mutant depletion upon exposure to three clinically relevant antimicrobials (colistin, imipenem or ciprofloxacin) by Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing (TraDIS). Using this high-throughput approach, we defined three sets of chromosomal non-essential genes essential for growth during exposure to colistin (n = 35), imipenem (n = 1) or ciprofloxacin (n = 1) in addition to known resistance determinants, collectively termed the "secondary resistome". As proof of principle, we demonstrated that inactivation of a non-essential gene not previously found linked to colistin resistance (dedA) restored colistin susceptibility by reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration from 8 to 0.5 μg/ml, 4-fold below the susceptibility breakpoint (S ≤ 2 μg/ml). This finding suggests that the secondary resistome is a potential target for developing antimicrobial "helper" drugs that restore the efficacy of existing antimicrobials.

  11. Inactivation of a putative efflux pump (LmrB) in Streptococcus mutans results in altered biofilm structure and increased exopolysaccharide synthesis: implications for biofilm resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Jianying; Guo, Lihong; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Xiaoli; Wei, Xi

    2017-07-01

    Efflux pumps are a mechanism associated with biofilm formation and resistance. There is limited information regarding efflux pumps in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate potential roles of a putative efflux pump (LmrB) in S. mutans biofilm formation and susceptibility. Upon lmrB inactivation and antimicrobial exposure, the biofilm structure and expression of other efflux pumps were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and qRT-PCR. lmrB inactivation resulted in biofilm structural changes, increased EPS formation and EPS-related gene transcription (p < 0.05), but no improvement in susceptibility was observed. The expression of most efflux pump genes increased upon lmrB inactivation when exposed to antimicrobials (p < 0.05), suggesting a feedback mechanism that activated the transcription of other efflux pumps to compensate for the loss of lmrB. These observations imply that sole inactivation of lmrB is not an effective solution to control biofilms.

  12. The commensal infant gut meta-mobilome as a potential reservoir for persistent multidrug resistance integrons

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Ravi; Ekaterina Avershina; Steven L. Foley; Jane Ludvigsen; Ola Storrø; Torbjørn Øien; Roar Johnsen; Anne L. McCartney; Trine M. L’Abée-Lund; Knut Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulating knowledge on the development and establishment of the gut microbiota, its role as a reservoir for multidrug resistance is not well understood. This study investigated the prevalence and persistence patterns of an integrase gene (int1), used as a proxy for integrons (which often carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes), in the fecal microbiota of 147 mothers and their children sampled longitudinally from birth to 2 years. The study showed the int1 gene was detect...

  13. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 regulates pokemon gene transcription through p53 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-08-27

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy.

  14. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 Regulates Pokemon Gene Transcription Through p53 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp, encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1 gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy.

  15. Metabolic Reprogramming During Multidrug Resistance in Leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Silveira Vidal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer outcome has improved since introduction of target therapy. However, treatment success is still impaired by the same drug resistance mechanism of classical chemotherapy, known as multidrug resistance (MDR phenotype. This phenotype promotes resistance to drugs with different structures and mechanism of action. Recent reports have shown that resistance acquisition is coupled to metabolic reprogramming. High-gene expression, increase of active transport, and conservation of redox status are one of the few examples that increase energy and substrate demands. It is not clear if the role of this metabolic shift in the MDR phenotype is related to its maintenance or to its induction. Apart from the nature of this relation, the metabolism may represent a new target to avoid or to block the mechanism that has been impairing treatment success. In this mini-review, we discuss the relation between metabolism and MDR resistance focusing on the multiple non-metabolic functions that enzymes of the glycolytic pathway are known to display, with emphasis with the diverse activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  16. Mutation of Rv2887, a marR-like gene, confers Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to an imidazopyridine-based agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Kathryn; Lun, Shichun; Pieroni, Marco; Kozikowski, Alan; Bishai, William

    2015-11-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in Mycobacterium tuberculosis control, and it is critical to identify novel drug targets and new antimycobacterial compounds. We have previously identified an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-4-carbonitrile-based agent, MP-III-71, with strong activity against M. tuberculosis. In this study, we evaluated mechanisms of resistance to MP-III-71. We derived three independent M. tuberculosis mutants resistant to MP-III-71 and conducted whole-genome sequencing of these mutants. Loss-of-function mutations in Rv2887 were common to all three MP-III-71-resistant mutants, and we confirmed the role of Rv2887 as a gene required for MP-III-71 susceptibility using complementation. The Rv2887 protein was previously unannotated, but domain and homology analyses suggested it to be a transcriptional regulator in the MarR (multiple antibiotic resistance repressor) family, a group of proteins first identified in Escherichia coli to negatively regulate efflux pumps and other mechanisms of multidrug resistance. We found that two efflux pump inhibitors, verapamil and chlorpromazine, potentiate the action of MP-III-71 and that mutation of Rv2887 abrogates their activity. We also used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify genes which are differentially expressed in the presence and absence of a functional Rv2887 protein. We found that genes involved in benzoquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis were repressed by functional Rv2887. Thus, inactivating mutations of Rv2887, encoding a putative MarR-like transcriptional regulator, confer resistance to MP-III-71, an effective antimycobacterial compound that shows no cross-resistance to existing antituberculosis drugs. The mechanism of resistance of M. tuberculosis Rv2887 mutants may involve efflux pump upregulation and also drug methylation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Multidrug resistance in tumour cells: characterisation of the multidrug resistant cell line K562-Lucena 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIAN M. RUMJANEK

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the treatment of cancer patients. The best characterised mechanism responsible for multidrug resistance involves the expression of the MDR-1 gene product, P-glycoprotein. However, the resistance process is multifactorial. Studies of multidrug resistance mechanisms have relied on the analysis of cancer cell lines that have been selected and present cross-reactivity to a broad range of anticancer agents. This work characterises a multidrug resistant cell line, originally selected for resistance to the Vinca alkaloid vincristine and derived from the human erythroleukaemia cell K562. This cell line, named Lucena 1, overexpresses P-glycoprotein and have its resistance reversed by the chemosensitisers verapamil, trifluoperazine and cyclosporins A, D and G. Furthermore, we demonstrated that methylene blue was capable of partially reversing the resistance in this cell line. On the contrary, the use of 5-fluorouracil increased the resistance of Lucena 1. In addition to chemotherapics, Lucena 1 cells were resistant to ultraviolet A radiation and hydrogen peroxide and failed to mobilise intracellular calcium when thapsigargin was used. Changes in the cytoskeleton of this cell line were also observed.A resistência a múltiplos fármacos é o principal obstáculo no tratamento de pacientes com câncer. O mecanismo responsável pela resistência múltipla mais bem caracterizado envolve a expressão do produto do gene MDR-1, a glicoproteína P. Entretanto, o processo de resistência tem fatores múltiplos. Estudos de mecanismos de resistência m��ltipla a fármacos têm dependido da análise de linhagens celulares tumorais que foram selecionadas e apresentam reatividade cruzada a uma ampla faixa de agentes anti-tumorais. Este trabalho caracteriza uma linhagem celular com múltipla resistência a fármacos, selecionada originalmente pela resistência ao alcalóide de Vinca vincristina e derivado

  18. In vivo detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR1) phenotype by technetium-99m sestamibi scan in untreated breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, S.; Ciarmiello, A.; Potena, M.I.; Carriero, M.V.; Mainolfi, C.; Botti, G.; Thomas, R.; Cerra, M.; D'Aiuto, G.; Tsuruo, T.; Salvatore, M.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m sestamibi is a transport substrate recognised by the multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp). To test whether 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux is enhanced in breast carcinomas overexpressing Pgp, we determined the efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi and Pgp levels in tumours from 30 patients with untreated breast carcinoma. Patients were intravenously injected with 740 MBq of 99m Tc-sestamibi and underwent a 15-min dynamic study followed by the acquisition of static planar images at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. Tumour specimens were obtained from each patient 24 h after 99m Tc-sestamibi scan and Pgp levels were determined using 125 I-MRK16 monoclonal antibody and in vitro quantitative autoradiography. All breast carcinomas showed high uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi and data from region of interest analysis on sequential images were fitted with a monoexponential function. The efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi, calculated from decay-corrected time-activity curves, ranged between 0.00121 and 0.01690 min -1 and were directly correlated with Pgp levels measured in the same tumours (r=0.62; P 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux from tumours of group A was 2.7 times higher than that observed in tumours of group B (0.00686 ±0.00390 min -1 vs 0.00250 ±0.00090 min -1 , P 99m Tc-sestamibi showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 80% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, the efflux rate of 99m Tc-sestamibi may be used for the in vivo identification of the multidrug resistant (MDR1) phenotype in untreated breast cancer patients. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  20. Lapatinib potentiates cytotoxicity of  YM155 in neuroblastoma via inhibition of the ABCB1 efflux transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Halasz, Melinda; Huber, Kilian V M; Winter, Georg E; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Papamarkou, Theodore; Brunak, Søren; Kolch, Walter; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2017-06-08

    Adverse side effects of cancer agents are of great concern in the context of childhood tumors where they can reduce the quality of life in young patients and cause life-long adverse effects. Synergistic drug combinations can lessen potential toxic side effects through lower dosing and simultaneously help to overcome drug resistance. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infancy and extremely heterogeneous in clinical presentation and features. Applying a systematic pairwise drug combination screen we observed a highly potent synergy in neuroblastoma cells between the EGFR kinase inhibitor lapatinib and the anticancer compound YM155 that is preserved across several neuroblastoma variants. Mechanistically, the synergy was based on a lapatinib induced inhibition of the multidrug-resistance efflux transporter ABCB1, which is frequently expressed in resistant neuroblastoma cells, which allowed prolonged and elevated cytotoxicity of YM155. In addition, the drug combination (i.e. lapatinib plus YM155) decreased neuroblastoma tumor size in an in vivo model.

  1. Mechanism of RPE cell death in α-crystallin deficient mice: a novel and critical role for MRP1-mediated GSH efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran G Sreekumar

    Full Text Available Absence of α-crystallins (αA and αB in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells renders them susceptible to oxidant-induced cell death. We tested the hypothesis that the protective effect of α-crystallin is mediated by changes in cellular glutathione (GSH and elucidated the mechanism of GSH efflux. In α-crystallin overexpressing cells resistant to cell death, cellular GSH was >2 fold higher than vector control cells and this increase was seen particularly in mitochondria. The high GSH levels associated with α-crystallin overexpression were due to increased GSH biosynthesis. On the other hand, cellular GSH was decreased by 50% in murine retina lacking αA or αB crystallin. Multiple multidrug resistance protein (MRP family isoforms were expressed in RPE, among which MRP1 was the most abundant. MRP1 was localized to the plasma membrane and inhibition of MRP1 markedly decreased GSH efflux. MRP1-suppressed cells were resistant to cell death and contained elevated intracellular GSH and GSSG. Increased GSH in MRP1-supressed cells resulted from a higher conversion of GSSG to GSH by glutathione reductase. In contrast, GSH efflux was significantly higher in MRP1 overexpressing RPE cells which also contained lower levels of cellular GSH and GSSG. Oxidative stress further increased GSH efflux with a decrease in cellular GSH and rendered cells apoptosis-prone. In conclusion, our data reveal for the first time that 1 MRP1 mediates GSH and GSSG efflux in RPE cells; 2 MRP1 inhibition renders RPE cells resistant to oxidative stress-induced cell death while MRP1 overexpression makes them susceptible and 3 the antiapoptotic function of α-crystallin in oxidatively stressed cells is mediated in part by GSH and MRP1. Our findings suggest that MRP1 and α crystallin are potential therapeutic targets in pathological retinal degenerative disorders linked to oxidative stress.

  2. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-24

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β(3) adrenoceptors linked to G(s) protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel.

  3. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) accumulation in melanoma cells. Is FDG a substrate of multidrug resistance (MDR)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to specify the influence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) on the accumulation of the PET tracer, F-18 FDG ([Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, in melanoma cells, both the MDR function and expression of two human melanoma cell lines SK-MEL 23 and 24, were evaluated. The effects of MDR modulators on FDG accumulation and efflux were also investigated. A functional analysis using representative MDR fluorescent substrates and inhibitors clarified the following characteristics: SK-MEL 23 possesses a highly active function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), but not P-gp. SK-MEL 24 possesses weak functions of both MRP and P-gp. Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies for MDR expression demonstrated an exceedingly high MRP expression of SK-MEL 23 and only slight P-gp and MRP expression of SK-MEL 24, corresponding to the functional data. The efflux inhibition assay using F-18 FDG revealed a considerable retention of FDG in SK-MEL 23 in the presence of the MRP inhibitor probenecid. It was also found that the P-gp inhibitor verapamil depressed the FDG efflux of SK-MEL 24. Our present in vitro study suggests that FDG may be a substrate of MDR in some melanoma cells and further MDR may be one of the important factors affecting FDG-PET melanoma imaging. (author)

  4. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multi-drug resistance (MDR of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.

  5. Strategies to overcome or circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyu; Li, Xun; Wu, Jifeng; Li, Jinpei; Qu, Xianjun; Xu, Wenfang; Tang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience intrinsic or acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. The phenomenon, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is often associated with the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein pump, which can enhance efflux of a various chemicals structurally unrelated at the expense of ATP depletion, resulting in decrease of the intracellular cytotoxic drug accumulation. The MDR has been a big threaten to the human health and the war fight for it continues. Although several other mechanisms for MDR are elucidated in recent years, considerable efforts attempting to inverse MDR are involved in exploring P-glycoprotein modulators and suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. In this review, we will report on the recent advances in various strategies for overcoming or circumventing MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  6. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Stella; To, Kenneth Kw; Lin, Ge

    2010-07-25

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.

  7. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  8. Reduced intracellular drug accumulation in drug-resistant leukemia cells is not solely due to MDR-mediated efflux but also to decreased uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oliveira Pisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of ABC family transporter proteins that promote drug efflux from cancer cells is a widely observed mechanism of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells. Cell adaptation in long-term culture of HL60 leukemic cells in the presence of chemotherapy leads to induction and maintenance of the ABC transporters expression, preventing further accumulation of drugs. However, we found that decreased accumulation of drugs and fluorescent dyes was also contributed by a reduced uptake by the resistant cells. Confocal time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that fluid-phase endocytosis was diminished in drug-resistant cells compared to drug-sensitive cells. Drug uptake was increased by insulin co-treatment when cells were grown in methylcellulose and monitored under the microscope, but not when cultured in suspension. We propose that multi-drug resistance is not solely achieved by enhanced efflux capacity but also by supressed intake of the drug offering an alternative target to overcome drug resistance or potentiate chemotherapy.

  9. Evaluation of expression of NorA efflux pump in ciprofloxacin resistant Staphylococcus aureus against hexahydroquinoline derivative by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Masoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Amini, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is one of most common causes of nosocomial and community acquired infections. The fluoroquinolones are an important class of antibiotics that used to treat infections caused by S. aureus. Today, a significant increase in the rate of ciprofloxacin resistance in methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains is concerning. The norA efflux pump is considered as contributors to antibiotic resistance. Here, we aimed to evaluate the expression of norA efflux pump in the presence of hexahydroquinoline derivative in methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. We were determined minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin and hexahydroquinoline derivative and their combination by broth microdilution method against ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. The expression of the norA efflux pump gene was evaluated by quantitative Real-time PCR. This study showed that minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the presence of hexahydroquinoline derivative in comparison to ciprofloxacin were decreased. Quantitative Real-time PCR identified the increased expression of norA efflux pump gene in methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus strain. The increased expression of norA efflux pump gene may have resulted in the effort of S. aureus to survive. The results showed that the hexahydroquinoline derivative enhanced the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin against methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus. Therefore, the derivatives may be used as inhibitors of antibiotic resistance for combination therapy.

  10. Inactivation of Efflux Pumps Abolishes Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Malin; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause numerous problems in health care and industry; notably, biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Bacteria rely on efflux pumps...... to get rid of toxic substances. We discovered that efflux pumps are highly active in bacterial biofilms, thus making efflux pumps attractive targets for antibiofilm measures. A number of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are known. EPIs were shown to reduce biofilm formation, and in combination they could...... abolish biofilm formation completely. Also, EPIs were able to block the antibiotic tolerance of biofilms. The results of this feasibility study might pave the way for new treatments for biofilm-related infections and may be exploited for prevention of biofilms in general....

