WorldWideScience

Sample records for multicomponent organic liquid

  1. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent

  2. Organic Zeolite Analogues Based on Multi-Component Liquid Crystals: Recognition and Transformation of Molecules within Constrained Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ishida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In liquid crystals (LCs, molecules are confined in peculiar environments, where ordered alignment and certain mobility are realized at the same time. Considering these characteristics, the idea of “controlling molecular events within LC media” seems reasonable. As a suitable system for investigating this challenge, we have recently developed a new class of ionic LCs; the salts of amphiphilic carboxylic acids with 2-amino alcohols, or those of carboxylic acids with amphiphilic 2-amino alcohols, have a strong tendency to exhibit thermotropic LC phases. Because of the noncovalent nature of the interaction between molecules, one of the two components can easily be exchanged with, or transformed into, another molecule, without distorting the original LC architecture. In addition, both components are common organic molecules, and a variety of compounds are easily available. Taking advantage of these characteristics, we have succeeded in applying two‑component LCs as chiral media for molecular recognition and reactions. This review presents an overview of our recent studies, together with notable reports related to this field.

  3. Drying of liquid food droplets : enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerdink, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the drying of liquid food droplets is studied from three different points of view: drying kinetics, enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion. Mathematical models are developed and validated experimentally.

    Drying experiments are performed with suspended

  4. Remote Monitoring of a Multi-Component Liquid-Phase Organic Synthesis by Infrared Emission Spectroscopy: The Recovery of Pure Component Emissivities by Band-Target Entropy Minimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheng, S.; Tjahjono, M.; Rajarathnam, D.; Chuanzhao, L.; Lyapkalo, Ilya; Chen, D.; Garland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10 (2007), s. 1057-1062 ISSN 0003-7028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : infrared emission spectroscopy * liquid phase reaction * band-target entropy minimization * BTEM * emittance Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2007

  5. The elimination of singularities in pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'jev, O.M.; Chalij, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that allows to find nonsingular expressions for pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system. The nature of the method deals with using integral and differential Ornstein-Zernike equations for finding asymptotic expressions for pair correlation functions and their subsequent precision. The obtained results are analyzed taking into account their possible applicability for studying the correlative behaviour of multicomponent liquid systems

  6. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the immiscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the open-quotes alkaliclose quotes corner of the NBS submixture

  7. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-04-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the miscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the ''alkali'' corner of the NBS submixture

  8. Pore and surface diffusion in multicomponent adsorption and liquid chromatography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Whitley, R.D.; Wang, N.H.L.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized parallel pore and surface diffusion model for multicomponent adsorption and liquid chromatography is formulated and solved numerically. Analytical solution for first- and second-order central moments for a pulse on a plateau input is used as benchmarks for the numerical solutions. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data for two systems: ion-exchange of strontium, sodium, and calcium in a zeolite and competitive adsorption of two organics on activated carbon. In a linear isotherm region of single-component systems, both surface and pore diffusion cause symmetric spreading in breakthrough curves. In a highly nonlinear isotherm region, however, surface diffusion causes pronounced tailing in breakthrough curves; the larger the step change in concentration, the more pronounced tailing, in contrast to relatively symmetric breakthroughs due to pore diffusion. If only a single diffusion mechanism is assumed in analyzing the data of parallel diffusion systems, a concentration-dependent apparent surface diffusivity or pore diffusivity results; for a convex isotherm, the apparent surface diffusivity increases, whereas the apparent pore diffusivity decreases with increasing concentration. For a multicomponent nonlinear system, elution order can change if pore diffusion dominates for a low-affinity solute, whereas surface diffusion dominates for a high-affinity solute

  9. Performance of an organic Rankine cycle with multicomponent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya Prasad, G.S.; Suresh Kumar, C.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems for power generation using solar thermal energy. Many authors have studied the performance of ORC with different pure fluids as well as binary zeotropic mixtures in order to improve the thermal efficiency. It has not been well appreciated that zeotropic mixtures can also be used to reduce the size and cost of an ORC system. The main objective of this paper is to present mixtures that help reduce the cost while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The proposed method also allows us to design an optimum mixture for a given expander. This new approach is particularly beneficial for designing mixtures for small ORC systems operating with solar thermal energy. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate this concept. - Highlights: • The performance of an ORC operating with different zeotropic multicomponent mixtures is presented. • A thermodynamic method is proposed for the design of multicomponent mixtures for ORC power plants. • High exergy efficiency as well as high volumetric expander work can be achieved with appropriate mixtures. • The method allows design of mixtures that can be used with off-the-shelf positive displacement expanders

  10. Observations of mass transport phenomena in multicomponent liquid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruzek, M.T.; Musinski, D.L.; Jacobs, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of surface tension effects on liquid behavior are common, such as liquid rising in a capillary tube or the beading of rain drops on a freshly waxed car. Usually through, the surface tension forces are small compared to other forces such as gravity. Situations exist, however, where the simple statement attributed to Marangoni can explain striking and unexpected observations. ''If for any reason difference of surface tension exist along a free liquid surface, liquid will flow toward the region of higher surface tension''. Such flows are called Marangoni flows. Observations of isotopic hydrogen fuel mixtures in cryogenic Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets can be explained on the basis of Marangoni flows. Additional experiments at KMS with common room temperature mixtures have produced similar results

  11. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim; Amad, Maan H.; Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2012-01-01

    with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  12. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Phase-field modeling of isothermal quasi-incompressible multicomponent liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gyula I.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper general dynamic equations describing the time evolution of isothermal quasi-incompressible multicomponent liquids are derived in the framework of the classical Ginzburg-Landau theory of first order phase transformations. Based on the fundamental equations of continuum mechanics, a general convection-diffusion dynamics is set up first for compressible liquids. The constitutive relations for the diffusion fluxes and the capillary stress are determined in the framework of gradient theories. Next the general definition of incompressibility is given, which is taken into account in the derivation by using the Lagrange multiplier method. To validate the theory, the dynamic equations are solved numerically for the quaternary quasi-incompressible Cahn-Hilliard system. It is demonstrated that variable density (i) has no effect on equilibrium (in case of a suitably constructed free energy functional) and (ii) can influence nonequilibrium pattern formation significantly.

  14. Chemical ageing and transformation of diffusivity in semi-solid multi-component organic aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrang, C.; Shiraiwa, M.; Pöschl, U.

    2011-07-01

    Recent experimental evidence underlines the importance of reduced diffusivity in amorphous semi-solid or glassy atmospheric aerosols. This paper investigates the impact of diffusivity on the ageing of multi-component reactive organic particles approximating atmospheric cooking aerosols. We apply and extend the recently developed KM-SUB model in a study of a 12-component mixture containing oleic and palmitoleic acids. We demonstrate that changes in the diffusivity may explain the evolution of chemical loss rates in ageing semi-solid particles, and we resolve surface and bulk processes under transient reaction conditions considering diffusivities altered by oligomerisation. This new model treatment allows prediction of the ageing of mixed organic multi-component aerosols over atmospherically relevant timescales and conditions. We illustrate the impact of changing diffusivity on the chemical half-life of reactive components in semi-solid particles, and we demonstrate how solidification and crust formation at the particle surface can affect the chemical transformation of organic aerosols.

  15. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  16. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  17. Evaporation of multicomponent chemical spills: When is liquid phase resistance significant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    When chemicals are spilled on land or water, it is important to be able to estimate evaporation rates accurately. Conventional models used to predict evaporation rates of multicomponent spills assume that the entire resistance to evaporation lies in the vapor phase. Under certain conditions, an additional liquid phase resistance may be introduced, resulting in retarded evaporation rates. Existing models may thus fail to predict spill behavior accurately. A study is described whose objective is to elucidate the significance of the liquid phase resistance. Evaporation experiments were conducted in which a thin layer of synthetic oil (mineral oil enriched with compounds such as pentane, hexane, toluene, octane, and p-xylene) was exposed to prolonged evaporation in a metal tray at controlled wind speeds. Bulk samples of the spill layer were taken at specific time intervals and their composition was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The results are compared to those from a theoretical model and to gas stripping experiments. The model is based on the evaporative flux equation incorporating Raoult's law; inputs are the air-oil partition coefficient for each component and the composition of the synthetic oil on a volume and mole fraction basis. The study has enabled the formation of vertical concentration profiles to be examined and liquid phase mass transfer coefficients to be estimated. The results imply that liquid-phase resistance effects are likely to be important for the most volatile components. Contaminated areas may thus continue to be hazardous, even though model predictions indicate otherwise. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  19. Chemical ageing and transformation of diffusivity in semi-solid multi-component organic aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pfrang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence underlines the importance of reduced diffusivity in amorphous semi-solid or glassy atmospheric aerosols. This paper investigates the impact of diffusivity on the ageing of multi-component reactive organic particles approximating atmospheric cooking aerosols. We apply and extend the recently developed KM-SUB model in a study of a 12-component mixture containing oleic and palmitoleic acids. We demonstrate that changes in the diffusivity may explain the evolution of chemical loss rates in ageing semi-solid particles, and we resolve surface and bulk processes under transient reaction conditions considering diffusivities altered by oligomerisation. This new model treatment allows prediction of the ageing of mixed organic multi-component aerosols over atmospherically relevant timescales and conditions. We illustrate the impact of changing diffusivity on the chemical half-life of reactive components in semi-solid particles, and we demonstrate how solidification and crust formation at the particle surface can affect the chemical transformation of organic aerosols.

  20. Transport properties of organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Latini, G; Passerini, G

    2006-01-01

    The liquid state is possibly the most difficult and intriguing state of matter to model. Organic liquids are required, mainly as working fluids, in almost all industrial activities and in most appliances (e.g. in air conditioning). Transport properties (namely dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity) are possibly the most important properties for the design of devices and appliances. The aim of this book is to present both theoretical approaches and the latest experimental advances on the issue, and to merge them into a wider approach. It concentrates on applicability of models.This book is organized into five chapters plus a data collection. The chapters discuss the following topics: the liquid state and some well-know theories able to explain the behaviour of liquids; a rather complete review of models, based on theoretical assumptions and/or upon physical paradigms, to evaluate heat transfer in organic liquids; a review of several well-known semi-empirical methods to predict the thermal conductivity coe...

  1. Development of an atomic mobility database for liquid phase in multicomponent Al alloys. Focusing on binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Du, Yong; Zhang, Lijun [Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China). State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy; Liu, Dandan [Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China). State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy; Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Chen, Qing; Engstroem, Anders [Thermo-Calc Software AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    An atomic mobility database for binary liquid phase in multicomponent Al-Cu-Fe-Mg-Mn-Ni-Si-Zn alloys was established based on critically reviewed experimental and theoretical diffusion data by using DICTRA (Diffusion Controlled TRAnsformation) software. The impurity diffusivities of the elements with limited experimental data are obtained by means of the least-squares method and semi-empirical correlations. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated and measured diffusivities indicate that most of the reported diffusivities can be well reproduced by the currently obtained atomic mobilities. The reliability of this diffusivity database is further validated by comparing the simulated concentration profiles with the measured ones, as well as the measured main inter-diffusion coefficients of liquid Al-Cu-Zn alloys with the extrapolated ones from the present binary atomic mobility database. The approach is of general validity and applicable to establish mobility databases of other liquid alloys. (orig.)

  2. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  3. Liquid metal–organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Keen, David A.; Bennett, Thomas D.; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2017-10-09

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including ‘defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

  4. Liquid metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Keen, David A.; Bennett, Thomas D.; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including `defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

  5. Performance analysis a of solar driven organic Rankine cycle using multi-component working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Modi, A.

    2015-01-01

    suitable control strategy and both the overall annual production and the average solar to electrical efficiency are estimated with an annual simulation. The results suggest that the introduction of binary working fluids enables to increase the solar system performance both in design and part-load operation....... cycle. The purpose of this paper is to optimize a low temperature organic Rankine cycle tailored for solar applications. The objective of the optimization is the maximization of the solar to electrical efficiency and the optimization parameters are the working fluid and the turbine inlet temperature...... and pressure. Both pure fluids and binary mixtures are considered as possible working fluids and thus one of the primary aims of the study is to evaluate whether the use of multi-component working fluids might lead to increased solar to electrical efficiencies. The considered configuration includes a solar...

  6. Simulating multi-component liquid phase adsorption systems: ethanol and residual sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.; Tezel, F.H.; Thibault, J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa (Canada)], email: Jules.Thibault@uottawa.ca

    2011-07-01

    A series of multi-component adsorption studies was performed to determine the relative advantages of producing ethanol which is to be blended with gasoline. These studies developed a model to describe the competition for adsorption sites between ethanol and sugar molecules on the surface of the adsorbent. Three competitive adsorption models established by batch systems were examined to evaluate the suitability of the experiment data across different ethanol and sugar concentrations and determine their isotherm parameters. Multi-component packed bed adsorption experiments were then performed. The results show that ethanol capacity was decreased only slightly from that obtained in single component adsorption studies. There is significant evidence to indicate that sugar displacement from adsorption sites occurs because adsorption of ethanol is preferred. So the capacity of sugars will be greatly reduced if there are appreciable ethanol concentrations.

  7. Thermodynamics of the multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium under capillary pressure difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the two-phase multicomponent equilibrium, provided that the phase pressures are different due to the action of capillary forces. We prove the two general properties of such an equilibrium, which have previously been known for a single-component case, however, to the best of our knowledge......, not for the multicomponent mixtures. The importance is emphasized on the space of the intensive variables P, T and mu (i), where the laws of capillary equilibrium have a simple geometrical interpretation. We formulate thermodynamic problems specific to such an equilibrium, and outline changes to be introduced to common...... algorithms of flash calculations in order to solve these problems. Sample calculations show large variation of the capillary properties of the mixture in the very neighborhood of the phase envelope and the restrictive role of the spinodal surface as a boundary for possible equilibrium states with different...

  8. Multi-component determination and chemometric analysis of Paris polyphylla by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Jin, Hong-Yu; Sun, Lei; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Multi-source analysis of traditional Chinese medicine is key to ensuring its safety and efficacy. Compared with traditional experimental differentiation, chemometric analysis is a simpler strategy to identify traditional Chinese medicines. Multi-component analysis plays an increasingly vital role in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicines. A novel strategy, based on chemometric analysis and quantitative analysis of multiple components, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of traditional Chinese medicines such as Chonglou. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography was more convenient and efficient. Five species of Chonglou were distinguished by chemometric analysis and nine saponins, including Chonglou saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, D, and H, as well as dioscin and gracillin, were determined in 18 min. The method is feasible and credible, and enables to improve quality control of traditional Chinese medicines and natural products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  10. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  11. Liquid crystals for organic transistors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jun-ichi; Iino, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Liquid crystals are a new type of organic semiconductors exhibiting molecular orientation in self-organizing manner, and have high potential for device applications. In fact, various device applications have been proposed so far, including photosensors, solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors, and so on.. However, device performance in those fabricated with liquid crystals is less than those of devices fabricated with conventional materials in spite of unique features of liquid crystals. Here we discuss how we can utilize the liquid crystallinity in organic transistors and how we can overcome conventional non-liquid crystalline organic transistor materials. Then, we demonstrate high performance organic transistors fabricated with a smectic E liquid crystal of Ph-BTBT-10, which show high mobility of over 10cm2/Vs and high thermal durability of over 200oC in OFETs fabricated with its spin-coated polycrystalline thin films.

  12. Multi-component analysis of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and tylosin in swine manure by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anne Marie; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2006-03-01

    A multi-component method focussing on thorough sample preparation has been developed for simultaneous analysis of swine manure for three classes of antibiotic-tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and tylosin. Liquid manure was initially freeze-dried and homogenised by pulverization before extraction by pressurised liquid extraction. The extraction was performed at 75 degrees C and 2,500 psig in three steps using two cycles with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid buffer (pH 4.7) and one cycle with a mixture of 80% methanol with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid (pH 3). After liquid-liquid extraction with heptane to remove lipids, the pH of the manure was adjusted to 3 with formic acid and the sample was vacuum-filtered through 0.6 mum glass-fibre filters. Finally the samples were pre-concentrated by tandem SPE (SAX-HLB). Recoveries were determined for manure samples spiked at three concentrations (50-5,000 microg kg(-1) dry matter); quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. Recoveries were >70% except for oxytetracycline (42-54%), sulfadiazine (59-73%), and tylosin (9-35%) and did not vary with concentration or from day-to-day. Limits of quantification (LOQ) for all compounds, determined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, were in the range 10-100 microg kg(-1) dry matter. The suitability of the method was assessed by analysis of swine manure samples from six different pig-production sites, e.g. finishing pigs, sows, or mixed production. Residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples. The largest amounts were found for tetracyclines (up to 30 mg kg(-1) dry matter for the sum of CTC and ECTC). Sulfonamides were detected at concentrations up to 2 mg kg(-1) dry matter (SDZ); tylosin was not detected in any samples.

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies on subcooled flow boiling of pure liquids and multicomponent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamialahmadi, M.; Abdollahi, H.; Shariati, A. [The University of Petroleum Industry, Ahwaz (Iran); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (Germany); Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    To improve the design of modern industrial reboilers, accurate knowledge of boiling heat transfer coefficients is essential. In this study flow boiling heat transfer coefficients for binary and ternary mixtures of acetone, isopropanol and water were measured over a wide range of heat flux, subcooling, flow velocity and composition. The measurements cover the regimes of convective heat transfer, transitional boiling and fully developed subcooled flow boiling. Two models are presented for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The first model is the combination of the Chen model with the Gorenflo correlation and the Schluender model for single and multicomponent boiling, respectively. This model predicts flow boiling heat transfer coefficients with acceptable accuracy, but fails to predict the nucleate boiling fraction NBF reasonably well. The second model is based on the asymptotic addition of forced convective and nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients. The benefit of this model is a further improvement in the accuracy of flow boiling heat transfer coefficient over the Chen type model, simplicity and the more realistic prediction of the nucleate boiling fraction NBF. (author)

  14. Simulation on a proposed large-scale liquid hydrogen plant using a multi-component refrigerant refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasae-in, Songwut [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Kolbjorn Hejes vei 1d, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Stang, Jacob H.; Neksa, Petter [SINTEF Energy Research AS, Kolbjorn Hejes vei 1d, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    A proposed liquid hydrogen plant using a multi-component refrigerant (MR) refrigeration system is explained in this paper. A cycle that is capable of producing 100 tons of liquid hydrogen per day is simulated. The MR system can be used to cool feed normal hydrogen gas from 25 C to the equilibrium temperature of -193 C with a high efficiency. In addition, for the transition from the equilibrium temperature of the hydrogen gas from -193 C to -253 C, the new proposed four H{sub 2} Joule-Brayton cascade refrigeration system is recommended. The overall power consumption of the proposed plant is 5.35 kWh/kg{sub LH2}, with an ideal minimum of 2.89 kWh/kg{sub LH2}. The current plant in Ingolstadt is used as a reference, which has an energy consumption of 13.58 kWh/kg{sub LH2} and an efficiency of 21.28%: the efficiency of the proposed system is 54.02% or more, where this depends on the assumed efficiency values for the compressors and expanders. Moreover, the proposed system has some smaller-size heat exchangers, much smaller compressor motors, and smaller crankcase compressors. Thus, it could represent a plant with the lowest construction cost with respect to the amount of liquid hydrogen produced in comparison to today's plants, e.g., in Ingolstadt and Leuna. Therefore, the proposed system has many improvements that serve as an example for future hydrogen liquefaction plants. (author)

  15. The immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3 month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  16. Nanoparticles in ionic liquids: interactions and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiqi; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2015-07-28

    Ionic liquids (ILs), defined as low-melting organic salts, are a novel class of compounds with unique properties and a combinatorially great chemical diversity. Ionic liquids are utilized as synthesis and dispersion media for nanoparticles as well as for surface functionalization. Ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrid systems are governed by a combined effect of several intermolecular interactions between their constituents. For each interaction, including van der Waals, electrostatic, structural, solvophobic, steric, and hydrogen bonding, the characterization and quantitative calculation methods together with factors affecting these interactions are reviewed here. Various self-organized structures based on nanoparticles in ionic liquids are generated as a result of a balance of these intermolecular interactions. These structures, including colloidal glasses and gels, lyotropic liquid crystals, nanoparticle-stabilized ionic liquid-containing emulsions, ionic liquid surface-functionalized nanoparticles, and nanoscale ionic materials, possess properties of both ionic liquids and nanoparticles, which render them useful as novel materials especially in electrochemical and catalysis applications. This review of the interactions within nanoparticle dispersions in ionic liquids and of the structure of nanoparticle and ionic liquid hybrids provides guidance on the rational design of novel ionic liquid-based materials, enabling applications in broad areas.

  17. Multicomponent Reaction in Ionic Liquid: A Novel and Green Synthesis of 1, 4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ying ZHANG; Yan Zhen LI; Xue Sen FAN; Gui Rong QU; Xue Yuan HU; Jian Ji WANG

    2006-01-01

    An efficient and green method for the synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives mediated in an ionic liquid, [bmim][BF4], through a four-component condensation process of aldehydes, 1, 3-dione, Meldrum's acid and ammonium acetate is disclosed in this paper.

  18. On the Crystallization of Compacted and Chunky Graphite from Liquid Multicomponent Iron-Carbon-Silicon-Based Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Huff, R.; Alonso, G.; Larrañaga, P.; De la Fuente, E.; Suarez, R.

    2016-08-01

    Extensive SEM work was carried out on deep-etched specimens to reveal the evolution of compacted and chunky graphite in magnesium-modified multicomponent Fe-C-Si alloys during early solidification and at room temperature. The findings of this research were then integrated in the current body of knowledge to produce an understanding of the crystallization of compacted and chunky graphite. It was confirmed that growth from the liquid for both compacted and chunky graphite occurs radially from a nucleus, as foliated crystals and dendrites. The basic building blocks of the graphite aggregates are hexagonal faceted graphite platelets with nanometer height and micrometer width. Thickening of the platelets occurs through growth of additional graphene layers nucleated at the ledges of the graphite prism. Additional thickening resulting in complete joining of the platelets may occur from the recrystallization of the amorphous carbon that has diffused from the liquid through the austenite, once the graphite aggregate is enveloped in austenite. With increasing magnesium levels, the foliated graphite platelets progressively aggregate along the c-axis forming clusters. The clusters that have random orientation, eventually produce blocky graphite, as the spaces between the parallel platelets disappear. This is typical for compacted graphite irons and tadpole graphite. The chunky graphite aggregates investigated are conical sectors of graphite platelets stacked along the c-axis. The foliated dendrites that originally develop radially from a common nucleus may aggregate along the c-axis forming blocky graphite that sometimes exhibits helical growth. The large number of defects (cavities) observed in all graphite aggregates supports the mechanism of graphite growth as foliated crystals and dendrites.

  19. APPLICATION OF A GENERALIZED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD METHOD IN THE REDUCTION OF MULTICOMPONENT LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. STRAGEVITCH

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The equations of the method based on the maximum likelihood principle have been rewritten in a suitable generalized form to allow the use of any number of implicit constraints in the determination of model parameters from experimental data and from the associated experimental uncertainties. In addition to the use of any number of constraints, this method also allows data, with different numbers of constraints, to be reduced simultaneously. Application of the method is illustrated in the reduction of liquid-liquid equilibrium data of binary, ternary and quaternary systems simultaneously

  20. Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  1. Design of advanced multicomponent ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures with submicrometre helical pitch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurp, K.; Czerwiński, M.; Tykarska, M.; Bubnov, Alexej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2017), s. 748-756 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA ČR GA15-02843S Grant - others:COST Association EU(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystal * self-assembling materials * submicrometre helical pitch * room temperature mixture * switching time Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  2. Simultaneous determination of 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides in Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector with few markers to determine multicomponents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hua Ge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A method with few markers to determine multicomponents was established and validated to evaluate the quality of Shenfu injection by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. The separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm2, 1.7 μm column. Methanol and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution were used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. 2 aconitum alkaloids and 12 ginsenosides could be perfectly separated within 15 minutes. Ginsenoside Rg1 and benzoylmesaconine, the easily available active components, were employed as the maker components to calculate the relative correction factors of other components in Shenfu injection, Panax ginseng and Aconitum carmichaeli. The external standard method was also established to validate the feasibility of the method with few markers to determine multicomponents. Parameter p and the principal component analysis method were employed to investigate the disparities among batches for the effective quality control of Shenfu injection. The results demonstrated that the ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector method with few markers to determine multicomponents could be used as a powerful tool for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines and their preparations.

  3. Mathematical modeling of planar and spherical vapor–liquid phase interfaces for multicomponent fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celný David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for accurate modeling of phase interfaces is important for understanding various natural processes and for applications in technology such as power production and carbon dioxide separation and storage. In particular, prediction of the course of the non-equilibrium phase transition processes requires knowledge of the properties of the strongly curved phase interfaces of microscopic droplets. In our work, we focus on the spherical vapor–liquid phase interfaces for binary mixtures. We developed a robust computational method to determine the density and concentration profiles. The fundamentals of our approach lie in the Cahn-Hilliard gradient theory, allowing to transcribe the functional formulation into a system of ordinary Euler-Langrange equations. This system is then split and modified into a shape suitable for iterative computation. For this task, we combine the Newton-Raphson and the shooting methods providing a good convergence speed. For the thermodynamic roperties, the PC–SAFT equation of state is used. We determine the density and concentration profiles for spherical phase interfaces at various saturation factors for the binary mixture of CO2 and C9H20. The computed concentration profiles allow to the determine the work of formation and other characteristics of the microscopic droplets.

  4. Optimization of Cycle and Expander Design of an Organic Rankine Cycle Unit using Multi-Component Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems represent at-tractive solutions for power conversion from low temperatureheat sources, and the use of these power systems is gaining increasing attention in the marine industry. This paper proposesthe combined optimal design of cycle and expander...... for an organic Rankine cycle unit utilizing waste heat from low temperature heat sources. The study addresses a case where the minimum temperature of the heat source is constrained and a case where no constraint is imposed. The former case is the wasteheat recovery from jacket cooling water of a marine diesel...... engine onboard a large ship, and the latter is representative of a low-temperature geothermal, solar or waste heat recovery application. Multi-component working fluids are investigated, as they allow improving the match between the temperature pro-files in the heat exchangers and, consequently, reducing...

  5. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  6. Transport of Liquid Phase Organic Solutes in Liquid Crystalline Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sangil

    2010-01-01

    Porous cellulose nitrate membranes were impregnated with 8CB and PCH5 LCs (liquid crystals) and separations of solutes dissolved in aqueous phases were performed while monitoring solute concentration via UV-VIS spectrometry. The diffusing organic solutes, which consist of one aromatic ring and various functional groups, were selected to exclude molecular size effects on the diffusion and sorption. We studied the effects on solute transport of solute intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and so...

  7. Predictive Local Composition Models for Solid/Liquid Equilibrium in n-Alkane Systems: Wilson Equation for Multicomponent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The predictive local composition model is applied to multicomponent hydrocarbon systems with long-chain n-alkanes as solutes. The results show that it can successfully be extended to highorder systems and accurately predict the solid appearance temperature, also known as cloud point, in solutions...

  8. Vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium of binary and multicomponent systems with MEG modeling with the CPA EoS and an EoS/G(E) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) EoS is applied to multicomponent multiphase equilibria of systems containing MEG as a hydrate inhibitor. It is shown that the model provides very satisfactory prediction of the phase behavior for the systems tested. A more conventional engineering model for handling...

  9. Diaryl fluorene-Based Shape-Persistent Organic Nano molecular Frameworks via Iterative Friedel-Crafts Protocol toward Multicomponent Organic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.W.; Wang, L.; Xie, L.H.; Hou, X.Y.; Liu, Z.D.; Huang, W.; Huang, W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe bottom-up fluorenol approach to create soluble covalent organic nano molecular architectures (ONAs) as potential multicomponent organic semiconductors (MOSs). BPyFBFFA as a typical model of ONAs and MOSs exhibits a persistent chair-shaped geometric structure that consists of hole-transporting tri phenylamine (TPA), high-efficiency ter fluorene, and high-mobility pyrenes. BPyFBFFA was synthesized via the intermediates PyFA and BPyFA with iterative Friedel-Crafts reactions and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. BPyFBFFA behaves as an efficient blue light-emitter without the low-energy green emission band. Complex diaryl fluorenes (CDAFs) are promising candidates for nano scale covalent organic frameworks and MOSs. Friedel-Crafts protocols offer versatile toolboxes for molecular architects to frame chemistry and materials, nano science, and molecular nano technology as well as molecular manufactures

  10. Treatment of radioactive organics liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Galarce, Tania

    1999-01-01

    Because of the danger that radioactive wastes can pose to society and to the environment a viable treatment alternative must be developed to prepare these wastes for final disposal. The waste studied in this work is a liquid organic waste contaminated with the radioisotope tritium. This must be treated and then changed into solid form in a 200 liter container. This study defined an optimum formulation that immobilizes the liquid waste. The organic waste is first submitted to an absorption treatment, with Celite absorbent, which had the best physical characteristics from the point of view of radioactive waste management. Then this was solidified by forming a cement mortar, using a highly resistant local cement, Polpaico 400. Various mixes were tested, with different water/cement, waste/absorbent and absorbed waste/cement ratios, until a mixture that met the quality control requirements was achieved. The optimum mixture obtained has a water/cement ratio of 0.35 (p/p) that is the amount of water needed to make the mixture workable, and minimum water for hydrating the cement; a waste/absorbent ration of 0.5 (v/v), where the organic liquid is totally absorbed, and is incorporated in the solid's crystalline network; and an absorbed waste/cement ratio of 0.8 (p/p), which represents the minimum amount of cement needed to obtain a solid product with the required mechanical resistance. The mixture's components join together with no problem, to produce a good workable mixture. It takes about 10 hours for the mixture to harden. After 14 days, the resulting solid product has a resistance to compression of 52 Kgf/cm2. The formulation contains 22.9% immobilized organic waste, 46.5% cement, 14.3% Celite and 16.3% water. Organic liquid waste can be treated and a solid product obtained, that meets the qualitative and quantitative parameters required for its disposal. (CW)

  11. Radiation degradation of waste waters. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and multicomponent UV-VIS analysis of gamma-irradiated aqueous solutions of nitrobenzene Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.; Sahoo, M.K.; Locaj, J.; Hutta, M.

    1994-01-01

    Saturated aqueous solutions of nitrobenzene (in water, 0.1M nitric acid and 0.1M potassium hydroxide) were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays in deaerated condition. Radiolytic products were analyzed using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and multicomponent UV-VIS spectrometry. With the aid of RP-HPLC retention times of the radiolytic products were found to be identical with those of isomeric nitrophenols, aminophenols and dinitrophenols. According to the primary information obtained from RP-HPLC and literature, we have chosen ten standards and eleven wavelengths for multicomponent UV-VIS analysis (linear multiparametric regression analysis) and the concentrations of nitrobenzene, nitrophenols, aminophenols and dinitrophenols in water, HNO 3 and KOH solutions were calculated. G-values (molecules/100 eV) of the radiolytic products and decomposition of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions G(-nitrobenzene) were calculated from the dependence of their concentrations with dose. Ph has relatively little influence on the decrease of concentration of nitrobenzene, but has strong influence on the product composition. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Liquid organic radioactive wastes are generated from the use of radioisotopes in nuclear research centres and in medical and industrial applications. The volume of these wastes is small by comparison with aqueous radioactive wastes, for example; nevertheless, a strategy for the effective management of these wastes is necessary in order to ensure their safe handling, processing, storage and disposal. A aqueous radioactive wastes may be discharged to the environment after the radioactivity has decayed or been removed. By contrast, organic radioactive wastes require management steps that not only take account of their radioactivity, but also of their chemical content. This is because both the radioactivity and the organic chemical nature can have detrimental effects on health and the environment. Liquid radioactive wastes from these applications typically include vacuum pump oil, lubricating oil and hydraulic fluids, scintillation cocktails from analytical laboratories, solvents from solvent extraction research and uranium refining, and miscellaneous organic solvents. The report describes the factors which should be considered in the development of appropriate strategies for managing this class of wastes from generation to final disposal. Waste sources and characterization, treatment and conditioning processes, packaging, interim storage and the required quality assurance are all discussed. The report is intended to provide guidance to developing Member States which do not have nuclear power generation. A range of processes and procedures is presented, though emphasis is given to simple, easy-to-operate processes requiring less sophisticated and relatively inexpensive equipment. 31 refs, 16 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Solidification of oils and organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    The suitability of selected solidification media for application in the disposal of low-level oil and other organic liquid wastes has been investigated. In the past, these low-level wastes (LLWs) have commonly been immobilized by sorption onto solid absorbents such as vermiculite or diatomaceous earth. Evolving regulations regarding the disposal of these materials encourage solidification. Solidification media which were studied include Portland type I cement; vermiculite plus Portland type I cement; Nuclear Technology Corporation's Nutek 380-cement process; emulsifier, Portland type I cement-sodium silicate; Delaware Custom Materiel's cement process; and the US Gypsum Company's Envirostone process. Waste forms have been evaluated as to their ability to reliably produce free standing monolithic solids which are homogeneous (macroscopically), contain < 1% free standing liquids by volume and pass a water immersion test. Solidified waste form specimens were also subjected to vibratory shock testing and flame testing. Simulated oil wastes can be solidified to acceptable solid specimens having volumetric waste loadings of less than 40 volume-%. However, simulated organic liquid wastes could not be solidified into acceptable waste forms above a volumetric loading factor of about 10 volume-% using the solidification agents studied

  14. MCR III. Multicomponent reactions and their libraries, a new type of organic chemistry of the isocyanides and phosphorus derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chattopadhyaya, J.; Domling, A.; Lorenz, K.; Richter, W.; Ugi, I.; Werner, B.

    1997-01-01

    Various new one-pot multicomponent reactions (MCRs) of C(II) and P(III) derivatives and their libraries are described here. The preparation of some nucleobase- and phospholipid compound libraries by MCRs have been carried out.

  15. A Green Multicomponent Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Aqueous Passerini Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Matthew M.; DeBoef, Brenton

    2009-01-01

    Water is the ideal green solvent for organic reactions. However, most organic molecules are insoluble in it. Herein, we report a laboratory module that takes advantage of this property. The Passerini reaction, a three-component coupling involving an isocyanide, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid, typically requires [similar to] 24 h reaction times in…

  16. Multicomponent diffusivities from the free volume theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A; Bollen, A.M

    In this paper the free volume theory of diffusion is extended to multicomponent mixtures. The free volume is taken to be accessible for any component according to its surface. fraction. The resulting equations predict multicomponent (Maxwell-Stefan) diffusivities in simple liquid mixtures from pure

  17. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Michalski, Grzegorz; Mercik, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors) ...

  18. Separation of water from organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, I.G.; Villiers Naylor, T. de.

    1990-04-10

    This invention relates to the separation of water from fluids by the pervaporation process using a membrane. The invention is characterized in that the membrane has an active layer which consists essentially only of polymers of an unsaturated organic acid, the acid having not more than 6 carbon atoms for every acid group (not counting any carbon atoms in the acid groups), and the polymer having at least a substantial proportion of the acid groups in the form of a salt. The preferred fluids for use in the process of the invention are organic fluids, such as a hydrocarbon gas (in particular, methane) or a liquid. The process is especially suitable for separating water from mixtures with alkanols, in particular alkanols having 1 to 5 carbon atoms in the molecule, such as ethanol and isopropanol. The unsaturated organic acid may be a sulfur acid, such as a sulfonate or a sulfate or a phosphorus acid, but is preferably a carboxylic acid. Thus, the active layer may be poly(acrylic acid) or poly(maleic acid). The cation of the salt form of the acid groups is preferably an alkali metal, especially cesium. Experiments are described to illustrate the invention. 13 tabs.

  19. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C.

    2014-10-01

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  20. Fingerprint analysis, multi-component quantitation, and antioxidant activity for the quality evaluation of Salvia miltiorrhiza var. alba by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danlu; Duan, Xiaoju; Deng, Shuhong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-10-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. var. alba C.Y. Wu and H.W. Li has wide prospects in clinical practice. A useful comprehensive method was developed for the quality evaluation of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba by three quantitative parameters: high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint, ten-component contents, and antioxidant activity. The established method was validated for linearity, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery. Principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were both used to evaluate the quality of the samples from different origins. The results showed that there were category discrepancies in quality of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba samples according to the three quantitative parameters. Multivariate linear regression was adopted to explore the relationship between components and antioxidant activity. Three constituents, namely, danshensu, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B, significantly correlated with antioxidant activity, and were successfully elucidated by the optimized multivariate linear regression model. The combined use of high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis, simultaneous multicomponent quantitative analysis, and antioxidant activity for the quality evaluation of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba is a reliable, comprehensive, and promising approach, which might provide a valuable reference for other herbal products in general to improve their quality control. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Visualization of residual organic liquid trapped in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, S.H.; Wilson, J.L.; Mason, W.R.; Peplinski, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons and solvents. The flow visualization experiments described in this study examined the migration of organic liquids through the saturated zone of aquifers, with a primary focus on the behavior of the residual organic liquid saturation, referring to that portion of the organic liquid that is trapped by capillary forces. Etched glass micromodels were used to visually observe dynamic multiphase displacement processes in pore networks. The resulting fluid distributions were photographed. Pore and blob casts were produced by a technique in which an organic liquid was solidified in place within a sand column at the conclusion of a displacement. The columns were sectioned and examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. Photomicrographs of these sections show the morphology of the organic phase and its location within the sand matrix. The photographs from both experimental techniques reveal that in the saturated zone large amounts of residual organic liquid are trapped as isolated blobs of microscopic size. The size, shape, and spatial distribution of these blobs of residual organic liquid affect the dissolution of organic liquid into the water phase and the biotransformation of organic components. These processes are of concern for the prediction of pollution migration and the design of aquifer remediation schemes

  2. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Michalski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.

  3. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  4. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Ionic Liquids and Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A corresponding-states form of the generalized van der Waals equation, previously developed for mixtures of an ionic liquid and a supercritical solute, is here extended to mixtures including an ionic liquid and a solvent (water or organic). Group contributions to characteristic parameters...... are implemented, leading to an entirely predictive method for densities of mixed compressed ionic liquids. Quantitative agreement with experimental data is obtained over wide ranges of conditions. Previously, the method has been applied to solubilities of sparingly soluble gases in ionic liquids and in organic...... solvents. Here we show results for heavier and more-than-sparingly solutes such as carbon dioxide and propane in ionic liquids....

  5. Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Green Protocol for Multi-Component Synthesis of Dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles as Potential Anticancer Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urja D. Nimbalkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 6-amino-4-substituted-3-methyl-2,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carbonitriles 5a–j were synthesized via one-pot, four-component condensation reactions of aryl aldehydes 1a–j, propanedinitrile (2, hydrazine hydrate (3 and ethyl acetoacetate (4 under solvent-free conditions. We report herein the use of the Brønsted acid ionic liquid (BAIL triethylammonium hydrogen sulphate [Et3NH][HSO4] as catalyst for this multi-component synthesis. Compared with the available reaction methodology, this new method has consistent advantages, including excellent yields, a short reaction time, mild reaction conditions and catalyst reusability. Selected synthesized derivatives were evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity against four human cancer cell lines viz. melanoma cancer cell line (SK-MEL-2, breast cancer cell line(MDA-MB-231, leukemia cancer cell line (K-562 and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa. Compounds 5b, 5d, 5g, 5h and 5j exhibited promising anticancer activity against all selected human cancer cell lines, except HeLa. Molecular docking studies also confirmed 5b and 5d as good lead molecules. An in silico ADMET study of the synthesized anticancer agents indicated good oral drug-like behavior and non-toxic nature.

  6. Use of diatomaceous to liquid organic wastes adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza M, Azucena; Padilla S, Ulises

    1999-01-01

    Background: One of the radioactive wastes that the Radioactive Wastes Management Unit must process are organic liquids from external generators and from sections of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The wastes from external generators contain H 3 and C 14; while the wastes from the CCHEN are contaminated with uranium. The total volume of liquid organic wastes that must be treated is 5 m3. The options recommended for processing these wastes are incineration or the adsorption of the organic liquid by some adsorbing medium and its subsequent immobilization in cement molds. Due to the cost of incineration, the adsorption method was chosen for study. Objective: To find the optimum amount of adsorbent to be saturated with radioactive organic liquid from liquid scintillation and to study immobilization in cement molds. Methodology: Adsorption granulated (1568 Merck) and diatom earth were tested as adsorbent mediums. The adsorbents were mixed in different ratios of volume with the organic liquid. Then the waste was mixed with different water/cement ratios to define the best immobilization conditions. Conclusions: The tests carried out with 2 adsorbents recommended in the literature and available in the CCHEN show that as adsorbent waste ratio decreases, the percentage of liquid adsorbed increases, as expected: a greater volume of adsorbent retains a greater quantity of liquid, with an increase in the final volume, depending on the adsorbent used. Of these adsorbents, the diatom earth was better for treating liquid organic wastes. It had 100% adsorption and an increased volume of 0%, which is more than enough from the volumetric point of view of waste management. The ratio 0.8 liquid/adsorbent also showed good characteristics, but more study is needed to decide on the above, since liquid remains to be adsorbed. This work must continue to study the repeatability of results, to obtain physical and radiological characteristics for the immobilized products and to

  7. Microwave-Assisted Multicomponent Synthesis of Heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, A.; Ruijter, E.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions are valuable tools for the generation of diverse heterocycles. As in many fields or organic chemistry, microwave irradiation is rapidly replacing conventional heating methods in multicomponent chemistry. In this review, we present an overview of recent applications of the

  8. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  9. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  10. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  11. Synthetic transformation into liquid hydrocarbons of organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, F P.A.

