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Sample records for multicenter long-term study

  1. A multicenter, long-term study on arrhythmias in children with Ebstein anomaly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaas, T.; Sarvaas, G.J.; Rijlaarsdam, M.E.; Strengers, J.L.; Eveleigh, R.M.; Poulino, S.E.; Korte, C.L. de; Kapusta, L.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, history, and treatment of arrhythmias, in particular preexcitation and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, in patients with Ebstein anomaly (EA) during childhood and adolescence, we performed a multicenter retrospective study of all consecutive live-born patients with EA,

  2. A Multicenter, Long-Term Study on Arrhythmias in Children with Ebstein Anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaas, Tammo; Sarvaas, Gideon J. du Marchie; Rijlaarsdam, Marry E.; Strengers, Jan L.; Eveleigh, Rhona M.; Poulino, Sumayah E.; de Korte, Chris L.; Kapusta, Livia

    To assess the prevalence, history, and treatment of arrhythmias, in particular preexcitation and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, in patients with Ebstein anomaly (EA) during childhood and adolescence, we performed a multicenter retrospective study of all consecutive live-born patients with EA,

  3. The Long-Term Multicenter Observational Study of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, S. J.; Wallentin, L.; Ezekowitz, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    . There is a need for longer-term follow-up of patients on dabigatran and for further data comparing the 2 dabigatran doses. Methods and Results Patients randomly assigned to dabigatran in RE-LY were eligible for the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY...

  4. Risk factors and analysis of long-term headache in sporadic vestibular schwannoma: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Tveiten, Øystein Vesterli; Driscoll, Colin L; Boes, Christopher J; Sullan, Molly J; Goplen, Frederik K; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Link, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The primary goals of this study were: 1) to examine the influence of disease and treatment on headache in patients with sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS); and 2) to identify clinical predictors of long-term headache disability. This was a cross-sectional observational study with international multicenter enrollment. Patients included those with primary sporadic Headache Disability Inventory (HDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a VS symptom questionnaire. The main outcome measures were univariate and multivariable associations with HDI total score. The overall survey response rate was 79%. Data from 538 patients with VS were analyzed. The mean age at time of survey was 64 years, 56% of patients were female, and the average duration between treatment and survey was 7.7 years. Twenty-seven percent of patients received microsurgery, 46% stereotactic radiosurgery, and 28% observation. Patients with VS who were managed with observation were more than twice as likely to have severe headache disability compared with 103 control subjects without VS. When accounting for baseline differences, there was no statistically significant difference in HDI outcome between treatment modalities at time of survey. Similarly, among the microsurgery cohort, the long-term risk of severe headache disability was not different between surgical approaches. Multivariable regression demonstrated that younger age, greater anxiety and depression, and a preexisting diagnosis of headache were the primary predictors of severe long-term headache disability, while tumor size and treatment modality had little influence. At a mean of almost 8 years following treatment, approximately half of patients with VS experience headaches of varying frequency and severity. Patient-driven factors including age, sex, mental health, and preexisting headache syndrome are the strongest predictors of long-term severe headache disability. Tumor size and treatment modality have less impact. These data

  5. Long-term outcome of renal transplantation from octogenarian donors: A multicenter controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggenenti, Piero; Silvestre, Cristina; Boschiero, Luigino; Rota, Giovanni; Furian, Lucrezia; Perna, Annalisa; Rossini, Giuseppe; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rigotti, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether biopsy-guided selection of kidneys from very old brain-dead donors enables more successful transplantations, the authors of this multicenter, observational study compared graft survival between 37 recipients of 1 or 2 histologically evaluated kidneys from donors older than 80 years and 198 reference-recipients of non-histologically evaluated single grafts from donors aged 60 years and younger (transplantation period: 2006-2013 at 3 Italian centers). During a median (interquartile range) of 25 (13-42) months, 2 recipients (5.4%) and 10 reference-recipients (5.1%) required dialysis (crude and donor age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.55 [0.34-7.12], P = .576 and 1.41 [0.10-19.54], P = .798, respectively). Shared frailty analyses confirmed similar outcomes in a 1:2 propensity score study comparing recipients with 74 reference-recipients matched by center, year, donor, and recipient sex and age. Serum creatinine was similar across groups during 84-month follow-up. Recipients had remarkably shorter waiting times than did reference-recipients and matched reference-recipients (7.5 [4.0-19.5] vs 36 [19-56] and 40 [24-56] months, respectively, P < .0001 for both comparisons). Mean (± SD) kidney donor risk index was 2.57 ± 0.32 in recipients vs 1.09 ± 0.24 and 1.14 ± 0.24 in reference-recipients and matched reference-recipients (P < .0001 for both comparisons). Adverse events were similar across groups. Biopsy-guided allocation of kidneys from octogenarian donors permits further expansion of the donor organ pool and faster access to a kidney transplant, without increasing the risk of premature graft failure. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. BIOCHEMICAL CONTROL DURING LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP OF 230 ADULT PATIENTS WITH CUSHING DISEASE: A MULTICENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Eliza B; Shafiq, Ismat; Gordon, Murray B; Bonert, Vivien; Ayala, Alejandro; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Katznelson, Laurence; Lalazar, Yelena; Manuylova, Ekaterina; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Carmichael, John D; Hannoush, Zeina; Surampudi, Vijaya; Broder, Michael S; Cherepanov, Dasha; Eagan, Marianne; Lee, Jackie; Said, Qayyim; Neary, Maureen P; Biller, Beverly M K

    2017-08-01

    Cushing disease (CD) results from excessive exposure to glucocorticoids caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Inadequately treated CD is associated with significant morbidity and elevated mortality. Multicenter data on CD patients treated in routine clinical practice are needed to assess treatment outcomes in this rare disorder. The study purpose was to describe the burden of illness and treatment outcomes for CD patients. Eight pituitary centers in four U.S. regions participated in this multicenter retrospective chart review study. Subjects were CD patients diagnosed at ≥18 years of age within the past 20 years. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to examine presenting signs, symptoms, comorbidities, and treatment outcomes. Of 230 patients, 79% were female (median age at diagnosis, 39 years; range, 18 to 78 years). Length of follow-up was 0 to 27.5 years (median, 1.9 years). Pituitary adenomas were 0 to 51 mm. The most common presenting comorbidities included hypertension (67.3%), polycystic ovary syndrome (43.5%), and hyperlipidemia (41.5%). Biochemical control was achieved with initial pituitary surgery in 41.4% patients (91 of 220), not achieved in 50.0% of patients (110 of 220), and undetermined in 8.6% of patients (19 of 220). At the end of follow-up, control had been achieved with a variety of treatment methods in 49.1% of patients (110 of 224), not achieved in 29.9% of patients (67 of 224), and undetermined in 21.0% of patients (47 of 224). Despite multiple treatments, at the end of follow-up, biochemical control was still not achieved in up to 30% of patients. These multicenter data demonstrate that in routine clinical practice, initial and long-term control is not achieved in a substantial number of patients with CD. BLA = bilateral adrenalectomy CD = Cushing disease CS = Cushing syndrome eCRF = electronic case report form MRI = magnetic resonance imaging PCOS = polycystic ovary syndrome.

  7. Endovascular Treatment of Visceral Aneurysms and Pseudoaneurysms: Long-term Outcomes from a Multicenter European Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Sabharwal, Tarun; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Brountzos, Elias; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Krokidis, Miltiadis; Gkoutzios, Panagiotis; Siablis, Dimitrios; Adam, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the percutaneous endovascular management of visceral aneurysms (VA) and visceral pseudoaneurysms (VPA) treated in three European interventional radiology departments. Methods: Patient archives from the department’s databases were examined and retrospectively analyzed. Patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 with VA and/or VPA, confirmed by computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, or digital subtraction angiography and treated exclusively with percutaneous endovascular methods, were included in the study. The study’s primary end points were procedural technical success, target lesion reintervention rate, and periprocedural mortality rate. Secondary end points included major and minor complications rates. Results: The medical records of 54 patients (41 male, mean age 55 ± 18.1 years) with 58 VAs or VPAs and treated with various percutaneous endovascular therapeutic modalities were analyzed. In total, 21 VAs (mean diameter 49.4 ± 21 mm, range 20–100 mm) and 37 VPAs (mean diameter 25.1 ± 14.6 mm, range 8–60 mm) were treated. Procedural technical success was achieved in 100% of the cases, while target lesion reintervention rate was 6.1% (2 of 33) and 14.2% (3 of 21) in the VPA and VA groups, respectively. Mean clinical follow-up period was 19.1 ± 21.4 months. Overall periprocedural mortality rate was 3% (1 of 33) in the VPA group and 0% (0 of 21) in the VA group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endovascular treatment of VAs and VPAs is safe and effective with low morbidity and mortality. There is a small but significant reintervention rate, particularly for true aneurysms; dedicated follow-up imaging is recommended. Successful aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases with a second procedure.

  8. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Gómez Acebo, Inés; Altzibar, Jone M.; Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case?control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008?2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) cont...

  9. Nutrition-related risk indexes and long-term mortality in noncritically ill inpatients who receive total parenteral nutrition (prospective multicenter study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Ma Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Rubio, Miguel A; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C; Olveira, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is associated with an increased risk of death, in both the short and the long term. The purpose of this study was to determine which nutrition-related risk index predicts long-term mortality better (three years) in patients who receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective, multicenter study involved noncritically ill patients who were prescribed TPN during hospitalization. Data were collected on Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), body mass index, albumin and prealbumin, as well as long-term mortality. Over the 1- and 3-year follow-up periods, 174 and 244 study subjects (28.8% and 40.3%) respectively, died. Based on the Cox proportional hazards survival model, the nutrition-related risk indexes most strongly associated with mortality were SGA and albumin (Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Multicenter evaluation of quality of life and patient satisfaction after breast reconstruction, a long-term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménez, T; Michot, A; Tamburino, S; Weigert, R; Pinsolle, V

    2018-04-01

    Breast reconstruction techniques are multiple and they should be chosen in order to improve women's satisfaction and well-being, thus obtaining a personalized treatment. This report's major purpose was to study, through the Breast-Q questionnaire, how the functional and aesthetic outcomes, as well as the complications, of the main autologous breast reconstruction techniques, can affect patients quality of life and well-being at long-term. The secondary purpose was to analyse, thus to identify, the independent factors characterizing the different reconstructive techniques, which may affect patients' satisfaction. Women who underwent autologous breast reconstruction through deep inferior epigastric artery perforator or Latissimus dorsi muscle flap from May 2006 to May 2013 were included. The assessment was based on the Breast-Q reconstruction questionnaire. All times of post-mastectomy reconstruction were concerned: immediate, delayed, after previous procedure failure or conversion to another reconstructive technique due to the patient's dissatisfaction. A total of 98 patients were included. Concerning patients satisfaction, the breast-Q score is highest in patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction, while scores after delayed breast reconstruction, previous surgery failure or conversion to another technique are generally equivalent. Higher scores have been observed in patients who underwent reconstruction through autologous Latissimus dorsi compared to Latissimus dorsi with prosthetic implant reconstruction. The authors identified factors of higher patients' satisfaction, like absence of major complication and advanced patient's age, in order to personalize the surgical planning according to the patient's priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The PANGAEA study design - a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional, long-term study on fingolimod for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kern, Raimar; Cornelissen, Christian

    2015-06-18

    Fingolimod (Gilenya) is an oral medication for patients with highly active relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Clinical trials and post-marketing experience on more than 114,000 patients have established a detailed safety profile. Total patient exposure now exceeds 195,000 patient-years as stated in the last financial report (Dec 2014) of the Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland. However, less is known about the safety of long-term fingolimod use in daily practice. Here, we describe the study design of PANGAEA (Post-Authorization Non-interventional German sAfety of GilEnyA in RRMS patients), a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional, long-term study to collect safety, efficacy, and pharmacoeconomic data on RRMS patients treated with fingolimod (0.5 mg/daily) under real-world conditions in Germany. PANGAEA is striving to assess a real-world safety and efficacy profile of fingolimod, based on data from 4,000 RRMS patients, obtained during a 60-month observational phase. A pharmacoeconomic sub-study of 800 RRMS patients further collects patient-reported outcome measures of disability, quality of life, compliance, treatment satisfaction, and usage of resources during a 24-month observational phase. Descriptive statistical analyses of the safety set as well as of stratified subgroups such as patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus and pretreated patients (e.g., natalizumab) will be conducted. PANGAEA seeks to confirm the current safety profile of fingolimod obtained in phase I-III clinical trials. The study design presented here will additionally provide guidance on the therapeutic use of fingolimod in clinical practice and possibly assists physicians in making evidence-based decisions.

  12. Quality of life in women undergoing urinary diversion for bladder cancer: results of a multicenter study among long-term disease-free survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacci, Mauro; Saleh, Omar; Cai, Tommaso; Gore, John L; D'Elia, Carolina; Minervini, Andrea; Masieri, Lorenzo; Giannessi, Claudia; Lanciotti, Michele; Varca, Virginia; Simonato, Alchiede; Serni, Sergio; Carmignani, Giorgio; Carini, Marco

    2013-03-12

    Women undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion for bladder cancer experience substantial limitations in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, the level of discomfort caused by different urinary diversion has been never evaluated in long term survivors. The aim of this multicenter study is to evaluate differences in HRQOL among recurrence-free women undergoing cutaneous ureterostomy (CUS), Bricker's ileal conduit (BK-IC) and Orthotopic neobladder VIP (ONB-VIP) in disease-free females treated with radical cystectomy (RC), with long-term follow up (mean 60.1 months; range 36-122 months). All consecutively treated female patients from two urological institutions who underwent RC and urinary diversion from January 2000 to December 2008, with no evidence of tumor recurrence at a minimum follow up of 36 months, were included. Patients received the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) generic (QLQ-C30) and bladder cancer-specific instruments (QLQ-BLM30) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Bladder Cancer (FACT-BL). Clinical data and questionnaire results were analyzed in order to evaluate the HRQOL differences among diversion groups. We identified 37 females (median age: 68, range 45-82 years), including 12 status-post CUS, 16 who underwent BK-IC, and 9 who underwent ONB-VIP. Most were healthy (24/37 with no comorbidities, 4/37 Charlson 1-2, 9/37 Charlson 3 or greater - we didn't considered bladder cancer in Charlson evaluation because bladder cancer was the main inclusion criteria). Women undergoing CUS endorsed worse FACT-BL scores compared with BK-IC and ONB-VIP patients, worse HRQOL regarding physical and emotional well-being (p=0.008 and p=0.02, respectively), and a trend toward worse EORTC QLQ-C30 scores for appetite loss and fatigue (p=0.05 for both). In our study long-term disease-free females treated with CUS endorsed worse HRQOL compared with women who underwent BK-IC or ONB-VIP, mostly due

  13. [Stability of long-term professional objectives of young physicians during postgraduate training. Results of a multicenter cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, S; Gedrose, B; Robra, B-P; Schmidt, A; Schultz, J-H; Stosch, C; Wagner, R; Janßen, N; Scherer, M; van den Bussche, H

    2014-10-01

    We investigated persistences and changes of career preferences of medical residents in Germany after two years of postgraduate training with regard to future working place and position. The results are compared with those forwarded at graduation from medical school in a gender comparative perspective. The study is based on a standardized postal survey among the participants in the "KarMed" study, originally based on 1012 graduates of the medical faculties of Erlangen, Giessen, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Cologne, Leipzig and Magdeburg in 2009. 2107 persons were contacted. The return rate at baseline was 48 %, and the two surveys after the baseline reached return rates of 87 % and 89 % respectively. In all samples 2/3 were women as in actual medical undergraduate education. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were performed. After 2 years of residency, residents after 2 years of postgraduate training still preferred the hospital over private practice as their final workplace after postgraduate training. The attractiveness of leading positions in the hospital declined among men, whereas it was already low for women at graduation. A large proportion of those physicians preferring the ambulatory sector, especially women, wishes to work as employee instead of private practice. At the personal level, almost 60 % forwarded the same preferences as those at graduation. Gender, parenthood and region of study (East vs. West Germany) did not influence stability or change of preferences. The results demonstrate the persistence of professional preferences regarding future sector and position of medical work during postgraduate training. These preferences do neither match with principles of gender equality nor with future workforce needs (e. g. in primary care). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for transverse colon cancer: a retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Byung Mo; Lee, Bong Hwa; Kim, Byung Chun; Park, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes between laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for transverse colon cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for transverse colon cancer at six Hallym University-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and June 2015. The perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes were compared between laparoscopic and open surgery. Of 226 patients with transverse colon cancer, 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 123 underwent open surgery. There were no differences in the patient characteristics between the two groups. Regarding perioperative outcomes, the operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (267.3 vs 172.7 minutes, Pstudy showed that laparoscopic surgery is associated with several perioperative benefits and similar oncologic outcomes to open surgery for the resection of transverse colon cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery offers a safe alternative to open surgery in patients with transverse colon cancer.

  15. Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for transverse colon cancer: a retrospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JW

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jong Wan Kim,1 Jeong Yeon Kim,1 Byung Mo Kang,2 Bong Hwa Lee,3 Byung Chun Kim,4 Jun Ho Park5 1Department of Surgery, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Hwaseong Si, 2Department of Surgery, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon Si, 3Department of Surgery, Hallym Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Anyang Si, 4Department of Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, 5Department of Surgery, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes between laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for transverse colon cancer.Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for transverse colon cancer at six Hallym University-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and June 2015. The perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes were compared between laparoscopic and open surgery.Results: Of 226 patients with transverse colon cancer, 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 123 underwent open surgery. There were no differences in the patient characteristics between the two groups. Regarding perioperative outcomes, the operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (267.3 vs 172.7 minutes, P<0.001, but the time to soft food intake (6.0 vs 6.6 days, P=0.036 and the postoperative hospital stay (13.7 vs 15.7 days, P=0.018 were shorter in the laparoscopic group. The number of harvested lymph nodes was lower in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (20.3 vs 24.3, P<0.001. The 5-year overall survival (90.8% vs 88.6%, P=0.540 and disease-free survival (86.1% vs 78.9%, P=0.201 rates were similar in both groups.Conclusion: The present study showed that laparoscopic surgery is associated

  16. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case–Control Study in Spain and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case–control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008–2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed to ascertain residential histories, type of water consumed in each residence, frequency and duration of showering/bathing, and major recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for colorectal cancer in association with quartiles of estimated average lifetime THM concentrations in each participant’s residential tap water (micrograms/liter; from age 18 to 2 years before the interview) and estimated average lifetime THM ingestion from drinking residential tap water (micrograms/day). Results: We analyzed 2,047 cases and 3,718 controls. Median values (ranges) for average lifetime residential tap water concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, and brominated THMs were 30 (0–174), 17 (0–63), and 9 (0–145) μg/L, respectively. Total THM concentration in residential tap water was not associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.28 for highest vs. lowest quartile), but chloroform concentrations were inversely associated (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.41 for highest vs. lowest quartile). Brominated THM concentrations showed a positive association among men in the highest versus the lowest quartile (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.46). Patterns of association were similar for estimated average THM ingestion through residential water consumption. Conclusions: We did not find clear evidence of an association between detailed estimates of lifetime total THM exposure and colorectal cancer in our large case

  17. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  18. A Multicenter Study on Long-Term Outcomes After Lung Transplantation Comparing Donation After Circulatory Death and Donation After Brain Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Suylen, V; Luijk, B; Hoek, R A S; van de Graaf, E A; Verschuuren, E A; Van De Wauwer, C; Bekkers, J A; Meijer, R C A; van der Bij, W; Erasmus, M E

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of donation after circulatory death category 3 (DCD3) was one of the attempts to reduce the gap between supply and demand of donor lungs. In the Netherlands, the total number of potential lung donors was greatly increased by the availability of DCD3 lungs in addition to the initial standard use of donation after brain death (DBD) lungs. From the three lung transplant centers in the Netherlands, 130 DCD3 recipients were one-to-one nearest neighbor propensity score matched with 130 DBD recipients. The primary end points were primary graft dysfunction (PGD), posttransplant lung function, freedom from chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and overall survival. PGD did not differ between the groups. Posttransplant lung function was comparable after bilateral lung transplantation, but seemed worse after DCD3 single lung transplantation. The incidence of CLAD (p = 0.17) nor the freedom from CLAD (p = 0.36) nor the overall survival (p = 0.40) were significantly different between both groups. The presented multicenter results are derived from a national context where one third of the lung transplantations are performed with DCD3 lungs. We conclude that the long-term outcome after lung transplantation with DCD3 donors is similar to that of DBD donors and that DCD3 donation can substantially enlarge the donor pool. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  20. Long-term outcomes and recurrence patterns of standard versus extended pancreatectomy for pancreatic head cancer: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jin-Young; Kang, Jae Seung; Han, Youngmin; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Park, Sang Jae; Han, Sung-Sik; Yoon, Dong Sup; Park, Joon Seong; Yu, Hee Chul; Kang, Koo Jeong; Kim, Sang Geol; Lee, Hongeun; Kwon, Wooil; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Han, Ho-Seong; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2017-07-01

    Our previous randomized controlled trial revealed no difference in 2-year overall survival (OS) between extended and standard resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The present study evaluated the 5-year OS and recurrence patterns according to the extent of pancreatectomy. Between 2006 and 2009, 169 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to standard (n = 83) or extended resection (n = 86) groups to compare 5-year OS rate, long-term recurrence patterns and factors associated with long-term survival. The surgical R0 rate was similar between the standard and extended groups (85.5 vs. 90.7%, P = 0.300). Five-year OS (18.4 vs. 14.4%, P = 0.388), 5-year disease-free survival (14.8 vs. 14.0%, P = 0.531), and overall recurrence rates (74.7 vs. 69.9%, P = 0.497) were not significantly different between the two groups, although the incidence of peritoneal seeding was higher in the extended group (25 vs. 8.1%, P = 0.014). Extended pancreatectomy does not have better short-term and long-term survival outcomes, and shows similar R0 rates and overall recurrence rates compared with standard pancreatectomy. Extended pancreatectomy does not have to be performed routinely for all cases of resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, especially considering its associated increased morbidity shown in our previous study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  1. Adjunctive levetiracetam in children, adolescents, and adults with primary generalized seizures: Open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, long-term follow-up study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delanty, Norman

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive levetiracetam (LEV) in patients with uncontrolled idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Methods: This phase III, open-label, long-term, follow-up study (N167; NCT00150748) enrolled patients (4 to <65 years) with primary generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, myoclonic, absence). Patients received adjunctive LEV at individualized doses (1,000-4,000 mg\\/day; 20-80 mg\\/kg\\/day for children\\/adolescents weighing <50 kg). Efficacy results are reported for all seizure types [intention-to-treat (ITT) population, N = 217] and subpopulations with tonic-clonic (n = 152), myoclonic (n = 121), and\\/or absence (n = 70) seizures at baseline. Key Findings: One hundred twenty-five (57.6%) of 217 patients were still receiving treatment at the end of the study. Mean (standard deviation, SD) LEV dose was 2,917.5 (562.9) mg\\/day. Median (Q1-Q3) exposure to LEV was 2.1 (1.5-2.8) years, and the maximum duration was 4.6 years. Most patients were taking one (124\\/217, 57.1%) or >\\/=2 (92\\/217, 42.4%) concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Seizure freedom of >\\/=6 months (all seizure types; primary efficacy end point) was achieved by 122 (56.2%) of 217 patients, and 49 (22.6%) of 217 patients had complete seizure freedom. Seizure freedom of >\\/=6 months from tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and absence seizures was achieved by 95 (62.5%) of 152, 75 (62.0%) of 121, and 44 (62.9%) of 70 patients, respectively. Mean (SD) maximum seizure freedom duration was 371.7 (352.4) days. At least one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) was reported by 165 (76%) of 217 patients; most TEAEs were mild\\/moderate in severity, with no indication of an increased incidence over time. Seventeen (7.8%) of 217 patients discontinued medication because of TEAEs. The most common psychiatric TEAEs were depression (16\\/217, 7.4%), insomnia (9\\/217, 4.1%), nervousness (8\\/217, 3.7%), and anxiety (7\\/217, 3.2%). Significance: Adjunctive

  2. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma : multicenter study on incidence and long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Daubenbuchel, Anna M. M.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Fusiform dilatations of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) represent a vascular complication following surgery for suprasellar tumors in children. Incidence rate and long-term prognosis of FDCA in terms of survival rates, vascular complications, and quality of survival are unknown for patients with

  3. Concurrent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery enhances late toxicities: Long-term results of the ARCOSEIN multicenter randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, Alain; Garaud, Pascal; Serin, Daniel; Fourquet, Alain; Bosset, Jean-Francois; Breteau, Noel; Body, Gilles; Azria, David; Le Floch, Olivier; Calais, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In 1996, a multicenter randomized study was initiated that compared sequential vs. concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) with radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (ARCOSEIN study). After a median follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 4.3-9 years), we decided to prospectively evaluate the late effects of these 2 strategies. Methods and Materials: A total of 297 patients from the 5 larger participating institutions were asked to report for a follow-up examination. Seventy-two percent (214 patients) were eligible for evaluation of late toxicity. After breast-conserving surgery, patients were treated either with sequential treatment with CT first followed by RT (Arm A) or CT administered concurrently with RT (Arm B). In all patients, CT regimen consisted of mitoxantrone (12 mg/m 2 ), 5-FU (500 mg/m 2 ), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m 2 ), 6 cycles (Day 1 to Day 21). Conventional RT was delivered to the whole breast by administration of a 2 Gy per fraction protocol to a total dose of 50 Gy (± boost to the primary tumor bed). The assessment of toxicity was blinded to treatment and was graded by the radiation oncologist, according to the LENT/SOMA scale. Skin pigmentation was also evaluated according to a personal 5-points scoring system (excellent, good, moderate, poor, very poor). Results: Among the 214 evaluable patients, 107 were treated in each arm. The 2 populations were homogeneous for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Subcutaneous fibrosis (SF), telangectasia (T), skin pigmentation (SP), and breast atrophy (BA) were significantly increased in Arm B. No statistical difference was observed between the 2 arms of the study concerning Grade 2 or higher pain, breast edema, or lymphedema. No deaths were caused by late toxicity. Conclusion: After breast-conserving surgery, the concurrent use of CT with RT is significantly associated with an increase incidence of Grade 2 or greater late side effects

  4. Radiologic Predictors for Clinical Stage IA Lung Adenocarcinoma with Ground Glass Components: A Multi-Center Study of Long-Term Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Li

    Full Text Available This study was to define preoperative predictors from radiologic findings for the pathologic risk groups based on long-term surgical outcomes, in the aim to help guide individualized patient management.We retrospectively reviewed 321 consecutive patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass component on computed tomography (CT scanning. Pathologic diagnosis for resection specimens was based on the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Patients were classified into different pathologic risk grading groups based on their lymph node status, local regional recurrence and overall survival. Radiologic characteristics of the pulmonary nodules were re-evaluated by reconstructed three-dimension CT (3D-CT. Univariate and multivariate analysis identifies independent radiologic predictors from tumor diameter, total volume (TV, average CT value (AVG, and solid-to-tumor (S/T ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC studies were carried out to determine the cutoff value(s for the predictor(s. Univariate cox regression model was used to determine the clinical significance of the above findings.A total of 321 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass components were included in our study. Patients were classified into two pathologic low- and high- risk groups based on their distinguished surgical outcomes. A total of 134 patients fell into the low-risk group. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified AVG (HR: 32.210, 95% CI: 3.020-79.689, P<0.001 and S/T ratio (HR: 12.212, 95% CI: 5.441-27.408, P<0.001 as independent predictors for pathologic risk grading. ROC curves studies suggested the optimal cut-off values for AVG and S/T ratio were-198 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.921, 2.9 (AUC 0.996 and 54% (AUC 0.907, respectively. The tumor diameter and TV were excluded for the low AUCs (0.778 and 0.767. Both the cutoff values of AVG and S/T ratio were correlated with pathologic

  5. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma: multicenter study on incidence and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Daubenbüchel, Anna M M; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Müller, Hermann L

    2016-08-01

    Fusiform dilatations of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) represent a vascular complication following surgery for suprasellar tumors in children. Incidence rate and long-term prognosis of FDCA in terms of survival rates, vascular complications, and quality of survival are unknown for patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 583 patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma, recruited from 2001 to 2015 in the German Childhood Craniopharyngioma Registry, were reviewed for FDCA. Risk factors for FDCA and long-term outcome after FDCA were analyzed. Fourteen of 583 patients (2.4 %) developed FDCA based on reference assessment of MRI. FDCA occurred ipsilateral to the surgical approach and was not related to degree of resection, hypothalamic involvement, or irradiation. The median time interval between first detection of FDCA and initial surgery was 0.79 years (range 0.01-5.56 years). During a median follow-up of 6.47 years (range 1.2-21.9 years) after first detection of FDCA, no bleeding or cerebrovascular events were observed in any patient. Irradiation was not related to FDCA. Survival rates and functional capacity were similar in patients with and without FDCA. Clinically the FDCA was unapparent in all cases and not treated. FDCA is a rare complication related to surgical treatment of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma without major impact on prognosis and clinical course of the disease. KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000-NCT00258453; KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007-NCT01272622.

  6. Open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase III study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of benzoyl peroxide gel in long-term use in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Makoto; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-06-01

    An open-label, randomized, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term use of 2.5% and 5% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gels administrated once daily for 52 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. The efficacy of the study drugs was evaluated by counting inflammatory lesions and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. In total, 458 subjects were included in the efficacy and safety analyses. The total lesion count, the efficacy end-point, was similarly changed both in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups over the course of the study. The median rates of reduction from baseline to week 12 were approximately 65%. Thereafter, the counts were maintained at a reduced level without increasing until week 52. The median rates at week 52 were approximately 80%. Similar trends were observed for inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts. Bacteriological evaluation indicated similar distribution of the minimum inhibitory concentration of each of the antibacterial drugs against Propionibacterium acnes between the values at baseline and at week 52, suggesting that long-term use did not result in changes in the drug sensitivity. The incidence of adverse events was 84.0% in the 2.5% BPO group and 87.2% in the 5% BPO group. Many of the adverse events occurred within the first month and were mild or moderate in severity and transient. The results suggest that both 2.5% and 5% BPO gels are effective and safe for long-term treatment of patients with acne vulgaris. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. A 5-year multicenter prospective cohort study on the long-term visual prognosis and predictive factors for visual outcome in Japanese patients with age-related macular degeneration: the AMD2000 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yuzawa, Mitsuko; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Nakanishi, Hideo; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Fukushima, Masanori; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2018-03-01

    In this study (AMD2000), we aimed to determine the visual prognosis of Japanese patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This was a multicenter prospective observational cohort study. In total, 460 patients with AMD were recruited from April 2006 to March 2009 from 18 clinical trial sites in Japan. They were followed up for 5 years, as they continued to receive medical treatment. Of the 409 study eyes followed up for at least 1 year, 243 eyes (59.4%) were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using verteporfin, and 58 eyes (14.2%) were treated with intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents as the initial treatment. The mean best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA) for typical AMD (tAMD; 0.688 ± 0.498) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV; 0.451 ± 0.395) were significantly less at 2 years (tAMD, 0.779 ± 0.632, P macular edema as well as the lesion size was associated with 5-year maintenance of the baseline BCVA. In some patients, the diagnosis changed: of the 192 eyes initially diagnosed with typical AMD, 19 were newly diagnosed with PCV during follow-up. Maintaining the baseline BCVA over the long term is difficult in Japanese eyes with wet AMD.