  11. In vivo evaluation of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) as a drug absorption modulator for MRP2 efflux pump substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greindl, Melanie; Föger, Florian; Hombach, Juliane; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    Recently, several polymers have been reported to modulate drug absorption by inhibition of intestinal efflux pumps such as multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-Cys) to act as a drug absorption modulator for MRP2 efflux pump substrates in vivo, using sulforhodamine 101 as representative MRP2 substrate. In vitro, the permeation-enhancing effect of unmodified PAA and PAA(250)-Cys(,) displaying 580 micromol free thiol groups per gram polymer, was evaluated by using freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing-type chambers. In comparison to that of the buffer control, the sulforhodamine 101 transport in the presence of 0.5% unmodified PAA(250) and 0.5% (w/v) PAA(250)-Cys was 1.3- and 4.0-fold improved, respectively. In vivo, sulforhodamine 101 solutions containing 4% (w/v) unmodified PAA(250) or 4% (w/v) thiolated PAA(250) were orally given to rats. The PAA(250)-Cys solution increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)) of sulforhodamine 101 3.8-fold in comparison to control and 2.2-fold in comparison to unmodified PAA(250). This in vivo study revealed that PAA(250)-Cys significantly increased the oral bioavailability of MRP2 substrate sulforhodamine 101.

  12. Multi drug resistance to cancer chemotherapy: Genes involved and blockers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M.

    2007-01-01

    During the last three decades, important and considerable research efforts had been performed to investigate the mechanism through which cancer cells overcome the cytotoxic effects of a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs. Most of the previously published work has been focused on the resistance of tumor cells to those anticancer drugs of natural source. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a cellular cross-resistance to a broad spectrum of natural products used in cancer chemotherapy and is believed to be the major cause of the therapeutic failures of the drugs belonging to different naturally obtained or semisynthetic groups including vinca alkaloids, taxans, epipodophyllotoxins and certain antibiotics. This phenomenon results from overexpression of four MDR genes and their corresponding proteins that act as membrane-bound ATP consuming pumps. These proteins mediate the efflux of many structurally and functionally unrelated anticancer drugs of natural source. MDR may be intrinsic or acquired following exposure to chemotherapy. The existence of intrinsically resistant tumor cell clone before and following chemotherapeutic treatment has been associated with a worse final outcome because of increased incidence of distant metasis. In view of irreplaceability of natural product anticancer drugs as effective chemotherapeutic agents, and in view of MDR as a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy, this review is aimed to highlight the genes involved in MDR, classical MDR blockers and gene therapy approaches to overcome MDR. (author)

  13. Repressive mutations restore function-loss caused by the disruption of trimerization in Escherichia coli multidrug transporter AcrB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshuai eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AcrAB-TolC and their homologs are major multidrug efflux systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The inner membrane component AcrB functions as a trimer. Replacement of Pro223 by Gly in AcrB decreases the trimer stability and drastically reduces the drug efflux activity. The goal of this study is to identify suppressor mutations that restore function to mutant AcrBP223G and explore the mechanism of function recovery. Two methods were used to introduce random mutations into the plasmid of AcrBP223G. Mutants with elevated drug efflux activity were identified, purified, and characterized to examine their expression level, trimer stability, interaction with AcrA, and substrate binding. Nine single-site repressor mutations were identified, including T199M, D256N, A209V, G257V, M662I, Q737L, D788K, P800S, and E810K. Except for M662I, all other mutations located in the docking region of the periplasmic domain. While three mutations, T199M, A209V, and D256N, significantly increased the trimer stability, none of them restored the trimer affinity to the wild type level. M662, the only site of mutation that located in the porter domain, was involved in substrate binding. Our results suggest that the function loss resulted from compromised AcrB trimerization could be restored through various mechanisms involving the compensation of trimer stability and substrate binding.

  14. Nrf2 activation ameliorates cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells through increased glutathione levels and arsenic efflux from cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Shoichi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Koike, Shin [Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Yuan, Bo; Takagi, Norio [Department of Applied Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ogasawara, Yuki, E-mail: yo@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis, has been shown to activate nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays a central role in cytoprotective responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. Recently, the Nrf2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) pathway has been associated with cancer drug resistance attributable to modulation of the expression and activation of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. However, the exact mechanisms by which Nrf2 activation results in chemoresistance are insufficiently understood to date. This study investigated the mechanisms by which the cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO), an anticancer drug, were decreased in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells treated with CA, a typical activator of Nrf2 used to stimulate the Nrf2/Keap1 system. Our findings suggest that arsenic is non-enzymatically incorporated into NB4 cells and forms complexes that are dependent on intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations. In addition, the arsenic complexes are recognized as substrates by multidrug resistance proteins and subsequently excreted from the cells. Therefore, Nrf2-associated activation of the GSH biosynthetic pathway, followed by increased levels of intracellular GSH, are key mechanisms underlying accelerated arsenic efflux and attenuation of the cytotoxic effects of ATO. - Highlights: • Nrf2 activation attenuates the effect of arsenic trioxide to acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. • The sensitivity of arsenic trioxide to NB4 cells was dependent on efflux rate of arsenic. • Activation of the GSH biosynthesis is essential in Nrf2-regulated responses for arsenic efflux.

  15. Attaching NorA efflux pump inhibitors to methylene blue enhances antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineh, Ardeshir; Bremner, John B; Hamblin, Michael R; Ball, Anthony R; Tegos, George P; Kelso, Michael J

    2018-02-24

    Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a public health concern worldwide due to the increasing failure of standard antibiotic therapies. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) is a promising non-antibiotic alternative for treating localized bacterial infections that uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and kill microbes. Phenothiazinium photosensitizers like methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue O are hydrophobic cations that are naturally expelled from bacterial cells by multidrug efflux pumps, which reduces their effectiveness. We recently reported the discovery of a NorA efflux pump inhibitor-methylene blue (EPI-MB) hybrid compound INF55-(Ac)en-MB that shows enhanced photodynamic inactivation of the Gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) relative to MB, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the surprising observation that INF55-(Ac)en-MB and two related hybrids bearing the NorA efflux pump inhibitors INF55 and INF271 also show enhanced aPDI activity in vitro (relative to MB) against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, despite neither species expressing the NorA pump. Two of the hybrids showed superior effects to MB in murine aPDI infection models. The findings motivate wider exploration of aPDI with EPI-MB hybrids against Gram-negative pathogens and more detailed studies into the molecular mechanisms underpinning their activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Classification Models for Identifying “True” P-glycoprotein (P-gp Inhibitors Through Inhibition, ATPase Activation and Monolayer Efflux Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Bianucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (P-gp is an efflux pump involved in the protection of tissues of several organs by influencing xenobiotic disposition. P-gp plays a key role in multidrug resistance and in the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. The development of new and more effective therapeutics targeting P-gp thus represents an intriguing challenge in drug discovery. P-gp inhibition may be considered as a valid approach to improve drug bioavailability as well as to overcome drug resistance to many kinds of tumours characterized by the over-expression of this protein. This study aims to develop classification models from a unique dataset of 59 compounds for which there were homogeneous experimental data on P-gp inhibition, ATPase activation and monolayer efflux. For each experiment, the dataset was split into a training and a test set comprising 39 and 20 molecules, respectively. Rational splitting was accomplished using a sphere-exclusion type algorithm. After a two-step (internal/external validation, the best-performing classification models were used in a consensus predicting task for the identification of compounds named as “true” P-gp inhibitors, i.e., molecules able to inhibit P-gp without being effluxed by P-gp itself and simultaneously unable to activate the ATPase function.

  17. Proteome analysis of multidrug-resistant, breast cancer–derived microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Pokharel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer multidrug resistance (MDR occurs when cancer cells evade the cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutics through the active efflux of drugs from within the cells. Our group have previously demonstrated that multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells spontaneously shed microparticles (MPs and that these MPs can transfer resistance to drug-responsive cells and confer MDR on those cells in as little as 4 h. Furthermore, we also showed that, unlike MPs derived from leukaemia cells, breast cancer–derived MPs display a tissue selectivity in the transfer of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, transferring the resistance protein only to malignant breast cells. This study aims to define the proteome of breast cancer–derived MPs in order to understand the differences in protein profiles between those shed from drug-resistant versus drug-sensitive breast cancer cells. In doing so, we detail the protein cargo required for the intercellular transfer of MDR to drug-sensitive recipient cells and the factors governing the transfer selectivity to malignant breast cells. We describe the first proteomic analysis of MPs derived from human breast cancer cells using SDS PAGE and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, in which we identify 120 unique proteins found only in drug-resistant, breast cancer–derived MPs. Our results demonstrate that the MP-mediated transfer of P-gp to recipient cells occurs alongside CD44; the Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin protein family (ERM; and cytoskeleton motor proteins within the MP cargo.

  18. Novel nanostructured enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid carriers overcome tumor multidrug resistance of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Lei; Kou, Longfa; Xu, Meng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peng; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-20

    Novel enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid nanocarries (EPNs) were successfully designed for sustained delivery of hydrophilic cationic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). By incorporation of the negative polymer of enoxaparin sodium (ES), DOX was highly encapsulated into EPNs with an encapsulation efficiency of 92.49%, and ES effectively inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC cell lines. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study after intravenous injection indicated that DOX-loaded EPNs (DOX-EPNs) exhibited a higher area under the curve (AUC) and a longer half-life (t 1/2 ) in comparison with DOX solution (DOX-Sol). The biodistribution study demonstrated that DOX-EPNs increased the DOX level in plasma and decreased the accumulation of DOX in liver and spleen. Compared with DOX-Sol, DOX-EPNs increased the cytotoxicity in P-gp over-expressing MCF-7/Adr cells, attributed to the higher intracellular efficiency of DOX produced by the EPNs. DOX-EPNs entered into resistant tumor cells by multiple endocytosis pathways, which resulted in overcoming the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells by escaping the efflux induced by P-gp transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Efflux Pumps in Resistance to Fluoroquinolones in E.coli Isolated from Inpatients in Kermanshah Hospitals in 2013

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    Maryam Doosti Mohajer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Antibiotic resistance rates in E. coli are rapidly rising, especially with regard to fluoroquinolones. One of the mechanisms that lead to antibiotic resistance is efflux pumps. The aim of this study was phonotypic and genotypic analysis of efflux pump role in fluoroquinolones resistance of E. coli strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Kermanshah 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 isolates of E. coli were collected from hospitalized patients from Kermanshah. All isolates were identified by standard biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. The presence of Efflux pump genes was determined by a PCR method. Results: The rates of resistance to Ceftazidime, Nalidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Gentamicin, and Tetracycline were 73%, 67%, 55%, 54%, 45%, 38%, and 24%, respectively. According to the results of PCR test, of 100 E. coli isolates, 99% of isolates were positive for acrA, 98% for acrB, 95% for acrE, 98% for acrF, 94% for mdfA, 96% for norE, and 96% for tolC. Conclusion: In Strains with positive gene acrA, acrB, acrA, acrB, tolC, mdfA, norE, the presence of efflux pump inhibitor reduced the amount of resistance to antibiotics. So, efflux pumps are important in antibiotic resistance.

  20. Efflux Pump-mediated Drug Resistance in Burkholderia

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    Nicole L Podnecky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several members of the genus Burkholderia are prominent pathogens. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. Virtually all Burkholderia species are also resistant to polymyxin, prohibiting use of drugs like colistin that are available for treatment of infections caused by most other drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite clinical significance and antibiotic resistance of Burkholderia species, characterization of efflux pumps lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although efflux pumps have been described in several Burkholderia species, they have been best studied in B. cenocepacia and B. pseudomallei. As in other non-enteric Gram-negatives, efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND family are the clinically most significant efflux systems in these two species. Several efflux pumps were described in B. cenocepacia, which when expressed confer resistance to clinically significant antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Three RND pumps have been characterized in B. pseudomallei, two of which confer either intrinsic or acquired resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and in some instances trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Several strains of the host-adapted B. mallei, a clone of B. pseudomallei, lack AmrAB-OprA and are therefore aminoglycoside and macrolide susceptible. B. thailandensis is closely related to B. pseudomallei, but non-pathogenic to humans. Its pump repertoire and ensuing drug resistance profile parallels that of B. pseudomallei. An efflux pump in B. vietnamiensis plays a significant role in acquired aminoglycoside resistance. Summarily, efflux pumps are significant players in Burkholderia drug resistance.

  1. Bodipy-FL-Verapamil: A Fluorescent Probe for the Study of Multidrug Resistance Proteins

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    Anna Rosati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the substances used as fluorescent probes to study drug transport and the effect of efflux blockers in multidrug resistant cells have many drawbacks, such as toxicity, unspecific background, accumulation in mitochondria. New fluorescent compounds, among which Bodipy‐FL‐verapamil (BV, have been therefore proposed as more useful tools. The uptake of BV has been evaluated by cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy using cell lines that overexpress P‐glycoprotein (P388/ADR and LLC‐PK1/ADR or MRP (multidrug resistance‐related protein (PANC‐1 and clinical specimens from patients. The effect of specific inhibitors for P‐glycoprotein (verapamil and vinblastine or MRP (MK571 and probenecid has been also studied. BV intracellular concentrations were significantly lower in the two P‐glycoprotein overexpressing cell lines in comparison with the parental lines. In addition, verapamil and vinblastine increased the intracellular concentrations of the dye; MK571 and probenecid, two MRP inhibitors, increased BV levels in PANC‐1 cells, that express this protein. These findings were confirmed in clinical specimens from patients. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a faint fluorescence emission in P‐glycoprotein or MRP expressing cell lines; however, treatment with specific inhibitors significantly increased the fluorescence. BV is a useful tool for studying multidrug resistance proteins with different techniques such as cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, but does not discriminate between P‐glycoprotein and MRP. In comparison with other classic fluorescent probes, the assay with this dye is extremely rapid, simple, not toxic for cells, devoid of fluorescent background, and can be useful in the clinical settings.

  2. Solutol HS 15, nontoxic polyoxyethylene esters of 12-hydroxystearic acid, reverses multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, J S; Knudson, W; Clodfelter, K; Lu, B; Weinstein, R S

    1991-02-01

    A recently developed non-ionic surfactant called Solutol HS 15 (poly-oxyethylene esters of 12-hydroxystearic acid), with low toxicity in vivo, was shown to reverse completely the multidrug resistance of KB 8-5 and KB 8-5-11 human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro but did not potentiate drug toxicity in drug-sensitive KB 3-1 cells. At a concentration of 10% of its own IC50 (mean concentration of drug that causes 50% inhibition of cell growth compared to controls), Solutol HS 15 produced a 35-, 28-, and 42-fold reduction in the resistance of KB 8-5-11 cells to colchicine, vinblastine, and doxorubicin, respectively. Solutol HS 15 was relatively much more potent than the prototypic reversing agent, verapamil, for reversing colchicine resistance, compared to the ability of each agent to reverse colchicine resistance, compared to the ability of each agent to reverse vinblastine resistance. Like verapamil, Solutol HS 15 promoted a 50-fold accumulation of rhodamine 123 in KB 8-5-11 cells, as measured by flow cytometry. Also, Solutol HS 15 and verapamil reduced the efflux of rhodamine 123 from KB 8-5-11 cells previously loaded with rhodamine 123 to a similar low rate. Solutol HS 15 did not affect the transport of alanine or glucose into KB 8-5-11 cells, indicating that its effect upon membrane active transport is not entirely nonspecific. Considering their different structure and different relative potency for reversing colchicine resistance, Solutol HS 15 and verapamil probably reverse multidrug resistance by different mechanisms. Solutol HS 15 merits consideration as a potential therapeutic agent because of its effectiveness for reversing multidrug resistance in vitro and its low toxicity in vivo.