    1918-09-09

    The transformation is obtained by a pyrogenation descending in a closed vessel instead of recourse to distillation ascending as is usually done, the material poor in hydrogen being hydrogenated by a contribution from the gas during the pyrogenation; synthesis with the vapors from the treated material will also be realized. As a first product there is obtained an analogue of naphtha or crude gasoline containing in the liquid state all the bodies composing the material pyrogenated. This first product is purified and rectified by successive distillation, acidulation, washing, etc., according to methods in use for refining petroleum obtained from the ground.

  12. Online combination of reversed-phase/reversed-phase and porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography for multicomponent separation of proteomics and glycoproteomics samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Maggie P Y; Lau, Edward; Siu, S O; Ng, Dominic C M; Kong, Ricky P W; Chiu, Philip C N; Yeung, William S B; Lo, Clive; Chu, Ivan K

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we describe an online combination of reversed-phase/reversed-phase (RP-RP) and porous graphitic carbon (PGC) liquid chromatography (LC) for multicomponent analysis of proteomics and glycoproteomics samples. The online RP-RP portion of this system provides comprehensive 2-D peptide separation based on sequence hydrophobicity at pH 2 and 10. Hydrophilic components (e.g. glycans, glycopeptides) that are not retained by RP are automatically diverted downstream to a PGC column for further trapping and separation. Furthermore, the RP-RP/PGC system can provide simultaneous extension of the hydropathy range and peak capacity for analysis. Using an 11-protein mixture, we found that the system could efficiently separate native peptides and released N-glycans from a single sample. We evaluated the applicability of the system to the analysis of complex biological samples using 25 μg of the lysate of a human choriocarcinoma cell line (BeWo), confidently identifying a total of 1449 proteins from a single experiment and up to 1909 distinct proteins from technical triplicates. The PGC fraction increased the sequence coverage through the inclusion of additional hydrophilic sequences that accounted for up to 6.9% of the total identified peptides from the BeWo lysate, with apparent preference for the detection of hydrophilic motifs and proteins. In addition, RP-RP/PGC is applicable to the analysis of complex glycomics samples, as demonstrated by our analysis of a concanavalin A-extracted glycoproteome from human serum; in total, 134 potentially N-glycosylated serum proteins, 151 possible N-glycosylation sites, and more than 40 possible N-glycan structures recognized by concanavalin A were simultaneously detected. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A New Prediction Method for Organic Liquids Sorption into Polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randová, A.; Bartovská, L.; Izák, Pavel; Friess, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 475, FEB 1 (2015), s. 545-551 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic liquids * liquid non-solvents * polymers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.557, year: 2015

  14. Testing the accuracy of correlations for multicomponent mass transport of adsorbed gases in metal-organic frameworks: diffusion of H2/CH4 mixtures in CuBTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Seda; Liu, Jinchen; Johnson, J Karl; Sholl, David S

    2008-08-05

    Mass transport of chemical mixtures in nanoporous materials is important in applications such as membrane separations, but measuring diffusion of mixtures experimentally is challenging. Methods that can predict multicomponent diffusion coefficients from single-component data can be extremely useful if these methods are known to be accurate. We present the first test of a method of this kind for molecules adsorbed in a metal-organic framework (MOF). Specifically, we examine the method proposed by Skoulidas, Sholl, and Krishna (SSK) ( Langmuir, 2003, 19, 7977) by comparing predictions made with this method to molecular simulations of mixture transport of H 2/CH 4 mixtures in CuBTC. These calculations provide the first direct information on mixture transport of any species in a MOF. The predictions of the SSK approach are in good agreement with our direct simulations of binary diffusion, suggesting that this approach may be a powerful one for examining multicomponent diffusion in MOFs. We also use our molecular simulation data to test the ideal adsorbed solution theory method for predicting binary adsorption isotherms and a method for predicting mixture self-diffusion coefficients.

  15. Application of microwave irradiation to organic liquid phase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kun; Liu Hua; Ji Xuelin

    1994-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used in organic liquid phase reactions to significantly reduce the reaction time and improve the yield. The proposed mechanism, the development of techniques and reactions, such as Diels-Alder, ene, rearrangement reactions etc., are discussed

  16. Self-Organized Structures in Magnetic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Bohr, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    , but the bigger ones grow on the expense of the smaller. From the center of mass of the columns a 2D-Veronoi pattern is constructed in the plane of the cell, and the edge statistics are found as a function of the fraction of magnetic liquid in the Hele-Shaw cell. The average number of edges in the Veronoi cells...

  17. The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2005-01-01

    Kristensen NH (2005): The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination. Paper presented at Working Group 5 at the XXI Congress of the ESRS 22-27 August, 2005 Keszthely, Hungary......Kristensen NH (2005): The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination. Paper presented at Working Group 5 at the XXI Congress of the ESRS 22-27 August, 2005 Keszthely, Hungary...

  18. Multicomponent DFT study of geometrical H/D isotope effect on hydrogen-bonded organic conductor, κ-H3(Cat EDT-ST)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kaichi; Kanematsu, Yusuke; Nagashima, Umpei; Ueda, Akira; Mori, Hatsumi; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigated a significant contraction of the hydrogen-bonding O⋯O distance upon H/D substitution in our recently developed purely organic crystals, κ-H3(Cat-EDT-ST)2 (H-ST) and its isotopologue κ-D3(Cat-EDT-ST)2 (D-ST), having π-electron systems coupled with hydrogen-bonding fluctuation. The origin of this geometrical H/D isotope effect was elucidated by using the multicomponent DFT method, which takes the H/D nuclear quantum effect into account. The optimized O⋯O distance in H-ST was found to be longer than that in D-ST due to the anharmonicity of the potential energy curve along the Osbnd H bond direction, which was in reasonable agreement with the experimental trend.

  19. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  20. The Viscosity of Organic Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, C. W.; Trusler, J. P. M.; Vesovic, V.; Wakeham, W. A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the viscosity and density of two heavy hydrocarbon mixtures, Dutrex and Arab Light Flashed Distillate (ALFD), and of their mixtures with hydrogen. The measurements have been carried out with a vibrating-wire device over a range of temperatures from 399 to 547 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. Measurements have also been carried out on systems in which hydrogen at different concentrations has been dissolved in the liquids. The measurements have an estimated uncertainty of ±5% for viscosity and ±2% for density and represent the first results on these prototypical heavy hydrocarbons. The results reveal that the addition of hydrogen reduces both the density and viscosity of the original hydrocarbon mixture at a particular temperature and pressure.

  1. Designing Kitaev Spin Liquids in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Kitaev's honeycomb lattice spin model is a remarkable exactly solvable model, which has a particular type of spin liquid (Kitaev spin liquid) as the ground state. Although its possible realization in iridates and α -RuCl3 has been vigorously discussed recently, these materials have substantial non-Kitaev direct exchange interactions and do not have a spin liquid ground state. We propose metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Ru3 + (or Os3 + ), forming the honeycomb lattice as promising candidates for a more ideal realization of Kitaev-type spin models, where the direct exchange interaction is strongly suppressed. The great flexibility of MOFs allows generalization to other three-dimensional lattices for the potential realization of a variety of spin liquids, such as a Weyl spin liquid.

  2. Modelling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part VI. Multicomponent mixtures with glycols relevant to oil and gas and to liquid or supercritical CO_2 transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CPA EoS was applied to predict the phase behaviour of multicomponent mixtures containing CO_2, glycols, water and alkanes. • Mixtures relevant to oil and gas, CO_2 capture and liquid or supercritical CO_2 transport applications were investigated. • Results are presented using various modelling approaches/association schemes. • The predicting ability of the model was evaluated against experimental data. • Conclusions for the best modelling approach are drawn. - Abstract: In this work the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state is applied to multicomponent mixtures containing CO_2 with alkanes, water, and glycols. Various modelling approaches are used i.e. different association schemes for pure CO_2 (assuming that it is a non-associating compound, or that it is a self-associating fluid with two, three or four association sites) and different possibilities for modelling mixtures of CO_2 with other hydrogen bonding fluids (only use of one interaction parameter k_i_j or assuming cross association interactions and obtaining the relevant parameters either via a combining rule or using an experimental value for the cross association energy). Initially, new binary interaction parameters were estimated for (CO_2 + glycol) binary mixtures. Having the binary parameters from the binary systems, the model was applied in a predictive way (i.e. no parameters were adjusted to data on ternary and multicomponent mixtures) to model the phase behaviour of ternary and quaternary systems with CO_2 and glycols. It is concluded that CPA performs satisfactorily for most multicomponent systems considered. Some differences between the various modelling approaches are observed. This work is the last part of a series of studies, which aim to arrive in a single “engineering approach” for applying CPA to acid gas mixtures, without introducing significant changes to the model. An overall assessment, based also on the obtained results of this series (Tsivintzelis

  3. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  4. Energy driven self-organization in nanoscale metallic liquid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Shirato, N; Favazza, C; Kalyanaraman, R

    2009-10-01

    Nanometre thick metallic liquid films on inert substrates can spontaneously dewet and self-organize into complex nanomorphologies and nanostructures with well-defined length scales. Nanosecond pulses of an ultraviolet laser can capture the dewetting evolution and ensuing nanomorphologies, as well as introduce dramatic changes to dewetting length scales due to the nanoscopic nature of film heating. Here, we show theoretically that the self-organization principle, based on equating the rate of transfer of thermodynamic free energy to rate of loss in liquid flow, accurately describes the spontaneous dewetting. Experimental measurements of laser dewetting of Ag and Co liquid films on SiO(2) substrates confirm this principle. This energy transfer approach could be useful for analyzing the behavior of nanomaterials and chemical processes in which spontaneous changes are important.

  5. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  6. A system of hydrogen powered vehicles with liquid organic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1981-07-01

    A motor car system based on the hydrogen produced by nuclear power stations during the night in the summer, and coupled with organic liquid hydride seems to be a feasible system in the near future. Such a system is discussed and the cost is compared with gasoline. (Auth.)

  7. Effectiveness of liquid organic-nitrogen fertilizer in enhancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ever increasing price of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers coupled with the deleterious effects of imbalanced N fertilizers on the environment necessitates the enhancement of N use efficiency of plants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Evaluate the uptake of selected nutrients due to application of liquid organic-N ...

  8. The effects of mineral and liquid organic fertilizers on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    süreyya

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. The effects ... The economical effect of liquid organic fertilizer on agriculture may be a factor in the extension of its .... trays (200 ml each cell) at the cotyledonary leaf stage; soil ... electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.088%. ... Number of main stem-shoot on each plant was limited to.

  9. Thermal Properties of Some Organic Liquids Using Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramadoss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Debye temperature and thermal relaxation time has been calculated in normal and boiling temperature. Using thermal relaxation time, the heat of fusion has been calculated for nineteen organic liquids and the results throw light on the method of calculating heat of fusion.

  10. Multicomponent Syntheses of Macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Géraldine; Neuville, Luc; Bughin, Carine; Fayol, Aude; Zhu, Jieping

    How to access efficiently the macrocyclic structure remained to be a challenging synthetic topic. Although many elegant approaches/reactions have been developed, construction of diverse collection of macrocycles is still elusive. This chapter summarized the recently emerged research area dealing with multicomponent synthesis of macrocycles, with particular emphasis on the approach named "multiple multicomponent reaction using two bifunctional building blocks".

  11. Solution processed nanogap organic diodes based on liquid crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fei; Iino, Hiroaki; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2017-09-01

    Co-planar nanogap organic diodes were fabricated with smectic liquid crystalline materials of the benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT) derivative by a spin-coating technique. A high rectification ratio of the order of 106 at ±3 V was achieved when a liquid crystalline material of 2,7-didecyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (10-BTBT-10) was used in a device configuration of Al/10-BTBT-10/pentafluorobenzenethiol-treated Au on a glass substrate, which was 4 orders higher than that of the device based on non-liquid crystalline materials of 2,7-dibutyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (4-BTBT-4) and BTBT. Similar results were also observed when another liquid crystalline material of ω, ω'-dioctylterthiophene (8-TTP-8) and a non-liquid crystalline material of terthiophene (TTP) were used. These improved rectifications can be ascribed to the self-assembly properties and controllable molecular orientation of liquid crystalline materials, which made uniform perpendicular oriented polycrystalline films favorable for superior charge transport in nano-channels.

  12. Metal-organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Jing; Gascon, Jorge; Li, Jiansheng; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-11-27

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  13. Metal–organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2017-11-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  14. Investigation of organic liquid-scintillator optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Juergen; Feilitzsch, Franz von; Goeger-Neff, Marianne; Lewke, Timo; Meindl, Quirin; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Todor, Sebastian; Wurm, Michael [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., 85748 Garching (Germany); Marrodan Undagoitia, Teresa [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    The characterization of different organic liquid-scintillator mixtures is an important step towards the design of a large-scale detector such as LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Its physics goals, extending from particle and geological to astrophysical issues, set high demands on the optical properties of the liquid scintillator. Therefore, small-scale experiments are carried out in order to optimize the final scintillator mixture. PXE, LAB, and dodecane are under consideration as solvents. Setups for the determination of scintillator properties are presented, such as attenuation length, light yield, emission spectra, fluorescence decay times, and quenching factors. Furthermore, results are discussed.

  15. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  16. NOCHAR Polymers: An Aqueous and Organic Liquid Solidification Process for Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) - 13195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Renou, Sebastien; Porco, Julien; Kelley, Dennis; Cochaud, Chantal; Serrano, Roger

    2013-01-01

    To handle the Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) and the Low Level Waste (LLW) in France, two options can be considered: the incineration at CENTRACO facility and the disposal facility on ANDRA sites. The waste acceptance in these radwaste routes is dependent upon the adequacy between the waste characteristics (physical chemistry and radiological) and the radwaste route specifications. If the waste characteristics are incompatible with the radwaste route specifications (presence of significant quantities of chlorine, fluorine, organic component etc or/and high activity limits), it is necessary to find an alternative solution that consists of a waste pre-treatment process. In the context of the problematic Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) waste streams, two radioactive scintillation cocktails have to be treated. The first one is composed of organic liquids at 13.1 % (diphenyloxazol, mesitylene, TBP, xylene) and water at 86.9 %. The second one is composed of TBP at 8.6 % and water at 91.4 %. They contain chlorine, fluorine and sulphate and have got alpha/beta/gamma spectra with mass activities equal to some kBq.g -1 . Therefore, tritium is present and creates the second problematic waste stream. As a consequence, in order for disposal acceptance at the ANDRA site, it is necessary to pre-treat the waste. The NOCHAR polymers as an aqueous and organic liquid solidification process seem to be an adequate solution. Indeed, these polymers constitute an important variety of products applied to the treatment of radioactive aqueous and organic liquids (solvent, oil, solvent/oil mixing etc) and sludge through a mechanical and chemical solidification process. For Cadarache LOR, N910 and N960 respectively dedicated to the organic and aqueous liquids solidification are considered. With the N910, the organic waste solidification occurs in two steps. As the organic liquid travels moves through the polymer strands, the strands swell and immobilise the liquid. Then as the

  17. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after neu...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  18. Multicomponent hydrogen-bonding organic solids constructed from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and N-heterocycles: Synthesis, structural characterization and synthon discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yingxia; Shao, Hui; Pang, Yanyan; Wang, Debao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Seven novel multicomponent crystals involving various substituted organic amine molecules and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were prepared and characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Crystal structures with 1,4-bis(imidazol) butane (L1) 1, 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L2) 2, 1-phenyl piperazine 3, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine 4, 4,4'-bipyridine 5, 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridine 6, 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine 7 were determined. Among the seven molecular complexes, total proton transfer from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid to coformer has occurred in crystals 1-4, while the remaining were cocrystals. X-ray single-crystal structures of these complexes reveal that strong hydrogen bonding O-H···O/N-H···O/O-H···N and weak C-H···O/C-H···π/π···π intermolecular interactions direct the packing modes of molecular crystals together. The analysis of supramolecular synthons in the present structures shows that some classical supramolecular synthons like pyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (7) and aminopyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (8), are again observed in constructing the hydrogen-bonding networks in this paper. Besides, we noticed that water molecules act as a significant hydrogen-bonding connector in constructing supramolecular architectures of 3, 4, 6, and 7.

  19. Quasiparticles and Fermi liquid behaviour in an organic metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, T.; Chainani, A.; Yamamoto, H.M.; Miyazaki, T.; Akimoto, T.; Shimojima, T.; Ishizaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Chen, C.-T.; Fukaya, A.; Kato, R.; Shin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organic metals display exotic properties such as superconductivity, spin-charge separation and so on and have been described as quasi-one-dimensional Luttinger liquids. However, a genuine Fermi liquid behaviour with quasiparticles and Fermi surfaces have not been reported to date for any organic metal. Here, we report the experimental Fermi surface and band structure of an organic metal (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) obtained using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and show its consistency with first-principles band structure calculations. Our results reveal a quasiparticle renormalization at low energy scales (effective mass m*=1.9 me) and ω2 dependence of the imaginary part of the self energy, limited by a kink at ~50 meV arising from coupling to molecular vibrations. The study unambiguously proves that (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) is a quasi-2D organic Fermi liquid with a Fermi surface consistent with Shubnikov-de Haas results. PMID:23011143

  20. MIL-Ti metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanomaterials as superior adsorbents: Synthesis and ultrasound-aided dye adsorption from multicomponent wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveisi, Mina; Asli, Mokhtar Alina; Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad

    2018-04-05

    Herein, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (BDC) and 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (NH 2 -BDC) as organic linkers and tetraisopropyl orthotitanate as a metal source were used to synthesize several metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanomaterials. Five Materials Institut Lavoisiers (MILs) as MOFs include MIL-125(Ti), NH 2 -MIL-125(Ti) and three MILs with different organic linkers molar ratios (BDC/NH 2 -BDC: 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 denoted as MIL-X1, MIL-X2 and MIL-X3, respectively). The synthesized nanomaterials were used for ultrasound-aided adsorption of cationic dyes (Basic Red 46 (BR46), Basic Blue 41 (BB41) and Methylene Blue (MB)) from single and multicomponent (binary) systems. The BET, XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, TGA and zeta potential were used for characterizing the MILs. Dye removal followed pseudo-second order kinetics with constant rate of 0.20833, 0.00481 and 0.00051 mg/g min for BR46, BB41 and MB, respectively. In addition dye adsorption obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model and the experimental dye adsorption capacity for BR46, BB41 and MB was 1296, 1257 and 862 mg/g, respectively. The synthesized MIL showed high reusability and stability over three cycles. The adsorption thermodynamics data presented that dye removal was a spontaneous, endothermic and physical reaction. The free Gibbs energy for dye removal by the NH 2 -MIL-125(Ti) at 308K was -19.424, -15.721 and -17.413 kJ/mol for BR46, BB41 and MB, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  2. Nanoscience with liquid crystals from self-organized nanostructures to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the exciting topic of nanoscience with liquid crystals: from self-organized nanostructures to applications. The elegant self-organized liquid crystalline nanostructures, the synergetic characteristics of liquid crystals and nanoparticles, liquid crystalline nanomaterials, synthesis of nanomaterials using liquid crystals as templates, nanoconfinement and nanoparticles of liquid crystals are covered and discussed, and the prospect of fabricating functional materials is highlighted. Contributions, collecting the scattered literature of the field from leading and active player

  3. Variation in pH of Model Secondary Organic Aerosol during Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallemagne, Magda A; Huang, Xiau Ya; Eddingsaas, Nathan C

    2016-05-12

    The majority of atmospheric aerosols consist of both organic and inorganic components. At intermediate relative humidity (RH), atmospheric aerosol can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in which the organic and inorganic fractions segregate from each other. We have extended the study of LLPS to the effect that phase separation has on the pH of the overall aerosols and the pH of the individual phases. Using confocal microscopy and pH sensitive dyes, the pH of internally mixed model aerosols consisting of polyethylene glycol 400 and ammonium sulfate as well as the pH of the organic fraction during LLPS have been directly measured. During LLPS, the pH of the organic fraction was observed to increase to 4.2 ± 0.2 from 3.8 ± 0.1 under high RH when the aerosol was internally mixed. In addition, the high spatial resolution of the confocal microscope allowed us to characterize the composition of each of the phases, and we have observed that during LLPS the organic shell still contains large quantities of water and should be characterized as an aqueous organic-rich phase rather than simply an organic phase.

  4. Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically resolved model (BAMS1) to soil carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Maggi, F.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M. S.; Tang, J. Y.; Dwivedi, D.; Guerry, N.

    2014-07-01

    Accurate representation of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in Earth system models is critical for future climate prediction, yet large uncertainties exist regarding how, and to what extent, the suite of proposed relevant mechanisms should be included. To investigate how various mechanisms interact to influence SOM storage and dynamics, we developed an SOM reaction network integrated in a one-dimensional, multi-phase, and multi-component reactive transport solver. The model includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, multiple archetypal polymeric and monomeric carbon substrate groups, aqueous chemistry, aqueous advection and diffusion, gaseous diffusion, and adsorption (and protection) and desorption from the soil mineral phase. The model predictions reasonably matched observed depth-resolved SOM and dissolved organic matter (DOM) stocks and fluxes, lignin content, and fungi to aerobic bacteria ratios. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses under equilibrium and dynamic conditions to examine the role of dynamic sorption, microbial assimilation rates, and carbon inputs. To our knowledge, observations do not exist to fully test such a complicated model structure or to test the hypotheses used to explain observations of substantial storage of very old SOM below the rooting depth. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that a reasonable combination of sorption parameters, microbial biomass and necromass dynamics, and advective transport can match observations without resorting to an arbitrary depth-dependent decline in SOM turnover rates, as is often done. We conclude that, contrary to assertions derived from existing turnover time based model formulations, observed carbon content and Δ14C vertical profiles are consistent with a representation of SOM consisting of carbon compounds with relatively fast reaction rates, vertical aqueous transport, and dynamic protection on mineral surfaces.

  5. Exploring the Temporality of Food Organizations in Liquid Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernes, Tor; Schmidt, Jonathan; Schultz, Majken

    study illustrates how their time enactment takes place along three dimensions. First, through what we call “malleable time”, including the contraction and dilation of time horizons. Second, through what we call “projective time”, signifying the outward enactment of time onto others. Third, through what....... Because food organizations are challenged to enact their time between natural time and human time while abiding by the constraints of industry, liquid modernity challenges their ability to enact multiple and sometimes contrasting temporalities. Drawing on data from a brewery and a dairy corporation, our...... we call “simultaneous time”, signifying the simultaneous enactment of different time horizons. We argue that time enactment poses its own set of dilemmas for managing food organizations, which are discussed, not just for food organizations, but in relation to other organizations confronted...

  6. Liquid crystals for organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Hiroaki; Usui, Takayuki; Hanna, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors are a good candidate for field effect transistor (FET) materials in printed electronics. However, there are currently two main problems, which are associated with inhomogeneity and poor thermal durability of these films. Here we report that liquid crystalline materials exhibiting a highly ordered liquid crystal phase of smectic E (SmE) can solve both these problems. We design a SmE liquid crystalline material, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10), for FETs and synthesize it. This material provides uniform and molecularly flat polycrystalline thin films reproducibly when SmE precursor thin films are crystallized, and also exhibits high durability of films up to 200 °C. In addition, the mobility of FETs is dramatically enhanced by about one order of magnitude (over 10 cm2 V-1 s-1) after thermal annealing at 120 °C in bottom-gate-bottom-contact FETs. We anticipate the use of SmE liquid crystals in solution-processed FETs may help overcome upcoming difficulties with novel technologies for printed electronics.

  7. Ionic liquid technology to recover volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar-García, M J; Ortiz-Martínez, V M; Hernández-Fernández, F J; de Los Ríos, A P; Quesada-Medina, J

    2017-01-05

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a wide variety of carbon-based materials which are volatile at relatively low temperatures. Most of VOCs pose a hazard to both human health and the environment. For this reason, in the last years, big efforts have been made to develop efficient techniques for the recovery of VOCs produced from industry. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) is among the most promising separation technologies in this field. This article offers a critical overview on the use of ionic liquids for the separation of VOCs both in bulk and in immobilized form. It covers the most relevant works within this field and provides a global outlook on the limitations and future prospects of this technology. The extraction processes of VOCs by using different IL-based assemblies are described in detail and compared with conventional methods This review also underlines the advantages and limitations posed by ionic liquids according to the nature of the cation and the anions present in their structure and the stability of the membrane configurations in which ILs are used as liquid phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technology in Organic Acid Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norela Jusoh; Norasikin Othman; Nur Alina Nasruddin

    2016-01-01

    Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) process have shown a great potential in wide application of industrial separations such as in removal of many chemicals, organic compounds, metal ions, pollutants and biomolecules. This system promote many advantages including simple operation, high selectivity, low energy requirement, and single stage extraction and stripping process. One potential application of ELM is in the purification of succinic acid from fermentation broth. This study outline steps for developing emulsion liquid membrane process in purification of succinic acid. The steps include liquid membrane formulation, ELM stability and ELM extraction of succinic acid. Several carrier, diluent and stripping agent was screened to find appropriate membrane formulation. After that, ELM stability was investigated to enhance the recovery of succinic acid. Finally, the performance of ELM was evaluated in the extraction process. Results show that formulated liquid membrane using Amberlite LA2 as carrier, palm oil as diluent and sodium carbonate, Na_2CO_3 as stripping agent provide good performance in purification. On the other hand, the prepared emulsion was observed to be stable up to 1 hour and sufficient for extraction process. In conclusion, ELM has high potential to purify succinic acid from fermentation broth. (author)

  9. Liquid crystalline composites toward organic photovoltaic application (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yo; Sosa-Vargas, Lydia; Shin, Woong; Higuchi, Yumi; Itani, Hiromichi; Kawano, Koki; Dao, Quang Duy; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystalline semiconductor is an interesting category of organic electronic materials and also has been extensively studied in terms of "Printed Electronics". For the wider diversity in research toward new applications, one can consider how to use a combination of miscibility and phase separation in liquid crystals. Here we report discotic liquid crystals in making a composite of which structural order is controlled in nano-scale toward photovoltaic applications. Discotic columnar LCs were studied on their resultant molecular order and carrier transport properties. Liquid crystals of phthalocyanine and its analogues which exhibit columnar mesomorphism with high carrier mobility (10-1 cm2/Vs) were examined with making binary phase diagrams and the correlation to carrier transport properties by TOF measurements was discussed. The shape-analogues in chemical structure shows a good miscibility even for the different lattice-type of columnar arrangement and the carrier mobility is mostly decrease except for a case of combination with a metal-free and the metal complex. For the mixtures with non-mesogenic C60 derivatives, one sees a phase-separated structure due to its immiscibility, though the columnar order is remained in a range of component ratio.Especially, in a range of the ratio, it was observed the phase separated C60 derivatives are fused into the matrix of columnar bundles, indicating C60 derivatives could be diffused in columnar arrays in molecular level.

  10. Treatment of radioactive liquid organic waste using bacteria community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael Vicente de Padua Ferreira; Solange Kazumi Sakata; Maria Helena Bellini; Julio Takehiro Marumo; Fernando Dutra; Patricia Busko Di Vitta; Maria Helena Tirollo Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Waste management plays an important role in radioactive waste volume reduction as well as lowering disposal costs and minimizing the environment-detrimental impact. The employment of biomass in the removal of heavy metals and radioisotopes has a significant potential in liquid waste treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radioactive waste treatment by using three different bacterial communities (BL, BS, and SS) isolated from impacted areas, removing radioisotopes and organic compounds. The best results were obtained in the BS and BL community, isolated from the soil and a lake of a uranium mine, respectively. BS community was able to remove 92% of the uranium and degraded 80% of tributyl phosphate and 70% of the ethyl acetate in 20 days of experiments. BL community removed 81% of the uranium and degraded nearly 60% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. SS community collected from the sediment of Sao Sebastiao channel removed 76% of the uranium and 80% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. Both americium and cesium were removed by all communities. In addition, the BS community showed to be more resistant to radioactive liquid waste than the other communities. These results indicated that the BS community is the most viable for the treatment of large volumes of radioactive liquid organic waste. (author)

  11. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Towards supramolecular engineering of functional nanomaterials: pre-programming multi-component 2D self-assembly at solid-liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Palma, Carlos-Andres; Bonini, Massimo; Samorì, Paolo

    2010-08-24

    Materials with a pre-programmed order at the supramolecular level can be engineered with a sub-nanometer precision making use of reversible non- covalent interactions. The intrinsic ability of supramolecular materials to recognize and exchange their constituents makes them constitutionally dynamic materials. The tailoring of the materials properties relies on the full control over the self-assembly behavior of molecular modules exposing recognition sites and incorporating functional units. In this review we focus on three classes of weak-interactions to form complex 2D architectures starting from properly designed molecular modules: van der Waals, metallo-ligand and hydrogen bonding. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies will provide evidence with a sub-nanometer resolution, on the formation of responsive multicomponent architectures with controlled geometries and properties. Such endeavor enriches the scientist capability of generating more and more complex smart materials featuring controlled functions and unprecedented properties.

  13. Activated Carbon Adsorption Characteristics of Multi-component Volatile Organic compounds in a Fixed Bed Adsorption Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jong Hoon; Rhee, Young Woo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sihyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to examine absorption characteristics of toluene, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethyl acetate (EA), and ternary-compounds, all of which are widely used in industrial processes, by means of four types of commercial activated carbon substances. It turned out that among the three types of volatile organic compounds, the breakthrough point of activated carbon and that of IPA, whose affinity was the lowest, were the lowest, and then that of EA and that of toluene in the order. With the breakthrough point of IPA, which was the shortest, as the standard, changes in the breakthrough points of unary-compounds, binary-compounds, and ternary-compounds were examined. As a result, it turned out that the larger the number of elements, the lower the breakthrough point. This resulted from competitive adsorption, that is, substitution of substances with a low level of affinity with those with a high level of affinity. Hence, the adsorption of toluene-IPA-EA and ternary-compounds require a design of the activated carbon bed based on the breakthrough of IPA, and in the design of activated carbon beds in actual industries as well, a substance whose level of affinity is the lowest needs to be the standard.

  14. Multi-component determination of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds in soils and vegetation from Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Carvalho, Mariana; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José Luis; Ratola, Nuno; Nadal, Martí

    2018-08-01

    Tarragona County (Spain) is home to the most important chemical/petrochemical industrial complex in Southern Europe, which raises concerns about the presence and effects of the numerous environmental contaminants. In order to assess the levels and patterns of five classes of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), synthetic musks (SMs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and one organochlorine pesticide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 27 samples of soil and vegetation (Piptatherum L.) from different areas (petrochemical, chemical, urban/residential, and background) of Tarragona County were analysed. The results show that PAHs levels in soils ranged from 45.12 to 158.00ng/g and the urban areas presented the highest concentrations, mainly associated with the presence of a nearby highway and several roads with heavy traffic. PAHs levels in vegetation samples ranged from 42.13 to 80.08ng/g, where the greatest influence came from the urban and petrochemical areas. In the case of SMs, levels in soils and vegetation samples ranged from 5.42 to 10.04ng/g and from 4.08 to 17.94ng/g, respectively, and in both cases, background areas (at least 30km away from the main SVOCs emission sources) showed the highest levels, suggesting an influence of the personal care products derived from beach-related tourism in the coast. PCBs (from 6.62 to 14.07ng/g in soils; from 0.52 to 4.41ng/g in vegetation) prevailed in the chemical area in both matrices, probably associated with the presence of two sub-electrical stations located in the vicinities. In general terms, BFRs and HCB values recorded in soil and vegetation samples were quite similar between matrices and sampling areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Single and multi-component adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine from water onto transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clay fixed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2015-01-23

    Fixed-beds of transition metal (Co(2+), Ni(2+) or Cu(2+)) inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) were prepared to study single- and multi-component non-equilibrium adsorption of a set of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs: salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine) from water. Adsorption capacities for single components revealed that the copper(II) IOCs have better affinity toward salicylic and clofibric acid. However, multi-component adsorption tests showed a considerable decrease in adsorption capacity for the acids and an unusual selectivity toward carbamazepine depending on the transition metal. This was attributed to a combination of competition between PPCPs for adsorption sites, adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and plausible pore blocking caused by carbamazepine. The cobalt(II) IOC bed that was partially calcined to fractionate the surfactant moiety showcased the best selectivity toward caffeine, even during multi-component adsorption. This was due to a combination of a mildly hydrophobic surface and interaction between the PPCP and cobalt(II). In general, the tests suggest that these IOCs may be a potential solution for the removal of PPCPs if employed in a layered-bed configuration, to take care of families of adsorbates in a sequence that would produce sharpened concentration wavefronts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Multicomponent Adsorption Close to a Dew Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We develop the potential theory of multicomponent adsorption close to a dew point. The approach is based on an asymptotic adsorption equation (AAE) which is valid in a vicinity of the dew point. By this equation the thickness of the liquid film is expressed through thermodynamic characteristics...... and the direct calculations, even if the mixture is not close to a dew point.Key Words: adsorption; potential theory; multicomponent; dew point....

  17. Multi-component vapor-liquid equilibrium model for LES of high-pressure fuel injection and application to ECN Spray A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheis, Jan; Hickel, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present and evaluate a two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations and can represent the coexistence of supercritical states and

  18. Theory of multicomponent disordered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.; Margolych, I.F.

    1988-01-01

    The method of functional integration is used to investigate a topologically disordered multicomponent system of magnetic atoms with Heisenberg exchange interaction. The partition function for a fixed random configuration of the atoms is represented as a functional integral over fluctuations of the magnetization. The first few coefficient functions are calculated in the functional series that represents the free energy functional. The magnetic part of the free energy for the liquid and amorphous states is obtained in the random phase approximation. The structure factor of the liquid magnet is calculated. For a two-component system, the nature of its variation is investigated, and so too is the shift of the point of thermodynamic instability of the liquid under the influence of a magnetic field. The Curie temperature of an amorphous two-species ferromagnet is found with allowance for the magnetic fluctuations and the topological disorder. For a model system with disorder of liquid type modeled by the structure factor of hard spheres an explicit analytic expression is calculated for the concentration dependence of the temperature of ferromagnetic ordering

  19. Effects of capillarity and heterogeneity on flow of organic liquid in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wipfler, E.L.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by organic liquids, such as gasoline, fuel oils and chlorinated hydrocarbons, forms a serious treat to subsurface water resources. These liquids have a low miscibility with water and move as a discrete liquid phase. A small part of the liquid may dissolve in water and

  20. Contaminants in Liquid Organic Fertilizers Used for Agriculture in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Dao M; Qiu, Xuchun; Xu, Hai; Honda, Masato; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    To provide an overview of anthropogenic contaminants in liquid organic fertilizers (LOFs), products from four biogas plants in Kyushu, Japan, were analyzed for a wide range of contaminants, including copper, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), perfluorooctane sulfonate, 952 semi-volatile organic compounds, and 89 antibiotics. The highest concentrations of copper (31.1 mg/L) and cadmium (0.08 mg/L) were found in LOFs from the Hita biogas plant. Only ofloxacin and sulfapyridine were detected in total 89 antibiotics screened. TBT, DBT, and perfluorooctane sulfonate were present at low concentrations in the LOFs from all four locations. Among the 952 semi-volatile organic compounds, 78 compounds were detected in at least one sample and were present at concentrations between 1.2 and 139.6 mg/L. On the basis of comparisons with previous studies and quality standards for the use of organic fertilizers, the concentrations of contaminants in the studied LOFs indicate that they might be safe for agricultural purposes.

  1. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-15

    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I - , monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I - , MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurs at high relative humidity (RH) (greater than ˜ 95 %) in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than ˜ 95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  3. Semiclassical multicomponent wave function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, M.V.

    A consistent method for obtaining the semiclassical multicomponent wave function for any value of adiabatic parameter is discussed and illustrated by examining the motion of a neutral particle in a nonuniform magnetic field. The method generalizes the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule to

  4. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by organic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Promising results have been obtained for cesium removal with a new resorcinol-based organic resin developed at the Savannah River Site. In tests of cesium removal, it was superior to other available resins, such as Duolite CS-100, with the distribution coefficient being limited primarily by competition from potassium and nearly independent of the sodium concentration. The optimum pH was approximately 12.5 in high NaNO 3 concentrations (>2 M). A fairly low flow velocity was required to yield sharp breakthrough of the loaded cesium. The resin was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. If both cesium and strontium must be removed, another resin column or a mixed bed with a chelating resin should be used

  5. Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 2. Effects on pH, acid-binding capacity, organic acids and ethanol during a 6-day period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.H.J.; Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Boer, H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vesseur, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in pH, acid-binding capacity, level of organic acids and ethanol of three liquid coproducts [liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW)] and two liquid compound diets [liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher

  6. Lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radionuclides and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radio nuclides and organics. Lime is wellknown for its use in softening drinking water the treatment of municipal wastewaters. It is becoming important in the treatment of industrial wastewater and liquid inorganic hazardous waste; however, there are many questions regarding the use of lime for the treatment of liquid hazardous waste

  7. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Fukuchi, Masashi; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hirata, Shuzo; Jung, Heo Hyo; Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyusyu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hirata, Osamu; Shibano, Yuki [Nissan Chemical Industries, LTD, 722-1 Tsuboi, Funabashi 274-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs) are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  8. Multiphase, multicomponent phase behavior prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadmohammadi, Younas

    Accurate prediction of phase behavior of fluid mixtures in the chemical industry is essential for designing and operating a multitude of processes. Reliable generalized predictions of phase equilibrium properties, such as pressure, temperature, and phase compositions offer an attractive alternative to costly and time consuming experimental measurements. The main purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of recently generalized activity coefficient models based on binary experimental data to (a) predict binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium systems, and (b) characterize liquid-liquid equilibrium systems. These studies were completed using a diverse binary VLE database consisting of 916 binary and 86 ternary systems involving 140 compounds belonging to 31 chemical classes. Specifically the following tasks were undertaken: First, a comprehensive assessment of the two common approaches (gamma-phi (gamma-ϕ) and phi-phi (ϕ-ϕ)) used for determining the phase behavior of vapor-liquid equilibrium systems is presented. Both the representation and predictive capabilities of these two approaches were examined, as delineated form internal and external consistency tests of 916 binary systems. For the purpose, the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) model and the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) were used in this assessment. Second, the efficacy of recently developed generalized UNIQUAC and the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) for predicting multicomponent VLE systems were investigated. Third, the abilities of recently modified NRTL model (mNRTL2 and mNRTL1) to characterize liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) phase conditions and attributes, including phase stability, miscibility, and consolute point coordinates, were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the ϕ-ϕ approach represents the binary VLE systems considered within three times the error of the gamma-ϕ approach. A similar trend was observed for the for the generalized model predictions using

  9. Process and device for liquid organic waste processing by sulfuric mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspart, A.; Gillet, B.; Lours, S.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    In a chemical reactor containing sulfuric acid are introduced the liquid waste and nitric acid at a controlled flow rate for carbonization of the waste and oxidation of carbon on sulfur dioxide, formed during carbonization, regenerating simultaneously sulfuric acid. Optical density of the liquid is monitored to stop liquid waste feeding above a set-point. The liquid waste can be an organic solvent such as TBP [fr

  10. Microscopic properties of ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroo; Imanishi, Akihito; Takeya, Jun; Inagaki, Kouji; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-09

    Electric double-layer transistors based on ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces have been extensively studied during the past decade because of their high carrier densities at low operation voltages. Microscopic structures and the dynamics of ionic liquids likely determine the device performance; however, knowledge of these is limited by a lack of appropriate experimental tools. In this study, we investigated ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces using molecular dynamics to reveal the microscopic properties of ionic liquids. The organic semiconductors include pentacene, rubrene, fullerene, and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). While ionic liquids close to the substrate always form the specific layered structures, the surface properties of organic semiconductors drastically alter the ionic dynamics. Ionic liquids at the fullerene interface behave as a two-dimensional ionic crystal because of the energy gain derived from the favorable electrostatic interaction on the corrugated periodic substrate.

  11. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes sensor for organic liquid detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Deepti; Khare, Neeraj; Vankar, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as room temperature chemical sensor for the detection of organic liquids such as ethanol, propanol, methanol and toluene. MWCNTs were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique. The interdigitated electrodes were fabricated by conventional photolithography technique. The sensor was fabricated by drop depositing MWCNT suspension onto the interdigitated electrodes. The sensing properties of MWCNTs sensor was studied for organic liquids detection. The resistance of sensor was found to increase upon exposure to these liquids. Sensor shows good reversibility and fast response at room temperature. Charge transfer between the organic liquid and sensing element is the dominant sensing mechanism.