  8. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  9. Laparoscopic versus open resection for transverse and descending colon cancer: Short-term and long-term outcomes of a multicenter retrospective study of 1830 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Tashiro, Jo; Araki, Ryuichiro; Okuda, Junji; Hanai, Tsunekazu; Otsuka, Koki; Saito, Shuji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-08-01

    Previous randomized controlled trials demonstrated similar oncological outcomes between laparoscopic and open colectomies, except for cases involving transverse colon and splenic flexure colon cancer. The objective of this study was to confirm the oncological safety and advantages of the short-term results of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancer in comparison with open surgery. The study data were retrospectively collected from the databases of 45 hospitals. Patients with transverse or descending colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic or open R0 resection were registered. The primary end-points were the 3-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates according to pathological stage. The secondary end-points were the short-term results, including blood loss, operative time, diet intake, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Of the 1830 eligible patients, 872 underwent open colectomy and 958 underwent laparoscopic colectomy. The median follow-up period was 38.4 months. The conversion rate to open resection was 4.5%. The 3-year overall survival rate of the laparoscopic group was significantly higher than that of the open group for stage I patients (96.2% vs 99.2%; P = 0.04); it was also higher for stage II (94.0% vs 95.5%) and stage III (87.4% vs 90.2%) patients, but there were no significant differences. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate of the laparoscopic group was significantly higher than that of the open group for stage I patients; there were no differences between the open and laparoscopic groups among the stage II and III patients. In the multivariate analyses, laparoscopic resection was a significant factor in relapse-free survival. Laparoscopic patients had significantly lower blood loss and a significantly longer operative time than the open groups. Also, postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter and postoperative morbidity was significantly lower in the laparoscopic group. Although this

  10. Long-Term Course of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS Patients Receiving Integrative Korean Medicine Treatment: A 1 Year Prospective Observational Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinho Lee

    Full Text Available With increase of spine surgeries, failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS prevalence is also rising. While complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is commonly used for low back pain (LBP, there are no studies reporting use of integrative Korean medicine in FBSS patients.Patients with pain continuing after back surgery or recurring within 1 year and visual analogue scale (VAS of LBP or leg pain of ≥6 (total n = 120 were recruited at 2 hospital sites from November 2011 to September 2014. Weekly sessions of integrative Korean medicine treatment were conducted for 16 weeks (herbal medicine, acupuncture/electroacupuncture, pharmacopuncture/bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manual therapy with additional follow-ups at 24 weeks and 1 year. Outcome measures included VAS of LBP and leg pain (primary outcome, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, Short-Form 36 (SF-36, medical use, and patient global impression of change (PGIC.VAS of LBP and leg pain improved at 6 months (LBP from 6.1±2.0 at baseline to 2.9±2.3; and leg pain from 5.4±2.6 to 2.4±2.5, respectively. Eighty patients (66.7% showed improvement of 50% or more in main pain of LBP or leg pain from baseline. Disability and quality of life also improved at 6 months (ODI from 41.3±12.3 at baseline to 23.6±13.6; and SF-36 from 42.8±14.5 to 62.7±16.8. At 1 year follow-up, conventional medical management use decreased, improvement in pain and disability was maintained, and 79.2% reported improvement of PGIC.Despite limitations as an observational study, integrative Korean medicine treatment showed positive results in pain, function, and quality of life of FBSS patients.

  11. Tri-Modality therapy with I-125 brachytherapy, external beam radiation therapy, and short- or long-term hormone therapy for high-risk localized prostate cancer (TRIP: study protocol for a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaka Hiroyuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with high Gleason score, elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA level, and advanced clinical stage are at increased risk for both local and systemic relapse. Recent data suggests higher radiation doses decrease local recurrence and may ultimately benefit biochemical, metastasis-free and disease-specific survival. No randomized data is available on the benefits of long-term hormonal therapy (HT in these patients. A prospective study on the efficacy and safety of trimodality treatment consisting of HT, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, and brachytherapy (BT for high-risk prostate cancer (PCa is strongly required. Methods/Design This is a phase III, multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT of trimodality with BT, EBRT, and HT for high-risk PCa (TRIP that will investigate the impact of adjuvant HT following BT using iodine-125 (125I-BT and supplemental EBRT with neoadjuvant and concurrent HT. Prior to the end of September 2012, a total of 340 patients with high-risk PCa will be enrolled and randomized to one of two treatment arms. These patients will be recruited from more than 41 institutions, all of which have broad experience with 125I-BT. Pathological slides will be centrally reviewed to confirm patient eligibility. The patients will commonly undergo 6-month HT with combined androgen blockade (CAB before and during 125I-BT and supplemental EBRT. Those randomly assigned to the long-term HT group will subsequently undergo 2 years of adjuvant HT with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. All participants will be assessed at baseline and every 3 months for the first 30 months, then every 6 months until 84 months from the beginning of CAB. The primary endpoint is biochemical progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, clinical progression-free survival, disease-specific survival, salvage therapy non-adaptive interval, and adverse events. Discussion To our knowledge, there have

  12. The LIBERTY study: Design of a prospective, observational, multicenter trial to evaluate the acute and long-term clinical and economic outcomes of real-world endovascular device interventions in treating peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, George L; Mustapha, Jihad; Gray, William; Hargus, Nick J; Martinsen, Brad J; Ansel, Gary; Jaff, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Most peripheral artery disease (PAD) clinical device trials are supported by commercial manufacturers and designed for regulatory device approval, with extensive inclusion/exclusion criteria to support homogeneous patient populations. High-risk patients with advanced disease, including critical limb ischemia (CLI), are often excluded leading to difficulty in translating trial results into real-world clinical practice. As a result, physicians have no direct guidance regarding the use of endovascular devices. There is a need for objectively assessed studies to evaluate clinical, functional, and economic outcomes in PAD patient populations. LIBERTY is a prospective, observational, multicenter study sponsored by Cardiovascular Systems Inc (St Paul, MN) to evaluate procedural and long-term clinical and economic outcomes of endovascular device interventions in patients with symptomatic lower extremity PAD. Approximately 1,200 patients will be enrolled and followed up to 5 years: 500 patients in the "Claudicant Rutherford 2-3" arm, 600 in the "CLI Rutherford 4-5" arm, and 100 in the "CLI Rutherford 6" arm. The study will use 4 core laboratories for independent analysis and will evaluate the following: procedural and lesion success, rates of major adverse events, duplex ultrasound interpretations, wound status, quality of life, 6-minute walk test, and economic analysis. The LIBERTY Patient Risk Score(s) will be developed as a clinical predictor of outcomes to provide guidance for interventions in this patient population. LIBERTY will investigate real-world PAD patients treated with endovascular revascularization with rigorous study guidelines and independent oversight of outcomes. This study will provide observational, all-comer patient clinical data to guide future endovascular therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short- and long-term performance of a tripolar down-sized single lead for implantable cardioverter defibrillator treatment: a randomized prospective European multicenter study. European Endotak DSP Investigator Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstedt, B; Kennergren, C; Schaumann, A; Herse, B; Neuzner, J

    1998-11-01

    A new, thinner (10 Fr) and more flexible, single-pass transvenous endocardial ICD lead, Endotak DSP, was compared with a conventional lead, Endotak C, as a control in a prospective randomized multicenter study in combination with a nonactive can ICD. A total of 123 patients were enrolled, 55 of whom received a down-sized DSP lead. Lead-alone configuration was successfully implanted in 95% of the DSP patients vs 88% in the control group. The mean defibrillation threshold (DFT) was determined by means of a step-down protocol, and was identical in the two groups, 10.5 +/- 4.8 J in the DSP group versus 10.5 +/- 4.8 J in the control group. At implantation, the DSP mean pacing threshold was lower, 0.51 +/- 0.18 V versus 0.62 +/- 0.35 V (p < 0.05) in the control group, and the mean pacing impedance higher, 594 +/- 110 omega vs 523 +/- 135 omega (p < 0.05). During the follow-up period, the statistically significant difference in thresholds disappeared, while the difference in impedance remained. Tachyarrhythmia treatment by shock or antitachycardia pacing (ATP) was delivered in 53% and 41%, respectively, of the patients with a 100% success rate. In the DSP group, all 28 episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation were converted by the first shock as compared to 57 of 69 episodes (83%) in the control group (p < 0.05). Monomorphic ventricular tachycardias were terminated by ATP alone in 96% versus 94%. Lead related problems were minor and observed in 5% and 7%, respectively. In summary, both leads were safe and efficacious in the detection and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. There were no differences between the DSP and control groups regarding short- or long-term lead related complications.

  14. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Cyclosporine in a Cohort of Steroid-Refractory Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis Patients from the ENEIDA Registry (1989-2013): A Nationwide Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordás, I; Domènech, E; Mañosa, M; García-Sánchez, V; Iglesias-Flores, E; Peñalva, M; Cañas-Ventura, A; Merino, O; Fernández-Bañares, F; Gomollón, F; Vera, M; Gutiérrez, A; Garcia-Planella, E; Chaparro, M; Aguas, M; Gento, E; Muñoz, F; Aguirresarobe, M; Muñoz, C; Fernández, L; Calvet, X; Jiménez, C E; Montoro, M A; Mir, A; De Castro, M L; García-Sepulcre, M F; Bermejo, F; Panés, J; Esteve, M

    2017-11-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine (CyA) in a large national registry-based population of patients with steroid-refractory (SR) acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) and to establish predictors of efficacy and adverse events. Multicenter study of SR-ASUC treated with CyA, based on data from the ENEIDA registry. SR-ASUC patients treated with infliximab (IFX) or sequential rescue therapy (CyA-IFX or IFX-CyA) were used as comparators. Of 740 SR-ASUC patients, 377 received CyA, 131 IFX and 63 sequential rescue therapy. The cumulative colectomy rate was higher in the CyA (24.1%) and sequential therapy (32.7%) than in the IFX group (14.5%; P=0.01) at 3 months and 5 years. There were no differences in early and late colectomy between CyA and IFX in patients treated after 2005. 62% of patients receiving CyA remained colectomy-free in the long term (median 71 months). There were no differences in mortality between CyA (2.4%), IFX (1.5%) and sequential therapy (0%; P=0.771). The proportion of patients with serious adverse events (SAEs) was lower in CyA (15.4%) than in IFX treated patients (26.5%) or sequential therapy (33.4%; P<0.001). This difference in favor of CyA was maintained when only patients treated after 2005 were analyzed. Treatment with CyA showed a lower rate of SAE and a similar efficacy to that of IFX thereby supporting the use of either CyA or IFX in SR-ASUC. In addition, the risk-benefit of sequential CyA-IFX for CyA non-responders is acceptable.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Hochu-ekki-to in the Long-Term Management of Kikyo (Delicate Constitution Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A 6-Month, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hochu-ekki-to is a traditional herbal (Kampo medicine that has been shown to be effective for patients with Kikyo (delicate, easily fatigable, or hypersensitive constitution. Previous case reports have suggested that this herbal drug was effective for a certain subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hochu-ekki-to in the long-term management of Kikyo patients with AD. In this multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 91 Kikyo patients with AD were enrolled. Kikyo condition was evaluated by a questionnaire scoring system. All patients continued their ordinary treatments (topical steroids, topical tacrolimus, emollients or oral antihistamines before and after their protocol entry. Hochu-ekki-to or placebo was orally administered twice daily for 24 weeks. The skin severity scores, total equivalent amount (TEA of topical agents used for AD treatment, prominent efficacy (cases with skin severity score = 0 at the end of the study rate and aggravated rate (more than 50% increase of TEA of topical agents from the beginning of the study were monitored and evaluated. Seventy-seven out of 91 enrolled patients completed the 24-week treatment course (Hochu-ekki-to: n = 37, placebo: n = 40. The TEA of topical agents (steroids and/or tacrolimus was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group than in the placebo group, although the overall skin severity scores were not statistically different. The prominent efficacy rate was 19% (7 of 37 in the Hochu-ekki-to group and 5% (2 of 40 in the placebo group (P = 0.06. The aggravated rate was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group (3%; 1 of 37 than in the placebo group (18%; 7 of 39. Only mild adverse events such as nausea and diarrhea were noted in both groups without statistical difference. This placebo-controlled study demonstrates that Hochu-ekki-to is a useful adjunct to conventional treatments for AD

  16. MIOTIC study: a prospective, multicenter, randomized study to evaluate the long-term efficacy of mobile phone-based Internet of Things in the management of patients with stable COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yuan-Lin; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that leads to huge economic and social burden. Efficient and effective management of stable COPD is essential to improve quality of life and reduce medical expenditure. The Internet of Things (IoT), a recent breakthrough in communication technology, seems promising in improving health care delivery, but its potential strengths in COPD management remain poorly understood. We have developed a mobile phone-based IoT (mIoT) platform and initiated a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial entitled the 'MIOTIC study' to investigate the influence of mIoT among stable COPD patients. In the MIOTIC study, at least 600 patients with stable GOLD group C or D COPD and with a history of at least two moderate-to-severe exacerbations within the previous year will be randomly allocated to the control group, which receives routine follow-up, or the intervention group, which receives mIoT management. Endpoints of the study include (1) frequency and severity of acute exacerbation; (2) symptomatic evaluation; (3) pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) measurement; (4) exercise capacity; and (5) direct medical cost per year. Results from this study should provide direct evidence for the suitability of mIoT in stable COPD patient management.

  17. MIOTIC study: a prospective, multicenter, randomized study to evaluate the long-term efficacy of mobile phone-based Internet of Things in the management of patients with stable COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yuan-lin; Bai, Chun-xue

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that leads to huge economic and social burden. Efficient and effective management of stable COPD is essential to improve quality of life and reduce medical expenditure. The Internet of Things (IoT), a recent breakthrough in communication technology, seems promising in improving health care delivery, but its potential strengths in COPD management remain poorly understood. We have developed a mobile phone-based IoT (mIoT) platform and initiated a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial entitled the ‘MIOTIC study’ to investigate the influence of mIoT among stable COPD patients. In the MIOTIC study, at least 600 patients with stable GOLD group C or D COPD and with a history of at least two moderate-to-severe exacerbations within the previous year will be randomly allocated to the control group, which receives routine follow-up, or the intervention group, which receives mIoT management. Endpoints of the study include (1) frequency and severity of acute exacerbation; (2) symptomatic evaluation; (3) pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) measurement; (4) exercise capacity; and (5) direct medical cost per year. Results from this study should provide direct evidence for the suitability of mIoT in stable COPD patient management. PMID:24082784

  18. Long-term outcome of primary angioplasty compared with fibrinolysis across age groups: a Danish Multicenter Randomized Study on Fibrinolytic Therapy Versus Acute Coronary Angioplasty in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DANAMI-2) substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Thune, Jens Jakob; Kelbaek, Henning

    2008-01-01

    of angioplasty versus fibrinolysis was investigated in 1,572 patients from the DANAMI-2 study across age groups. End points were total mortality and a composite end point of death, reinfarction, or disabling stroke. Follow-up was 3 years. RESULTS: Increasing age was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard...... ratio [HR] 2.45 per 10 year increment, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78-3.37, P age: patients aged ... 0.73, CI 0.41-1.31); 56 to 65 years (HR 0.83, CI 0.52-1.33); 66 to 75 years (HR 0.71, CI 0.48-1.04); and >75 years (HR 0.83, CI 0.59-1.17) (P = .006 for overall treatment effect and P = .5 for interaction between age and treatment). There was no long-term effect of angioplasty versus fibrinolysis...

  19. Effects of long-term androgen replacement therapy on the physical and mental statuses of aging males with late-onset hypogonadism: a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Japan (EARTH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Konaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen replacement therapy (ART efficacy on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH has been widely investigated in Western countries; however, it remains controversial whether ART can improve health and prolong active lifestyles. We prospectively assessed long-term ART effects on the physical and mental statuses of aging men with LOH in Japan. The primary endpoint was health-related quality of life assessed by questionnaires. Secondary endpoints included glycemic control, lipid parameters, blood pressure, waist circumference, body composition, muscular strength, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS, International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 scores, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Of the 1637 eligible volunteers, 334 patients > 40 years with LOH were randomly assigned to either the ART (n = 169 or control groups (n = 165. Fifty-two weeks after the initial treatment, ART significantly affected the role physical subdomain of the short form-36 health survey (SF-36 scale (P = 0.0318. ART was also associated with significant decreases in waist circumstance (P = 0.002 and serum triglyceride (TG (P = 0.013 and with significant increases in whole-body and leg muscle mass volumes (P = 0.071 and 0.0108, respectively, serum hemoglobin (P < 0.001, IPSS voiding subscore (P = 0.0418, and the second question on IIEF-5 (P = 0.0049. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of severe adverse events. In conclusion, in patients with LOH, long-term ART exerted beneficial effects on Role Physical subdomain of the SF-36 scale, serum TG, waist circumstance, muscle mass volume, voiding subscore of IPSS, and the second question of IIEF-5. We hope our study will contribute to the future development of this area.

  20. Effects of long-term androgen replacement therapy on the physical and mental statuses of aging males with late-onset hypogonadism: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial in Japan (EARTH Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Orikasa, Hideki; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Takamura, Toshinari; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Iijima, Masashi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Androgen replacement therapy (ART) efficacy on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) has been widely investigated in Western countries; however, it remains controversial whether ART can improve health and prolong active lifestyles. We prospectively assessed long-term ART effects on the physical and mental statuses of aging men with LOH in Japan. The primary endpoint was health-related quality of life assessed by questionnaires. Secondary endpoints included glycemic control, lipid parameters, blood pressure, waist circumference, body composition, muscular strength, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Of the 1637 eligible volunteers, 334 patients > 40 years with LOH were randomly assigned to either the ART (n = 169) or control groups (n = 165). Fifty-two weeks after the initial treatment, ART significantly affected the role physical subdomain of the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) scale (P = 0.0318). ART was also associated with significant decreases in waist circumstance (P = 0.002) and serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.013) and with significant increases in whole-body and leg muscle mass volumes (P = 0.071 and 0.0108, respectively), serum hemoglobin (P < 0.001), IPSS voiding subscore (P = 0.0418), and the second question on IIEF-5 (P = 0.0049). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of severe adverse events. In conclusion, in patients with LOH, long-term ART exerted beneficial effects on Role Physical subdomain of the SF-36 scale, serum TG, waist circumstance, muscle mass volume, voiding subscore of IPSS, and the second question of IIEF-5. We hope our study will contribute to the future development of this area. PMID:25761833

  1. Methodology of long term behaviour study of containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Godon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Here is the presentation of the papers shown in the colloquium on environment and ceramics; the Atomic Energy Commissariat (Cea) have been working for fifteen years on the long term behaviour of fission products glasses on very long periods, about several millions years. The method of studies is detailed. 2 refs

  2. Archiving primary data: solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.; Teplitsky, C.; Arroyo, B.; Charmantier, A.; H. Becker, P.; Birkhead, T.R.; Bize, P.; Blumstein, D.T.; Bonenfant, C.; Boutin, S.; Bushuev, A.; Cam, E.; Cockburn, A.; Côté, S.D.; Coulson, J.C.; Daunt, F.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Doligez, B.; Drummond, H.; Espie, R.H.M.; Festa-Bianchet, M.; Frentiu, F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Furness, R.W.; Garant, D.; Gauthier, G.; Grant, P.R.; Griesser, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Hansson, B.; Harris, M.P.; Jiguet, F.; Kjellander, P.; Korpimäki, E.; Krebs, C.J.; Lens, L.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Low, M.; McAdam, A.; Margalida, A.; Merilä, J.; Møller, A.P.; Nakagawa, S.; Nilsson, J.-Å.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; van Noordwijk, A.J.; Oro, D.; Pärt, T.; Pelletier, F.; Potti, J.; Pujol, B.; Réale, D.; Rockwell, R.F.; Ropert-Coudert, Y.; Roulin, A.; Thébaud, C.; Sedinger, J.S.; Swenson, J.E.; Visser, M.E.; S.Wanless Westneat, D.F.; Wilson, A.J.; Zedrosser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with

  3. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with

  4. [Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Rübben, H

    2004-03-01

    Phytotherapy of BPS has a long tradition in Germany; nevertheless, data referring to single phytotherapeutic agents are rare. We therefore performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study for 1 year with Bazoton uno (459 mg dry extract of stinging nettle roots) with 246 patients. The IPSS decreased on average from 18.7+/-0.3 to 13.0+/-0.5 with a statistically significant difference compared to placebo (18.5+/-0.3 to 13.8+/-0.5; p=0.0233). The median Q(max) increased by 3.0+/-0.4 ml/s in comparison to 2.9+/-0.4 ml/s (placebo), thus not statistically significantly different, as well as the median volume of residual urine, which changed from 35.5+/-3.4 ml before therapy to 20.0+/-2.8 ml and from 40.0+/-4.0 ml to 21.0+/-2.9 ml under placebo application. The number of adverse events (29/38) as well as urinary infections etc. (3/10 events) was smaller under Bazoton uno therapy compared to placebo. Treatment with Bazoton uno can therefore be considered a safe therapeutic option for BPS, especially for reducing irritative symptoms and BPS-associated complications due to the postulated antiphlogistic and antiproliferative effects of the stinging nettle extract. A strong increase of Q(max) or reduction of residual urine are not to be expected.

  5. Comparison of the long-term skeletal stability between a biodegradable and a titanium fixation system following BSSO advancement - A cohort study based on a multicenter randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bakelen, N. B.; Boermans, B. D. A.; Buijs, G. J.; Jansma, J.; Pruim, G. J.; Hoppenreijs, Th. J. M.; Bergsma, J. E.; Stegenga, B.; Bos, R. R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable fixation systems could reduce or eliminate the problems associated with removal of titanium plates. A multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) was performed in the Netherlands from December 2006-July 2009, and originally 230 injured and orthognathic patients were included. The

  6. A multicenter, open-label, long-term safety and tolerability study of DFN-02, an intranasal spray of sumatriptan 10 mg plus permeation enhancer DDM, for the acute treatment of episodic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Sagar; Brand-Schieber, Elimor; Allenby, Kent; Spierings, Egilius L H; Cady, Roger K; Rapoport, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    DFN-02 is a novel intranasal spray formulation composed of sumatriptan 10 mg and a permeation-enhancing excipient comprised of 0.2% 1-O-n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltopyranoside (DDM). This composition of DFN-02 allows sumatriptan to be rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation and exhibit pharmacokinetics comparable to subcutaneously administered sumatriptan. Rapid rate of absorption is suggested to be important for optimal efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of DFN-02 (10 mg) in the acute treatment of episodic migraine with and without aura over a 6-month period based on the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events and the evaluation of results of clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, physical examination, and electrocardiograms. This was a multi-center, open-label, repeat-dose safety study in adults with episodic migraine with and without aura. Subjects diagnosed with migraine with or without aura according to the criteria set forth in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition, who experienced 2 to 6 attacks per month with fewer than 15 headache days per month and at least 48 headache-free hours between attacks, used DFN-02 to treat their migraine attacks acutely over the course of 6 months. A total of 173 subjects was enrolled, 167 (96.5%) subjects used at least 1 dose of study medication and were evaluable for safety, and 134 (77.5%) subjects completed the 6-month study. A total of 2211 migraine attacks was reported, and 3292 doses of DFN-02 were administered; mean per subject monthly use of DFN-02 was 3.6 doses. Adverse events were those expected for triptans, as well as for nasally administered compounds. No new safety signals emerged. Dysgeusia and application site pain were the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events over 6 months (21% and 30.5%, respectively). Most of the treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. There were 5 serious adverse events, all

  7. Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James A; Teplitsky, Céline; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter H; Birkhead, Tim R; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Côté, Steeve D; Coulson, John C; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H M; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W; Furness, Robert W; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J; Lens, Luc; Linnell, John D C; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merilä, Juha; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nisbet, Ian C T; van Noordwijk, Arie J; Oro, Daniel; Pärt, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Réale, Denis; Rockwell, Robert F; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S; Swenson, Jon E; Thébaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F; Wilson, Alastair J; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, open access to primary data while 63% expressed serious concern. We present here their viewpoint on an issue that can have non-trivial scientific consequences. We discuss potential costs of public data archiving and provide possible solutions to meet the needs of journals and researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on behaviour in long term of vitrified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.

    1993-01-01

    In collaboration with EDF (Electricite de France), after testing fusion of Refiom (Residus d'Epuration des Fumees d'Incineration d'Ordures Menageres), residues from purification of incineration smokes of household rubbish, realised at Porcheville and at the Laboratory of Renardieres with experimental processing of vitrification by plasma, CEA (Centre d'Etudes Atomiques), atomic center of research, began study on resistance in long term of vitrified products. From about thirty five years, CEA carries out research to confine radioactive waste of high activity in stable materials. Glass was the first best one which allowed to incorporate about thirty different chemical elements found in fission products solutions into a stable die with a good chemical durability; three vitrification shops raised, one at Marcoule ('AVM', 1978) in the south of France, the two other ones at La Hague ('R7', 1989 and 'T7', 1992) in Normandy. To determine a possible impact of a deep radioactive waste disposal on human and environment, several studies began. In particular, studies on aqueous corrosion of glasses to determine behaviour in long term of glass package (first barrier of confinement) and to estimate kinetics of releasing confined toxical elements on periods of several thousands years. Principal results are exposed in this conference. Experience shows that safety analysis cannot be based on long term extrapolation of a simple lixiviation result. This analysis must include: a sufficient knowledge in basic mechanisms of alteration to predict the kinetic evolution in a long term. To take in account environment conditions with a normal or accidental scheme (acidity, clay, organic compounds,...). This knowledge broadly developed by CEA for nuclear glasses seems to be easily transposable to different wastes (industrial ones or from hospitals) and takes place in a contract of research CEA/EDF to valorize vitrified products. 9 figs. 4 refs

  9. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2004-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For understanding long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) under uniaxial compression (before loading and at each loading stage), 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, and 3) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. First, CLSM was used to acquire clearly focused three-dimensional images of granite specimens, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under applying uniaxial compression stress. Then though microcracks have ever thought to be initiated and propagated on intergranular boundaries, we understand through the CLSM observation that new microcracks are generated from the ends of pre-existing cracks which are distributed in quartz and biotite. Second, we showed the results of stress-relaxation test of granite specimens observed by an optical microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Since microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock, we managed the experiments with careful attention of 1) keeping constant edge-displacement and constant strain in the whole specimen accurately, and 2) measuring the relaxed stress exactly. Next, in order to simulate the experimental results which indicate that initiation and propagation of microcracks control the stress-relaxation phenomenon, we introduce a homogenization analysis procedure together with the strong discontinuity analysis which has recently established the mechanical implication and mathematical foundation. The numerical results show that we can

  10. A study of the long-term properties of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y-C; Lee, D-S; Cho, M-S [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J-H [Korea Inst. of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Creep, drying, shrinkage, modulus of elasticity and Poisson`s ratio of concrete are influenced by a number of factors, such as mix type, member thickness, curing condition and loading cases. Particularly, creep and, shrinkage in concrete have yet to be studied due to its complicated time-dependent properties. Also they are not clearly differentiated quantitatively. In this paper, the concrete tests of creep, modulus of elasticity and Poisson`s ratio were carried out at various ages of loading -7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days in order to investigate and quantify its long-term properties. The test procedures and analysis of the test results were also described herein. The results of this study will make it possible to calculate effective prestressing forces considering time-dependent prestressing loss and evaluate the structural integrity of the prestressing system using the representative values derived from this property test. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. A study of the long-term properties of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y-C.; Lee, D-S.; Cho, M-S.; Lee, J-H.

    1995-01-01

    Creep, drying, shrinkage, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of concrete are influenced by a number of factors, such as mix type, member thickness, curing condition and loading cases. Particularly, creep and, shrinkage in concrete have yet to be studied due to its complicated time-dependent properties. Also they are not clearly differentiated quantitatively. In this paper, the concrete tests of creep, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio were carried out at various ages of loading -7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days in order to investigate and quantify its long-term properties. The test procedures and analysis of the test results were also described herein. The results of this study will make it possible to calculate effective prestressing forces considering time-dependent prestressing loss and evaluate the structural integrity of the prestressing system using the representative values derived from this property test. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Long-term bird study records Arctic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    Alaska's summer of 2005 was the second warmest on record there, with a record retreat of arctic pack ice. As Alaskan temperatures gradually increase, artic birds, such as the black guillemots of Cooper Island, near Barrow, Alaska, are experiencing drastic habitat changes. Though these small black and white birds—the subjects of a long-term study of climate change—fared better this year than they have in the recent past (due to local cool conditions), they are nonetheless struggling to adapt as their artic island summer home becomes subarctic.George Divokyan ornithologist at the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, discovered the Cooper Island colony of guillemots in the early 1970s and has spent every summer since 1975 there studying these birds. He presented his latest research during a 3 November talk in Washington, D.C.

  13. Study on long-term behavior of weak rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke

    2003-03-01

    Using the boring core obtained in the Horonobe region, the beta in triaxial compression stress state was acquired, and the examination was carried out on the effect of the confirming pressure on long-term deformation or stability of the sample rock. At first, triaxial compression tests were carried out. In the test, loading rate (strain rate) was changed several times to obtain viscoelastic properties of the sample rock. Multi-stage creep tests were also performed in triaxial compression stress. The parameter set of a constitutive equation of variable compliance type was obtained based on the testing results. In this study, a transparent triaxial cell recently developed by this author was used. The external cylinder of this vessel was made of the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore, gradual deformation of the sample under testing was easily and clearly observed. (author)

  14. Preclinical rodent toxicity studies for long term use of ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ratti

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone showed rapid absorption with half-life values ranging between 1 and 1.5 h. Additionally, there was no evidence of accumulation and a virtually complete elimination by 16 h after the last dose. Overall there were no toxicologically meaningful drug-related animal findings associated with the long-term administration (6 months of ceftriaxone. These results support safety of long-term use of ceftriaxone in human clinical trials.

  15. Long-term efficacy and safety of prophylaxis with recombinant factor VIII in Chinese pediatric patients with hemophilia A: a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional, phase IV (ReCARE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Xinsheng; Zhao, Yongqiang; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Qun; Xu, Weiqun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Renchi; Li, Xiaojing; Zhou, Rongfu; Lian, Shinmei; Gu, Jian; Wu, Junde; Hou, Qingsong

    2017-07-01

    The first recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) product was launched in China in 2007. However, until now, no study has been conducted to describe the efficacy and safety of prophylaxis with rFVIII in Chinese pediatric patients with hemophilia A (HA). To summarize the efficacy and safety data on prophylaxis with rFVIII in Chinese pediatric patients with HA. ReCARE (Retrospective study in Chinese pediatric hemophilia A patients with rFVIII contained regular prophylaxis) was a retrospective study conducted in 12 hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs) across China. The primary endpoints included reduction in annualized bleeding rate (ABR); the secondary endpoints included evaluation of joint function (number and sites of target joints) using Gilbert score and Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), quality of life (QoL) and factors affecting treatment choices. Safety assessment of rFVIII was also conducted. We analyzed a total of 183 male pediatric patients (mean age, 7.1 ± 4.23 years) who received prophylaxis between 1 November 2007 and 31 May 2013. Compared with baseline, prophylaxis with rFVIII significantly reduced overall annualized joint bleed rate (AJBR) (p < .001) and ABR (p < .001). Inhibitor formation was reported in 5 (2.7%) patients and hemarthrosis was reported in 1 patient. The mean number of target joints was positively related to age (p < .001) and weight (p = .003) at baseline. Responses from survey questionnaires reported that effective bleeding control, joint protection, improvement in quality of life, favorable medical insurance policies, and economic capability were reasons for choosing prophylaxis. Prophylaxis with rFVIII reduced bleeding and number of target joints, even with a low-dose regimen, in Chinese pediatric patients with HA. Other than the efficacy and safety, factors such as poor disease control, improved economic stability and stable financial support made prophylaxis as an attractive treatment option. ClinicalTrials.gov ID

  16. Long-term efficacy of modified-release recombinant human TSH (MRrhTSH) augmented radioiodine (131I) therapy for benign multinodular goiter. Results from a multicenter international, randomized, placebo-controlled dose-selection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Hegedus, Laszlo; Pacini, Furio

    2014-01-01

    with 131I-therapy. Methods: In this phase II, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 95 patients (57.2±9.6 years old, 85% women, 83% Caucasians) with MNG (median size 96.0 ml (31.9 - 242.2 ml)) were randomized to receive placebo (n=32), 0.01 mg MRrhTSH (n=30) or 0.03 mg MRrhTSH (n=33), 24 hours before...... a calculated 131I activity. Thyroid volume (TV) and smallest cross-sectional area of trachea (SCAT) were measured (by CT-scan) at baseline, month 6 and month 36. Thyroid function and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated at 3 month and yearly intervals, respectively. Results: At 6 months, TV reduction...... was enhanced in the 0.03 mg MRrhTSH group (32.9% versus 23.1% in the placebo group, p=0.03), but not in the 0.01 mg MRrhTSH group. At month 36 the mean percent TV reduction from baseline was 44 ± 12.7% (SD) in the placebo group, 41 ± 21.0% in the 0.01 mg MRrhTSH-group and 53 ± 18.6% in the 0.03 mg MRrh...