  3. Association of ABCB1, β tubulin I, and III with multidrug resistance of MCF7/DOC subline from breast cancer cell line MCF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Zhai, Baoping; Zhi, Hui; Li, Yuhong; Jia, Linjiao; Ding, Chao; Zhang, Bin; You, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Docetaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced breast cancer. The development of chemoresistance or multidrug resistance (MDR), however, results in breast cancer chemotherapy failure. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying docetaxel-resistance in treatment of breast cancer. The docetaxel-resistant subline MCF7/DOC, derived from the parental sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF7, was established by intermittent exposure to moderate concentrations of docetaxel, followed by examination of its phenotypes. The MCF7/DOC subline showed cross resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-Fu. Compared to the parental MCF7, MCF7/DOC cells were enlarged with heterogeneous sizes and a cobblestone and polygonal appearance. They were arrested at G2/M phase and proliferated slowly. The colony formation potential of MCF7/DOC in soft agar was significantly increased. MCF7/DOC cells showed reduced intracellular accumulation and increased efflux of rhodamine 123. The mRNA expression level of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, i.e., ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and β tubulin isotypes were characterized by quantitative PCR. High-level expression of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mRNA in MCF7/DOC was detected. Downregulation of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mediated by three combined siRNAs resulted in stronger growth inhibition of MCF7/DOC than inhibition of the expression of individual genes. ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin might contribute to the MDR of MCF7/DOC and be potential therapeutic targets for overcoming MDR of breast cancer.

  4. Arsenic efflux from Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yan

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton plays an important role in arsenic speciation, distribution, and cycling in freshwater environments. Little information, however, is available on arsenic efflux from the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes. This study investigated M. aeruginosa arsenic efflux and speciation by pre-exposing it to 10 µM arsenate or arsenite for 24 h during limited (12 h and extended (13 d depuration periods under phosphate enriched (+P and phosphate depleted (-P treatments. Arsenate was the predominant species detected in algal cells throughout the depuration period while arsenite only accounted for no greater than 45% of intracellular arsenic. During the limited depuration period, arsenic efflux occurred rapidly and only arsenate was detected in solutions. During the extended depuration period, however, arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were found to be the two predominant arsenic species detected in solutions under -P treatments, but arsenate was the only species detected under +P treatments. Experimental results also suggest that phosphorus has a significant effect in accelerating arsenic efflux and promoting arsenite bio-oxidation in M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, phosphorus depletion can reduce arsenic efflux from algal cells as well as accelerate arsenic reduction and methylation. These findings can contribute to our understanding of arsenic biogeochemistry in aquatic environments and its potential environmental risks under different phosphorus levels.

  5. Metabolic Compensation of Fitness Costs Is a General Outcome for Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mutants Overexpressing Efflux Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Pacheco, Jorge; Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Alcalde Rico, Manuel; Martínez, José Luis

    2017-07-25

    It is generally assumed that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance is associated with a fitness cost. We have shown that overexpression of the MexEF-OprN efflux pump does not decrease the fitness of a resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain compared to its wild-type counterpart. This lack of fitness cost was associated with a metabolic rewiring that includes increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain when cells are growing under fully aerobic conditions. It was not clear whether this metabolic compensation was exclusive to strains overexpressing MexEF-OprN or if it extended to other resistant strains that overexpress similar systems. To answer this question, we studied a set of P. aeruginosa mutants that independently overexpress the MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, or MexXY efflux pumps. We observed increased expression of the anaerobic nitrate respiratory chain in all cases, with a concomitant increase in NO 3 consumption and NO production. These efflux pumps are proton/substrate antiporters, and their overexpression may lead to intracellular H + accumulation, which may in turn offset the pH homeostasis. Indeed, all studied mutants showed a decrease in intracellular pH under anaerobic conditions. The fastest way to eliminate the excess of protons is by increasing oxygen consumption, a feature also displayed by all analyzed mutants. Taken together, our results support metabolic rewiring as a general mechanism to avoid the fitness costs derived from overexpression of P. aeruginosa multidrug efflux pumps. The development of drugs that block this metabolic "reaccommodation" might help in reducing the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance elements among bacterial populations. IMPORTANCE It is widely accepted that the acquisition of resistance confers a fitness cost in such a way that in the absence of antibiotics, resistant populations will be outcompeted by susceptible ones. Based on this assumption, antibiotic cycling regimes have been

  6. The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport processes that are involved in the intestinal transport of the H(2) receptor antagonist nizatidine. The intestinal epithelial efflux transport mechanisms of nizatidine were investigated and characterized across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in the concentration range 0.05-10 mM in both apical-basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions, and the transport constants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux activity were calculated. The concentration-dependent effects of various P-gp (verapamil, quinidine, erythromycin, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine A), multidrug resistant-associated protein 2 (MRP2; MK-571, probenecid, indomethacin, and p-aminohipuric acid), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; Fumitremorgin C) inhibitors on nizatidine bidirectional transport were examined. Nizatidine exhibited 7.7-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. All P-gp inhibitors investigated displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on nizatidine secretion in both directions. The IC(50) of verapamil on nizatidine P-gp secretion was 1.2 x 10(-2) mM. In the absence of inhibitors, nizatidine displayed concentration-dependent secretion, with one saturable (J(max) = 5.7 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and K(m) = 2.2 mM) and one nonsaturable component (K(d) = 7 x 10(-4) microL cm(-2) s(-1)). Under complete P-gp inhibition, nizatidine exhibited linear secretory flux, with a slope similar to the nonsaturable component. V(max) and K(m) estimated for nizatidine P-gp-mediated secretion were 4 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.2 mM, respectively. No effect was obtained with the MRP2 or the BCRP inhibitors. Being a drug commonly used in pediatrics, adults, and elderly, nizatidine susceptibility to efflux transport by P-gp revealed in this paper may be of significance in its absorption, distribution, and clearance, as well as possible drug-drug interactions.

  7. Rapid efflux of Ca2+ from heart mitochondria in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercesi, A; Lehninger, A L

    1984-01-13

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the intracellular concentration range causes rapid efflux of Ca2+ from rat heart mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate + malate in a low Na+ medium. Half-maximal rates of Ca2+ efflux were given by 20 microM PPi. During and after PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux the mitochondria retain their structural integrity and complete respiratory control. Carboxyatractyloside inhibits PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux, indicating PPi must enter the matrix in order to promote Ca2+ efflux. Heart mitochondria have a much higher affinity for PPi uptake and PPi-induced Ca2+ efflux than liver mitochondria.

  8. Boronic species as promising inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump: study of 6-substituted pyridine-3-boronic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Fanny; Héquet, Arnaud; Voisin-Chiret, Anne-Sophie; Bouillon, Alexandre; Lesnard, Aurélien; Cresteil, Thierry; Jolivalt, Claude; Rault, Sylvain

    2015-05-05

    In response to the extensive use of antibiotics, bacteria have evolved numerous mechanisms of defense against antimicrobial agents. Among them, extrusion of the antimicrobial agents outside the bacterial cell through efflux pumps is a major cause of concern. At first limited to one or few structurally-related antibiotics, bacterial resistance have then progressed towards cross-resistance between different classes of antibiotics, leading to multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Emergence of these pathogens requires development of novel therapeutic strategies and inhibition of efflux pumps appears to be a promising strategy that could restore the potency of existing antibiotics. NorA is the most studied chromosomal efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus; it is known to be implied in resistance of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains against a wide range of unrelated substrates, including hydrophilic fluoroquinolones. Starting from 6-benzyloxypyridine-3-boronic acid I that we previously identified as a potential inhibitor of the NorA efflux pump against the NorA-overexpressing S. aureus 1199B strain (SA1199B), we describe here the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 6-(aryl)alkoxypyridine-3-boronic acids. 6-(3-Phenylpropoxy)pyridine-3-boronic acid 3i and 6-(4-phenylbutoxy)pyridine-3-boronic acid 3j were found to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity by a 4-fold increase compared to the parent compound I. In addition, it has been shown that both compounds promote Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) accumulation in SA1199B, thus corroborating their potential mode of action as NorA inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of treatment and re-treatment with artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine on selection of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene-1 polymorphisms in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Baraka

    Full Text Available The emergence of resistance against artemisinin combination treatment is a major concern for malaria control. ACTs are recommended as the rescue treatment, however, there is limited evidence as to whether treatment and re-treatment with ACTs select for drug-resistant P. falciparum parasites. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of (re-treatment using artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ and artemether-lumefantrine (AL on the selection of P. falciparum multidrug resistance-1 (Pfmdr1 alleles in clinical settings.P. falciparum positive samples were collected from children aged 12-59 months in a clinical trial in DR Congo and Uganda. Pfmdr1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs analysis at codons N86Y, Y184F, and D1246Y were performed at baseline and post-treatment with either AL or ASAQ as a rescue treatment using nested PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assays.The pre-treatment prevalence of Pfmdr1 N86 and D1246Y varied significantly between the sites, (p>0.001 and (p = 0.013, respectively. There was borderline significant directional selection for Pfmdr1 184F in recurrent malaria infections after treatment with AL in Uganda site (p = 0.05. Pfmdr1 NFD haplotype did not significantly change in post-treatment infections after re-treatment with either AL or ASAQ. Comparison between pre-treatment and post-treatment recurrences did not indicate directional selection of Pfmdr1 N86, D1246 alleles in the pre-RCT, RCT and post-RCT phases in both AL and ASAQ treatment arms. Pfmdr1 86Y was significantly associated with reduced risk of AL treatment failure (RR = 0.34, 95% CI:0.11-1.05, p = 0.04 while no evidence for D1246 allele (RR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.42-2.47, p = 1.0. Survival estimates showed that the Pfmdr1 alleles had comparable mean-time to PCR-corrected recrudescence and new infections in both AL and ASAQ treatment arms.We found limited impact of (re-treatment with AL or ASAQ on selection for Pfmdr1

  10. Re-evolution of the 2-phenylquinolines: ligand-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a potent new class of Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Iraci, Nunzio; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Massari, Serena; Sancineto, Luca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Dimovska, Mirjana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2013-06-27

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of antimicrobial agents that are substrates. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, biocides, and dyes, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenylquinoline derivatives was designed by means of ligand-based pharmacophore modeling in an attempt to identify improved S. aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Most of the 2-phenylquinoline derivatives displayed potent EPI activity against the norA overexpressing strain SA-1199B. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, when used in combination with some of the synthesized compounds, was completely restored in SA-1199B and SA-K2378, a strain overexpressing norA from a multicopy plasmid. Compounds 3m and 3q also showed potent synergistic activity with the ethidium bromide dye in a strain overexpressing the MepA MDR efflux pump.

  11. Phagocytosis-induced /sup 45/calcium efflux in polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, A; Schell-Frederick, E [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire; Paridaens, R [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Faculte de Medicine

    1977-10-15

    The role of calcium ions in regulating the structure and function of non-muscle cells is a subject of intense study. Several lines of evidence that calcium may be essential in the function of polymorphonuclear leuocytes (PMNL) and an important control element in the process of phagocytosis. Direct studies of calcium distribution and fluxes have only recently been undertaken. To our knowledge, no report of calcium movements during normal phagocytosis has been published. In the context of an overall study of calcium dynamics in the PMNL, we report here initial studies on /sup 45/Ca efflux in prelabelled guinea pig PMNL. The results demonstrate the energy-dependence of resting calcium efflux and an increased efflux upon addition of phagocytic particles which is not dependent on particle internalization.

  12. Organic carbon efflux from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea

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    S. J. Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the efflux of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC and Particulate Organic Carbon (POC in forested catchments. Concentrations of DOC and POC can be very high in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their efflux may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: (1 how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and (2 how much DOC and POC are exported from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers in a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual efflux of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual efflux of organic carbon was estimated to be about 10% of the Net Ecosystem carbon Exchange (NEE obtained by eddy covariance measurement at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon efflux from forest catchments would result in an inaccurate estimation of the carbon sink strength of forest ecosystems in the monsoon

  13. Measurements of low energy neutral hydrogen efflux during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Ruzic, D.; Voss, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    Using the Low Energy Neutral Atom Spectrometer, measurements were made of the H 0 and D 0 efflux from PLT during ion cyclotron heating experiments. The application of rf power at frequencies appropriate to fundamental and 2nd-harmonic heating results in a rapid, toroidally uniform rise in the charge-exchange efflux at a rate of about 10 15 cm -2 s -1 MW -1 . This flux increase is larger at lower plasma currents. The cause of this flux and its impact on plasma behavior are discussed

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Against Multidrug Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Various Other Pathogens. ... Purpose: The rapid emergence of drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria, especially multidrugresistant bacteria, underlines the need to look for new antibiotics. Methods: In the present ...

  15. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  16. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  17. Molecular properties of bacterial multidrug transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, M; van Veen, HW; Konings, WN

    2000-01-01

    One of the mechanisms that bacteria utilize to evade the toxic effects of antibiotics is the active extrusion of structurally unrelated drugs from the cell. Both intrinsic and acquired multidrug transporters play an important role in antibiotic resistance of several pathogens, including Neisseria

  18. Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Infection and Their Antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii, a non-glucose fermenting Gram negative bacillus, has emerged in the last three decades as a major etiological agent of hospital-associated infections giving rise to significant morbidity and mortality particularly in immunocompromised patients. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii ...

  19. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  20. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy. PMID:29181307

  1. Multidrug transporters in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurkiewicz, P; Sakamoto, K; Poelarends, GJ; Konings, WN

    Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria possess several Multi-Drug Resistance systems (MDRs) that excrete out of the cell a wide variety of mainly cationic lipophilic cytotoxic compounds as well as many clinically relevant antibiotics. These MDRs are either proton/drug antiporters belonging to the major

  2. Multidrug Resistance in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections may cause disease and death. Infants and children are often subject to bacterial infections. Antimicrobials kill bacteria protecting the infected patients andreducing the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by bacteria. The antibiotics may lose their antibacterial activity when they become resistant to a bacteria. The resistance to different antibiotics in a bacteria is named multidrug-resistance. Gram-negative bacilli, especially Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, may become resistant. Amikacin ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxiclav, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin may cause bacterial-resistance. Resistance to bacteria for several pathogens makes complications in the treatment of infections caused by them. Salmonella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cephalotin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Shigella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Multidrug-resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae may be due to β-lactams, macrolides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may become resistant to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The antibacterial activity against Haemophilus strains may occur with ampicillin, sulbactam-ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Multidrug-resistance of the Klebsiella species may be due with ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, co-amxilav, mezlocillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ceftazidime. Multidrug-resistance of Escherichia coli may be caused by ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. Vibrio

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK104832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104832 001-042-A09 L25604.2 Bacillus subtilis bmrU (bmrU) and multidrug-efflux transporter (bmr...) genes, complete cds; bmrR gene, complete sequence; multidrug-efflux transporter regulator (bmr

  4. A Constitutively Mannose-Sensitive Agglutinating Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain, Carrying a Transposon in the Fimbrial Usher Gene stbC, Exhibits Multidrug Resistance and Flagellated Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsun Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Static broth culture favors Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce type 1 fimbriae, while solid agar inhibits its expression. A transposon inserted in stbC, which would encode an usher for Stb fimbriae of a non-flagellar Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LB5010 strain, conferred it to agglutinate yeast cells on both cultures. RT-PCR revealed that the expression of the fimbrial subunit gene fimA, and fimZ, a regulatory gene of fimA, were both increased in the stbC mutant when grown on LB agar; fimW, a repressor gene of fimA, exhibited lower expression. Flagella were observed in the stbC mutant and this phenotype was correlated with the motile phenotype. Microarray data and RT-PCR indicated that the expression of three genes, motA, motB, and cheM, was enhanced in the stbC mutant. The stbC mutant was resistant to several antibiotics, consistent with the finding that expression of yhcQ and ramA was enhanced. A complementation test revealed that transforming a recombinant plasmid possessing the stbC restored the mannose-sensitive agglutination phenotype to the stbC mutant much as that in the parental Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LB5010 strain, indicating the possibility of an interplay of different fimbrial systems in coordinating their expression.

  5. Mitochondrial function is involved in regulation of cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apoA-I from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Anne Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA damage, increased production of reactive oxygen species and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, together with increased deposition of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial function in regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, by the addition of established pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial function. Methods Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with a range of concentrations of resveratrol, antimycin, dinitrophenol, nigericin and oligomycin, and changes in viability, cytotoxicity, membrane potential and ATP, compared with efflux of [3H]cholesterol to apolipoprotein (apo A-I. The effect of oligomycin treatment on expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, relative to the housekeeping enzyme, Gapdh, and combined with studies of this molecule on cholesterol esterification, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and induction of apoptosis. Significant differences were determined using analysis of variance, and Dunnett’s or Bonferroni post t-tests, as appropriate. Results The positive control, resveratrol (24 h, significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I at concentrations ≥30 μM. By contrast, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was significantly inhibited by nigericin (45%; ppAbca1 mRNA. Oligomycin treatment did not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, but significantly inhibited cholesterol esterification following exposure to acetylated LDL, and induced apoptosis at ≥30 μM. Finally, oligomycin induced the expression of genes implicated in both cholesterol efflux (Abca1, Abcg4, Stard1 and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgr, Mvk, Scap, Srebf2, indicating profound dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Conclusions Acute loss of mitochondrial function, and in particular Δψm, reduces

  6. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki

    2014-01-01

    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration “hot spots”, an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determi...