  12. The structure of organic langmuir films on liquid metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraack, H.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.M.; Pershan, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Langmuir films (LFs) on water have long been studied for their interest for basic science and their numerous applications in chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. We present here A-resolution synchrotron X-ray studies of the structure of stearic acid LFs on a liquid mercury surface. At low coverage, ≥110 A 2 /mol, a 2D gas phase of flat-lying molecules is observed. At high coverage, ≤23 A 2 /mol, two different hexatic phases of standing-up molecules are observed. At intermediate coverage, 52≤A≤110 A 2 /mol, novel single- and double-layered phases of flat-lying molecular dimers are found, exhibiting a 1D in-layer order. Such flat-lying phases were not hitherto observed in any LF. Measurements on LFs of fatty acids of other chain lengths indicate that this structure is generic to chain molecules on mercury, although the existence of some of the flat-lying phases, and the observed phase sequence, depend on the chain length. Organic LFs on Hg, and in particular the new flat-lying phases, should provide a broader nano-structural tunability range for molecular electronic device construction than most solid-supported self-assembled monolayers used at present

  13. Organic liquids as ''activ media'' in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Some types of organic liquids for using as activ media in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter are presented. One outlined the advantages of the holographic dosimeter comparatively with those of common used dosimeters. One presented the advantages of utilization of the organic liquids comparatively with another chemical systems used in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter. (author)

  14. Multicomponent reactions: A simple and efficient route to heterocyclic phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are one of the most important processes for the preparation of highly functionalized organic compounds in modern synthetic chemistry. As shown in this review, they play an important role in organophosphorus chemistry where phosphorus reagents are used as substrates for the synthesis of a wide range of phosphorylated heterocycles. In this article, an overview about multicomponent reactions used for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds bearing a phosphonate group on the ring is given. PMID:27559377

  15. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytkov Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  16. Synthetic Organic Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids: The Viscosity Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Handy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are obvious candidates for use in electrochemical applications due to their ionic character. Nevertheless, relatively little has been done to explore their application in electrosynthesis. We have studied the Shono oxidation of arylamines and carbamates using ionic liquids as recyclable solvents and have noted that the viscosity of the medium is a major problem, although with the addition of sufficient co-solvent, good results and excellent recovery and recycling of the ionic liquid can be achieved.

  17. Insights in groundwater organic matter from Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, H.; Oudone, P.; McDonough, L.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; Meredith, K.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater has important implications for the terrestrial global carbon budget. Liquid Chromatography - Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) is a size-exclusion based chromatography technique that separates the organic carbon into molecular weight size fractions of biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks (degradation products of humic substances), low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutrals. Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from a range of locations in Australia representing different surface soil, land cover, recharge type and hydrological properties. At one site hyporheic zone samples were also collected from beneath a stream. The results showed a general decrease in the aromaticity and molecular weight indices going from surface water, hyporheic downwelling and groundwater samples. The aquifer substrate also affected the organic composition. For example, groundwater samples collected from a zone of fractured rock showed a relative decrease in the proportion of humic substances, suggestive of sorption or degradation of humic substances. This work demonstrates the potential for using LC-OCD in elucidating the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater.

  18. Novel Reagents for Multi-Component Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanguang; Basso, Andrea; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Gulevich, Anton V.; Krasavin, Mikhail; Bushkova, Ekaterina; Parchinsky, Vladislav; Banfi, Luca; Basso, Andrea; Cerulli, Valentina; Guanti, Giuseppe; Riva, Renata; Rozentsveig, Igor B.; Rozentsveig, Gulnur N.; Popov, Aleksandr V.; Serykh, Valeriy J.; Levkovskaya, Galina G.; Cao, Song; Shen, Li; Liu, Nianjin; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Lina; Qian, Xuhong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Jinwu; Wang, Yanguang; Lu, Ping; Heravi, Majid M.; Sadjadi, Samaheh; Kazemizadeh, Ali Reza; Ramazani, Ali; Kudyakova, Yulia S.; Goryaeva, Marina V.; Burgart, Yanina V.; Saloutin, Victor I.; Mossetti, Riccardo; Pirali, Tracey; Tron, Gian Cesare; Rozhkova, Yulia S.; Mayorova, Olga A.; Shklyaev, Yuriy V.; Zhdanko, Alexander G.; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Stryapunina, Olga G.; Plekhanova, Irina V.; Glushkov, Vladimir A.; Shklyaev, Yurii V.

    Ketenimines are a class of versatile and highly reactive intermediates that can participate in a variety of organic reactions, such as nucleophilic additions, radical additions, [2 + 2] and [2 + 4] cycloadditions, and sigmatropic rearrangements. In this presentation, we report on a series of multi-component reactions that involve a ketenimine intermediate. These reactions could furnish diverse heterocyclic compounds, including functionalized iminocoumarin, iminodihydroqunolines, iminothiochromens, pyrrolines, isoquinolines, pyridines, β-lactams, imino-1,2-dihydrocoumarins, and benzimidazoles.

  19. Separation of alcohols from organic liquid mixtures by pervaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Hyun-Chae

    1993-01-01

    In the chemical industry, distillation is generally the preferred technique to separate a liquid mixture. However some liquid mixtures such as azeotropic mixtures, close-boiling hydrocarbons, and various isomers are difficult to separate by simple distillation. For the separation of these mixtures

  20. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n -alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  1. Determination of multicomponent contents in Calculus bovis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and its application for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weijun; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiaohe; Zhao, Yanling; Liu, Wei; Li, Zulun; Zhang, Ping

    2010-06-01

    A fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (UPLC-ELSD) method was established for simultaneous quantification of seven components in natural Calculus bovis (C. bovis) and its substitutes or spurious breeds. On a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column, seven analytes were efficiently separated using 0.2% aqueous formic acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase in a gradient program. The evaporator tube temperature of ELSD was set at 100 degrees C with the nebulizing gas flow-rate of 1.9 L/min. The results showed that this established UPLC-ELSD method was validated to be sensitive, precise and accurate with the LODs of seven analytes at 2-11 ng, and the overall intra-day and inter-day variations less than 3.0%. The recovery of the method was in the range of 97.8-101.6%, with RSD less than 3.0%. Further results of PCA on the contents of seven investigated analytes suggested that compounds of cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid or cholesterol should be added as chemical markers to UPLC analysis of C. bovis samples for quality control and to discriminate natural C. bovis sample and its substitutes or some spurious breeds, then normalize the use of natural C. bovis and ensure its clinical efficacy.

  2. Mixed-mode chromatography with zwitterionic phosphopeptidomimetic selectors from Ugi multicomponent reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Andrea F G; Leek, Tomas; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the present contribution a novel Ugi multicomponent reaction (MCR) was used to generate zwitterionic chromatographic selectors with capability for application in mixed-mode chromatography featuring complementary selectivities in reversed-phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid

  3. Research and development of lithium isotope separation using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6 Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% 6 Li. In Japan, new lithium isotope separation technique using ionic-liquid impregnated organic membranes have been developed. The improvement in the durability of the ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is one of the main issues for stable, long-term operation of electrodialysis cells while maintaining good performance. Therefore, we developed highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane. Both ends of the ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane were covered by a nafion 324 overcoat to prevent the outflow of the ionic liquid. The transmission of Lithium aqueous solution after 10 hours under the highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is almost 13%. So this highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane for long operating of electrodialysis cells has been developed through successful prevention of ion liquid dissolution. (J.P.N.)

  4. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  5. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. E. [University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO{sub 2} and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  6. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO 2 and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  7. Analysis of a gas-liquid film plasma reactor for organic compound oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kevin [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Wang, Huijuan [School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Locke, Bruce R., E-mail: blocke@fsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Non-homogeneous filamentary plasma discharge formed along gas-liquid interface. • Hydrogen peroxide formed near interface favored over organic oxidation from liquid. • Post-plasma Fenton reactions lead to complete utilization of hydrogen peroxide. - Abstract: A pulsed electrical discharge plasma formed in a tubular reactor with flowing argon carrier gas and a liquid water film was analyzed using methylene blue as a liquid phase hydroxyl radical scavenger and simultaneous measurements of hydrogen peroxide formation. The effects of liquid flow rate, liquid conductivity, concentration of dye, and the addition of ferrous ion on dye decoloration and degradation were determined. Higher liquid flow rates and concentrations of dye resulted in less decoloration percentages and hydrogen peroxide formation due to initial liquid conductivity effects and lower residence times in the reactor. The highest decoloration energy yield of dye found in these studies was 5.2 g/kWh when using the higher liquid flow rate and adding the catalyst. The non-homogeneous nature of the plasma discharge favors the production of hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-liquid interface over the chemical oxidation of the organic in the bulk liquid phase and post-plasma reactions with the Fenton catalyst lead to complete utilization of the plasma-formed hydrogen peroxide.

  8. Dissolved organic carbon enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, K.E.C.; Thullner, M.; Wick, L.Y.; Harms, H.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase above that attributable to dissolved molecular diffusion alone was tested. In controlled experiments, mass transfer rates of

  9. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrganic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2O5, K2O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803±0.0115%, total N 740.063±0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855±0.1562, P2O5 425.603±0.2329 ppm, K2O 2738.627±0.2836 ppm.

  10. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2 O5 , K2 O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803 ± 0.0115 %, total N 740.063 ± 0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855 ± 0.1562, P2 O5 425.603 ± 0.2329 ppm, K2 O 2738.627 ± 0.2836 ppm.

  11. The Use of Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Skoda-Földes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability.

  12. Thin aligned organic polymer films for liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Kathryn Ellen

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the possibility of producing alignment layers for liquid crystal devices by cross-linking thin films containing anisotropic polymer bound chromophores via irradiation with polarised ultraviolet light. Photocross-linkable polymers find use in microelectronics, liquid crystal displays, printing and UV curable lacquers and inks; so there is an increasing incentive for the development of new varieties of photopolymers in general. The synthesis and characterisation of two new photopolymers that are suitable as potential alignment layers for liquid crystal devices are reported in this thesis. The first polymer contains the anthracene chromophore attached via a spacer unit to a methacrylate backbone and the second used a similarly attached aryl azide group. Copolymers of the new monomers with methyl methacrylate were investigated to establish reactivity ratios in order to understand composition drift during polymerisation. (author)

  13. Multicomponent polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sabu; Saha, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth review of the materials design and manufacturing processes employed in the development of multi-component or multiphase polymer material systems. This field has seen rapid growth in both academic and industrial research, as multiphase materials are increasingly replacing traditional single-component materials in commercial applications. Many obstacles can be overcome by processing and using multiphase materials in automobile, construction, aerospace, food processing, and other chemical industry applications. The comprehensive description of the processing, characterization, and application of multiphase materials presented in this book offers a world of new ideas and potential technological advantages for academics, researchers, students, and industrial manufacturers from diverse fields including rubber engineering, polymer chemistry, materials processing and chemical science. From the commercial point of view it will be of great value to those involved in processing, optimizing an...

  14. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  15. Modelling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part VI. Multicomponent mixtures with glycols relevant to oil and gas and to liquid or supercritical CO2 transport applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2016-01-01

    to data on ternary and multicomponent mixtures) to model the phase behaviour of ternary and quaternary systems with CO2 and glycols. It is concluded that CPA performs satisfactorily for most multicomponent systems considered. Some differences between the various modelling approaches are observed....... This work is the last part of a series of studies, which aim to arrive in a single "engineering approach" for applying CPA to acid gas mixtures, without introducing significant changes to the model. An overall assessment, based also on the obtained results of this series (Tsivintzelis et al., 2010, 2011...

  16. Metal–organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Jing; Gascon, Jorge; Li, Jiansheng; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    , the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes

  17. Liquid phase oxidation via heterogeneous catalysis organic synthesis and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clerici, Mario G

    2013-01-01

    Sets the stage for environmentally friendly industrial organic syntheses From basic principles to new and emerging industrial applications, this book offers comprehensive coverage of heterogeneous liquid-phase selective oxidation catalysis. It fully examines the synthesis, characterization, and application of catalytic materials for environmentally friendly organic syntheses. Readers will find coverage of all the important classes of catalysts, with an emphasis on their stability and reusability. Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysis features contributions from an internation

  18. Modeling the gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol: the importance of liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between the gas phase and aerosol particles is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Gas-particle partitioning of organic and inorganic species is influenced by the physical state and water content of aerosols, and therefore ambient relative humidity (RH, as well as temperature and organic loading levels. We introduce a novel combination of the thermodynamic models AIOMFAC (for liquid mixture non-ideality and EVAPORATION (for pure compound vapor pressures with oxidation product information from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for the computation of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds and water. The presence and impact of a liquid-liquid phase separation in the condensed phase is calculated as a function of variations in relative humidity, organic loading levels, and associated changes in aerosol composition. We show that a complex system of water, ammonium sulfate, and SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene exhibits liquid-liquid phase separation over a wide range of relative humidities (simulated from 30% to 99% RH. Since fully coupled phase separation and gas-particle partitioning calculations are computationally expensive, several simplified model approaches are tested with regard to computational costs and accuracy of predictions compared to the benchmark calculation. It is shown that forcing a liquid one-phase aerosol with or without consideration of non-ideal mixing bears the potential for vastly incorrect partitioning predictions. Assuming an ideal mixture leads to substantial overestimation of the particulate organic mass, by more than 100% at RH values of 80% and by more than 200% at RH values of 95%. Moreover, the simplified one-phase cases stress two key points for accurate gas-particle partitioning calculations: (1 non-ideality in the condensed phase needs to be considered and (2 liquid-liquid phase separation is a consequence of considerable deviations

  19. Radiation induced polymerization of MMA in imidazolium ionic liquids and their mixed solutions with organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Mingying [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: wuguozhong@sinap.ac.cn; Sha Maolin; Liu Yusheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Considerably higher molecular weight (M{sub w}) and multi-modal molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were observed in neat ionic liquids ([bmim][PF{sub 6}] and [bmim][BF{sub 4}]), as well as their mixed solutions with organic solvents, probably due to the high viscosity and inhomogeneity of ionic liquids. FTIR spectra for PMMA showed that a slight amount of ionic liquid remained in the resulting polymer, and DSC measurement indicated the increase of glass transition point of PMMA with increasing of ionic liquid fraction in mixed solutions.

  20. Study of the degradation of liquid-organic radioactive wastes by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this study degradation studies were performed on blank samples, in which two electrochemical cells with different electrodes were used, the first is constituted by mesh electrodes Ti/Ir-Ta/Ti and the second by rod electrodes Ti/Ddb, using as reference an electrolytic medium of scintillation liquid and scintillation liquid more water, applying different potentials ranging from 1 to 25 V. After obtaining the benchmarks, the treatment was applied to samples containing organic liquid radioactive waste, in this case a short half-life radioisotope as Sulfur-35, the degradation characterization of organic compounds was performed in infrared spectrometry. (Author)

  1. High-efficiency technology for lithium isotope separation using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6 Li) in tritium breeding materials. New lithium isotope separation technique using ionic-liquid impregnated organic membranes (Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs) have been developed. Lithium ions are able to move by electrodialysis through certain Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. In this report, the effects of protection cover and membrane thickness on the durability of membrane and the efficiency of isotope separation were evaluated. In order to improve the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM, we developed highly-durable Ionic-Liquid-i-OM. Both surfaces of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM were covered by a nafion 324 overcoat or a cation exchange membrane (SELEMION TM CMD) to prevent the outflow of the ionic liquid. It was observed that the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM was improved by a nafion 324 overcoat. On the other hand, the organic membrane selected was 1, 2 or 3 mm highly-porous Teflon film, in order to efficiently impregnate the ionic liquid. The 6 Li isotope separation factor by electrodialysis using highly-porous Teflon film of 3 mm thickness was larger than using that of 1 or 2 mm thickness.

  2. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Fukushima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  3. Research on organic liquids as reactor coolants. Status report from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1967-01-01

    The organic-moderated and cooled nuclear reactor concept has stimulated extensive activities in numerous different areas of research. Investigations started in Hungary in 1958 do not cover all topics of interest in organic reactors and so far no projects have been started to build such a reactor. Since OMRE and other organic reactor experiments have already shown the potential use of organic materials as reactor coolants and moderators, efforts have been focused rather on the investigation and solution of certain specific particular problems and also on economic aspects. One of the most important objectives seems to be a better knowledge of the radiolytic heat transfer and neutron physics behaviour of organic liquids. In Hungary the following topics were selected for investigation: Radiation stability of organic compounds and their mixtures; Heat-transfer studies; Investigations on the moderating parameters of organic liquids; Economic analysis of the possible use of organic reactors for process heat application

  4. Research on organic liquids as reactor coolants. Status report from Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I [Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    1967-01-01

    The organic-moderated and cooled nuclear reactor concept has stimulated extensive activities in numerous different areas of research. Investigations started in Hungary in 1958 do not cover all topics of interest in organic reactors and so far no projects have been started to build such a reactor. Since OMRE and other organic reactor experiments have already shown the potential use of organic materials as reactor coolants and moderators, efforts have been focused rather on the investigation and solution of certain specific particular problems and also on economic aspects. One of the most important objectives seems to be a better knowledge of the radiolytic heat transfer and neutron physics behaviour of organic liquids. In Hungary the following topics were selected for investigation: Radiation stability of organic compounds and their mixtures; Heat-transfer studies; Investigations on the moderating parameters of organic liquids; Economic analysis of the possible use of organic reactors for process heat application.

  5. Utilization of Ionic Liquids for the Separation of Organic Liquids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The concentrations of the aromatic components used were in the range of 2.5–10 % (v/v) for the following ... components in the ionic liquid obtained by gas chromatography were used to determine the capability of .... nitrogen; column flow.

  6. Crystallization of an organic compound from an ionic liquid using carbon dioxide as anti-solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Toussaint, V.A.; Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Spronsen, van J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the anti-solvency behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a way to recover an organic compound from an ionic liquid by crystallization is explored. As an example, the conditions for crystallization of the organic compound methyl-(Z)-a-acetamido cinnamate (MAAC) from the ionic

  7. Microbial consortium role in processing liquid waste of vegetables in Keputran Market Surabaya as organic liquid fertilizer ferti-plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqi, Fauziah; Supriyanto, Agus; Lestari, Intan; Lita Indri D., L.; Elmi Irmayanti, A.; Rahmaniyah, Fadilatur

    2016-03-01

    Many activities in this market is directly proportional to increase production of vegetables waste, especially surabaya. Therefore, in this study aims to utilize liquid waste of vegetables into liquid organic fertilizer by mixing microbial consorsium. The microbial consorsium consist of Azotobacter chrococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Ttreatment of microbial concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) and the length of the incubation period (7 days, 14 days, 21 days) used in this research. The parameters used are: C/N ratio, levels of CNP, and BOD value. This study uses a standard organic fertilizer value according SNI19-7030-2004, The results show the value of C/N ratio comply with the ISO standards. C levels showed an increase during the incubation period but not compare with standards. N levels that compare with standards are microbial treatment in all group concentration except control group with an incubation period of 21 days is > 7. P levels compare with the existing standards in the group of microbe concentration of 10% and 15% during the incubation period. The value of the initial BOD liquid waste of vegetable is 790.25 mg / L, this value indicates that the waste should not go into the water body. Accordingly, the results of this study can not be used as a liquid organic fertilizer, but potentially if it is used as a natural career or build natural soil. The Building natural soil is defined as the natural ingredients that can be used to improve soil properties.

  8. Performance of carbon-carbon supercapacitors based on organic, aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Andrzej; Olejniczak, Angelika; Galinski, Maciej; Stepniak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, PL-60 965 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-09-01

    Properties of capacitors working with the same carbon electrodes (activated carbon cloth) and three types of electrolytes: aqueous, organic and ionic liquids were compared. Capacitors filled with ionic liquids worked at a potential difference of 3.5 V, their solutions in AN and PC were charged up to the potential difference of 3 V, classical organic systems to 2.5 V and aqueous to 1 V. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charging/discharging and impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize these capacitors. The highest specific energy was recorded for the device working with ionic liquids, while the highest power is characteristic for the device filled with aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Aqueous electrolytes led to energy density an order of magnitude lower in comparison to that characteristic of ionic liquids. (author)

  9. Phase formation in multicomponent monotectic aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are potential materials for advanced bearings in automotive and other applications. While binary alloys, such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi, are well known, the information available for ternary monotectic Al-alloys is scarce. However, the phase formation in multicomponent alloys is not only more challenging from a scientific aspect, it is also a prerequisite for a focused development of advanced alloys. This motivated our detailed study of monotectic Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys including both experimental and computational thermodynamic methods. Based on the initially established systematic classification of monotectic ternary Al-alloys, the first promising monotectic reaction was observed in the ternary Al-Bi-Zn system. Further ternary systems Al-Cu-Sn, Al-Bi-Sn, Al-Bi-Cu and Bi-Cu-Sn were investigated as basis for quaternary Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys. Experimental investigations of phase equilibria, enthalpies and solidification microstructures were combined with thermodynamic modeling. The results demonstrate that the developed precise thermodynamic description is vital to reveal the distinct multicomponent monotectic features of pertinent phase diagrams. The solidification paths of ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, were also studied using thermodynamic calculations, revealing specific details of phase formation during solidification of selected alloys.

  10. Direct Capture of Organic Acids From Fermentation Media Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.

    2004-11-03

    Several ionic liquids have been investigated for the extraction of organic acids from fermentation broth. Partitioning of representative organic acids (lactic, acetic, and succinic) between aqueous solution and nine hydrophobic ionic liquids was measured. The extraction efficiencies were strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase. Distribution coefficient was very good (approximately 60) at low succinic acid concentrations for one of the ionic liquids (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate) at neutral pH. However, this ionic liquid had to be diluted with nonanol due to its high viscosity in order to be useful. A diluent (trioctylamine) was also added to this mixture. The results suggest that an extraction system based on ionic liquids may be feasible for succinic acid recovery from fermentation broth and that two ideal extraction stages are needed to reduce the concentration from 33 g/L to 1 g/L of succinic acid. Further studies are needed to evaluate other issues related to practical applications, including ionic liquid loss in the process, toxicity effects of ionic liquids during simultaneous fermentation and extractions.

  11. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects...... characterized with respect to O2 availability by in situ profiling with electrochemical microsensors. Results show that oxygen penetration increased from few micrometers up to several centimetres with crust age. AOB and ammonium oxidation are ubiquitously present in well-developed manure crusts whereas MOB were...... also CH4 emission mitigation, an organic surface crust can be effective if populations of MOB and AOB are allowed to build up....

  12. Current state in adsorption from multicomponent solutions of nonelectrolytes on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowko, M.; Jaroniec, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper surveys the research carried out on the adsorption from multicomponent liquid mixtures of nonelectrolytes on solids with emphasis on the work performed by the authors. The consistent theoretical treatment of adsorption from concentrated and dilute multicomponent solutions and its application to the liquid adsorption chromatography with the mixed mobile phase are presented. This treatment involved nonideality of the bulk and surface phases, energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface and it may be extended to multilayer adsorption from solutions. The multicomponent liquid/solid adsorption systems, studied experimentally, are reviewed. Many of them have been examined by means of the equations derived for liquid adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces. These studies are summarized in this paper. Moreover, the model studies illustrating the influence of solution nonideality and adsorbent heterogeneity on the excess adsorption isotherms and the distribution coefficient are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Design and construction of liquid lasers using organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, Akbar.

    1984-01-01

    Organic dye solution show great promise of obtaining tunable coherent light over the uv, visible and near infrared portion of spectrum. In this paper we describe various pumping schemes of dye molecules. Design, construction and performance of a pulsed dye laser, transversely pumped by a nitrogen laser and wall-ablation flash lamp-pumped dye lasers are the particular examples which are presented in detail

  14. Methods for calculation of engineering parameters for gas separation. [vapor pressure and solubility of gases in organic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    A group additivity method is generated which allows estimation, from the structural formulas alone, of the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. Using these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relations, the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids are predicted. It is also possible to use the data to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or liquids as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  15. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System

  16. Estimation of the vaporization heat of organic liquids. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, M.; Sannier, H.

    1982-01-01

    In our previous publications it has been shown that the method of Benson's group permits the estimation of the enthalpies of vaporization of organic compounds. In the present paper we have applied this method for unsaturated hydrocarbons, thus completing our previous work on acyclic alkenes. For the alkylbenzenes we have changed the values of the groups C-(Csub(b))(C)(H) 2 and C-(Csub(b))(C) 2 (H) previously determined. A more accurate value for the enthalpies of vaporization of the alkylbenzenes of higher molecular weight is obtained. (orig.)

  17. Solidification in Multicomponent Multiphase Systems (SIMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, S.; Hecht, U.

    2005-06-01

    The multiphase microstructures that evolve during the solidification of multicomponent alloys are attracting widespread interest for industrial applications and fundamental research.Thermodynamic databases are now well-established for many alloy systems. Thermodynamic calculations provide all the required information about phase equilibria, forming an integral part of both dedicated and comprehensive microstructure models. Among the latter, phase-field modelling has emerged as the method of choice. Solidification experiments are intended to trigger model development or to serve as benchmarks for model validation. For benchmarking, microgravity conditions offer a unique opportunity for avoiding buoyancy-induced convection and buoyancy forces in bulk samples. However, diffusion and the free-energy of interfaces and its anisotropy need to be determined.The measurement of chemical diffusivities in the liquid state can equally benefit from microgravity experiments.

  18. Solidification paths of multicomponent monotectic aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-10-15

    Solidification paths of three ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, are studied using thermodynamic calculations, both for the pertinent phase diagrams and also for specific details concerning the solidification of selected alloy compositions. The coupled composition variation in two different liquids is quantitatively given. Various ternary monotectic four-phase reactions are encountered during solidification, as opposed to the simple binary monotectic, L' {yields} L'' + solid. These intricacies are reflected in the solidification microstructures, as demonstrated for these three aluminum alloy systems, selected in view of their distinctive features. This examination of solidification paths and microstructure formation may be relevant for advanced solidification processing of multicomponent monotectic alloys.

  19. Utilization of Ionic Liquids for the Separation of Organic Liquids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of aromatic organic solvents from mixtures containing aliphatic compounds has economic as well as environmental significance. This is so because viable methods have not been established for the recovery from mixtures in which the components of value are 20 % (v/v) or less. In the light of this, we ...

  20. Ionic Liquid-Assisted Liquid-Liquid Microextraction based on the Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet in Sample Preparation for Simultaneous Determination of Herbicide Residues in Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-09-01

    An ionic liquid-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplet (ILSFODLLME) was investigated for analysis of four herbicide residues (i.e. simazine, atrazine, propazine, and linuron) by high performance liquid chromatography. For ILSFOD-LLME, the optimal extraction conditions were 5% w/v Na2SO4, 30 μL [C4MIM][PF6]RTIL, 100 μL of 1-octanol, ultrasonication time 30 s and centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min. Under the optimal conditions, linearity was obtained within the range of 0.1-1000 μg kg-1, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The high enrichment factors of the target analytes were in the range of 64.5-139.9 and low limit of detection could be obtained. A modified QuEChERS was applied for fruit sample preparation before analysis. Matrix effects were also investigated using matrix matched standards for construction of the calibration graph. The proposed method has been successfully applied for extraction and preconcentration of herbicide residues in fruit samples, and good recoveries in the range of 87.32% to 99.93% were obtained.

  1. Decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes by hydrophytic vegetal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al; Popa, K.; Potoroaca, V.; Melniciuc-Puica, N.

    2001-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of some radioactive ions from contaminated waste solutions, on hydrophytic vegetal organisms is discussed. In order to follow the distribution of radioactive ions 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 51 Cr 3+ in various cell components extracted from Spirulina platensis, Porphiridium cruentum, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Lemna minor, Elodea canadensis, Pistia stratiotes and Riccia fluitans, the plants were cultivated in radioactive solutions. The resulting complexes were extracted with acetone or acetic acid and separated chromatographically. The results show an intense activity of the polysaccharide and lipoid fractions in the bioaccumulation process. The bioaccumulation varies in the series: Spirulina > Scenedesmus > Porphiridium > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna ≥ Elodea for 137 Cs + and 60 Co 2+ ; Spirulina > Porphiridium > Scenedesmus > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna > Elodea for 51 Cr 3+ . (author)

  2. ANALISIS TUMBUH SELADA (LACTUCA SATIVA L) PADA PERBEDAAN JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR ( Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L) Growth Analysis At Different Type Of Liquid Organic Fertilizer)

    OpenAIRE

    Duaja, Made Deviani; Arzita, .; Redo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to analysis the growth and yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) at different type of organic liquid fertilizers. The experiment has conducted at Agriculture Faculty Research Farm, Jambi University. Six treatments were arranged in Randomized Completed Block Design. The treatments are kinds of liquid organic fertilizers, they are P0 (none of liquid organic fertilizers), P1 (Golden Harvest liquid organic fertilizers), P2 (NASA liquid organic fertilizers), P3 (C...

  3. Multicomponent Reactions in Ligation and Bioconjugation Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Leslie; Méndez, Yanira; Humpierre, Ana R; Valdés, Oscar; Rivera, Daniel G

    2018-05-25

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) encompass an exciting class of chemical transformations that have proven success in almost all fields of synthetic organic chemistry. These convergent procedures incorporate three or more reactants into a final product in one pot, thus combining high levels of complexity and diversity generation with low synthetic cost. Striking applications of these processes are found in heterocycle, peptidomimetic, and natural product syntheses. However, their potential in the preparation of large macro- and biomolecular constructs has been realized just recently. This Account describes the most relevant results of our group in the utilization of MCRs for ligation/conjugation of biomolecules along with significant contributions from other laboratories that validate the utility of this special class of bioconjugation process. Thus, MCRs have proven to be efficient in the ligation of lipids to peptides and oligosaccharides as well as the ligation of steroids, carbohydrates, and fluorescent and affinity tags to peptides and proteins. In the field of glycolipids, we highlight the power of isocyanide-based MCRs with the one-pot double lipidation of glycan fragments functionalized as either the carboxylic acid or amine. In peptide chemistry, the versatility of the multicomponent ligation strategy is demonstrated in both solution-phase lipidation protocols and solid-phase procedures enabling the simultaneous lipidation and biotinylation of peptides. In addition, we show that MCRs are powerful methods for synchronized lipidation/labeling and macrocyclization of peptides, thus accomplishing in one step what usually requires long sequences. In the realm of protein bioconjugation, MCRs have also proven to be effective in labeling, site-selective modification, immobilization, and glycoconjugation processes. For example, we illustrate a successful application of multicomponent polysaccharide-protein conjugation with the preparation of multivalent

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) using Cyanex 272 in kerosene from sodium salicylate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Pravin N.; Mohite, Baburao S.; Suryavanshi, Vishal J.; Salunkhe, Suresh T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in kerosene has been carried out. Uranium (VI) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -4 M sodium salicylate with 5x10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 4M HCl and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 600 nm. The effects of concentrations of sodium salicylate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of uranium (VI) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ±2%). (author)

  5. Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically-resolved model (TOUGHREACTv1) to soil carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Maggi, F. M.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M. S.; Tang, J. Y.; Dwivedi, D.; Guerry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate representation of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in Earth System Models is critical for future climate prediction, yet large uncertainties exist regarding how, and to what extent, the suite of proposed relevant mechanisms should be included. To investigate how various mechanisms interact to influence SOM storage and dynamics, we developed a SOM reaction network integrated in a one-dimensional, multi-phase, and multi-component reactive transport solver. The model includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, multiple archetypal polymeric and monomeric carbon substrate groups, aqueous chemistry, aqueous advection and diffusion, gaseous diffusion, and adsorption (and protection) and desorption from the soil mineral phase. The model predictions reasonably matched observed depth-resolved SOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) stocks in grassland ecosystems as well as lignin content and fungi to aerobic bacteria ratios. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses under equilibrium and dynamic conditions to examine the role of dynamic sorption, microbial assimilation rates, and carbon inputs. To our knowledge, observations do not exist to fully test such a complicated model structure or to test the hypotheses used to explain observations of substantial storage of very old SOM below the rooting depth. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that a reasonable combination of sorption parameters, microbial biomass and necromass dynamics, and advective transport can match observations without resorting to an arbitrary depth-dependent decline in SOM turnover rates, as is often done. We conclude that, contrary to assertions derived from existing turnover time based model formulations, observed carbon content and δ14C vertical profiles are consistent with a representation of SOM dynamics consisting of (1) carbon compounds without designated intrinsic turnover times, (2) vertical aqueous transport, and (3) dynamic protection on mineral surfaces.

  6. Ionic Liquids Beyond Simple Solvents: Glimpses at the State of the Art in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Andrea; Giernoth, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Within the last 25 years ionic liquids have written a tremendous success story, which is documented in a nearly uncountable amount of original research papers, reviews, and numerous applications in research and industry. These days, ionic liquids can be considered as a mature class of compounds for many different applications. Frequently, they are used as neoteric solvents for chemical tansformations, and the number of reviews on this field of research is huge. In this focused review, though, we are trying to evaluate the state of the art of ionic liquid chemistry beyond using them simply as solvents for chemical transformations. It is not meant to be a comprehensive overview on the topic; the choice of emphasis and examples rather refects the authors' personal view on the field. We are especially highlighting fields in which we believe the most fundamental developments within the next five years will take place: biomass processing, (chiral) ionic liquids from natural sources, biotransformations, and organic synthesis.

  7. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2017-06-01

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  8. Effect of organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other nutrient from the soil; therefore continuous cropping of the plant at the same soil would bring consequences of more Si and organic matter depletion. Silicon (Si is considered as a beneficial nutrient for sugarcane production while organic matter is well known as soil amendment. Field study was carried out to know the effect of organic and Si liquid fertilizer on growth, Si and N uptake, and yield of cane variety of PSBM 901. The study field was located at Kempleng village, Purwoasri, East Java and the study was done from May 2013 up to September 2014. Split plot design with three replicates was employed to arrange treatments. Organic matter types (no organic matter, Crotalaria juncea and manure were set as main plots while Si liquid fertilizer concentration (0, 15% Si and 30% S were arranged as sub plots. C juncea was planted at 15 days before planting of sugar cane, and after 35 days the C juncea were chopped and mixed into the soil. Manure was added one week before sugar cane was planted. Si liquid fertilizer was sprayed to the whole part of sugar cane plant at 30 and 50 days after sugar cane was planted. All treatments received basal fertilizer of 800 kg ZA/ha, 200 kg SP 36/ha and 300 kg KCl/ha. Results showed that interaction between organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer significantly affected on Si and N absorption, length of stem, yield and rendement of sugar cane. Addition of manure and followed by spraying of 30% Si liquid fertilizer gave the highest value of S and N absorption (869 g SiO2/plant and 720 g N/plant, cane yield (155.74 tons/ha and rendement (8.15%.

  9. Characterization of natural organic colorants in historical and art objects by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Barták, Petr; Lemr, Karel

    2014-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography plays an important role in analysis of historical organic colorants. A number of papers have been published in this field over the last 30 years. Classification of the most commonly used natural dyes and an overview of high-performance liquid chromatography methods with main focus on recent works (2008 to the beginning of 2014) are provided. The review deals with an entire analytical protocol covering sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and suitable detection (UV/visible and fluorescent spectroscopy and mass spectrometric techniques). High-performance liquid chromatography has been successfully used in the complete characterization of some organic dyestuffs present in historical and art objects. The possibilities and difficulties for identification of natural sources of historical colorants are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Functional organic materials based on polymerized liquid-crystal monomers: supramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, D.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Debije, M.G.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional organic materials are of great interest for a variety of applications. To obtain precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals has proven to be an extremely useful tool in the development of

  11. Visualizing Molecular Chirality in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Using Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Maia; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Hartley, C. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Although stereochemistry is an important topic in second-year undergraduate organic chemistry, there are limited options for laboratory activities that allow direct visualization of macroscopic chiral phenomena. A novel, guided-inquiry experiment was developed that allows students to explore chirality in the context of cholesteric liquid crystals.…

  12. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale; Coppedè , Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Romeo, Agostino; Gentile, Francesco T.; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Mosca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel

  13. Prediction of heat capacities and heats of vaporization of organic liquids by group contribution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Gani, Rafiqul; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work a group contribution method is proposed for the estimation of the heat capacity of organic liquids as a function of temperature for fatty compounds found in edible oil and biofuels industries. The data bank used for regression of the group contribution parameters (1395 values...

  14. Transport processes in multicomponent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zissis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This book treats in detail, as indicated in the title, the transport phenomena in multicomponent plasmas. Here, the term 'transport' applies to the study of mass and energy transfer in plasmas due to the interactions between pairs of particles only. Radiation is legitimately omitted; anyway, radiative transfer is another field of study. As the author himself mentions in the introduction, 'the term multicomponent plasma implies a partially or fully ionized mixture of arbitrary number of species of neutral and charged particles satisfying the condition of quasi-neutrality'. In fact, this book treats a large variety of plasmas applying to different systems ranging from low-pressure systems which may be far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions, to thermal plasmas in LTE or near-LTE states with special attention to two-temperature systems; partially ionized plasmas with low ionization degree for which electron-neutral interactions are predominant, to systems with higher ionization degrees in which charged particle interactions are no more negligible. In addition, for all the above stated situations, the author treats both plasmas which are subjected to an external electromagnetic field and those which are not (homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases). Furthermore, in the last chapters a special discussion concerning molecular plasmas is presented. Taking into account the evolution of plasma modelling in the last few years, the subject is of current interest and the reader will find in the book a large amount of information necessary for a good understanding of transport phenomena in plasmas: for a plasma simulation specialist, this book may be regarded as reference text, which includes all necessary mathematical relations for his work. However, it should not be considered a simple formulary; the reader will also find here an excellent description of the theoretical basis necessary for the derivation of all given expressions. To this point of view

  15. Liquid-Solid Dual-Gate Organic Transistors with Tunable Threshold Voltage for Cell Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Jun; Li, Rui; Sbircea, Dan-Tiberiu; Giovannitti, Alexander; Xu, Junling; Xu, Huihua; Zhou, Guodong; Bian, Liming; McCulloch, Iain; Zhao, Ni

    2017-11-08

    Liquid electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors and organic electrochemical transistors have recently emerged as powerful technology platforms for sensing and simulation of living cells and organisms. For such applications, the transistors are operated at a gate voltage around or below 0.3 V because prolonged application of a higher voltage bias can lead to membrane rupturing and cell death. This constraint often prevents the operation of the transistors at their maximum transconductance or most sensitive regime. Here, we exploit a solid-liquid dual-gate organic transistor structure, where the threshold voltage of the liquid-gated conduction channel is controlled by an additional gate that is separated from the channel by a metal-oxide gate dielectric. With this design, the threshold voltage of the "sensing channel" can be linearly tuned in a voltage window exceeding 0.4 V. We have demonstrated that the dual-gate structure enables a much better sensor response to the detachment of human mesenchymal stem cells. In general, the capability of tuning the optimal sensing bias will not only improve the device performance but also broaden the material selection for cell-based organic bioelectronics.

  16. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A.; Plys, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented

  17. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented.

  18. Viscosity and diffusivity in melts: from unary to multicomponent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Huang, Baiyun

    2014-05-01

    Viscosity and diffusivity, two important transport coefficients, are systematically investigated from unary melt to binary to multicomponent melts in the present work. By coupling with Kaptay's viscosity equation of pure liquid metals and effective radii of diffusion species, the Sutherland equation is modified by taking the size effect into account, and further derived into an Arrhenius formula for the convenient usage. Its reliability for predicting self-diffusivity and impurity diffusivity in unary liquids is then validated by comparing the calculated self-diffusivities and impurity diffusivities in liquid Al- and Fe-based alloys with the experimental and the assessed data. Moreover, the Kozlov model was chosen among various viscosity models as the most reliable one to reproduce the experimental viscosities in binary and multicomponent melts. Based on the reliable viscosities calculated from the Kozlov model, the modified Sutherland equation is utilized to predict the tracer diffusivities in binary and multicomponent melts, and validated in Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ce-Ni melts. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated results and the literature data indicate that the experimental tracer diffusivities and the theoretical ones can be well reproduced by the present calculations. In addition, the vacancy-wind factor in binary liquid Al-Ni alloys with the increasing temperature is also discussed. What's more, the calculated inter-diffusivities in liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu alloys are also in excellent agreement with the measured and theoretical data. Comparisons between the simulated concentration profiles and the measured ones in Al-Cu, Al-Ce-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu melts are further used to validate the present calculation method.

  19. Visual observation of gas hydrates nucleation and growth at a water - organic liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoporev, Andrey S.; Semenov, Anton P.; Medvedev, Vladimir I.; Sizikov, Artem A.; Gushchin, Pavel A.; Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Manakov, Andrey Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Visual observation of nucleation sites of methane and methane-ethane-propane hydrates and their further growth in water - organic liquid - gas systems with/without surfactants was carried out. Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with transparent sapphire cells was used. The experiments were conducted at the supercooling ΔTsub = 20.2 °C. Decane, toluene and crude oils were used as organics. Gas hydrate nucleation occurred on water - metal - gas and water - sapphire - organic liquid three-phase contact lines. At the initial stage of growth hydrate crystals rapidly covered the water - gas or water - organics interfaces (depending on the nucleation site). Further hydrate phase accrete on cell walls (sapphire surface) and into the organics volume. At this stage, growth was accompanied by water «drawing out» from under initial hydrate film formed at water - organic interface. Apparently, it takes place due to water capillary inflow in the reaction zone. It was shown that the hydrate crystal morphology depends on the organic phase composition. In the case of water-in-decane emulsion relay hydrate crystallization was observed in the whole sample, originating most likely due to the hydrate crystal intergrowth through decane. Contacts of such crystals with adjacent water droplets result in rapid hydrate crystallization on this droplet.

  20. Fluctuation theory for transport properties in multicomponent mixtures: thermodiffusion and heat conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general statis...... of the heat conductivity coefficient for ideal gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general...