  17. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    1997-03-01

    One must consider micro-structures of rock and rock mass in order to predict the long-term behavior for more than ten thousand years. First we observe the micro-crack distribution of granite which is commonly distributed in Japan, and is widely used for several structures. The creep under constant load and the relaxation under constant displacement are typical time dependent phenomena, and we performed a series of relaxation tests under microscope observation in laboratory. The specimen that is preserved in water is granite as mentioned above. The aim of this experiment is to observe the sequential propagation of micro-cracks and its affect to the macroscopic response of the rock material under relaxation state. Next, a viscoelastic homogenization method is applied for analyzing the behavior of granite that is composed of several kinds of minerals (i.e., a polycrystalline material). The homogenization method developed for analyzing mechanics of composite materials is a mathematical theory that can describe the macroscopic behavior accounting for the microscopic characteristics with periodic microstructures. In this study, it is applied to a polycrystalline rock which involves a few minerals and micro-cracks. Furthermore, it is required to apply the homogenization analysis for rock materials which show a nonlinear time dependent behavior, so we develop a new elasto-visco-plastic homogenization theory, and its validity is checked for some ground structures made by clay. (author)

  18. Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stan L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6...... objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against HPV6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease. RESULTS: For each of the HPV4 vaccine types, vaccination-induced anti-HPV response persisted through month 96. Among 429 subjects who received HPV4 vaccine at a mean age of 12, none developed HPV6....../11/16/18-related disease or persistent infection of ≥12 months' duration. Acquisition of new sexual partners (among those ≥16 years) was ∼1 per year. Subjects receiving HPV4 vaccine at month 30 (mean age 15 years) had a similar baseline rate of seropositivity to ≥1 of the 4 HPV types to those vaccinated at day 1...

  19. Pilot study of long-term anaesthesia in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Peter M; Connerton, Ian F; White, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    To provide stable anaesthesia of long duration in broiler chickens in order to perform a terminal caecal ligated loop procedure. Prospective experimental study. Seven clinically healthy broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) aged 27-36 days, weighing 884-2000 g. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. All birds underwent intermittent positive pressure ventilation for the duration. End-tidal carbon dioxide, peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate and oesophageal temperature were monitored continuously. All birds received intraosseous fluids. Butorphanol (2 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly at two hourly intervals. Euthanasia by parenteral pentobarbitone was performed at the end of procedure. Stable anaesthesia was maintained in four chickens for durations ranging from 435 to 510 minutes. One bird died and one was euthanized after 130 and 330 minutes, respectively, owing to surgical complications and another died from anaesthetic complication after 285 minutes. Long-term, stable anaesthesia is possible in clinically healthy chickens, provided complications such as hypothermia and hypoventilation are addressed and vital signs are carefully monitored. There are no known previous reports describing monitored, controlled anaesthesia of this duration in chickens. © 2015 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2002-03-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays a essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of joint surfaces of granite and Fourier analysis, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a viscoelastic homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. But the complexity of rock surface discontinuities seems beyond the manual image processing method. In Chapter 2 a Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the rock roughness of a discontinuity. Then, scanning three-dimensional images are changed its data form in order to adapt various image analysis programs, and granitic rock roughness of discontinuities are displayed by graphic images. For example, these datas are analyzed by Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) program and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation (IDFT) program. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under triaxial compression condition and by using LSM under uniaxial compression condition. With a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method, we can calculate macro behavior of medium influenced by its micro structure by analyse the long-term time-dependent behavior of granite under the same condition to the relaxation experiment. (author)

  1. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term Studies of Marine Halogen Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschritter, J.; Holla, R.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Institute of Enviromental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Long term measurements of atmospheric trace gases using multi-axis DOAS instruments are pursued at the new SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). This research is part of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the ANthropocene) project (Fördernummer:03F0462F). Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine- and iodine- containing species play major roles in the chemistry of ozone in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere and thus possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In addition iodine-species emitted from the ocean surface have been shown to be responsible for the production of new atmospheric particles in the marine boundary layer. This may have an effect on cloud formation and radiation transfer on local and global scales. Long term measurements of RHS abundances will help to identify their key regions and processes for formation. A new long term Multi-MAX-DOAS instrument has been installed at the SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). The main focus of these unique measurements is the investigation of reactive halogen chemistry in the subtropical marine boundary layer based on measurements of BrO, IO, and possibly OIO. Because of its wide spectral range also the use for O4-retrievals to gain aerosol profiles is possible. IO has been detected with mixing ratios up to 1.3 ppt. For BrO an upper limit of 2 ppt could be determined.

  3. A double-blind study evaluating the long-term safety of varenicline for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Reeves, Karen R; Billing, Clare B; Pennington, Ann M; Gong, Jason

    2007-04-01

    We assessed the safety of long-term varenicline administration for smoking cessation. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, eligible adult smokers (18-75 years) who smoked an average of > or =10 cigarettes/day were randomized to either varenicline 1 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo for 52 weeks. Subjects made weekly clinic visits until week 8, and then every 4 weeks until week 52, with a follow-up visit at week 53. The target quit date was the morning of the week 1 clinic visit. Brief counseling was provided at each visit, and vital signs, adverse events (AEs), and smoking status were documented. Other laboratory measures were collected at specified visits. A total of 251 subjects were randomized to varenicline and 126 to placebo. Approximately half of the subjects in each arm completed the study (53.8% varenicline; 46.8% placebo). Treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 96.4% of varenicline- and 82.5% of placebo-treated subjects during the study. Common varenicline-associated AEs were nausea (40.2%), abnormal dreams (22.7%), and insomnia (19.1%). Most AEs were considered mild or moderate in intensity. AEs leading to discontinuation of varenicline treatment included nausea (7.6%), insomnia (3.2%), and abnormal dreams (2.4%). A single varenicline-related serious AE, bilateral subcapsular cataracts, was observed. At week 52, 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 36.7% (varenicline) and 7.9% (placebo). Varenicline 1 mg BID can be safely administered for up to 1 year. Varenicline was also a more effective smoking cessation aid than placebo throughout the study, supporting both its short- (12-week) and long-term (52-week) efficacy.

  4. Long-term study on workers occupationally exposed to ethylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardodĕj, Z; Círek, A

    1988-01-01

    Ethylbenzene is synthesized from benzene; subject to catalytic dehydrogenation it yields styrene, a raw material for the production of synthetic rubber and plastics. Long-term biomonitoring of occupational ethylbenzene exposures, carried out in the past 20 years in some 200 ethylbenzene-production workers, revealed this substance to pose little hazard to human health. As it turned out, mandelic acid concentrations in these workers' urine never exceeded 3.25 mmol.l-1 and none of the exposed showed damage to hematopoiesis and/or liver tissue. Over the last 10 years no case of malignancy has been recorded in this industrial facility belonging to a larger chemical complex where the overall incidence of cancer is about 3 times the national average. Today's low-level ethylbenzene exposures would make it fully justifiable if the present-day MAC limits, both whole-shift (200 mg.m-3) and peak (1,000 mg.m-3), were to be halved, i.e. to be lowered to 100 mg.m3 and 500 mg.m3 respectively. These newly recommended limit values are no more exceeded nowadays.

  5. Science and society: the role of long-term studies in environmental stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles T. Driscoll; Kathleen F. Lambert; F. Stuart Chapin; David J. Nowak; Thomas A. Spies; Frederick J. Swanson; David B. Kittredge; Clarisse M. Hart

    2012-01-01

    Long-term research should play a crucial role in addressing grand challenges in environmental stewardship. We examine the efforts of five Long Term Ecological Research Network sites to enhance policy, management, and conservation decisions for forest ecosystems. In these case studies, we explore the approaches used to inform policy on atmospheric deposition, public...

  6. Long-term studies of the natural history of asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies...

  7. An open-label, multicenter evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandina Gahan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of maintenance risperidone treatment in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods This open-label study of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with schizophrenia was a single extension study of two short-term double-blind risperidone studies and also enrolled subjects directly in open-label risperidone treatment. The risperidone dose was flexible and ranged from 2 to 6 mg/day. Most subjects enrolled for 6 months; a subset enrolled for 12 months. Assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and factor scores, Clinical Global Impressions, Children’s Global Assessment Scale, adverse event (AE monitoring, vital signs, laboratory testing, and extrapyramidal symptom rating scales. Results A total of 390 subjects were enrolled; 48 subjects had received placebo in a previous double-blind study; 292 subjects had received risperidone as part of their participation in one of two previous controlled studies; and 50 subjects were enrolled directly for this study. A total of 279 subjects enrolled for 6 months of treatment, and 111 subjects enrolled for 12 months of treatment. Overall, 264 (67.7% subjects completed this study: 209 of the 279 subjects (75% in the 6-month group and 55 of the 111 subjects (50% in the 12-month group. The median mode dose was 3.8 mg/day. At 6 months, all three groups experienced improvement from open-label baseline in symptoms of schizophrenia as well as general assessments of global functioning. Improvements were generally maintained for the duration of treatment. The most common AEs (≥10% of subjects were somnolence, headache, weight increase, hypertonia, insomnia, tremor, and psychosis. Potentially prolactin-related AEs (PPAEs were reported by 36 (9% subjects. The AE profile in this study was

  8. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  9. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site

  10. Collagenase chemonucleolysis: a long term radiographic study in normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilola, M.A.O.; Cockshutt, J.R.; Mclaughlin, R.; Cochrane, S.M.; Pennock, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    Five clinically normal five year old dogs were used in this study. From a randomized table intervertebral discs were each injected with either collagenase or calcium chloride diluent. The surgically exposed cervical discs were injected with 50 units whereas thoracic and lumbar discs were injected under fluoroscopic guidance with 100 units of the enzyme. Postinjection radiographs revealed significant (p ltoreq .05) disc space narrowing in enzyme injected discs. The cervical discs had the highest frequency of radiographic narrowing (87%) followed by the thoracic (70%) and lumbar (53%) discs. Spondylosis deformans developed at the sites of cervical enzyme injections. None of the dogs had neurologic abnormalities one year postinjection

  11. [Safety study of long-term video-electroencephalogram monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, M; Vivanco, R; Massot, A; Jiménez, J; Roquer, J; Rocamora, R

    2014-01-01

    The increased morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life associated with drug-resistant epilepsy justify admitting patients to epilepsy monitoring units (EMU). These units employ methods that promote the occurrence of seizures, which involves a risk of secondary adverse events. The aim of our study is to characterise and quantify these adverse events in a Spanish EMU. A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of patients admitted consecutively to our EMU. Patients admitted due to status epilepticus, clusters of seizures, or as participants in a clinical trial were excluded. We included 175 patients, of whom 92.1% (161) did not suffer any adverse events. Status epilepticus was present in 3.4% (6); 1.7% (3) had traumatic injury, 1.7% (3) had interictal or postictal psychosis, and 1.1% (2) had cardiorespiratory impairment. There were no risk factors associated with these adverse events. The most frequently-identified adverse events were status epilepticus, traumatic injury, interictal or postictal psychosis, and cardiorespiratory disorders. The frequency of these adverse events was similar to that seen in international literature. The complications detected do not contraindicate VEEGM. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Long term telemedicine study of compliance in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystanek, Marek; Krzeszowski, Dariusz; Jagoda, Karolina; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Low compliance is one of the crucial problems of contemporary psychiatry. Relapses, deterioration of cognitive functioning, negative symptoms, neuroleptic resistance are the examples of many consequences of noncompliance in schizophrenia The study was designed to assess the compliance in the 200 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, all in the state of symptomatic remission and on the stable neuroleptic treatment. The compliance was assessed using a telepsychiatric system, sending reminders: 1 hour before the planned dose to remind them that drug intake is approaching, and at the moment of intake to check if they took the drug. The confirmed drug intakes were counted by the telepsychiatric system. 158 patients completed the study period. The compliance in the first month of the treatment was 44.6% and decreased over the rest of the period to the level of 33.4%. 50% of the schizophrenic patients were compliant at a level lower than 37%. This group was considered the low compliance group, and in this group the compliance increased after 6 months from 9.3% to 10.3% (p<0.0001). The compliance in the group of schizophrenic patients in remission is very low. The telemedicine system improves the compliance in the patients with the worst compliance.

  13. Studi Pemanfaatan Digital Dividend Untuk Layanan Long Term Evolution (LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sesuai dengan Permen kominfo No. 22/PER/M/KOMINFO/11/2011 tentang Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Televisi Digital Terestrial Penerimaan Tetap Tidak Berbayar (Free To Air, pada tahun 2018 semua TV analog migrasi secara penuh ke TV digital. Dengan demikian ada alokasi tersisa sebesar 2 x 45 Mhz FDD yang disebut sebagai digital dividend. Frekuensi tersebut rencananya akan digunakan untuk teknologi LTE. Namun sebelum digelar teknologi LTE pada frekuensi digital dividend tersebut maka perlu dikaji bagaimana penggunaan digital dividend untuk layanan LTE. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hasil perhitungan link budget frekuensi 700 MHz untuk LTE, mengetahui perbandingan kapasitas user pada daerah tipe dense-urban, urban, sub-urban dan rural, mengetahui estimasi jumlah pelanggan LTE, mengetahui jumlah operator LTE optimum dan pembagian bandwidthnya.  Metode penelitian dengan menggunakan studi literatur. Kajian ini menggunakan teknik analisis kuantitatif deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jangkauan paling besar yaitu daerah rural kemudian disusul berturut-turut daerah sub urban, dense urban dan urban. Kapasitas user per site dalam 1 Km2 dari urutan terbesar ke kecil berturut-turut yaitu daerah rural, sub urban, urban dan dense urban. Estimasi jumlah pelanggan LTE di Indonesia paling besar yaitu di daerah dense-urban yaitu mencapai 500 user/Km2 pada tahun ke 8. Jumlah operator LTE-700 MHz paling optimum sebanyak 3 operator dengan pembagian bandwidth masing-masing 15 MHz.

  14. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Olea Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators.

  15. Long-Term Studies of Prescribed Burning in Loblolly Pine Forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; David H. van Lear; F. Thomas Lloyd; William R. Harms

    1987-01-01

    Prescribed fire provides many benefits in southern pine A study begun in 1946 provides a unique opportunity stands. to observe long-term changes in understory vegetation, soil properties, and overstory tree growth caused by repeated burning.

  16. A study on shear behavior of R/C beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many structural members are subjected to long term heating. There are few experimental data available on the behavior especially in shear of reinforced concrete (R/C) members subjected to long term heating. This paper describes a study aimed at experimentally determining the shear behavior of R/C members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating at high temperatures

  17. Acute and long-term survival in chronically critically ill surgical patients: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-01-01

    Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease.

  18. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  19. A study of the long-term effect of malar fat repositioning in face lift surgery: short-term success but long-term failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Sam T

    2002-09-01

    In 1990, the author reported on a series of 403 cases of deep plane face lifts, the first published technique describing the repositioning of the cheek fat, known as malar fat, in face lift surgery. This study examines the long-term results of 20 of the original series in an attempt to determine what areas of the rejuvenated face (specifically, the malar fat) showed long-term improvement. The results were judged by comparing the preoperative and long-term postoperative views in a half-and-half same-side hemiface photograph. The anatomy of the jawline (superficial musculoaponeurotic system [SMAS]), the nasolabial fold (malar fat), and the periorbital diameter were evaluated. The results confirmed that repositioning of the SMAS remained for longer than improvement in the nasolabial fold and that the vertical diameter of the periorbit did not change at all. The early results of malar fat repositioning shown at 1 to 2 years were successful, but the long-term results showed failure of the early improvement, manifested by recurrence of the nasolabial folds. There was, however, continuation of the improved results of the forehead lift and SMAS maneuvers of the original procedure. The conclusion is that only a direct excision will produce a permanent correction of the aging nasolabial fold.

  20. Long-Term Engagement in Formal Volunteering and Well-Being: An Exploratory Indian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Jereesh K; Sudhir, Paulomi; Mehrotra, Seema

    2016-09-27

    Sustained engagement in volunteering and its correlates have been examined in many studies across the globe. However, there is a dearth of research that explores the perspectives of long-term formal volunteers on the nature of changes perceived in oneself as a result of volunteering. Moreover, the linkages between psychological well-being and volunteering have been insufficiently explored. The present study was aimed at addressing these gaps. A heterogeneous sample of 20 long-term formal volunteer engaged in volunteering across different voluntary organisations in a southern metropolitan Indian city formed the primary sample for the study. In addition, a group of 21 short-term volunteers, matched on age, income and gender, was utilised for comparison with long-term volunteers on well-being indices. A semi structured interview schedule was used to explore self-perceived changes attributable to volunteering experience. In addition, a few standardised measures were used to comprehensively assess subjective well-being and psychological well-being. The interview data provided rich descriptions of perceived positive changes in self across cognitive, behavioral and emotional domains. Mirroring these patterns, the quantitative analyses indicated that long-term volunteers experienced higher levels of psychological well-being (sense of mastery and competence, self-acceptance and sense of engagement and growth) than short-term volunteers. The potential mechanisms involved in beneficial outcomes of long-term volunteering and implications for further research are highlighted.

  1. Gauging the Purported Costs of Public Data Archiving for Long-Term Population Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon Robin

    2016-04-01

    It was recently proposed that long-term population studies be exempted from the expectation that authors publicly archive the primary data underlying published articles. Such studies are valuable to many areas of ecological and evolutionary biological research, and multiple risks to their viability were anticipated as a result of public data archiving (PDA), ultimately all stemming from independent reuse of archived data. However, empirical assessment was missing, making it difficult to determine whether such fears are realistic. I addressed this by surveying data packages from long-term population studies archived in the Dryad Digital Repository. I found no evidence that PDA results in reuse of data by independent parties, suggesting the purported costs of PDA for long-term population studies have been overstated.

  2. Beyond post-marketing research and MedWatch: Long-term studies of drug risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2007-10-01

    Critics of the drug safety system have discussed many different potential reforms, ranging from mandatory registration of clinical trials to increasing the power of regulatory agencies, but few have discussed one of the most important ways of enhancing safety: increasing the number of long-term studies of medications. Long-term studies of the risks and benefits of drugs can provide useful information for regulators, healthcare professionals, and patients. Government funding agencies should lead the effort to conduct long-term studies of drugs, but private companies should also be required to lend financial support. Because cost-effectiveness is likely to be an important consideration in conducting this research, funding agencies should focus, at first, on drugs that are used to treat common, chronic conditions.

  3. Long-term increased risk of unemployment after young stroke: A long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, excess risk, and risk factors of unemployment in patients after a TIA, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage at ages 18 through 50 years, compared with nationwide controls. METHODS: We performed a hospital-based cohort study among 694 patients, aged

  4. Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Kontani, Teiji; Katsuo, Shinichi; Takei, Yoshinori; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Asaka, Masahiro; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Soen, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Hiraishi, Hideyuki; Hiramatsu, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    Low-dose lansoprazole has not been intensively evaluated for its efficacy in the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in patients receiving long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy for pain relief in such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain. This multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled study involving 99 sites in Japan was designed to compare the efficacy of lansoprazole (15 mg daily) with gefarnate (50 mg twice daily). Patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 185) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 181) and followed up for 12 months or longer prospectively. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcer at days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 3.3, 5.9, and 12.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 18.7, 28.5, and 36.9%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk for ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.2510 (95% CI 0.1400-0.4499). A long-term follow-up study showed an acceptable safety profile for low-dose lansoprazole therapy, with diarrhea as the most frequent adverse event. Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy.

  5. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  6. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed.

  7. Validation of traffic-related air pollution exposure estimates for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosbroeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of studies that investigate the validity of using outdoor concentrations and/or traffic-related indicator exposure variables as a measure for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies on the long-term effect of traffic-related air pollution. A pilot study was

  8. An Instrument for Every Child: A Study on Long-Term Effects of Extended Music Education in German Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp-Schleußner, Valerie; Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Does extended music education during primary school foster long-term musical participation? What other factors contribute to long-term musical participation? In our study on "Impacts and Long-Term Effects of Musical Participation," we investigate how the German programme "An Instrument for Every Child (JeKi)," which fosters the…

  9. QUALITY-OF-LIFE IN A LONG-TERM MULTICENTER TRIAL IN CHRONIC NONSPECIFIC LUNG-DISEASE - ASSESSMENT AT BASE-LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAPTEIN, AA; BRAND, PLP; DEKKER, FW; KERSTJENS, HAM; POSTMA, DS; SLUITER, HJ

    1993-01-01

    Quality-of-life (QOL) in patients with respiratory illness is a topic of increasing interest to clinicians and researchers. In a multicentre trial, which studies the long-term effects of three medication regimens (beta-agonist plus either placebo, anti-cholinergic agent or corticosteroid, all by

  10. Comparison of the long-term clinical performance of a biodegradable and a titanium fixation system in maxillofacial surgery : A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gareb, B.; van Bakelen, N. B.; Buijs, G. J.; Jansma, J.; de Visscher, J. G. A. M.; Hoppenreijs, Th. J. M.; Bergsma, J. E.; van Minnen, B.; Stegenga, B.; Bos, R. R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Biodegradable fixation systems could reduce or eliminate problems associated with titanium removal of implants in a second operation. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the long-term (i.e. >5 years postoperatively) clinical performance of a titanium and a biodegradable system in

  11. The effects of hybrid cycle training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) is important to stay fit and healthy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of hybrid cycle training (hand cycling in combination with functional electrical stimulation-induced leg cycling) on fitness,

  12. Stroke and Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution From Nitrogen Dioxide A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Kristiansen, Luise Cederkvist; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Years of exposure to tobacco smoke substantially increase the risk for stroke. Whether long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution can lead to stroke is not yet established. We examined the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and incident...... and fatal stroke in a prospective cohort study.Methods-We followed 57 053 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort in the Hospital Discharge Register for the first-ever hospital admission for stroke (incident stroke) between baseline (1993-1997) and 2006 and defined fatal strokes as death...

  13. Climate change and population dynamics at the tree line: the importance of long-term studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-limited ecosystems are believed to be extremely sensitive to global warming and the upward treeline migration is one of the most relevant phenomenon. Long term monitoring of demographic trends appears essential in order to understand possible effects of higher temperatures on cold ecosystems. Long-term monitoring of natality and mortality of a Pinus sylvestris population in the Swedish Scandes from 1973 to 2005 (Kullman 2007 showed that number of trees increased in the study plots due to higher natality rate, especially in the last decade. This reverses a natural trend of treeline decline and recession occurred in the past.

  14. Measuring client experiences in long-term care in the Netherlands: a pilot study with the Consumer Quality Index Long-term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Rudolf B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to describe the development, testing and optimization of a new standard instrument, the Consumer Quality Index (CQ-index® Long-term Care, for measuring client experiences with long-term care in the Netherlands. Methods Three versions of the CQ-index questionnaires and protocols for study sampling and data collection were developed, designed for interviews with residents of nursing or residential care homes and postal surveys among representatives of psychogeriatric residents and homecare clients. From July to November 2006 a pilot study was conducted among 2,697 clients of 68 nursing or residential care homes, 2,164 representatives of clients in 57 psychogeriatric care institutions, and 1,462 clients of 19 homecare organizations. We performed psychometric analyses and descriptive analyses, and evaluated the pilot study. Results The pilot study showed the feasibility and usability of the instruments, supported the multidimensionality of the questionnaires and showed first findings on client experiences and possibilities for quality improvement. Nine scales applied to all care settings: shared decision making, attitude and courtesy, information, body care, competence and safety of care, activities, autonomy, mental well-being, and availability of personnel. The pilot resulted in three optimized questionnaires and recommendations for nationwide implementation. Conclusions The CQ-index® Long-term Care provides a good basis to investigate the quality of nursing homes, residential care homes and homecare from the clients' perspective. This standardized instrument enables a nationwide comparison of the quality of long-term care for the purpose of transparency and quality assurance.

  15. State-dependent life-history strategies : A long-term study on oystercatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn

    2006-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is part of a long-term field study on free-living Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus), on the Dutch Wadden Sea island of Schiermonnikoog.The study was started in 1983 by Jan Hulscher, and since then a lineage of PhDstudents has investigated life-history

  16. A Long-Term Outcome Study of Selective Mutism in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Wachter, Miriam; Laimbock, Karin; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Controlled study of the long-term outcome of selective mutism (SM) in childhood. Method: A sample of 33 young adults with SM in childhood and two age- and gender-matched comparison groups were studied. The latter comprised 26 young adults with anxiety disorders in childhood (ANX) and 30 young adults with no psychiatric disorders during…

  17. Long-term functional sequelae of sacrococcygeal teratoma : a national study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, Joep P. M.; De Backer, Antoine; van de Schoot, Leon; Aronson, Daniel C.; de Langen, Zacharias J.; van den Hoonaard, Thelma L.; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; van der Staak, Frans; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest

    Background: Long-term functional sequelac after resection of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) are relatively common. This study determines the incidence of these sequelae associated clinical variables and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Patients and methods: Patients with SCT treated from 1980 to

  18. Studying screen interactions long-term : the library as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, W.T.; Veenstra, Mettina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and long-term study of BiebBeep, a large interactive touchscreen that has been developed with the aim to augment the information and social function of a library. BiebBeep displays user-generated and context-relevant content, such as information about local events and

  19. Comparative study of different stochastic weather generators for long-term climate data simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is one of the single most important factors affecting watershed ecosystems and water resources. The effect of climate variability and change has been studied extensively in some places; in many places, however, assessments are hampered by limited availability of long term continuous climate ...

  20. LONG TERM STABILITY STUDY AT FNAL AND SLAC USING BINP DEVELOPED HYDROSTATIC LEVEL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2003-05-28

    Long term ground stability is essential for achieving the performance goals of the Next Linear Collider. To characterize ground motion on relevant time scales, measurements have been performed at three geologically different locations using a hydrostatic level system developed specifically for these studies. Comparative results from the different sites are presented in this paper.

  1. Orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy - Is it safe? A long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakelkamp, Iris M. M. J.; Tan, Hendra; Saeed, Peerooz; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Verbraak, Frank D.; Blank, Leo E. C. M.; Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the frequency of long-term complications of orbital irradiation (radiation-induced tumors, cataract, and retinopathy) in comparison with glucocorticoids. Design: We conducted a follow-up study in a cohort of 245 Graves' ophthalmopathy patients who had been treated with

  2. Toward the Long-Term Scientific Study of Encounter Group Phenomena: I. Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael Jay; Shapiro, Jerrold Lee

    This paper proposes a model for the long-term scientific study of encounter, T-, and sensitivity groups. The authors see the need for overcoming major methodological and design inadequacies of such research. They discuss major methodological flaws in group outcome research as including: (1) lack of adequate base rate or pretraining measures; (2)…

  3. Long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: ISPOCD1 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, J.T.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Houx, P.J.; Rasmussen, H.; Canet, J.; Rabbitt, P.; Jolles, J.; Larsen, K.; Hanning, C.D.; Langeron, O.; Johnson, T.; Lauven, P.M.; Kristensen, P.A.; Biedler, A.; Beem, van H.; Fraidakis, O.; Silverstein, J.H.; Beneken, J.E.W.; Gravenstein, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction may occur in the elderly. Age may be a risk factor and hypoxaemia and arterial hypotension causative factors. We investigated these hypotheses in an international multicentre study. Methods 1218 patients aged at least 60 years

  4. Relating long-term studies to conservation practice: the case of the Serengeti Cheetah Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Sarah M; Bashir, Sultana; Maddox, Thomas; Laurenson, M Karen

    2007-06-01

    Although detailed, long-term scientific studies provide potentially crucial information for conservation, they are rare. Moreover, there is often a disjunction between scientists and managers that can affect whether scientific results are applied to help solve conservation problems. Long-term studies can promote increased communication between scientists and managers and hence offer an opportunity for constructive engagement between the two groups. We examined direct and indirect impacts of a 30-year study, the Serengeti Cheetah Project (SCP). Much of what is currently known about wild cheetahs comes from the SCP. In particular, the SCP has demonstrated that cheetahs have a combination of semisociality and ranging patterns that is unique among mammals. This system arises because cheetahs need to be mobile to avoid predators and competitors, yet maintain access to prey; this results in densities much lower than for other large carnivores and a requirement for large areas of heterogenous and connected habitat. The SCP started as a research project, but expanded into a national program, developing capacity for carnivore conservation within Tanzania. Long-term studies such as the SCP are uniquely placed to establish effective working relationships between scientists and managers, engage local and national institutions, and strengthen national capacity for biodiversity conservation. This process is best realized through the establishment of frameworks for conservation that seek to align scientific research with management needs. Long-term studies also play an important role in identifying international priorities for conservation. Nonetheless, the integration of science and management in conservation is a two-way process that requires concerted efforts by both sides to improve and maintain dialogue. Ultimately, conservation depends on people, and maintaining a commitment to a particular area over many years-such as through implementation of a long-term research project

  5. An idealised study for the long term evolution of crescentic bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. L.; Dodd, N.; Tiessen, M. C. H.; Calvete, D.

    2018-01-01

    An idealised study that identifies the mechanisms in the long term evolution of crescentic bar systems in nature is presented. Growth to finite amplitude (i.e., equilibration, sometimes referred to as saturation) and higher harmonic interaction are hypothesised to be the leading nonlinear effects in long-term evolution of these systems. These nonlinear effects are added to a linear stability model and used to predict crescentic bar development along a beach in Duck, North Carolina (USA) over a 2-month period. The equilibration prolongs the development of bed patterns, thus allowing the long term evolution. Higher harmonic interaction enables the amplitude to be transferred from longer to shorter lengthscales, which leads to the dominance of shorter lengthscales in latter post-storm stages, as observed at Duck. The comparison with observations indicates the importance of higher harmonic interaction in the development of nearshore crescentic bar systems in nature. Additionally, it is concluded that these nonlinear effects should be included in models simulating the development of different bed patterns, and that this points a way forward for long-term morphodynamical modelling in general.

  6. Comparative study of short- and long-term indoor radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Abdalla, Khalid [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-08-15

    Short-term indoor radon measurements are used widely. Therefore, it is interesting to find out a correlation between these measurements and long-term measurements which reflect a better average radon concentration of individual measurement. To find the correlation between the two measurements of indoor radon concentrations at low radon levels, a study was carried out at 34 locations of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia using active and passive methods. In the short-term active method, a radon gas analyzer (AlphaGUARD) was used for a duration of 24 h in each measurement. In the long-term passive method, CR-39 based radon dosimeters were utilized for a period of 6 months, from January 2006 to June 2006. The short-term active measurements showed that the average, minimum and maximum radon concentrations were 19, 8 and 58Bqm{sup -3}, respectively, with a standard deviation of 8.6Bqm{sup -3}. The long-term passive measurements showed that the average, minimum and maximum radon concentrations were 25, 10 and 67Bqm{sup -3}, respectively, with a standard deviation of 12Bqm{sup -3}. The two measurements showed a poor correlation (R{sup 2}=0.38). The long-term measurements showed on the average higher concentrations by a factor of 1.3.