  7. In-silico identification and phylogenetic analysis of auxin efflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... PIN proteins of Arabidopsis viz., PIN1,PIN4 and PIN7 show plasma membrane .... The central hydrophilic loop is dynamic in nature and differs from each other in terms ... research of this plant at the molecular level. Auxin efflux.

  8. Effect of phosphorus limiting on phytase activity, proton efflux and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work intended to measure the nodulated-roots oxygen consumption, proton efflux and phytase activity in 2 lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (115, 147) at 2 levels of P supply. Rooted seedlings were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 in hydroaeroponic cultivation under glasshouse. Phosphorus was ...

  9. Influence of repeated canopy scorching on soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    DP Aubrey; B Martazavi; Joseph O' Brien; JD McGee; JJ Hendricks; KA Kuehn; RJ Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems experience various disturbances that can affect belowground carbon cycling to different degrees. Here, we investigate if successive annual foliar scorching events will result in a large and rapid decline in soil CO2 efflux, similar to that observed in girdling studies. Using the fire-adapted longleaf pine (Pinus...

  10. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP 3 mobilizes Ca ++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca ++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca ++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP 3 , Ca ++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45 Ca ++ placed in a Ca ++ -free medium, and efflux determined as 45 Ca ++ loss from the protoplasts. IP 3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP 3 -enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux suggested that IP 3 released Ca ++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca ++ activated Ca ++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca ++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, A. van; Fournier, N.; Gent, T. van; Paul, J.L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the

  12. Genome Dynamics and Molecular Infection Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Helicobacter pullorum Isolates Obtained from Broiler and Free-Range Chickens in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qumar, Shamsul; Majid, Mohammad; Kumar, Narender; Tiwari, Sumeet K; Semmler, Torsten; Devi, Savita; Baddam, Ramani; Hussain, Arif; Shaik, Sabiha; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-01-01

    Some life-threatening, foodborne, and zoonotic infections are transmitted through poultry birds. Inappropriate and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in the livestock industry has led to an increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria with epidemic potential. Here, we present a functional molecular epidemiological analysis entailing the phenotypic and whole-genome sequence-based characterization of 11 H. pullorum isolates from broiler and free-range chickens sampled from retail wet markets in Hyderabad City, India. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed all of the isolates to be resistant to multiple antibiotic classes such as fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, and macrolides. The isolates were also found to be extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers and were even resistant to clavulanic acid. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of these isolates revealed the presence of five or six well-characterized antimicrobial resistance genes, including those encoding a resistance-nodulation-division efflux pump(s). Phylogenetic analysis combined with pan-genome analysis revealed a remarkable degree of genetic diversity among the isolates from free-range chickens; in contrast, a high degree of genetic similarity was observed among broiler chicken isolates. Comparative genomic analysis of all publicly available H. pullorum genomes, including our isolates (n = 16), together with the genomes of 17 other Helicobacter species, revealed a high number (8,560) of H. pullorum-specific protein-encoding genes, with an average of 535 such genes per isolate. In silico virulence screening identified 182 important virulence genes and also revealed high strain-specific gene content in isolates from free-range chickens (average, 34) compared to broiler chicken isolates. A significant prevalence of prophages (ranging from 1 to 9) and a significant presence of genomic islands (0 to 4) were observed in free-range and broiler chicken isolates

  13. Development of a Novel Antimicrobial Screening System Targeting the Pyoverdine-Mediated Iron Acquisition System and Xenobiotic Efflux Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The iron acquisition systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are inducible in response to low-iron conditions and important for growth of this organism under iron limitation. OprM is the essential outer membrane subunit of the MexAB-OprM xenobiotic efflux pump. We designed and constructed a new model antimicrobial screening system targeting both the iron-uptake system and xenobiotic efflux pumps. The oprM gene was placed immediately downstream of the ferri-pyoverdine receptor gene, fpvA, in the host lacking chromosomal oprM and the expression of oprM was monitored by an antibiotic susceptibility test under iron depleted and replete conditions. The recombinant cells showed wild-type susceptibility to pump substrate antibiotics, e.g., aztreonam, under iron limitation and became supersusceptible to them under iron repletion, suggesting that expression of oprM is under control of the iron acquisition system. Upon screening of a chemical library comprising 2952 compounds using this strain, a compound—ethyl 2-(1-acetylpiperidine-4-carboxamido-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate—was found to enhance the efficacy of aztreonam under iron limitation, suggesting that the compound inhibits either the iron acquisition system or the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. This compound was subsequently found to inhibit the growth of wild-type cells in the presence of sublethal amounts of aztreonam, regardless of the presence or absence of dipyridyl, an iron-chelator. The compound was eventually identified to block the function of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump, showing the validity of this new method.

  14. Development of a novel antimicrobial screening system targeting the pyoverdine-mediated iron acquisition system and xenobiotic efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuki; Ushioda, Kenichi; Akiba, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoshimi; Maseda, Hideaki; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Nakae, Taiji; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2015-04-29

    The iron acquisition systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are inducible in response to low-iron conditions and important for growth of this organism under iron limitation. OprM is the essential outer membrane subunit of the MexAB-OprM xenobiotic efflux pump. We designed and constructed a new model antimicrobial screening system targeting both the iron-uptake system and xenobiotic efflux pumps. The oprM gene was placed immediately downstream of the ferri-pyoverdine receptor gene, fpvA, in the host lacking chromosomal oprM and the expression of oprM was monitored by an antibiotic susceptibility test under iron depleted and replete conditions. The recombinant cells showed wild-type susceptibility to pump substrate antibiotics, e.g., aztreonam, under iron limitation and became supersusceptible to them under iron repletion, suggesting that expression of oprM is under control of the iron acquisition system. Upon screening of a chemical library comprising 2952 compounds using this strain, a compound-ethyl 2-(1-acetylpiperidine-4-carboxamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate-was found to enhance the efficacy of aztreonam under iron limitation, suggesting that the compound inhibits either the iron acquisition system or the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. This compound was subsequently found to inhibit the growth of wild-type cells in the presence of sublethal amounts of aztreonam, regardless of the presence or absence of dipyridyl, an iron-chelator. The compound was eventually identified to block the function of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump, showing the validity of this new method.

  15. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration "hot spots", an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determined the effects of environmental factors on nest CO2 efflux and calculated an index of nest structure. The mean CO2 efflux from nests was significantly higher than those from the surrounding soil in the wet and dry seasons. The CO2 efflux was species-specific, showing significant differences among the 13 ant species. The soil moisture content significantly affected nest CO2 efflux, but there was no clear relationship between nest CO2 efflux and nest soil temperature. The diameter of the nest entrance hole affected CO2 efflux. However, there was no significant difference in CO2 efflux rates between single-hole and multiple-hole nests. Our results suggest that in a tropical forest ecosystem the increase in CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests is caused by species-specific activity of ants, the nest soil environment, and nest structure.

  16. Soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) efflux of two shrubs in response to plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although plant density should affect soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux and carbon cycling in semi-arid regions, the effects of plant density on soil CO2 efflux are not well known. This study was performed to investigate the responses of soil CO2 efflux of two dominant shrubs (Caragana korshinkii and Salix psammophila) to ...

  17. CO2 efflux from soils with seasonal water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2017-10-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are strongly dependent on pore water distribution, which in turn can be modified by reduced wettability. Many soils around the world are affected by soil water repellency (SWR), which reduces infiltration and results in diverse moisture distribution. SWR is temporally variable and soils can change from wettable to water-repellent and vice versa throughout the year. Effects of SWR on soil carbon (C) dynamics, and specifically on CO2 efflux, have only been studied in a few laboratory experiments and hence remain poorly understood. Existing studies suggest soil respiration is reduced with increasing severity of SWR, but the responses of soil CO2 efflux to varying water distribution created by SWR are not yet known.Here we report on the first field-based study that tests whether SWR indeed reduces soil CO2 efflux, based on in situ measurements carried out over three consecutive years at a grassland and pine forest sites under the humid temperate climate of the UK.Soil CO2 efflux was indeed very low on occasions when soil exhibited consistently high SWR and low soil moisture following long dry spells. Low CO2 efflux was also observed when SWR was absent, in spring and late autumn when soil temperatures were low, but also in summer when SWR was reduced by frequent rainfall events. The highest CO2 efflux occurred not when soil was wettable, but when SWR, and thus soil moisture, was spatially patchy, a pattern observed for the majority of the measurement period. Patchiness of SWR is likely to have created zones with two different characteristics related to CO2 production and transport. Zones with wettable soil or low persistence of SWR with higher proportion of water-filled pores are expected to provide water with high nutrient concentration resulting in higher microbial activity and CO2 production. Soil zones with high SWR persistence, on the other hand, are dominated by air-filled pores with low microbial activity, but facilitating O2

  18. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacono, M.; Villa, L.; Fortini, D.

    2008-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of an epidemic, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain (strain ACICU) belonging to the European clone II group and carrying the plasmid-mediated bla(OXA-58) carbapenem resistance gene was determined. The A. baumannii ACICU genome was compared with the genomes...

  19. Computer simulation and interpretation of 45Ca efflux profile patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borle, A.B.; Uchikawa, T.; Anderson, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Stimulations or inhibitions by various agents of 45 Ca efflux from prelabeled cells or tissues display distinct and reproducible profile patterns when the results are plotted against time as fractional efflux ratios (FER). FER is the fractional efflux of 45 Ca from stimulated cells divided by the fractional efflux from a control unstimulated group. These profile patterns fall into three categories: peak patterns, exponential patterns, and mixed patterns. Each category can be positive (stimulation) or negative (inhibition). The interpretation of these profiles is difficult because 45 Ca efflux depends on three variables: the rate of calcium transport out of the cell, the specific activity of the cell compartment from which the calcium originates, and the concentration of free calcium in this compartment. A computer model based on data obtained by kinetic analyses of 45 Ca desaturation curves and consisting of two distinct intracellular pools was designed to follow the concentration of the traced substance ( 40 Ca), the tracer ( 45 Ca), and the specific activity of each compartment before, during, and after the stimulation or the inhibition of calcium fluxes at various pool boundaries. The computer model can reproduce all the FER profiles obtained experimentally and bring information which may be helpful to the interpretation of this type of data. Some predictions of the model were tested experimentally, and the results support the views that a peak pattern may reflect a sustained change in calcium transport across the plasma membrane, that an exponential pattern arises from calcium mobilization from an internal subcellular pool, and that a mixed pattern may be caused by a simultaneous change in calcium fluxes at both compartment boundaries

  20. Calcium efflux systems in stress signalling and adaptation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar eBose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt elevation is an ubiquitous denominator of the signalling network when plants are exposed to literally every known abiotic and biotic stress. These stress-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevations vary in magnitude, frequency and shape, depending on the severity of the stress as well the type of stress experienced. This creates a unique stress-specific calcium signature that is then decoded by signal transduction networks. While most published papers have been focused predominantly on the role of Ca2+ influx mechanisms in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures, restoration of the basal [Ca2+]cyt levels is impossible without both cytosolic Ca2+ buffering and efficient Ca2+ efflux mechanisms removing excess Ca2+ from cytosol, to reload Ca2+ stores and to terminate Ca2+ signalling. This is the topic of the current review. The molecular identity of two major types of Ca2+ efflux systems, Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers, is described, and their regulatory modes are analysed in detail. The spatial and temporal organisation of calcium signalling networks is described, and the importance of existence of intracellular calcium microdomains is discussed. Experimental evidence for the role of Ca2+ efflux systems in plant responses to a range of abiotic and biotic factors is summarised. Contribution of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures is then modelled by using a four-component model (plasma- and endo- membrane-based Ca2+-permeable channels and efflux systems taking into account the cytosolic Ca2+ buffering. It is concluded that physiologically relevant variations in the activity of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers are sufficient to fully describe all the reported experimental evidence and determine the shape of [Ca2+]cyt signatures in response to environmental stimuli, emphasising the crucial role these active efflux systems play in plant adaptive responses to environment.

  1. Overexpression of the novel MATE fluoroquinolone efflux pump FepA in Listeria monocytogenes is driven by inactivation of its local repressor FepR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Guérin

    Full Text Available Whereas fluoroquinolone resistance mainly results from target modifications in gram-positive bacteria, it is primarily due to active efflux in Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to dissect a novel molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in this important human pathogen. Isogenic L. monocytogenes clinical isolates BM4715 and BM4716, respectively susceptible and resistant to fluoroquinolones, were studied. MICs of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were determined in the presence or in the absence of reserpine (10 mg/L. Strain BM4715 was susceptible to norfloxacin (MIC, 4 mg/L and ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.5 mg/L whereas BM4716 was highly resistant to both drugs (MICs 128 and 32 mg/L, respectively. Reserpine was responsible for a 16-fold decrease in both norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin MICs against BM4716 suggesting efflux associated resistance. Whole-genome sequencing of the strains followed by comparative genomic analysis revealed a single point mutation in the gene for a transcriptional regulator, designated fepR (for fluoroquinolone efflux protein regulator belonging to the TetR family. The frame-shift mutation was responsible for the introduction of a premature stop codon resulting in an inactive truncated protein. Just downstream from fepR, the structural gene for an efflux pump of the MATE family (named FepA was identified. Gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and demonstrated that fepA expression was more than 64-fold higher in BM4716 than in BM4715. The clean deletion of the fepR gene from BM4715 was responsible for an overexpression of fepA with resistance to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, confirming the role of FepR as a local repressor of fepA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that overexpression of the new MATE efflux pump FepA is responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in L. monocytogenes and secondary to inactivation of the FepR repressor.

  2. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. PPAR-α, a lipid-sensing transcription factor, regulates blood-brain barrier efflux transporter expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Vijay R; Campos, Christopher R; Evans, Rebecca A; Oliver, Keith D; Chan, Gary Ny; Miller, David S; Cannon, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    Lipid sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR- α) is the master regulator of lipid metabolism. Dietary release of endogenous free fatty acids, fibrates, and certain persistent environmental pollutants, e.g. perfluoroalkyl fire-fighting foam components, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands. Here, we define a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in regulating the expression of three ATP-driven drug efflux transporters at the rat and mouse blood-brain barriers: P-glycoprotein (Abcb1), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). Exposing isolated rat brain capillaries to linoleic acid, clofibrate, or PKAs increased the transport activity and protein expression of the three ABC transporters. These effects were blocked by the PPAR- α antagonist, GW6471. Dosing rats with 20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg of clofibrate decreased the brain accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate, verapamil, by 50% (in situ brain perfusion; effects blocked by GW6471) and increased P-glycoprotein expression and activity in capillaries ex vivo. Fasting C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for 24 h increased both serum lipids and brain capillary P-glycoprotein transport activity. Fasting did not alter P-glycoprotein activity in PPAR- α knockout mice. These results indicate that hyperlipidemia, lipid-lowering fibrates and exposure to certain fire-fighting foam components activate blood-brain barrier peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, increase drug efflux transporter expression and reduce drug delivery to the brain.

  4. Genetic modification of haematopoietic cells for combined resistance to podophyllotoxins, other agents covered by MDR1-mediated efflux activity and nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, C; Peinert, S; Carpinteiro, A; Eckert, H G; Fairbairn, L J

    2000-05-01

    Genetic transfer and expression of drug-resistance functions into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is a promising means to overcome both the acute and longterm side-effects of cytotoxic drugs in bone marrow. Here, we describe a functional analysis of a retroviral vector that co-expresses human cDNAs for multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and a double mutant of O(6)-alkylguanine-alkyltransferase (hATPA/GA) to high levels. The hATPA/GA protein contains two amino acid substitutions that render it resistant to compounds such as O(6)-benzylguanine that inhibit the wild-type protein which is often overexpressed in resistant tumour cells. Evidence for simultaneous drug resistance of genetically modified primary murine progenitor cells to colchicine or the podophyllotoxin etoposide, both covered by MDR1-mediated efflux activity, and the nitrosourea BCNU, which is counteracted by hATPA/GA, is presented using in vitro colony assays.