  1. Synthesis of organic liquids/geo-polymer composites for the immobilization of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This work is included in the management of radioactive organic liquids research field. The process is based on an emulsification of organic liquid in an alkali silicate solution allowing the synthesis of a geo-polymer matrix. The first part of this work consists in carrying out a screening on different organic liquids. A model system representative of the various oils and a geo-polymer reference formulation are then defined. The second part deals with the structuration of the organic liquid/geo-polymer structuration, from the mixture of the reactants to the final material. It aims at determining the phenomena allowing the synthesis of a homogeneous composite. The last two parts aim at characterizing the composite by studying its structure (chemical structure, porosity of the geo-polymer and dispersion of the oil) and its properties with respect to the application to the immobilization of radioactive waste. Unlike calcium silicate-based cementitious matrices, the structure of the geo-polymer is not affected by the chemical nature of the organic liquids. Only acid oils inhibit or slow down the geo-polymerization reaction. In order to obtain a homogeneous material, the presence of surfactant molecules is necessary. The emulsion stabilization mechanism at the base of the process is relying on a synergy between the surfactant molecules and the aluminosilicate particles present in the geo-polymer paste. The kinetics (chemical and mechanical) of the geo-polymerization are not impacted by the presence of oil or surfactants. Only an increase in the viscoelastic moduli and the elastic character of the pastes can be observed. This difference in rheological behavior is mainly due to the presence of surfactant. The structure of the matrix is identical to that of a pure geo-polymer of the same formulation. The organic liquid is dispersed in spherical inclusions whose radius is between 5 and 15 μm. These droplets are separated from each other, and from the environment by the

  2. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...... component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties...

  3. Structure-directing effects of ionic liquids in the ionothermal synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Thomas P; Kelley, Steven P; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-07-01

    Traditional synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) involves the reaction of a metal-containing precursor with an organic linker in an organic solvent at an elevated temperature, in what is termed a 'solvothermal' reaction. More recently, many examples have been reported of MOF synthesis in ionic liquids (ILs), rather than an organic solvent, in 'ionothermal' reactions. The high concentration of both cations and anions in an ionic liquid allows for the formation of new MOF structures in which the IL cation or anion or both are incorporated into the MOF. Most commonly, the IL cation is included in the open cavities of the MOF, countering the anionic charge of the MOF framework itself and acting as a template around which the MOF structure forms. Ionic liquids can also serve other structure-directing roles, for example, when an IL containing a single enantiomer of a chiral anion leads to a homochiral MOF, even though the IL anion is not itself incorporated into the MOF. A comprehensive review of ionothermal syntheses of MOFs, and the structure-directing effects of the ILs, is given.

  4. Structure-directing effects of ionic liquids in the ionothermal synthesis of metal–organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Vaid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional synthesis of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs involves the reaction of a metal-containing precursor with an organic linker in an organic solvent at an elevated temperature, in what is termed a `solvothermal' reaction. More recently, many examples have been reported of MOF synthesis in ionic liquids (ILs, rather than an organic solvent, in `ionothermal' reactions. The high concentration of both cations and anions in an ionic liquid allows for the formation of new MOF structures in which the IL cation or anion or both are incorporated into the MOF. Most commonly, the IL cation is included in the open cavities of the MOF, countering the anionic charge of the MOF framework itself and acting as a template around which the MOF structure forms. Ionic liquids can also serve other structure-directing roles, for example, when an IL containing a single enantiomer of a chiral anion leads to a homochiral MOF, even though the IL anion is not itself incorporated into the MOF. A comprehensive review of ionothermal syntheses of MOFs, and the structure-directing effects of the ILs, is given.

  5. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  6. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... parameters, is used for the segregated and for the bulk phases. With this approach, few parameters are needed to correlate pure component adsorption isotherms. These parameters may be used to predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent mixtures without additional adjustment. A connection between...... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  7. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Silva, Edson Antonio da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  8. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Edson Antonio da, E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  9. Numerical modelling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    subsequent removal of free phase liquid, still the organic compounds are present .... Since the flow through porous media is mainly restricted to the pore space ..... initial and boundary conditions for the numerical scheme are given in table 2.

  10. Liquid crystal-based Mueller matrix spectral imaging polarimetry for parameterizing mineral structural organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladish, James C; Duncan, Donald D

    2017-01-20

    Herein, we discuss the remote assessment of the subwavelength organizational structure of a medium. Specifically, we use spectral imaging polarimetry, as the vector nature of polarized light enables it to interact with optical anisotropies within a medium, while the spectral aspect of polarization is sensitive to small-scale structure. The ability to image these effects allows for inference of spatial structural organization parameters. This work describes a methodology for revealing structural organization by exploiting the Stokes/Mueller formalism and by utilizing measurements from a spectral imaging polarimeter constructed from liquid crystal variable retarders and a liquid crystal tunable filter. We provide results to validate the system and then show results from measurements on a mineral sample.

  11. Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by Ionic Liquids Coupled with Extraction by Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rashid; Gao, Shurong; Chen, Xiaochun; Yu, Guangren; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, desulfurization of real fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline was investigated in dual steps; first in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) using imidazolium and pyrrolidonium based Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) as solvent and catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. In second step, extractive desulfurization took place using organic solvents of furfural, furfural alcohol and ethylene glycol. Variety of factors such as temperature, time, mass ratio of oil/ILs and regene...

  12. Effect of chiral photosensitive liquid crystalline dopants on theperformance of organic solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwan, A.; Boharewicz, B.; Tazbir, I.; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, Feb (2015), s. 53-60 ISSN 0038-1101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic solar cell * composite with liquid crystal Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015

  13. Film Formation of Ag Nanoparticles at the Organic-Aqueous Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorita, John

    2005-03-01

    A wet-chemical method to make films by spontaneous assembly of passivated Ag nanoparticles at the organic-aqueous liquid interface is presented. The interfacial films exhibit a blue opalescence, or in other cases a silvery color, and are characterized with transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectrophotometry. Measurements indicate that nanoparticles in the interfacial film can form superlattices and in some cases nanostructures.

  14. Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in radioactive liquid organic waste by bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Sakata, Solange K.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria H.; Marumo, Julio T.; Dutra, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab -scale hot cell, known as CELESTE located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's and part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored at the Waste Management Laboratory. Among various types of radioactive waste generated, the organic liquid represents a major problem for its management, because it can not be directly solidified with cement. The objective of this work is to develop a pretreatment methodology to degrade the ethyl acetate present in organic liquid waste so that it can subsequently be immobilized in cement. This work was divided into two parts: selection and adaptation of three bacterial communities for growth in medium containing ethyl acetate and degradation experiments of ethyl acetate present in radioactive organic liquid waste. The results showed that from bacterial communities the highest biodegradation level observed was 77%. (author)

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis of Esculin Ester in Ionic Liquids Buffered with Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Guo, Zheng; Lue, Bena-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The enzymatic esterification of esculin catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was carried out in ionic liquid (IL)-organic solvent mixed systems in comparison with individual systems. The reaction behaviors in IL-organic solvents were systemically evaluated using acetone as a model...... in IL-acetone mixtures made it possible to improve the solubility of esculin while the effects of ILs on lipase activity were minimized. Following the benignity of ILs to lipase activity, the anions of ILs were ranked in the order as [Tf2N](-) > [PF6](-) > [BF4](-) > [CF3SO3](-) > [C4F9SO3](-) > [TAF...

  16. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-03

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate.

  17. Hygroscopic influence on the semisolid-to-liquid transition of secondary organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2015-05-14

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the rebound of particles composed of isoprene, α-pinene, and toluene secondary organic materials (SOMs) was studied. A three-arm impaction apparatus was used to study rebound from 5 to 95% RH at 298 K. Calibration experiments using sucrose particles of variable but known viscosities showed that the transition from rebounding to adhering particles occurred for a change in viscosity from 100 to 1 Pa s, corresponding to a transition from semisolid to liquid material. The experimentally determined rebound fractions of the studied SOMs were compared with results from a model of the rebound processes of hard particles, taking into account the particle kinetic energy, van der Waals forces, and RH-dependent capillary forces. For low RH values, the hard-particle model explained the diameter-dependent rebound behavior for all studied SOMs. For elevated RH, however, the experimental observations deviated from the model predictions. On the basis of the calibration experiments using sucrose particles as well as a comparison between the observations and the predictions of the hard-particle model, the interpretation is made that a semisolid-to-liquid transition occurred at elevated RH. Material softening, increased adhesion, or a combination of the two implied the action of additional modes of energy relaxation that were not included in the hard-particle model. The RH threshold for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition was 40% RH for isoprene SOM, 70% for toluene SOM, and 70% for α-pinene SOM. A correlation between the rebound fraction and the hygroscopic growth factor G was demonstrated, implying that absorbed water volume was a dominant governing factor of the semisolid-to-liquid transition for the studied classes of SOM. Simple heuristic rules based on G of 1.15 for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition could be used for prognostication of the SOM phase in modeling applications at 298 K. With respect to atmospheric processes, the

  18. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solid and Liquid Organic Fertilizers Applied to Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonsiri, Phasita; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Sukor, Arina; Davis, Jessica G

    2016-11-01

    Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L.). The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 and compared preplant-applied solid fertilizers (feather meal and blood meal) and multiple applications of liquid fertilizers (fish emulsion and cyano-fertilizer). Three days a week, NO and CO emissions were measured twice per day in 2013 and once per day in 2014 using a closed-static chamber, and gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Preplant-applied solid fertilizers significantly increased cumulative NO emissions as compared with control, but multiple applications of liquid fertilizers did not. Emission factors for NO ranged from 0 to 0.1% for multiple applications of liquid fertilizers and 0.6 to 11% for preplant-applied solid fertilizers, which could be overestimated due to chamber placement over fertilizer bands. In 2014, solid fertilizers with higher C/N ratios (3.3-3.5) resulted in higher CO emissions than liquid fertilizers (C/N ratio, 0.9-1.5). Therefore, organic farmers should consider the use of multiple applications of liquid fertilizers as a means to reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining high yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg -1 body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing technologies for conditioning the liquid organic radioactive wastes from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, N.; Popescu, I. V.; Teoreanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research (INR)-Pitesti has developed technologies for conditioning liquid organic radioactive wastes (oils, miscellaneous solvent and liquid scintillation cocktail) for Cernavoda NPP. This paper describes the new and viable solidification technology to convert liquid organic radioactive wastes into a stable monolithic form, which minimizes the probability to release tritium in the environment during interim storage, transportation and final disposal. These are normally LLW containing only relatively small quantities of beta/gamma emitting radionuclides and variable amounts of tritium with activity below E+08Bq/l. The INR research staff in the radwaste area developed treatment/conditioning techniques and also designed and tested the containers for the final disposal, following the approach in the management of radwaste related to the nuclear fuel cycle. Thus, the INR focused this type of activity on treating and conditioning the wastes generated at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant consisting of lubricants from primary fuelling machines and turbine, the miscellaneous solvent from decontamination operation and the liquid scintillation cocktail used in radiochemical analysis. Laboratory studies on cementation of liquid organic radioactive wastes have been undertaken at INR Pitesti. One simple system, similar to a conventional cement solidification unit, can treat radioactive liquid wastes, which are the major components of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes generated by a Nuclear Power Plant. It was proved that the solidified waste could meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria of the disposal site, in this case Baita-Bihor National Repository, as follows: - The wastes are deposited in type A packages; - The maximum expected quantities of this waste stream that will be produced in the future are 50 drums per year. The maximum specific tritium activity per drum is 10 9 Bq/m 3 ; - Compressive strengths of the samples should be greater than 50 MPa

  2. Solvent-free directed patterning of a highly ordered liquid crystalline organic semiconductor via template-assisted self-assembly for organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aryeon; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jong Chan; Yi, Mi Hye; Kim, Hanim; Yoon, Dong Ki; Shin, Tae Joo; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Ka, Jae-Won; Kim, Yun Ho

    2013-11-20

    Highly ordered organic semiconductor micropatterns of the liquid-crystalline small molecule 2,7-didecylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C10 -BTBT) are fabricated using a simple method based on template-assisted self-assembly (TASA). The liquid crystallinity of C10 -BTBT allows solvent-free fabrication of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min"−"1 and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  4. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  5. Retention-oxidation-adsorption process for emergent treatment of organic liquid spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Xingwang; Lei, Lecheng

    2011-11-15

    The feasibility and effectiveness of retention-oxidation-adsorption process (ROA) for the elimination of organic contaminants induced by chemical accidents were investigated in this study. Organobentonites (DTMA-, TTA-, CTMA- and OTMA-bentonite), potassium ferrate (Fe(VI)), ozone and granular activated carbon (GAC) were used as rapid and efficient materials in the treatment and recovery of organic liquid spills. Results indicated that the retention capacities of organobentonites (especially CTMA-bentonite) were much higher than that of natural bentonite towards the chosen organic compounds. Additionally, pH, oxidant dosage, initial concentration of contaminant and chemical structure had significant influences on the effectiveness of the oxidation process. In a pilot-scale experiment, the ferrate/GAC (F/G) and ozone/GAC (O/G) processes made a comparatively good performance in the treatment of wastewater containing aniline or nitrobenzene, with the removal efficiencies of the contaminants greater than 80%. Overall, the ROA process showed a high efficiency and steady operation in the removal of hazardous organic liquids and subsequent clean up of the contaminated site. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D Spin-Liquid State in an Organic Hyperkagome Lattice of Mott Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Asato; Shuku, Yoshiaki; Matsushita, Michio M.; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Hara, Yuuki; Wada, Nobuo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Awaga, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    We report the first 3D spin liquid state of isotropic organic spins. Structural analysis, and magnetic and heat-capacity measurements were carried out for a chiral organic radical salt, (TBA) 1.5[(-)-NDI -Δ ] (TBA denotes tetrabutylammonium and NDI denotes naphthalene diimide), in which (-)-NDI -Δ forms a K4 structure due to its triangular molecular structure and an intermolecular π -π overlap between the NDI moieties. This lattice was identical to the hyperkagome lattice of S =1 /2 Mott dimers, and should exhibit 3D spin frustration. In fact, even though the high-temperature magnetic susceptibility followed the Curie-Weiss law with a negative Weiss constant of θ =-15 K , the low-temperature magnetic measurements revealed no long-range magnetic ordering down to 70 mK, and suggested the presence of a spin liquid state with a large residual paramagnetism χ0 of 8.5 ×10-6 emu g-1 at the absolute zero temperature. This was supported by the N 14 NMR measurements down to 0.38 K. Further, the low-temperature heat capacities cp down to 68 mK clearly indicated the presence of cp for the spin liquid state, which can be fitted to the power law of T0.62 in the wide temperature range 0.07-4.5 K.

  7. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H; Elliott, James A

    2014-01-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures. (paper)

  8. Liquid organic scintillator in a polymerizable emulsion, its application to radioactive counting and process for its destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.E.; Krieger, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Scintillation organic liquid mixture for performing very efficient counts on compound solutions labelled with a radioactive indicator containing up to 10% water by volume and which is easily polymerizable into a solid substance, in order to facilitate its elimination. The mixture includes a polymerizable organic solvent, a solubilizing agent, an intermediate solvent and an organic scintillator [fr

  9. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... and high degree of predictability of the theory developed....... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  10. Application of numerical modelling to scaling-up of electrically induced extraction from an organic mixture using an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Kamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction provides an environmentally friendly process as an alternative to azeotropic distillation, pervaporation and reverse osmosis because these techniques require the use of large amounts of energy, may involve volatile organic compounds, and operation at high pressure.

  11. The Impact of Organic Selenium Supplementation on Rooster Semen Quality in Liquid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Ahangari Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to investigate the effects of various levels of dietary organic selenium supplementation (0, 0.1,  0.2 and  0.3 mg/Kg on reproductive traits of rooster. Semen was collected using abdominal massage and samples were mixed together. Sperm characteristics including percentage of motile, viable and abnormal sperms were assessed. This experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design. Results showed that the organic selenium supplementation had significant effects on perm motility and viability in liquid condition (P0.05. In conclusion, the use of  organic selenium supplementation (0.3 mg/Kg in  diet  of  rooster  could  be recommended to improve semen quality.

  12. Soft liquid phase adsorption for fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuri; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report a soft liquid-phase adsorption (SLPA) technique for the fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates using toluene/water emulsions. Wettability-patterned substrates were obtained by the UV-ozone treatment of self-assembled monolayers of silane coupling agents on glass plates using a metal mask. Organic semiconductor polymer films were formed selectively on the hydrophobic part of the wettability-patterned substrates. The thickness of the films fabricated by the SLPA technique is significantly larger than that of the films fabricated by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The film thickness can be controlled by adjusting the volume ratio of toluene to water, immersion angle, immersion temperature, and immersion time. The SLPA technique allows for the direct production of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates with minimized material consumption and reduced number of fabrication steps.

  13. Composition tailoring in the Ce-doped multicomponent garnet epitaxial film scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kučera, M.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Onderišinová, Z.; Hanuš, M.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 3715-3723 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillation * liquid phase epitaxy * photoelectron yield * Ce 3+ * multicomponent garnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.425, year: 2015

  14. Functional organic materials based on polymerized liquid-crystal monomers: supramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees M W; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2012-07-16

    Functional organic materials are of great interest for a variety of applications. To obtain precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals has proven to be an extremely useful tool in the development of well-defined nanostructured materials. We have chosen the illustrative example of photopolymerizable hydrogen-bonding mesogens to show that a wide variety of functional materials can be made from a relatively simple set of building blocks. Upon mixing these compounds with other reactive mesogens, nematic, chiral nematic, and smectic or columnar liquid-crystalline phases can be formed that can be applied as actuators, sensors and responsive reflectors, and nanoporous membranes, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Method to prepare essentially organic waste liquids containing radioactive or toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.; Drobnik, S.H.; Hild, W.; Kroebel, R.; Meyer, A.; Naumann, G.

    1976-01-01

    Waste solutions occuring in nuclear technology containing radioactive or toxic materials can be solidified by mixing with a polymerisable mixture with subsequent polymerization. An improvement of this method, especially for liquids in which the radioactive components are present as organic compounds is achieved by adding a mixture of at least one monomeric vinyl compound, at least one polyvinyl compound and appropriate catalysts and by polymerizing at temperatures between 15 and 150 0 C. Should the waste liquid contain mineral acid, this is first neutralized by the addition of CaO or MgO. In processing oils or soaps, the addition of swelling agent for polystyrol resins is advantageous. 16 examples illustrate the invention. (UWI) [de

  16. Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

    2014-09-26

    Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Anomalous Capacitance Maximum of the Glassy Carbon-Ionic Liquid Interface through Dilution with Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozym, David J; Uralcan, Betül; Limmer, David T; Pope, Michael A; Szamreta, Nicholas J; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2015-07-02

    We use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to measure the effect of diluting a hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid with miscible organic solvents on the differential capacitance of the glassy carbon-electrolyte interface. We show that the minimum differential capacitance increases with dilution and reaches a maximum value at ionic liquid contents near 5-10 mol% (i.e., ∼1 M). We provide evidence that mixtures with 1,2-dichloroethane, a low-dielectric constant solvent, yield the largest gains in capacitance near the open circuit potential when compared against two traditional solvents, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate. To provide a fundamental basis for these observations, we use a coarse-grained model to relate structural variations at the double layer to the occurrence of the maximum. Our results reveal the potential for the enhancement of double-layer capacitance through dilution.

  18. Controlled crosslinking of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate for preparation of organic monolithic columns for capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Mariana R; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Lee, Milton L; Bottoli, Carla B G

    2017-11-01

    Organic monolithic columns based on single crosslinking of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) monomer were prepared in a single step by living/controlled free-radical polymerization. Full optimization of the preparation, such as using different percentages of TRIM and different amounts of radical promoter as well as various porogen solvents were explored. The resulting monolithic columns were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and nitrogen sorption for structure morphology studies and surface area measurements, respectively. Using capillary liquid chromatography, 150 μm i.d. columns were applied to separate a mixture of small hydrophobic molecules. The results indicated that column performance is highly sensitive to the type and the amount of porogen solvents used in the polymerization mixture composition. Good resolution factors and methylene selectivity were obtained, indicating the promising potential of this material for capillary liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. BUFFER CAPACITY IN HETEROGENEOUS MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Spinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative basis of the theory of buffer properties for two-phase acid-base buffer systems and for multicomponent heterogeneous systems has been derived. The analytical equations with respect to all components for diverse multicomponent systems were deduced. It has been established, that the buffer capacities of components are mutually proportional.

  20. New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

  1. The influence of interfacial properties on the two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demond, A.H.; Desai, F.N.; Hayes, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    DOE's waste sites are contaminated with a variety of organic liquids. Because of their low solubility in water, organic liquids such as these will persist as separate liquid phases and be transported as such in the subsurface. Thus, an improved understanding of the factors influencing the movement of a separate organic liquid phase in the subsurface is important to DOE's efforts to control groundwater contamination. Wettability is sometimes cited as the most important factor influencing two-phase flow in porous media. The wetting phase migrates preferentially through the smaller pores, whereas the nonwetting phase is concentrated in the larger pores. Typically, aquifers are thought of as strongly water-wet, implying that the organic liquid preferentially occupies the larger pores. But in fact, that state depends on the properties of the three interfaces of the system: between the organic liquid and water, water and the solid, and the organic liquid and the solid. Characteristics of the system which affect the interfacial properties also impact the wettability, such as the nature of the aquifer solids' surfaces, the composition of the goundwater and the properties of the organic contaminant. The alteration of wettability at DOE waste sites may be dominated by the presence of co-contaminants such as organic acids and bases which behave as surface-active agents or surfactants. Because of their physicochemical nature, surfactants will sorb preferentially at the interfaces of the system, thereby impacting the wettability and the distribution of the liquids in the porous medium. The over-all objective of this research was to determine how changes in interfacial properties affect two-phase flow. Specifically, the objective was to examine the effect of surfactant sorption on capillary pressure relationships by correlating measurements of sorption, zeta potential, interfacial tension and contact angle, with changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationships

  2. Quantum turbulence in cold multicomponent matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, Ivan A.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum vortices are pivotal for understanding of phenomena in quantum hydrodynamics. Vortices were observed in different physical systems like trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, liquid helium, exciton-polariton condensates and other types of systems. Foreign particles attached to the vortices often serve for a visualization of the vortex shape and kinematics in superfluid experiments. Fascinating discoveries were made in the field of cold quantum mixtures, where vortices created in one component may interact with the other component. This works raise the fundamental question of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter. The generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation based formalism is applied here to model three different processes involving the interaction of quantum vortices with foreign particles: propagation of a fast classical particle in a superfluid under the influence of sound waves, scattering of a single fermion by a quantized vortex line and dynamics of vortex pairs doped with heavy bosonic matter. The obtained results allow to to clarify the details of recent experiments and acquire a better understanding of the multicomponent quantum turbulence.

  3. Fructose decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinghua; Lu, Xiuyang; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-09-15

    Biomass continues to be an important candidate as a renewable resource for energy, chemicals, and feedstock. Decomposition of biomass in high temperature liquid water is a promising technique for producing industrially important chemicals such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid with high efficiency. Hexose, which is the hydrolysis product of cellulose, will be one of the most important starting chemicals in the coming society that is highly dependent on biomass. Taking fructose as a model compound, its decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water was studied in the temperature range from 180 C to 220 C under the pressure of 10 MPa to further improve reaction rate and selectivity of the decomposition reactions. The results showed that the reaction rate is greatly enhanced with the addition of organic acids, especially formic acid. The effects of temperature, residence time, organic acids and their concentrations on the conversion of fructose and yield of 5-HMF were investigated. The evaluated apparent activation energies of fructose decomposition are 126.8 {+-} 3.3 kJ mol{sup -1} without any catalyst, 112.0 {+-} 13.7 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with formic acid, and 125.6 {+-} 3.8 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with acetic acid, respectively, which shows no significant difference. (author)

  4. CuS nanoplates from ionic liquid precursors—Application in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohan; Heyne, Benjamin; Abouserie, Ahed; Pries, Christopher; Ippen, Christian; Günter, Christina; Taubert, Andreas; Wedel, Armin

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal p-type semiconductor CuS nanoplates were synthesized via a hot injection method from bis(trimethylsilyl)sulfide and the ionic liquid precursor bis(N-dodecylpyridinium) tetrachloridocuprate(ii). The particles have a broad size distribution with diameters between 30 and 680 nm and well-developed crystal habits. The nanoplates were successfully incorporated into organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells as hole conduction materials. The power conversion efficiency of OPV cells fabricated with the nanoplates is 16% higher than that of a control device fabricated without the nanoplates.

  5. Analysis of organic solvents and liquid mixtures using a fiber-tip evaporation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, Eyal; Donlagic, Denis; Artel, Vlada; Katims, Rachel A.; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Zadok, Avi

    2014-05-01

    The instantaneous size and rate of evaporation of pendant liquid droplets placed on the cleaved facet of a standard fiber are reconstructed based on reflected optical power. Using the evaporation dynamics, the relative contents of ethanol in ethanol-water binary mixtures are assessed with 1% precision and different blends of methanol in gasoline are properly recognized. The latter application, in particular, is significant for the use of alternative fuels in the automotive sector. Also, ten organic solvents are identified based on their evaporation from a fiber facet coated with a hydrophobic, selfassembled monolayer.

  6. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel based on these polymeric films. In particular, the effect of film hydration on device performance is evaluated by studying its electrical response as a function of the spatial position between the electrolyte and the channel electrodes. This is done by depositing a PEDOT:PSS film on a super-hydrophobic surface aimed at controlling the electrolyte confinement next to the electrodes. The device response shows that the confinement of ionic liquids near to the drain electrode results in a worsening of the current modulation. This result has been interpreted in the light of studies dealing with the transport of ions in semiconducting polymers, indicating that the electrolyte adsorption by the polymeric film implies the formation of liquid pathways inside its bulk. These pathways, in particular, affect the device response because they are able to assist the drift of ionic species in the electrolyte towards the drain electrode. The effect of electrolyte adsorption on the device operation is confirmed by means of moving-front measurements, and is related to the reproducibility of the device operation curves by measuring repeatedly its electrical response.

  7. Chlorination of some eliphatic organic compounds in liquid and gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The photochlorination of different organic compounds and the relative slectivities of different positions have been investigated in both gaseous and liquid phases at different temperatures. The results have shown that the relative selectivity generally decreased with increasing temperature and in the gas phase has a higher value. Polar solvents increase the selectivity relative to the chlorination of pure liquid phases. The differences in activation energy between two positions were much higher in the gas phases chlorination, relative to that in the liquid phase. It was also found that the functional groups have great influence on the rate of chlorine free radical attack on different positions, for example the electron withdrawing groups decreasing the selectivity on the first position, but the electron donating groups increase the selectivity on the first position, but the electron donating groups increase the selectivity on the first position. Furthermore it was found that the polar solvents, which stabilize the resonance between oxygen and carbon atoms, increases the selectivity on that position. 23 tabs.; 16 figs.; 50 refs

  8. Performance test of multicomponent quantum mechanical calculation with polarizable continuum model for proton chemical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-05-21

    Multicomponent quantum mechanical (MC_QM) calculations with polarizable continuum model (PCM) have been tested against liquid (1)H NMR chemical shifts for a test set of 80 molecules. Improvement from conventional quantum mechanical calculations was achieved for MC_QM calculations. The advantage of the multicomponent scheme could be attributed to the geometrical change from the equilibrium geometry by the incorporation of the hydrogen nuclear quantum effect, while that of PCM can be attributed to the change of the electronic structure according to the polarization by solvent effects.

  9. Survival analysis of patients with uveal melanoma after organ preserving and liquidation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Grishina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye.Aim: To evaluate survival in patients with uveal melanoma stratified according to the type of treatment and to identify factors significantly associated with their survival.Materials and methods: The study was performed on the data extracted from medical files and follow-up forms of patients with uveal melanoma seen in the Ophthalmological Clinical Hospital of the Department of Healthcare, Moscow, from 1977 to 2012. Analysis of survival was used to assess the life longevity of patients with uveal melanoma. The analysis was censored at January 2013, when vital status (dead or alive of all patients was assessed. The factors included into the study analysis, were those taken from the follow-up forms. The incidence of uveal melanoma in Moscow (2012 was 0.9 per 100,000 of the population, whereas its prevalence was 11.1 per 100,000.Results: 698 patients with uveal melanoma were included into the study, among them 260 (37% men (aged from 19 to 87 years, median age 60 years and 438 (63% women (aged from 18 to 93 years, median age 63 years; therefore, the proportion of women under the follow-up monitoring was by 26% higher than that of men. The liquidation treatment (mostly enucleation was performed in 358 (51% of the patients, whereas the organ preserving treatment in 340 (49%. At 5, 7, and 10 years of the follow-up, the disease-specific survival of patients with uveal melanoma after the organ preserving treatment (median survival has not been reached and after the liquidation treatment (median, 88 months were 89 ± 2, 83 ± 3, and 75 ± 4% versus 63 ± 3, 52 ± 4, and 47 ± 5%, respectively (р = 0.001. Overall survival and disease-specific survival of the patients after the liquidation treatment were significantly lower than in the patients after the organ-preserving treatment. According to multiple regression analysis, this was associated not with the type of

  10. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Back, H. O.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y. K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-08-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of $^{10}$B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on $^{10}$B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57--467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in $dE/dx$ best describes the measurements, with $\\chi^2$/NDF$=1.6$. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  11. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Back, H.O.; Aprahamian, A.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y.K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of 10 B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on 10 B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57–467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in dE / dx best describes the measurements, with χ 2 /NDF=1.6. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  12. Toward protic ionic liquid and organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Usman Ali; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Pringle, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that can operate above 120 °C, without humidification, would be much more commercially viable. ► Protic ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals are showing increasing promise as anhydrous proton conductors in fuel cells. ► Here we review the recent progress in these two areas. - Abstract: There is increasing demand for the development of anhydrous proton conducting electrolytes, most notably to allow the development of fuel cells that can operate at temperatures above 120 °C, without the need for constant and controlled humidification. The emerging field of protic ionic liquids (PILs) represents a promising new direction for this research and the development of these materials has made significant progress in recent years. In a related but as yet little-explored avenue, proton conducting organic ionic plastic crystals offer the potential advantage of providing a solid state matrix for anhydrous proton conductivity. Here we discuss the recent progress in these areas and identify the key challenges for future research.

  13. Basic technology for {sup 6}Li enrichment using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp [Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Terai, Takayuki [The Institute of Engineering Innovation and Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ({sup 6}Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% {sup 6}Li. In this paper, a new lithium isotope separation technique using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is proposed. In order to separate and concentrate lithium isotopes, only lithium ions are able to move through the membrane by electrodialysis between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. Preliminary experiments of lithium isotope separation were conducted using this phenomenon. Organic membranes impregnated with TMPA-TFSI and PP13-TFSI as ionic liquids were prepared, and the relationship between the {sup 6}Li separation coefficient and the applied electrodialytic conditions was evaluated using them. The results showed that the {sup 6}Li isotope separation coefficient in this method (about 1.1-1.4) was larger than that in the mercury amalgam method (about 1.06).

  14. Marangoni Convection in Evaporating Organic Liquid Droplets on a Nonwetting Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Aditya; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A; Chen, Xuemei; Garimella, Suresh V

    2016-05-17

    We quantitatively characterize the flow field inside organic liquid droplets evaporating on a nonwetting substrate. A mushroom-structured surface yields the desired nonwetting behavior with methanol droplets, while use of a cooled substrate (5-15 °C) slows the rate of evaporation to allow quasi-static particle image velocimetry. Visualization reveals a toroidal vortex within the droplet that is characteristic of surface tension-driven flow; we demonstrate by means of a scaling analysis that this recirculating flow is Marangoni convection. The velocities in the droplet are on the order of 10-45 mm/s. Thus, unlike in the case of evaporation on wetting substrates where Marangoni convection can be ignored for the purpose of estimating the evaporation rate, advection due to the surface tension-driven flow plays a dominant role in the heat transfer within an evaporating droplet on a nonwetting substrate because of the large height-to-radius aspect ratio of the droplet. We formulate a reduced-order model that includes advective transport within the droplet for prediction of organic liquid droplet evaporation on a nonwetting substrate and confirm that the predicted temperature differential across the height of the droplet matches experiments.

  15. Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Lookman, T.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory

  16. Synthesis of liquid crystals derived from nitroazobenzene: a proposed multistep synthesis applied to organic chemistry laboratory classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Rodrigo; Cabral, Marilia Gabriela B.; Aquino, Rafael B. de; Cristiano, Claudia M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a synthetic route consisting of five steps from aniline to obtain liquid crystal compounds derived from nitroazobenzene. Syntheses were performed during the second half of the semester in organic chemistry laboratory classes. Students characterized the liquid crystal phase by the standard melting point techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. These experiments allow undergraduate students to explore fundamentally important reactions in Organic Chemistry, as well as modern concepts in Chemistry such as self-assembly and self-organization, nanostructured materials and molecular electronics. (author)

  17. Evaluating analytical ionization quenching correction models for 3D liquid organic scintillator detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, F.; Beddar, S.

    2017-05-01

    Proton therapy offers dosimetric advantage over conventional photon therapy due to the finite range of the proton beam, which improves dose conformity. However, one of the main challenges of proton beam therapy is verification of the complex treatment plans delivered to a patient. Thus, 3D measurements are needed to verify the complex dose distribution. A 3D organic scintillator detector is capable of such measurements. However, organic scintillators exhibit a non-linear relation to the ionization density called ionization quenching. The ionization quenching phenomenon in organic scintillators must be accounted for to obtain accurate dose measurements. We investigated the energy deposition by secondary electrons (EDSE) model to explain ionization quenching in 3D liquid organic scintillator when exposed to proton beams. The EDSE model was applied to volumetric scintillation measurement of proton pencil beam with energies of 85.6, 100.9, 144.9 and 161.9 MeV. The quenching parameter in EDSE model ρq was determined by plotting the total light output vs the initial energy of the ion. The results were compared to the Birks semi-empirical formula of scintillation light emission.

  18. Generalized modeling of multi-component vaporization/condensation phenomena for multi-phase-flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Fukuda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Kondo, Sa.; Suzuki, T.; Maschek, W.

    2003-01-01

    A new multi-component vaporization/condensation (V/C) model was developed to provide a generalized model for safety analysis codes of liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs). These codes simulate thermal-hydraulic phenomena of multi-phase, multi-component flows, which is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents of LMRs such as fast breeder reactors and accelerator driven systems. The developed model characterizes the V/C processes associated with phase transition by employing heat transfer and mass-diffusion limited models for analyses of relatively short-time-scale multi-phase, multi-component hydraulic problems, among which vaporization and condensation, or simultaneous heat and mass transfer, play an important role. The heat transfer limited model describes the non-equilibrium phase transition processes occurring at interfaces, while the mass-diffusion limited model is employed to represent effects of non-condensable gases and multi-component mixture on V/C processes. Verification of the model and method employed in the multi-component V/C model of a multi-phase flow code was performed successfully by analyzing a series of multi-bubble condensation experiments. The applicability of the model to the accident analysis of LMRs is also discussed by comparison between steam and metallic vapor systems. (orig.)

  19. Phase behavior of multicomponent membranes: Experimental and computational techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Kumar, P.B. Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in biology seems to indicate that the Fluid Mosaic model of membrane proposed by Singer and Nicolson, with lipid bilayer functioning only as medium to support protein machinery, may be too simple to be realistic. Many protein functions are now known to depend on the compositio....... This review includes basic foundations on membrane model systems and experimental approaches applied in the membrane research area, stressing on recent advances in the experimental and computational techniques....... membranes. Current increase in interest in the domain formation in multicomponent membranes also stems from the experiments demonstrating liquid ordered-liquid disordered coexistence in mixtures of lipids and cholesterol and the success of several computational models in predicting their behavior...

  20. Technical feasibility study for the electrochemical treatment of Phaeozem soil contaminated with radioactive organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdovinos G, V.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine and research generates radioactive waste. A large part of these wastes are composed by scintillation liquid (mixtures of organic solvents, as toluene and xylene, fluorescent materials and surfactants) contaminated with radioisotopes such as 3 H (12.3 y), 14 C (5730 y), 238 U (4.468 x 10 9 y), 232 Th (1.41 x 10 10 y), 204 Tl (3.7 y) or 22 Na (2.6 y). In Mexico during the 80 s, these wastes were absorbed on soil to decrease their hazardous behavior during interim storage. However, these wastes must be removed for reprocessing and final landscaping. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to study the technical feasibility of the electrochemical treatment of soils types Phaeozem contaminated with radioactive organic liquid waste (ROLW). For this study, an electrochemical treatment at laboratory level was applied, giving it an electrokinetic tracking. Control samples were prepared with different scintillation liquid (INSTAL Gel- XF, ULTIMA Gold AB TM and ULTIMA Gold XR TM as support electrolyte and polarization curves were constructed to select the current with the highest mass transfer. An analysis of the liquids and solids, before and after the application of the different potentials; the liquid phase was characterized by Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionized Detector (GC-FID) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Ft-Irs), and the solids by Ft-Irs. From the fourteen supports electrolytes studied, eleven did not have a stable diffusion current and the other three showed a diffusion current plateau in 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 m A·cm -2 . From polarization curves, the following experimental conditions were chosen for the treatment: electrodes (meshes of titanium as anode and rod of stainless steel as cathode), scintillation liquid (ULTIMA Gold XR TM : water, 1:1) and a current of 0.06 m A·cm -2 . Subsequently, radioactive control samples were prepared with soil-scintillation liquid, labeled with 24 Na, 99m Tc

  1. The multi-component WKI hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Firstly a new loop algebra G∼ M with 3M dimensions is constructed, which is devoted to establishing a new isospectral problem. Then the multi-component WKI hierarchy of soliton equations is obtained

  2. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Abstract. In this paper, we discuss the fascinating energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons in certain incoherently coupled and coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations arising in the context of nonlinear optics.

  3. Process and apparatus for fractionating close-boiling components of a multi-component system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, U.

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus are described for the fractionation of close-boiling components of a multi-component system comprising at least two fractionation columns A, B in series having a plurality of equilibrium stages in which the vapor stream from a downstream fractionation column B is compressed by a compressor and passed into a lower portion of a preceding fractionation column A and a liquid bottom stream from any one of said columns except the last is expanded by an orifice sufficiently to convey the resulting liquid-vapor mixture to the upper portion of the next fractionation column B. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the compressed overhead vapor stream is passed in heat transfer relationship to a liquid stream withdrawn from the preceding fractionation column A prior to introduction into the lower portion of such preceding fractionation column A. In one of the claims, the multi-component close-boiling system is a deuterium oxide-water solution. (author)

  4. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of ''125 I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J.M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''125 I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%

  5. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of 125I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''I25I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%. (Author) 14 refs

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC MENTAL DISORDERS OF VASCULAR ORIGIN WITH PARTICIPANTS OF THE LIQUIDATION OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of the carried investigation of participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences, suffering from organic disease of a brain of a vascular origin with mental infringements, and patients with the similar pathology, not exposed with radiating influence, revealed a number of the сlinico- psychopathological and paraclinical peculiarities testifying heavier current of disease among liquidators, forming a chronic ischemic condition of a brain, and the atrophy phenomena among mentioned group.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC MENTAL DISORDERS OF VASCULAR ORIGIN WITH PARTICIPANTS OF THE LIQUIDATION OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Rumyantseva; T. M. Levina; O. V. Chinkina

    2011-01-01

    The result of the carried investigation of participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences, suffering from organic disease of a brain of a vascular origin with mental infringements, and patients with the similar pathology, not exposed with radiating influence, revealed a number of the сlinico- psychopathological and paraclinical peculiarities testifying heavier current of disease among liquidators, forming a chronic ischemic condition of a brain, and the atrophy phenomena among...

  8. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  9. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Varadhan, Purushothaman; He, Jr-Hau; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  10. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed

    2017-05-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  11. Recent advances in the chemistry of Rh carbenoids: multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, J J; Nikolaev, V A

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions of diazo compounds catalyzed by Rh II complexes become a powerful tool for organic synthesis. They enable three- or four-step processes to be carried out as one-pot procedures (actually as one step) with high stereoselectivity to give complex organic molecules, including biologically active compounds. This review addresses recent results in the chemistry of Rh-catalyzed multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds with the intermediate formation of N-, O- and C=O–ylides. The diastereo- and enantioselectivity of these reactions and the possibility of using various co-catalysts to increase the efficiency of the processes under consideration are discussed. The bibliography includes 120 references

  12. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.

    2014-03-07

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  13. Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis

  14. Vaporization of protic ionic liquids derived from organic superbases and short carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Filipe M S; Lima, Carlos F R A C; Vaz, Inês C M; Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Sapei, Erlin; Melo, André; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2017-06-28

    This work presents a comprehensive evaluation of the phase behaviour and cohesive enthalpy of protic ionic liquids (PILs) composed of 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN) or 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) organic superbases with short-chain length (acetic, propionic and butyric) carboxylic acids. Glass transition temperatures, T g , and enthalpies of vaporization, ΔH vap , were measured for six [BH][A] (1 : 1) PILs (B = DBN, DBU; A = MeCOO, EtCOO, nPrCOO), revealing more significant changes upon increasing the number of -CH 2 - groups in the base than in the acid. The magnitude of ΔH vap evidences that liquid PILs have a high proportion of ions, although the results also indicate that in DBN PILs the concentration of neutral species is not negligible. In the gas phase, these PILs exist as a distribution of ion pairs and isolated neutral species, with speciation being dependent on the temperature and pressure conditions - at high temperatures and low pressures the separated neutral species dominate. The higher T g and ΔH vap of the DBU PILs are explained by the stronger basicity of DBU (as supported by NMR and computational calculations), which increases the extent of proton exchange and the ionic character of the corresponding PILs, resulting in stronger intermolecular interactions in condensed phases.