  7. Stability of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy: a long-term controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, Caterina; Franchi, Lorenzo; Defraia, Efisio; Mucedero, Manuela; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate the long-term effects of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy in Class III subjects. Twenty-two subjects (9 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 9.2 years ± 1.6) with Class III disharmony were treated consecutively with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances. The patients were reevaluated at the end of the 2-phase treatment (mean age, 14.5 years ± 1.9) and then recalled about 8.5 years after the end of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask treatment (mean age, 18.7 years ± 2.1). Two groups of controls with untreated Class III malocclusion were used for statistical comparisons of the short-term and long-term intervals. Statistical comparisons were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test. In the long term, no significant differences in maxillary changes were recorded, whereas the treatment group showed significantly smaller increases in mandibular protrusion. The sagittal maxillomandibular skeletal variables maintained significant improvements in the treatment group vs the control groups. In the long term, rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy led to successful outcomes in about 73% of the Class III patients. Favorable skeletal changes were mainly due to significant improvements in the sagittal position of the mandible. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: A longitudinal comparison study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Janki (Shiromani); K.W.J. Klop (Karel); H.J.A.N. Kimenai (Hendrikus); J. van de Wetering (Jacqueline); W. Weimar (Willem); E.K. Massey (Emma); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Rizopoulos (Dimitris); H. Völzke (Henry); A. Hofman (Albert); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The "LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation"

  9. Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Itabashi, Tsukasa; Abe, Sumihisa; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Uemura, Naomi; Hiramatsu, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole has not been established for the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in those receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection. This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole (15 mg once daily) for the secondary prevention of LDA-associated gastric or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 226) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 235) for 12 months or longer in a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized active-controlled trial, followed by a 6-month follow-up study with open-label lansoprazole treatment. The study utilized 94 sites in Japan and 461 Japanese patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric or duodenal ulcers. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcers on days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 1.5, 2.1, and 3.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 15.2, 24.0, and 31.7%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk of ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.099 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.042-0.230). Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy.

  10. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long?term air pollution and health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The health impact of long?term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution?health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the...

  11. Field study of the long-term release of block copolymers from fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, A.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The addition of block copolymers (i.e. oils) is a common technique to enhance the biofouling-resistance properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based fouling-release coatings. These copolymers diffuse from the bulk to the surface of the coating, thus modifying the properties of the surface an...... fouling-release coatings. Finally, the potential of long-term field-studies is discussed, as compared to short-term laboratory experiments usually performed within fouling-release coatings studies....

  12. The value of animations in biology teaching: a study of long-term memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a primary and critical issue in studies of teaching and learning. In this study, involving 393 student responses, three different animations and two graphics-one with and one lacking a legend-were used to determine the long-term retention of information. The results show that students retain more information 21 d after viewing an animation without narration compared with an equivalent graphic whether or not that graphic had a legend. Students' comments provide additional insight into the value of animations in the pedagogical process, and suggestions for future work are proposed.

  13. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Brødsgaard Grynderup

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Methods Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the “Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease” (PRISME cohort and the “Workplace Bullying and Harassment” (WBH cohort (n = 5418. Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. Results High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.99, but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81–1.18 or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82–1.18 were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association

  14. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Gullander, Maria; Kaerlev, Linda; Persson, Roger; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Høgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-09-16

    Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We found no

  15. The long-term career outcome study: lessons learned and implications for educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey L; Artino, Anthony R; Gilliland, William R; DeZee, Kent J; Saguil, Aaron; Cruess, David F; Picho, Katherine; McManigle, John E

    2015-04-01

    The work of the Long-Term Career Outcome Study has been a program of scholarship spanning 10 years. Borrowing from established quality assurance literature, the Long-Term Career Outcome Study team has organized its scholarship into three phases; before medical school, during medical school, and after medical school. The purpose of this commentary is to address two fundamental questions: (1) what has been learned? and (2) how does this knowledge translate to educational practice and policy now and into the future? We believe that answers to these questions are relevant not only to our institution but also to other educational institutions seeking to provide high-quality health professions education. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Long-term e-cigarette use and smoking cessation: a longitudinal study with US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Cummins, Sharon E; Sun, Jessica Y; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    E-cigarettes have grown popular. The most common pattern is dual use with conventional cigarettes. Dual use has raised concerns that it might delay quitting of cigarette smoking. This study examined the relationship between long-term use of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation in a 2-year period. A nationally representative sample of 2028 US smokers were surveyed in 2012 and 2014. Long-term e-cigarette use was defined as using e-cigarettes at baseline and follow-up. Use of e-cigarettes only at baseline or at follow-up was defined as short-term use. Non-users did not use e-cigarettes at either survey. Quit attempt rates and cessation rates (abstinent for 3 months or longer) were compared across the three groups. At 2-year follow-up, 43.7% of baseline dual users were still using e-cigarettes. Long-term e-cigarette users had a higher quit attempt rate than short-term or non-users (72.6% vs 53.8% and 45.5%, respectively), and a higher cessation rate (42.4% vs 14.2% and 15.6%, respectively). The difference in cessation rate between long-term users and non-users remained significant after adjusting for baseline variables, OR=4.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 11.4) as did the difference between long-term users and short-term users, OR=4.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 13.9). The difference in cessation rate between short-term users and non-users was not significant, OR=0.9 (95% CI 0.5 to 1.4). Among those making a quit attempt, use of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid surpassed that of FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Short-term e-cigarette use was not associated with a lower rate of smoking cessation. Long-term use of e-cigarettes was associated with a higher rate of quitting smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, A.; Castro-Bernardez, M.; Sande-Meijide, M.; Vargas, A.; Barros-Dios, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible

  18. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, A. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Galician Health Service, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain)], E-mail: mralbert@usc.es; Castro-Bernardez, M. [Epidemiology Department, Directorate-General for Public Health, Galician Regional Authority (Spain); Sande-Meijide, M. [Preventive Medicine Unit, Ourense Hospital Complex, Galician Health Service (Spain); Vargas, A. [Energy Techniques Institute, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Barros-Dios, J.M. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain); Preventive Medicine Unit, Santiago de Compostela University Hospital, Galician Health Service (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible.

  19. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa J. Leo; Miguel A. Raso; Emilio Navarro; Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent opera...

  20. Dementia Rating Scale psychometric study and its applicability in long term care institutions in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrari Jacinto; Ana Cristina Procópio de Oliveira Aguiar; Fabio Gazelato de Melo Franco; Miriam Ikeda Ribeiro; Vanessa de Albuquerque Citero

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, andagreement of the Dementia Rating Scale with clinical diagnosis ofcognitive impairment and to compare its psychometric measureswith those from Mini Mental State Examination. Methods: Eighty-sixelders from a long-term care institution were invited to participatein a study, and fifty-eight agreed to participate. The global healthassessment protocol applied to these elders contained Mini MentalState Examination and Dementia Rating...

  1. Long-term studies of the natural history of asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation of children with asthma and other wheezy disorders remains the main research challenge today, as it was when described 2 centuries ago. Early childhood wheezy disorders follow different temporal trajectories, probably representing different underlying mechanisms (endophenotypes...... secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies......). Prospective identification of endophenotypes allowing accurate prediction of the clinical course is currently not possible. The variability of the clinical course remains an enigma and difficult to predict. Three of 4 school-aged children with asthma have outgrown disease by midadulthood. The risk...

  2. Long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Jang, Suk-Yong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-09-08

    We examined the long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression using longitudinal data from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Depression symptoms were measured using the 11 items of Center for Epidemiologic Scale for Depression (CES-D-11), and we categorized parental divorce timing into 'early childhood', 'adolescent' and 'none'. Although participants who experienced parental divorce during adolescence exhibited a significantly higher CES-D-11 score (p = .0468), 'early childhood' participants displayed the most increased CES-D-11 score compared to the control group (p = .0007). Conversely, among participants who were unsatisfied with their marriage, those who experienced parental divorce in early childhood showed lower CES-D-11 scores, while 'adolescent period' participants exhibited significantly higher CES-D-11 scores (p = .0131). We concluded that timing of parental divorce exerts substantial yet varied effects on long-term depression symptoms and future marriage satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Microclimatic effects on outdoor radon and its progeny in a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, M.; Keller, G.; Kappel, R.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The dose due to the long term radon exposure is estimated from the radon concentration and from an equilibrium factor that in the literature is reported with a wide uncertainty. Therefore the radon equilibrium factor outdoors and its dependence on climatic effects should be investigated in a long-term study. Both the outdoor concentrations of radon and of its progeny near Ellweiler/Hunsrueck were measured continuously during 12 months and the resulting equilibrium factors were determined. Simultaneously to the every 2 hour's radon data many meterological parameters as temperature and relative to humidity of the air, barometric pressure and duration and amount of rainfall were recorded. At a height of 6 meters above ground and in 10 minute intervals the local wind direction and velocity were registered. By that a set of more than 3000 single measurements of the equilibrium factor and of the corresponding weather conditions was collected

  4. Study plan for research on long-term stability of geological environments in FY2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Ken-ichi; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2009-09-01

    The Japanese islands lie in a region of the Circum-Pacific orogenic belt characterized by active tectonics such as volcanism and earthquakes. The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multi-barrier system which consists of the engineered barrier in the stable geological environments and the natural barrier. The natural phenomena which potentially affect the geological environments in tectonically active Japan are volcanism, faulting, uplift, denudation, climatic change, and sea-level change. Investigation technologies to evaluate their long-term stability of the geological environments have been developed. In fiscal year 2009, we continue researches to develop technologies for detecting latent geotectonic events in preliminary investigation. With regard to modelling technology, we plan to develop prediction models for evaluating the changes of geological environment (e.g., thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and geochemical conditions) for long term. In addition to these, the development of dating techniques prerequisite for these studies is also carried out. (author)

  5. A study about long-term deformation of soft rock. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Naoto; Miyanomae, Shunichi; Mizutani, Kazuhiko; Noda, Kenji

    2004-02-01

    In this study, the laboratory mechanical tests of sedimentary soft rock sampled at Horonobe area in Hokkaido prefecture were conducted in order to build the confidence of Okubo model for long term deformation of sedimentary rock. And the stability of rock around tunnel in building under the condition assumed the underground of Horonobe area was examined by numerical simulation using information of boring data obtained before 2002 year. As a result, authors could obtain many values of parameter in Okubo model under various conditions. These conditions have the difference of temperature and water saturation. In addition, the life time in creep predicted by Okubo model could be compared with the real one. And numerical simulations, assuming various conditions such as stiffness of buffer material and yielding of support, had been carried out to evaluate the long-term stability of rock surrounding buffer material. Results show the decreasing tendency of time dependency of rock. (author)

  6. Hydrotherapy for the long-term ventilated patient: A case study and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Sally; Thomas, Peter; James, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Hydrotherapy of mechanically ventilated patients has been shown to be safe and feasible in both the acute stages of critical illness and in those requiring long term mechanical ventilation. This case study describes the hydrotherapy sessions of a 36 year old female, who after suffering complications of pneumococcal meningitis, became an incomplete quadriplegic and required long term mechanical ventilation. When implementing hydrotherapy with patients on mechanical ventilation a number of factors should be considered. These include staff resources and training, airway and ventilation management, patient preparation and safety procedures. Hydrotherapy can be safely utilised with mechanically ventilated patients, and may facilitate a patient's ability to participate in active exercise and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Long-Term Safety of S-Flurbiprofen Plaster for Osteoarthritis Patients: An Open-Label, 52-Week Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yataba, Ikuko; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsushita, Isao; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-08-01

    The newly developed S-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP) is a tape-type patch that shows innovative percutaneous absorption. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of a long-term 52-week SFPP application to osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This was a multi-center, open-label, uncontrolled prospective study that included 201 OA patients. SFPP at 40 mg/day was applied to the site of pain in 101 patients and at 80 mg/day (2 patches) in 100 patients at a total of 301 sites for 52 weeks. The affected sites assessed included the knee (192), lumbar spine (66), cervical spine (26), and others (17). Drug safety was evaluated by medical examination, laboratory tests, and examination of vital signs. Efficacy was evaluated by the patient's and clinician's global assessments and clinical symptoms. Most patients (80.1 %) completed the 52-week SFPP application. The majority of drug-related adverse events (AEs) included mild dermatitis at the application sites and occurred in 46.8 % of the sites. No photosensitive dermatitis was observed. Systemic AEs occurred in 9.0 % of the patients; a serious AE (gastric ulcer hemorrhage) occurred in one patient. No clinically significant changes in the laboratory tests and vital signs were observed. The efficacy evaluation showed an improvement from 2 weeks after the SFPP application, which continued during the 52 weeks' treatment. No apparent safety concerns were observed, even during the long-term SFPP application. Therefore, SFPP could be an additional pharmacotherapy in OA treatment.

  8. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2003-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conformal Lase Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of configuration of a joint in granite, its Fourier analysis and the change under uniaxial stress condition, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. In Chapter 2 LSM that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the roughness of discontinuity in a rock specimen. Then, discontinuities appeared on circular sections are identified by LSM and characterized by a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis. The change of discontinuities is observed under applying stress. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Next by using LSM observe the procedure of micro-cracking under uniaxial compression condition. Obviously the micro-crack initiation and propagation controls the time-dependent behavior of granite. We have analysed the behavior by a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method. However since it is difficult to determine the inter-granular properties of constituent crystals and to represent the stress-dependent nonlinear characteristics by this method, we study a strong discontinuity analysis included in the

  9. Study on crystalline rock for evaluating method of long-term behavior. FY2012 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Katsunori; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Tanno, Takeo; Hikima, Ryoichi; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshinori

    2013-12-01

    Rock shows time-dependent behavior such as creep/relaxation. With respect to high-level radioactive waste disposal, knowledge of the long-term mechanical stability of shafts and galleries excavated in rock are required, over a period of thousands of years after closure as well as during construction and operation. Therefore, it is very important to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock for evaluating long-term mechanical stability. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanisms of time-dependent behavior of rock by the precise test (e.g. laboratory creep test), observation and measurement and to develop methods for evaluating long-term mechanical stability. In previous works, testing techniques were established and basic evaluation methods were developed. Recently, some parameters, which required for simulation of time-dependent behavior, were determined for the modeling of biotite granite (Toki granite) distributed around the Mizunami underground research laboratory. However, we were not able to obtain enough data to assess the reliability of the method to evaluate these parameters. This report describes the results of the research activities carried out in fiscal year 2012. In Chapter 1, we provide background and an overview of this study. In Chapter 2, the results of a long-term creep test on Tage tuff, started in fiscal year 1997, are described. In Chapter 3, the experimental results concerning the loading-rate dependency of rock strength were examined to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock. In Chapter 4, the stability of tunnels, under conditions which rock stress is larger than that around a circular tunnel, were examined to obtain useful information on the future plan for in-situ tests in the underground research laboratory. (author)

  10. A study about the long-term stability of sedimentary rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Naoto; Miyanomae, Shun-ichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Nashimoto, Yutaka

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, following two issues were examined and estimated, (1) the influence of near field condition factor to the dynamical behavior of sedimentary soft rock, (2) the long term estimation of the dynamical behavior considering the condition of Horonobe area. As the study about the influence of near field condition factor to the dynamical behavior of sedimentary soft rock, the thermal factor was focused on and the laboratory tests using test pieces which were sampled in Horonobe area were carried out under the water temperature were 20 degrees and 80 degrees. As a result, the time dependence parameter in variable-compliance-type constitutive-equation could be obtained. And comparison between creep property under 20 degrees and 80 degrees was conducted. In addition, the general properties of sedimentary soft rock under several conditions were identified by the survey of the literature. And the way how to confirm the dynamical properties of sedimentary soft rock with in-situ test were presented. For the study on the short-term and long-term stability of rock surrounding buffer materials, numerical simulations were carried out assuming several conditions. The direction of disposal tunnels and the ratio of rock strength by initial stress were estimated to be the main factor affecting the short-term stability of rock. Time dependency of rock and the stiffness of buffer material were estimated to be the main factor affecting the long-term stability of rock. (author)

  11. Xerostomia and medication: a cross-sectional study in long-term geriatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoutter, A; Soudain-Pineau, M; Munsch, F; Mauprivez, C; Dufour, T; Coeuriot, J-L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of xerostomia in old people living in long-term geriatric wards, and to measure the relationship between xerostomia and etiologic factors such as age and medication (total number of medications, xerogenic medications, anticholinergic medications and medications that induce hypersialorrhea). An observational retrospective, comparative, multicentre epidemiological study. Long-term geriatric wards, in Reims, France. 769 old people living in long-term geriatric wards. Prevalence of xerostomia assessed from age, total number of medications, xerogenic medications, anticholinergic medications and those that induce hypersialorrhea. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate Odds Ratios (OR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Among 769 old people (average age 84.6±8.4 years old), 287 residents suffered from xerostomia (37.3%). Significant predictors of xerostomia were: resident's age OR=1.56, 95% CI (1.30-1.88), pxerostomia identified was medications that induce hypersialorrhea OR=0.81, 95% CI (0.67-0.98), p=0.03. The total number of medications and xerogenic medications did not play a significant role in xerostomia. Increasing Age and anticholinergic medications induce a dry mouth. Conversely, the total number of medications and xerogenic medications do not influence xerostomia. Medications that induce hypersialorrhea protect against the occurrence of dry mouth.

  12. Data collection and storage in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies: The Mongoose 2000 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry H; Griffiths, David J; Mwanguhya, Francis; Businge, Robert; Griffiths, Amber G F; Kyabulima, Solomon; Mwesige, Kenneth; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Thompson, Faye J; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Cant, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Studying ecological and evolutionary processes in the natural world often requires research projects to follow multiple individuals in the wild over many years. These projects have provided significant advances but may also be hampered by needing to accurately and efficiently collect and store multiple streams of the data from multiple individuals concurrently. The increase in the availability and sophistication of portable computers (smartphones and tablets) and the applications that run on them has the potential to address many of these data collection and storage issues. In this paper we describe the challenges faced by one such long-term, individual-based research project: the Banded Mongoose Research Project in Uganda. We describe a system we have developed called Mongoose 2000 that utilises the potential of apps and portable computers to meet these challenges. We discuss the benefits and limitations of employing such a system in a long-term research project. The app and source code for the Mongoose 2000 system are freely available and we detail how it might be used to aid data collection and storage in other long-term individual-based projects.

  13. A study of long-term complications associated with enteral ostomy and their contributory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajah, Umesh; Samarasekara, Asuramuni M P; Samarasekera, Dharmabandhu N

    2016-12-05

    Complications of ostomy significantly affect the quality of life of ostomates. There is little evidence on the rate of long-term complications in ostomates, especially from the developing countries which include Sri Lanka. This study was aimed to describe the long-term complications of enteral ostomies and their contributory factors. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 192 patients who underwent ostomy creation over a period of 5 years. Data on type of complications, age, sex, type of ostomy, type of surgery and perioperative care by enteric stoma therapist were gathered. Associations were established using Chi square test and multiple logistic regression. Out of 192 patients, only 146 patients presented regularly for follow up. The mean follow up duration was 28 months (range: 3-183). Around 34.2% developed surgical long-term complications related to the ostomy. Common complications were prolapse (n = 24, 16.4%), skin excoriation (n = 22, 15.1%) and parastomal hernia (n = 14, 9.6%). Overall complication rate was significantly less in loop ostomies (p ostomies (p ostomies (p < 0.05). Perioperative care by enteric stoma therapist reduced the overall and specific complications (p < 0.001). The overall complication rate in our cohort of patients was 34.2%. The perioperative care of a stoma therapist may be very effective in preventing complications particularly in a setting with limited resources.

  14. A clinical case study of long-term injury of the thoracic and lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V Zaretskov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Overestimation of the efficacy of conservative treatment of spine injuries children often leads to unsatisfactory long-term results. The effective correction of post-traumatic spinal column deformities occurs in patients who undergo the operation in the early post-traumatic period. While choosing treatment strategies for children, higher reparative opportunities, which provide early fracture consolidation, including those in faulty positions, should be considered. This study presents a case of surgical treatment for uncomplicated injury of the thoracic and lumbar spine, with long-term compression fragmental fracture of the L1 vertebra body in a 12-year-old child. Due to the long-standing character of the injury right thoraco-frenotomy was conducted with partial L1 vertebral body and resection of the adjacent discs, deformity correction of the thoracic and lumbar spine with a transpedicular system, and ventral spondylodesis with an autograft. This extensive intervention was justified by the peculiarities in the vertebral body damage and the post-traumatic segmental kyphotic deformity that resulted from delayed medical treatment. An anterior approach was chosen to achieve immobilization at the site of the damage before correction using the transpedicular system. Surgical correction of long-term spinal injuries in children, with the use of a combined approach, is usually laborious and traumatic. The prevention of rigid post-traumatic spine deformities with the help of timely diagnostics and appropriate treatment, including surgery, should be a priority to prevent such cases.

  15. Phenomenological study on crystalline rock for evaluating of long-term behavior (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke; Fukui, Katsunori; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Hikima, Ryoichi; Tanno, Takeo; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hiroya; Sato, Toshinori

    2012-02-01

    Rock, under in situ conditions, shows time-dependent behavior such as creep/relaxation. With respect to high-level radioactive waste disposal, knowledge of the long-term mechanical stability of shafts and galleries excavated in rock is required, not only during construction and operation but also over a period of thousands of years after closure. Therefore, it is very important to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock for evaluating long-term mechanical stability. The purpose of this study is determining the mechanisms of time-dependent behavior of rock by precise testing, observation and measurement in order to develop methods for evaluating long-term mechanical stability of a rock mass. In the previous work, testing techniques have been established and basic evaluation methods were developed. Recently, some parameters needed for simulation of time-dependent behavior were determined at the Mizunami underground research facilities. However, sufficient data to check the reliability of the evaluation method for these parameters were not available. This report describes the results of the activities in fiscal year 2010. In Chapter 1, we provide an overview and the background to this study. In Chapter 2, the results of a long-term creep test on Tage tuff, started in fiscal year 1997 are described. In Chapter 3, the relation of loading-rate dependency of strength and stress dependency of creep life, the relation of time dependency, probability distribution and size effects are discussed to indicate more clearly the meaning of the value of 'n' to express the degree of time dependency of the rock. Furthermore, past studies concerning the value of 'n' are reviewed and the tests that could be carried out in future studies of mechanical properties and time dependency of Toki granite are considered in this Chapter. In Chapter 4, failure criterions of a rock mass considering time dependency are discussed. In Chapter 5, the FEM analysis implemented with a generalized

  16. [Transparency and replicability of nursing intervention studies in long-term care: A selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gspörer, Irene; Schrems, Berta M

    2018-05-01

    The development and evaluation of interventions in long-term care is time-consuming and expensive due to their complexity. To ensure reproducibility and successful implementation, these interventions must be described and published in a comprehensible and qualitative manner. The aim of this study is to analyze intervention studies from the inpatient long-term care setting with regard to their completeness, reporting quality, transparency and thus reproducibility. The completeness and the reporting quality of the interventions described in the publications were examined in the context of a selective literature review by means of intervention studies from the long-term care setting (n=22). To this end, the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in Healthcare 2 (CReDECI2-DE) list were used. Transparency criteria included study registration and access to study protocols. The TIDieR checklist examination revealed that only three studies contained all the information necessary; the CReDECI2 test provided a complete description for only one study. Frequent shortcomings were observed concerning the information on modifications and titrations for the study participants and the location. Protocols were available for eight studies, 14 studies were registered. In terms of science, this means that the reproducibility of scientific findings is limited, which is why they cannot provide secure knowledge. As a result, the practical benefit to be derived from published studies that are accessible to decision-makers is limited as well. As far as publishers are concerned they should pay more attention to the completeness, registration and availability of materials. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Mortality and life expectancy in relation to long-term cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking: The Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Ocké, M.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Study objective: To study the effect of long-term smoking on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to estimate the effects of cigarette and cigar or pipe smoking on life expectancy. Design: A long-term prospective cohort study. Setting: Zutphen, The Netherlands. Participants: 1373 men from the

  18. Long-term conditioning of deep-seated rockslides in deglaciated valleys: the Spriana case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2015-04-01

    Deep-seated rockslides in alpine valleys evolve over long time under the action of multiple triggers. Early Warning based on monitoring is often the only effective approach to cope with these landslides, but it requires an improved understanding of mechanisms interplaying over long time. Deep-seated rockslides are often characterized by long-term 'creep' and seasonal displacement components, contributing to measured displacement patterns which are often modelled as rockslide responses to hydrologic perturbations. Although this hydro-mechanical modelling approach fits the behaviour of disrupted rockslide masses with well-developed shear zones, it is often insufficient to explain the initial onset and the long-term components of creep movements of deep-seated rockslides. This outlines the need to link long-term evolution of rock slopes and their sensitivity to triggers. We discuss the Spriana rockslide, affecting the steep left-hand flank of Val Malenco (italian Central Alps). Documented instabilities date back to 1912, whereas the rockslide underwent major acceleration stages in 1960 and 1977-78 and later minor reactivations. We reviewed a large amount of data collected since 1978 by extensive geotechnical site investigation (borehole drilling, exploratory adits, and seismic refraction) and monitoring activities (ground surface and deep displacements, pore pressures) motivated by potential catastrophic collapse threatening the city of Sondrio area. We performed rock mass characterization based on laboratory studies on intact rock samples, field surveys and drillcore logging. These data allowed re-evaluating the geological model of the Spriana rockslide, which is a compound slide of up to 50 Mm3 of slope debris and fractured gneiss, with multiple shear failure zones up to 90 m deep. Two main scarps developed in different stages, suggesting progressive failure processes. The rockslide creeps at slow rates of 0.4-3 cm/a, and undergoes acceleration stages (weeks to

  19. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.; Hoek, G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Fischer, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Jerrett, M.; Hughes, E.; Armstrong, B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives: We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and

  20. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...

  1. Senescence in the wild: Insights from a long-term study on Seychelles warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Kingma, Sjouke A; Bebbington, Kat; van de Crommenacker, Janske; Spurgin, Lewis G; Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Senescence--the progressive age-dependent decline in performance--occurs in most organisms. There is considerable variation in the onset and rate of senescence between and within species. Yet the causes of this variation are still poorly understood, despite being central to understanding the evolution of senescence. Long-term longitudinal studies on wild animals are extremely well-suited to studying the impact of environmental and individual characteristics (and the interaction between the two) on senescence, and can help us to understand the mechanisms that shape the evolution of senescence. In this review, we summarize and discuss the insights gained from our comprehensive long-term individual-based study of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This species provides an excellent model system in which to investigate the evolution of senescence in the wild. We found that Seychelles warblers show senescent declines in survival and reproduction, and discuss how individual characteristics (body condition, body size) and environmental effects (low- versus high-quality environments) may affect the onset and rate of senescence. Further, we highlight the evidence for trade-offs between early-life investment and senescence. We describe how key cellular and physiological processes (oxidative stress and telomere shortening) underpinning senescence are affected by individual and environmental characteristics in the Seychelles warbler (e.g. food availability, reproductive investment, disease) and we discuss how such physiological variation may mediate the relationship between environmental characteristics and senescence. Based on our work using Seychelles warblers as a model system, we show how insights from long-term studies of wild animals may help unravel the causes of the remarkable variation in senescence observed in natural systems, and highlight areas for promising future research.

  2. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CARDIAC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: A TWIN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urho M.Kujala

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that athletic training or other physical activity causes structural and functional adaptations in the heart, but less is known how long-term physical activity affects heart when genetic liability and childhood environment are taken into account. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term physical activity vs. inactivity on cardiac structure and function in twin pairs discordant for physical activity for 32 years. Twelve same-sex twin pairs (five monozygotic and seven dizygotic, 50-67 years were studied as a part of the TWINACTIVE study. Discordance in physical activity was initially determined in 1975 and it remained significant throughout the follow-up. At the end of the follow-up in 2007, resting echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measurements were performed. During the follow-up period, the active co-twins were on average 8.2 (SD 4.0 MET hours/day more active than their inactive co-twins (p < 0.001. At the end of the follow-up, resting heart rate was lower in the active than inactive co-twins [59 (SD 5 vs. 68 (SD 10 bpm, p=0.03]. The heart rate-corrected QT interval was similar between the co-twins. Also, there was a tendency for left ventricular mass per body weight to be greater and T wave amplitude in lead II to be higher in the active co-twins (18% and 15%, respectively, p=0.08 for both. Similar trends were found for both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In conclusion, the main adaptation to long- term physical activity is lowered resting heart rate, even after partially or fully controlling for genetic liability and childhood environment

  3. Insomnia in long-term care facilities: a comparison of seven European countries and Israel: the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindin, Jacob; Shochat, Tamar; Chetrit, Angela; Epstein, Shulamit; Ben Israel, Yehoshua; Levi, Sarah; Onder, Graziano; Carpenter, Ian; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; van Hout, Hein; Henrard, Jean-Claude; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Topinkova, Eva; Fialová, Daniela; Bernabei, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    To assess insomnia and its correlates as part of the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care (SHELTER) study, funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. Cross-cultural investigation. Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in eight European countries (Czech Republic, France, Finland, Germany, England, the Netherlands, Italy) and one non-European country (Israel). Elderly residents (N = 4,156) of 57 LTCFs. Information on insomnia, age, sex, activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive status, depression, major stressful life events, physical activity, fatigue, pain, and sleep medication use was extracted from the International Resident Assessment Instrument (interRAI)LTCF instrument. Rates of insomnia and its correlates were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with insomnia, controlling for demographic variables. The prevalence of insomnia was 24% (range 13-30%), with significant differences between countries (P < .001). More insomnia complaints were reported in older than younger residents (P < .001). Higher rates of insomnia were associated with hypnosedatives and depression in all countries (P < .001) and with stressful life events, fatigue, and pain in most countries (P < .001). No associations were found between insomnia and ADLs, physical activity, or cognitive status. Age, depression, stressful life events, fatigue, pain and hypnosedatives were independent significant predictors of insomnia, controlling for all other variables and for country. Hypnosedatives and depression were strong predictors of insomnia beyond cultural differences. Overall, psychosocial variables were more strongly related to insomnia than functional and mental capacities. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Project Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Analysis of performance and long-term safety of repository concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Widen, H.

    1992-09-01

    This study is part of the Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS, with the overall aim to perform a technical/economical ranking of alternative repository concepts and canisters for the final storage of spent nuclear fuel. The comparison should in the first stage separately assess technology in construction and operation, long-term performance and safety, and costs. Three of the repository concepts are assumed to be located at a depth of approximately 500 m in the host rock, KBS-3, Very Long Holes (VLH) and Medium Long Holes (MLH). In the KBS-3 concept the canisters are deposited in vertical deposition holes in a system of parallel storage tunnels. In the VLH concept larger canisters are deposited in long horizontal tunnels. The MLH concept, is an evolution of the two other concepts, with KBS-3 type canisters deposited in horizontal tunnels. Smaller canisters are to be deposited in deep bore holes at a depth between 2000 to 4000 m in the Very Deep Holes (VDH) concept. In all concepts the canisters will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer. The aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the performance and long-term safety of the repository concepts. Only a qualitative comparison of the concepts is made as no calculations of radionuclide releases or dose to man have been performed. The ranking of the repository concepts was carried out by comparing the VDH, VLH and MLH concept with the KBS-3 concept. The performance and long-term safety of the repositories located at 500 m level will be based on a multiple barrier system and the predictions for the concepts will involve similar uncertainties. (54 refs.)

  5. [Prevalence of hypertension in elderly long-term care residents in Spain. The Geriatric HTA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Baranera, Montserrat; Sánchez Ferrín, Pau; Armario, Pedro

    2006-11-11

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in elderly long-term care residents in Spain and to describe such population in terms of comorbidity and hypertension treatment and control. A countrywide cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2003 among long-term care residents aged 65 or more. Patients in palliative care units were excluded. Hypertension was defined in patients who fulfilled at least one of the following criteria: diagnosis of hypertension on the medical record, antihypertensive medication and/or highest blood pressure values during the previous year > or = 140/90 mmHg. Overall, 13,272 subjects - mean age (standard deviation) 82.9 (7.5) years (range: 65-106 years) - were included from 223 centres; 70.6% were women. Almost 2 thirds of patients met at least one hypertension criterion (8,242 patients, 62.1%; 95% confidence interval, 61.3-62.9%). In those patients, other frequent cardiovascular risk factors were obesity (26.3%), diabetes (25.7%) and dislipemia (23.8%). A concomitant diagnosis of dementia, peripheral vascular disease, stroke or congestive heart failure was present in 37.1%, 28.3%, 26.0% and 25.1%, respectively. The proportion of hypertensive patients receiving at least one antihypertensive drug was 69.7%. Diuretics were the most commonly used agents (46.3%), followed by angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (34.6%). The latest blood pressure measurement was < 140/90 mmHg in 60.4% of the hypertensive patients. Elderly long-term care residents in Spain showed a high prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors, and a substantial degree of associated clinical conditions. The proportion of antihypertensive drug therapy was comparable to those reported in similar studies.