  5. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS and four loss of efficacy (LOE pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development. Keywords: Dirofilaria immitis

  6. Multi-drug resistant Ewingella Americana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, Syed Z.; Ashshi, Ahmad M.; Hussain, Waleed M.; Fatani, Mohammad I.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of pneumonia due to multi-drug resistant Ewingella Americana in a young patient admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia with severe head injury in a road traffic accident. He was an Indonesian pilgrim who had traveled to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj in December 2007. Ewingella Americana was identified to be the pathogen of pneumonia with clinical signs and symptoms along with positive radiological findings. (author)

  7. Efflux of rhodamine from CD56+ cells as a surrogate marker for reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux by PSC 833

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robey, R; Bakke, S; Stein, W

    1999-01-01

    minutes. A dose-response relationship was shown between the concentration of PSC 833 in the blood and the inhibition of rhodamine efflux, with an apparent plateau of the inhibition of rhodamine efflux at approximately 1,000 ng/mL. The Ki, defined as the concentration required for half-maximal inhibition...... of Pgp-mediated rhodamine efflux, was determined to be in the range of 29 to 181 ng/mL; although results in two patients were distinctly different, with Ki values of 914 and 916 ng/mL. MRK-16 staining was similar among all patients. We conclude that measurement of rhodamine efflux from CD56(+) cells...

  8. The translational expression of ABCA2 and ABCA3 is a strong prognostic biomarker for multidrug resistance in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberuyi N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Narges Aberuyi,1 Soheila Rahgozar,1 Zohreh Khosravi Dehaghi,1 Alireza Moafi,2 Andrea Masotti,3,* Alessandro Paolini3,* 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, 2Department of Pediatric-Hematology-Oncology, Sayed-ol-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; 3Gene Expression – Microarrays Laboratory, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS, Rome, Italy *These authors contributed equally to the manuscript Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the expressions of the ABCA2 and ABCA3 genes at the mRNA and protein levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and the effects of this association on multidrug resistance (MDR.Materials and methods: Sixty-nine children with de novo ALL and 25 controls were enrolled in the study. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the bone marrow. The mRNA levels of ABCA2 and ABCA3 were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Samples with high mRNA levels were assessed for respective protein levels by Western blotting. Following the first year of treatment, persistent monoclonality of T-cell gamma receptors or immunoglobulin H (IgH gene rearrangement was assessed and considered as the MDR. The tertiary structure of ABCA2 was predicted using Phyre2 and I-TASSER web systems and compared to that of ABCA3, which has been previously reported. Molecular docking was performed using DOCK 6.7.Results: Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR showed high levels of ABCA2 and ABCA3 mRNAs in 13 and 17 samples, respectively. Among them, five and eight individuals demonstrated high levels of ABCA2 and ABCA3, respectively. Response to chemotherapy was significantly decreased (P=0.001 when the mRNA and protein of both genes were overexpressed compared to individuals with high transcriptional levels of either ABCA2 or ABCA3 alone. Close similarity between ABCA2 and ABCA3

  9. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-02-02

    Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo characterization of ibrutinib: a potent inhibitor of the efflux function of the transporter MRP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Patel, Atish; Ma, Shao-Lin; Li, Xiao Jie; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Yang, Pei-Qi; Kathawala, Rishil J; Wang, Yi-Jun; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The transporter, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), plays a critical role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). Ibrutinib is an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. Here we investigated the reversal effect of ibrutinib on MRP1-mediated MDR. Experimental Approach Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The expression of protein was detected by Western blot. RT-PCR and Q-PCR were performed to detect the expression of MRP1 mRNA. The intracellular accumulation and efflux of substrates for MRP1 were measured by scintillation counter and flow cytometry. HEK293/MRP1 cell xenografts in nude mice were established to study the effects of ibrutinib in vivo. Key Results Ibrutinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of MRP1 substrates in HEK293/MRP1 and HL60/Adr cells overexpressing MRP1. Furthermore, ibrutinib increased the accumulation of substrates in these MRP1-overexpressing cells by inhibiting the drug efflux function of MRP1. However, mRNA and protein expression of MRP1 remained unaltered after treatment with ibrutinib in MRP1-overexpressing cells. In vivo, ibrutinib enhanced the efficacy of vincristine to inhibit the growth of HEK293/MRP1 tumour xenografts in nude mice. Importantly, ibrutinib also enhances the cytotoxicity of vincristine in primary cultures of leukaemia blasts, derived from patients. Conclusions and Implications Our results indicated that ibrutinib significantly increased the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents which were MRP1 substrates, in MRP1-overexpressing cells, in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. These findings will lead to further studies on the effects of a combination of ibrutinib with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer patients overexpressing MRP1. PMID:25164592

  11. Identification of multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that are highly disruptive to the intestinal epithelial barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Olga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial infections are increasingly recognized worldwide. In this study, we focused on the virulence of multi-drug resistant clinical strains P. aeruginosa against the intestinal epithelial barrier, since P. aeruginosa can cause lethal sepsis from within the intestinal tract of critically ill and immuno-compromised patients via mechanisms involving disruption of epithelial barrier function. Methods We screened consecutively isolated multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strains for their ability to disrupt the integrity of human cultured intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 and correlated these finding to related virulence phenotypes such as adhesiveness, motility, biofilm formation, and cytotoxicity. Results Results demonstrated that the majority of the multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strains were attenuated in their ability to disrupt the barrier function of cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Three distinct genotypes were found that displayed an extreme epithelial barrier-disrupting phenotype. These strains were characterized and found to harbor the exoU gene and to display high swimming motility and adhesiveness. Conclusion These data suggest that detailed phenotypic analysis of the behavior of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa against the intestinal epithelium has the potential to identify strains most likely to place patients at risk for lethal gut-derived sepsis. Surveillance of colonizing strains of P. aeruginosa in critically ill patients beyond antibiotic sensitivity is warranted.

  12. Imaging and Targeted Therapy of Multidrug Resistance. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnica-Worms, David

    2009-01-01

    One focus area of DOE Office of Science was the Imaging of Gene Expression in Health and Disease in real time in tissue culture, whole animals and ultimately patients. Investigators of the Molecular Imaging Group, Washington University Medical School, ascribed to this objective and a major focus of this group directly tied into the DOE program through their efforts targeting the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1). Our plans for continuation of the program were to extend and build on this line of investigation, incorporating new molecular tools into our methodology to selectively inhibit MDR1 gene expression with novel modulation strategies. Two approaches were to be pursued: (1) high throughput screening of compounds that disrupted mutant p53 transactivation of the MDR1 promoter, and (2) knockdown of MDR1 messenger RNA with retroviral-mediated delivery of small interfering RNA constructs. These would be combined with our continuing effort to synthesize ligands and examine structure-activity relationships of bis-salicylaldehydes labeled with gallium-68 to generate PET agents for imaging MDR1 P-glycoprotein function. We would be uniquely positioned to correlate therapeutic modulation of MDR1 gene expression and protein function in the same systems in vivo using PET and bioluminescence reporters. Use of animal models such as the mdr1a/1b(-/-) gene deleted mice would also have enabled refined analysis of modulation and tracer pharmacokinetics in vivo. Overall, this DOE program and resultant tools would enable direct monitoring of novel therapeutic strategies and the MDR phenotype in relation to gene expression and protein function in vivo.

  13. Hydrodynamic Controls on Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Newton, J.; Quemin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive research has been undertaken on carbon dioxide efflux from lakes, estuaries and oceans, but much less attention has been given to rivers and streams, especially lower order streams. River systems are often over-saturated with carbon dioxide and so tend to act as sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It has been thought that rivers act as pipes carrying this terrestrial carbon to the oceans. However, recent studies have shown that a significant amount of the carbon is reprocessed within the system in a series of transformations and losses. Fluvial evasion of carbon dioxide is now recognised to be a significant component of carbon cycles, however the factors controlling carbon dioxide efflux and its magnitude remain poorly understood and quantified. This research aims to quantify, and better understand the controls on, freshwater carbon dioxide evasion. Data are presented here from field measurements that commenced in Sept 2013 in two contrasting Scottish rivers: the River Kelvin which has a large (335 km.sq) part-urban catchment with predominantly non-peat soils and Drumtee Water, a small (9.6 km.sq) rural catchment of peat soils and agricultural land. Using a floating chamber with the headspace connected to an infrared gas analyser to measure changes in carbon dioxide concentration, efflux rates from 0.22 - 47.4 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec were measured, these close to the middle of the range of previously reported values. At one site on the River Kelvin in May 2013 an influx of -0.61 - -3.53 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec was recorded. Whereas previous research finds carbon dioxide efflux to increase with decreasing river size and a more organic-rich soil catchment, here the controls on carbon dioxide evasion are similar across the contrasting catchments. Carbon dioxide evasion shows seasonality, with maximum fluxes in the summer months being up to twice as high as the winter maxima. Linear regression demonstrates that evasion increases with increased flow velocity

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the TetR-like efflux pump regulator SimR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Tung B. K.; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Buttner, Mark J.; Lawson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Crystals of SimR, a TetR-like efflux pump repressor from S. antibioticus, were obtained and X-ray data were recorded to a resolution of 2.3 Å. Crystals of SimR were grown by vapour diffusion. The protein crystallized with trigonal symmetry and X-ray data were recorded to a resolution of 2.3 Å from a single crystal at the synchrotron. SimR belongs to the TetR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. In the absence of the antibiotic simocyclinone, SimR represses the transcription of a divergently transcribed gene encoding the simocyclinone efflux pump SimX in Streptomyces antibioticus by binding to operators in the simR–simX intergenic region. Simocyclinone binding causes SimR to dissociate from its operators, leading to expression of the SimX efflux pump. Thus, SimR represents an intimate link between the biosynthesis of simocyclinone and its export, which may also provide the mechanism of self-resistance to the antibiotic in the producer strain

  15. Expression and activity of multidrug resistance protein 1 in a murine thymoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria-Lima, Juliana; Kyle-Cezar, Fernanda; Leite, Daniela F P; Capella, Luiz; Capella, Márcia A M; Rumjanek, Vivian M

    2005-01-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins [MRPs and P-glycoprotein (Pgp)] are members of the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins, originally described as being involved in the resistance against anti-cancer agents in tumour cells. These proteins act as ATP-dependent efflux pumps and have now been described in normal cells where they exert physiological roles. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression and activity of MRP and Pgp in the thymoma cell line, EL4. It was observed that EL4 cells expressed mRNA for MRP1, but not for MRP2, MRP3 or Pgp. The activity of ABC transport proteins was evaluated by using the efflux of the fluorescent probes carboxy-2′-7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). EL4 cells did not retain CFDA intracellularly, and MRP inhibitors (probenecid, indomethacin and MK 571) decreased MRP1 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. As expected, EL4 cells accumulated Rho 123, and the presence of cyclosporin A and verapamil did not modify this accumulation. Most importantly, when EL4 cells were incubated in the presence of the MRP1 inhibitors indomethacin and MK 571 for 6 days, they started to express CD4 and CD8 molecules on their surface, producing double-positive cells and CD8 single-positive cells. Our results suggest that MRP activity is important for the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in this cell type. This finding might have implications in the physiological process of normal thymocyte maturation. PMID:15804283

  16. Several Virulence Factors of Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates From Hospitalized Patients in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Ghasemian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm formation plays an important role in resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates; especially multidrug-resistant isolates are a threat to healthcare settings. Objectives: The aims of this study were to detect biofilm formation and presence of several related genes among multidrug-resistant (MDR isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Patients and Methods: A total Of 209 S. aureus strains were isolated from patients and identified by conventional diagnostic tests. The multidrug-resistant MRSA isolates were detected by antibiotic susceptibility test. The phenotypic biofilm formation was detected by micro-titre tissue plate assay. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed to detect the mecA, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec types, accessory gene regulatory (agr genes, the icaADBC and several genes encoding staphylococcal surface proteins including clfAB, fnbAB, fib, eno, can, ebps and bbp genes with specific primers. Results: Sixty-four (30.6% isolates were methicillin-resistant, among which thirty-six (56.2% were MDR. These isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (except to 6 isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. All the MDR-MRSA harbored SCCmec type III. All the MDR- MRSA isolates were strong biofilm producers in the phenotypic test. The majority of MDR- MRSA was belonged to agrI (67%, n = 24, followed by agr II (17%, n = 6, agrIV (11%, n = 4 and agrIII (5.5%, n = 2. The frequency of icaADBC genes were 75% (n = 27, 61% (n = 22, 72% (n = 26 and 72% (n = 26, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, fib, can, eno, ebps and bbp genes was 100%, 100%, 67%, 56%, 80%, 63%, 78%, 7% and 0%, respectively. Furthermore, approximately all the MRSA was strong biofilm producers. Conclusions: Multidrug-resistant isolates produced biofilm strongly and the majority harbored most

  17. Single gold nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy for study of chemical-dependent efflux function of single ABC transporters of single live Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lauren M; Lee, Kerry J; Cherukuri, Pavan K; Huang, Tao; Songkiatisak, Preeyaporn; Warren, Seth; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2018-03-26

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters serve as self-defense transport apparatus in many living organisms and they can selectively extrude a wide variety of substrates, leading to multidrug resistance (MDR). The detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Single nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy highly depends upon their sizes, shapes, chemical and surface properties. In our previous studies, we have used the size-dependent plasmonic spectra of single silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to study the real-time efflux kinetics of the ABC (BmrA) transporter and MexAB-OprM transporter in single live cells (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium), respectively. In this study, we prepared and used purified, biocompatible and stable (non-aggregated) gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) (12.4 ± 0.9 nm) to study the efflux kinetics of single BmrA membrane transporters of single live Bacillus subtillis cells, aiming to probe chemical dependent efflux functions of BmrA transporters and their potential chemical sensing capability. Similar to those observed using Ag NPs, accumulation of the intracellular Au NPs in single live cells (WT and ΔBmrA) highly depends upon the cellular expression of BmrA and the NP concentration (0.7 and 1.4 nM). The lower accumulation of intracellular Au NPs in WT (normal expression of BmrA) than ΔBmrA (deletion of bmrA) indicates that BmrA extrudes the Au NPs out of the WT cells. The accumulation of Au NPs in the cells increases with NP concentration, suggesting that the Au NPs most likely passively diffuse into the cells, similar to antibiotics. The result demonstrates that such small Au NPs can serve as imaging probes to study the efflux function of the BmrA membrane transporter in single live cells. Furthermore, the dependence of the accumulation rate of intracellular Au NPs in single live cells upon the expression of BmrA and the concentration of the NPs is about twice higher than that of the same sized Ag NPs. This interesting finding

  18. Contribution of EmrAB efflux pumps to colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Feng; Lin, Yun-You; Lan, Chung-Yu

    2017-02-01

    Efflux pumps play an important role in antimicrobial resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the function of the Emr pump system and the relationship between Emr and drug resistance has not been characterized in A. baumannii. In this study, four possible groups of emr-like genes were found by searching a genome database. Among them, A1S_1772 (emrB) and A1S_1773 (emrA) were demonstrated to be co-transcribed as a single operon. Moreover, during osmotic stress, A1S_1772 showed the largest change in gene expression compared to the other emrB-like genes, and deletion of A1S_1772 (AB ΔemrB) significantly slowed cell growth in 20% sucrose. Using a phenotypic microarray analysis, the AB ΔemrB mutant was more susceptible to colistin and nafcillin, paromomycin, spiramycin, and D,L-serine hydroxmate than the wild type. The spot assay, time kill assay and minimal inhibition concentration determination also indicated that the wild type could tolerate colistin better than the AB ΔemrB mutant. Finally, the increased expression levels of all emrB-like genes, including A1S_0775, A1S_0909, A1S_1772, and A1S_1799, in colistin resistance-induced A. baumannii further supported the possible involvement of the emrB genes in A. baumannii colistin resistance. Together, the Emr pump systems in A. baumannii contribute to adaptation to osmotic stress and resistance to colistin.