  15. Nanoscale organization in the fluorinated room temperature ionic liquid: Tetraethyl ammonium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(nonafluorobutylsulfonyl)imide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Celso, F.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Jafta, C. J.; Gontrani, L.; Canongia Lopes, J. N.; Triolo, A.; Russina, O.

    2018-05-01

    Fluorinated Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (FRTILs) are a branch of ionic liquids that is the object of growing interest for a wide range of potential applications, due to the synergic combination of specifically ionic features and those properties that stem from fluorous tails. So far limited experimental work exists on the micro- and mesoscopic structural organization in this class of compounds. Such a work is however necessary to fully understand morphological details at atomistic level that would have strong implications in terms of bulk properties. Here we use the synergy between X-ray and neutron scattering together with molecular dynamics simulations to access structural details of a technologically relevant FRTIL that is characterised by an anion bearing a long enough fluorinated tail to develop specific morphological features. In particular, we find the first experimental evidence that in FRTILs bearing an asymmetric bis(perfluoroalkyl)sulfonyl-imide anion, fluorous side chains tend to be spatially segregated into nm-scale spatial heterogeneities. This feature together with the well-established micro-segregation of side alkyl chains in conventional RTILs leads to the concept of triphilic ILs, whose technological applications are yet to be fully developed.

  16. Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) assessment of critical component unavailability in liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koger, K.H.; Haire, M.J.; Humphrys, B.L.; Manneschmidt, J.F.; Setoguchi, K.; Nakai, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO data base contains information on a population of more than 20,000 components and approximately 1500 event records. A conservative estimation is that the total component operating hours is approaching 2.2 billion hours. The work reported here focuses on the availability information contained in CREDO and the development of availability critical items lists. That is, individual components are ranked in prioritized lists from worst to best performers from an availability standpoint. Availability as used here is an inherent characteristics of the component and is not necessarily related to plant operability. A major observation is that a few components have a much higher unavailability factor than the average. The top fifteen components contribute 93%, 77%, and 87% of the total system unavailability for EBR-II, FFTF, and JOYO respectively. Critical components common to all three sites are mechanical pumps and electromagnetic pumps. Application of resources to these components with the highest unavailability will have the greatest effect on overall availability. All three sites demonstrate that low maintainability (i.e., long repair times), rather than unreliability (i.e., high failure rates), are the main contributors, by about a two-to-one margin, to liquid metal system unavailability

  17. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes; Caracterizacion de desechos liquidos organicos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C., E-mail: ivonne-arce@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  18. Hybrid glasses from strong and fragile metal-organic framework liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Thomas D; Tan, Jin-Chong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Baxter, Emma; Ducati, Caterina; Terrill, Nick J; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Zhou, Zhongfu; Chen, Wenlin; Henke, Sebastian; Cheetham, Anthony K; Greaves, G Neville

    2015-08-28

    Hybrid glasses connect the emerging field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the glass formation, amorphization and melting processes of these chemically versatile systems. Though inorganic zeolites collapse around the glass transition and melt at higher temperatures, the relationship between amorphization and melting has so far not been investigated. Here we show how heating MOFs of zeolitic topology first results in a low density 'perfect' glass, similar to those formed in ice, silicon and disaccharides. This order-order transition leads to a super-strong liquid of low fragility that dynamically controls collapse, before a subsequent order-disorder transition, which creates a more fragile high-density liquid. After crystallization to a dense phase, which can be remelted, subsequent quenching results in a bulk glass, virtually identical to the high-density phase. We provide evidence that the wide-ranging melting temperatures of zeolitic MOFs are related to their network topologies and opens up the possibility of 'melt-casting' MOF glasses.

  19. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  20. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Simonetti, Dante A [Middleton, WI; Kunkes, Edward L [Madison, WI

    2011-12-13

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  1. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  2. All-organic superhydrophobic coatings with mechanochemical robustness and liquid impalement resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaoyi; Chen, Zhuyang; Tiwari, Manish K.

    2018-03-01

    Superhydrophobicity is a remarkable evolutionary adaption manifested by several natural surfaces. Artificial superhydrophobic coatings with good mechanical robustness, substrate adhesion and chemical robustness have been achieved separately. However, a simultaneous demonstration of these features along with resistance to liquid impalement via high-speed drop/jet impact is challenging. Here, we describe all-organic, flexible superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings that demonstrate strong mechanical robustness under cyclic tape peels and Taber abrasion, sustain exposure to highly corrosive media, namely aqua regia and sodium hydroxide solutions, and can be applied to surfaces through scalable techniques such as spraying and brushing. In addition, the mechanical flexibility of our coatings enables impalement resistance to high-speed drops and turbulent jets at least up to 35 m s-1 and a Weber number of 43,000. With multifaceted robustness and scalability, these coatings should find potential usage in harsh chemical engineering as well as infrastructure, transport vehicles and communication equipment.

  3. A novel series of isoreticular metal organic frameworks: Realizing metastable structures by liquid phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxuan

    2012-12-04

    A novel class of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized from Cu-acetate and dicarboxylic acids using liquid phase epitaxy. The SURMOF-2 isoreticular series exhibits P4 symmetry, for the longest linker a channel-size of 3 3 nm2 is obtained, one of the largest values reported for any MOF so far. High quality, ab-initio electronic structure calculations confirm the stability of a regular packing of (Cu++) 2-carboxylate paddle-wheel planes with P4 symmetry and reveal, that the SURMOF-2 structures are in fact metastable, with a fairly large activation barrier for the transition to the bulk MOF-2 structures exhibiting a lower, twofold (P2 or C2) symmetry. The theoretical calculations also allow identifying the mechanism for the low-temperature epitaxial growth process and to explain, why a synthesis of this highly interesting, new class of high-symmetry, metastable MOFs is not possible using the conventional solvothermal process.

  4. A novel series of isoreticular metal organic frameworks: Realizing metastable structures by liquid phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxuan; Lukose, Binit; Shekhah, Osama; Arslan, Hasan Kemal; Weidler, Peter; Gliemann, Hartmut; Brä se, Stefan; Grosjean, Sylvain; Godt, Adelheid; Feng, Xinliang; Mü llen, Klaus; Magdau, Ioan-Bogdan; Heine, Thomas; Wö ll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    A novel class of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized from Cu-acetate and dicarboxylic acids using liquid phase epitaxy. The SURMOF-2 isoreticular series exhibits P4 symmetry, for the longest linker a channel-size of 3 3 nm2 is obtained, one of the largest values reported for any MOF so far. High quality, ab-initio electronic structure calculations confirm the stability of a regular packing of (Cu++) 2-carboxylate paddle-wheel planes with P4 symmetry and reveal, that the SURMOF-2 structures are in fact metastable, with a fairly large activation barrier for the transition to the bulk MOF-2 structures exhibiting a lower, twofold (P2 or C2) symmetry. The theoretical calculations also allow identifying the mechanism for the low-temperature epitaxial growth process and to explain, why a synthesis of this highly interesting, new class of high-symmetry, metastable MOFs is not possible using the conventional solvothermal process.

  5. Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1, whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane.

  6. Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wencai; Wöll, Christof; Heinke, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1), whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane.

  7. CO2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-05-31

    This report outlines the comprehensive bench-scale testing of the CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) solvent platform and its unique Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study outlines all efforts on a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule, including solvent synthesis, material characterization, preliminary toxicology studies, and measurement of all physical, thermodynamic and kinetic data, including bench-scale testing. Equilibrium and kinetic models and analysis were made using Aspen Plus™. Preliminary process configurations, a technoeconomic assessment and solvent performance projections for separating CO2 from a subcritical coal-fired power plant are compared to the U.S. Department of Energy's Case 10 monoethanolamine baseline.

  8. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  9. Biochemistry Oxidation Process for Treatment the Simulation of Organic Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunandjar; Zainus Salimin; Sugeng Purnomo; Ratiko

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear industry activities generate the organic liquid wastes such as detergent waste from laundry, solvent waste of 30% TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) in kerosene from purification or recovery of uranium from rejection of nuclear fuel element fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) and TOPO (trioctyl phospine oxide) in kerosene from phosphoric acid purification. The wastes are included in category of the hazard and poison materials which also radioactive, so that the wastes have to be treated to detoxification of the hazard and poison materials and decontamination of the radionuclides. The research of biochemistry oxidation process for treatment the simulation of organic liquid radioactive waste from laundry using mixture of aerobe bacteria of bacillus sp, pseudomonas sp, arthrobacter sp, and aeromonas sp have been carried out. The waste containing detergent 1,496 g/Litre, activity 10 -1 Ci/m 3 , with COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 128, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 68 and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) 1000 ppm, it is treated by biochemistry oxidation with addition of bacteria which be fed nutrition of nitrogen and phosphor, and aeration. The result show that the bacteria can decompose the detergent to become carbon dioxyde and water so that can fulfill the quality standard of water group-B with content of BOD and COD are 6 and 10 ppm respectively, the time of decomposition is needed 106 hours to be fulfill the quality standard of water. The longer of process time will give bigger the total solid content in sludge, because the biomass generated from the colony of bacteria which life and dead to so much. (author)

  10. Polystyrene-block-Poly(ionic liquid) Copolymers as Work Function Modifiers in Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Baek; Isik, Mehmet; Park, Hea Jung; Jung, In Hwan; Mecerreyes, David; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2018-02-07

    Interfacial layers play a critical role in building up the Ohmic contact between electrodes and functional layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. These layers are based on either inorganic oxides (ZnO and TiO 2 ) or water-soluble organic polymers such as poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)-alt-(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE). In this work, we have developed a series of novel poly(ionic liquid) nonconjugated block copolymers for improving the performance of inverted OPV cells by using them as work function modifiers of the indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode. Four nonconjugated polyelectrolytes (n-CPEs) based on polystyrene and imidazolium poly(ionic liquid) (PSImCl) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The ratio of hydrophobic/hydrophilic block copolymers was varied depending on the ratio of polystyrene to the PSImCl block. The ionic density, which controls the work function of the electrode by forming an interfacial dipole between the electrode and the block copolymers, was easily tuned by simply changing the PSImCl molar ratio. The inverted OPV device with the ITO/PS 29 -b-PSImCl 60 cathode achieved the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.55% among the synthesized block copolymers, exhibiting an even higher PCE than that of the reference OPV device with PEIE (7.30%). Furthermore, the surface properties of the block copolymers films were investigated by contact angle measurements to explore the influence of the controlled hydrophobic/hydrophilic characters on the device performances.

  11. Chromatographic behavior of small organic compounds in low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography using liquid carbon dioxide as the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motono, Tomohiro; Nagai, Takashi; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    Low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography, in which a loop injector, column, and detection cell were refrigerated at -35ºC, using liquid carbon dioxide as the mobile phase was developed. Small organic compounds (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, and quinones) were separated by low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography at temperatures from -35 to -5ºC. The combination of liquid carbon dioxide mobile phase with an octadecyl-silica (C18 ) column provided reversed phase mode separation, and a bare silica-gel column resulted in normal phase mode separation. In both the cases, nonlinear behavior at approximately -15ºC was found in the relationship between the temperature and the retention factors of the analytes (van't Hoff plots). In contrast to general trends in high-performance liquid chromatography, the decrease in temperature enhanced the separation efficiency of both the columns. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A multi-component matrix loop algebra and a unified expression of the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the multi-component BPT hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, which is devote to obtaining a new loop algebra A-bar M-1 . It follows that an isospectral problem is established. By making use of Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multi-component hierarchy of soliton equations is generated, which possesses the bi-Hamiltonian structures. As its reduction cases, the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the formalism of the multi-component BPT hierarchy are given, respectively

  13. Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Multicomponent Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, Lila; Viitanen, Petrus; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2008-02-01

    Earlier we have reported on developing DS releasing bioabsorbable rods for inhibition of osteolysis [l]. Due to their unsatisfactory drug release profiles we assessed the use of sintering technique of enhancement of drug release in the current study. Melt extruded PLGA 80/20 rods were compounded 8 wt-% DS. Some rods were self reinforced (SR) and some of them were sterilized to get three different components with different drug release profiles. Different rods were sintered together with heat and pressure. Three different specimen groups with different construction were studied. Thermal properties were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes of IV were performed with capillary analysis and drug release measurements with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Mechanical strength were measured two weeks, when disintegration occurred. Release rate consisted of 1) sharp jump start peak, 2) second smoother peak, and 3) third smooth peak. Released DS concentrations reached local therapeutic levels and maintained at that stage for 24-36 days. All DS was released during 50-70 days. The drug release from multicomponent implant was more stable and commenced earlier than from initial rods. Such properties were favored ones. Initial shear strength was 82 MPa and it decreased to 15 MPa. The mechanical bonding was sufficient although the components disintegrated relatively fast. By sintering different PLGA/DS components with different release rates it is possible to construct a truly controlled release implant for bone fixation with anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2018-03-01

    Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.

  15. APPLICATIONS LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND COMPOSITION OF PLANT MEDIA TO RESULT OF SELADA PLANTS (Lactuca sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:           Lettuce (lactuca sativa is a vegetable that has a very high economic value. Where this plant can be grown in temperate and tropical regions, Lettuce production is still low, then this plant needs to be given fertilizer treatment. One of the fertilizer that can be used is liquid organic fertilizer. Liquid Organic Fertilizer has several benefits such as to encourage and increase the growth and yield of plants.             Objective: To know the effect of combination of planting media composition and liquid organic fertilizer to growth and yield of lettuce crop; To know the influence of plant plant composition on growth and yield of lettuce plant; To know the effect of liquid organic fertilizer on growth and yield of lettuce plant.            The experiment was conducted in experimental garden of Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Merdeka Surabaya Jl.Ketintang Madya VII / 2 Surabaya, with the space 0-20 meters above sea level.      This research is a pot experiment and is a two factor factorial research with Randomized Block Design (RAK, the first factor is Liquid Organic Fertilizer with 3 levels and the second factor is the composition of planting media with 4 levels. Where Factor I: liquid organic fertilizer consisting of: P1: 1 ml / plant; P2: 2 ml / plant; P3: 3 ml / plant, Factor II: planting medium consisting of 4 (four levels, namely: M1: soil + manure + rice husk: 2: 1: 1; M2: soil + manure + rice husk: 1: 1: 1; M3: ground + manure + sand: 2: 1: 1; M4: ground + manure + sand: 1: 1: 1, treatment repeated 3 times and each treatment there are 2 plant samples, so the number of plants as much 72 or 72 polybag.Based on the results of research conducted, it can be concluded as follows:1. POC concentration factor (P showed significant influence on all variables studied such as leaf number, plant length and wet weight of plant.2. The media composition factor (M showed a nonsignificant effect

  16. Room-temperature solid phase ionic liquid (RTSPIL) coated Ω-transaminases: Development and application in organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabner, B.; Nazario, M. A.; Gundersen, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co‐lyophilization and ......ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co...

  17. Air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction using floating organic droplet solidification for simultaneous extraction and spectrophotometric determination of some drugs in biological samples through chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farnaz; Ghasemzadeh, Bahar; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2018-01-01

    An air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction by applying the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFOD) coupled with a multivariate calibration method, namely partial least squares (PLS), was introduced for the fast and easy determination of Atenolol (ATE), Propanolol (PRO) and Carvedilol (CAR) in biological samples via a spectrophotometric approach. The analytes would be extracted from neutral aqueous solution into 1-dodecanol as an organic solvent, using AALLME. In this approach a low-density solvent with a melting point close to room temperature was applied as the extraction solvent. The emulsion was immediately formed by repeatedly pulling in and pushing out the aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent mixture via a 10-mL glass syringe for ten times. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be simply collected from the aqueous samples by solidifying the emulsion at a lower than the melting point temperature. In the next step, analytes were back extracted simultaneously into the acidic aqueous solution. Derringer and Suich multi-response optimization were utilized for simultaneous optimizing the parameters of three analytes. This method incorporates the benefits of AALLME and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction considering the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFOD). Calibration graphs under optimized conditions were linear in the range of 0.30-6.00, 0.32-2.00 and 0.30-1.40 μg mL- 1 for ATE, CAR and PRO, respectively. Other analytical parameters were obtained as follows: enrichment factors (EFs) were found to be 11.24, 16.55 and 14.90, and limits of detection (LODs) were determined to be 0.09, 0.10 and 0.08 μg mL- 1 for ATE, CAR and PRO, respectively. The proposed method will require neither a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly.

  18. PEG1000-Based Dicationic Acidic Ionic Liquid Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of 4-Aryl-3-Methyl-1-Phenyl-1H-Benzo[h]pyrazolo [3,4-b]quinoline-5,10-Diones via Multicomponent Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Ren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel and green approach for efficient and rapid synthesis of 4-aryl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-benzo[h]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-5,10-diones has been accomplished by the one-pot condensation reaction of aromatic aldehydes, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione using PEG1000-based dicationic acidic ionic liquid (PEG1000-DAIL as a catalyst was reported. Recycling studies have shown that the PEG1000-DAIL can be readily recovered and reused several times without significant loss of activity. The key advantages are the short reaction time, high yields, simple workup, and recovered catalyst.

  19. Utilization Of Golden Snail As Alternative Liquid Organic Fertilizer LOF On Paddy Farmers In Dairi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Golden snail Pomaceae canaliculata is a pest of rice plants and used as a food source to be processed into satay seasoning spices biscuits pastry candy crackers animal feed and fertilizer. In Lae Parira village the golden snail is very diverse. Because of this reason the preliminary study and utilization of golden snail used for of liquid organic fertilizer called LOF or and microorganisms local MOL. The golden snail is obtained from a livestock that is still alive and then washed boiled and removed from its shell. The golden snail meat is cut into small pieces separated from the intestine and other visceral organs. Flesh of golden snail give coconut water dilute brown sugar EM4 and fermentation until 10-14 days. The use of mashed LOF can be sprayed on the surface of the soil or all parts of the plant. For fertilization in rice plants the recommended dose of 250 ml15 liters of water is sprayed on the rice age 10 days after planting and repeated again at interval distance of 15 days. Fertilization on the plant recommended 200ml 15 liters of water sprayed on leaves and soil 7 days after planting and repeated every 7 days. The golden snail is potensial used for fertilizer in paddy plantation environmentally.

  20. Liquid–liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS occurs at high relative humidity (RH (greater than  ∼  95 % in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than  ∼  95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  1. Selective Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Soil Using Pressurised Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the application of sorbents in pressurised liquid extraction (PLE cell to establish a selective extraction of a variety of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, phenol, pentachlorophenol, and sterols from soil. The selectivity and efficiency of each sorbent depend on the properties of the material, extracting solvent, capacity factor, organic compounds of interest, and PLE operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and extraction time. Several sorbents (silica, alumina, and Florisil were evaluated and with the proper choice of solvents, polar and nonpolar compounds were successfully separated in two fractions. Nonpolar compounds (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, and pentachlorophenol were recovered in the first fraction using a polar sorbent such as Florisil or alumina, and n-hexane as eluting solvent, while more polar compounds (phenol and sterols were recovered in the second fraction using methanol. Silica (5 g was found to be effective for selective extraction with the satisfactory recoveries for all compounds (PAHs from 87.1–96.2%, chlorpyrifos 102.9%, sterols from 93.7–100.5%, phenol 91.9%, and pentachlorophenol 106.2%. The efficiency and precision of this extraction approach and the existing EPA Method 3545 were compared.

  2. Use of liquid scintillation counting for quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds in batch isotherm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    An estimate of how rapidly hazardous wastes move through subsurface soils via ground water is important to predict the location and concentration of the contaminant plume vs. time. The contaminated ground water system may be viewed as an HPLC column with the organic components of the waste in adsorption/desorption equilibrium with the subsurface soil. The batch isotherm method was chosen to determine the equilibrium constant between trichloroethylene, o-dichlorobenzene, 1-methyl naphthalene and aquifer materials obtained from various locations around the country. Liquid Scintillation counting has been found to be an excellent technique for batch isotherm analysis; using 14C labeled compounds, it affords unattended analysis, accuracy at very low concentrations and rapid data reduction. Ten ml serum containing about 5 ml water and a known weight of soil (approximately 2 grams) were spiked with the labeled solution to yield organic solute concentrations in the range of 0.02-1.0 mg/1. Six different concentrations were used. After spiking, the bottles were filled to the top with water and crimp sealed with teflon coated septa. All soil containing bottles were then rotated at 50 rpm and 22 degrees Celsius. Twenty-four hours later the bottles were uncapped and a 1.4 ml aliquot was removed and placed in scintillation cocktail and counted

  3. Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Activation Energy of Selected Organic Liquids using Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatographic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalisanni Khalid; Rashid Atta Khan; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation of vaporize organic liquid has ecological consequences when the compounds are introduced into both freshwater and marine environments through industrial effluents, or introduced directly into the air from industrial unit processes such as bioreactors and cooling towers. In such cases, a rapid and simple method are needed to measure physicochemical properties of the organic liquids. The Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) sampling technique is an easy, fast and accurate procedure. It was used to measure the diffusion coefficients of vapors from liquid into a carrier gas and at the same time to determine the rate coefficients for the evaporation of the respective liquid. The mathematical expression describing the elution curves of the samples peaks was derived and used to calculate the respective parameters for the selected liquid pollutants selected such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-hexadecane, evaporating into the carrier gas of nitrogen. The values of diffusion coefficients found were compared with those calculated theoretically or reported in the literature. The values of evaporation rate were used to determine the activation energy of respective samples using Arrhenius equation. An interesting finding of this work is by using an alternative mathematical analysis based on equilibrium at the liquid-gas interphase, the comparison leads to profound agreement between theoretical values of diffusion coefficients and experimental evidence. (author)

  4. Precipitation of thin-film organic single crystals by a novel crystal growth method using electrospray and ionic liquid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Keita; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    We report an organic single crystal growth technique, which uses a nonvolatile liquid thin film as a crystal growth field and supplies fine droplets containing solute from the surface of the liquid thin film uniformly and continuously by electrospray deposition. Here, we investigated the relationships between the solute concentration of the supplied solution and the morphology and size of precipitated crystals for four types of fluorescent organic low molecule material [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD), N,N‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N‧-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), and N,N-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)] using an ionic liquid as the nonvolatile liquid. As the concentration of the supplied solution decreased, the morphology of precipitated crystals changed from dendritic or leaf shape to platelike one. At the solution concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, relatively large platelike single crystals with a diagonal length of over 100 µm were obtained for all types of material. In the experiment using ionic liquid and dioctyl sebacate as nonvolatile liquids, it was confirmed that there is a clear positive correlation between the maximum volume of the precipitated single crystal and the solubility of solute under the same solution supply conditions.

  5. Ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet for determination of three antifungal drugs in water and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddin, Maryam; Shojaie, Mehran; Abdi, Khosrou; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-01

    A novel ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet (UAAD-LLM-SFO) followed by HPLC-UV detection was developed for the analysis of three antifungal drugs in water and biological samples. In this method, 1-dodecanol was used as the extraction solvent. The emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of sample solution and extraction solvent for 5 times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe while sonication was performed. Therefore, an organic dispersive solvent required in common microextraction methods was not used in the proposed method. After dispersing, an aliquot of acetonitrile was introduced as a demulsifier solvent into the sample solution to separate two phases. Therefore, some additional steps, such as the centrifugation, ultrasonication, or agitation of the sample solution, are not needed. Parameters influencing the extraction recovery were investigated. The proposed method showed a good linearity for the three antifungal drugs studied with the correlation coefficients (R 2  > 0.9995). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of the quantification (LOQs) were between 0.01-0.03 μg L -1 and 0.03-0.08 μg L -1 , respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were in the range of 107-116, respectively. The precisions, as the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 5), for inter-day and intra-day analysis were in the range of 2.1-4.5% and 6.5-8.5%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to determine the three antifungal drugs in tap water and biological samples. The recoveries of antifungal drugs in these samples were 92.4-98.5%. Graphical abstract Ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet for the analysis of three antifungal drugs prior HPLC-UV.

  6. Reactivity of liquid and semisolid secondary organic carbon with chloride and nitrate in atmospheric aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingbing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); O' Brien, Rachel E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Kelly, Stephen T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shilling, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moffet, Ryan C. [Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Gilles, Mary K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Laskin, Alexander [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a significant mass fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Interactions between SOC and other condensed-phase species are not well understood. Here, we investigate the reactions of liquid-like and semi-solid SOC from ozonolysis of limonene (LSOC) and α-pinene (PSOC) with NaCl using a set of complementary micro-spectroscopic analyses. These reactions result in chloride depletion in the condensed phase, release of gaseous HCl, and formation of organic salts. The reactions attributed to acid displacement by SOC acidic components are driven by the high volatility of HCl. Similar reactions can take place in SOC/NaNO₃ particles. The results show that an increase in SOC mass fraction in the internally mixed SOC/NaCl particles leads to higher chloride depletion. Glass transition temperatures and viscosity of PSOC were estimated for atmospherically relevant conditions. Data show that the reaction extent depends on SOC composition, particle phase state and viscosity, mixing state, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and reaction time. LSOC shows slightly higher potential to deplete chloride than PSOC. Higher particle viscosity at low temperatures and RH can hinder these acid displacement reactions. Formation of organic salts from these overlooked reactions can alter particle physiochemical properties and may affect their reactivity and ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The release and potential recycling of HCl and HNO₃ from reacted aerosol particles may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry.

  7. DEMONSTRATION SOLIDIFICATION TESTS CONDUCTED ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED ORGANIC LIQUIDS AT THE AECL WHITESHELL LABORATORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryz, R. A.; Brunkow, W. G.; Govers, R.; Campbell, D.; Krause, D.

    2002-01-01

    The AECL, Whiteshell Laboratory (WL) near Pinawa Manitoba, Canada, was established in the early 1960's to carry out AECL research and development activities for higher temperature versions of the CANDU(reg s ign) reactor. The initial focus of the research program was the Whiteshell Reactor-1 (WR-1) Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) that began operation in 1965. The OCR program was discontinued in the early 1970's in favor of the successful heavy-water-cooled CANDU system. WR-1 continued to operate until 1985 in support of AECL nuclear research programs. A consequence of the Federal government's recent program review process was AECL's business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at the Whiteshell Laboratories and to consolidate its' activities at the Chalk River Laboratories. As a result, AECL received government concurrence in 1998 to proceed to plan actions to achieve closure of WL. The planning actions now in progress address the need to safely and effectively transition the WL site from an operational state, in support of AECL's business, to a shutdown and decommissioned state that meets the regulatory requirements for a licensed nuclear site. The decommissioning program that will be required at WL is unique within AECL and Canada since it will need to address the entire research site rather than individual facilities declared redundant. Accordingly, the site nuclear facilities are being systematically placed in a safe shutdown state and planning for the decommissioning work to place the facilities in a secure monitoring and surveillance state is in progress. One aspect of the shutdown activities is to deal with the legacy of radioactively contaminated organic liquid wastes. Use of a polymer powder to solidify these organic wastes was identified as one possibility for improved interim storage of this material pending final disposition

  8. Condition of organ of vision and free radical process parameters in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnovsky, S.; Danilicnev, V.; Nikiforov, A.; Zybina, N.; Nesteruk, L.

    1997-01-01

    84 liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl APS accident from the age of 28 to 58 were examined. The control group was made with 22 men from the age of 28 to 52. A certain increase of infringement of a transparency of lens without typical attributes of radiating cataract is revealed in the experimental group. Electrophysiological investigation (EPI) shows a certain reduction of amplitude of a wave ''a'' of macular electroretinogram (ERG) on green stimulus, amplitude of a main component and lengthening of an interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz is revealed. These changes indicate the tendency to reduction of functional activity of a retina (first of all at a level of photoreceptors) in paramacular and in a smaller degree in peripheral zones among liquidators. The parameters of contrast sensitivity are definitely reduced in the experimental group for all stimuli on all spatial frequencies. Luminous and colour sensitivity to stimuli of different colour in the experimental group is definitely reduced in all central field of sight, but in paracentral zone the degree of reduction is higher. We investigated the parameters of oxidative stress in both groups. Definite increase of production of the reactive oxygen species and disbalance of a glutathione link of antioxidant protection are revealed. Authentic correlation dependences are revealed: moderate direct correlation - between a level of glutathione reductase and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz, between a level of oxidized glutathione and interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz, inverse correlation - between the level of oxidized glutathione and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz. In view of large spontaneous activity of free radical processes in a retina in norm the received results can explain revealed changes of an organ of vision. (author)

  9. Condition of organ of vision and free radical process parameters in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnovsky, S; Danilicnev, V [Military Medical Academy, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, A; Zybina, N [All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nesteruk, L [Helmholtz Inst. of Eyes Diseases, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-11-01

    84 liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl APS accident from the age of 28 to 58 were examined. The control group was made with 22 men from the age of 28 to 52. A certain increase of infringement of a transparency of lens without typical attributes of radiating cataract is revealed in the experimental group. Electrophysiological investigation (EPI) shows a certain reduction of amplitude of a wave ``a`` of macular electroretinogram (ERG) on green stimulus, amplitude of a main component and lengthening of an interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz is revealed. These changes indicate the tendency to reduction of functional activity of a retina (first of all at a level of photoreceptors) in paramacular and in a smaller degree in peripheral zones among liquidators. The parameters of contrast sensitivity are definitely reduced in the experimental group for all stimuli on all spatial frequencies. Luminous and colour sensitivity to stimuli of different colour in the experimental group is definitely reduced in all central field of sight, but in paracentral zone the degree of reduction is higher. We investigated the parameters of oxidative stress in both groups. Definite increase of production of the reactive oxygen species and disbalance of a glutathione link of antioxidant protection are revealed. Authentic correlation dependences are revealed: moderate direct correlation - between a level of glutathione reductase and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz, between a level of oxidized glutathione and interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz, inverse correlation - between the level of oxidized glutathione and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz. In view of large spontaneous activity of free radical processes in a retina in norm the received results can explain revealed changes of an organ of vision. (author). 5 refs.

  10. A Monte Carlo Model for Neutron Coincidence Counting with Fast Organic Liquid Scintillation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Cave, Frank D.

    2013-06-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is an established, nondestructive method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear materials. Several even-numbered nuclei of the actinide isotopes, and especially even-numbered plutonium isotopes, undergo spontaneous fission, resulting in the emission of neutrons which are correlated in time. The characteristics of this i.e. the multiplicity can be used to identify each isotope in question. Similarly, the corresponding characteristics of isotopes that are susceptible to stimulated fission are somewhat isotope-related, and also dependent on the energy of the incident neutron that stimulates the fission event, and this can hence be used to identify and quantify isotopes also. Most of the neutron coincidence counters currently used are based on 3 He gas tubes. In the 3 He-filled gas proportional-counter, the (n, p) reaction is largely responsible for the detection of slow neutrons and hence neutrons have to be slowed down to thermal energies. As a result, moderator and shielding materials are essential components of many systems designed to assess quantities of fissile materials. The use of a moderator, however, extends the die-away time of the detector necessitating a larger coincidence window and, further, 3 He is now in short supply and expensive. In this paper, a simulation based on the Monte Carlo method is described which has been performed using MCNPX 2.6.0, to model the geometry of a sector-shaped liquid scintillation detector in response to coincident neutron events. The detection of neutrons from a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pellet using an organic liquid scintillator has been simulated for different thicknesses of scintillators. In this new neutron detector, a layer of lead has been used to reduce the gamma-ray fluence reaching the scintillator. The effect of lead for neutron detection has also been estimated by considering different thicknesses of lead layers. (authors)

  11. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  13. Pretreatment of various feedstocks for lactic acid production: detection of sugars, organic acids and furanics in liquid fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Barley straw, sugarcane bagasse and empty fruit bunches were pretreated under acid- and alkaline conditions. Solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and the concentration of dissolved monomeric sugars, organic acids and furanics was determined. Acid hydrolysis yielded monomeric xylose

  14. Phase-field simulation of solidification in multicomponent alloys coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijie; Jing Tao; Jie Wanqi; Liu Baicheng

    2006-01-01

    To simulate quantitatively the microstructural evolution in the solidification process of multicomponent alloys, we extend the phase-field model for binary alloys to multicomponent alloys with consideration of the solute interactions between different species. These interactions have a great influence not only on the phase equilibria but also on the solute diffusion behaviors. In the model, the interface region is assumed to be a mixture of solid and liquid with the same chemical potential, but with different compositions. The simulation presented is coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases, which can accurately predict the phase equilibria and the solute diffusion transportation in the whole system. The phase equilibria in the interface and other thermodynamic quantities are obtained using Thermo-Calc through the TQ interface. As an example, two-dimensional computations for the dendritic growth in Al-Cu-Mg ternary alloy are performed. The quantitative solute distributions and diffusion matrix are obtained in both solid and liquid phases

  15. Evaluation of diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures by means of the fluctuation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We derive general expressions for diffusion coefficients in multicomponent non-ideal gas or liquid mixtures. The derivation is based on the general statistical theory of fluctuations around an equilibrium state. The matrix of diffusion coefficients is expressed in terms of the equilibrium...... characteristics. We demonstrate on several examples that the developed theory is in agreement with the established experimental facts and dependencies for the diffusion coefficients. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Benchmarks for multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasouli, Pejman; Steefel, Carl I.; Mayer, K. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In multicomponent electrolyte solutions, the tendency of ions to diffuse at different rates results in a charge imbalance that is counteracted by the electrostatic coupling between charged species leading to a process called “electrochemical migration” or “electromigration.” Although not commonly...... not been published to date. This contribution provides a set of three benchmark problems that demonstrate the effect of electric coupling during multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration and at the same time facilitate the intercomparison of solutions from existing reactive transport codes...

  17. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo; Kim, Hwajeong; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4 ′ -pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm 2 /Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V D ) and gate (V G ) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V D and V G . The best voltage combination was V D = −0.2 V and V G = −1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors

  18. Screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in liquid organic waste (effluent samples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpe, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in some liquid organic wastes (cassava mill effluents, rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents) was carried out. Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria were isolated on mineral salt agar using vapour phase technique. The samples yielded 20 bacterial isolates from 13 different genera. Cassava mill effluent and rubber effluent had the highest number (7), while oil palm effluent had the least number (6) of bacterial isolates. The isolates that had the highest occurrence (occurring in all samples) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Of these 13 genera 9 were gram negative, while only 4 were gram positive. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count and total hydrocarbon utilisers (THU) from all the effluent samples ranged from 3.0 * 10/sup 4/ to 6.0* 10/sup 7/ cfu/mL and 2.3 *10/sup 2/ to 4.2*10/sup 3/ cfu/mL, respectively. The counts of hydrocarbon utilisers were obviously lower than the heterotrophic counts, although the differences in counts were found to be statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents had the highest number of hydrocarbon utilisers with three isolates each. The active hydrocarbon utilisers encountered in this study included Serratia marscescens, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis. Presence of nutrients and crude oil degrading bacteria in these effluents suggests that these effluents can be used to enhance bioremediation through their use as biostimulation and bioaugmentation agents. (author)

  19. Ionic Liquid/Metal-Organic Framework Composites: From Synthesis to Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinik, Fatma Pelin; Uzun, Alper; Keskin, Seda

    2017-07-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been widely studied for different applications owing to their fascinating properties such as large surface areas, high porosities, tunable pore sizes, and acceptable thermal and chemical stabilities. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been recently incorporated into the pores of MOFs as cavity occupants to change the physicochemical properties and gas affinities of MOFs. Several recent studies have shown that IL/MOF composites show superior performances compared with pristine MOFs in various fields, such as gas storage, adsorption and membrane-based gas separation, catalysis, and ionic conductivity. In this review, we address the recent advances in syntheses of IL/MOF composites and provide a comprehensive overview of their applications. Opportunities and challenges of using IL/MOF composites in many applications are reviewed and the requirements for the utilization of these composite materials in real industrial processes are discussed to define the future directions in this field. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Methacrylate-bonded covalent-organic framework monolithic columns for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2017-01-06

    Covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are a newfangled class of intriguing microporous materials. Considering their unique properties, COFs should be promising as packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the irregular shape and sub-micrometer size of COFs synthesized via the traditional methods render the main obstacles for the application of COFs in HPLC. Herein, we report the preparation of methacrylate-bonded COF monolithic columns for HPLC to overcome the above obstacles. The prepared COF bonded monolithic columns not only show good homogeneity and permeability, but also give high column efficiency, good resolution and precision for HPLC separation of small molecules including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, anilines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzothiophenes. Compared with the bare polymer monolithic column, the COF bonded monolithic columns show enhanced hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen bond interactions in reverse phase HPLC. The results reveal the great potential of COF bonded monoliths for HPLC and COFs in separation sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Formation of a new archetypal Metal-Organic Framework from a simple monatomic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metere, Alfredo; Oleynikov, Peter; Dzugutov, Mikhail; O’Keeffe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report a molecular-dynamics simulation of a single-component system of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential that is found to form, upon cooling from a liquid state, a low-density porous crystalline phase. Its structure analysis demonstrates that the crystal can be described by a net with a topology that belongs to the class of topologies characteristic of the Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). The observed net is new, and it is now included in the Reticular Chemistry Structure Resource database. The observation that a net topology characteristic of MOF crystals, which are known to be formed by a coordination-driven self-assembly process, can be reproduced by a thermodynamically stable configuration of a simple single-component system of particles opens a possibility of using these models in studies of MOF nets. It also indicates that structures with MOF topology, as well as other low-density porous crystalline structures can possibly be produced in colloidal systems of spherical particles, with an appropriate tuning of interparticle interaction

  4. Gas-liquid partitioning of halogenated volatile organic compounds in aqueous cyclodextrin solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondo, Daniel; Barankova, Eva [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dohnal, Vladimir, E-mail: dohnalv@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Binding of halogenated VOCs with cyclodextrins examined through g-l partitioning. > Complex stabilities reflect host-guest size matching and hydrophobic interaction. > Presence of halogens in the guest molecule stabilizes the binding. > Thermodynamic origin of the binding varies greatly among the systems studied. > Results obey the guest-CD global enthalpy-entropy compensation relationship. - Abstract: Gas-liquid partitioning coefficients (K{sub GL}) were measured for halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely 1-chlorobutane, methoxyflurane, pentafluoropropan-1-ol, heptafluorobutan-1-ol, {alpha},{alpha},{alpha}-trifluorotoluene, and toluene in aqueous solutions of natural {alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-cyclodextrins (CDs) at temperatures from (273.35 to 326.35) K employing the techniques of headspace gas chromatography and inert gas stripping. The binding constants of the 1:1 inclusion complex formation between the VOCs and CDs were evaluated from the depression of the VOCs volatility as a function of CD concentration. The host-guest size matching and the hydrophobic interaction concept were used to rationalize the observed widely different affinity of the VOC-CD pairs to form the inclusion complex. The enthalpic and entropic component of the standard Gibbs free energy of complex formation as derived from the temperature dependence of the binding constant indicate the thermodynamic origin of the binding to vary greatly among the systems studied, but follow the global enthalpy-entropy compensation relationships reported previously in the literature.

  5. EDO, Doses to Man and Organs from Reactor Operation Noble Gas and Liquid Waste Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas Diago, Jose; Serradell Garcia, Vicente

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EDO evaluates individual and collective doses to man from atmospheric releases of noble gases and other gaseous effluents. 2 - Method of solution: The dose calculations are carried out by following the guide- lines of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. Radiation exposure for maximum individuals and population are estimated within 30 km from the nuclear plant. This area is divided into 160 circular trapezoids, to which computations are referred. Four age groups, seven organs for internal dose and two for external dose have been considered. Dose calculations are done through 14 pathways, 7 for liquid effluents, one for noble gases, and 6 for the rest of gaseous effluents. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The following are the maximum dimension sizes preset in the code: 73 radionuclides (other than noble gases); 15 noble gases; 160 circular trapezoids; 31 chemical elements; 4 types of aquatic foods; 15 points of exposure for shorelines; 15 trapezoids influenced by each point; 4 terrestrial food pathways; 100 centres of population. Some of these limits can be varied

  6. EDO, Doses to Man and Organs from Reactor Operation Noble Gas and Liquid Waste Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas Diago, Jose; Serradell Garcia, Vicente [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica, Camino de Vera 2/n Apartado 2012, Valencia (Spain)

    1983-10-18

    1 - Description of problem or function: EDO evaluates individual and collective doses to man from atmospheric releases of noble gases and other gaseous effluents. 2 - Method of solution: The dose calculations are carried out by following the guide- lines of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. Radiation exposure for maximum individuals and population are estimated within 30 km from the nuclear plant. This area is divided into 160 circular trapezoids, to which computations are referred. Four age groups, seven organs for internal dose and two for external dose have been considered. Dose calculations are done through 14 pathways, 7 for liquid effluents, one for noble gases, and 6 for the rest of gaseous effluents. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The following are the maximum dimension sizes preset in the code: 73 radionuclides (other than noble gases); 15 noble gases; 160 circular trapezoids; 31 chemical elements; 4 types of aquatic foods; 15 points of exposure for shorelines; 15 trapezoids influenced by each point; 4 terrestrial food pathways; 100 centres of population. Some of these limits can be varied.

  7. Effect of Turning Frequency on Composting of Empty Fruit Bunches Mixed with Activated Liquid Organic Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Lubis, J.; Husaini, T.; Irvan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) by mixing it with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative way in the utilization of solid waste produced from the palm oil mill (POM). This research was to determine the effect of turning frequency on the rate of composting of EFB mixed with ALOF in a basket composter. The composting process was started with cutting the EFB into pieces with size 1-3 cm, inserting the EFB pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding ALOF until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The turning frequency on each composter was varied i.e. once in every 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The parameters analysed during composting were temperature, pH, MC, compost weight, water holding capacity (WHC), CN ratio, and the quality of the final compost. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the best result obtained at turning frequency was 3 days. The best compost characteristic was pH 9.0; MC 57.24%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15%; P 0.58%; and K 0. 95%.