  6. Studies of long-term noopept and afobazol treatment in rats with learned helplessness neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanaev, A A; Fisenko, V P

    2006-08-01

    Long-lasting effects of new Russian psychotropic drugs Noopept and Afobazol on active avoidance conditioning and formation of learned helplessness neurosis were studied on an original experimental model in rats. Noopept eliminated the manifestations of learned helplessness after long-term (21-day) treatment by increasing the percent of trained animals. Afobazol was low effective in preventing manifestations of learned helplessness, but if used for a long time, it reduced the incidence of learned helplessness development by increasing the percent of untrained animals.

  7. Study of the effect of aggressive media on the long-term stability of reinforced plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelentsov, D.G.; Pochtman, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many important load-bearing structural elements that operate in agressive media are subjected to simultaneous mechanical and chemical attack. The current status of the problem of designing such members is adequately reflected. It follows from that only a few studies have been devoted to the long-term stability of reinforced plates in aggressive media, and most of them were based on structurally orthotropic theory. Such an approach makes it impossible to construct an adequate model of the deformation process. In particular, it precludes allowance for the effect of the discreteness of the reinforcement on plate stability and determination of changes in the character of deformation of the plate during service

  8. Study of long term chemo-hydro-mechanic behaviour of hydraulic barrier reinforced by polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razakamanantsoa, Andry Rico

    2009-01-01

    Passive barrier for landfill liners are designed with bentonite material as Geo-synthetic Clay Liners (GCL's) or Sand Bentonite Mixtures (SBM). This thesis is focused on the experimental study of the long term Chemo-Hydro-Mechanic behaviour of polymer treated geo-materials. Tests are performed with two powder polyelectrolyte polymers (P1, P2). Soil and one selected type of bentonite from a set of six are used. The corresponding testing fluid is composed with: synthesized leachate, CaCl_2 and NaCl. This first step of the study is to select the suitable bentonite (B) and the corresponding polymer concentration (2%) that gives the best swelling ability to the bentonite. Compatibility test of the bentonite polymer mixture with synthesized leachable is done. Tests are performed by fabricating GL's, with filter press and oedo-permeameter. Results show that hydraulic performance grows with the bentonite concentration. And the LS aggressiveness occurs immediately in a case of bentonite. The effects of polymer treatment are different: P1 increases the swelling ability of bentonite by flocculation, P2 increases the hydraulic performance of the bentonite by dispersion. The long term hydraulic performance tests with SBM are carried out with a rigid wall permeameter. Tests results show that pre-hydration delays only the fluid aggressiveness in spite of reducing the corresponding effects. The long term effect of polymer treatment reveals benefits to geo-material behaviour by increasing water retention and reducing the undesired effects of pollutant. The chemical index is proposed to forecast the geo-material degradation. (author)

  9. Long-term contraception in a small implant: A review of Suprelorin (deslorelin) studies in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Christelle

    2015-09-01

    Deslorelin (Suprelorin®; Virbac) is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist licensed in select countries for the long-term suppression of fertility in adult male dogs and male ferrets. This article summarizes studies investigating the use of deslorelin implants for the long-term suppression of fertility in male and female domestic cats. Slow-release deslorelin implants have been shown to generate effective, safe and reversible long-term contraception in male and female cats. In pubertal cats, a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant suppressed steroid sex hormones for an average of approximately 20 months (range 15-25 months) in males and an average of approximately 24 months (range 16-37 months) in females. Reversibility has been demonstrated by fertile matings approximately 2 years post-treatment in both male and female adult cats. In prepubertal female cats of approximately 4 months of age, puberty was postponed to an average of approximately 10 months of age (range 6-15 months) by a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. The large variability in the duration of suppression of gonadal activity makes the definition of the optimal time for reimplantation quite challenging. In addition, the temporary stimulation phase occurring in the weeks following deslorelin implantation can induce in adult female cats a fertile estrus that needs to be managed to avoid unwanted pregnancy. Longer duration and larger scale controlled field studies implementing blinding, a negative control group and a carefully controlled randomization to each group are needed. Furthermore, the effects of repeated treatment need to be investigated. Finally, the effect of treatment on growth and bone quality of prepubertal cats needs to be assessed. However, the ease of use, long-lasting effects and reversibility of deslorelin implants are strong positive points supporting their use for controlling feline reproduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscheman, H.; Giltay, E.J.; Megens, J.A.J.; de Ronde, W.; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Adverse effects of long-term cross-sex hormone administration to transsexuals are not well documented. We assessed mortality rates in transsexual subjects receiving long-term cross-sex hormones. Design: A cohort study with a median follow-up of 18.5 years at a university gender clinic.

  11. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cerza, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Brunekreef, Bert; Forastiere, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of long-term exposure to metal components in particulate matter on mortality are still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, particulate matter components (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, silicon,

  12. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative in-depth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Laura W; van der Steen, Jenny T; Doncker, Sarah M M M; Achterberg, Wilco P; Schellevis, François G; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2014-12-16

    Insight into factors that influence antibiotic prescribing is crucial when developing interventions aimed at a more rational use of antibiotics. We examined factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities, and present a conceptual model that integrates these factors. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with physicians (n = 13) and nursing staff (n = 13) in five nursing homes and two residential care homes in the central-west region of the Netherlands. An iterative analysis was applied to interviews with physicians to identify and categorize factors that influence antibiotic prescribing, and to integrate these into a conceptual model. This conceptual model was triangulated with the perspectives of nursing staff. The analysis resulted in the identification of six categories of factors that can influence the antibiotic prescribing decision: the clinical situation, advance care plans, utilization of diagnostic resources, physicians' perceived risks, influence of others, and influence of the environment. Each category comprises several factors that may influence the decision to prescribe or not prescribe antibiotics directly (e.g. pressure of patients' family leading to antibiotic prescribing) or indirectly via influence on other factors (e.g. unfamiliarity with patients resulting in a higher physician perceived risk of non-treatment, in turn resulting in a higher tendency to prescribe antibiotics). Our interview study shows that several non-rational factors may affect antibiotic prescribing decision making in long-term care facilities, suggesting opportunities to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. We developed a conceptual model that integrates the identified categories of influencing factors and shows the relationships between those categories. This model may be used as a practical tool in long-term care facilities to identify local factors potentially leading to inappropriate prescribing, and to subsequently

  13. [Study on mechanism of SOM stabilization of paddy soils under long-term fertilizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Zhou, Ping; Tong, Cheng-Li; Shi, Hui; Wu, Jin-Shui; Huang, Tie-Ping

    2013-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to study the structure of soil organic matter (SOM) of paddy soils under long-term different fertilization treatments. The aim was to clarify the different distribution of SOM between different fertilization methods and between topsoil and subsoil, and to explore the stability mechanism of SOM under different fertilization treatments. The results showed that the content of topsoil organic carbon (SOC) was the highest under organic-inorganic fertilizations, with the increment of SOC by 18.5%, 12.9% and 18.4% under high organic manure (HOM), low organic manure (LOM) and straw returning (STW) respectively compared with no fertilization treatment (CK). The long-term fertilizations also changed the chemical structure of SOM. As compared with CK, different fertilization treatments increased the functional group absorbing intensity of chemical resistance compounds (aliphatic, aromaticity), carbohydrate and organo-silicon compounds, which was the most distinctive under treatments of HOM, LOM and STW. For example, the absorbing intensity of alkyl was 0.30, 0.25 and 0.29 under HOM, LOM and STW, respectively. These values were increased by 87% , 56% and 81% as compared with that under CK treatment. The functional group absorbing intensity of SOM in the topsoil was stronger than that in the subsoil, with the most distinctive difference under HOM, LOM and STW treatments. The present research indicated that the enhanced chemical resistance of functional group of SOM may contribute to the high contents of SOC in the paddy soils under long-term organic-inorganic fertilizations, which also suggested a chemical stabilization mechanism of SOM in the paddy soils.

  14. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [Rust Geotech, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Environmental Sciences Lab.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunter, C.R. [Cascade Earth Sciences, La Grande, OR (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  15. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long-term air pollution and health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The health impact of long-term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution-health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the known covariates, which is caused by unmeasured confounding. A second challenge is how to adjust the functional form of the model to account for the spatial misalignment between the pollution and disease data, which causes within-area variation in the pollution data. These challenges have largely been ignored in existing long-term spatial air pollution and health studies, so here we propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model that addresses both challenges and provide software to allow others to apply our model to their own data. The effectiveness of the proposed model is compared by simulation against a number of state-of-the-art alternatives proposed in the literature and is then used to estimate the impact of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter concentrations on respiratory hospital admissions in a new epidemiological study in England in 2010 at the local authority level. © 2015 The Authors. Environmetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Measuring forgetting: a critical review of accelerated long-term forgetting studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Gemma; Isaac, Claire L; Muhlert, Nils

    2014-05-01

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) refers to abnormal forgetting over hours to weeks despite normal acquisition or initial consolidation. Since standardised assessments of memory typically only test at delays of up to 40-minutes, ALF may go undetected in clinical practice. The memory difficulties associated with ALF can however cause considerable distress to patients. It is important therefore that clinicians are aware that ALF may represent a distinct phenomenon that will require additional and careful assessment to aid patients' understanding of the condition and assist in developing strategies to address its effects. At the same time, ALF may also provide insight into long-term memory processes. Studies of ALF in patients with epilepsy have so far demonstrated mixed results, which may reflect differences in methodology. This review explores the methodological issues that can affect forgetting, such as the effects of age, general cognitive function, test sensitivity and initial learning. It then evaluates the extent to which existing studies have considered these key issues. We outline the points to consider when designing ALF studies that can be used to help improve their validity. These issues can also help to explain some of the mixed findings in studies of ALF and inform the design of standardised tests for assessing ALF in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Creating Long Term Income Streams for the 100 Year Starship Study Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, A. J.

    Development and execution of long term research projects are very dependent on a consistent application of funding to maximize the potential for success. The business structure for the 100 Year Starship Study project should allow for multiple income streams to cover the expenses of the research objectives. The following examples illustrate the range of potential avenues: 1) affiliation with a charitable foundation for creating a donation program to fund a long term endowment for research, 2) application for grants to fund initial research projects and establish the core expertise of the research entity, 3) development of intellectual property which can then be licensed for additional revenue, 4) creation of spinout companies with equity positions retained by the lab for funding the endowment, and 5) funded research which is dual use for the technology goals of the interstellar flight research objectives. With the establishment of a diversified stream of funding options, then the endowment can be funded at a level to permit dedicated research on the interstellar flight topics. This paper will focus on the strategy of creating spinout companies to create income streams which would fund the endowment of the 100 Year Starship Study effort. This technique is widely used by universities seeking to commercially develop and market technologies developed by university researchers. An approach will be outlined for applying this technique to potentially marketable technologies generated as a part of the 100 Year Starship Study effort.

  18. Treatment of anorexia nervosa with long-term risperidone in an outpatient setting: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracke, Elsa J; Tosh, Aneesh K

    2014-01-01

    There are currently few studies focusing on the efficacy of long-term atypical antipsychotics to treat anorexia nervosa in the pediatric population. This case report follows the treatment of a 17 year-old female with anorexia nervosa over her four-year undergraduate career. After two years of multidisciplinary treatment, low-dose risperidone was initiated due to persistence of her disease. She expressed decreased rigidity around meal times, her weight improved and she had resumption of menses. She was compliant with treatment through graduation and maintained her weight gain. Atypical antipsychotics are a treatment option in the management of anorexia nervosa. Risperidone has not been studied as frequently as olanzapine for eating disorders. Risperidone was chosen for its more favorable side effect profile and decreased cost to the patient. Previous studies on anorexia nervosa treatment have occurred during inpatient treatment and have limited follow-up due to patients' refusal to initiate or maintain medication compliance. This case presents 17 months of outpatient data. The efficacy of risperidone therapy was evaluated with frequent weight checks, subjective decrease in rigidity, serial complete metabolic panels, and restoration of menses. In this case report, an adolescent female treated with low-dose risperidone had decreased rigid thinking, weight gain and resolution of secondary amenorrhea without medication side effects. Therefore, the atypical antipsychotic risperidone may be an effective long-term outpatient treatment option for patients with anorexia nervosa.

  19. Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a long-term prospective study in Greek children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretzayas, Andrew; Sionti, Irini; Moustaki, Maria; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni

    2008-12-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a common vasculitis of childhood. The present study, comprising 74 children enrolled during a 9-year period, aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and the long term follow-up of the disease. Patients were diagnosed strictly on the criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology. The diagnosis was further strengthened by a skin biopsy performed in more than half of cases (42/74), which revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis in all patients, whereas IgA deposits were found in 37/42 children. There was a predominance of boys (41 males), and the mean age of study population was 5.2 +/- 2.54 years. Palpable purpura was identified in 73/74 children, whereas transient arthritis manifested in 68/74 children. Gastrointestinal blood loss was elicited in 30 children, 11 of whom had also renal involvement. The latter was seen in 19/74 (25.7%) children, and in the long term follow-up (extended to 2004, from 4-12 years, mean duration 7.3 years), 2 children remained with persistent occult hematuria. Relapses occurred in 49 children (66%), and half of them experienced more than 1 recurrence. Arthritis was less common in the relapsed episodes, and this difference was statistically significant (P period. Recurrences often differ to some extent from the initial episode with arthritis being less common with relapses.

  20. Homeopathic medical practice: Long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Roland

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the range of diagnoses, course of treatment, and long-term outcome in patients who chose to receive homeopathic medical treatment very little is known. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialized country under everyday conditions. Methods In a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 103 primary care practices with additional specialisation in homeopathy in Germany and Switzerland, data from all patients (age >1 year consulting the physician for the first time were observed. The main outcome measures were: Patient and physician assessments (numeric rating scales from 0 to 10 and quality of life at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 3,981 patients were studied including 2,851 adults (29% men, mean age 42.5 ± 13.1 years; 71% women, 39.9 ± 12.4 years and 1,130 children (52% boys, 6.5 ± 3.9 years; 48% girls, 7.0 ± 4.3 years. Ninety-seven percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 8.8 ± 8 years. The most frequent diagnoses were allergic rhinitis in men, headache in women, and atopic dermatitis in children. Disease severity decreased significantly (p Conclusion Disease severity and quality of life demonstrated marked and sustained improvements following homeopathic treatment period. Our findings indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a beneficial role in the long-term care of patients with chronic diseases.

  1. Renal function and long-term decline in cognitive function: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Stephen L; Wendell, Carrington R; Waldstein, Shari R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Renal disease has been associated with greater risk of dementia and greater cognitive impairment. However, the relationship of lower renal function with long-term decline in specific domains of cognitive function remains unclear among community-dwelling, non-demented individuals. Stroke- and dementia-free participants (n = 2,116) were enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based, prospective, longitudinal study. Renal function was estimated by the inverse of serum creatinine adjusted for age, sex and race and (in sensitivity analyses) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Outcome measures were changes in scores on 6 cognitive tests encompassing a range of cognitive functions, measured at 2-year intervals. Mixed-effects regression models examined the longitudinal relations of renal function with cognitive functions after adjusting for demographics, comorbidity and other potential confounders. Mean age at initial testing was 53.9 years (SD 17.1), and 94 participants (4.4%) had an eGFR age, longitudinal increases in creatinine concentrations were associated with more rapid decline in performance on several cognitive measures, including the learning slope of the California Verbal Learning Test, a test of verbal learning (p renal function independently associated with greater long-term declines in visual memory and verbal memory and learning. © 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A time-course study of long term over-expression of ARR19 in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Imteyaz; Ahmad, Mohammad Faiz; Narayanasamy, Arul

    2015-01-01

    A leucine-rich protein, ARR19 (androgen receptor corepressor-19 kDa), is highly expressed in male reproductive organs and moderately in others. Previously, we have reported that ARR19 is differentially expressed in adult Leydig cells during the testis development and inhibits steroidogenesis by reducing the expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Whereas in prostate, ARR19 represses the transcriptional activity of AR (androgen receptor), it is important for male sexual differentiation and maturation in prostate and epididymis, through the recruitment of HDAC4. In this study we show that long term adenovirus mediated overexpression of ARR19 in mice testis has the potential of inhibiting the differentiation of testicular and prostatic cells by reducing the size of testis and prostate but has no effect on the growth of seminal vesicles. Further, it reduces the level of progesterone and testosterone by reducing the steroidogenic enzymes such as 3HSD, P450c17 and StAR. This is the first study reporting a time-course analysis of the implications of long term overexpression of ARR19 in mice testis and its effect on other organs such as prostate and seminal vesicles. Taken together, these results suggest that ARR19 may play an important role in the differentiation of male reproductive organs such as testis and prostate. PMID:26260329

  3. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  4. Anaemia and long term mortality in heart failure patients: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Valeur, Nana

    2010-01-01

    Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up.......Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up....

  5. Long term mortality study of chromate pigment workers who suffered lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    Long term mortality was studied in a group of 57 chromate pigment workers who suffered clinical lead poisoning, mostly between 1930 and 1945. One death was attributed to lead poisoning and there were significant excesses of deaths from nephritis (observed/expected 3/0.24) and cerebrovascular disease (9/2.20), as well as non-significant excesses for respiratory diseases (7/3.59) and accidents and violence (3/1.13). The deaths from nephritis followed long spells of service exceeding 10 years. Poisoning appeared to have more adverse long term effects on older workers: 15 men aged 40 or over at the time of acute poisoning experienced generally high mortality, and 30 years later or by the end of 1981 only two survived instead of the seven expected. The risk of cerebrovascular disease appeared to be unrelated to duration of exposure and affected even men employed for under one year. Excluding the 57 lead poisoned men, other contemporary workers at the factories showed no excess mortality from cerebrovascular disease.

  6. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN CREATINE CONCENTRATIONS UNDER LONG-TERM SOCIAL ISOLATION (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoridze, N; Kuchukashvili, Z; Menabde, K; Lekiashvili, Sh; Koshoridze, M

    2016-02-01

    Stress represents one of the main problems of modern humanity. This study was done for understanding more clearly alterations in creatine content of the brain under psycho-emotional stress induced by long-term social isolation. It was shown that under 30 days social isolation creatine amount in the brain was arisen, while decreasing concentrations of synthesizing enzymes (AGAT, GAMT) and creatine transporter protein (CrT). Another important point was that such changes were accompanied by down-regulation of creatine kinase (CK), therefore the enzyme's concentration was lowered. In addition, it was observed that content of phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP were also reduced, thus indicating down-regulation of energy metabolism of brain that is really a crucial point for its normal functioning. To sum up the results it can be underlined that long-term social isolation has negative influence on energy metabolism of brain; and as a result reduce ATP content, while increase of free creatine concentration, supposedly maintaining maximal balance for ATP amount, but here must be also noted that up-regulated oxidative pathways might have impact on blood brain barrier, resulting on its permeability.

  7. Long-term psychological consequences of symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Simon; Lewis, Rhian; Whithers, Jodie; Lewis, Sarah; Bennett, Paul

    2014-04-02

    To explore the psychological consequences of experiencing symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Qualitative interview-based study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Outpatients who attended an anticoagulation clinic in a district general hospital. Patients attending an anticoagulation clinic following hospital admission for symptomatic PE were approached to participate. A total of 9 (4 women, 5 men) of 11 patients approached agreed to be interviewed. Participants were aged between 26 and 72 years and had previously experienced a PE between 9 and 60 months (median=26 months, mean=24 months). Audiotaped semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants experiences of having a PE and how it had affected their lives since. Data were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify emergent themes. Three major themes with associated subthemes were identified. Participants described having a PE as a life-changing experience comprising initial shock, followed by feeling of loss of self, life-changing decisions and behaviour modification. Features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were described with flashbacks, hypervigilance and intrusive thoughts being most prevalent. Participants identified several areas of support needed for such patients including easier access to support through information giving and emotional support. Long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism go beyond the physical alone. Patients describe experiencing symptomatic PE to be a life-changing distressing event leading to behaviour modification and in some PTSD. It is likely that earlier psychological intervention may reduce such long-term sequelae.

  8. Long-term tolerability and maintenance of therapeutic response to sodium oxybate in an open-label extension study in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Alegre, Cayetano; Perrot, Serge; Wang, Youyu; Guinta, Diane R; Alvarez-Horine, Sarah; Russell, Irwin

    2013-11-11

    The long-term safety and therapeutic response of sodium oxybate (SXB) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) patients were assessed for a combined period of up to 1 year in a prospective, multicenter, open-label, extension study in patients completing 1 of 2 phase 3 randomized, double-blind, controlled, 14-week trials that examined the efficacy and safety of SXB 4.5 g, SXB 6 g, and placebo for treatment of FM. This extension study comprised an additional 38 weeks of treatment and was carried out at 130 clinical sites in 7 countries. Initial entry criteria for the previous 2 double-blind clinical trials required that patients aged ≥ 18 years met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for FM, had a body mass index (BMI) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total scores, and other measures. Responder analyses showed that 68.8% of patients achieved ≥ 30% reduction in pain VAS and 69.7% achieved ≥ 30% reduction in FIQ total score at study endpoint. The long-term safety profile of SXB in FM patients was similar to that in the previously reported controlled clinical trials. Improvement in pain and other FM clinical domains was maintained during long-term use. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00423605.

  9. Long-term tolerability and maintenance of therapeutic response to sodium oxybate in an open-label extension study in patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The long-term safety and therapeutic response of sodium oxybate (SXB) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) patients were assessed for a combined period of up to 1 year in a prospective, multicenter, open-label, extension study in patients completing 1 of 2 phase 3 randomized, double-blind, controlled, 14-week trials that examined the efficacy and safety of SXB 4.5 g, SXB 6 g, and placebo for treatment of FM. Methods This extension study comprised an additional 38 weeks of treatment and was carried out at 130 clinical sites in 7 countries. Initial entry criteria for the previous 2 double-blind clinical trials required that patients aged ≥ 18 years met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for FM, had a body mass index (BMI) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total scores, and other measures. Responder analyses showed that 68.8% of patients achieved ≥ 30% reduction in pain VAS and 69.7% achieved ≥ 30% reduction in FIQ total score at study endpoint. Conclusions The long-term safety profile of SXB in FM patients was similar to that in the previously reported controlled clinical trials. Improvement in pain and other FM clinical domains was maintained during long-term use. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00423605. PMID:24286114

  10. The Cottonwood Lake study area, a long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    The Cottonwood Lake study area is one of only three long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring sites in the prairie pothole region of North America; the other two are Orchid Meadows in South Dakota and St. Denis in Saskatchewan. Of the three, Cottonwood Lake has, by far, the longest continuous data-collection record. Research was initiated at the study area in 1966, and intensive investigations of the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of prairie pothole wetlands continue at the site today. This fact sheet describes the study area, provides an overview of wetland ecology research that has been conducted at the site in the past, and provides an introduction to current work being conducted at the study area by USGS scientists.

  11. Long-term studies of Markarian 421 from 2007 to 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Sonja; Overkemping, Ann-Kristin [TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Manganaro, Marina [IAC La Laguna, Teneriffa (Spain); Tescaro, Diego [INFN, Padova (Italy); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC experiment consists of two Imaging Air shower Cherenkov Telescopes to detect and study gamma-rays from galactic and extragalactic sources. Blazars are a special type of extragalactic sources hosting an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) with a jet directed towards earth. The AGN Mrk 421 is one of the strongest and brightest known blazars suitable for very high-energy (VHE) observations. This talk gives an overview over long-term variability and correlation studies of the blazar Mrk 421. For this study a VHE dataset collected by MAGIC-I covering the extensive timespan from February 2007 to June 2009 was examined together with data of different wavelengths from other telescopes. These kind of studies could allow for an increase of knowledge about the possible emission processes inside Mrk 421.

  12. Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bonati, Leo H

    2009-10-01

    In the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), early recurrent carotid stenosis was more common in patients assigned to endovascular treatment than it was in patients assigned to endarterectomy (CEA), raising concerns about the long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment. We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS.

  13. Long-term risk of recurrent vascular events after young stroke: The FUTURE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term data on recurrent vascular events after young stroke are limited. Our objective was to examine the long-term risk of recurrent vascular events after young stroke. METHODS: We prospectively included 724 consecutive patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack (TIA),

  14. Climate Change Impacts on pricing Long-Term Flood Insurance: A Comprehensive Study for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Recently long-term flood insurance contracts with a duration of 5, 10 or 15 years have been proposed as a solution for covering flood risk and mitigating increasing flood losses. Establishing a long-term relation between the policyholder and the insurer can provide better incentives to reduce risk

  15. Long-term outcome following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: collaborative study of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozsahin, H.; Cavazzana-Calvo, M.; Notarangelo, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency with microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders, and malignancies that are life-threatening in the majority of patients. In this long-term, retrospective, multicenter study, we analyzed events...... approach to performing splenectomy in WAS patients. Overall, this study provides the basis for a prospective, standardized, and more in-depth detailed analysis of chimerism and events in long-term follow-up of WAS patients who receive transplants to design better-adapted therapeutic strategies...

  16. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age as an ind...... and rehabilitation after stroke.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age...... as an independent predictor of short- and long-term outcome. METHODS: In the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study we recorded admission clinical characteristics in 1197 consecutive stroke patients. Patients were stratified according to age groups on admission. Follow-up was performed at a mean of 7 years after...

  17. The Need for Total Hip Arthroplasty in Perthes Disease: A Long-term Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Christensen, Finn; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) was described a century ago. In previous long-term reports of patients with LCPD, nonoperative treatment varied considerably. The likelihood of hip osteoarthritis (OA) developing in patients with LCPD and possible need for THA are not well defined...... with hips with Classes I/II femoral heads. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 167 patients with LCPD treated with a Thomas splint. The control population consisted of gender- and age-matched control subjects who were participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis...... OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence....

  18. Surgical Treatment of Nonlesional Neocortical Epilepsy: Long-term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Sang Kun; Moon, Hye-Jin; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Chung, Chun-Ki

    2017-03-01

    The proportion of surgery for nonlesional neocortical epilepsy has recently increased, with a decrease in surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. However, there are only a few studies regarding the long-term surgical outcome and the potential prognostic factors for patients with nonlesional neocortical epilepsy. To evaluate the long-term surgical outcome and to identify possible prognostic factors in patients with nonlesional neocortical epilepsy. In a surgical cohort from September 1995 to December 2005 at the Seoul National University Hospital, we included 109 consecutive patients without lesions identifiable by magnetic resonance imaging who underwent focal surgical resection for drug-resistant neocortical epilepsy. Follow-up information for at least 10 years was available for all but 1 patient. Univariate and standard multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of surgical outcomes, and a generalized estimation equation model was used for the longitudinal multiple logistic regression analysis of up to 21 years of follow-up. The patients consisted of 64 men and 45 women with ages at surgery ranging from 7 to 56 years (mean [SD], 27.1 [7.8] years). At 1 year after surgery, 59 of 109 patients (54.1%) achieved seizure freedom, and 64 of 108 patients (59.3%) achieved seizure freedom at the last follow-up. Only 11 of 108 patients (10.2%) experienced definite changes in postoperative seizure status. Localizing patterns in functional neuroimaging (strongest odds ratio [OR], 0.30 [95% CI, 0.14-0.66] for fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography; 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15-0.87] for ictal single-photon emission computed tomography), concordant results in presurgical diagnostic evaluations (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.42-7.02]), the presence of aura (OR, 3.49 [95% CI, 1.54-7.92]), and complete resection of areas of ictal onset with frequent interictal spikes during the intracranial electroencephalographic study (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0

  19. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  20. Electroacupuncture for tapering off long-term benzodiazepine use: study protocol of randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chan, Wai-Chi; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Chan, Connie Lai-Wah; Ho, Lai-Ming; Yu, Yee-Man; Lao, Li-Xing

    2017-03-31

    Conventional approaches for benzodiazepine tapering have their limitations. Anecdotal studies have shown that acupuncture is a potential treatment for facilitating successful benzodiazepine tapering. As of today, there was no randomized controlled trial examining its efficacy and safety. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of using electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment to gradual tapering of benzodiazepine doses in complete benzodiazepine cessation in long-term benzodiazepine users. The study protocol of a randomized, assessor- and subject-blinded, controlled trial is presented. One hundred and forty-four patients with histories of using benzodiazepines in ≥50% of days for more than 3 months will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either electroacupuncture or placebo electroacupuncture combined with gradual benzodiazepine tapering schedule. Both experimental and placebo treatments will be delivered twice per week for 4 weeks. Major assessments will be conducted at baseline, week 6 and week 16 post-randomization. Primary outcome is the cessation rate of benzodiazepine use. Secondary outcomes include the percentage change in the doses of benzodiazepine usage and the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced based on the Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire, insomnia as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index, and anxiety and depressive symptoms as evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Adverse events will also be measured at each study visit. Results of this study will provide high quality evidence of the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment for benzodiazepine tapering in long-term users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02475538 .

  1. Microsphere-based gradient implants for osteochondral regeneration: a long-term study in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, Banu Priya; Mellott, Adam J; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Galbraith, Richard A; Key, Vincent H; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The microfracture technique for cartilage repair has limited ability to regenerate hyaline cartilage. Aim: The current study made a direct comparison between microfracture and an osteochondral approach with microsphere-based gradient plugs. Materials & methods: The PLGA-based scaffolds had opposing gradients of chondroitin sulfate and β-tricalcium phosphate. A 1-year repair study in sheep was conducted. Results: The repair tissues in the microfracture were mostly fibrous and had scattered fissures with degenerative changes. Cartilage regenerated with the gradient plugs had equal or superior mechanical properties; had lacunated cells and stable matrix as in hyaline cartilage. Conclusion: This first report of gradient scaffolds in a long-term, large animal, osteochondral defect demonstrated potential for equal or better cartilage repair than microfracture. PMID:26418471

  2. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  3. Long-term mortality in patients with tuberculous meningitis: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Halkjær Christensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With high short-term mortality and substantial excess morbidity among survivors, tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term mortality and causes of death in a TBM patient population compared to the background population. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study was conducted enrolling patients notified with TBM in Denmark from 1972-2008 and alive one year after TBM diagnosis. Data was extracted from national registries. From the background population we identified a control cohort of individuals matched on gender and date of birth. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR and analyse causes of death. FINDINGS: A total of 55 TBM patients and 550 individuals from the background population were included in the study. Eighteen patients (32.7% and 107 population controls (19.5% died during the observation period. The overall MRR was 1.79 (95%CI: 1.09-2.95 for TBM patients compared to the population control cohort. TBM patients in the age group 31-60 years at time of diagnosis had the highest relative risk of death (MRR 2.68; 95%CI 1.34-5.34. The TBM patients had a higher risk of death due to infectious disease, but not from other causes of death. CONCLUSION: Adult TBM patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality and the excess mortality stems from infectious disease related causes of death.