  19. Multidrug-resistant pathogens in the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Marjorie E

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance, including multidrug resistance (MDR), is an increasing problem globally. MDR bacteria are frequently detected in humans and animals from both more- and less-developed countries and pose a serious concern for human health. Infections caused by MDR microbes may increase morbidity and mortality and require use of expensive drugs and prolonged hospitalization. Humans may be exposed to MDR pathogens through exposure to environments at health-care facilities and farms, livestock and companion animals, human food, and exposure to other individuals carrying MDR microbes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifies drug-resistant foodborne bacteria, including Campylobacter, Salmonella Typhi, nontyphoidal salmonellae, and Shigella, as serious threats. MDR bacteria have been detected in both meat and fresh produce. Salmonellae carrying genes coding for resistance to multiple antibiotics have caused numerous foodborne MDR outbreaks. While there is some level of resistance to antimicrobials in environmental bacteria, the widespread use of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture has driven the selection of a great variety of microbes with resistance to multiple antimicrobials. MDR bacteria on meat may have originated in veterinary health-care settings or on farms where animals are given antibiotics in feed or to treat infections. Fresh produce may be contaminated by irrigation or wash water containing MDR bacteria. Livestock, fruits, and vegetables may also be contaminated by food handlers, farmers, and animal caretakers who carry MDR bacteria. All potential sources of MDR bacteria should be considered and strategies devised to reduce their presence in foods. Surveillance studies have documented increasing trends in MDR in many pathogens, although there are a few reports of the decline of certain multidrug pathogens. Better coordination of surveillance programs and strategies for controlling use of antimicrobials need to be implemented in

  20. Antibacterial Efficacy of Polysaccharide Capped Silver Nanoparticles Is Not Compromised by AcrAB-TolC Efflux Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Mishra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial therapy is of paramount importance in treatment of several acute and chronic infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Over the years extensive use and misuse of antimicrobial agents has led to emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR and extensive drug resistant (XDR pathogens. This drastic escalation in resistant phenotype has limited the efficacy of available therapeutic options. Thus, the need of the hour is to look for alternative therapeutic approaches to mitigate healthcare concerns caused due to MDR bacterial infections. Nanoparticles have gathered much attention as potential candidates for antibacterial therapy. Equipped with advantages of, wide spectrum bactericidal activity at very low dosage, inhibitor of biofilm formation and ease of permeability, nanoparticles have been considered as leading therapeutic candidates to curtail infections resulting from MDR bacteria. However, substrate non-specificity of efflux pumps, particularly those belonging to resistance nodulation division super family, have been reported to reduce efficacy of many potent antibacterial therapeutic drugs. Previously, we had reported antibacterial activity of polysaccharide-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs toward MDR bacteria. We showed that AgNPs inhibits biofilm formation and alters expression of cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and FtsA, with minimal cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. In the present study, we report no reduction in antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles in presence of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump proteins. Antibacterial tests were performed according to CLSI macrobroth dilution method, which revealed that both silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity at very low concentrations. Further, immunoblotting results indicated that both the nanoparticles modulate the transporter AcrB protein expression. However, expression of the membrane fusion protein AcrA did show a significant increase after exposure to AgNPs. Our results

  1. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are substrates for the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of diketoacid-containing derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase (IN (IN inhibitors, IINs has played a major role in validating this enzyme as an important target for antiretroviral therapy. Since the in vivo efficacy depends on access of these drugs to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we determined whether the IINs are recognized by the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (P-gp thereby reducing their intracellular accumulation. To address the effect of IINs on drug transport, nine quinolonyl diketo acid (DKA derivatives active on the HIV-1 IN strand transfer (ST step and with EC50 ranging from 1.83 to >50 μm in cell-based assays were tested for their in vitro interaction with P-gp in the CEM-MDR cell system. IINs were investigated for the inhibition and induction of the P-gp function and expression as well as for multidrug resistance (MDR reversing ability. Results The HIV-1 IINs act as genuine P-gp substrates by inhibiting doxorubicin efflux and inducing P-gp functional conformation changes as evaluated by the modulation of UIC2 mAb epitope. Further, IINs chemosensitize MDR cells to vinblastine and induce P-gp expression in drug sensitive revertants of CEM-MDR cells. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HIV-1 IINs are P-gp substrates. This biological property may influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of these novels anti HIV-1 compounds.

  2. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading doxorubicin reverse multidrug resistance: performance and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Gao, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yaping

    2011-10-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy in cancer. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, we first report that the performance and mechanism of an inorganic engineered delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loading doxorubicin (DMNs) to overcome the MDR of MCF-7/ADR (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The experimental results showed that DMNs could enhance the cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. The IC50 of DMNs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 8-fold lower than that of free DOX. However, an improved effect of DOX in DMNs against MCF-7 cells (a DOX-sensitive cancer cell line) was not found. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DMNs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and could result from the down-regulation of P-gp and bypassing the efflux action by MSNs themselves. The cellular uptake mechanism of DMNs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of DMNs by MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo biodistribution showed that DMNs induced a higher accumulation of DOX in drug resistant tumors than free DOX. These results suggested that MSNs could be an effective delivery system to overcome multidrug resistance.

  3. Bypassing multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells with lipid/polymer particle assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bo Li1, Hui Xu2, Zhen Li1, Mingfei Yao1, Meng Xie1, Haijun Shen1, Song Shen1, Xinshi Wang1, Yi Jin11College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2No. 202 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Shenyang, ChinaBackground: Multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by the overexpression of adenosine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp, remains one of the major obstacles to effective cancer chemotherapy. In this study, lipid/particle assemblies named LipoParticles (LNPs, consisting of a dimethyldidodecylammonium bromide (DMAB-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle core surrounded by a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC shell, were specially designed for anticancer drugs to bypass MDR in human breast cancer cells that overexpress P-gp.Methods: Doxorubicin (DOX, a chemotherapy drug that is a P-gp substrate, was conjugated to PLGA and encapsulated in the self-assembled LNP structure. Physiochemical properties of the DOX-loaded LNPs were characterized in vitro. Cellular uptake, intracellular accumulation, and cytotoxicity were compared in parental Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7 cells and P-gp-overexpressing, resistant MCF-7/adriamycin (MCF-7/ADR cells.Results: This study found that the DOX formulated in LNPs showed a significantly increased accumulation in the nuclei of drug-resistant cells relative to the free drug, indicating that LNPs could alter intracellular traffic and bypass drug efflux. The cytotoxicity of DOX loaded-LNPs had a 30-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value than free DOX in MCF-7/ADR, measured by the colorimetric cell viability (MTT assay, correlated with the strong nuclear retention of the drug.Conclusion: The results show that this core-shell lipid/particle structure could be a promising strategy to bypass MDR.Keywords: chemotherapy, drug delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, multidrug resistance

  4. Glutamate Efflux at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederberg-Helms, Hans Christian; Uhd-Nielsen, Carsten; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    is well known, however endothelial cells may also play an important role through mediating brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux. Expression of excitatory amino acid transporters has been demonstrated in brain endothelial cells of bovine, human, murine, rat and porcine origin. These can account for high...... affinity concentrative uptake of L-glutamate from the brain interstitial fluid into the capillary endothelial cells. The mechanisms in between L-glutamate uptake in the endothelial cells and L-glutamate appearing in the blood are still unclear and may involve a luminal transporter for L......-glutamate, metabolism of L-glutamate and transport of metabolites or a combination of the two. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated blood-to-brain transport of L-glutamate, at least during pathological events. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux...

  5. THE ROLE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN (MRP) IN THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER AND OPIOID ANALGESIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wendy; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2013-01-01

    The blood brain barrier protects the brain from circulating compounds and drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is involved with the barrier, both preventing the influx of agent from the blood into the brain and facilitating the efflux of compounds from the brain into the blood, raising the possibility of a similar role for other transporters. Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), a 190 kDa protein similar to Pgp is also ABC transport that has been implicated in the blood brain barrier. The current study explores its role in opioid action. Immunohistochemically, it is localized in the choroid plexus in ratsand can be selectively downregulated by antisense treatment at both the level of mRNA, as shown by RT-PCR, and protein, as demonstrated immunohistochemically. Behaviorally, downregulation of MRP significantly enhances the analgesic potency of systemic morphine in MRP knockout mice and in antisense-treated rats by lowering the blood brain barrier. Following intracerebroventricular administration, a number of compounds, including some opioids, are rapidly secreted from the brain into the blood where they contribute to the overall analgesic effects by activating peripheral systems. MRP plays a role in this efflux. Downregulating MRP expression leads to a corresponding decrease in the transport and a diminished analgesic response from opioids administered intracerebroventricularly. Thus, the transporter protein MRP plays a role in maintaining the blood-brain barrier and modulates the activity of opioids. PMID:23508590

  6. Self-assembled Multifunctional DNA Nanoflowers for the Circumvention of Multidrug Resistance in Targeted Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lei; Zhu, Guizhi; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Cuichen; Chen, Huapei; Liang, Hao; Cansiz, Sena; Lv, Yifan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2015-11-01

    Cancer chemotherapy has been impeded by side effects and multidrug resistance (MDR) partially caused by drug efflux from cancer cells, which call for targeted drug delivery systems additionally able to circumvent MDR. Here we report multifunctional DNA nanoflowers (NFs) for targeted drug delivery to both chemosensitive and MDR cancer cells and circumvent MDR in both leukemia and breast cancer cell models. NFs are self-assembled via liquid crystallization of DNA generated by Rolling Circle Replication, during which NFs are incorporated with aptamers for specific cancer cell recognition, fluorophores for bioimaging, and Doxorubicin (Dox)-binding DNA for drug delivery. NF sizes are tunable (down to ~200 nm in diameter), and the densely packed drug-binding motifs and porous intrastructures endow NFs with high drug loading capacity (71.4%, wt/wt). The Dox-loaded NFs (NF-Dox) are stable at physiological pH, yet drug release is facilitated in acidic or basic conditions. NFs deliver Dox into target chemosensitive and MDR cancer cells, preventing drug efflux and enhancing drug retention in MDR cells. Consequently, NF-Dox induces potent cytotoxicity in both target chemosensitive cells and MDR cells, but not nontarget cells, thus concurrently circumventing MDR and reducing side effects. Overall, these NFs are promising to circumvent MDR in targeted cancer therapy.

  7. Expression of multidrug resistance markers ABCB1 (MDR-1/P-gp) and ABCC1 (MRP-1) in renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma patients respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, this unresponsiveness may be attributable to multidrug resistance (MDR). The mechanisms of MDR in renal cancer are not fully understood and the specific contribution of ABC transporter proteins which have been implicated in the chemoresistance of various cancers has not been fully defined in this disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study the expression of two of these transporter efflux pumps, namely MDR-1 P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP-1 (ABCC1) were studied by immunohistochemistry in archival material from 95 renal cell carcinoma patients. RESULTS: In the first study investigating MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 protein expression patterns in renal cell carcinoma patients, high levels of expression of both efflux pumps are observed with 100% of tumours studied showing MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 positivity. CONCLUSION: Although these findings do not prove a causal role, the high frequency of tumours expressing these efflux pumps suggests that they may be important contributors to the chemoresistance of this tumour type.

  8. Tacrolimus is a class II low-solubility high-permeability drug: the effect of P-glycoprotein efflux on regional permeability of tacrolimus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shigeki; Ohike, Atsuo; Ibuki, Rinta; Amidon, Gordon L; Yamashita, Shinji

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) and a known substrate for tacrolimus, in determining the regional intestinal permeability of tacrolimus in rats. Thus, isolated segments of rat jejunum, ileum, or colon were perfused with tacrolimus solutions containing polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil 60 surfactant, and with or without verapamil, a P-gp substrate used to reverse the MDR phenotype. The results indicated that the intrinsic permeability of tacrolimus in the jejunum, calculated on the basis of the concentration of non-micellized free tacrolimus, was quite high ( approximately 1.4 x 10(-4) cm/s). The apparent permeability (P(app)) in the jejunum was unaffected by the presence of verapamil; however, the P(app) in the ileum and the colon increased significantly in the presence of verapamil and were similar to the values observed in the jejunum. The results suggest that systemic absorption of tacrolimus from the gastrointestinal tract could be significantly affected by P-gp efflux mechanisms. It is also possible that differences in P-gp function at various intestinal sites in a subject or at a given intestinal site in various subjects could lead to large intra- and interindividual variability in bioavailability of tacrolimus following oral administration. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association .

  9. Do Phytotropins Inhibit Auxin Efflux by Impairing Vesicle Traffic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Černá, A.; Schwarzerová, K.; Elčkner, Miroslav; Morris, David; Zažímalová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2003), s. 254-263 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant - others:EU INCO COPERNICUS(XE) ERBIC15 CT98 0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid * BY-2 tobacco * auxin efflux Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2003

  10. Carbon dioxide efflux from leaves in light and darkness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, P; Jarvis, P G

    1967-01-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide in light and darkness was measured at low ambient CO/sub 2/ concentrations in leaves of Rumex acetosa. Light carbon dioxide production (photorespiration) was found to depend on irradiance and to differ from dark production as to the response to temperature and ambient concentrations of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. These observations support previously made suggestions that photorespiration follows a different metabolic pathway to dark respiration.

  11. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  12. Ribosomal mutations promote the evolution of antibiotic resistance in a multidrug environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, James E; Kaufmann-Malaga, Benjamin B; Wivagg, Carl N; Kim, Peter B; Silvis, Melanie R; Renedo, Nikolai; Ioerger, Thomas R; Ahmad, Rushdy; Livny, Jonathan; Fishbein, Skye; Sacchettini, James C; Carr, Steven A; Hung, Deborah T

    2017-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance arising via chromosomal mutations is typically specific to a particular antibiotic or class of antibiotics. We have identified mutations in genes encoding ribosomal components in Mycobacterium smegmatis that confer resistance to several structurally and mechanistically unrelated classes of antibiotics and enhance survival following heat shock and membrane stress. These mutations affect ribosome assembly and cause large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic changes, including the downregulation of the catalase KatG, an activating enzyme required for isoniazid sensitivity, and upregulation of WhiB7, a transcription factor involved in innate antibiotic resistance. Importantly, while these ribosomal mutations have a fitness cost in antibiotic-free medium, in a multidrug environment they promote the evolution of high-level, target-based resistance. Further, suppressor mutations can then be easily acquired to restore wild-type growth. Thus, ribosomal mutations can serve as stepping-stones in an evolutionary path leading to the emergence of high-level, multidrug resistance.

  13. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Edouard Fournier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a species of nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria commonly found in water and soil. This organism was susceptible to most antibiotics in the 1970s. It has now become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide due to its remarkable propensity to rapidly acquire resistance determinants to a wide range of antibacterial agents. Here we use a comparative genomic approach to identify the complete repertoire of resistance genes exhibited by the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain AYE, which is epidemic in France, as well as to investigate the mechanisms of their acquisition by comparison with the fully susceptible A. baumannii strain SDF, which is associated with human body lice. The assembly of the whole shotgun genome sequences of the strains AYE and SDF gave an estimated size of 3.9 and 3.2 Mb, respectively. A. baumannii strain AYE exhibits an 86-kb genomic region termed a resistance island--the largest identified to date--in which 45 resistance genes are clustered. At the homologous location, the SDF strain exhibits a 20 kb-genomic island flanked by transposases but devoid of resistance markers. Such a switching genomic structure might be a hotspot that could explain the rapid acquisition of resistance markers under antimicrobial pressure. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses confirm that most of the resistance genes found in the A. baumannii strain AYE have been recently acquired from bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Salmonella, or Escherichia. This study also resulted in the discovery of 19 new putative resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be a fast and efficient approach to the exhaustive identification of resistance genes in epidemic infectious agents of clinical significance.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Multidrug Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a species of nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria commonly found in water and soil. This organism was susceptible to most antibiotics in the 1970s. It has now become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide due to its remarkable propensity to rapidly acquire resistance determinants to a wide range of antibacterial agents. Here we use a comparative genomic approach to identify the complete repertoire of resistance genes exhibited by the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain AYE, which is epidemic in France, as well as to investigate the mechanisms of their acquisition by comparison with the fully susceptible A. baumannii strain SDF, which is associated with human body lice. The assembly of the whole shotgun genome sequences of the strains AYE and SDF gave an estimated size of 3.9 and 3.2 Mb, respectively. A. baumannii strain AYE exhibits an 86-kb genomic region termed a resistance island-the largest identified to date-in which 45 resistance genes are clustered. At the homologous location, the SDF strain exhibits a 20 kb-genomic island flanked by transposases but devoid of resistance markers. Such a switching genomic structure might be a hotspot that could explain the rapid acquisition of resistance markers under antimicrobial pressure. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses confirm that most of the resistance genes found in the A. baumannii strain AYE have been recently acquired from bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Salmonella, or Escherichia. This study also resulted in the discovery of 19 new putative resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be a fast and efficient approach to the exhaustive identification of resistance genes in epidemic infectious agents of clinical significance.