  8. NMR relaxometric properties and cytotoxicity of Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions in an organic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2014-10-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles and their agglomerates from approximately 10 to 80 nm in size suspended in an organic liquid were synthesized via polyol route. The reaction between diethylene glycol and added acetic acid, which occurred simultaneously with the synthesis of Gd2O3 nanoparticles, was catalyzed by sodium bisulfate to transform as much as possible diethylene glycol in corresponding ester at the end of complete reaction. The produced nanosized material of gadolinium oxide was investigated by TEM, DLS, FTIR spectroscopy, and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by MTT and crystal violet assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of water-diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions estimated to be r 1 = 13.6 and r 2 = 14.7 s-1 mM-1 are about three times higher compared to the relaxivities obtained for standard contrast agent Gd-DTPA (Magnevist). Good MRI signal intensities of the water-diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions were recorded in the Gd concentration range 0.2-0.3 mM for which the suspensions were not toxic exhibiting simultaneously higher signal intensities than those for Magnevist in the Gd concentration range 0.4-1 mM for which this standard contrast agent was not toxic. These properties make the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticle material promising for potential application as MRI contrast agent.

  9. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Krolikowska, Marta; Acree, William E.; Baker, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution using GLC. → 36 organic solvents and water in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [EMIM][TCB]. → Possible entrainer for different separation processes. → The partial molar excess thermodynamic functions at infinite dilution were calculated. - Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ , for 36 solutes, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water, in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [EMIM][TCB], were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 358.15 K. These values are compared to those previously published for selected solutes in the same ionic liquid. The values of the partial molar excess Gibbs free energy ΔG 1 E,∞ , enthalpy ΔH 1 E,∞ , and entropy ΔS 1 E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. Three gas-liquid partition coefficients, K L were calculated for all solutes and the Abraham solvation parameter model is discussed. The values of the selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from γ 13 ∞ and compared to literature values for N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), sulfolane, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [DMIM][TCB], and additional ionic liquids.

  10. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By virtue of the bilinear method and the KP hierarchy reduction technique, exact explicit rational solutions of the multicomponent Mel'nikov equation and the multicomponent Schrödinger–Boussinesq equation are constructed, which contain multicomponent short waves and single-component long wave. For the ...

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium (II) using Cyanex 923 in kerosene from sodium acetate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Pravin N.; Madane, Namdev S.; Mohite, Baburao S.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium(II) from sodium acetate media using cyanex 923 in kerosene has been carried out. Beryllium(II) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -1 M sodium acetate with 1x10 -2 M cyanex 923 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 1M H 2 SO 4 and determined spectrophotometrically with eriochrome cyanine R at 525 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium acetate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of beryllium(II) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately±2%). (author)

  12. Radiolytic degradation of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran in organic solvents and treatment of dioxin-containing liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changli; Hirota, Koichi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Takigami, Machiko; Kojima, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Degradations of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) were studied by 60 Co γ-ray in organic solvents: ethanol, n-nonane, and toluene. Both OCDD and OCDF were degraded more efficiently in ethanol than in n-nonane or toluene. The degradation is mainly attributed to electrons and in part to solvent radicals. The addition of ethanol to dioxin-containing liquid wastes enhanced effectively the degradation of dioxins; the liquid wastes did not exhibit the dioxin toxicity at a dose of 100 kGy

  13. New Approaches to Cleaning Liquid Radioactive Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabulonov, Yu.L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The industrial cleaning methods of liquid radioactive waste and technologically contaminated solutions, which contain heavy metals and radionuclides, are considered. It is shown that in the case when heavy metal ions exclusively exist in ionic form, the cleaning method with highest efficiency is electrodialysis. In the case when components, which must be removed, are in ionic and colloidal forms at the same time, the previous destruction of colloidal and organic matter (method of hydrodynamic cavitation, lowtemperature plasma etc is necessary. The developed «PTANK» method enables an effective purification of multicomponent metalcontaining man-made solutions, which contain additionally organic substances and complexes. Development of advanced membrane technologies, creation of complex recycling schemes and their synergistic combination will provide an opportunity to achieve deep cleaning of technologically contaminated solutions and minimize the amount of secondary wastes.

  14. Equivalence of Brownian dynamics and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations in multicomponent colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Alejandro; Patti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    We propose a simple but powerful theoretical framework to quantitatively compare Brownian dynamics (BD) and dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations of multicomponent colloidal suspensions. By extending our previous study focusing on monodisperse systems of rodlike colloids, here we generalize the formalism described there to multicomponent colloidal mixtures and validate it by investigating the dynamics in isotropic and liquid crystalline phases containing spherical and rodlike particles. In order to investigate the dynamics of multicomponent colloidal systems by DMC simulations, it is key to determine the elementary time step of each species and establish a unique timescale. This is crucial to consistently study the dynamics of colloidal particles with different geometry. By analyzing the mean-square displacement, the orientation autocorrelation functions, and the self part of the van Hove correlation functions, we show that DMC simulation is a very convenient and reliable technique to describe the stochastic dynamics of any multicomponent colloidal system. Our theoretical formalism can be easily extended to any colloidal system containing size and/or shape polydisperse particles.

  15. Preconcentration of valsartan by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop and its determination in urine sample: Central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a fast, easy, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed for the separation/preconcentration and determination of the drug valsartan. Experimental design was applied for the optimization of the effective variables (such as volume of extracting and dispersing solvents, ionic strength, and pH) on the extraction efficiency of valsartan from urine samples. The optimized values were 250.0 μL ethanol, 65.0 μL 1-dodecanol, 4.0% w/v NaCl, pH 3.8, 1.0 min extraction time, and 4.0 min centrifugation at 4000 rpm min(-1) . The linear response (r(2) = 0.997) was obtained in the range of 0.013-10.0 μg mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 4.0 ng mL(-1) and relative standard deviations of less than 5.0 % (n = 6). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Solid-phase extraction assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet to determine sildenafil and its analogues in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Roh, Si Hun; Shaodong, Jia; Hong, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-01

    A novel analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the concentration of sildenafil and its five analogues in dietary supplements using solid-phase extraction assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet combined with ion-pairing liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector was developed. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including the type of solid-phase extraction cartridge, pH of the extraction environment, and the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent. The method linearity was in the range of 5.0-100 ng/mL for sildenafil, homosildenafil, udenafil, benzylsildenafil, and thiosildenafil and 10-100 ng/mL for acetildenafil. The coefficients of determination were ≥0.996 for all regression curves. The sensitivity values expressed as limit of detection were between 2.5 and 7.5 ng/mL. Furthermore, intraday and interday precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were less than 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of sildenafil and its five analogues in complex dietary supplements. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplets for simultaneous extraction of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marube, Liziane Cardoso; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Karina Lotz; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) has been applied to the extraction of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and pesticides from water samples. The PPCPs included bisphenol A, sodium diclofenac, gemfibrozil, furosemide, glibenclamide, nifedipine, nimesulide, propylparaben and triclocarban. The pesticides included 2,4-D, atrazine, azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, clomazone, dichloran, difenoconazole, diuron, epoxiconazole, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fipronil, iprodione, irgarol, propanil, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin. The type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser solvent, ionic strength and pH were optimized. All species were then quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 50 to 500 ng L −1 , and the linearity ranged from the LOQ of each compound up to 10,000 ng L −1 . Recoveries ranged from 63 to 120 %, with relative standard deviations lower than 14 %. It is making use of a low-toxicity and affordable extraction solvent (1-dodecanol) and was successfully applied to the analysis of surface water samples. (author)

  18. Transformation of organic matter and the emissions of methane and ammonia during storage of liquid manure as affected by acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sven G.; Clough, Timothy J.; Balaine, Nimlesh

    2017-01-01

    ), suggesting that DOC may be a predictor for CH4 emission from dilute slurries. volatile fatty acid and total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations in surface layers were substantially higher than at the center of stored liquid manure, perhaps resulting from microbial activity at the surface. This pattern......Acidification of livestock manure can reduce emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as ammonia (NH3). We examined the relation between emission of these gases and transformation of organic matter as affected by acidification. Liquid cattle manure......, probably due to the absence of a surface crust. Reductions in NH3 and CH4 emission were highest at the start but declined over time concomitantly with a gradual increase in the stored liquid manure pH. Acidification did not significantly affect CO2 emissions. Emission of CO2 was high, fiveto ten-fold of CH...

  19. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for ternary mixtures of (water + propionic acid + organic solvent) at T = 303.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh, H.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Bahrpaima, Kh.; Sariri, R.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental tie-line results and phase diagrams were obtained for the ternary systems of {water + propionic acid + organic solvent (cyclohexane, toluene, and methylcyclohexane)} at T = 303.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The organic solvents were two cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons (i.e., cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane) and an aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene). The experimental tie-lines values were also compared with those calculated by the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. The consistency of the values of the experimental tie-lines was determined through the Othmer-Tobias and Hands plots. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions and a comparison of the extracting capabilities of the solvents was made with respect to distribution coefficients and separation factors. The Kamlet LSER model was applied to correlate distribution coefficients and separation factors in these ternary systems. The LSER model values showed a good regression to the experimental results.

  20. Strategies for Innovation in Multicomponent Reaction Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ganem, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    By generating structural complexity in a single step from three or more reactants, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) make it possible to synthesize target compounds with greater efficiency and atom economy. The history of such reactions can be traced to the mid-nineteenth century when Strecker first produced α-aminonitriles from the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide.

  1. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    optical communication and in artificial metamaterials. ... multicomponent generalization of Manakov system have been obtained by Kanna et al .... The main objective of the present paper is to give a clear picture of various energy ... occur as a consequence of energy exchange between the two colliding solitons as well as.

  2. Diffusivity measurements in some organic solvents by a gas-liquid diaphragm cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases In liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process Is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  3. Diffusivity Measurements in Some Organic Solvents by a Gas-Liquid Diaphragm Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Rob J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1992-01-01

    A diaphragm cell has been developed for the measurement of diffusion coefficients of gases in liquids. The diaphragm cell is operated batchwise with respect to both gas and liquid phases, and the diffusion process is followed by means of the gas pressure decrease which is recorded by means of a

  4. Digital holographic microscopy of phase separation in multicomponent lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam Rad, Vahideh; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Darudi, Ahmad; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Lateral in-homogeneities in lipid compositions cause microdomains formation and change in the physical properties of biological membranes. With the presence of cholesterol and mixed species of lipids, phospholipid membranes segregate into lateral domains of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. Coupling of two-dimensional intralayer phase separations and interlayer liquid-crystalline ordering in multicomponent membranes has been previously demonstrated. By the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHMicroscopy), we quantitatively analyzed the volumetric dynamical behavior of such membranes. The specimens are lipid mixtures composed of sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. DHMicroscopy in a transmission mode is an effective tool for quantitative visualization of phase objects. By deriving the associated phase changes, three-dimensional information on the morphology variation of lipid stacks at arbitrary time scales is obtained. Moreover, the thickness distribution of the object at demanded axial planes can be obtained by numerical focusing. Our results show that the volume evolution of lipid domains follows approximately the same universal growth law of previously reported area evolution. However, the thickness of the domains does not alter significantly by time; therefore, the volume evolution is mostly attributed to the changes in area dynamics. These results might be useful in the field of membrane-based functional materials.

  5. A liquid organic carrier of hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Taube, P.

    1979-09-01

    A system of storing energy in a hydrogen containing fuel for the motor car is discussed. The recyclable liquid chemical carrier is: (Methylcyclohexane (liquid)) dehydrogenation (Toluene (liquid)) + (hydrogen (gas)). The reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of toluene, occurs in a regional plant connected to a source of hydrogen (electrolysis of water) with a significant by-product being heat at 200 0 C for district heating. The system is able to store hydrogen in liquid form under ambient temperature and pressure even in a small motor car. The concentration of hydrogen is 6.1 % by weight. The release of gaseous hydrogen from the liquid methylcyclohexane needs a chemical catalytic reactor having a temperature of 300 0 C and a pressure of some bars. This reaction has been well studied. The thermal energy for the dehydrogenation is taken from the exhaust gases at 780 0 C. A layout of the most important processes of the system is given. (Auth.)

  6. Fertilization with liquid digestate in organic farming - effects on humus balance, soil potassium contents and soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Siegl, Thomas; Bonell, Marion; Unterfrauner, Hans; Peticzka, Robert; Ableidinger, Christoph; Haas, Dieter; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Biogas production and use of liquid digestate are subject of controversial discussion in organic farming. Using biomass from intercrops as feedstock for biogas production makes it possible to produce renewable energy without compromising food production. With liquid digestate, crops can be fertilized in a more targeted way than by incorporating intercrop biomass into the soil. For long-term sustainability in organic farming, however, this practice must not have adverse effects on soil fertility. In order to assess the effects of fertilization with liquid digestate on soil fertility, two randomised field experiments were conducted for two years on different soil types near Bruck/Leitha (Lower Austria). One experiment was set up on a calcareous chernozem with 4 % humus content, the other on a parachernozem with pH 5.9 and 2.1 % humus. Soil potassium content, both in the water-soluble fraction and in the exchangeable fraction, increased significantly at both sites. As fertilization with liquid digestate exceeded the potassium requirements of the crops by far, the proportion of potassium of the exchangeable cations increased rapidly. Soil physical properties were not influenced by digestate fertilization on the chernozem site. On the parachernozem, aggregate stability was increased by the organic matter applied via digestate. On this acidic site low in humus content, the supply of 4 t/ha organic matter, which featured a lignin content of 37 % and was relatively resistant to decomposition, had a clearly positive impact on soil physical properties. Humus balances were computed both with the 'Humuseinheiten'-method and with the site-adapted method STAND. They were calculated on the basis of equal amounts of intercrop biomass either left on the field as green manure or used for biogas production and the resulting amount of liquid digestate brought back to the field. The humus balances indicated that the humus-efficacy of the liquid digestate was equal to slightly higher

  7. Investigation of a Particle into Liquid Sampler to Study the Formation & Ageing of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Rickard, A. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Camredon, M.; Munoz, A.; Vazquez, M.; Rodenas, M.; Vera, T.; Borrás, E.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx results in the formation of tropospheric ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) [Hallquist et al., 2009]. Whilst SOA is known to affect both climate and human health, the VOC oxidation pathways leading to SOA formation are poorly understood [Solomon et al., 2007]. This is in part due to the vast number and the low concentration of SOA species present in the ambient atmosphere. It has been estimated as many as 10,000 to 100,000 VOCs have been detected in the atmosphere, all of which can undergo photo-chemical oxidation and contribute to SOA formation [Goldstein and Galbally, 2007]. Atmospheric simulation chambers such as the EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain, are often used to study SOA formation from a single VOC precursor under controlled conditions. SOA composition and formation can be studied using online techniques such as Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), which provide high time resolution but limited structural information [Zhang et al., 2007]. Offline techniques, such as collection onto filters, extraction and subsequent analysis, provide detailed SOA composition but only usually one or two samples per experiment. In this work we report time resolved SOA composition analysis using a Particle into Liquid Sampler (PILS) followed by Liquid Chromatography Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry (LC-IT-MS/MS) and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS/MS). Experiments were performed at EUPHORE investigating the formation and composition of Methyl Chavicol SOA. Methyl Chavicol (also known as Estragole) was identified as the highest floral emission from an oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo and has also been observed in US pine forests [Bouvier-Brown et al., 2009; Misztal et al., 2010]. Previous studies indicate a high SOA yield from Methyl Chavicol at around 40 % [Lee et al., 2006], however currently there have been very few literature

  8. Graphene-based supercapacitors in the parallel-plate electrode configuration: ionic liquids versus organic electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youngseon; Kim, Hyung J; Jung, Younjoon

    2012-01-01

    Supercapacitors with two single-sheet graphene electrodes in the parallel plate geometry are studied via molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Pure 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI+BF4-) and a 1.1 M solution of EMI+BF4- in acetonitrile are considered as prototypes of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and organic electrolytes. Electrolyte structure, charge density and associated electric potential are investigated by varying the charges and separation of the two electrodes. Multiple charge layers formed in the electrolytes in the vicinity of the electrodes are found to screen the electrode surface charge almost completely. As a result, the supercapacitors show nearly an ideal electric double layer behavior, i.e., the electric potential exhibits essentially a plateau behavior in the entire electrolyte region except for sharp changes in screening zones very close to the electrodes. Due to its small size and large charge separation, BF4- is considerably more efficient in shielding electrode charges than EMI+. In the case of the acetonitrile solution, acetonitrile also plays an important role by aligning its dipoles near the electrodes; however, the overall screening mainly arises from ions. Because of the disparity of shielding efficiency between cations and anions, the capacitance of the positively-charged anode is significantly larger than that of the negatively-charged cathode. Therefore, the total cell capacitance in the parallel plate configuration is primarily governed by the cathode. Ion conductivity obtained via the Green-Kubo (GK) method is found to be largely independent of the electrode surface charge. Interestingly, EMI+BF4- shows higher GK ion conductivity than the 1.1 M acetonitrile solution between two parallel plate electrodes.

  9. Exploring the aqueous vertical ionization of organic molecules by molecular simulation and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentscher, Peter R; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Guerard, Jennifer J; Arey, J Samuel

    2015-01-08

    To study the influence of aqueous solvent on the electronic energy levels of dissolved organic molecules, we conducted liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements of the aqueous vertical ionization energies (VIEaq) of aniline (7.49 eV), veratrole alcohol (7.68 eV), and imidazole (8.51 eV). We also reanalyzed previously reported experimental PES data for phenol, phenolate, thymidine, and protonated imidazolium cation. We then simulated PE spectra by means of QM/MM molecular dynamics and EOM-IP-CCSD calculations with effective fragment potentials, used to describe the aqueous vertical ionization energies for six molecules, including aniline, phenol, veratrole alcohol, imidazole, methoxybenzene, and dimethylsulfide. Experimental and computational data enable us to decompose the VIEaq into elementary processes. For neutral compounds, the shift in VIE upon solvation, ΔVIEaq, was found to range from ≈-0.5 to -0.91 eV. The ΔVIEaq was further explained in terms of the influence of deforming the gas phase solute into its solution phase conformation, the influence of solute hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor interactions with proximate solvent molecules, and the polarization of about 3000 outerlying solvent molecules. Among the neutral compounds, variability in ΔVIEaq appeared largely controlled by differences in solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions. Detailed computational analysis of the flexible molecule veratrole alcohol reveals that the VIE is strongly dependent on molecular conformation in both gas and aqueous phases. Finally, aqueous reorganization energies of the oxidation half-cell ionization reaction were determined from experimental data or estimated from simulation for the six compounds aniline, phenol, phenolate, veratrole alcohol, dimethylsulfide, and methoxybenzene, revealing a surprising constancy of 2.06 to 2.35 eV.

  10. Thermal property prediction and measurement of organic phase change materials in the liquid phase near the melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, William E.; Warzoha, Ronald; Weigand, Rebecca; Fleischer, Amy S.; Wemhoff, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid-phase thermal properties for five phase change materials were estimated. • Various liquid phase and phase transition thermal properties were measured. • The thermal diffusivity was found using a best path to prediction approach. • The thermal diffusivity predictive method shows 15% agreement for organic PCMs. - Abstract: Organic phase change materials (PCMs) are a popular choice for many thermal energy storage applications including solar energy, building envelope thermal barriers, and passive cooling of portable electronics. Since the extent of phase change during a heating or cooling process is dependent upon rapid thermal penetration into the PCM, accurate knowledge of the thermal diffusivity of the PCM in both solid and liquid phases is crucial. This study addresses the existing gaps in information for liquid-phase PCM properties by examining an approach that determines the best path to prediction (BPP) for the thermal diffusivity of both alkanes and unsaturated acids. Knowledge of the BPP will enable researchers to explore the influence of PCM molecular structure on bulk thermophysical properties, thereby allowing the fabrication of optimized PCMs. The BPP method determines which of the tens of thousands of combinations of 22 different available theoretical techniques provides best agreement with thermal diffusivity values based on reported or measured density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity for each of five PCMs (heneicosane, tricosane, tetracosane, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) in the liquid phase near the melting point. Separate BPPs were calibrated for alkanes based on heneicosane and tetracosane, and for the unsaturated acids. The alkane and unsaturated acid BPPs were then tested on a variety of similar materials, showing agreement with reported/measured thermal diffusivity within ∼15% for all materials. The alkane BPP was then applied to find that increasing the length of alkane chains decreases the PCM thermal

  11. Multicomponent density functional theory embedding formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culpitt, Tanner; Brorsen, Kurt R.; Pak, Michael V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Ave, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Multicomponent density functional theory (DFT) methods have been developed to treat two types of particles, such as electrons and nuclei, quantum mechanically at the same level. In the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) approach, all electrons and select nuclei, typically key protons, are treated quantum mechanically. For multicomponent DFT methods developed within the NEO framework, electron-proton correlation functionals based on explicitly correlated wavefunctions have been designed and used in conjunction with well-established electronic exchange-correlation functionals. Herein a general theory for multicomponent embedded DFT is developed to enable the accurate treatment of larger systems. In the general theory, the total electronic density is separated into two subsystem densities, denoted as regular and special, and different electron-proton correlation functionals are used for these two electronic densities. In the specific implementation, the special electron density is defined in terms of spatially localized Kohn-Sham electronic orbitals, and electron-proton correlation is included only for the special electron density. The electron-proton correlation functional depends on only the special electron density and the proton density, whereas the electronic exchange-correlation functional depends on the total electronic density. This scheme includes the essential electron-proton correlation, which is a relatively local effect, as well as the electronic exchange-correlation for the entire system. This multicomponent DFT-in-DFT embedding theory is applied to the HCN and FHF{sup −} molecules in conjunction with two different electron-proton correlation functionals and three different electronic exchange-correlation functionals. The results illustrate that this approach provides qualitatively accurate nuclear densities in a computationally tractable manner. The general theory is also easily extended to other types of partitioning schemes for multicomponent systems.

  12. The Application Of Liquid Fertilizer Made Of Traditional Market Organic Wastes On Growth Of Setaria Grass (Setaria splendida Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarto Eko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are hugh amount of traditional market organic wastes that may polute the environment. In general, the wastes are utilized for compost making and liquid fertilizer as well for plant. The use of liquid fertilizer from organic wastes of traditional markets opens up opportunities for misplaced cultivation of Setaria grass (Setaria splendida Stapf, which is required by ruminant farms. This research was conducted to evaluate the best mixture of water to the fertilizer in term of its effectiveness on the variables and experimental method using Completely Randomized Design. The treatments were: 6 doses of mixtures namely 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 liters of water, each of which was mixed with 10 liters of liquid fertilizer. The variables measured were the height, the numbers of tillers, the numbers of leaves, and canopy. The results of the study showed that the doses of water in the fertilizer did not indicate any significant differences (P > 0.05 on all variables being studied, however, the linear equation showed that greater concentrations of water in the fertilizer tended to decrease the growth of Setaria grass. Suggested use of water on the liquid fertilizer mixture should be not greater than 30 l – 10 l fertilizer.

  13. Performances and stability of a 2.4 ton Gd organic liquid scintillator target for ν-bar e detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, I R; Bezrukov, L B; Danilov, N A; Krilov, Yu S; Yanovich, E A; Malguin, A S; Cattadori, C M; Vacri, A di; Ioannucci, L; Bruno, G; Aglietta, M; Bonardi, A; Fulgione, W; Porta, A; Kemp, E; Selvi, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report the performance and the chemical and physical properties of a 2 x 1.2 ton organic liquid scintillator target doped with Gd up to ∼ 0.1%, and the results of a 3 year long stability survey of the target. In particular we have measured and monitored the optical and fluorescent properties of the Gd-doped liquid scintillator (LS), the amount of both Gd and primary fluor in solution, and the performance of the two Gd doped targets as neutron detectors, namely neutron capture efficiency and average capture time. The experimental survey is ongoing, the targets being continuously monitored. From the spectrophotometric measurements performed on samples periodically extracted along the three years, we can exclude, at 99% C.L. level, a degradation of the light transmittance of the Gd-doped liquid scintillator larger than 1% y -1 ; from the in-tank measurements no significant decrease of the neutron capture efficiency and neutron capture time is observed. This is the largest stable Gd-doped organic liquid scintillator target ever produced and continuously operated for a long period.

  14. The Application Of Liquid Fertilizer Made Of Traditional Market Organic Wastes On Growth Of Setaria Grass (Setaria splendida Stapf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendarto, Eko; Suwarno

    2018-02-01

    There are hugh amount of traditional market organic wastes that may polute the environment. In general, the wastes are utilized for compost making and liquid fertilizer as well for plant. The use of liquid fertilizer from organic wastes of traditional markets opens up opportunities for misplaced cultivation of Setaria grass (Setaria splendida Stapf), which is required by ruminant farms. This research was conducted to evaluate the best mixture of water to the fertilizer in term of its effectiveness on the variables and experimental method using Completely Randomized Design. The treatments were: 6 doses of mixtures namely 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 liters of water, each of which was mixed with 10 liters of liquid fertilizer. The variables measured were the height, the numbers of tillers, the numbers of leaves, and canopy. The results of the study showed that the doses of water in the fertilizer did not indicate any significant differences (P > 0.05) on all variables being studied, however, the linear equation showed that greater concentrations of water in the fertilizer tended to decrease the growth of Setaria grass. Suggested use of water on the liquid fertilizer mixture should be not greater than 30 l - 10 l fertilizer.

  15. Cerenkov counting and Cerenkov-scintillation counting with high refractive index organic liquids using a liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, L I; Helus, F; Maier-Borst, W [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1978-06-01

    /sup 18/F and /sup 14/C radioactivity was measured in methyl salicylate (MS), a high refractive index hybrid Cherenkov-scintillation generating medium, using a liquid scintillation counter. At concentrations of up to 21.4%, in MS, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) quenched /sup 14/C fluorescence, and with a 10-fold excess of DMSO over MS, /sup 18/F count rates were reduced below that for DMSO alone, probably as a result of concentration-independent self-quenching due to 'dark-complex' formation. DMSO in lower concentrations did not reduce the counting efficiency of /sup 18/F in MS. Nitrobenzene was a concentration-dependent quencher for both /sup 14/C and /sup 18/F in MS. Chlorobenzene (CB) and DMSO were both found to be weak Cherenkov generators with /sup 18/F. Counting efficiencies for /sup 18/F in MS, CB, and DMSO were 50.3, 7.8 and 4.3% respectively in the coincidence counting mode, and 58.1, 13.0 and 6.8% in the singles mode. /sup 14/C efficiencies were 14.4 and 22.3% for coincidence and singles respectively, and 15.3 and 42.0% using a modern counter designed for coincidence and single photon counting. The high /sup 14/C and /sup 18/F counting efficiency in MS are discussed with respect to excitation mechanism, on the basis of quench and channels ratios changes observed. It is proposed that MS functions as an efficient Cherenkov-scintillation generator for high-energy beta emitters such as /sup 18/F, and as a low-efficiency scintillator for weak beta emitting radionuclides such as /sup 14/C.

  16. Cerenkov counting and Cerenkov-scintillation counting with high refractive index organic liquids using a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.; Helus, F.; Maier-Borst, W.

    1978-01-01

    18 F and 14 C radioactivity was measured in methyl salicylate (MS), a high refractive index hybrid Cherenkov-scintillation generating medium, using a liquid scintillation counter. At concentrations of up to 21.4%, in MS, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) quenched 14 C fluorescence, and with a 10-fold excess of DMSO over MS, 18 F count rates were reduced below that for DMSO alone, probably as a result of concentration-independent self-quenching due to 'dark-complex' formation. DMSO in lower concentrations did not reduce the counting efficiency of 18 F in MS. Nitrobenzene was a concentration-dependent quencher for both 14 C and 18 F in MS. Chlorobenzene (CB) and DMSO were both found to be weak Cherenkov generators with 18 F. Counting efficiencies for 18 F in MS, CB, and DMSO were 50.3, 7.8 and 4.3% respectively in the coincidence counting mode, and 58.1, 13.0 and 6.8% in the singles mode. 14 C efficiencies were 14.4 and 22.3% for coincidence and singles respectively, and 15.3 and 42.0% using a modern counter designed for coincidence and single photon counting. The high 14 C and 18 F counting efficiency in MS are discussed with respect to excitation mechanism, on the basis of quench and channels ratios changes observed. It is proposed that MS functions as an efficient Cherenkov-scintillation generator for high-energy beta emitters such as 18 F, and as a low-efficiency scintillator for weak beta emitting radionuclides such as 14 C. (author)

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium with arsenazo previous liquid-liquid extraction and colour development in organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares Delgado, F.; Vera Palomino, J.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    The determination of uranium with arsenazo is hindered by a great number of cation which form stable complexes with the reactive and may given rise to serious interferences. By studying the optimum conditions of uranium the extraction be means of tributylphosphate solutions dissolved in methylisobuthylketone, under conditions for previous masking of the interfering cations, an organic extract was obtained containing all the uranium together with small amounts of iron. The possible interference derived from the latter element is avoided by reduction with hydroxylammoniumchlorid followed by complex formation of the Fe(II)-ortophenantroline compound in alcoholic medium. (Author) 17 refs

  18. Blending crystalline/liquid crystalline small molecule semiconductors: A strategy towards high performance organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; He, Yaowu; Li, Aiyuan; Zhang, Dongwei; Meng, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Solution processed small molecule polycrystalline thin films often suffer from the problems of inhomogeneity and discontinuity. Here, we describe a strategy to solve these problems through deposition of the active layer from a blended solution of crystalline (2-phenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene, Ph-BTBT) and liquid crystalline (2-(4-dodecylphenyl) [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, C12-Ph-BTBT) small molecule semiconductors with the hot spin-coating method. Organic thin film transistors with average hole mobility approaching 1 cm2/V s, much higher than that of single component devices, have been demonstrated, mainly due to the improved uniformity, continuity, crystallinity, and stronger intermolecular π-π stacking in blend thin films. Our results indicate that the crystalline/liquid crystalline semiconductor blend method is an effective way to enhance the performance of organic transistors.

  19. A multiple multicomponent approach to chimeric peptide-peptoid podands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniel G; León, Fredy; Concepción, Odette; Morales, Fidel E; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-05-10

    The success of multi-armed, peptide-based receptors in supramolecular chemistry traditionally is not only based on the sequence but equally on an appropriate positioning of various peptidic chains to create a multivalent array of binding elements. As a faster, more versatile and alternative access toward (pseudo)peptidic receptors, a new approach based on multiple Ugi four-component reactions (Ugi-4CR) is proposed as a means of simultaneously incorporating several binding and catalytic elements into organizing scaffolds. By employing α-amino acids either as the amino or acid components of the Ugi-4CRs, this multiple multicomponent process allows for the one-pot assembly of podands bearing chimeric peptide-peptoid chains as appended arms. Tripodal, bowl-shaped, and concave polyfunctional skeletons are employed as topologically varied platforms for positioning the multiple peptidic chains formed by Ugi-4CRs. In a similar approach, steroidal building blocks with several axially-oriented isocyano groups are synthesized and utilized to align the chimeric chains with conformational constrains, thus providing an alternative to the classical peptido-steroidal receptors. The branched and hybrid peptide-peptoid appendages allow new possibilities for both rational design and combinatorial production of synthetic receptors. The concept is also expandable to other multicomponent reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Sorption of Organic Liquids in Poly(ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene) Halar®901: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randová, A.; Bartovská, L.; Pilnáček, Kryštof; Lanč, M.; Vopička, O.; Matějka, P.; Izák, Pavel; Kárászová, Magda; Macedonio, F.; Figoli, A.; Drioli, E.; Jansen, J.C.; Di Nicolò, E.; Friess, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, APR 1 (2017), s. 199-207 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic liquid sorption * poly(ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene) Halar®901 * sorption-predictive methods Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  1. Application of the Monte Carlo method to the study of the response of an organic liquid scintillator irradiated by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Corinne.

    1982-10-01

    The Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate the transport of a photon beam in an organic liquid scintillation detector. The interactions of secondary gamma rays and electrons with the detector and its peripheral materials components such as the pyrex glass container are included. The pulse height spectra and the detectors efficiency are compared with calculated and measured results. Calculations and programmation methods are presented in the same way as results concerning cobalt and cesium sources [fr

  2. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Faezeh [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin-Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Deyhimi, Farzad, E-mail: f-deyhimi@sbu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin-Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution ({gamma}{sup {infinity}}) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment ({mu}) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 {gamma}{sub Solute}{sup {infinity}}for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R{sup 2}) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  3. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, Faezeh; Deyhimi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ ∞ ) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment (μ) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 γ Solute ∞ for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R 2 ) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  4. A complementary organic inverter of porphyrazine thin films: low-voltage operation using ionic liquid gate dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Miyoshi, Yasuhito; Matsushita, Michio M; Awaga, Kunio

    2011-05-28

    We studied a complementary organic inverter consisting of a p-type semiconductor, metal-free phthalocyanine (H(2)Pc), and an n-type semiconductor, tetrakis(thiadiazole)porphyrazine (H(2)TTDPz), operated through the ionic-liquid gate dielectrics of N,N-diethyl-N-methyl(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEME-TFSI). This organic inverter exhibits high performance with a very low operation voltage below 1.0 V and a dynamic response up to 20 Hz. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.; Qaisi, R.M.; Logan, B.E.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using

  6. Decomposition of halogenated organic chemicals in ionic liquid by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Kojima, T.; Nagaishi, R.; Hiratsuka, H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Halogenated organic chemicals such as polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorobiphenyls and hexachlorobenzene are widely spread in water environment. These pollutants are persistent against advanced oxidation treatments such as ozone/UV, ozone/hydrogen peroxide, ionizing radiation and photocatalysts. The ionizing radiation, however, can also produce homogeneously and quantitatively reducing species in water. On the other hand, room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have unique properties such as nonflammable, high polarity, low melting point, hydrophobicity and wide electrochemical window. The combined method of reduction by ionizing radiation and RTILs is investigated as a new environmental conservation technology. Experimental: Chlorophenol (CP) is selected as model chemicals having the main frame of halogenated organic chemicals. Each o - , m - and p-CP were irradiated with 60 Co γ-ray in each diethylmethyl(2-methoxy-ethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMMA- TFSI), diethylmethyl(2-methoxyethyl)-ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMMA-BF4), methanol and ethanol as solvent. Decomposition of CP and formation of irradiation products were studied using HPLC, LC-MS and ion chromatography. Results and discussion: Concentration of CP in each solution decreased as a function of dose. G-value was estimated from the slope at the primary stage of the decomposition curve. The G(-CP) and G(Phenol) were shown in Table 1. G(-CP) in the aliphatic alcohols was 0.21 to 0.37, which is lower than G-value of reducing species in the alcohols, e.g. G=1.0 to 1.5 for solvated electron. Since the rate constant for reaction of CP with hydrated electron is 1.3 x 10 9 mol -1 ·dm 3 ·s -1 , the reverse reaction is considered to attribute. G(-CP) in DEMMA-TFSI or DEMMA-BF4 was about 2 to 3 times higher than that in each alcohol. Lifetime of the reducing species in RTILs would be longer than that in each alcohol. G(-CP) in DEMMA-TFSI decreased by adding acetone or oxygen

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Ionic Liquid, 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate, in Organic Solvents at T = 298.15K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaari, Hemayat; Zafarani-Moattar, Mohammed Taghi

    2008-04-01

    Apparent molar volumes, V_φ , and compressibilities, kappa _φ , of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) have been determined from precise density and speed-of-sound measurements in organic solvents, methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (MeCN), tetrahydrofuran (THF), N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in the dilute region of the ionic liquid. Corresponding values at infinite dilution are estimated by the Redlich-Mayer and Pitzer equations. The results have been interpreted by the interaction of the [BMIm][BF4] in the organic solvents. Results show that the structure and dielectric constant of the organic solvents play an important role for the ion-solvent interactions in these mixtures. It was found that the strength of interaction between [BMIm][BF4] with the studied organic solvents has the order DMSO > DMA > MeOH > MeCN > THF.

  8. Liquid-liquid extraction of ruthenium(III) thiocyanate with hexamethylphosphoramide: direct spectrophotometric determination in the organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, B.K.; Pal, B.K.; Chowdhury, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Ru(III) thiocyanate has been extracted with hexamethylphosphoramide(HMPA) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Thus the extractability, sensitivity and selectivity are improved over the simple binary Ru(III) thiocyanate system in spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium in the organic phase. The maximum colour develops on the steam bath, at the acidity range of 1.5 - 2.5 M with HCl and ammonium thiocyanate concentration range of 0.25 - O.5 M. The colour is completely extractable in MIBK when 1.5 - 3.0 ml HMPA is used and show maximum absorbance at 570 nm. The colour system obeys Beer's law for 0.7 - 13 μg Ru/ml and the optimum concentration range is 2 - 13 μg/ml. The molar absorptivity and sensitivity are 6940 l . mole -1 cm -1 and 0.0145 μg/cm 2 respectively. The percent relative error is 2.72%. The method is very simple and does not require oxidation and subsequent distillation. The method can be applied in the presence of osmium. (Author)

  9. Phase equilibria of didecyldimethylammonium nitrate ionic liquid with water and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Lugowska, Katarzyna; Pernak, Juliusz

    2007-01-01

    The phase diagrams for binary mixtures of an ammonium ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium nitrate, [DDA][NO 3 ], with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, and decan-1-ol): hydrocarbons (toluene, propylbenzene, hexane, and hexadecane) and with water were determined in our laboratory. The phase equilibria were measured by a dynamic method from T 220 K to either the melting point of the ionic liquid, or to the boiling point of the solvent. A simple liquidus curve in a eutectic system was observed for [DDA][NO 3 ] with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and octan-1-ol); aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene and propylbenzene) and with water. (Solid + liquid) equilibria with immiscibility in the liquid phase were detected with the aliphatic hydrocarbons heptane and hexadecane and with decan-1-ol. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for the system [DDA][NO 3 ] with hexadecane was observed for the whole mole fraction range of the ionic liquid. The observation of the upper critical solution temperature in binary mixtures of ([DDA][NO 3 ] + decan-1-ol, heptane, or hexadecane) was limited by the boiling temperature of the solvent. Characterisation and purity of the compounds were determined by elemental analysis, water content (Fisher method) and differential scanning microcalorimetry (d.s.c.) analysis. The d.s.c. method of analysis was used to determine melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion. The thermal stability of the ionic liquid was resolved by the thermogravimetric technique-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) technique over a wide temperature range from (200 to 780) K. The thermal decomposition temperature of 50% of the sample was greater than 500 K. The (solid + liquid) phase equilibria, curves were correlated by means of different G Ex models utilizing parameters derived from the (solid + liquid) equilibrium. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all calculated data are dependent upon the particular system and the particular

  10. Specificity Switching Pathways in Thermal and Mass Evaporation of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Droplets: A Mesoscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Rasoul; Luo, Kai H

    2017-07-10

    For well over one century, the Hertz-Knudsen equation has established the relationship between thermal - mass transfer coefficients through a liquid - vapour interface and evaporation rate. These coefficients, however, have been often separately estimated for one-component equilibrium systems and their simultaneous influences on evaporation rate of fuel droplets in multicomponent systems have yet to be investigated at the atomic level. Here we first apply atomistic simulation techniques and quantum/statistical mechanics methods to understand how thermal and mass evaporation effects are controlled kinetically/thermodynamically. We then present a new development of a hybrid method of quantum transition state theory/improved kinetic gas theory, for multicomponent hydrocarbon systems to investigate how concerted-distinct conformational changes of hydrocarbons at the interface affect the evaporation rate. The results of this work provide an important physical concept in fundamental understanding of atomistic pathways in topological interface transitions of chain molecules, resolving an open problem in kinetics of fuel droplets evaporation.

  11. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jun; Li, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. • 12 C/ 13 C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 12 C/ 13 C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The 12 C-/ 13 C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the possibility of generating a

  12. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jun; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. •{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The {sup 12}C-/{sup 13}C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the

  13. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  14. Multicomponent isotopic separation and recirculation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer program for design of multicomponent distillation columns has been developed based on an exact method of solution of the governing equations. Although this computer program was developed for enrichment of the spent fuels from presently conceived tokamak-type fusion power reactors by cryogenic distillation, the program can be used for the design of any multicomponent distillation column, provided, of course, the necessary thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data are available. To prove the versatility of the computer program, parametric investigations to study the effect of design and operating variables on the composition of the product streams was carried out for the case of separating hydrogen isotopes. The computer program is very efficient; hence, a number of parametric investigations can be carried out with limited resources. The program does, however, require a fairly large computer storage space

  15. Application of self-organizing feature maps to analyze the relationships between ignitable liquids and selected mass spectral ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Williams, Mary R; Waddell, Erin E; Sigman, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    The unsupervised artificial neural networks method of self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) is applied to spectral data of ignitable liquids to visualize the grouping of similar ignitable liquids with respect to their American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) class designations and to determine the ions associated with each group. The spectral data consists of extracted ion spectra (EIS), defined as the time-averaged mass spectrum across the chromatographic profile for select ions, where the selected ions are a subset of ions from Table 2 of the ASTM standard E1618-11. Utilization of the EIS allows for inter-laboratory comparisons without the concern of retention time shifts. The trained SOFM demonstrates clustering of the ignitable liquid samples according to designated ASTM classes. The EIS of select samples designated as miscellaneous or oxygenated as well as ignitable liquid residues from fire debris samples are projected onto the SOFM. The results indicate the similarities and differences between the variables of the newly projected data compared to those of the data used to train the SOFM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method.