  4. [Frailty and long term mortality, disability and hospitalisation in Spanish older adults. The FRADEA Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reig, Marta; Flores Ruano, Teresa; Fernández Sánchez, Miguel; Noguerón García, Alicia; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse whether frailty is related to long-term mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL), and hospitalisation. A concurrent cohort study conducted on 993 participants over age 70 from the FRADEA Study. Frailty was determined with Fried frailty phenotype. Data was collected on mortality, hospitalisation and incident disability in BADL (bathing, grooming, dressing, toileting, eating or transferring) during the follow-up period. The risk of adverse events was determined by logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, sex, Barthel index, comorbidity and institutionalization. Mean follow-up was 952 days (SD 408), during which 182 participants (18.4%) died. Frail participants had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 4.5, 95%CI: 1.8-11.1), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.7, 95%CI: 1.3-5.9) and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-6.1). Pre-frail subjects had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2-3.6), and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.3-3.6). There was a positive association between frailty and hospitalisation, which almost reached statistical significance (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-3.0). Frailty is long-term associated with mortality and incident disability in BADL in a Spanish cohort of older adults. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Air traffic controllers' long-term speech-in-noise training effects: A control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, Maria T P; Plasencia, Daniel P; González, María L Z; de Miguel, Angel R; Macías, Ángel R

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and -5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=-5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions.

  6. Long-term leisure time physical activity and properties of bone: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongqiang; Leskinen, Tuija; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin; Sipilä, Sarianna; Heinonen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Suominen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M

    2009-08-01

    Effects of physical activity on bone properties, when controlled for genetic effects, are not fully understood. We aimed to study the association between long-term leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and bone properties using twin pairs known to be discordant for leisure time physical activity for at least 30 yr. Volumetric BMD and geometric properties were measured at the tibia shaft and distal end using pQCT in 16 middle-aged (50-74 yr) same-sex twin pairs (seven monozygotic [MZ] and nine dizygotic [DZ] pairs) selected from a population-based cohort. Paired differences between active and inactive co-twins were studied. Active members of MZ twin pairs had larger cortical bone cross-sectional area (intrapair difference: 8%, p = 0.006), thicker cortex (12%, p = 0.003), and greater moment of inertia (I(max), 20%, p = 0.024) at the tibia shaft than their inactive co-twins. At the distal tibia, trabecular BMD (12%, p = 0.050) and compressive strength index (18%, p = 0.038) were also higher in physically active MZ pair members than their inactive co-twins. The trends were similar, but less consistently so, in DZ pairs as in MZ pairs. Our genetically controlled study design shows that LTPA during adulthood strengthens bones in a site-specific manner, that is, the long bone shaft has a thicker cortex, and thus higher bending strength, whereas the distal bone has higher trabecular density and compressive strength. These results suggest that LTPA has a potential causal role in decreasing the long-term risk of osteoporosis and thus preventing osteoporotic fractures.

  7. Long term follow up study of survival associated with cleft lip and palate at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Juel, K.; Herskind, Anne Maria

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the overall and cause specific mortality of people from birth to 55 years with cleft lip and palate. DESIGN: Long term follow up study. SETTING: Danish register of deaths. PARTICIPANTS: People born with cleft lip and palate between 1943 and 1987, followed to 1998. MAIN OUTCOME...... MEASURES: Observed and expected numbers of deaths, summarised as overall and cause specific standardised mortality ratios. RESULTS: 5331 people with cleft lip and palate were followed for 170 421 person years. The expected number of deaths was 259, but 402 occurred, corresponding to a standardised...... of death. CONCLUSIONS: People with cleft lip and palate have increased mortality up to age 55. Children born with cleft lip and palate and possibly other congenital malformations may benefit from specific preventive health measures into and throughout adulthood....

  8. Coping, Cognitive Emotion Regulation, and Burnout in Long-Term Care Nursing Staff: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamonti, Patricia; Conti, Elizabeth; Cavanagh, Casey; Gerolimatos, Lindsay; Gregg, Jeffrey; Goulet, Carol; Pifer, Marisa; Edelstein, Barry

    2017-06-01

    Direct care workers (e.g., certified nursing assistants [CNAs]) employed in long-term care (LTC) are particularly vulnerable to the experience of burnout, yet they have received relatively less research attention compared to Licensed Practical Nurses and Registered Nurses. Within the burnout literature, evidence suggests that the deployment of certain coping strategies influences levels of burnout. The current study examined the extent to which coping (e.g., problem-focused, emotion-focused, and dysfunctional coping) and cognitive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., positive reappraisal) predicted burnout after controlling for covariates (age, sleep duration). Fifty-six CNAs were surveyed at four skilled nursing facilities in the United States. Dysfunctional coping was significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Among cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive reappraisal was significantly associated with depersonalization. Shorter sleep duration was associated with significantly greater depersonalization. Findings suggest the need to develop interventions for CNAs aimed at reducing dysfunctional coping strategies and increasing sleep duration.

  9. Long-term optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons to study network plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignani, Gabriele; Ferrea, Enrico; Difato, Francesco; Amarù, Jessica; Ferroni, Eleonora; Lugarà, Eleonora; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity produces changes in excitability, synaptic transmission, and network architecture in response to external stimuli. Network adaptation to environmental conditions takes place in time scales ranging from few seconds to days, and modulates the entire network dynamics. To study the network response to defined long-term experimental protocols, we setup a system that combines optical and electrophysiological tools embedded in a cell incubator. Primary hippocampal neurons transduced with lentiviruses expressing channelrhodopsin-2/H134R were subjected to various photostimulation protocols in a time window in the order of days. To monitor the effects of light-induced gating of network activity, stimulated transduced neurons were simultaneously recorded using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The developed experimental model allows discerning short-term, long-lasting, and adaptive plasticity responses of the same neuronal network to distinct stimulation frequencies applied over different temporal windows. PMID:23970852

  10. Resident challenges with daily life in Chinese long-term care facilities: A qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuting; Scales, Kezia; Anderson, Ruth A; Wu, Bei; Corazzini, Kirsten N

    As traditional family-based care in China declines, the demand for residential care increases. Knowledge of residents' experiences with long-term care (LTC) facilities is essential to improving quality of care. This pilot study aimed to describe residents' experiences in LTC facilities, particularly as it related to physical function. Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted in two facilities with residents stratified by three functional levels (n = 5). Directed content analysis was guided by the Adaptive Leadership Framework. A two-cycle coding approach was used with a first-cycle descriptive coding and second-cycle dramaturgical coding. Interviews provided examples of challenges faced by residents in meeting their daily care needs. Five themes emerged: staff care, care from family members, physical environment, other residents in the facility, and personal strategies. Findings demonstrate the significance of organizational context for care quality and reveal foci for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-05-19

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  12. Development of a mechanical testing and loading system for trabecular bone studies for long term culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DB Jones

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly accurate (�3% mechanical loading and measurement system combined with a trabecular bone diffusion culture-loading chamber has been developed, which provides the ability to study trabecular bone (and possibly cartilage under controlled culture and loading conditions over long periods of time. The loading device has been designed to work in two main modes, either to apply a specific compressive strain to a trabecular bone cylinder or to apply a specific force and measure the resulting deformation. Presently, precisely machined bone cylinders can be loaded at frequencies between 0.1 Hz to 50 Hz and amplitudes over 7,000�e. The system allows accurate measurement of many mechanical properties of the tissue in real time, including visco-elastic properties. This paper describes the technical components, reproducibility, precision, and the calibration procedures of the loading system. Data on long term culture and mechanical responses to different loading patterns will be published separately.

  13. Long-term optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons to study network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignani, Gabriele; Ferrea, Enrico; Difato, Francesco; Amarù, Jessica; Ferroni, Eleonora; Lugarà, Eleonora; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity produces changes in excitability, synaptic transmission, and network architecture in response to external stimuli. Network adaptation to environmental conditions takes place in time scales ranging from few seconds to days, and modulates the entire network dynamics. To study the network response to defined long-term experimental protocols, we setup a system that combines optical and electrophysiological tools embedded in a cell incubator. Primary hippocampal neurons transduced with lentiviruses expressing channelrhodopsin-2/H134R were subjected to various photostimulation protocols in a time window in the order of days. To monitor the effects of light-induced gating of network activity, stimulated transduced neurons were simultaneously recorded using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The developed experimental model allows discerning short-term, long-lasting, and adaptive plasticity responses of the same neuronal network to distinct stimulation frequencies applied over different temporal windows.

  14. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of scenarios of long term management of low-activity long-life wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document reports the study of scenarios for the management of different low-activity long-life radioactive wastes with reference to different French legal texts. After a presentation of the legal and technical context, the report presents different existing and projected storages (description and safety principles for the Cires and Aube centres and for the Cigeo project of deep geological storage centre). It addresses the various aspects of radiferous and graphite waste management on a long term: inventory, parcel, waste peculiarities, management scenarios, assessment of storage in SCR. It also addresses the case of other wastes such as bituminous coated wastes, those presenting a reinforced natural radioactivity or residues of uranium conversion processing. The last part presents the main orientations for the project

  16. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance. It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance.

  17. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis: A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars Haukali

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term mortality, the causes of death and the incidence of cancer in listeria meningitis patients. METHODS: Nationwide, population-based cohort study including all adult patients diagnosed with listeria meningitis from 1977 to 2006 and alive 1 year after diagnosis......, and an age-and gender-matched, population control cohort. Kaplan-Meier tables, Cox regression analysis and cumulative incidence function were used as outcome analyses. RESULTS: We identified 114 listeria meningitis patients and 1026 population controls. The adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for listeria...... meningitis patients the first 5 years of follow-up was 2.35(95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-3.45) thereafter the MRR was 0.93(95% CI: 0.56-1.55). Listeria meningitis patients had an increased risk of death due to cancer the first 5 years of follow-up, and in the same period patients above 50 years of age...

  18. Aerobic fitness after JDM--a long-term follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Pernille R; Orngreen, Mette C; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. It has previously been shown that patients with active JDM have decreased aerobic fitness; however, it is not known whether these patients regain their physical fitness after recovery. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of aerobic fitness in patients...... with JDM. We hypothesized that fitness (VO(2max)) is reduced compared with healthy controls in the years after active JDM.Methods. A maximal exercise test was performed using a cycle ergometer. Results were compared with those of sex- and age-matched healthy controls.Results. A total of 36 patients...... year of active disease, VO(2max) was reduced by 0.85 ml/min/kg on average (P fitness. This impairment is directly related to the duration of active disease....

  19. Study on long-term stability of geochemical environments at deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2005-01-01

    Observation and fluid inclusion analysis of fracture filling calcites in granite at the Tono area were conducted to assess long-term stability of geochemical environment at deep underground. The result of observation using SEM and luminoscope shows that precipitation processes of calcite can be divided into four phases (1 to 4) based on their occurrence. (1) Phase 1: indistinct morphology and includes the wall rock fragments. (2) Phase 2: rhombohedral and hexagonal form. (3) Phase 3: elongate rhombohedral form, growth over the layer of phase 2 calcite. (4) Phase 4: small rhombohedral form crystals growth from surface of phase 3 calcite. On Phase 1 calcite, it seems to be hydrothermal origin related to fracture activation. Previous study shows the correlation between the salinity of fluid from which calcite precipitated and morphology of calcite. According to previous studies, the groundwater from which phase 3 calcite precipitated would be the highest salinity such as seawater. Phase 2 and 4 calcite may be precipitated from groundwater with low salinity. On the other hand, fluid inclusions were recognized in phase 2 and 3 calcite. All inclusions indicated mono-phase (liquid phase). These suggest that phase 2 and 3 calcites were precipitated in low-temperature condition. Result of salinity analysis indicates that two groundwaters having different chemical properties had existed during phase 2 and 3 calcite precipitation. Based on these results, geochemical environment had changed by input of high salinity groundwater during Phase 2 and 3 calcite precipitation. It is required to identify the origin of each groundwater in consideration of historical geology for further understanding of long-term hydrochemical condition. (author)

  20. Predictors of Long-Term Healthy Arterial Aging: Coronary Artery Calcium Nondevelopment in the MESA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Seamus P; Silverman, Michael G; McEvoy, John W; Budoff, Matthew J; Blankstein, Ron; Eng, John; Blumenthal, Roger S; Szklo, Moyses; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to determine the predictors of healthy arterial aging. Long-term nondevelopment of coronary artery calcification (persistent CAC = 0) is a marker of healthy arterial aging. The predictors of this phenotype are not known. We analyzed 1,850 participants from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with baseline CAC = 0 who underwent a follow-up CAC scan at visit 5 (median 9.6 years after baseline). We examined the proportion with persistent CAC = 0 and calculated multivariable relative risks and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of this healthy arterial aging phenotype. We found that 55% of participants (n = 1,000) had persistent CAC = 0, and these individuals were significantly more likely to be younger, female, and have fewer traditional risk factors (RF). Participants with an ASCVD (Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score) risk score healthy arterial aging than were participants with an ASCVD score ≥7.5%. There was no significant association between the Healthy Lifestyle variables (body mass index, physical activity, Mediterranean diet, and never smoking) and persistent CAC = 0. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve incorporating age, sex, and ethnicity was 0.65, indicating fair to poor discrimination. No single traditional RF or combination of other risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by more than 0.05. Whereas participants free of traditional cardiovascular disease RF were significantly more likely to have persistent CAC = 0, there was no single RF or specific low-risk RF phenotype that markedly improved the discrimination of persistent CAC = 0 over demographic variables. Therefore, we conclude that healthy arterial aging may be predominantly influenced by the long-term maintenance of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile or yet to be determined genetic factors rather than the absence of any specific RF cluster identified

  1. Physical activity as a long-term predictor of peak oxygen uptake: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Nauman, Javaid; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Vatten, Lars Johan; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-09-01

    A physically active lifestyle and a relatively high level of cardiorespiratory fitness are important for longevity and long-term health. No population-based study has prospectively assessed the association of physical activity levels with long-term peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). 1843 individuals (906 women and 937 men) who were between 18 and 66 yr at baseline and were free from known lung or heart diseases at both baseline (1984-1986) and follow-up (2006-2008) were included in the study. Self-reported physical activity was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak) was measured at follow-up. The association of physical activity levels and VO(2peak) was adjusted for age, level of education, smoking status, and weight change from baseline to follow-up, using ANCOVA statistics. The level of physical activity at baseline was strongly associated with VO(2peak) at follow-up 23 yr later in both men and women (Ptrends active at baseline had higher (3.3 and 4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) VO(2peak) at follow-up. Women who were inactive at baseline but highly active at follow-up had 3.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) higher VO(2peak) compared with women who were inactive both at baseline and at follow-up. The corresponding comparison in men showed a difference of 5.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% confidence interval = 3.1-7.3) in VO(2peak). Physical activity level at baseline was positively associated with directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)) 23 yr later. People who changed from low to high activity during the observation period had substantially higher V˙O(2peak) at follow-up compared with people whose activity remained low.

  2. Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Timothy D; Self, Wesley H; Edwards, Kathryn M; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J; Jain, Seema; Jackson, James C

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest older patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia are at risk for new-onset cognitive impairment. The characteristics of long-term cognitive impairment after pneumonia, however, have not been elucidated. To characterize long-term cognitive impairment among adults of all ages hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Prospective cohort study. Adults without severe preexisting cognitive impairment who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. At enrollment, we estimated baseline cognitive function with the Short Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). At 2- and 12-month follow-up, we assessed cognition using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and tests of executive function, diagnosing cognitive impairment when results were ≥ 1.5 standard deviations below published age-adjusted means for the general population. We also identified subtypes of mild cognitive impairment using standard definitions. We assessed 58 (73%) of 80 patients who survived to 2-month follow-up and 57 (77%) of 74 who survived to 12-month follow-up. The median [range] age of survivors tested was 57 [19-97] years. Only 8 (12%) had evidence of mild cognitive impairment at baseline according to the Short IQCODE, but 21 (38%) at 2 months and 17 (30%) at 12 months had mild cognitive impairment per the RBANS. Moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment was common among adults ≥ 65 years [4/13 (31%) and 5/13 (38%) at 2 and 12 months, respectively] but also affected many of those cognitive domains affected one-third of patients ≥ 65 years old and 20% of younger patients, and another third of survivors had mild cognitive impairment.

  3. A long-term follow-up study of methotrexate in juvenile localized scleroderma (morphea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulian, Francesco; Vallongo, Cristina; Patrizi, Annalisa; Belloni-Fortina, Anna; Cutrone, Mario; Alessio, Maria; Martino, Silvana; Gerloni, Valeria; Vittadello, Fabio; Martini, Giorgia

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies report that methotrexate (MTX) is beneficial in the treatment of juvenile localized scleroderma (JLS) but little is known about its long-term effectiveness. We assessed the therapeutic role of MTX in children with JLS who were followed up for a prolonged period. A cohort of patients with JLS, previously enrolled in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial and treated with oral MTX (15 mg/m(2)/wk) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/d, maximum 50 mg) for the first 3 months, were prospectively followed up. Lesions were evaluated clinically, with infrared thermography, and by a computerized skin score. Response to treatment was defined as: (1) no new lesions; (2) skin score rate less than 1; and (3) decrease in lesion temperature by at least 10% compared with baseline. Clinical remission (CR) on medication was defined when response was maintained, on treatment, for at least 6 months, and complete CR when response was maintained, without treatment, for at least 6 months. Of 65 patients treated with MTX, 48 (73.8%) were responders, 10 (15.4%) relapsed by 24 months since MTX start, and 7 (10.8%) were lost to follow-up. Among the responders, 35 (72.9%) maintained CR for a mean of 25 months and 13 (27.1%) were in CR on medication. Adverse effects seen in 28 patients (48.3%) were generally mild and never required treatment discontinuation. The use of objective measures not widely available, such as infrared thermography and computerized skin score, makes it difficult to compare data from previous studies. Long-term MTX therapy is beneficial and well tolerated for JLS. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Kazushi; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Matsui, Hiroya

    2017-11-01

    It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior such as creep and stress relaxation. On the other hand, it was revealed that chemical reaction of groundwater in rock has an influence on the long-term behavior. Therefore, an evaluation of the microcracks influencing on rock mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena is the issue to understand the past long-term behavior of rock mass. In view of above points, this study has been started as joint research with Okayama University from Fiscal Year 2016. In Fiscal Year 2016, several kinds of elastic wave velocity were measured using ultra sonic sensors and laser Doppler vibrometer to evaluate the anisotropy of different elastic wave in granite. The velocity measurements were carried out focused on transmitted wave and surface wave. The results showed that strong anisotropy was observed in transmitted P-wave velocity while weak anisotropy was observed in transmitted S-wave and group velocity estimated by surface velocity measurement. In addition, data obtained from surface velocity measurement was partitioned into transmitted and reflected waves and analyzed them in detail. It resulted that elastic wave due to mineral particles to compose granite was dispersed; however, significant dispersion was only observed at specific location. For the future study, understanding of the relationship between density and anisotropy of micro cracks also anisotropy and strong dispersion of group velocity is important subject to estimate the geometrical distribution of micro cracks in granitic rock. (author)

  5. Long-term Efficacy of Trabeculectomy on Chinese Patients with Pigmentary Glaucoma: A Prospective Case Series Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: All surgical PG eyes in this study had satisfactory IOP control 8 years after the surgery with well-preserved visual function. The long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy are promising in PG patients.

  6. Racial differences in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meigs James B

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications is often suboptimal. Adherence differences may contribute to health disparities for black diabetes patients, including higher microvascular event rates, greater complication-related disability, and earlier mortality. Methods In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, we used 10 years of patient-level claims and electronic medical record data (1/1/1992–12/31/2001 to assess differences in short- and long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic medication among 1906 newly diagnosed adults with diabetes (26% black, 74% white in a managed care setting in which all members have prescription drug coverage. Four main outcome measures included: (1 time from diabetes diagnosis until first prescription of oral antidiabetic medication; (2 primary adherence (time from first prescription to prescription fill; (3 time until discontinuation of oral antidiabetic medication from first prescription; and (4 long-term adherence (amount dispensed versus amount prescribed over a 24-month follow-up from first oral antidiabetic medication prescription. Results Black patients were as likely as whites to initiate oral therapy and fill their first prescription, but experienced higher rates of medication discontinuation (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7 and were less adherent over time. These black-white differences increased over the first six months of therapy but stabilized thereafter for patients who initiated on sulfonylureas. Significant black-white differences in adherence levels were constant throughout follow-up for patients initiated on metformin therapy. Conclusion Racial differences in adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy persist even with equal access to medication. Early and continued emphasis on adherence from initiation of therapy may reduce persistent racial differences in medication use and clinical outcomes.

  7. Comparative study of long-term outcomes of accelerated and conventional collagen crosslinking for progressive keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, J J; Viswanathan, D

    2018-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the long-term outcomes of accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) to conventional CXL for progressive keratoconus.Patients and methodsComparative clinical study of consecutive progressive keratoconic eyes that underwent either accelerated CXL (9 mW/cm 2 ultraviolet A (UVA) light irradiance for 10 min) or conventional CXL (3 mW/cm 2 UVA light irradiance for 30 min). Eyes with minimum 12 months' follow-up were included. Post-procedure changes in keratometry readings (Flat meridian: K1; steep meridian: K2), central corneal thickness (CCT), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) were analysed.ResultsA total of 42 eyes were included. In all, 21 eyes had accelerated CXL (20.5±5.5 months' follow-up) and 21 eyes had conventional CXL group (20.2±5.6 months' follow-up). In the accelerated CXL group, a significant reduction in K2 (P=0.02), however no significant change in K1 (P=0.35) and CCT (P=0.62) was noted. In the conventional CXL group, a significant reduction was seen in K1 (P=0.01) and K2 (P=0.04), but not in CCT (P=0.95). Although both groups exhibited significant reductions in K2 readings, no noteworthy differences were noted between them (P=0.36). Improvements in BSCVA (accelerated CXL; P=0.22 and conventional CXL; P=0.20) and MRSE (accelerated CXL; P=0.97 and conventional CXL; P=0.54) were noted, however were not significant in either group.ConclusionAccelerated and conventional CXL appear to be effective procedures for stabilising progressive keratoconus in the long-term.

  8. Observed long-term greening of alpine vegetation—a case study in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bradley Z.; Corona, Monica C.; Dentant, Cédric; Bonet, Richard; Thuiller, Wilfried; Choler, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    We combined imagery from multiple sources (MODIS, Landsat-5, 7, 8) with land cover data to test for long-term (1984-2015) greening or browning trends of vegetation in a temperate alpine area, the Ecrins National Park, in the context of recent climate change and domestic grazing practices. We showed that over half (56%) of the Ecrins National Park displayed significant increases in peak normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImax) over the last 16 years (2000-2015). Importantly, the highest proportional increases in NDVImax occurred in rocky habitats at high elevations (> 2500 m a.s.l.). While spatial agreement in the direction of change in NDVImax as detected by MODIS and Landsat was high (76% overlap), correlations between log-response ratio values were of moderate strength (approx. 0.3). In the context of above treeline habitats, we found that proportional increases in NDVImax were higher between 1984 and 2000 than between 2000 and 2015, suggesting a slowing of greening dynamics during the recent decade. The timing of accelerated greening prior to 2000 coincided with a pronounced increase in the amount of snow-free growing degree-days that occurred during the 1980s and 1990s. In the case of grasslands and low-shrub habitats, we did not find evidence for a negative effect of grazing on greening trends, possibly due to the low grazing intensity typically found in the study area. We propose that the emergence of a longer and warmer growing season enabled high-elevation plant communities to produce more biomass, and also allowed for plant colonization of habitats previously characterized by long-lasting snow cover. Increasing plant productivity in an alpine context has potential implications for biodiversity trajectories and for ecosystem services in mountain landscapes. The presented evidence for long-term greening trends in a representative region of the European Alps provides the basis for further research on mechanisms of greening in alpine landscapes.

  9. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  10. Long-term exposure and safety of lacosamide monotherapy for the treatment of partial-onset (focal) seizures: Results from a multicenter, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossler, David G; Wechsler, Robert T; Williams, Paulette; Byrnes, William; Therriault, Sheila

    2016-10-01

    To assess long-term use and safety of lacosamide (LCM) ≤800 mg/day monotherapy in patients with partial-onset seizures (POS) enrolled previously in a historical-controlled, conversion-to-monotherapy study (SP902; NCT00520741). Patients completing or exiting SP902 with LCM as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy were eligible to enter this 2-year open-label extension (OLE) trial (SP904; NCT00530855) at a starting dose ±100 mg/day of their final SP902 dose. Investigators could adjust the LCM dose to 100-800 mg/day and add up to two antiepileptic drugs to optimize tolerability and seizure reduction. Three hundred twenty-two patients received LCM: 210 patients (65.2%) completed and 112 (34.8%) discontinued, most commonly owing to withdrawal of consent (9.3%). Two hundred fifty-eight patients (80.1%) had ≥1 year of and 216 (67.1%) had ≥2 years of LCM exposure, of whom 179/258 (69.4%) achieved LCM monotherapy lasting for any 12-month period, and 126/216 (58.3%) patients exposed for ≥24 months achieved LCM monotherapy for any 24-month period. Total exposure = 525.5 patient-years. The median modal dose was 500 mg/day. Two hundred ninety-two patients (90.7%) achieved LCM monotherapy at some point during the study. Sixty-five of 87 patients who exited and 193/235 who completed SP902 were exposed for ≥12 months, and 43.1% and 78.2%, respectively, achieved LCM monotherapy for ≥12 months. Median LCM monotherapy duration was 587.0 days (2-791 days); 91.0% of patients reported treatment-emergent adverse events, of which the most common were dizziness (27.3%), headache (17.1%), and nausea (14.3%). Compared with the SP902 study baseline, 74.2% of patients had a ≥50% seizure reduction and 5.6% were seizure-free at 24 months. The majority of patients were receiving LCM monotherapy at 0, 12, and 24 months in this OLE. Lacosamide monotherapy (median dose of 500 mg/day) had a safety profile similar to that of adjunctive therapy studies. These results support the use of

  11. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  12. Book Reviews The Physiology of Reproduction Long-term Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    classes of ecological phenomena for which long-term stu- dies are .... influenced by processes, interactions and man's activities ... Moving up the evolutionary ladder, George Hughes, .... mary pollinators of most plants, controllers of plant com-.

  13. Long-term exposure to air pollution and asthma hospitalisations in older adults: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Hvidberg, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution in early life contributes to the burden of childhood asthma, but it is not clear whether long-term exposure to air pollution can lead to asthma onset or progression in adulthood.......Exposure to air pollution in early life contributes to the burden of childhood asthma, but it is not clear whether long-term exposure to air pollution can lead to asthma onset or progression in adulthood....

  14. Long-term ecological research in the Czech Republic - case study with a 3-year project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, E.; Straškrábová, Viera

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2001), s. 50-56 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long-Term Ecological Research Current State and Perspectives in the Central and Eastern Europe ILTER Regional Workshop /3./. Nitra, 23.05.2000-25.05.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/0727 Keywords : long-term ecological research * acidification * eutrophication Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  15. Psychosexual Development in Men with Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism on Long-Term Treatment: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Dwyer, MSN, FNP-BC

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: CHH men frequently experience psychosexual problems that pose barriers to intimate relationships and initiating sexual activity. These lingering effects cause significant distress and are not ameliorated by long-term treatment. Psychosexual assessment in CHH men with appropriate psychological support and treatment should be warranted in these patients. Dwyer AA, Quinton R, Pitteloud N, and Morin D. Psychosexual development in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism on long-term treatment: A mixed methods study. Sex Med 2015;3:32–41.

  16. Phenomenological study on crystalline rock for evaluating of long-term behavior (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke; Seno, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Matsui, Hiroya; Nakama, Shigeo

    2008-08-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in order to develop comprehensive geological investigation and engineering techniques for deep underground applications (e.g. repository of HLW). The purpose of this study is to contribute to the evaluation of the mechanical stability of a research drift and to plan the future studies. Rock shows time-dependent behavior such as creep/relaxation. For the shaft and gallery of the geological disposal for the radioactive waste, the mechanical stability over a period of thousands of years is demanded not only during construction and operation but also after back-filling. So, to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock is very important for evaluating the long-term mechanical stability. This study is aiming to find out the mechanism of time-dependent behavior of rock such as creep by the precision test, observation and measurement, to develop the evaluating method of long-term behavior of rock mass, and to get the information for planning the study of the Phase III (Operation Phase) at the Mizunami URL. In the previous work conducted before this fiscal year 2007, we improved the testing technique and started test of Toki granite sampled from target site. Furthermore we studied the in-situ measurement method for evaluating the scatter of rock properties. This report describes the results of the works in the fiscal year 2007. In Chapter 1, we described the overview and background of this study. In Chapter 2, the result of continuing creep test of Tage tuff which was started from the fiscal year 1997 was described. Although there was some annual variability, the precious data were obtained. In Chapter 3, the control program for the generalized relaxation test was developed. The generalized relaxation test of Toki granite was conducted in order to get basically data. In Chapter 4, the extended constitutive equation of variable compliance was analytically

  17. Preservation of RK and M for Long Term Storage Facilities: The Results of a French Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Due to the specific long lasting radioactivity of high level waste types, new issues may arise for radiation protection. In this perspective, technical, societal and organizational aspects have to be considered. For the two latter aspects, it is interesting to analyse the efficiency of protection systems available in other fields than nuclear waste management, in order either to protect society from specific risk or to preserve world heritage. Few years ago, CEPN together with MUTADIS have performed a specific study, commissioned by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). The presentation briefly presented the case studies performed on long term protection, as well as the key lessons related to the continuity and sustainability of the surveillance and control of radioactive waste facilities, and the effectiveness of financing schemes for the long term management of radioactive waste. This study has identified a set of performance criteria to deal with long term protection. These results were notably discussed within the framework of the European project COWAM 2 in a working group involving experts, authorities, waste managers, locally elected representatives and NGOs. One part of the study was to analyse the characteristics of protection systems used to manage risks associated with the presence of past underground cavities and mines. A case study presented was the following: After the closing of last mines, maintenance also ended, which, years later, caused ground collapses which led to discussions on responsibility. The connection between the safety problems and the loss of economic activities was underlined. In this context, the IGC (Inspection Generale des Carrieres) was set up. An important part of its functioning is the interaction with the building owners of Paris. The arrangement is that the current owners pay for assuring safety, even though the cause of the safety issue goes back long before owners bought the premises. It was pointed out that market value

  18. Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Chronic Migraine: Results of a Long-Term Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Dolores; Acin, Pilar; Bermejo, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Refractory chronic migraine affects approximately 4% of the population worldwide and results in severe pain, lifestyle limitations, and decreased quality of life. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) refers to the electric stimulation of the distal branches of greater and lesser occipital nerves; the surgical technique has previously been described and has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of a wide variety of headache disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of ONS for medically intractable chronic migraine. Prospective, long-term, open-label, uncontrolled observational study. Single public university hospital. Patients who met the International Headache Society criteria for chronic migraine, all of them having been previously treated with other therapeutic alternatives, and who met all inclusion and exclusion criteria for neurostimulation, received the implantation of an ONS system after a positive psychological evaluation and a positive response to a preliminary occipital nerve blockage. The implantation was performed in 2 phases: a 10 day trial with implanted occipital leads connected to an external stimulator and, if more than 50% pain relief was obtained, permanent pulse generator implantation and connection to the previously implanted leads. After the surgery, the patients were thoroughly evaluated annually using different scales: pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), number of migraine attacks per month, sleep quality, functionality in social and labor activities, reduction in pain medication, patient satisfaction, tolerability, and reasons for termination. The average follow-up time was 9.4 ± 6.1 years, and 31 patients completed a 7-year follow-up period. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled and classified according to the location and quality of their pain, accompanying symptoms, work status, and psychological effects. Substantial pain reduction was obtained in most patients, and the VAS decreased by 4.9 ± 2