  15. Multidrug resistance in epilepsy and polymorphisms in the voltage-gated sodium channel genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN3A: correlation among phenotype, genotype, and mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Patrick; Poon, Wai Sang; Ng, Ho-Keung; Kang, David E; Wong, Virginia; Ng, Ping Wing; Lui, Colin H T; Sin, Ngai Chuen; Wong, Ka S; Baum, Larry

    2008-11-01

    Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prevent seizures by blocking voltage-gated brain sodium channels. However, treatment is ineffective in 30% of epilepsy patients, which might, at least in part, result from polymorphisms of the sodium channel genes. We investigated the association of AED responsiveness with genetic polymorphisms and correlated any association with mRNA expression of the neuronal sodium channels. We performed genotyping of tagging and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SCN1A, 2A, and 3A in 471 Chinese epilepsy patients (272 drug responsive and 199 drug resistant). A total of 27 SNPs were selected based on the HapMap database. Genotype distributions in drug-responsive and drug-resistant patients were compared. SCN2A mRNA was quantified by real-time PCR in 24 brain and 57 blood samples. Its level was compared between patients with different genotypes of an SCN2A SNP found to be associated with drug responsiveness. SCN2A IVS7-32A>G (rs2304016) A alleles were associated with drug resistance (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.7, P=0.007). Haplotypes containing the IVS7-32A>G allele A were also associated with drug resistance. IVS7-32A>G is located within the putative splicing branch site for splicing exons 7 and 9. PCR of reverse-transcribed RNA from blood or brain of patients with different IVS7-32A>G genotypes using primers in exons 7 and 9 showed no skipping of exon 8, and real-time PCR showed no difference in SCN2A mRNA levels among genotypes. Results of this study suggest an association between SCN2A IVS7-32A>G and AED responsiveness, without evidence of an effect on splicing or mRNA expression.

  16. The Impact of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on the Activity of Selected Non-Antibiotic Medicinal Products against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka E. Laudy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of non-antibiotic medicinal products in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has recently been investigated. It is highly likely that the presence of efflux pumps may be one of the reasons for the weak activity of non-antibiotics, as in the case of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, against Gram-negative rods. The activity of eight drugs of potential non-antibiotic activity, active substance standards, and relevant medicinal products were analysed with and without of efflux pump inhibitors against 180 strains of five Gram-negative rod species by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value determination in the presence of 1 mM MgSO4. Furthermore, the influence of non-antibiotics on the susceptibility of clinical strains to quinolones with or without PAβN (Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide was investigated. The impacts of PAβN on the susceptibility of bacteria to non-antibiotics suggests that amitriptyline, alendronate, nicergoline, and ticlopidine are substrates of efflux pumps in Gram-negative rods. Amitriptyline/Amitriptylinum showed the highest direct antibacterial activity, with MICs ranging 100–800 mg/L against all studied species. Significant decreases in the MIC values of other active substances (acyclovir, atorvastatin, and famotidine tested with pump inhibitors were not observed. The investigated non-antibiotic medicinal products did not alter the MICs of quinolones in the absence and in the presence of PAβN to the studied clinical strains of five groups of species.

  17. Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modifying Activity of Methanol Extracts from Six Cameroonian Food Plants against Multidrug-Resistant Enteric Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim K. Dzotam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from six Cameroonian edible plants and their synergistic effects with some commonly used antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. The extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and the microdilution broth method was used for antibacterial assays. The results of phytochemical tests indicate that all tested crude extracts contained polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes, and steroids. Extracts displayed selective antibacterial activities with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 32 to 1024 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value (32 μg/mL was recorded with Coula edulis extract against E. coli AG102 and K. pneumoniae K2 and with Mangifera indica bark extract against P. aeruginosa PA01 and Citrus sinensis extract against E. coli W3110 which also displayed the best MBC (256 μg/mL value against E. coli ATCC8739. In combination with antibiotics, extracts from M. indica leaves showed synergistic effects with 75% (6/8 of the tested antibiotics against more than 80% of the tested bacteria. The findings of the present work indicate that the tested plants may be used alone or in combination in the treatment of bacterial infections including the multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  18. Dithiazole thione derivative as competitive NorA efflux pump inhibitor to curtail multi drug resistant clinical isolate of MRSA in a zebrafish infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrence, Rene Christena; Raman, Thiagarajan; Makala, Himesh V; Ulaganathan, Venkatasubramanian; Subramaniapillai, Selva Ganesan; Kuppuswamy, Ashok Ayyappa; Mani, Anisha; Chittoor Neelakantan, Sundaresan; Nagarajan, Saisubramanian

    2016-11-01

    Multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens pose a serious threat to public health since they can easily render most potent drugs ineffective. Efflux pump inhibitors (EPI) can be used to counter the MDR phenotypes arising due to increased efflux. In the present study, a series of dithiazole thione derivatives were synthesized and checked for its antibacterial and efflux pump inhibitory (EPI) activity. Among 10 dithiazole thione derivatives, real-time efflux studies revealed that seven compounds were potent EPIs relative to CCCP. Zebrafish toxicity studies identified four non-toxic putative EPIs. Both DTT3 and DTT9 perturbed membrane potential and DTT6 was haemolytic. Among DTT6 and DTT10, the latter was less toxic as evidenced by histopathology studies. Since DTT10 was non-haemolytic, did not affect the membrane potential, and was least toxic, it was chosen further for in vivo study, wherein DTT10 potentiated effect of ciprofloxacin against clinical strain of MRSA and reduced bacterial burden in muscle and skin tissue of infected zebrafish by ~ 1.7 and 2.5 log fold respectively. Gene expression profiling of major efflux transport proteins by qPCR revealed that clinical isolate of MRSA, in the absence of antibiotic, upregulated NorA, NorB and MepA pump, whereas it downregulates NorC and MgrA relative to wild-type strain of Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro studies with NorA mutant strains and substrate profiling revealed that at higher concentrations DTT10 is likely to function as a competitive inhibitor of NorA efflux protein in S. aureus, whereas at lower concentrations it might inhibit ciprofloxacin efflux through NorB and MepA as implied by docking studies. A novel non-toxic, non-haemolytic dithiazole thione derivative (DTT10) was identified as a potent competitive inhibitor of NorA efflux pump in S. aureus using in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies. This study also underscores the importance of using zebrafish infection model to screen and evaluate putative EPI for

  19. Clonality, outer-membrane proteins profile and efflux pump in KPC- producing Enterobacter sp. in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Juliana Ferraz; Rizek, Camila; Marchi, Ana Paula; Guimaraes, Thais; Miranda, Lourdes; Carrilho, Claudia; Levin, Anna S; Costa, Silvia F

    2017-03-17

    Carbapenems resistance in Enterobacter spp. has increased in the last decade, few studies, however, described the mechanisms of resistance in this bacterium. This study evaluated clonality and mechanisms of carbapenems resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. identified in three hospitals in Brazil (Hospital A, B and C) over 7-year. Antibiotics sensitivity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR for carbapenemase and efflux pump genes were performed for all carbapenems-resistant isolates. Outer-membrane protein (OMP) was evaluated based on PFGE profile. A total of 130 isolates of Enterobacter spp were analyzed, 44/105 (41, 9%) E. aerogenes and 8/25 (32,0%) E. cloacae were resistant to carbapenems. All isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, polymyxin B and tigecycline. KPC was present in 88.6% of E. aerogenes and in all E. cloacae resistant to carbapenems. The carbapenems-resistant E. aerogenes identified in hospital A belonged to six clones, however, a predominant clone was identified in this hospital over the study period. There is a predominant clone in Hospital B and Hospital C as well. The mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems differ among subtypes. Most of the isolates co-harbored blaKPC, blaTEM and /or blaCTX associated with decreased or lost of 35-36KDa and or 39 KDa OMP. The efflux pump AcrAB-TolC gene was only identified in carbapenems-resistant E. cloacae. There was a predominant clone in each hospital suggesting that cross-transmission of carbapenems-resistant Enterobacter spp. was frequent. The isolates presented multiple mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems including OMP alteration.

  20. Photochemical internalisation of chemotherapy potentiates killing of multidrug-resistant breast and bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigbli, D K; Wilson, D G G; Farooqui, N; Sousi, E; Risley, P; Taylor, I; Macrobert, A J; Loizidou, M

    2007-08-20

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major confounding factor in adjuvant solid tumour chemotherapy. Increasing intracellular amounts of chemotherapeutics to circumvent MDR may be achieved by a novel delivery method, photochemical internalisation (PCI). PCI consists of the co-administration of drug and photosensitiser; upon light activation the latter induces intracellular release of organelle-bound drug. We investigated whether co-administration of hypericin (photosensitiser) with mitoxantrone (MTZ, chemotherapeutic) plus illumination potentiates cytotoxicity in MDR cancer cells. We mapped the extent of intracellular co-localisation of drug/photosensitiser. We determined whether PCI altered drug-excreting efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression or function in MDR cells. Bladder and breast cancer cells and their Pgp-overexpressing MDR subclones (MGHU1, MGHU1/R, MCF-7, MCF-7/R) were given hypericin/MTZ combinations, with/without blue-light illumination. Pilot experiments determined appropriate sublethal doses for each. Viability was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Intracellular localisation was mapped by confocal microscopy. Pgp expression was detected by immunofluorescence and Pgp function investigated by Rhodamine123 efflux on confocal microscopy. MTZ alone (0.1-0.2 microg ml(-1)) killed up to 89% of drug-sensitive cells; MDR cells exhibited less cytotoxicity (6-28%). Hypericin (0.1-0.2 microM) effects were similar for all cells; light illumination caused none or minimal toxicity. In combination, MTZ /hypericin plus illumination, potentiated MDR cell killing, vs hypericin or MTZ alone. (MGHU1/R: 38.65 and 36.63% increase, Phypericin increased killing by 28.15% (Phypericin was evident before illumination and at serial times post-illumination. MTZ was always found in sensitive cell nuclei, but not in dark resistant cell nuclei. In illuminated resistant cells there was some mobilisation of MTZ into the nucleus. Pgp

  1. Photochemical internalisation of chemotherapy potentiates killing of multidrug-resistant breast and bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigbli, D K; Wilson, D G G; Farooqui, N; Sousi, E; Risley, P; Taylor, I; MacRobert, A J; Loizidou, M

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major confounding factor in adjuvant solid tumour chemotherapy. Increasing intracellular amounts of chemotherapeutics to circumvent MDR may be achieved by a novel delivery method, photochemical internalisation (PCI). PCI consists of the co-administration of drug and photosensitiser; upon light activation the latter induces intracellular release of organelle-bound drug. We investigated whether co-administration of hypericin (photosensitiser) with mitoxantrone (MTZ, chemotherapeutic) plus illumination potentiates cytotoxicity in MDR cancer cells. We mapped the extent of intracellular co-localisation of drug/photosensitiser. We determined whether PCI altered drug-excreting efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression or function in MDR cells. Bladder and breast cancer cells and their Pgp-overexpressing MDR subclones (MGHU1, MGHU1/R, MCF-7, MCF-7/R) were given hypericin/MTZ combinations, with/without blue-light illumination. Pilot experiments determined appropriate sublethal doses for each. Viability was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Intracellular localisation was mapped by confocal microscopy. Pgp expression was detected by immunofluorescence and Pgp function investigated by Rhodamine123 efflux on confocal microscopy. MTZ alone (0.1–0.2 μg ml−1) killed up to 89% of drug-sensitive cells; MDR cells exhibited less cytotoxicity (6–28%). Hypericin (0.1–0.2 μM) effects were similar for all cells; light illumination caused none or minimal toxicity. In combination, MTZ /hypericin plus illumination, potentiated MDR cell killing, vs hypericin or MTZ alone. (MGHU1/R: 38.65 and 36.63% increase, P<0.05; MCF-7/R: 80.2 and 46.1% increase, P<0.001). Illumination of combined MTZ/hypericin increased killing by 28.15% (P<0.05 MGHU1/R) compared to dark controls. Intracytoplasmic vesicular co-localisation of MTZ/hypericin was evident before illumination and at serial times post

  2. A mass spectrometry-based assay for improved quantitative measurements of efflux pump inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Brown

    Full Text Available Bacterial efflux pumps are active transport proteins responsible for resistance to selected biocides and antibiotics. It has been shown that production of efflux pumps is up-regulated in a number of highly pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the identification of new bacterial efflux pump inhibitors is a topic of great interest. Existing assays to evaluate efflux pump inhibitory activity rely on fluorescence by an efflux pump substrate. When employing these assays to evaluate efflux pump inhibitory activity of plant extracts and some purified compounds, we observed severe optical interference that gave rise to false negative results. To circumvent this problem, a new mass spectrometry-based method was developed for the quantitative measurement of bacterial efflux pump inhibition. The assay was employed to evaluate efflux pump inhibitory activity of a crude extract of the botanical Hydrastis Canadensis, and to compare the efflux pump inhibitory activity of several pure flavonoids. The flavonoid quercetin, which appeared to be completely inactive with a fluorescence-based method, showed an IC50 value of 75 μg/mL with the new method. The other flavonoids evaluated (apigenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, luteolin, myricetin, were also active, with IC50 values ranging from 19 μg/mL to 75 μg/mL. The assay described herein could be useful in future screening efforts to identify efflux pump inhibitors, particularly in situations where optical interference precludes the application of methods that rely on fluorescence.

  3. Detection of mutations in mtrR gene in quinolone resistant strains of N.gonorrhoeae isolated from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae resulting from new genetic mutation is a serious threat in controlling gonorrhea. This study was undertaken to identify and characterise mutations in the mtrR genes in N.gonorrhoeae isolates resistant to six different antibiotics in the quinolone group. Materials and Methods: The Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of five quinolones for 64 N.gonorrhoeae isolates isolated during Jan 2007-Jun 2009 were determined by E-test method. Mutations in MtrR loci were examined by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequencing. Results: The proportion of N.gonorrhoeae strains resistant to anti-microbials was 98.4% for norfloxacin and ofloxacin, 96.8% for enoxacin and ciprofloxacin, 95.3% for lomefloxacin. Thirty-one (48.4% strains showed mutation (single/multiple in mtrR gene. Ten different mutations were observed and Gly-45 → Asp, Tyr-105 → His being the most common observed mutation. Conclusion: This is the first report from India on quinolone resistance mutations in MtrRCDE efflux system in N.gonorrhoeae. In conclusion, the high level of resistance to quinolone and single or multiple mutations in mtrR gene could limit the drug choices for gonorrhoea.

  4. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots. II. Movement in roots and efflux of sodium in plants with divided root systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H; Kojima, S [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1977-09-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the /sup 22/Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl/sub 3/ or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed.