  17. Optimization of dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of glucocorticoid residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Zheng, Zhiqun; Huang, Liying; Yao, Hong; Wu, Xiao Shan; Li, Shaoguang; Lin, Dandan

    2017-05-10

    A rapid, simple, cost-effective dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop (SFOD-LPME) was developed in this study. Along with high-performance liquid chromatography, we used the developed approach to determine and enrich trace amounts of four glucocorticoids, namely, prednisone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, and cortisone acetate, in animal-derived food. We also investigated and optimized several important parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of SFOD-LPME. These parameters include the extractant species, volumes of extraction and dispersant solvents, sodium chloride addition, sample pH, extraction time and temperature, and stirring rate. Under optimum experimental conditions, the calibration graph exhibited linearity over the range of 1.2-200.0ng/ml for the four analytes, with a reasonable linearity(r 2 : 0.9990-0.9999). The enrichment factor was 142-276, and the detection limits was 0.39-0.46ng/ml (0.078-0.23μg/kg). This method was successfully applied to analyze actual food samples, and good spiked recoveries of over 81.5%-114.3% were obtained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Separation/preconcentration and determination of vanadium with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Tahereh; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji

    2010-06-30

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) for separation/preconcentration of ultra trace amount of vanadium and its determination with the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. The DLLME-SFO behavior of vanadium (V) using N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) as complexing agent was systematically investigated. The factors influencing the complex formation and extraction by DLLME-SFO method were optimized. Under the optimized conditions: 100 microL, 200 microL and 25 mL of extraction solvent (1-undecanol), disperser solvent (acetone) and sample volume, respectively, an enrichment factor of 184, a detection limit (based on 3S(b)/m) of 7 ng L(-1) and a relative standard deviation of 4.6% (at 500 ng L(-1)) were obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for vanadium was linear from 20 to 1000 ng L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method was successfully applied for the determination of vanadium in water and parsley. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionic liquid – Assisted emulsion polymerization of aniline in organic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calheiros, Loan F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoléculas, 21941-598, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Soares, Bluma G., E-mail: bluma@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEMM-COPPE, Centro de Tecnologia, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoléculas, 21941-598, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barra, Guilherme M.O. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Mechanical Engineering Department, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Livi, Sébastien [Université de Lyon, F-69003, Lyon (France); INSA Lyon, F-69621, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR 5223, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (France)

    2016-08-15

    Polyaniline doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (PAni.DBSA) with different conductivities and morphologies was prepared by inverted emulsion polymerization, in toluene using ammonium peroxydisulfate as the oxidizing agent, in the presence of two different imidazolium – based ionic liquids, such as, 1-methyl-3-butyl imidazolium tetrafluorate (bmim.BF{sub 4}) and 1-(11-carboxyundecyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (mimC{sub 10}COOH.Br). The influence of ionic liquid on the morphology and particle size of formed PAni.DBSA samples was investigated by field emission - scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Ultraviolet–visible measurements were also employed to confirm the structure of the conducting polymer. PAni.DBSA samples were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PAni.DBSA samples prepared in the presence of ionic liquids have shown improved dispersability in epoxy resin as indicated by optical micrograph. - Highlights: • Imidazolium-based ionic liquids as soft templates for polyaniline synthesis. • PAni with higher conductivity and different morphologies was achieved in the presence of IL. • Good IL/aniline salt interaction resulted in confinement inside PAni particles. • IL confinement confirmed by TGA and XPS analyses. • Excellent dispersability of PAni. DBSA prepared with ionic liquids, in epoxy matrix.

  20. Water/ionic liquid/organic three-phase interfacial synthesis of coral-like polypyrrole toward enhanced electrochemical capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Linrui; Yuan Changzhou; Li Diankai; Yang Long; Shen Laifa; Zhang Fang; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Interfacial synthesis strategies are proposed to synthesize PPy samples. → Water/ionic liquid /organic three-phase interface for preparing coral-like PPy. → Coral-like PPy with more ordered structure and better electronic conductivity. → Coral-like PPy owns higher rate performance and better electrochemical stability. - Abstract: Two interfacial synthesis strategies are proposed to synthesize polypyrrole samples for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). In contrast to water/organic two-phase route, unique water/ionic liquid (IL)/organic three-phase interface strategy is first performed to prepare coral-like polypyrrole with even better electrochemical capacitance, where 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate IL, as a 'buffering zone', is set between the water and organic phases to control the morphology and micro-structure of the polypyrrole phase during polymerization. The polypyrrole synthesized by three-phase interfacial route owns more ordered structure, less charge transfer resistance and better electronic conductivity, compared with two-phase method, and delivers larger specific capacitance, higher rate performance and better electrochemical stability at large current densities in 3 M KCl aqueous electrolyte.

  1. "Self-Shaping" of Multicomponent Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, Diana; Valkova, Zhulieta; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Smoukov, Stoyan K

    2017-06-13

    In our recent study we showed that single-component emulsion drops, stabilized by proper surfactants, can spontaneously break symmetry and transform into various polygonal shapes during cooling [ Denkov Nature 2015 , 528 , 392 - 395 ]. This process involves the formation of a plastic rotator phase of self-assembled oil molecules beneath the drop surface. The plastic phase spontaneously forms a frame of plastic rods at the oil drop perimeter which supports the polygonal shapes. However, most of the common substances used in industry appear as mixtures of molecules rather than pure substances. Here we present a systematic study of the ability of multicomponent emulsion drops to deform upon cooling. The observed trends can be summarized as follows: (1) The general drop-shape evolution for multicomponent drops during cooling is the same as with single-component drops; however, some additional shapes are observed. (2) Preservation of the particle shape upon freezing is possible for alkane mixtures with chain length difference Δn ≤ 4; for greater Δn, phase separation within the droplet is observed. (3) Multicomponent particles prepared from alkanes with Δn ≤ 4 plastify upon cooling due to the formation of a bulk rotator phase within the particles. (4) If a compound, which cannot induce self-shaping when pure, is mixed with a certain amount of a compound which induces self-shaping, then drops prepared from this mixture can also self-shape upon cooling. (5) Self-emulsification phenomena are also observed for multicomponent drops. In addition to the three recently reported mechanisms of self-emulsification [ Tcholakova Nat. Commun. 2017 , ( 8 ), 15012 ], a new (fourth) mechanism is observed upon freezing for alkane mixtures with Δn > 4. It involves disintegration of the particles due to a phase separation of alkanes upon freezing.

  2. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Multi-target determination of organic ultraviolet absorbents in organism tissues by ultrasonic assisted extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xianzhi; Jin, Jiabin; Wang, Chunwei; Ou, Weihui; Tang, Caiming

    2015-03-06

    A sensitive and reliable method was developed for multi-target determination of 13 most widely used organic ultraviolet (UV) absorbents (including UV filters and UV stabilizers) in aquatic organism tissues. The organic UV absorbents were extracted using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, purified via gel permeation chromatography coupled with silica gel column chromatography, and determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries of the UV absorbents from organism tissues mostly ranged from 70% to 120% from fish filet with satisfactory reproducibility. Method quantification limits were 0.003-1.0ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) except for 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate. This method has been applied to analysis of the UV absorbents in wild and farmed aquatic organisms collected from the Pearl River Estuary, South China. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and UV-P were frequently detected in both wild and farmed marine organisms at low ngg(-1)dw. 3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor and most of the benzotriazole UV stabilizers were also frequently detected in maricultured fish. Octocrylene and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate were not detected in any sample. This work lays basis for in-depth study about bioaccumulation and biomagnification of the UV absorbents in marine environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation

  5. Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zero-field form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Microextraction Techniques Coupled to Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organic Micropollutants in Environmental Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Esther Torres Padrón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid–liquid extraction (LLE, that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive, time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies able to perform direct analyses using miniaturised equipment, thereby achieving high enrichment factors, minimising solvent consumption and reducing waste. These microextraction techniques improve the performance during sample preparation, particularly in complex water environmental samples, such as wastewaters, surface and ground waters, tap waters, sea and river waters. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS techniques can be used when analysing a broad range of organic micropollutants. Before separating and detecting these compounds in environmental samples, the target analytes must be extracted and pre-concentrated to make them detectable. In this work, we review the most recent applications of microextraction preparation techniques in different water environmental matrices to determine organic micropollutants: solid-phase microextraction SPME, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME, stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME. Several groups of compounds are considered organic micropollutants because these are being released continuously into the environment. Many of these compounds are considered emerging contaminants. These analytes are generally compounds that are not covered by the existing regulations and are now detected more frequently in different environmental compartments. Pharmaceuticals, surfactants, personal care products and other chemicals are considered micropollutants. These

  7. Molecular motions in a viscous organic liquid: ferrocene in cold butyl phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, S.L.; Zabransky, B.J.; Flinn, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    The two main purposes of this work were to learn (a) if rotational diffusion can be seen along with translational, and (b) is [x(T) 2 ] unusual as the sample is heated from a glass to a liquid. Our observations show that (a) rotational molecular diffusion is not likely ever to be observed by quadrupole relaxation and (b) that there is indeed a fast increase in [x 2 ] above T/sub g/. This increase is correlated with a rapid and linear increase of the number of ''soft modes'' for the liquid above the glass transition temperature

  8. Ionic liquids as transesterification catalysts: applications for the synthesis of linear and cyclic organic carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Selva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ionic liquids (ILs as organocatalysts is reviewed for transesterification reactions, specifically for the conversion of nontoxic compounds such as dialkyl carbonates to both linear mono-transesterification products or alkylene carbonates. An introductory survey compares pros and cons of classic catalysts based on both acidic and basic systems, to ionic liquids. Then, innovative green syntheses of task-specific ILs and their representative applications are introduced to detail the efficiency and highly selective outcome of ILs-catalyzed transesterification reactions. A mechanistic hypothesis is discussed by the concept of cooperative catalysis based on the dual (electrophilic/nucleophilic activation of reactants.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of dissolved organic matter from low-level radioactive waste leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, F.; Elchuk, S.; Walker, Z.H.

    1996-01-01

    Leachates from a waste degradation experiment, containing ∼700-3700 mg C/I of dissolved organic matter (DOM), were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography (LC), using various separation strategies. Scaling up of the separation scheme to a semi-preparative scale, suitable for hyphenated techniques, was also investigated. Separations with reversed-phase columns suggested that ∼70-93% of the DOM was hydrophilic, and ion-pair chromatography of this fraction showed the presence of several discrete compounds. Labile and non-labile complexes were formed by adding 60 Co radiotracer. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that the DOM was primarily in the <1000-1500 Da molecular mass range. (author)

  10. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture

  11. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu [Palo Alto, CA; Ly, Jennifer [San Jose, CA; Aldajani, Tiem [San Jose, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  12. Fabrication of highly co2 selective metal organic framework membrane using liquid phase epitaxy approach

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments include a method of making a metal organic framework membrane comprising contacting a substrate with a solution including a metal ion and contacting the substrate with a solution including an organic ligand, sufficient to form one

  13. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martínez-Alcántara

    Full Text Available Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L. grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95% ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency.

  14. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO{sub 2} Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngjune [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City (China); Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Petit, Camille, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    CO{sub 2} capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO{sub 2} capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO{sub 2} capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO{sub 2} capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO{sub 2} capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO{sub 2}-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO{sub 2}-binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO{sub 2} capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO{sub 2} capture media.

  15. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUNGJUNE ePARK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions, as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include: Ionic Liquids (ILs, CO2-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO2 capture media.

  16. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Petit, Camille

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO 2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO 2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO 2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO 2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO 2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO 2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO 2 -triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO 2 -binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO 2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO 2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO 2 capture media.

  17. Oxidizing purification of liquid radioactive waste from organic substances and radionuclides by K permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    The basic opportunity of the oxidizing purification of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) with the use of a water solution of potassium permanganate for the preliminary preparation of LRW at a stage prior to the evaporating devices of the Chernobyl NPP is shown

  18. Influence of process parameters to composite interface organization and performance of liquid/solid bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, S F; Zhu, Y C; Wu, Y H; Yang, P H; Duan, X L; Zhou, H T

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-solid composite technique was used to prepare the high carbon high chromium steel (HCHCS) and low alloy steel (LCS) bimetal composite materials by means of insert casting method. The influence of some process parameters such as liquid-solid ratio, preheat temperature, pouring temperature on the interface microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. Interface microstructure and element distribution were analyzed. The results show that the interface microstructure becomes better, and bonding area becomes thicker with the increase of the volume of liquid to solid ratio, preheating temperature and pouring temperature. When the liquid-solid ratio is 8:1, the preheating temperature is 300 °C and the pouring temperature is 1565 °C, a good metallurgical bonding area without any hole can be obtained with the interface combination of diffusion and fusion. The composite interface structure was composed of a core material diffusion layer, a cooling solidification layer, a direction growth layer and some cell particles. The elements of C, Cr and Mn diffuse from the HCHCS side to the alloy steel side. The microhardness increased in the gradient from the LCS side to the HCHCS. The microhardness of the interface is significantly higher than that of LCS. (paper)

  19. Microwave super-heated boiling of organic liquids: Origin, effect and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, F.; Esveld, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the state of the art of the microwave super-heated boiling phenomenon. When a liquid is heated by microwaves, the temperature increases rapidly to reach a steady temperature while refluxing. It happens that this steady state temperature can be up to 40 K higher than the boiling

  20. Branched and Cyclic Alkyl Groups in Imidazolium - Based Ionic Liquids: Molecular Organization and Physico - chemical Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andresová, Adéla; Storch, Jan; Traikia, M.; Wagner, Zdeněk; Bendová, Magdalena; Husson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 371, JUN 15 (2014), s. 41-49 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12032 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * sythesis * density Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2014

  1. Range-energy relations and stopping powers of organic liquids and vapours for alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan-Rezayat, A.; Palmer, R.B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in methyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in both the liquid and vapour phases. Stopping power values for these materials and for oxygen gas over the energy range 1.0-8.0 MeV are also given. From these results stopping powers have been derived for the -CH 2 -group and for -Cl occurring in chemical combination in the liquid and vapour phases. The molecular stopping power in the vapour phase is shown to exceed that in the liquid phase by 2-6% below 2 MeV, reducing to negligible differences at about 5 MeV for the materials directly investigated and for the -Cl atom. No significant phase effect is observed for the -CH 2 -group, but it is noted that the uncertainties in the values of the derived stopping powers are much greater in this case. Comparison of the experimental molecular stopping powers with values calculated from elemental values using the Bragg additivity rule shows agreement for vapours but not for liquids. (author)

  2. Fabrication of highly co2 selective metal organic framework membrane using liquid phase epitaxy approach

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-28

    Embodiments include a method of making a metal organic framework membrane comprising contacting a substrate with a solution including a metal ion and contacting the substrate with a solution including an organic ligand, sufficient to form one or more layers of a metal organic framework on a substrate. Embodiments further include a defect-free metal organic framework membrane comprising MSiF6(pyz)2, wherein M is a metal, wherein the thickness of the membrane is less than 1,000 µm, and wherein the metal organic has a growth orientation along the [110] plane relative to a substrate.

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) using Cyanex 272 in toluene from sodium salicylate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madane, Namdev S.; Nikam, Gurunath H.; Jadhav, Deepali V.; Mohite, Baburao S.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of U(VI) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in toluene has been carried out. Uranium(VI) was quantitatively extracted from 1 x 10 -3 M sodium salicylate with 5 x 10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in toluene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 1M HCl and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 660 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium salicylate, extractant, diluents, metal ion and strippants have been studied. Separation of uranium(VI) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method was extended to determination of uranium(VI) in geological samples. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ± 2%). (author)

  4. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    . Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans......-ferred to an ionic liquid system for the purpose of improving solubility of the polar substrate and avoiding the application of organic solvents. From screening experiments, it was evident that only methyltrioctylammonium triflouroacetate (tO-MA·TFA) could provide a proper reaction environment for production...... of ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  5. Application of Light Reflection Visualization for Measuring Organic-Liquid Saturation for Two-Phase Systems in Two-Dimensional Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Erica L; Brusseau, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    A simple, noninvasive imaging technique was used to obtain in situ measurements of organic-liquid saturation in a two-phase system under dynamic conditions. Efficacy of the light reflection visualization (LRV) imaging method was tested through comparison of measured and known volumes of organic liquid for experiments conducted with a two-dimensional flow cell. Two sets of experiments were conducted, with source-zone configurations representing two archetypical residual-and-pool architectures. LRV measurements were collected during the injection of organic liquid and during a dissolution phase induced by water flushing. There was a strong correlation between measured and known organic-liquid volumes, with the LRV-measured values generally somewhat lower than the known volumes. Errors were greater for the system wherein organic liquid was present in multiple zones comprised of porous media of different permeabilities, and for conditions of multiphase flow. This method proved effective at determining organic-liquid distribution in a two-phase system using minimal specialized equipment.

  6. Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions of organic solutes in solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids: “Structure-property” relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A., E-mail: vma.ksu@gmail.com; Khachatrian, Artashes A.; Akhmadeev, Bulat S.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of organic solutes in imidazolium based ionic liquids were measured. • van der Waals interactions scale of imidazolium based ionic liquids was proposed. • Enthalpies of solvation of organic solutes in ionic liquids were determined. • Hydrogen bond enthalpies of organic solutes with ionic liquids were calculated. • Relationships between structure of ionic liquids and thermochemical data were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work thermochemistry of intermolecular interactions of organic compounds in solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) has been studied using solution calorimetry method. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of non-polar (alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons) and polar (alcohols, amides, and etc.) organic solutes in two ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate were measured at 298.15 K. The scale of van der Waals interactions of imidazolium based ILs has been proposed on the basis of solution enthalpies of n-alkanes in their media. The effect of the cation and anion structure of ILs on the enthalpies of solvation was analyzed. Enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of organic solutes with imidazolium based ILs were determined. It has been shown that these values are close to zero for proton acceptor solutes. At the same time, enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of proton donor solutes with ionic liquids are increased depending the anion: tetrafluoroborate ≈ bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide < 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate < trifluoromethanesulfonate. Enthalpies of van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding in the solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids were compared with the same data for molecular solvents.

  7. Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions of organic solutes in solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids: “Structure-property” relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Khachatrian, Artashes A.; Akhmadeev, Bulat S.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of organic solutes in imidazolium based ionic liquids were measured. • van der Waals interactions scale of imidazolium based ionic liquids was proposed. • Enthalpies of solvation of organic solutes in ionic liquids were determined. • Hydrogen bond enthalpies of organic solutes with ionic liquids were calculated. • Relationships between structure of ionic liquids and thermochemical data were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work thermochemistry of intermolecular interactions of organic compounds in solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) has been studied using solution calorimetry method. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of non-polar (alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons) and polar (alcohols, amides, and etc.) organic solutes in two ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate were measured at 298.15 K. The scale of van der Waals interactions of imidazolium based ILs has been proposed on the basis of solution enthalpies of n-alkanes in their media. The effect of the cation and anion structure of ILs on the enthalpies of solvation was analyzed. Enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of organic solutes with imidazolium based ILs were determined. It has been shown that these values are close to zero for proton acceptor solutes. At the same time, enthalpies of hydrogen bonding of proton donor solutes with ionic liquids are increased depending the anion: tetrafluoroborate ≈ bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide < 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate < trifluoromethanesulfonate. Enthalpies of van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding in the solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids were compared with the same data for molecular solvents.

  8. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo S; Silva, Luiz A J; Sousa, Raquel M F; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L(-1) HClO4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the degradation of liquid-organic radioactive wastes by electrochemical methods; Estudio de la degradacion de desechos liquidos-organicos radiactivos mediante metodos electroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, J. I.

    2015-07-01

    In this study degradation studies were performed on blank samples, in which two electrochemical cells with different electrodes were used, the first is constituted by mesh electrodes Ti/Ir-Ta/Ti and the second by rod electrodes Ti/Ddb, using as reference an electrolytic medium of scintillation liquid and scintillation liquid more water, applying different potentials ranging from 1 to 25 V. After obtaining the benchmarks, the treatment was applied to samples containing organic liquid radioactive waste, in this case a short half-life radioisotope as Sulfur-35, the degradation characterization of organic compounds was performed in infrared spectrometry. (Author)

  10. Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2012-02-01

    In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

  11. Influence of oxygen gas on characteristics of self-organized luminous pattern formation observed in an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Self-organized luminous pattern formation is observed in the liquid surface of an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode with a miniature helium flow. The factors affecting pattern formation are the gap length, discharge current, helium mass flow rate and polarity. The pattern shape depends on the conductivity and temperature of the liquid electrode. A variety of patterns were observed by changing the conductivity and temperature of the liquid. We clarified that the self-organized pattern formation depends on the amount of electronegative gas, such as oxygen, in the gas in the electrode gap. When an oxygen gas flow was fed to the liquid surface from the outside in an obliquely downward direction, namely, the amount of oxygen gas on the liquid surface was increased locally, self-organized pattern formation was observed in the region with the increased amount of oxygen gas. When the amount of oxygen in the gas in the gap was changed by using a sheath flow system, the appearance of the pattern changed. The presence of oxygen gas strongly affected the self-organized pattern formation of the atmospheric dc discharge using a liquid anode. (paper)

  12. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  13. Use of molecular beams for the analysis of liquid and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.; Giroud, Josiane.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical composition of every solid can be determined by the M.B.S.A. method (Molecular Beam Surface Analysis). The method was used to analyze deposits on a filter paper, obtained by evaporation of a liquid solution, as well a liquid films with very low evaporation rate (dioctyl-azelate for instance). The S.C.I.C. method (Separation of Ions by Collision) was used to know exactly the composition of ions of fixed mass, separated by an electromagnet. The separated ions collide a target gas (helium or argon); apart of them are dissociated and the composition and structure of the primary ions can be deduced from the kinetic energy of the dissociated ions. Results obtained from such analysis of a thin film of baryum acetate on a platinum substrate are given [fr

  14. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices)

  15. Partitioning behaviour of organic compounds between ionic liquids and supercritical fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1216, č. 10 (2009), s. 1861-1880 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1465; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * review Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.101, year: 2009

  16. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate using gas-liquid chromatography at T = (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Eugene; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2010-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution were determined for 24 solutes: n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alcohols in the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [OMIM][PF 6 ], by gas-liquid chromatography at three different temperatures T = (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. The partial molar excess enthalpy values at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental data over the same temperature range. Capacities and selectivities at infinite dilution for the systems hexane/benzene and methanol/benzene were determined from the experimental data and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, as well as for industrial molecular solvents. The influence of the cation and anion of the ionic liquid on the activity coefficient is discussed, as well as the usefulness of [OMIM][PF 6 ] in separating organic liquids.

  17. Towards Molecular Characterization of Mineral-Organic Matter Interface Using In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Yu, X. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Organo-Mineral-Microbe interactions in terrestrial ecosystems are of great interest. Quite a few models have been developed through extensive efforts in this field. However, predictions from current models are far from being accurate, and many debates still exist. One of the major reasons is that most experimental data generated from bulk analysis, and the information of molecular dynamics occurring at mineral-organic matter interface is rare. Such information has been difficult to obtain, due to lack of suitable in situ analysis tools. Recently, we have developed in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory1, and it has shown promise to provide both elemental and molecular information at vacuum-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces.2 In this presentation, we demonstrate that in situ liquid SIMS can provide critical molecular information at solid substrate-live biofilm interface.3 Shewanella oneidensis is used as a model micro-organism and silicon nitride as a model mineral surface. Of particular interest, biologically relevant water clusters have been first observed in the living biofilms. Characteristic fragments of biofilm matrix components such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids can be molecularly examined. Furthermore, characteristic fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid), quinolone signal, and riboflavin fragments were found to respond after the biofilm is treated with Cr(VI), leading to biofilm dispersal. Significant changes in water clusters and quorum sensing signals indicative of intercellular communication in the aqueous environment were observed, suggesting that they might result in fatty acid synthesis and inhibition of riboflavin production. The Cr(VI) reduction seems to follow the Mtr pathway leading to Cr(III) formation. Our approach potentially opens a new avenue for in-situ understanding of mineral-organo or mineral-microbe interfaces using in situ liquid SIMS and super resolution fluorescence

  18. Biodegradation of Organic Liquid Waste by Using Consortium Bacteria as Material Preparation of Environmental Pollution Course Textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Dayu Rahma Turista

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic waste is one waste type which oftenly pollutes the waters. Biodegradation can be used as an environmental remedy solution that is contaminated by organic matter. This research aimed to determine the ability of bacteria consortium in degrading of organic liquid waste, and construct the textbook for Environmental Pollution subject based on research of biodegradation organic waste by using bacteria consortium. This research was done through two stages. The first stage was an experimental research by using Randomized Complete Designe with bacterial type treatment and 3 repetitions, while the second phase of research was a developmental research from the first stage. The results of the first phase showed that the combination of 3 indigenous isolats bacteria (Enterobacter gergoviae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Pseudomonas stutzeri was the highest potential bacteria in decreasing BOD (71.75% , COD (74.40%, TSS (58.44%, and increasing DO (84.15%. The second phase was Educational Research and Development of teaching materials which refers to the development model of Borg & Gall. The stages of research were: Research and Information Collecting, Planning, Develop Preliminary Form of Product, Preliminary Field Testing and Main Product Revision which was produced as textbook for the Environmental Pollution course entitled Biodegradation Organic Waste by Using Bacteria Consortium.

  19. Analyzing water soluble soil organics as Trifluoroacetyl derivatives by liquid state proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe Garza Sanchez; Zakiya Holmes Leggett; Sabapathy Sankar

    2005-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, water soluble organics play an important role in soil processes including carbon and nutrient turnover, microbial activity and pedogenesis. The quantity and quality (i.e., chemistry) of these materials is sensitive to land management practices. Monitoring alterations in the chemistry of water soluble organics resulting from land management...

  20. Nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution and soil organic matter sorption in porous media: review of system similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Edward; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Suresh, P.; Rao, C.; Delfino, Joseph J.

    2002-01-01

    We examine similarities in constraints to mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) between the aqueous and various organic phases in porous media at the grain scale. Published research and data are reviewed regarding equilibrium coefficients and first-order rate constants for mass

  1. Thermal and Optical Modulation of the Carrier Mobility in OTFTs Based on an Azo-anthracene Liquid Crystal Organic Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yantong; Li, Chao; Xu, Xiuru; Liu, Ming; He, Yaowu; Murtaza, Imran; Zhang, Dongwei; Yao, Chao; Wang, Yongfeng; Meng, Hong

    2017-03-01

    One of the most striking features of organic semiconductors compared with their corresponding inorganic counterparts is their molecular diversity. The major challenge in organic semiconductor material technology is creating molecular structural motifs to develop multifunctional materials in order to achieve the desired functionalities yet to optimize the specific device performance. Azo-compounds, because of their special photoresponsive property, have attracted extensive interest in photonic and optoelectronic applications; if incorporated wisely in the organic semiconductor groups, they can be innovatively utilized in advanced smart electronic applications, where thermal and photo modulation is applied to tune the electronic properties. On the basis of this aspiration, a novel azo-functionalized liquid crystal semiconductor material, (E)-1-(4-(anthracen-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(4-(decyloxy)phenyl)diazene (APDPD), is designed and synthesized for application in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The UV-vis spectra of APDPD exhibit reversible photoisomerizaton upon photoexcitation, and the thin films of APDPD show a long-range orientational order based on its liquid crystal phase. The performance of OTFTs based on this material as well as the effects of thermal treatment and UV-irradiation on mobility are investigated. The molecular structure, stability of the material, and morphology of the thin films are characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This study reveals that our new material has the potential to be applied in optical sensors, memories, logic circuits, and functional switches.

  2. Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongxia; Liu Xiaojun; Zeng Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.

  3. Phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.; Migal', V.M.; Tkachuk, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The method of two-time temperature-dependent Green's functions is used to investigate phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids. The equation obtained for the energy spectrum of the phonon excitations takes into account the damping associated with scattering of phonons by structure fluctuations. The quasicrystal approximation is considered, and as an example explicit expressions are obtained for the case of a two-component amorphous solid for the frequencies of the acoustical and optical modes and for the longitudinal and transverse velocities of sound. The damping is investigated

  4. Thermochemical modelling of multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, B.; Gueneau, C.

    2015-01-01

    Computational thermodynamic, also known as the Calphad method, is a standard tool in industry for the development of materials and improving processes and there is an intense scientific development of new models and databases. The calculations are based on thermodynamic models of the Gibbs energy for each phase as a function of temperature, pressure and constitution. Model parameters are stored in databases that are developed in an international scientific collaboration. In this way, consistent and reliable data for many properties like heat capacity, chemical potentials, solubilities etc. can be obtained for multi-component systems. A brief introduction to this technique is given here and references to more extensive documentation are provided. (authors)

  5. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  6. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Cristina; Mendiguchía, Carolina; Moreno, Carlos

    2018-04-15

    The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs). This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative-1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH) dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF)-was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample) to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids) and inorganic (chloride ions) ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient ( P ) or recovery efficiency (%R) and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  7. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vergel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs. This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative—1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF—was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids and inorganic (chloride ions ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient (P or recovery efficiency (%R and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  8. Facile preparation of organic-silica hybrid monolith for capillary hydrophilic liquid chromatography based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Luan; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zheng; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-04-05

    In this work, a one-step approach to facile preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths was successfully developed. After vinyl-end organic monomers and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were mixed with hydrolyzed tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), the homogeneous mixture was introduced into a fused-silica capillary for simultaneous polycondensation and "thiol-ene" click reaction to form the organic-silica hybrid monoliths. By employing this strategy, two types of organic-silica hybrid monoliths with positively charged quaternary ammonium and amide groups were prepared, respectively. The functional groups were successfully introduced onto the monoliths during the sol-gel process with "thiol-ene" click reaction, which was demonstrated by ζ-potential assessment, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The porous structure of the prepared monolithic columns was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. These results indicate the prepared organic-silica hybrid monoliths possess homogeneous column bed, large specific surface area, good mechanical stability, and excellent permeability. The prepared monolithic columns were then applied for anion-exchange/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Different types of analytes, including benzoic acids, inorganic ions, nucleosides, and nucleotides, were well separated with high column efficiency around 80,000-130,000 plates/m. Taken together, we present a facile and universal strategy to prepare organic-silica hybrid monoliths with a variety of organic monomers using one-step approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Catalytic cracking of bio-oil to organic liquid product (OLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, K L; Tamidi, A M; Yusup, S; Lee, K T; Ahmad, M M

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this paper is to find the optimum operating condition to upgrade the EFB-derived pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) to liquid fuel, mainly gasoline using Taguchi Method. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that the optimum operating condition for heterogeneous catalytic cracking process is at 400 degrees C, 15min of reaction time using 30g of catalyst weight where operating at this condition produced the highest yield of gasoline fraction which is 91.67 wt.%. This observation proves that EFB-derived pyrolysis oil could be upgraded via heterogeneous catalytic cracking to produce gasoline.

  10. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen; Helmi Keskinen; Mikko Aromaa; Mikael Järn; Tomi Kanerva; Erkki Levänen; Jyrki M. Mäkelä; Tapio Mäntylä

    2008-01-01

    The liquid flame spray (LFS) method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K) H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical compositi...

  11. Destruction of chlorine-containing organic agents in a system plasma - liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Ya.; Yukhymenko, V.V.; Babich, I.L.; Slyusarenko, Y.I.; Tarasova, Ya.B.

    2005-01-01

    The plasma chemical destruction of persistent toxic agent 1,1-di(4-chlorophenol)-2,2,2-threechlorethane (DDT) in water solutions is researched in this work. The destruction of agricultural pesticide containing DDT was carried out in water solution at atmospheric pressure with usage of plasma treatment on the basis of secondary discharges with a 'liquid' electrode, and of combination of a plasma method with reagent method. The comparative analysis of results of the physical-chemical analysis and biological test of toxicity of solutions is carried out and the optimum regimes for destruction and detoxication of DDT in water are determined

  12. Generation of thermodynamic data for organic liquid mixtures from molecular simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Peters, Günther H.j.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuation solution theory (FST) is employed to analyze results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid mixtures. The objective is to generate parameters for macroscopic thermodynamic property models. Two benchmark systems, benzene-methyl acetate at 303.15 K and benzene-ethanol at 298.......15 K, are used. MD simulations are performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble (NPT) at the respective temperatures and at a pressure of 1 atm. We use the CHARMM27 force field at different mixing ratios. We sample positions to determine the binary (between the centers-of-mass of molecules of a pair...

  13. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid, methyl(trioctyl)ammonium thiosalicylate, [N1888][TS] by gas-liquid chromatography at T = (303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Prashant; Gwala, Nobuhle V.; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ammonium ionic liquid selectivity value lower than for imidazolium ionic liquid. → Ammonium ionic liquids with smaller alkyl groups have higher selectivity values. → For the same cation the [TS] anion has a higher selectivity than the [NTf 2 ]. - Abstract: In this work, activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) have been obtained for 19 polar and non-polar organic solutes in the form of n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, 1-alkenes, 1-alkynes, aromatic compounds, and ketones in the ionic liquid methyl(trioctyl)ammonium thiosalicylate by gas-liquid chromatography at three different temperatures, i.e. T = (303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K. Two columns with different phase loadings of the ionic liquid in the stationary phase (25% and 30%) were employed to obtain γ 13 ∞ values at each temperature investigated. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution (ΔH 1 E,∞ ) were calculated for each of the solutes from the temperature dependency of the γ 13 ∞ values for the temperature range in this study. Selectivity values at infinite dilution (S ij ∞ ) were computed from the γ 13 ∞ values to screen the potential candidacy of the ionic liquid for the separation of n-hexane/benzene mixtures. The results from this study have been compared to those available for several other classes of ionic liquids and commercial solvents employed in solvent-enhanced industrial separation processes.

  14. Contact angle determination in multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmieschek, S.M.P.; Harting, J.D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Droplets on hydrophobic surfaces are ubiquitous in microfluidic applications and there exists a number of commonly used multicomponent and multiphase lattice Boltzmann schemes to study such systems. In this paper we focus on a popular implementation of a multicomponent model as introduced by Shan

  15. Temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Koval'chuk, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Method for calculating temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts is suggested. Application areas of existing methods were determined and advantages of the new method for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent-doped iron melts (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn, Fe-Mo-V) at 1773-2073 K are shown

  16. Capabilities and limitations of predictive engineering theories for multicomponent adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Sofie; Bjørner, Martin Gamel; Solbraa, Even

    2013-01-01

    for the prediction of multicomponent adsorption with parameters obtained solely from correlating single gas/solid data. We have tested them over an extensive database with emphasis on polar systems (both gases and solids). The three theories are the multicomponent Langmuir, the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST...

  17. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M.; Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E.; Munoz, Rodrigo A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L −1 HClO 4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  18. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil); Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science and the Environment, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester, M1 5GD, England (United Kingdom); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A., E-mail: raamunoz@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil)

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HClO{sub 4} (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  19. Growth of metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in capillary using liquid-phase epitaxy for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-02-13

    Much attention is being paid to applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as stationary phases in chromatography because of their fascinating properties, such as large surface-to-volume ratios, high levels of porosity, and selective adsorption. HKUST-1 is one of the best-studied face-centered-cubic MOF containing nano-sized channels and side pockets for film growth. However, growth of HKUST-1 framework inside capillary column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography is a challenge work. In this work, we carry out the growth of HKUST-1 on the inner wall of capillary by using liquid-phase epitaxy process at room temperature. The fabricated HKUST-1@capillary can be successfully used for the separation of substituted benzene including methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, benzene series, phenolic acids, and benzoic acids derivates. High column efficiency of 1.5×10(5) N/m for methylbenzene was achieved. The formation of HKUST-1 grown in the capillary was confirmed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy images, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction. The column showed long lifetime and excellent stability. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day repeatability of the HKUST-1@capillary were lower than 7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a

  1. Application of composite materials based on various extractants for isolation of lanthanides(III) nitrates from multicomponent aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Pyartman, A.K.; Kesnikov, V.A.; Pleshkov, M.A.; Exekov, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In present work we obtained samples of composite materials mentioned containing tributylphosphate (TBP) and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate (TAMAN). Extraction of lanthanides(III) nitrates of cerium group from multicomponent aqueous solutions by means of these materials was studied. Some systems with different concentration of sodium nitrate up to 5 mol/l and the same systems containing additions of sodium chloride or sulfate along with sodium nitrate was investigated, isotherm of extraction being obtained for all cases. Also we compared in identical conditions extraction process when liquid extractants were used and process with composite materials. It was found that traditional extraction systems and systems based on composite extractants demonstrated almost the same extraction properties in respect to lanthanides(III) nitrates. Extraction isotherms observed in identical conditions and being shown in the same coordinates had no difference with taking into account errors of experiment. This fact allow to use the same mathematical model for those systems. For systems studied it was generated mathematical model that is able to describe extraction process when component concentration vary in wide range, with assumption being used that ratio activity coefficients in organic phase stay constant. (authors)

  2. Developments in organic solid–liquid phase change materials and their applications in thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Ganesan, P.; Tyagi, V.V.; Metselaar, H.S.C.; Sandaran, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of organic phase change materials for thermal energy storage. • Review of the eutectic mixtures of organic PCMs. • Review of the techniques of PCM encapsulations and enhancing the thermal conductivity. • Applications of low and medium temperature organic PCMs are listed in detail. • Recommendations are made for future applications of organic PCMs. - Abstract: Thermal energy storage as sensible or latent heat is an efficient way to conserve the waste heat and excess energy available such as solar radiation. Storage of latent heat using organic phase change materials (PCMs) offers greater energy storage density over a marginal melting and freezing temperature difference in comparison to inorganic materials. These favorable characteristics of organic PCMs make them suitable in a wide range of applications. These materials and their eutectic mixtures have been successfully tested and implemented in many domestic and commercial applications such as, building, electronic devices, refrigeration and air-conditioning, solar air/water heating, textiles, automobiles, food, and space industries. This review focuses on three aspects: the materials, encapsulation and applications of organic PCMs, and provides an insight on the recent developments in applications of these materials. Organic PCMs have inherent characteristic of low thermal conductivity (0.15–0.35 W/m K), hence, a larger surface area is required to enhance the heat transfer rate. Therefore, attention is also given to the thermal conductivity enhancement of the materials, which helps to keep the area of the system to a minimum. Besides, various available techniques for material characterization have also been discussed. It has been found that a wide range of the applications of organic PCMs in buildings and other low and medium temperature solar energy applications are in abundant use but these materials are not yet popular among space applications and virtual data storage media. In

  3. Theory and Simulation of Multicomponent Osmotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaweera, Sadish; Gee, Moon Bae; Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E

    2012-05-28

    Most cellular processes occur in systems containing a variety of components many of which are open to material exchange. However, computer simulations of biological systems are almost exclusively performed in systems closed to material exchange. In principle, the behavior of biomolecules in open and closed systems will be different. Here, we provide a rigorous framework for the analysis of experimental and simulation data concerning open and closed multicomponent systems using the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions. The results are illustrated using computer simulations for various concentrations of the solutes Gly, Gly(2) and Gly(3) in both open and closed systems, and in the absence or presence of NaCl as a cosolvent. In addition, KB theory is used to help rationalize the aggregation properties of the solutes. Here one observes that the picture of solute association described by the KB integrals, which are directly related to the solution thermodynamics, and that provided by more physical clustering approaches are different. It is argued that the combination of KB theory and simulation data provides a simple and powerful tool for the analysis of complex multicomponent open and closed systems.

  4. Properties of Organic Liquids when Simulated with Long-Range Lennard-Jones Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nina M; van Maaren, Paul J; Ditz, Jonas C; Yildirim, Ahmet; van der Spoel, David

    2015-07-14

    In order to increase the accuracy of classical computer simulations, existing methodologies may need to be adapted. Hitherto, most force fields employ a truncated potential function to model van der Waals interactions, sometimes augmented with an analytical correction. Although such corrections are accurate for homogeneous systems with a long cutoff, they should not be used in inherently inhomogeneous systems such as biomolecular and interface systems. For such cases, a variant of the particle mesh Ewald algorithm (Lennard-Jones PME) was already proposed 20 years ago (Essmann et al. J. Chem. Phys. 1995, 103, 8577-8593), but it was implemented only recently (Wennberg et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 3527-3537) in a major simulation code (GROMACS). The availability of this method allows surface tensions of liquids as well as bulk properties to be established, such as density and enthalpy of vaporization, without approximations due to truncation. Here, we report on simulations of ≈150 liquids (taken from a force field benchmark: Caleman et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 61-74) using three different force fields and compare simulations with and without explicit long-range van der Waals interactions. We find that the density and enthalpy of vaporization increase for most liquids using the generalized Amber force field (GAFF, Wang et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1157-1174) and the Charmm generalized force field (CGenFF, Vanommeslaeghe et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2010, 31, 671-690) but less so for OPLS/AA (Jorgensen and Tirado-Rives, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 6665-6670), which was parametrized with an analytical correction to the van der Waals potential. The surface tension increases by ≈10(-2) N/m for all force fields. These results suggest that van der Waals attractions in force fields are too strong, in particular for the GAFF and CGenFF. In addition to the simulation results, we introduce a new version of a web server, http

  5. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  6. Positron Spur Reactions with Excess Electrons and Anions in Liquid Organic Mixtures of Electron Acceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lévay, B.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    By means of the positron lifetime technique we have measured positronium (Ps) yields in mixtures of nonpolar liquids with various electron scavengers which bind the electron fairly weakly (1–2 eV) in stable anions. The results are discussed with reference to recent excess electron works, and new...... experiments on anions and excess electrons are proposed. The minimum of the Ps yield versus CS2 concentration curves caused by partly delocalization of electrons on several scavenger molecules, which was observed previously in saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons occurred also in the saturated cyclic hydrocarbon...... cyclohexane, but did not appear in the aromatic benzene. This might be explained by the weak electron acceptor property of aromatics. In the Ps yield versus SF6 concentration curve in hexane a similar minimum appeared as in the CS2 case, probably by the same reason. By adding 0.8 M CS2 to the system...