  19. Long-term impairment of the lacrimal glands after radioiodine therapy: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, Georg; Fueger, Barbara J.; Pirich, Christian; Dudczak, Robert; Hanselmayer, Georg; Nepp, Johannes; Hofmann, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Impairment of the lacrimal glands after external radiation has been well documented, but there are only a few reports on the effects of radioiodine therapy on the lacrimal glands. Long-term effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy on tear secretion have not previously been studied. We investigated 175 eyes of 88 patients with a history of radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma (68 females, 20 males; mean age 55±16 years, range 17-81 years) and compared them with a sex- and age-matched control group (n=39). All patients had been given at least 2.96 GBq iodine-131 (maximal administered activity 22.3 GBq 131 I). An ophthalmological investigation was performed 64±71 months (range 3-317 months) after initial radioiodine therapy by a single ophthalmologist. Lacrimal gland function was evaluated with three different function tests. External eye morphology was considered, and detailed ophthalmological history-taking was performed. Patients with factors known to affect lacrimal gland function (contact lenses, autoimmune disorders, history of additional radiation exposure) were excluded from the study. A total of 81 patients (92%) had at least one abnormal function test indicating impaired lacrimal gland function. Schirmer's tear test was decreased (<10 mm/5 min) in 47 of the 88 patients and definitely abnormal (<5 mm/5 min) in 35 patients. A tear film break-up time of <10 s was found in 78 patients, and 62 patients had a definitely abnormal break-up time of <5 s. The lacrimal lipid layer was impaired in 43 patients. The function tests were all significantly altered in the study group as compared with the controls (P<0.005, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Both subjective symptoms of dry eye (P<0.01) and changes in the external eye morphology (P<0.001) were significantly more prevalent in the study group. Our findings suggest that in the majority of patients, lacrimal gland function may be permanently impaired after high-dose radioiodine therapy. All three layers of the

  20. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Watts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. Methods A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL. Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Results Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Conclusions Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment

  1. Long-term oxygen therapy in COPD patients: population-based cohort study on mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov N

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nikolay Pavlov,1 Alan Gary Haynes,2,3 Armin Stucki,4 Peter Jüni,5 Sebastian Robert Ott1 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital (Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2CTU Bern, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Spital Thun, Thun, Switzerland; 5Applied Health Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael’s Hospital, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with a growing and substantial socioeconomic burden. Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT, recommended by current treatment guidelines for COPD patients with severe chronic hypoxemia, has shown to reduce mortality in this population. The aim of our study was to assess the standardized mortality ratios of incident and prevalent LTOT users and to identify predictors of mortality. Patients and methods: We conducted a 2-year follow-up population-based cohort study comprising all COPD patients receiving LTOT in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. Comparing age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratios, we examined associations between all-cause mortality and patient characteristics at baseline. To avoid immortal time bias, data for incident (receiving LTOT <6 months and prevalent users were analyzed separately. Results: At baseline, 475 patients (20% incident users, n=93 were receiving LTOT because of COPD (48/100,000 inhabitants. Mortality of incident and prevalent LTOT users was 41% versus 27%, respectively, p<0.007, and standardized mortality ratios were 8.02 (95% CI: 5.64–11.41 versus 5.90 (95% CI: 4.79–7.25, respectively. Type 2 respiratory failure was associated with higher standardized mortality ratios among incident LTOT users (60.57, 95% CI: 11.82–310.45, p=0

  2. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long-term

  3. Radiological evaluation of cartilage after microfracture treatment: A long-term follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Keudell, A.; Atzwanger, J.; Forstner, R.; Resch, H.; Hoffelner, T.; Mayer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature revealed good short-term results after microfracturing (MFX) of isolated focal cartilage defects in the knee joint. Study purpose was a long-term evaluation of patients who received MFX through a multimodal approach, correlating clinical scores and morphological pre- and postoperative MRI-scans. Materials and methods: Between 2000 and 2007 158 patients were treated with MFX for focal femoral or tibial defects at our department. Patients with instabilities, secondary surgical intervention, patellofemoral lesions, a plica mediopatellaris or more than one cartilage defect site and age >55 were excluded. 15 patients were included. Minimum postoperative follow-up (FU) was 18 months (18–78 m). Mean age at surgery was 45 years (27–54), mean FU-interval 48 months (18–78 m). Male to female ratio was 9:6. For clinical assessment the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Lysholm Score were used, radiological evaluation was performed with radiographs and 3Tesla-MRI. Results: Clinical knee function was rated good to excellent in 1 patient, fair in 2 and poor in 10 patients. 2/15 patients received full knee replacement due to insufficient cartilage repair through MFX during FU period. Evaluation of pre- and postoperative MRI showed good cartilage repair tissue in 1 (7.7%), moderate repair in 2 (15.4%) and poor fill in 10 patients (76.9%). In these 10 patients the defect size increased. Average defect size preoperatively was 187 mm 2 (range 12–800 mm 2 ) and postoperatively 294 mm 2 (40–800 mm 2 ). The KOOS-Pain averaged 60 (39–94), KOOS-Symptoms 60.6 (21–100), KOOS-ADL 69 (21–91), KOOS-Sports 35.7 (5–60) and KOOS-QUL 37.2 (6–81). The average Lysholm Score was 73.9 (58–94). 10 patients showed a varus leg axis deviation (Ø 5.9°), 3 had a neutral alignment. The alignment correlated positively with KOOS and especially with the Lysholm Score. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that MFX as a treatment option for cartilage

  4. Long-term economic consequences of child maltreatment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Frederick W; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Cuijpers, Pim; Beekman, Aartjan; Evers, Silvia; Smit, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Child maltreatment is prognostically associated with long-term detrimental consequences for mental health. These consequences are reflected in higher costs due to health service utilization and productivity losses in adulthood. An above-average sense of mastery can have protective effects in the pathogenesis of mental disorders and thus potentially cushion adverse impacts of maltreatment. This should be reflected in lower costs in individuals with a history of child maltreatment and a high sense of mastery. The aims of the study were to prognostically estimate the excess costs of health service uptake and productivity losses in adults with a history of child maltreatment and to evaluate how mastery may act as an effect modifier. Data were used on 5618 individuals participating in the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). We focussed on measures of child maltreatment (emotional neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse) and economic costs owing to health-care uptake and productivity losses when people with a history of abuse have grown into adulthood. We evaluated how mastery acted as an effect modifier. Estimates were adjusted for demographics and parental psychopathology. Post-stratification weights were used to account for initial non-response and dropout. Due to the non-normal distribution of the costs data, sample errors, 95 % confidence intervals, and p values were calculated using non-parametric bootstrapping (1000 replications). Exposure to child maltreatment occurs frequently (6.9-24.8 %) and is associated with substantial excess costs in adulthood. To illustrate, adjusted annual excess costs attributable to emotional neglect are €1,360 (95 % CI: 615-215) per adult. Mastery showed a significant effect on these figures: annual costs were €1,608 in those with a low sense of mastery, but only €474 in those with a firmer sense of mastery. Child maltreatment has profound mental health consequences and is associated with

  5. Theoretical study on crystalline rock for evaluating of long-term behavior (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Seno, Yasuhiro; Sato, Toshinori; Nakama, Shigeo

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is working on the Project of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). The project aims at developing comprehensive techniques of geological investigation and of construction of deep underground space for a repository of HLW and/or TRU. This study contributes to an estimation of long-term stability of underground spaces. Rock materials commonly show time-dependent behavior such as creep and relaxation. The underground structures for geological disposal of radioactive wastes must keep stable not only during construction and operation but also after closing, and then the long-term stability of rock structures (over thousands of years) is essentially important for designing the structures. The true mechanism of time-dependent behavior of rock materials is not yet clearly understood, though the phenomena are widely known. This study aims at elucidating the scientific truth involved in the time-dependent behavior of rock showing creep and relaxation. We used samples of Toki granite and performed precise tests under laser microscope observation, and then developed theories representing the experimental results. These experimental and theoretical results will be served for the design and construction of the Phase III (Operation Phase) of the MIU Project. This is the report worked out in the fiscal year 2006. In this work we performed the following subjects: 1) Uniaxial and stress relaxation tests under observation of a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by using granite specimens of MIU. 2) Pressure dissolution experiment by using specimens of single crystal quartz and glass beads. 3) Development of the rate of pressure dissolution of quartz and a homogenization analysis for quartz dissolution. In Chapter 2 CLSM was used to acquire clear three-dimensional images of Mizunami granite specimens for uniaxial and stress relaxation tests, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under

  6. Modeling studies of unsaturated flow with long-term permeability change at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chengyuan; Liu Xiaoyan; Liu Quansheng

    2008-01-01

    The amount of water seeping into the waste emplacement drifts is crucial for the performance of underground nuclear waste repository, since it controls the corrosion rates of waste packages and the mobilization rate of radionuclides. It is limited by water flow through drift vicinity. In the present work we study the potential rates of water flow around drifts as a function of predicted long-term change of permeability at Yucca Mountain, based on a dual-continuum model of the unsaturated flow in fractured rock mass. For stage of DECOVALEX Ⅳ, we used a simplified practical model on unsaturated flow in Yucca Mountain case simulation. These models contain main physical processes that should be considered, including thermal expansion, thermal radiation, water-rock coupling and stress-induced change of permeability. Comparative study with other DECOVALEX team's results shows that they are both good enough and flexible enough to include more physical processes. We can draw the conclusion that it is necessary to model stress-induced changes in permeability and relative processes in future studies, because there are obvious differences (in water saturation and water flux) between simulation cases with and without variable permeability, especially in areas very close to the drift. (authors)

  7. Preliminary study of long-term wind characteristics of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando; Watson, Simon; Infield, David

    2009-01-01

    Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula is one of the most promising areas for wind energy development within the Latin American region but no comprehensive assessment of wind resource has been previously published. This research presents a preliminary analysis of the meteorological parameters relevant to the wind resource in order to find patterns in their long-term behaviour and to establish a foundation for subsequent research into the wind power potential of the Yucatan Peninsula. Three meteorological stations with data measured for a period between 10 and 20 years were used in this study. The monthly trends of ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed data were identified and are discussed. The directional behaviour of the winds, their frequency distributions and the related Weibull parameters are presented. Wind power densities for the study sites have been estimated and have been shown to be relatively low (wind power class 1), though a larger number of suitable sites needs to be studied before a definitive resource evaluation can be reported.

  8. Long-Term Structural and Functional Myocardial Adaptations in Healthy Living Kidney Donors: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bellavia

    Full Text Available Compensatory renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX occurs in the remaining kidney. However, the long-term cardiac adaptive process to UNX remains poorly defined in humans. Our goal was to characterize myocardial structure and function in living kidney donors (LKDs, approximately 12 years after UNX.Cardiac function and structure in 15 Italian LKDs, at least 5 years after UNX (median time from donation = 8.4 years was investigated and compared to those of age and sex matched U.S. citizens healthy controls (n = 15. Standard and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE was performed in both LKDs and controls. Plasma angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, N terminus pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, cyclic guanylyl monophosphate (cGMP, and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen III (PIIINP were also collected. Median follow-up was 11.9 years. In LKDs, LV geometry and function by STE were similar to controls, wall thickness and volumes were within normal limits also by CMR. In LKDs, CMR was negative for myocardial fibrosis, but apical rotation and LV torsion obtained by STE were impaired as compared to controls (21.4 ± 7.8 vs 32.7 ± 8.9 degrees, p = 0.04. Serum creatinine and PIIINP levels were increased [1.1 (0.9-1.3 mg/dL, and 5.8 (5.4-7.6] μg/L, respectively, while urinary cGMP was reduced [270 (250-355 vs 581 (437-698 pmol/mL] in LKDs. No LKD developed cardiovascular or renal events during follow-up.Long-term kidney donors have no apparent structural myocardial abnormalities as assessed by contrast enhanced CMR. However, myocardial deformation of the apical segments, as well as apical rotation, and LV torsion are reduced. The concomitant increase in circulating PIIINP level is suggestive of fibrosis. Further studies, focused on US and EU patients are warranted to evaluate whether these early functional modifications will progress to a more compromised cardiac function and structure at a later time.

  9. Long-term outcome of refractory status epilepticus in adults: A retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Reinikainen, Matti; Parviainen, Ilkka; Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2017-07-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcome of intensive care unit (ICU)-treated RSE and super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) patients in a population based cohort. A retrospective study of ICU- and anesthesia-treated RSE patients in Kuopio University Hospital's (KUH) special responsibility area hospitals in the central and eastern part of Finland from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2012 was conducted. KUH's catchment area consists of five hospitals-one university hospital and four central hospitals-and covers a population of 840 000. We included all consecutive adult (16 years or older) RSE patients admitted in the participating ICUs during the 3-year period and excluded patients with postanoxic etiologies. We used a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as a long-term (1-year) outcome measure: good (mRS 0-3, recovered to baseline function) or poor (mRS 4-6, major functional deficit or death). We identified 75 patients with ICU- and anesthesia-treated RSE, corresponding to an annual incidence of 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-3.8). 21% of the patients were classified as SRSE, with the annual incidence being 0.6/100 000 (95% CI 0.4-1.0). For RSE, the ICU mortality was 0%, hospital mortality was 7% (95% CI 1.2%-12.8%) (n=5), and one-year mortality was 23% (CI 95% 13.4%-32.5%) (n=17). 48% (n=36) of RSE patients recovered to baseline, and 29% (n=22) showed neurological deficit at 1year. Poor outcome (mRS 4-6) was recorded for 52% (n=39) of the patients. Older age was associated with poorer outcome at 1year (p=0.03). For SRSE, hospital mortality was 6% (n=1) and 1-year mortality was 19% (n=3) (95%CI 0%-38.2%). During 1-year follow-up, nearly 50% of the ICU-treated RSE patients recovered to baseline function, whereas 30% showed new functional defects and 20% died. SRSE does not have a necessarily poorer outcome. The outcome is worse in older patients and in patients with

  10. A prospective cohort study of long-term cognitive changes in older Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Bentler, Suzanne E; Hockenberry, Jason; Jones, Michael P; Weigel, Paula A; Kaskie, Brian; Wallace, Robert B

    2011-09-20

    Promoting cognitive health and preventing its decline are longstanding public health goals, but long-term changes in cognitive function are not well-documented. Therefore, we first examined long-term changes in cognitive function among older Medicare beneficiaries in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), and then we identified the risk factors associated with those changes in cognitive function. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective, population-based cohort using baseline (1993-1994) interview data linked to 1993-2007 Medicare claims to examine cognitive function at the final follow-up interview which occurred between 1995-1996 and 2006-2007. Besides traditional risk factors (i.e., aging, age, race, and education) and adjustment for baseline cognitive function, we considered the reason for censoring (entrance into managed care or death), and post-baseline continuity of care and major health shocks (hospital episodes). Residual change score multiple linear regression analysis was used to predict cognitive function at the final follow-up using data from telephone interviews among 3,021 to 4,251 (sample size varied by cognitive outcome) baseline community-dwelling self-respondents that were ≥ 70 years old, not in managed Medicare, and had at least one follow-up interview as self-respondents. Cognitive function was assessed using the 7-item Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-7; general mental status), and the 10-item immediate and delayed (episodic memory) word recall tests. Mean changes in the number of correct responses on the TICS-7, and 10-item immediate and delayed word recall tests were -0.33, -0.75, and -0.78, with 43.6%, 54.9%, and 52.3% declining and 25.4%, 20.8%, and 22.9% unchanged. The main and most consistent risks for declining cognitive function were the baseline values of cognitive function (reflecting substantial regression to the mean), aging (a strong linear pattern of increased decline

  11. Determinants of long-term neuropsychological symptoms. The Danish Gulf War Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Ishøy, T; Guldager, B; Appleyard, M; Gyntelberg, F

    1999-11-01

    Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War Veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms. Independent associations are found for concentration or memory problems, repeated fits of headache, balance disturbances or fits of dizziness, abnormal fatigue not caused by physical activity, and problems sleeping all night. We investigated whether psychosocial, physical, chemical or biological exposures were associated with these symptoms. This study is a prevalence study using retrospective data on exposure. Some 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997 were included; the control group comprised 257 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and were interviewed by a physician based on a completed questionnaire. A clustering of three to five of the above symptoms were found in 21.4% of Gulf War Veterans vs. 6.2% in controls, p work conditions known to be important in civilian life, and also environmental factors, should be improved to minimize the risk of long-term neuropsychological symptoms.

  12. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  13. An agar gel membrane-PDMS hybrid microfluidic device for long term single cell dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ieong; Atsumi, Shota; Huang, Wei-Chih; Wu, Tung-Yun; Hanai, Taizo; Lam, Miu-Ling; Tang, Ping; Yang, Jian; Liao, James C; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2010-10-21

    Significance of single cell measurements stems from the substantial temporal fluctuations and cell-cell variability possessed by individual cells. A major difficulty in monitoring surface non-adherent cells such as bacteria and yeast is that these cells tend to aggregate into clumps during growth, obstructing the tracking or identification of single-cells over long time periods. Here, we developed a microfluidic platform for long term single-cell tracking and cultivation with continuous media refreshing and dynamic chemical perturbation capability. The design highlights a simple device-assembly process between PDMS microchannel and agar membrane through conformal contact, and can be easily adapted by microbiologists for their routine laboratory use. The device confines cell growth in monolayer between an agar membrane and a glass surface. Efficient nutrient diffusion through the membrane and reliable temperature maintenance provide optimal growth condition for the cells, which exhibited fast exponential growth and constant distribution of cell sizes. More than 24 h of single-cell tracking was demonstrated on a transcription-metabolism integrated synthetic biological model, the gene-metabolic oscillator. Single cell morphology study under alcohol toxicity allowed us to discover and characterize cell filamentation exhibited by different E. coli isobutanol tolerant strains. We believe this novel device will bring new capabilities to quantitative microbiology, providing a versatile platform for single cell dynamic studies.

  14. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  15. Severity Stages in Essential Tremor: A Long-Term Retrospective Study Using the Glass Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gironell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Few prospective studies have attempted to estimate the rate of decline of essential tremor (ET and these were over a relatively short time period (less than 10 years.  We performed a long-term study of severity stages in ET using the Glass scale scoring system.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with severe ET were included. We retrospectively obtained Glass Scale scores throughout the patient’s life. Common milestone events were used to help recall changes in tremor severity.Results:  According to the Glass Scale, the age distributions were as follows: score I, 40±17 years, score II, 55±12 years, score III, 64±9 years, and score IV, 69±7 years. A significant negative correlation between age at first symptom and rate of progression was found (r=−0.669, p<0.001. The rate of progression was significantly different (p<0.001 when the first symptom appeared at a younger age (under 40 years of age compared with older age (40 years or older.Discussion:  Our results support the progressive nature of ET. Age at onset was a prognostic factor. The Glass Scale may be a useful tool to determine severity stages during the course of ET in a manner similar to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale for Parkinson’s disease.

  16. Severity Stages in Essential Tremor: A Long-Term Retrospective Study Using the Glass Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironell, Alexandre; Ribosa-Nogué, Roser; Gich, Ignasi; Marin-Lahoz, Juan; Pascual-Sedano, Berta

    2015-01-01

    Background Few prospective studies have attempted to estimate the rate of decline of essential tremor (ET) and these were over a relatively short time period (less than 10 years). We performed a long-term study of severity stages in ET using the Glass Scale scoring system. Methods Fifty consecutive patients with severe ET were included. We retrospectively obtained Glass Scale scores throughout the patient's life. Common milestone events were used to help recall changes in tremor severity. Results According to the Glass Scale, the age distributions were as follows: score I, 40±17 years, score II, 55±12 years, score III, 64±9 years, and score IV, 69±7 years. A significant negative correlation between age at first symptom and rate of progression was found (r = −0.669, p<0.001). The rate of progression was significantly different (p<0.001) when the first symptom appeared at a younger age (under 40 years of age) compared with older age (40 years or older). Discussion Our results support the progressive nature of ET. Age at onset was a prognostic factor. The Glass Scale may be a useful tool to determine severity stages during the course of ET in a manner similar to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25793146

  17. Continued studies of long-term ecological effects of exposure to uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.C.; Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1977-06-01

    Studies of the long-term consequences of exposing terrestrial ecosystems to natural and depleted uranium dispersed during explosives tests at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and test firing at Eglin Air Force Base (EAFB), Florida, were continued. Soils from EAFB, sampled before and after firing of depleted uranium penetrators against armor plate targets, indicated that the upper (0- to 5-cm-deep) soil usually contained more uranium than lower (5- to 10-cm-deep) soil. However, no significant changes were apparent in samples taken before and after the test firing. E-F explosive testing site at LASL was selected for intensive study of uranium redistribution during its 33-yr use. Highest surface soil (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations occurred 0 and 10 m from the detonation point and averaged 4500 ppM. Concentrations in surface soil 50 and 200 m from the firing point were usually < 15% of that value. The uranium distribution to 30-cm depths showed significant penetration into the soil. Alluvium collected 250 m from the E-F detonation area in Potrillo Canyon indicated that surface (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations were about 10% of those at the detonation point, and at 2.8 km they were twice background levels.

  18. Relapse and long-term cognitive performance after brief pulse or ultrabrief pulse right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy: A multicenter naturalistic follow up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijk, E.; Spaans, H.P.; Comijs, H.C.; Kho, K.H.; Sienaert, P.; Bouckaert, F.; Obbels, J.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Stek, M.L.; Kok, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Superior cognitive functioning for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with right unilateral (RUL) ultrabrief pulse (UBP) stimulation compared to RUL brief pulse (BP) stimulation is not clearly established and long-term data is needed. Methods We conducted a prospective naturalistic follow-up

  19. Long-term dose-response studies of inhaled or injected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Miller, S.C.; Bradley, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the scientific progress in, and current status of, life-span studies of the long-term health risks in Beagle dogs of chronic irradiation from internally deposited radionuclides or from an external source. The reporting period for this document is the 2-year period from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1993. Studies that were initiated at three different laboratories (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, ITRI, University of Utah, and Argonne National Laboratory, ANL) are presented here because they are being completed at ITRI. All living dogs in the Utah-initiated studies were transferred to the ITRI facility for the remainder of their life-span observations and measurements in September 1987. This report is the fourth in a series of reports dealing with the current status and progress of both the Utah and ITRI studies. Other life-span studies involving dogs exposed to gamma radiation from an external source were initiated and conducted for many years at ANL. In 1991, the decision was made to discontinue the chronic irradiation of the remaining living dogs and to transfer all remaining dogs to ITRI for care, clinical observations, and pathological observations at death or euthanasia. This report provides the current status of these dogs. Status reports on the Utah and ITRI studies comprise most of this report. The ITRI-related section presents brief statements of project objectives, the general procedures used in these studies, and some study-specific features for each of the 19 studies being conducted with either beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides. Dose- and effect-modifying factors being addressed in these studies include total dose, dose rate, LET, solubility, nonuniformity of dose, species, age, sex, health status, and mode of exposure. Recent additions to experimental protocols for studies in which dogs are still alive involve the collection and analysis of tumor tissues using currently available molecular biology techniques

  20. Studies on the dissolution and long term weathering of spilled crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, D; Charles, M E; Sumchi, Lee; Lun, R; Ooijen, H van; Romocki, K; Harner, T; Ralfs, M

    1993-04-01

    The development of a laboratory system for the study of the long term behavior of crude oil on a water surface is described. The apparatus consists of a cylindrical glass vessel containing water which is rotated at 33 rpm, thus creating a concave surface in which oil tends to accumulate at the center. Turbulence is induced by a stationary stirrer. Results are described of tests conducted with a number of crude oils and it is concluded that the system is able to create reproducible conditions of controlled evaporation, dissolution, turbulence, photolysis, and oil in water emulsion formation. A major advantage of the system is its simplicity and robustness which permits prolonged exposure of the oil to simulate weathering, over periods of weeks and months. A second system is described which can be used to determine the concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons under oil slicks by in-situ headspace analysis. A prototype submersible sparger sampling system was devised and tested, and results are presented. It is concluded that the system is a promising and practical method of determining the extent to which dissolved hydrocarbons are present in water at various depths under an oil slick. In both cases it is concluded that the concepts have sufficient merit that further work is justified. Recommendations are made for further research and development which will, it is hoped, enable these systems to be used to investigate aspects of the fate and effects of oil spills at sea. 6 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. A comparative study on prediction methods for China's medium- and long-term coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bing-Bing; Liang, Qiao-Mei; Wang, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Given the dominant position of coal in China's energy structure and in order to ensure a safe and stable energy supply, it is essential to perform a scientific and effective prediction of China's medium- and long-term coal demand. Based on the historical data of coal consumption and related factors such as GDP (Gross domestic product), coal price, industrial structure, total population, energy structure, energy efficiency, coal production and urbanization rate from 1987 to 2012, this study compared the prediction effects of five types of models. These models include the VAR (vector autoregressive model), RBF (radial basis function) neural network model, GA-DEM (genetic algorithm demand estimation model), PSO-DEM (particle swarm optimization demand estimation model) and IO (input–output model). By comparing the results of different models with the corresponding actual coal consumption, it is concluded that with a testing period from 2006 to 2012, the PSO-DEM model has a relatively optimal predicted effect on China's total coal demand, where the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) is close to or below 2%. - Highlights: • The prediction effects of five methods for China's coal demand were compared. • Each model has acceptable prediction results, with MAPE below 5%. • Particle swarm optimization demand estimation model has better forecast efficacy.

  2. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38–1.21). No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health. PMID:28534840

  3. Effect of routine repeat transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Steinhoff, Christine; Simon, Xenia; Spiegelhalder, Philipp; Ackermann, Rolf; Vogeli, Thomas Alexander

    2003-08-01

    We determined the long-term outcome in patients with superficial bladder cancer (Ta and T1) undergoing routine second transurethral bladder tumor resection (ReTURB) in regard to recurrence and progression. We performed an inception cohort study of 124 consecutive patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing transurethral resection and routine ReTURB (83) between November 1993 and October 1995 at a German university hospital. Immediately after transurethral resection all lesions were documented on a designed bladder map. ReTURB of the scar from initial resection and other suspicious lesions was performed at a mean of 7 weeks. Patients were followed until recurrence or death, or a minimum of 5 years. Residual tumor was found in 33% of all ReTURB cases, including 27% of Ta and 53% of T1 disease, and in 81% at the initial resection site. Five of the 83 patients underwent radical cystectomy due to ReTURB findings. The estimated risk of recurrence after years 1 to 3 was 18%, 29% and 32%, respectively. After 5 years 63% of the patients undergoing ReTURB were still disease-free (mean recurrence-free survival 62 months, median 87). Progression to muscle invasive disease was observed in only 2 patients (3%) after a mean observation of 61 months. These data suggest a favorable outcome regarding recurrence and progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer who undergo ReTURB. ReTURB is suggested at least in those at high risk when bladder preservation is intended.

  4. Long-Term Experiences of Men with Spinal Cord Injuries in Japan: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakuni Tagaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to examine how Japanese men with long-term spinal cord injuries constructed their post-injury life. To do this, I conducted semi-structured interviews with ten participants who had sustained spinal cord injuries. The interview data was transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using the KJ method, which is widely employed in Japan and has been developed by and named after the founder of the method, the anthropologist Jiro KAWAKITA (1967. The participants led lives similar to able-bodied individuals and tried to find specific positive aspects of their lives that they owed to their disabilities. They also developed collective identities as people with acquired disabilities through their relationships with others having disabilities. To alleviate their sense of loss, the participants also emphasized the unchanged aspects of their pre-injury lives. They understood that their lives were greatly influenced by a socially supportive environment that was regarded as being contingent. They recognized their inability to control the environment and valued the contingencies. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150210

  5. The influence of coping styles on long-term employment in multiple sclerosis: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Nina; Skår, Anne Br; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Assmus, Jorg; Farbu, Elisabeth; Lode, Kirsten; Nyland, Harald I; Smedal, Tori; Myhr, Kjell Morten

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate predictive values of coping styles, clinical and demographic factors on time to unemployment in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) during 1998-2002 in Norway. All patients ( N = 108) diagnosed with MS 1998-2002 in Hordaland and Rogaland counties, Western Norway, were invited to participate in the long-term follow-up study in 2002. Baseline recordings included disability scoring (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), and questionnaire assessing coping (the Dispositional Coping Styles Scale (COPE)). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with unemployed at baseline, and Cox regression analysis to identify factors at baseline associated with time to unemployment during follow-up. In all, 41 (44%) were employed at baseline. After 13 years follow-up in 2015, mean disease duration of 22 years, 16 (17%) were still employed. Median time from baseline to unemployment was 6 years (±5). Older age at diagnosis, female gender, and depression were associated with patients being unemployed at baseline. Female gender, long disease duration, and denial as avoidant coping strategy at baseline predicted shorter time to unemployment. Avoidant coping style, female gender, and longer disease duration were associated with shorter time to unemployment. These factors should be considered when advising patients on MS and future employment.

  6. Long-term life and partnership satisfaction in infertile patients: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Stefan; Reimer, Thorisa; Eichner, Martin; Hautzinger, Martin; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Fierlbeck, Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    To describe the long-term effects of infertility on life and partnership satisfaction. Longitudinal cohort study. A university outpatient andrology and gynecology infertility clinic. 275 men and 272 women treated for infertility between August 2000 and December 2001. None. The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ), the Partnership Questionnaire (PFB), and sociodemographic items at baseline (T1) and 5 years later (T2). Compared with a representative sample, our male and female participants had higher Finance and Partnership scores and lower Health scores on the FLZ at T1. They also had markedly higher PFB scores, with the exception of Conflict Behavior. After 5 years (T2), 101 men and 113 women rated the Partnership and Sexuality FLZ subscales as well as all the PFB subscales statistically significantly lower than at baseline. Only the women rated the Self-esteem FLZ subscale lower than at baseline (T1). Participants who became parents had lower Leisure and Partnership FLZ subscale scores, and fathers had lower Finance FLZ subscale scores. Satisfaction declined over 5 years for both men and women, but only in the partnership-related domains. Women were more affected than men. The success of infertility treatment had only a minor influence on a couple's future satisfaction. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Long term multiwavelength studies of the corona/disc connection in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, D.; Lohfink, A.; Alston, W.; Fabian, A.; Gallo, L.; Kara, E.; Zoghbi, A.; Wilkins, D.; Miller, J.; Cackett, E.

    2017-10-01

    One way of increasing our understanding of AGN is determining the nature of the connection between the optical/UV emitting accretion disc and the X-ray emitting corona. Studies of variability in these two bands are a key tool for gaining insight into the processes involved. We will present results from a sample of long-term AGN monitoring campaigns in the optical, UV and X-ray with Swift. In particular, we will explore UV/optical-X-ray correlations and associated time lags. We will compare these measurements and the UV/optical RMS spectra with theoretical reprocessing models and confront recent claims of the observed lags being longer than those which are expected for a standard thin disc. Additionally, a new Swift monitoring campaign of the z=2 quasar PG 1247+267 allows us to probe the shorter wavelengths at the peak of the accretion disc spectrum, providing information on the region of the disc closest to the black hole. However, not all AGN show such correlations, including IRAS 13224-3809, the subject of a recent 1.5 Ms XMM observation. Using this and other examples, we will explore the possible reasons for the lack of observed correlation.

  8. Estimating Long-Term Care Costs among Thai Elderly: A Phichit Province Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattaraporn Khongboon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rural-urban inequality in long-term care (LTC services has been increasing alongside rapid socioeconomic development. This study estimates the average spending on LTC services and identifies the factors that influence the use and cost of LTC for the elderly living in urban and rural areas of Thailand. Methods. The sample comprised 837 elderly aged 60 years drawn from rural and urban areas in Phichit Province. Costs were assessed over a 1-month period. Direct costs of caregiving and indirect costs (opportunity cost method were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine which factors affected LTC costs. Results. The total annual LTC spending for rural and urban residents was on average USD 7,285 and USD 7,280.6, respectively. Formal care and informal care comprise the largest share of payments. There was a significant association between rural residents and costs for informal care, day/night care, and home renovation. Conclusions. Even though total LTC expenditures do not seem to vary significantly across rural and urban areas, the fundamental differences between areas need to be recognized. Reorganizing country delivery systems and finding a balance between formal and informal care are alternative solutions.