  5. Carpobrotus edulis methanol extract inhibits the MDR efflux pumps, enhances killing of phagocytosed S. aureus and promotes immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Hohmann, Judit; Viveiros, Miguel; Viveiros, Antonio; Molnar, Joseph; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Gracio, Maria Amelia; Amaral, Leonard

    2003-05-01

    Although alkaloids from the family Aizoaceae have anticancer activity, species of this family have received little attention. Because these alkaloids also exhibit properties normally associated with compounds that have activity at the level of the plasma membrane, a methanol extract of Carpobrotus edulis, a common plant found along the Portuguese coast, was studied for properties normally associated with plasma membrane active compounds. The results of this study show that the extract is non-toxic at concentrations that inhibit a verapamil sensitive efflux pump of L5178 mouse T cell lymphoma cell line thereby rendering these multi-drug resistant cells susceptible to anticancer drugs. These non-toxic concentrations also prime THP-1 human monocyte-derived macrophages to kill ingested Staphylococcus aureus and to promote the release of lymphokines associated with cellular immune functions. The extract also induces the proliferation of THP-1 cells within 1 day of exposure to quantities normally associated with phytohaemagglutinin. The potential role of the compound(s) isolated from this plant in cancer biology is intriguing and is currently under investigation. It is supposed that the resistance modifier and immunomodulatory effect of this plant extract can be exploited in the experimental chemotherapy of cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Multidrug resistance in pediatric urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Dickson, Eric; Karlowsky, James; Doern, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common infection in the pediatric population. Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen in children, and antimicrobial resistance in this species complicates the treatment of pediatric UTIs. Despite the impact of resistance on empiric antibiotic choice, there is little data on multidrug resistance in pediatric patients. In this paper, we describe characteristics of multidrug-resistant E. coli in pediatric patients using a large national database of uropathogens antimicrobial sensitivities. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to commonly prescribed antibiotics were performed on uropathogens isolated from children presenting to participating hospitals between 1999 and 2001. Data were analyzed separately for four pediatric age groups. Single and multidrug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were performed on all specimens. There were a total of 11,341 E. coli urine cultures from 343 infants (0-4 weeks), 1,801 toddlers (5 weeks-24 months), 6,742 preteens (2-12 years), and 2,455 teens (13-17 years). E. coli resistance to ampicillin peaked in toddlers (52.8%) but was high in preteens (52.1%), infants (50.4%), and teens (40.6%). Resistance to two or more antibiotics varied across age groups, with toddlers (27%) leading preteens (23.1%), infants (21%), and teens (15.9%). Resistance to three or more antibiotics was low in all age groups (range 3.1-5.2%). The most common co-resistance in all age groups was ampicillin/TMP-SMZ. In conclusion, less than half of all pediatric UTIs are susceptible to all commonly used antibiotics. In some age groups, there is a significant percentage of co-resistance between the two most commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin and TMP-SMZ).

  7. Transintestinal transport of the anti-inflammatory drug 4F and the modulation of transintestinal cholesterol efflux[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriwether, David; Sulaiman, Dawoud; Wagner, Alan; Grijalva, Victor; Kaji, Izumi; Williams, Kevin J.; Yu, Liqing; Fogelman, Spencer; Volpe, Carmen; Bensinger, Steven J.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Shechter, Ishaiahu; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2016-01-01

    The site and mechanism of action of the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F are incompletely understood. Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) is a process involved in the clearance of excess cholesterol from the body. While TICE is responsible for at least 30% of the clearance of neutral sterols from the circulation into the intestinal lumen, few pharmacological agents have been identified that modulate this pathway. We show first that circulating 4F selectively targets the small intestine (SI) and that it is predominantly transported into the intestinal lumen. This transport of 4F into the SI lumen is transintestinal in nature, and it is modulated by TICE. We also show that circulating 4F increases reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages and cholesterol efflux from lipoproteins via the TICE pathway. We identify the cause of this modulation of TICE either as 4F being a cholesterol acceptor with respect to enterocytes, from which 4F enhances cholesterol efflux, or as 4F being an intestinal chaperone with respect to TICE. Our results assign a novel role for 4F as a modulator of the TICE pathway and suggest that the anti-inflammatory functions of 4F may be a partial consequence of the codependent intestinal transport of both 4F and cholesterol. PMID:27199144

  8. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  9. Vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for live emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ohashi, Mizue; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2014-05-01

    Difficult access to 40-m-tall emergent trees in tropical rainforests has resulted in a lack of data related to vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux, even though significant variations in wood CO2 efflux are an important source of errors when estimating whole-tree total wood CO2 efflux. This study aimed to clarify vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for emergent trees and to document the impact of the variations on the whole-tree estimates of stem and branch CO2 efflux. First, we measured wood CO2 efflux and factors related to tree morphology and environment for seven live emergent trees of two dipterocarp species at four to seven heights of up to ∼ 40 m for each tree using ladders and a crane. No systematic tendencies in vertical variations were observed for all the trees. Wood CO2 efflux was not affected by stem and air temperature, stem diameter, stem height or stem growth. The ratios of wood CO2 efflux at the treetop to that at breast height were larger in emergent trees with relatively smaller diameters at breast height. Second, we compared whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates using vertical measurements with those based on solely breast height measurements. We found similar whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates regardless of the patterns of vertical variations in CO2 efflux because the surface area in the canopy, where wood CO2 efflux often differed from that at breast height, was very small compared with that at low stem heights, resulting in little effect of the vertical variations on the estimate. Additionally, whole-tree branch CO2 efflux estimates using measured wood CO2 efflux in the canopy were considerably different from those measured using only breast height measurements. Uncertainties in wood CO2 efflux in the canopy did not cause any bias in stem CO2 efflux scaling, but affected branch CO2 efflux. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. [Bacterial efflux pumps - their role in antibiotic resistance and potential inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricová, Kristýna; Kolář, Milan

    2014-12-01

    Efflux pumps capable of actively draining antibiotic agents from bacterial cells may be considered one of potential mechanisms of the development of antimicrobial resistance. The most important group of efflux pumps capable of removing several types of antibiotics include RND (resistance - nodulation - division) pumps. These are three proteins that cross the bacterial cell wall, allowing direct expulsion of the agent out from the bacterial cell. The most investigated efflux pumps are the AcrAB-TolC system in Escherichia coli and the MexAB-OprM system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, efflux pumps are able to export other than antibacterial agents such as disinfectants, thus decreasing their effectiveness. One potential approach to inactivation of an efflux pump is to use the so-called efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Potential inhibitors tested in vitro involve, for example, phenylalanyl-arginyl-b-naphthylamide (PAbN), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or agents of the phenothiazine class.

  11. Characterisation of multidrug-resistant Ehrlich ascites tumour cells selected in vivo for resistance to etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J

    2000-01-01

    -extractable immunoreactive topoisomerase IIalpha and beta in EHR2/VP16 was reduced by 30-40% relative to that in EHR2. The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) mRNA was increased 20-fold in EHR2/VP16 as compared with EHR2, whereas the expression of P-glycoprotein was unchanged. In EHR2/VP16, the steady......M. ATPase activity was slightly stimulated by daunorubicin, whereas vinblastine, verapamil, and cyclosporin A had no effect. In conclusion, development of resistance to VP16 in EHR2 is accompanied by a significant reduction in topoisomerase II (alpha and beta) and by increased expression of MRP mRNA (20......-fold). MRP displays several points of resemblance to P-glycoprotein in its mode of action: 1) like P-glycoprotein, MRP causes resistance to a range of hydrophobic drugs; 2) MRP decreases drug accumulation in the cells and this decrease is abolished by omission of energy; and 3) MRP increases efflux...

  12. Microvillar cell surface as a natural defense system against xenobiotics: a new interpretation of multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, K; Gartzke, J

    2001-08-01

    The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) is reinterpreted on the basis of the recently proposed concept of microvillar signaling. According to this notion, substrate and ion fluxes across the surface of differentiated cells occur via transporters and ion channels that reside in membrane domains at the tips of microvilli (MV). The flux rates are regulated by the actin-based cytoskeletal core structure of MV, acting as a diffusion barrier between the microvillar tip compartment and the cytoplasm. The expression of this diffusion barrier system is a novel aspect of cell differentiation and represents a functional component of the natural defense system of epithelial cells against environmental hazardous ions and lipophilic compounds. Because of the specific organization of epithelial Ca(2+) signaling and the secretion, lipophilic compounds associated with the plasma membrane are transferred from the basal to the apical cell surface by a lipid flow mechanism. Drug release from the apical pole occurs by either direct secretion from the cell surface or metabolization by the microvillar cytochrome P-450 system and efflux of the metabolites and conjugation products through the large multifunctional anion channels localized in apical MV. The natural microvillar defense system also provides a mechanistic basis of acquired MDR in tumor cells. The microvillar surface organization is lost in rapidly growing cells such as tumor or embryonic cells but is restored during exposure of tumor cells to cytotoxins by induction of a prolonged G(0)/G(1) resting phase.

  13. Influence of multidrug resistance and drug transport proteins on chemotherapy drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Helena; McCann, Andrew; Clynes, Martin; Larkin, Annemarie

    2015-05-01

    Chemotherapy involving the use of anticancer drugs remains an important strategy in the overall management of patients with metastatic cancer. Acquisition of multidrug resistance remains a major impediment to successful chemotherapy. Drug transporters in cell membranes and intracellular drug metabolizing enzymes contribute to the resistance phenotype and determine the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs in the body. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate the transport of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics including cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Solute carrier (SLC) transporters mediate the influx of cytotoxic drugs into cells. This review focuses on the substrate interaction of these transporters, on their biology and what role they play together with drug metabolizing enzymes in eliminating therapeutic drugs from cells. The majority of anticancer drugs are substrates for the ABC transporter and SLC transporter families. Together, these proteins have the ability to control the influx and the efflux of structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby modulating the intracellular drug concentration. These interactions have important clinical implications for chemotherapy because ultimately they determine therapeutic efficacy, disease progression/relapse and the success or failure of patient treatment.

  14. Nanohybrid systems of non-ionic surfactant inserting liposomes loading paclitaxel for reversal of multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiufeng; Gao, Yu; Chen, Lingli; Zhang, Zhiwen; Deng, Yihui; Li, Yaping

    2012-01-17

    Three new nanohybrid systems of non-ionic surfactant inserting liposomes loading paclitaxel (PTX) (NLPs) were prepared to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in PTX-resistance human lung cancer cell line. Three non-ionic surfactants, Solutol HS 15 (HS-15), pluronic F68 (PF-68) and cremophor EL (CrEL) were inserted into liposomes by film hydration method to form NLPs with an average size of around 110, 180 and 110 nm, respectively. There was an obvious increase of rhodamin 123 (Rh123) accumulation in A549/T cells after treated with nanohybrid systems loading Rh123 (NLRs) when compared with free Rh123 or liposomes loading Rh123 without surfactants (LRs), which indicated the significant inhibition effects of NLRs on drug efflux. The P-gp detection and ATP determination demonstrated that BNLs could not only interfere P-gp expression on the membrane of drug resistant cells, but also decrease ATP level in the cells. The cytotoxicity of NLPs against A549/T cells was higher than PTX loaded liposomes without surfactants (LPs), and the best result was achieved after treated with NLPs2. The apoptotic assay and the cell cycle analysis showed that NLPs could induce more apoptotic cells in drug resistant cells when compared with LPs. These results suggested that NLPs could overcome MDR by combination of drug delivery, P-gp inhibition and ATP depletion, and showed potential for treatment of MDR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emodin reverses leukemia multidrug resistance by competitive inhibition and downregulation of P-glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Min

    Full Text Available Development of multidrug resistance (MDR is a continuous clinical challenge partially due to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML patients. Herein, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L, on P-gp in P-gp positive K562/ADM cells. Competition experiments combined with molecular docking analysis were utilized to investigate the binding modes between emodin and binding sites of P-gp. Emodin reversed adriamycin resistance in K562/ADM cells accompanied with the decrease of P-gp protein expression, further increasing the uptake of rhodamine123 in both K562/ADM and Caco-2 cells, indicating the inhibition of P-gp efflux function. Moreover, when incubated with emodin under different conditions where P-gp was inhibited, K562/ADM cells displayed increasing intracellular uptake of emodin, suggesting that emodin may be the potential substrate of P-gp. Importantly, rhodamine 123 could increase the Kintrinsic (Ki value of emodin linearly, whereas, verapamil could not, implying that emodin competitively bound to the R site of P-gp and noncompetition existed between emodin and verapamil at the M site, in a good accordance with the results of molecular docking that emodin bound to the R site of P-gp with higher affinity. Based on our results, we suggest that emodin might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression.

  16. Inhibition of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: time for a change of strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Richard; Luk, Frederick; Bebawy, Mary

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key player in the multidrug-resistant phenotype in cancer. The protein confers resistance by mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of an astonishing array of anticancer drugs. Its broad specificity has been the subject of numerous attempts to inhibit the protein and restore the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The general strategy has been to develop compounds that either compete with anticancer drugs for transport or act as direct inhibitors of P-gp. Despite considerable in vitro success, there are no compounds currently available to "block" P-gp-mediated resistance in the clinic. The failure may be attributed to toxicity, adverse drug interaction, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. This review provides a description of several alternative approaches to overcome the activity of P-gp in drug-resistant cells. These include 1) drugs that specifically target resistant cells, 2) novel nanotechnologies to provide high-dose, targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, 3) compounds that interfere with nongenomic transfer of resistance, and 4) approaches to reduce the expression of P-gp within tumors. Such approaches have been developed through the pursuit of greater understanding of resistance mediators such as P-gp, and they show considerable potential for further application.

  17. Investigating the Role of the Host Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein Transporter Family in Burkholderia cepacia Complex Pathogenicity Using a Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Visone, Marco; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato; Ballestriero, Francesco; Santos, Radleigh; Pinilla, Clemencia; Di Schiavi, Elia; Tegos, George; de Pascale, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between host efflux system of the non-vertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) strain virulence. This is the first comprehensive effort to profile host-transporters within the context of Bcc infection. With this aim, two different toxicity tests were performed: a slow killing assay that monitors mortality of the host by intestinal colonization and a fast killing assay that assesses production of toxins. A Virulence Ranking scheme was defined, that expressed the toxicity of the Bcc panel members, based on the percentage of surviving worms. According to this ranking the 18 Bcc strains were divided in 4 distinct groups. Only the Cystic Fibrosis isolated strains possessed profound nematode killing ability to accumulate in worms' intestines. For the transporter analysis a complete set of isogenic nematode single Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) efflux mutants and a number of efflux inhibitors were interrogated in the host toxicity assays. The Bcc pathogenicity profile of the 7 isogenic C. elegans MRP knock-out strains functionality was classified in two distinct groups. Disabling host transporters enhanced nematode mortality more than 50% in 5 out of 7 mutants when compared to wild type. In particular mrp-2 was the most susceptible phenotype with increased mortality for 13 out 18 Bcc strains, whereas mrp-3 and mrp-4 knock-outs had lower mortality rates, suggesting a different role in toxin-substrate recognition. The use of MRP efflux inhibitors in the assays resulted in substantially increased (>40% on average) mortality of wild-type worms.

  18. Inhibiting fungal multidrug resistance by disrupting an activator-Mediator interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Joy L; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Vale-Silva, Luis A; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sohn, Yoo-Jin; Ji, Fei; Gelev, Vladimir; Sanglard, Dominique; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Mukherjee, Goutam; Bhyravabhotla, Jayaram; Buhrlage, Sara J; Gray, Nathanael S; Wagner, Gerhard; Näär, Anders M; Arthanari, Haribabu

    2016-02-25

    Eukaryotic transcription activators stimulate the expression of specific sets of target genes through recruitment of co-activators such as the RNA polymerase II-interacting Mediator complex. Aberrant function of transcription activators has been implicated in several diseases. However, therapeutic targeting efforts have been hampered by a lack of detailed molecular knowledge of the mechanisms of gene activation by disease-associated transcription activators. We previously identified an activator-targeted three-helix bundle KIX domain in the human MED15 Mediator subunit that is structurally conserved in Gal11/Med15 Mediator subunits in fungi. The Gal11/Med15 KIX domain engages pleiotropic drug resistance transcription factor (Pdr1) orthologues, which are key regulators of the multidrug resistance pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the clinically important human pathogen Candida glabrata. The prevalence of C. glabrata is rising, partly owing to its low intrinsic susceptibility to azoles, the most widely used antifungal agent. Drug-resistant clinical isolates of C. glabrata most commonly contain point mutations in Pdr1 that render it constitutively active, suggesting that this transcriptional activation pathway represents a linchpin in C. glabrata multidrug resistance. Here we perform sequential biochemical and in vivo high-throughput screens to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the interaction of the C. glabrata Pdr1 activation domain with the C. glabrata Gal11A KIX domain. The lead compound (iKIX1) inhibits Pdr1-dependent gene activation and re-sensitizes drug-resistant C. glabrata to azole antifungals in vitro and in animal models for disseminated and urinary tract C. glabrata infection. Determining the NMR structure of the C. glabrata Gal11A KIX domain provides a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of Pdr1 gene activation and multidrug resistance inhibition by iKIX1. We have demonstrated the feasibility of small-molecule targeting of a

  19. Hypoxia-inducible fa