  7. [Mechanism of the organic pollutant degradation in water by hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-nan; Ma, Jun; Yang, Shi-dong

    2007-09-01

    The method of hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge was investigated for the removal of phenol. The results indicate that this new method can remove phenol in water effectively. The removal rate increases with increasing voltage and air aeration. The production quantity of H2O2 and O3 is measured respectively in the discharge region and the production quantity increases with increasing of voltage and air aeration. The energy consumption analysis indicates that with increasing the voltage, the increase extent of the phenol removal rate is smaller than the energy's, so the increase of energy efficiency is very small. Air aeration increases the energy consumption. At the same time, a considerable part of energy in the overall input energy makes the temperature of the solution increase, and more energy is transformed into heat, which leads to the waste of energy.

  8. Synthesis of Amino Acid Precursors with Organic Solids in Planetesimals with Liquid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Y; Misawa, S.; Matsukuma, J.; Chan, Q. H. S.; Kobayashi, J.; Tachibana, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids are important ingredients of life that would have been delivered to Earth by extraterrestrial sources, e.g., comets and meteorites. Amino acids are found in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites in good part in the form of precursors that release amino acids after acid hydrolysis. Meanwhile, most of the organic carbon (greater than 70 weight %) in carbonaceous chondrites exists in the form of solvent insoluble organic matter (IOM) with complex macromolecular structures. Complex macromolecular organic matter can be produced by either photolysis of interstellar ices or aqueous chemistry in planetesimals. We focused on the synthesis of amino acids during aqueous alteration, and demonstrated one-pot synthesis of a complex suite of amino acids simultaneously with IOM via hydrothermal experiments simulating the aqueous processing

  9. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds and Ionic Liquids. Sublimation, Vaporization, and Fusion Enthalpies from 1880 to 2015. Part 2. C11-C192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2017-03-01

    The second part of this compendium concludes with a collection of phase change enthalpies of organic molecules inclusive of C11-C192 reported over the period 1880-2015. Also included are phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies for organometallic, ionic liquids, and a few inorganic compounds. Paper I of this compendium, published separately, includes organic compounds from C1 to C10 and describes a group additivity method for evaluating solid, liquid, and gas phase heat capacities as well as temperature adjustments of phase changes. Paper II of this compendium also includes an updated version of a group additivity method for evaluating total phase change entropies which together with the fusion temperature can be useful in estimating total phase change enthalpies. Other uses include application in identifying potential substances that either form liquid or plastic crystals or exhibit additional phase changes such as undetected solid-solid transitions or behave anisotropically in the liquid state.

  10. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and influence of interfacial adsorption using gas–liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Lin-Kun; Wang, Li-Sheng; Du, Chao-Jun; Wang, Xue-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in [HMIM][TFA] were determined. • The contribution of interfacial adsorption to the retention mechanism was estimated. • The partial molar excess enthalpies and the solubility parameters of [HMIM][TFA] were calculated. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for a series of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate ([HMIM][TFA]) have been determined by gas–liquid chromatography at the temperature range from (303.15 to 363.15) K. The contribution of interfacial adsorption to the retention mechanism was estimated by changing the loading of ionic liquid in stationary phase. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution and the solubility parameters of ionic liquid were also calculated from the experimental values of activity coefficients at infinite dilution

  11. Hybrid Glasses from Strong and Fragile Metal-Organic Framework Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Tan, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid glasses connect the emerging field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the glass formation, amorphization and melting processes of these chemically versatile systems. Though inorganic zeolites collapse around the glass transition and melt at higher temperatures, the relationship betwee...

  12. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  13. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université européenne de Bretagne (France); Guihéneuf, Solène, E-mail: solene.guiheneuf@wanadoo.fr [Université européenne de Bretagne, Université de Rennes 1, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR, CNRS 6226, Groupe Ingénierie Chimique & Molécules Pour le Vivant (ICMV), Bât. 10A, Campus de Beaulieu, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Le Guével, Rémy [Plate-forme ImPACcell Structure Fédérative de Recherche BIOSIT Université de Rennes 1, Bat. 8, Campus de Villejean, 2 Avenue du Pr. Leon Bernard, CS 34317, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biard, Pierre-François [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université européenne de Bretagne (France); and others

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Description of a VOC depollution system suitable with industrial processes, TPPB. • Novel association of TPPB and hydrophobic ionic liquids. • Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids designed to fit desired properties. • Toxicity evaluation of these ILs towards cells, animals and bacteria. - Abstract: Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF{sub 6}{sup −}, NTf{sub 2}{sup −} and NfO{sup −}. Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD{sub 28} of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1 mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation.

  14. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago; Guihéneuf, Solène; Le Guével, Rémy; Biard, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Description of a VOC depollution system suitable with industrial processes, TPPB. • Novel association of TPPB and hydrophobic ionic liquids. • Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids designed to fit desired properties. • Toxicity evaluation of these ILs towards cells, animals and bacteria. - Abstract: Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF_6"−, NTf_2"− and NfO"−. Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD_2_8 of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1 mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation.

  15. Effects of constituent ions of a phosphonium-based ionic liquid on molecular organization of H2O as probed by 1-propanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Takeshi; Miki, Kumiko; Ayako, Nitta

    2015-01-01

    on the basis of 1-propanol probing methodology devised by Koga et al. The resulting characterization of the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity is displayed on a two-dimensional map together with previous results, for a total of four cations and nine anions of typical ionic liquid (IL) constituents. The results......Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium trifluoroacetate, [P4444]CF3COO, exhibit a liquid-liquid phase transition with a lower critical solution temperature. Herein, we characterized the constituent ions, [P4444](+) and CF3COO(-), in terms of their effects on the molecular organization of H2O...

  16. Dissolved Organic Carbon in Leachate after Application of Granular and Liquid N-P-K Fertilizers to a Sugarcane Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, P A; Melland, A R; Antille, D L; Marchuk, S

    2018-05-01

    The progressive decline of soil organic matter (SOM) threatens the sustainability of arable cropping worldwide. Residue removal and burning, destruction of protected microsites, and the acceleration of microbial decomposition are key factors. Desorption of SOM by ammonia-based fertilizers from organomineral complexes in soil may also play a role. A urea- and molasses-based liquid fertilizer formulation and a urea-based granular formulation were applied at recommended and district practice rates, respectively, to soil leaching columns, with unfertilized columns used as controls. The chemistry of leachate collected from the columns, filled with two sandy soils differing in recent cropping history, was monitored over eight successive wet-dry drainage events. The pH, electrical conductivity, and concentration and species of N in leachate was compared with the concentration and aromaticity of dissolved organic C (DOC) to indicate if salt solutions derived from the two fertilizers extracted SOM from clay mineral sites. Cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations in the soil were monitored at the start and end of the trial. Fertilizer application increased DOC in leachate up to 40 times above the control, but reduced aromaticity (specific ultraviolet light absorbance at 253.7 nm). Dissolved organic C was linearly proportional to leachate NH-N concentration. Exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil from fertilized columns at the end of both trials were significantly lower than in unfertilized soil, indicating that ammonium salt solutions derived from the fertilizers extracted cations and variably charged organic matter from soil mineral exchange sites. Desorption of organic matter and divalent cations from organomineral sites by ammonia-based fertilizers may be implicated in soil acidification. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Chemical Characteristics of Organic Aerosols in Shanghai: A Study by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled With Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Hayeck, Nathalie; Brüggemann, Martin; Yao, Lei; Chen, Hangfei; Zhang, Ci; Emmelin, Corinne; Chen, Jianmin; George, Christian; Wang, Lin

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) filter samples were collected in July and October 2014 and January and April 2015 in urban Shanghai and analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The measured chromatogram-mass spectra were processed by a nontarget screening approach to identify significant signals. In total, 810-1,510 chemical formulas of organic compounds in the negative polarity (negative electrospray ionization (ESI-)) and 860-1,790 in the positive polarity (ESI+), respectively, were determined. The chemical characteristics of organic aerosols (OAs) in Shanghai varied among different months and between daytime and nighttime. In the January samples, organics were generally richer in terms of both number and abundance, whereas those in the July samples were far lower. More CHO- (compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and detected in ESI-) and CHOS- (sulfur-containing organics) were found in the daytime samples, suggesting a photochemical source, whereas CHONS- (nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics) were more abundant in the nighttime samples, due to nocturnal nitrate radical chemistry. A significant number of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds, and nitrogen- and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds, were detected in all samples, indicating that biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion made important contributions to the OAs in urban Shanghai. Additionally, precursor-product pair analysis indicates that the epoxide pathway is an important formation route for organosulfates observed in Shanghai. Moreover, a similar analysis suggests that 35-57% of nitrogen-containing compounds detected in ESI+ could be formed through reactions between ammonia and carbonyls. Our study presents a comprehensive overview of OAs in urban Shanghai, which helps to understand their characteristics and sources.

  18. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The vacuum pyrolysis–vacuum chlorinated separation system was proposed to recover the waste LCD panel. • The system can recycle the whole waste LCD panels efficiently without negative effects to environment. • The 82.03% of the organic materials was reclaimed. All pyrolysis products can be utilized by a reasonable way. • The separation of indium was optimized by the central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). • The recovery ratio of indium was further increased to 99.97%. -- Abstract: In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300 °C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH{sub 4}Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450 °C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  19. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography: Ion chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for separation of low-molar-mass organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.S.; Shellie, R.A.; Haddad, P.R.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the work presented here a novel approach to comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is evaluated. Ion chromatography is chosen for the first-dimension separation and reversed-phase liquid chromatography is chosen for the second-dimension separation mode. The coupling of these modes is

  20. Liquid Adsorption of Organic Compounds on Hematite α-Fe2O3 Using ReaxFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chung-Lim; Avendaño, Carlos; Siperstein, Flor R; Filip, Sorin

    2017-10-24

    ReaxFF-based molecular dynamics simulations are used in this work to study the effect of the polarity of adsorbed molecules in the liquid phase on the structure and polarization of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). We compared the adsorption of organic molecules with different polarities on a rigid hematite surface and on a flexible and polarizable surface. We show that the displacements of surface atoms and surface polarization in a flexible hematite model are proportional to the adsorbed molecule's polarity. The increase in electrostatic interactions resulting from charge transfer in the outermost solid atoms in a flexible hematite model results in better-defined adsorbed layers that are less ordered than those obtained assuming a rigid solid. These results suggest that care must be taken when parametrizing empirical transferable force fields because the calculated charges on a solid slab in vacuum may not be representative of a real system, especially when the solid is in contact with a polar liquid.

  1. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic chemical hydrides as storage medium of hydrogen on the basis of superheated liquid-film concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinya Hodoshima; Atsushi Shono; Kazumi Satoh; Yasukazu Saito

    2006-01-01

    A catalysis pair of tetralin dehydrogenation / naphthalene hydrogenation has been proposed in the present paper as an organic chemical hydride for operating stationary fuel cells. Catalytic naphthalene hydrogenation, having been commercialized since the 1940's, proceeds to generate decalin via tetralin as an intermediate. The storage capacities of tetralin (3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are lower than decalin (7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) but both tetralin dehydrogenation and naphthalene hydrogenation are much faster than the decalin / naphthalene pair. Moreover, existing infrastructures, e.g., gas station and tank lorry, are available for storage, transportation and supply of hydrogen. As for the stationary fuel cells with large space for hydrogen storage, tetralin as a hydrogen carrier is superior to decalin in terms of fast hydrogen supply. Rapid hydrogen supply from tetralin under mild conditions was only accomplished with the carbon supported metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions. In contrast to the ordinary suspended states, the catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film state gave high catalytic performances at around 250 C. As a result, serious coke formation over the catalyst surface and excessive exergy consumption were prevented simultaneously. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen storage by organic chemical hydrides and hydrogen supply to fuel cells with superheated liquid-film-type catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoshima, S.; Shono, A.; Sato, K.; Saito, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Organic chemical hydrides, consisting of decalin / naphthalene and tetralin / naphthalene pairs, have been proposed as the storage medium of hydrogen for operating fuel cells in mobile and static modes. The target values in the DOE Hydrogen Plan, U.S., on storage ( 6.5 wt%, 62.0 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are met with decalin ( 7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ). In addition, existing gas stations and tank lorries are available for storage and supply of hydrogen by utilizing the decalin / naphthalene pair, suggesting that decalin is suitable for operating fuel-cell vehicles. Tetralin dehydrogenation proceeds quite rapidly, assuring a predominant power density, though its storage densities ( 3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are relatively low. Efficient hydrogen supply from decalin or tetralin by heating at 210-280 o C was attained only with the carbon-supported nano-size metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions, where coke formation over the catalyst surface was prevented. The catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film states gave high reaction rates and conversions, minimizing the evaporation loss under boiling conditions and exergy loss in hydrogen energy systems. (author)

  4. Development of treatment method for stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic substances and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the study into the laws that govern the process of treating by oxidation the stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic compounds and transuranium elements with the use of hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and subsequent ultra-filtration. The optimum oxidisation regime has been defined on the basis of this study to ensure that the initial dichromate oxidability of LRW's stillage residues decreases from 6,000-9,500 to 500-1,000 mg O/I, whereas the TUE activity associated with the key isotopes is reduced by 74-87 % for 238,239,240 Pu, by 94-95 % for 241 Am, and by 90-95 % for 244 Cm. The concentration of uranium decreases by 94-99 %. It is proposed to implement this method at the Chernobyl NPP site.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nine essential oils (EO) on P. phosphoreum and determine the effect of oregano oil on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) cod fillets. Methods and Results: The antimicrobial effect of EO was studied in a liquid medium and in product...... storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...... at 2degreesC. Conclusions: Oregano oil reduced the growth of P. phosphoreum and extended the shelf-life of MAP cod fillets. Significance and Impact of the Study: Mild and natural preservation using EO can extend the shelf-life of MAP seafood through inhibiting the specific spoilage organism P...

  6. Determination of the solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds in water using volatile-tracer assisted headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2016-02-26

    This study reports a new headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of water solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds (LVLOs). The HS-GC analysis was performed on a set of aqueous solutions containing a range of concentrations of toluene-spiked (as a tracer) LVLOs, from under-saturation to over-saturation. A plot of the toluene tracer GC signal vs. the concentration of the LVLO results in two lines of different slopes that intersect at the concentration corresponding to the compound's solubility in water. The results showed that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD waters of environmental and biological systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diffusion coefficients of gaseous scavengers in organic liquids used in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthjens, L.H.; De Leng, H.C.; Warman, J.M.; Hummel, A.

    1990-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients have been measured of some gaseous scavengers commonly used in radiation chemical studies: CO 2 , NH 3 , SF 6 and O 2 in trans-decalin, cyclohexane, isooctane and n-hexane, and CO 2 in cis-decalin, at 25 0 C. A modified diaphragm cell method has been used in order to limit the time needed for a measurement to about 6 h. Analysis of the results yields a simple semi-empirical predictive relation for the diffusion coefficient of a (gaseous) solute A in an organic solvent B. Diffusion coefficients calculated using the simple relation appear to give results in fair agreement with published values, over a range of organic solvents including alcohols, and over a range of temperatures. Some measured and predicted values are discussed with reference to results from the literature. (author)

  8. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Interface for Detection of Extraterrestrial Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Adrian E.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Balvin, Manuel; Cook, Jamie E.; Espiritu, Ana Mellina; Kotecki, Carl; Towner, Deborah W.; Dworkin, J. P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The OASIS (Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy surfaces) microchip enables electrospray or thermospray of analyte for subsequent analysis by the OASIS time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Electrospray of buffer solution containing the nucleobase adenine was performed using the microchip and detected by a commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Future testing of thermospray and electrospray capability will be performed using a test fixture and vacuum chamber developed especially for optimization of ion spray at atmosphere and in low pressure environments.

  9. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Zangar, R.C.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  10. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid flame spray (LFS method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical composition were determined by TEM, XRD, XPS, and N2-adsorption measurements. The collected particulate material consists of micron-sized aggregates with nanosized primary particles. In both doped and undoped samples, tetragonal phase of zirconia was detected in room temperature while alumina was found to be noncrystalline. In the doped powder, Fe was oxidized to Fe2O3. The primary particle size of collected sample was approximately from 6 nm to 40 nm. Doping was observed to increase the specific surface area of the powder from 39 m2/g to 47 m2/g.

  11. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Organic transistors fabricated by contact coating at liquid-solid interface for nano-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A contact coating method is developed to cover the nano-channels with 100 nm or 200 nm diameter and 400 nm depth with a poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP. In such coating the nano-channels faces downwards and its vertical position is controlled by a motor. The surface is first lowered to be in immediate contact with the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPY water solution with concentration from 1 to 5 wt%, then pulled at the speed of 0.004 to 0.4 mm/s. By tuning the pulling speed and concentration we can realize conformal, filled, top-only, as well as floating film morphology. For a reproducible liquid detachment from the solid, the sample has a small tilt angle of 3 degree. Contact coating is used to cover the Al grid base of the vertical space-charge-limited transistor with PVPY. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT as the semiconductor. The transistor breakdown voltage is raised due to base coverage achieved by contact coating.

  13. Experimental and theoretical/numerical study of evaporation from shallow pools of organic liquids, at simulated work place conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennert, Anne Spandet

    1998-04-01

    The rate of evaporation from shallow pools of organic liquids was measured together with the global pollutant concentration distribution in a test chamber simulating work place conditions at room temperature. factorial data cover three liquids with different volatility, three pool geometries, and three room convective velocities in the range usually met in occupational hygiene. The data are compared to 6 semi-empirical correlations for mass tranfer employed in occupational hygiene and to 5 analytical correlations for boundary layer theory derived by the Reynolds analogy to heat transfer. The semi-empirical correlations generally showed a fair agreement for all experimental data, but tended to underestimate the evaporation especially at the lowest air velocity. All analytical correlations strongly underestimated all experimental data. A new simple correlation predicting evaporation rate based on the data was suggested. Three-dimensional CFD-predictions for laminar flow are in fair agreement with the data on the evaporation rates for the experiment that covers three organic compounds, all pool geometries and the two lowest levels of the air velocity. The global pollutant concentration distribution in case of convective air flow cannot be predicted by the model developed by Roach. If knowledge of the evaporation rate and pollutant concentration at some distance from the source were available, the predicted global pollutant concentration distribution by the model suggested by Scheff. offered a fair agreement with observed data. The box model suggested by Sinden generally offered a fair performance but tended to underestimate the pollutant concentration in region close to the source. Preliminary three-dimensional CFD-predictions of the pollutant concentration distribution in the test chamber covering the data with the lowest air velocity were in fair agreement with the average pollutant concentration but overestimated the average velocity. (au) 29 refs.

  14. [Chaotic dynamic process of multiple organs dysfunction syndrome and the regulatory function of shenqin liquid on it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Xiong; Weng, Shu-He; Chen, Jing-He

    2008-07-01

    To explore the chaotic dynamic process of multiple organs dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and the regulatory effect of Shenqin Liquid (SQL), a Chinese herbal liquid preparation with the action of purging and qi-tonifying. Eighty SD rats were divided into 4 groups, and were given suspension of zymosan A and paraffine (1 mL/kg) by peritoneal injection except for those in the blank control group to set up the multiple organs dysfunction syndrome (MODS) model. Low and high doses SQL were administered twice at the doses of 30 and 60 g/kg of SQL respectively at an interval of 8 h per day before modeling. Serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) in MODS model animals were tested diachronically, eg. 12, 6 h before modeling, during modeling, 6 and 12 h after modeling, and then the mathematic models were built up with compartment analysis. Lyapunov exponents (LE) of the mathematic models were calculated to evaluate their chaotic characteristics of movement and the degree of chaos was ascertained with the correlation dimension (CD). The serum levels of TNF-alpha and NO were significantly higher than those in the bland control group at modeling, 6, and 12 h after modeling (P SQL were significantly lower than the model group (P SQL was significantly lower than that in the low dose group (P 0 respectively; in the low dose and high dose SQL treated groups, CD was 0.517 and 0.653 respectively and LE >0. CD of NO movement in the blank control group was 0.670 and with LE 0; in the low dose SQL group, 0.574 and in the high dose SQL group 0.850, and LE SQL can intervene the movement of TNF-alpha and NO, decrease the complexity of their chaotic movement, and make them return back to a stable state.

  15. Rigorous Multicomponent Reactive Separations Modelling: Complete Consideration of Reaction-Diffusion Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, A.; Meyer, M.; Rouzineau, D.; Prevost, M.; Alix, P.; Laloue, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the first step of the development of a rigorous multicomponent reactive separation model. Such a model is highly essential to further the optimization of acid gases removal plants (CO 2 capture, gas treating, etc.) in terms of size and energy consumption, since chemical solvents are conventionally used. Firstly, two main modelling approaches are presented: the equilibrium-based and the rate-based approaches. Secondly, an extended rate-based model with rigorous modelling methodology for diffusion-reaction phenomena is proposed. The film theory and the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations are used in order to characterize multicomponent interactions. The complete chain of chemical reactions is taken into account. The reactions can be kinetically controlled or at chemical equilibrium, and they are considered for both liquid film and liquid bulk. Thirdly, the method of numerical resolution is described. Coupling the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations with chemical equilibrium equations leads to a highly non-linear Differential-Algebraic Equations system known as DAE index 3. The set of equations is discretized with finite-differences as its integration by Gear method is complex. The resulting algebraic system is resolved by the Newton- Raphson method. Finally, the present model and the associated methods of numerical resolution are validated for the example of esterification of methanol. This archetype non-electrolytic system permits an interesting analysis of reaction impact on mass transfer, especially near the phase interface. The numerical resolution of the model by Newton-Raphson method gives good results in terms of calculation time and convergence. The simulations show that the impact of reactions at chemical equilibrium and that of kinetically controlled reactions with high kinetics on mass transfer is relatively similar. Moreover, the Fick's law is less adapted for multicomponent mixtures where some abnormalities such as counter

  16. Reaction path simulations in multicomponent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method is used in combination with selected experimental investigations to derive reaction paths in multicomponent systems. The method is illustrated by applying computerized thermodynamic databases and suitable software to explain quantitatively the thermal degradation of precursor-derived Si-C-N ceramics and the nitridation of titanium carbide. Reaction sequences in the Si 3 N 4 -SiC-TiC x N l-x -C-N system are illustrated by graphical representation of compatibility regions and indicated reaction paths. From these results the experimentally known microstructure development of TiC reinforced Si 3 N 4 ceramics is explained and quantitative information is provided to optimize the microstructure of such materials. The concept of reaction paths for the understanding of rapid solidification processes is shown by the example of AZ type Mg casting alloys. (orig.)

  17. Thermal Conductivity of the Multicomponent Neutral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Approximate expressions for the thermal conductivity coefficient of the multicomponent neutral atmosphere consisting of N2, O2, O, He, and H are analyzed and evaluated for the atmospheric conditions by comparing them with that given by the rigorous hydrodynamic theory. The new approximations of the thermal conductivity coefficients of simple gases N2, O2, O, He, and H are derived and used. It is proved that the modified Mason and Saxena approximation of the atmospheric thermal conductivity coefficient is more accurate in reproducing the atmospheric values of the rigorous hydrodynamic thermal conductivity coefficient in comparison with those that are generally accepted in atmospheric studies. This approximation of the thermal conductivity coefficient is recommended to use in calculations of the neutral temperature of the atmosphere.

  18. Interatomic spacing distribution in multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Wróbel, J.S.; Dudarev, S.L.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to compute the distribution of interatomic distances in highly concentrated multicomponent alloys is proposed. By using the unit cell parameter and bulk modulus of the elements involved, the method accurately describes the distortion in the lattice produced by the interaction of the different atomic species. To prove this, density functional theory calculations have been used to provide the description of the lattice in a monophasic BCC MoNbTaVW high entropy alloy and its five sub-quaternary systems at different temperatures. Short-range order is also well described by the new methodology, where the mean error in the predicted atomic coordinates in comparison with the atomistic simulations is in the order of 1–2 pm over all the compositions and temperatures considered. The new method can be applied to tailor solid solution hardening, highly dependent on the distribution of interatomic distances, and guide the design of new high entropy alloys with enhanced properties

  19. Multicomponent seismic applications in coalbed methane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.; Trend, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2004-07-01

    Seismic applications for coalbed methane (CBM) development are used to address the following challenges: lateral continuity of coal zones; vertical continuity of coal seams; permeability of cleats and fractures; coal quality and gas content; wet versus dry coal zones; and, monitoring storage of greenhouse gases. This paper presented a brief description of existing seismic programs, including 2-D and 3-D surface seismic surveys; multicomponent seismic surveys; vertical seismic profiles; cross-well seismic surveys; and, time-lapse seismic surveys. A comparative evaluation of their use in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and the Ardley Formation was presented. The study showed that variations in reservoir properties resulting from gas production and dewatering can be effectively imaged using seismic surveys. Seismic surveys are useful in reservoir management, monitoring sweep efficiency during enhanced natural gas from coal (NGC) production, monitoring disposal of produced water and verifying storage of carbon dioxide for carbon credits. tabs., figs.

  20. Dynamic Multi-Component Hemiaminal Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Long, S. Reid; Lynch, Vincent M.

    2012-01-01

    A simple approach to generating in situ metal templated tris-(2-picolyl)amine-like multi-component assemblies with potential applications in molecular recognition and sensing is reported. The assembly is based on the reversible covalent association between di-(2-picolyl)amine and aldehydes. Zinc ion is the best for inducing assembly among the metal salts investigated, while 2-picolinaldehyde is the best among the heterocyclic aldehydes studied. Although an equilibrium constant of 6.6 * 103 M-1 was measured for the assembly formed by 2-picolinaldehdye, di-(2-picolyl)amine, and zinc triflate, the equilibrium constants for other systems are in the 102 M-1 range. X-ray structural analysis revealed that zinc adopts a trigonal bipyramidal geometry within the assembled ligand. The diversity and equilibrium of the assemblies are readily altered by simply changing concentrations, varying components, or adding counter anions. PMID:21919095

  1. Gas-liquid chromatography measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of various organic solutes and water in tri-iso-butylmethylphosphonium tosylate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Paduszynski, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ 13 ∞ ) of 33 different solutes (including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, benzene, alkylbenzenes, water, alcohols, MTBE, thiophene and THF) in the ionic liquid tri-iso-butylmethylphosphonium tosylate have been determined by using the GLC method and have been reported over the temperature range (298.15 to 368.15) K. The partial molar excess enthalpies of mixing at infinite dilution have been determined based on temperature dependence of γ 13 ∞ . Selectivity and capacity at infinite dilution has been also calculated for exemplary separation processes in systems n-hexane/benzene and n-hexane/thiophene, to evaluate if the studied ionic liquid is capable to be a good entrainer for these processes, e.g. in the liquid-liquid extraction. The obtained results are promising however the ionic liquid studied shows a lower selectivity than some of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. To our best knowledge, the results indicate that tri-iso-butylmethylphosphonium tosylate is the best for the separation problem of aliphatic hydrocarbons from aromatic hydrocarbons among all of the studied quaternary phosphonium-based ionic liquids.

  2. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200 degrees C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air

  3. Photo-oxidation of organic compounds in liquid low-level mixed wastes at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K.L.; Schwendiman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A bench-scale oxidation apparatus is implemented to study the effectiveness of using an artificial ultraviolet source, a 175-watt medium pressure mercury vapor lamp, to enhance the destruction of organic contaminants in water with chemical oxidants. The waste streams used in this study are samples or surrogates of mixed wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The contaminants that are investigated include methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichlorethane, 1, 1-dichlororethane, acetone, 2-propanol, and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. We focus on H 2 O 2 -based oxidizers for our treatment scheme, which include the UV/H 2 O 2 system, the dark Fenton system (H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), and the photo- assisted Fenton system (UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe 3+ ) is used in particular. Variables include concentration of the chemical oxidizer, concentration of the organic contaminant, and the elapsed reaction time. Results indicate that the photo-assisted Fenton system provides the best overall performance of the oxidizing systems listed above, where decreases in concentrations of methylene chloride, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, 1,1-dichlororethane, 2-propanol, and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid were seen. However, UV-oxidation treatment provided no measurable benefit for a mixed waste containing acetone in the presence of 2-propanol

  4. Dynamics of coarsening in multicomponent lipid vesicles with non-uniform mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Chloe M.; Solis, Francisco J.; Thornton, K.

    2014-04-01

    Multicomponent lipid vesicles are commonly used as a model system for the complex plasma membrane. One phenomenon that is studied using such model systems is phase separation. Vesicles composed of simple lipid mixtures can phase-separate into liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, and since these phases can have different mechanical properties, this separation can lead to changes in the shape of the vesicle. In this work, we investigate the dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent lipid vesicles, using a model that couples composition to mechanical properties such as bending rigidity and spontaneous curvature. The model allows the vesicle surface to deform while conserving surface area and composition. For vesicles initialized as spheres, we study the effects of phase fraction and spontaneous curvature. We additionally initialize two systems with elongated, spheroidal shapes. Dynamic behavior is contrasted in systems where only one phase has a spontaneous curvature similar to the overall vesicle surface curvature and systems where the spontaneous curvatures of both phases are similar to the overall curvature. The bending energy contribution is typically found to slow the dynamics by stabilizing configurations with multiple domains. Such multiple-domain configurations are found more often in vesicles with spheroidal shapes than in nearly spherical vesicles.

  5. Ternary and quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + ethanol + α-pinene, +β-pinene, or +limonene) and (water + ethanol + α-pinene + limonene) at the temperature 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hengde; Tamura, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibria and tie-lines for the ternary (water + ethanol + α-pinene, or β-pinene or limonene) and quaternary (water + ethanol + α-pinene + limonene) mixtures have been measured at T = 298.15 K. The experimental multicomponent (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data have been successfully represented in terms of the modified UNIQUAC model with binary parameters

  6. Dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in soil and sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Mmereki, Daniel; Lu, Ying; Zhong, Zhihui; Liu, Hanyang; Pan, Weiliang; Zhou, Guangming; Chen, Junhua

    2016-04-01

    A novel dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet was developed for the determination of eight benzoylurea insecticides in soil and sewage sludge samples before high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The analytes were first extracted from the soil and sludge samples into acetone under optimized pretreatment conditions. Clean-up of the extract was conducted by dispersive solid-phase extraction using activated carbon as the sorbent. The vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet procedure was performed by using 1-undecanol with lower density than water as the extraction solvent, and the acetone contained in the solution also acted as dispersive solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was in the range 2-500 ng/g with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9993-0.9999. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.08-0.56 ng/g. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.16 to 6.26% (n = 5). The enrichment factors ranged from 104 to 118. The extraction recoveries ranged from 81.05 to 97.82% for all of the analytes. The good performance has demonstrated that the proposed methodology has a strong potential for application in the multiresidue analysis of complex matrices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Arnaldo

    2008-01-01

    The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance' (KMM-NoE) consists of 36 institutional partners from 10 countries representing leading European research institutes and university departments (25), small and medium enterprises, SMEs (5) and large industry (7) in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials (KMM), more specifically in intermetallics, metal-ceramic composites, functionally graded materials and thin layers. The main goal of the KMM-NoE (currently funded by the European Commission) is to mobilise and concentrate the fragmented scientific potential in the KMM field to create a durable and efficient organism capable of developing leading-edge research while spreading the accumulated knowledge outside the Network and enhancing the technological skills of the related industries. The long-term strategic goal of the KMM-NoE is to establish a self-supporting pan-European institution in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials--KMM Virtual Institute (KMM-VIN). It will combine industry oriented research with educational and training activities. The KMM Virtual Institute will be founded on three main pillars: KMM European Competence Centre, KMM Integrated Post-Graduate School, KMM Mobility Programme. The KMM-NoE is coordinated by the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

  8. The Network of Excellence ``Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Arnaldo

    2008-02-01

    The Network of Excellence "Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance" (KMM-NoE) consists of 36 institutional partners from 10 countries representing leading European research institutes and university departments (25), small and medium enterprises, SMEs (5) and large industry (7) in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials (KMM), more specifically in intermetallics, metal-ceramic composites, functionally graded materials and thin layers. The main goal of the KMM-NoE (currently funded by the European Commission) is to mobilise and concentrate the fragmented scientific potential in the KMM field to create a durable and efficient organism capable of developing leading-edge research while spreading the accumulated knowledge outside the Network and enhancing the technological skills of the related industries. The long-term strategic goal of the KMM-NoE is to establish a self-supporting pan-European institution in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials—KMM Virtual Institute (KMM-VIN). It will combine industry oriented research with educational and training activities. The KMM Virtual Institute will be founded on three main pillars: KMM European Competence Centre, KMM Integrated Post-Graduate School, KMM Mobility Programme. The KMM-NoE is coordinated by the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

  9. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide using gas–liquid chromatography at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15 and 373.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumba, Kaniki; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measured in the ionic liquid [3C 6 C 14 P][BTI]. • 22 solutes investigated at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15, 373.15) K using glc. • Selectivities and capacities for selected separations compared to other IL’s and solvents. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes, which include n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, alcohols and ketones, in the ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide were measured by gas–liquid chromatography using the latter as the stationary phase. This ionic liquid had previously been studied and reported in literature; however due to significant discrepancies in the reported infinite activity coefficient values, there was justification for further study and reporting. The temperature range investigated in this study is significantly wider and at higher temperatures than presented previously in the literature. From the experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient data at the four different temperatures T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15 and 373.15) K, partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution were calculated. Values of the selectivity for hexane/benzene and methanol/benzene separations were determined from experimental values of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution and these results were compared to literature values for other ionic liquids, as well as for industrial solvents. The capacities were also determined as it gives an indication of the solvent extraction behavior of the ionic liquid

  10. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO 2 capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO2 and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO2 loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO2 capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO2 could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO2 more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO2 absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO2 capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO2 capture. © the Owner Societies 2011.

  11. Organic liquids-responsive β-cyclodextrin-functionalized graphene-based fluorescence probe: label-free selective detection of tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huawen; Xin, John H; Hu, Hong; Wang, Xiaowen; Lu, Xinkun

    2014-06-06

    In this study, a label-free graphene-based fluorescence probe used for detection of volatile organic liquids was fabricated by a simple, efficient and low-cost method. To fabricate the probe, a bio-based β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was firstly grafted on reduced graphene surfaces effectively and uniformly, as evidenced by various characterization techniques such as Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent inclusion of Rhodamine B (RhB) into the inner cavities of the β-CD grafted on the graphene surfaces was achieved easily by a solution mixing method, which yielded the graphene-based fluorescent switch-on probe. In addition, the gradual and controllable quenching of RhB by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer from RhB to graphene during the process of stepwise accommodation of the RhB molecules into the β-CD-functionalized graphene was investigated in depth. A wide range of organic solvents was examined using the as-fabricated fluorescence probe, which revealed the highest sensitivity to tetrahydrofuran with the detection limit of about 1.7 μg/mL. Some insight into the mechanism of the different responsive behaviors of the fluorescence sensor to the examined targets was also described.

  12. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-10-28

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO(2) capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO(2) and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO(2) loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO(2) capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO(2) could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO(2) more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO(2) absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO(2) capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO(2) capture. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  13. Organic Liquids-Responsive β-Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Graphene-Based Fluorescence Probe: Label-Free Selective Detection of Tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawen Hu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a label-free graphene-based fluorescence probe used for detection of volatile organic liquids was fabricated by a simple, efficient and low-cost method. To fabricate the probe, a bio-based β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was firstly grafted on reduced graphene surfaces effectively and uniformly, as evidenced by various characterization techniques such as Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent inclusion of Rhodamine B (RhB into the inner cavities of the β-CD grafted on the graphene surfaces was achieved easily by a solution mixing method, which yielded the graphene-based fluorescent switch-on probe. In addition, the gradual and controllable quenching of RhB by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer from RhB to graphene during the process of stepwise accommodation of the RhB molecules into the β-CD-functionalized graphene was investigated in depth. A wide range of organic solvents was examined using the as-fabricated fluorescence probe, which revealed the highest sensitivity to tetrahydrofuran with the detection limit of about 1.7 μg/mL. Some insight into the mechanism of the different responsive behaviors of the fluorescence sensor to the examined targets was also described.

  14. Laser photolysis study of anthraquinone in binary mixtures ofionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and organic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Side Yao

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical properties of the ionic liquid (RTIL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF6] and its binary mixed solutions with organic solvent(DMF and MeCN were investigated by laser photolysis at an excitation wavelength of 355nm, using anthraquinone (AQ as a probe molecule. It was indicated that the triplet excitedstate of AQ (3AQ* can abstract hydrogen from [bmim][PF6]. Moreover, along with thechange of the ratio of RTIL and organic solvent, the reaction rate constant changes regularly.Critical points were observed at volume fraction VRTIL = 0.2 for RTIL/MeCN and VRTIL =0.05 for RTIL/DMF. For both systems, before the critical point, the rate constant increasesrapidly with increasing VRTIL; however, it decreases obviously with VRTIL after the criticalpoint. We conclude that the concentration dependence is dominant at lower VRTIL, while theviscosity and phase transformation are dominant at higher VRTIL for the effect of ionic liquidon the decay of rate constant.

  15. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, K; M'Hamdi, M; Mortensen, D

    2015-01-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet. (paper)

  16. Synthesis of conformationally constrained peptidomimetics using multicomponent reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffelaar, R.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; Paravidino, M.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Ehlers, A.W.; de Kanter, F.J.J.; Groen, M.B.; Orru, R.V.A.; Ruijter, E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel modular synthetic approach toward constrained peptidomimetics is reported. The approach involves a highly efficient three-step sequence including two multicomponent reactions, thus allowing unprecedented diversification of both the peptide moieties and the turn-inducing scaffold. The

  17. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology

  18. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology.

  19. Impact of Using Pendowo Liquid Organic Fertilizer Toward Land Potential at Jenar, Sragen, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Woro Kaeksi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to know the content of chemical elements found in waste of fluid organic in Jenar Banker in sub district of Jenar, Sragen and to know the influence of fluid organic fertilizer on the potency of area in Jenar. The collected data in this research are 1 topography, 2 geology, 3 geomorphology process, 4 area used, 5 horizon of the soil, 6 soil texture, 7 soil structure, 8 pH of the soil, 9 Nitrogen, 10 Phosphate, 11 Calium, 12 Calcium, 13 Magnesium, 14 the characteristic of physics and chemical elements in waste of Pendowo fluid organic fertilizer, and 15 the data dealing with interviewing to the civilization. For getting the area taken as the sample, this research uses stratified random sampling. While the analysis used in this study is descriptive method. The result of this research shows that 1 the main stone as the material for forming the land consists of sandstone, tuff of sand, limestone and clay (eaten for medicinal puposes; the relief is wave until making the hill, the plant consists of jati (teak, sonokeling, and the seasonal plants that exist in tegalan (dry field near the rie field but used for vegetables and other secondary crops, farm, and tebu (sugar cane land. The land that has not influenced by the amine fertilizer, the characteristi of pH soil is base (more than 7,5. The structure of crumbs up to clump soil and texture of clay which have sand are relevant with jati (teak and sonokeling growth. 2 the chemical elements of fluid organi fertilizer in Banker are not relevant with the chemical elements which are proposed by Paluraya Company. The element of nitrogen proposed is 4% while the result of the research shows 3,93%; 3,6%; 2,26%; 0,887%; 0,09%; 0,137%; 0,171%; 0,156%; 0,187%; 0,167%; 0,175%; and 0,108%. The pH of the fertilizer proposed is 5,5 – 6,5 while the finding of the research shows there are pH 4,65; pH 3,6; pH 4,5; and pH 5,41. The element of phosphate proposed is 0,3% while the

  20. Viscosity of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid with four organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocirlan, Oana; Croitoru, Oana; Iulian, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Viscosities of four binary mixtures of [Emim][BF4] with organic solvents. • Viscosity models based on Eyring’s theory. • Excess functions calculated. • Data for binaries new in the literature, except for system with DMSO. - Abstract: This paper reports experimental values of dynamic viscosity for four binary systems of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Emim][BF4], with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile (ACN), ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,4-dioxane over the temperature ranges from 293.15 K to 353.15 K at p = 0.1 MPa. All binary mixtures were completely miscible over the entire range of mole fraction, except the system with 1,4-dioxane. The viscosity results have been correlated by the one parameter Grunberg–Nissan and Fang and He equations and the two-parameter McAllister, Eyring-UNIQUAC, Eyring-NRTL and Eyring-Wilson models and the results were compared. Additionally, the viscosity deviations, Δη, and the excess Gibbs energy of activation for viscous flow, G"∗"E, were calculated and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The results show that all Δη values are negative over the whole composition range and the G"∗"E values are positive, except for the system with EG. The results of the excess functions are discussed in terms of molecular interactions.