  9. Describing Long-Term Electricity Demand Scenarios in the Telecommunications Industry: A Case Study of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kishita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of information and communication technology (ICT usage, the telecommunications industry is faced with a challenge to promote green ICT toward achieving a low-carbon society. One critical obstacle in planning long-term strategies for green ICT is the uncertainty of various external factors, such as consumers’ lifestyle and technological advancement. To tackle this issue, this paper employs a scenario planning method to analyze electricity consumption in the telecommunications industry, where both changes in various external factors and energy-saving measures are assumed. We propose a model to estimate future electricity consumption of the telecommunications industry using a statistical approach. In a case study, we describe four scenarios that differ in the diffusion of ICT and the technological advancement of ICT equipment in order to analyze the electricity consumption in Japan’s telecommunications industry to 2030. The results reveal that the electricity consumption in 2030 becomes 0.7–1.6-times larger than the 2012 level (10.7 TWh/year. It is also shown that the most effective measures to reduce the electricity consumption include improving the energy efficiency of IP (Internet Protocol communication equipment and mobile communication equipment.

  10. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowerman, W.W. [Eagle Environmental Inc., Haslett, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  11. Early aging in Chernobyl clean-up workers: long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, V; Kryukov, V; Samedova, E; Emelianova, I; Ryzhova, I

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes). No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology.

  12. Early Aging in Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers: Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krasnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes. No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology.

  13. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24?hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where ...

  14. Study on mid and long-term strategic plan formulation for newly-constructed NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mid and Long-term strategic plan plays a key role for the management of a newly constructed nuclear power company. Among others, process, goals, and risk management, are the primary concerns during plan preparing. The article analyzed these three areas for Fuqing NPP, including the formulating process for the plan, the mid and long-term goal setting of the company, the major risk analysis and countermeasure selection therefore. Through that solutions and suggestions for strategic plan formulation were concluded for newly-constructed NPP. (author)

  15. Long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy and falls and fractures in elderly women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua R; Barre, Deka; Zhu, Kun; Ivey, Kerry L; Lim, Ee Mun; Hughes, Jeff; Prince, Richard L

    2014-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in the elderly. Recent studies have suggested that long-term PPI therapy is associated with fractures in the elderly, however the mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the association between long-term PPI therapy ≥1 year and fracture risk factors including bone structure, falls, and balance-related function in a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal population-based prospective cohort of elderly postmenopausal women and replicated the findings in a second prospective study of falling in elderly postmenopausal women. Long-term PPI therapy was associated with increased risk of falls and fracture-related hospitalizations; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.17; 95% CI, 1.25-3.77; p = 0.006 and 1.95; 95% CI, 1.20-3.16; p = 0.007, respectively. In the replication study, long-term PPI use was associated with an increased risk of self-reported falling; AOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.00-2.27; p = 0.049. No association of long-term PPI therapy with bone structure was observed; however, questionnaire-assessed falls-associated metrics such as limiting outdoor activity (p = 0.002) and indoor activity (p = 0.001) due to fear of falling, dizziness (p risk in subjects on long-term PPI therapy. This increase in fracture risk in elderly women, already at high risk of fracture, appears to be mediated via increased falls risk and falling rather than impaired bone structure and should be carefully considered when prescribing long-term PPI therapy. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Neonatal hypertension – a long-term pilot follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tejasvi Chaudhari,1 Michael C Falk,2,3 Rajeev Jyoti,2,4 Susan Arney,5 Wendy Burton,5 Alison L Kent1,2 1Department of Neonatology, Canberra Hospital, Woden, ACT, Australia; 2Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3Department of Nephrology, 4Medical Imaging Department, 5Centre for Newborn Care, Canberra Hospital, Woden, ACT, Australia Background: Neonatal hypertension occurs in up to 3% of neonates, more commonly in those admitted to neonatal intensive care. The aims of this study were to review renal function and renal volumes in children who had a history of neonatal hypertension. Methods: Children with a history of neonatal hypertension from January 2001 to December 2008 were included in the study during 2011. Blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were recorded. Renal ultrasound with 3D volume, urine for electrolytes, albumin, ß2 microglobulin, and blood for electrolytes, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, renin, and aldosterone were collected depending on parental consent. Results: Of the 41 neonates with neonatal hypertension, eleven (27% were included in the study (six died; 24 moved interstate or declined involvement. One child (9% was still on antihypertensive medication and one was found to be hypertensive on review. This child had small volume kidneys and albuminuria. Three out of nine renal volume measurements were low (33% and two out of eleven had renal scarring (18%. The six available renin/aldosterone results were normal. Conclusion: This study suggests there are long-term renal and blood pressure implications for neonates with hypertension and ongoing surveillance of blood pressure and renal function should be performed throughout childhood and into early adulthood. Keywords: neonate, hypertension, renal ultrasound, 3D

  17. International study on the long-term efficiency of stormwater infiltration by permeable pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, T.; Dierkes, Carsten; Wentink, Ronald; Akkerman, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Although permeable pavements have been used all over the world in recent years to infiltrate and treat stormwater, only limited research has been undertaken to investigate and compare the long-term performance of these sustainable urban drainage system devices. This paper presents the results of an

  18. Social networks of nursing staff and organizational performance. A study in long-term care facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.P.A van

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, there has been increasing attention for the role of social networks in explaining performance differences between organizations. Yet, research on social networks within healthcare organizations in general and long-term care facilities specifically has been rare, despite growing

  19. Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; Dann, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Predator-control aims to reduce an impact on prey species, but efficacy of long-term control is rarely assessed and the reductions achieved are rarely quantified. Aims: We evaluated the changing efficacy of a 58-year-long campaign against red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on Phillip Island, a

  20. The North-American Long-Term Soil Productivity Study: Concepts and literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    The resiliency of forest sites after a pulse disturbance is one of the key questions mandated by the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. This Act mandated that we maintain the productive capacity of federally managed stands. The original USDA Forest Service soil quality standards were based largely on professional judgment. The North American Long-Term Soil...

  1. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative in-depth study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buul, L.W. van; Steen, J.T. van der; Doncker, S.M.M.M.; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insight into factors that influence antibiotic prescribing is crucial when developing interventions aimed at a more rational use of antibiotics. We examined factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities, and present a conceptual model that integrates these

  2. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative in-depth study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buul, L.W.; van der Steen, J.T.; Doncker, S.M.; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insight into factors that influence antibiotic prescribing is crucial when developing interventions aimed at a more rational use of antibiotics. We examined factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities, and present a conceptual model that integrates these

  3. Towards healthcare business intelligence in long-term care: an explorative case study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, M.; Vroon, R.; Batenburg, R.

    2014-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of long-term care by exploring knowledge discovery techniques based on a large dataset and guided by representative information needs to better manage both quality of care and financial spendings, as a next step towards more mature healthcare business

  4. Towards healthcare business intelligence in long-term care: an explorative case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, M.R.; Vroon, R.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of long-term care by exploring knowledge discovery techniques based on a large dataset and guided by representative information needs to better manage both quality of care and financial spendings, as a next step towards more mature healthcare business

  5. Political Youth Education in Germany. Presenting a Qualitative Study on Its Biographically Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzter, Nadine; Ristau, Yan; Schröder, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: There is an impact analysis presented, which explores the long-term effect of extra-curricular political youth education from the perspective of participants. Methods: The former participants retell their own education and life stories about five years later. Life stories were then interpreted in the course of research workshops and…

  6. Post-stroke epilepsy in young adults: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, R.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a

  7. Reversible diastolic dysfunction after long-term exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism: a randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. W. A.; Eustatia-Rutten, C. F. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Pereira, A. M.; Frölich, M.; Bleeker, G. B.; Holman, E. R.; van der Wall, E. E.; Romijn, J. A.; Bax, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been reported to affect systolic and diastolic cardiac function. However, the reversibility of these effects is not well established. Our objective was to investigate the presence and reversibility of cardiac abnormalities in patients with long-term exogenous

  8. Nursing Administrators' Views on Oral Health in Long-Term Care Facilities: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Janelle Y; Couch, Elizabeth T; Walsh, Margaret M; Rowe, Dorothy J

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: To explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of supervising nurse administrators (SNAs) regarding the oral care provided to long-term care facility (LTCF) residents and the role of dental professionals in those facilities. Methods: The investigators of this study partnered with the National Association of Nursing Administrators to send this cross-sectional study consisting of a 35-item electronic survey to its members whose email addresses were in their database. Online software tabulated responses and calculated frequencies (percentages) of responses for each survey item. Results: Of the 2,359 potential participants, 171 (n=171) completed the survey for a 7% response rate. Only 25% of the respondents were familiar with the expertise of dental hygienists (DHs), however once informed, the majority were interested in having DHs perform oral health staff trainings, oral screenings, and dental referrals and initiate fluoride varnish programs. Most respondents correctly answered the oral health-related knowledge items, understood that oral health is important to general health, but reported that the LTCF residents' oral health was only "good" or "fair." Fewer than half, (48%) of the SNAs were "very satisfied" with the quality of oral care provided to the residents. While more than half reported that they had no dentist on staff or on-site dental equipment, 77% reported that they would consider on-site mobile oral care services. Oral health training for staff was provided primarily by registered nurses, however only 32% reported including identification of dental caries as part of the in-service training. Conclusion: This exploratory study lays the foundation for more extensive research investigating various strategies to improve the oral health of LTCF residents, including increased collaboration between DHs and SNAs. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. Patterns of Long Term Care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Gianfranco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5 positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy

  10. Long-term oxygen therapy in COPD patients: population-based cohort study on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Nikolay; Haynes, Alan Gary; Stucki, Armin; Jüni, Peter; Ott, Sebastian Robert

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with a growing and substantial socioeconomic burden. Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), recommended by current treatment guidelines for COPD patients with severe chronic hypoxemia, has shown to reduce mortality in this population. The aim of our study was to assess the standardized mortality ratios of incident and prevalent LTOT users and to identify predictors of mortality. We conducted a 2-year follow-up population-based cohort study comprising all COPD patients receiving LTOT in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. Comparing age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratios, we examined associations between all-cause mortality and patient characteristics at baseline. To avoid immortal time bias, data for incident (receiving LTOT <6 months) and prevalent users were analyzed separately. At baseline, 475 patients (20% incident users, n=93) were receiving LTOT because of COPD (48/100,000 inhabitants). Mortality of incident and prevalent LTOT users was 41% versus 27%, respectively, p <0.007, and standardized mortality ratios were 8.02 (95% CI: 5.64-11.41) versus 5.90 (95% CI: 4.79-7.25), respectively. Type 2 respiratory failure was associated with higher standardized mortality ratios among incident LTOT users (60.57, 95% CI: 11.82-310.45, p =0.038). Two-year mortality rate of COPD patients on incident LTOT was somewhat lower in our study than in older cohorts but remained high compared to the general population, especially in younger patients receiving LTOT <6 months. Type 2 respiratory failure was associated with mortality.

  11. Morfeo Study II: Clinical Course and Complications in Patients With Long-Term Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, Caterina; Bertoletti, Erik; Matera, Nunzio; Farinelli, Marina; Pedone, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    The life expectancy of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) is ever-increasing, but little is known about their clinical course over late stages. Several issues (premorbid conditions, complications and pressure sores) are to be considered for their effect on clinical outcome, risk of death and recovery of functional performance. Unfortunately, in late stages of long-term rehabilitation, these aspects are still more neglected than in acute and postacute stages. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical course and the complications of patients in the late stages of DOCs and to explore the relationship between mortality and specific biomarkers. A total of 112 patients, admitted over 10 years in a dedicated ward, were retrospectively studied. Sociodemographic data, preadmission and inpatient clinical features were collected. Disability Rating Scale scores, complications including pressure sores and blood markers were assessed monthly. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and correlations using SPSS. Most patients were men older than 50 years with a nontraumatic etiology and a history of hypertension (42.86%). The most common complication was pneumonia (76.79%). No association was found between sex and mortality or between etiology and mortality (P > 0.05). Mortality correlated significantly with sepsis (ρ = 0.253), albumin (ρ = -0.558), hemoglobin (ρ = -0.354) and white blood cells (ρ = 0.243). Only 42% of patients remained unchanged at Disability Rating Scale evaluation. These data confirmed that DOCs are not static conditions and they require ongoing monitoring and assessment of clinical status, level of consciousness and laboratory biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on medium and long-term reductions in contaminant release from ground and surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, S.; Klinger, C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of uranium mining remediation in Saxony (Germany) is the long-term durability of remediation methods. In this context the development of mine and seepage water quality is of special interest. Research at 40 to 50 years old uranium mining sites and at sites under reclamation showed which natural processes or circumstances lead to an immobilization of radionuclides, heavy metals and arsenic. To enhance these natural attenuation processes the State of Saxony placed an order for a study at two adits of old mines. Three kinds of immobilizing material were placed in the mine water at the adit entrance. The water quality of both mines is in accordance with natural background, only uranium concentrations at one site and radium and arsenic concentrations at the other site were increased. The first results of the on-site tests show, that about 90% of uranium is immobilized by Fe(0). About 50% of radium and arsenic are immobilized by water treatment sludges. Another important study was done by Wismut as an on-site column test in the ISL uranium mine Koenigstein. In an underground drift acidic mine water (pH∝2, due to sulphuric acid leaching) was lead directly from a flooded area into 9 columns. The columns were filled with different mixtures of iron, coal, lignite, ash, baryte, calcite and organic residues as immobilisation materials. A mixture of lignite and iron cuttings showed the best capability to immobilize uranium and all other relevant pollutants. As a negative effect H 2 was generated in the columns containing iron. Further tests have to show if this effect can be minimized and also how far remobilization of the pollutants from the testing materials is possible. (orig.)

  13. Some aspects of nuclear power development in Russian and studies on its optimal long term structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, N.I.; Poplavsky, V.M.; Troyanov, M.F.; Oussanov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Malenkov, A.V.; Gordeev, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the authors' outlook for nuclear power development in Russia. The analysis is based on the documents published and other materials as well as on the experience of the authors who participated in working out the state fuel-power program Power Strategy of Russia. The crucial point of the Strategy is that moratorium on the nuclear power development in Russia is inadmissible and a part of electricity production in the country will be covered by NPPs with increased safety. The studies which have been carried out by the organizations of MINATOM and ROSENERGOATOM and by some authors have shown that a potential of the Russia nuclear power complex meets the requirements of the nuclear power development up to year 2010. From the standpoint of the authors of the paper the investment climate in the country is the most important and uncertain factor influencing the program realization. But nuclear power preserves competitive ability in any option of new electric capacities introduced in Russia. Application of the market-oriented IAEA's planning tools have confirmed the competitive ability of nuclear power in the central region of Russia. This study is to be continued for other Russian regions. The estimates of the long-term prospects of nuclear power development in Russia made by the authors are based on the assumptions of natural uranium resources conservation, plutonium stockpile minimization and reduction of the radiotoxical waste to the lowest possible level. These requirements may be answered in the plutonium balanced system of thermal and fast reactors with a very economical consumption of natural uranium and a very small quantity of radioactive waste (mainly consisting of fission products and losses in reprocessing operations). (author)

  14. Businesses assisting K--12 science instruction: Four case studies of long-term school partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trieste, Lynne M.

    Businesses lack enough qualified applicants to fill the increasing need for scientists and engineers while educators lack many resources for science programs in K-12 schools. This series of case studies searched for successful collaborations between the two in four geographic locations: Boise, Idaho; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles County, California, and Orange County, California. These science education partnerships were investigated to gain an understanding of long-term partnership structure, functioning and evaluation methods. Forty-nine individual interviews with representatives from the groups of stakeholders these programs impact were also conducted. Stakeholder groups included students, teachers, parents, school administrators, business liaisons, and non-profit representatives. Several recurring themes in these partnerships reinforced the existing literature research findings. Collaboration and communication between partners, teacher professional development, the need for more minority and female representation in physical science careers, and self-efficacy in relation to how people come to view their scientific abilities, are among these themes. Topics such as program replication, the importance of role models, programs using "hands-on" activities, reward systems for program participants, and program outcome measurement also emerged from the cases investigated. Third-party assistance by a non-profit entity is occurring within all of these partnerships. This assistance ranges from a service providing material resources such as equipment, lesson plans and meeting space, to managing the partnership fundraising, program development and evaluations. Discussions based upon the findings that support or threaten sustainment of these four partnerships, what a "perfect" partnership might look like, and areas in need of further investigation conclude this study.

  15. Prognostic factors after a traumatic hip dislocation. A long-term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, J; Foruria, X; Sánchez, A; Aguirre, U

    Traumatic hip dislocations can have devastating complications such as osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis. The aim of this study was to identify the variables and prognostic factors associated with clinical and radiological outcome after a traumatic hip dislocation at long-term follow-up. A review was performed of all dislocations and fracture-dislocations of the hip from January 1999 to December 2012. A computed tomography scan was performed after reduction in all cases. The Harris Hip Score and modified Merle-d'Aubigné-Postel method were used for clinical evaluation and radiological assessment was performed according to the Thompson and Epstein classification. There were 30 cases in 29 patients with a mean follow-up of 11 years (range, 4-17). The great majority were simple dislocations (21; 70%) vs. complex dislocations (9; 30%). Closed reduction was performed in less than 6h in all except one case (29; 96.7%). All of the patients with simple dislocations had an excellent outcome without radiological signs of osteoarthritis at the end of the follow-up (P<.01). Overall, arthritic signs had developed in 4 patients (13.3%) and avascular necrosis was noted in 3 patients (10%). Five patients with intraarticular fragments were treated non-operatively, and 3 of them developed arthritic changes (P<.05). Our study suggests that complex dislocations are associated with poorer functional and radiological outcomes than simple dislocations. We also found a strong association between intraarticular fragments and osteoarthritis, so surgical fragment removal could be considered in these cases. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, D. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology RAS (Russian Federation); Erenturk, S. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)

    2014-07-01

    Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated that high levels of ionizing radiation can result in impacts on plants and animals, however little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure on biodiversity or other population and ecosystem level effects. The issue of ecological impact has been addressed after the Fukushima accident, which has raised questions about the impacts of radioactivity not only on human health, but also on wildlife. The overall aim of the EANOR project (2012-2015) is to assess the impacts of chronic exposure to enhanced radioactivity and chemical pollutants by studying the diversity of plant and soil invertebrate populations at two field sites. The first is a radium contaminated site in the Vodny area of the Komi Republic, Russia. Between 1931 and 1956, this was the main location of Soviet radium production. Wastes from the industry caused contamination of the environment, leading to high levels of radionuclides, heavy metals and rare-earth elements in the surroundings. The prolonged exposure of the ecosystem, combined with relatively low human activities, makes the site an excellent field laboratory for investigating the long-term effects of pollution. The second site is metal mining (Fe, Au, Ag, Mn, Mo, Cu, Pb and Zn) and industrial area on the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, having elevated levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides for many decades. Eastern Black Sea Region is a mountainous area covered with dense forests, where numerous rivers and torrents flow through gorges and is characterized by heavy rainfall, humid summers, and mild winters. Based on these conditions, the region is rich in biological diversity. Joint field expeditions have been carried out in 2012 and 2013 with the objective of documenting levels of radionuclides and other chemical contaminants in soils and organisms, and assessing plant and soil invertebrate biodiversity. Measurement of a range of biomarkers, including soil meta

  17. Long-Term Evolution Studies of E. Coli under Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.; Tran, Quyen

    2016-07-01

    Multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. However, while these studies have contributed to expand our understanding of the short-term effects of spaceflight or simulated microgravity on biological systems, it remains unclear the type of responses subsequent to long-term exposure to space environment and microgravity in particular. As such, organisms exposed to the space environment for extended periods of time may evolve in unanticipated ways thereby negatively impacting long duration space missions. We report here for the first time, an experimental study of microbial evolution in which the effect of long-term exposure to Low Shear Modeled MicroGravity (LSMMG) on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 was examined using functional genomics, and molecular techniques with and without simultaneous exposure to broad spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. E. coli cells were grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations in High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) that were either heat-sterilized (115 deg C, 15 min) or by using/rinsing the HARVs with a saturated solution of the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. In the case of the cells evolved using the antibiotic sterilized HARVs, the expression levels of 357 genes were significantly changed. In particular, fimbriae encoding genes were significantly up-regulated whereas genes encoding the flagellar motor complex were down-regulated. Re-sequencing of the genome revealed that a number of the flagellar genes were actually deleted. The antibiotic resistance levels of the evolved strains were analyzed using VITEK analyzer. The evolved strain was consistently resistant to the antibiotics used (viz., Ampicillin, Cefalotin, Cefurox-ime, Cefuroxime Axetil

  18. Corneal ectasia after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis: a long-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadea L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leopoldo Spadea,1 Emilia Cantera,2 Magdalena Cortes,2 Nicole Evangelista Conocchia,1 Charles WM Stewart11University of L’Aquila, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Eye Clinic, L’Aquila, 2Villa Stuart Clinic, Department of Ophthalmic Sciences, Rome, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term postoperative incidence of and key factors in the genesis of corneal ectasia after myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in a large number of cases.Methods: A retrospective review of one surgeon's myopic LASIK database was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on date of surgery, ie, group 1 (1313 eyes from 1999 to 2001 and group 2 (2714 eyes from 2001 to 2003. Visual acuity, refraction, pachymetry, and corneal topography data were available for each patient from examinations performed both before and after the refractive procedures.Results: Of the 4027 surgically treated eyes, 23 (0.57% developed keratectasia during the follow-up period, which was a minimum seven years; nine eyes (0.69% were from group 1 and 14 eyes (0.51% were from group 2. The onset of corneal ectasia was at 2.57 ± 1.04 (range 1–4 years and 2.64 ± 1.29 (range 0.5–5 years, respectively, for groups 1 and 2. The most important preoperative risk factors using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System were manifest refractive spherical error in group 1 and a thin residual stromal bed in group 2. Each of the cases that developed corneal ectasia had risk factors that were identified.Conclusion: Ectasia was an uncommon outcome after an otherwise uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis procedure. The variables present in eyes developing postoperative LASIK ectasia can be better understood using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System.Keywords: corneal topography, Ectasia Risk Score System, keratectasia, myopia, LASIK

  19. Long-term studies on the effects of nonvolatile organic compounds on porous media surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist S; Harmon, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term behavior of porous media contaminated by nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOC) in terms of specific interfacial surface area. Specifically, a natural sand, Moffett sand (MS), was contaminated with naphthalene and the surface area was measured repeatedly over time using nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. A field-contaminated sand affected by lamp-black material (LB) from former manufactured gas plant operations was also studied. Lampblack is a carbonaceous skeleton containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons. It is hypothesized that soils contaminated by these types of chemicals will exhibit significantly less surface area than their clean counterparts. The surface areas for the contaminated MS samples increased toward their clean-MS values during the 700-h aging period, but achieved the clean values only after pentane extraction or heating at 60 degrees C. Heating at 50 degrees C failed to achieve a similar recovery of the clean-MS surface area value. Nonspecific mass loss tracked the increase in surface area as indirect evidence that naphthalene loss was the cause of the surface area increase. For the LB samples, aging at 100 degrees C produced a slight decrease in surface area and mass while aging at 250 degrees C caused the surface area to increase roughly threefold while the mass decreased by approximately 1%. These results suggest that, under moderate heating and over the time scale of this investigation, there is a redistribution of the complex contaminant mixture on the solid matrix. Greater temperatures remove mass more efficiently and therefore exhibited the surface area increase expected in this experiment.

  20. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Leppold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (<2500 g at birth and preterm births (<37 weeks gestation at birth were compared pre- and post-disaster, and regression models were conducted to assess for associations between these outcomes and evacuation and food avoidance. A total of 1101 live singleton births were included. There were no increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.64–1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38–1.21. No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of long term creep damage in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yiting

    2015-01-01

    The creep fracture of 316L(N) austenitic stainless steels has been studied both experimentally and theoretically for temperatures from 525 C up to 700 C and lifetimes up to nineteen years. For short term creep, failure is due to necking. Experimental lifetimes are bounded by the lower and upper bound predictions provided by a necking model and taking into account scatter in input parameters. This model leads to fair predictions of lifetimes up to a few thousand hours at very high temperature. Based on FEG-SEM observations, the transition observed in the failure curves is due to intergranular cavitation. The Riedel modeling of cavity growth by vacancy diffusion along grain boundaries coupled with continuous nucleation is carried out. Lifetimes are predicted fairly well using this model for long term creep failure whatever the considered austenitic stainless steel (316L(N), 304H, 316H, 321H) and the applied temperature (525 C - 700 C). Taking into account low and high stress regimes of Norton-power law, the Riedel model allows us to predict the creep lifetimes up to 25 years which differ from experimental data by less than a factor 3. The effect of the heterogeneity of the microstructure on grain boundary stress concentrations and cavity nucleation is simulated by the finite element method (Cast3M software). It aims to determine the distribution of grain boundary normal stress fields around precipitates depending on time and temperature. The features of the precipitates and the creep behavior of the austenitic matrix are both taking into account. (author) [fr

  2. Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Bilder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs.Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel.Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH, using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson χ2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage.Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044. The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001 and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018. Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001. Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001.

  3. Long-term results after external radiotherapy in age-related macular degeneration. A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prettenhofer, U.; Mayer, R.; Stranzl, H.; Oechs, A.; Hackl, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical School, Graz (Austria); Haas, A. [Dept. of Opthalmology, Univ. Medical School, Graz (Austria)

    2004-02-01

    Purpose: to prospectively evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy of external radiotherapy (RT) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by comparing two different dose schedules. Patients and methods: in this prospective, nonrandomized, comparative study including 80 patients, the efficacy of external RT with a total dose of 14.4 Gy (group A, n = 40) and 25.2 Gy (group B, n = 40) was compared. Patients of group a were irradiated between September 1995 and July 1996, patients of group b between August 1996 and November 1997. 67 patients presented with occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 13 with classic subfoveal lesions. Complete ophthalmologic investigation was performed before RT, at intervals of 3 months during the 1st year after RT, and of 6 months thereafter. Results: 12 months after RT, vision deteriorated in 85% (14.4 Gy) and 65% (25.2 Gy) of patients. Central visual field decreased with both dose schedules. There was no morphological benefit in neovascular changes. After 48 months, complete follow-up was possible in 46 patients who showed a significant loss of vision similar to the natural course of AMD. Conclusion: external RT of AMD with 14.4 Gy as well as with the escalated dose of 25.2 Gy showed a poor beneficial outcome after 6 and 12 months, respectively. After a follow-up of 4 years, visual outcome in irradiated patients was similar to the natural course of the disease. A conspicuous efficacy of RT in prevention of blindness could not be demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. A long-term follow-up study after retro-orbital irradiation for graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Ulrich; Hesselmann, Stefan; Micke, Oliver; Schueller, Patrick; Bruns, Frank; Palma, Curro; Willich, Normann

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective analysis was to find out whether low-dose radiation, which is used in the treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy, could cause radiation-induced cancer, which would in turn adversely affect the survival of the irradiated population and cause an increase in the cancer-specific death rate. Methods and Materials: From 1963 to 1978, 250 patients received bilateral orbital irradiation for a progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. Median age was 49 years. Overall survival and causes of death were evaluated with the help of patients still living, registration offices, medical records, referring physicians, and relatives. Survival curves were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The outcome for each patient was compared with data from life tables regarding gender, age, and calendar period-specific person-years at risk. In addition, treatment outcome for living patients was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results: After a median follow-up of 31 years, 102 patients are still alive, 123 patients have died, and 25 patients have been lost to follow-up. The 10-year, 20-year, and 30-year survival rates were 89%, 68%, and 49%, compared with the age-adapted survival rate of the normal population of 92%, 76%, and 52%. Evaluation of cancer-specific survival was possible in 166 cases. The 10-year, 20-year, and 30-year cancer-specific survival rates were 98%, 92%, and 88%, compared with 97%, 93%, and 87% in the normal population. Treatment response was evaluable in 94 cases. A complete response was reported in 41 patients, a partial response in 39 patients, and no change in 14 patients. Conclusion: No significant evidence of radiation-induced cancer death was seen in this small cohort of patients treated with radiotherapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy. The long-term treatment results seem to be satisfactory. Studies with greater numbers of patients are necessary to examine the risks and benefits more precisely

  5. A phenomenological study of the long-term cosmic ray modulation, 850-1958 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K. G.; McDonald, F. B.; Beer, J.; Raisbeck, G.; Yiou, F.

    2004-12-01

    The modulation of the galactic cosmic radiation over the past 1150 years is investigated using 10Be data from Greenland and the South Pole. For this purpose, we introduce the use of 22-year averages to study the long-term modulation. After allowance for secular changes in the geomagnetic dipole, it is shown that the 22-year mean intensity of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) in the vicinity of 1-2 GeV/nucleon returned to approximately the same high level at the widely separated times of the Oort (1050 AD), Spoerer (1420-1540), and the latter portion of the Maunder (1645-1715) periods of low solar activity. In terms of the modulation potential, ϕ, this asymptotic intensity corresponds to a mean residual modulation of ˜84 MV. The GCR intensity was significantly less during the Wolf (˜1320) and Dalton (1810) minima, and ϕ ˜ 200 MV. The higher temporal resolution data from Greenland shows that there were large 11-year and other fluctuations superimposed upon these high intensities during the Spoerer and Maunder minima (Δϕ ≈ 200-300 MV), indicating the continued presence of a substantial and time-dependent heliomagnetic field. Throughout the Spoerer minimum, the GCR intensity repeatedly returned to a condition of very low modulation, indicating that the cosmic ray spectrum incident on the Earth approached the level of the local interstellar spectrum. These results imply the continued presence of either (or both) (1) the normal cyclic variation of the heliospheric current sheet and/or (2) a cyclic variation of the diffusion coefficients throughout these periods of low solar activity. The data indicate that the modulation (i.e., depression) of the cosmic ray intensity during the instrumental era (1933-present) has been one of the greatest in the past 1150 years. Further, approximately the same low value has been attained on five previous widely separated occasions since 850 AD, and we speculate that the heliospheric magnetic field has reached an asymptotic

  6. Phenomenological study on crystalline rock aiming at evaluation of long-term behaviour of rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke

    2005-02-01

    This study was started on the basis of the outcomes of the research project conducted between 1994 and 2003. In the fiscal year of 1994 when this project was started, a pneumatic creep testing machine was modified. At the end of the fiscal year of 1994, Inada granite was purchased, and the preliminary tests such as P-wave velocity measurement and Schmidt hammer testing were carried out. Through the fiscal year of 1995, a specimen of Tage tuff under water-saturated condition had been loaded in uniaxial condition in the pneumatic creep testing machine. In the fiscal year of 1995, the uniaxial compression and tension tests, and the short-term creep test of Inada granite were also carried out in the servo-controlled testing machines to obtain the complete stress-strain curves. A hydraulic creep testing machine which was planned to use in the next year was modified for long-term creep testing. Finally, a constitutive equation of variable compliance type was examined based on the experimental results. In the fiscal year of 1996, creep, compression and tension tests were carried out. Two types of pressure maintenance equipment (hydraulic and pneumatic types) were developed and examined. In the fiscal year of 1997, creep, compression and tension tests etc. were again carried out on the basis of the results heretofore. The experimental results of long-term creep testing of Tage tuff, middle-term creep testing of Inada granite were described. In both creep tests, samples were submerged in water. In the fiscal year of 1998, creep testing of Tage tuff was conducted. Results of relatively short-term (middle-term) creep conducted on a servo-controlled testing machine were also described. Sample rock was Sirahama sandstone that showed a considerably large creep strain in low stress level such as 17 % of the uniaxial compression strength. Results of triaxial compression test and uniaxial tension test including unloading-reloading tests were described. In the fiscal years of 1999

  7. Part I: the effect of long-term exposure to organic solvents on memory: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzon, N Z; Vakil, E; Derazne, E; Sculsky, M

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on a wide range of different aspects of memory functions trying to ascertain a possible profile of memory changes, which take place following long-term exposure to organic solvents. The research design was cross-sectional. Study population included 31 industrial painters who were exposed at work to organic solvents and 31 unexposed workers. Workers after long-term exposure to organic solvents showed significant decline in memory as indicated in all three standard memory tests (i.e. Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised, Benton Revised Visual Retention Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). The results of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test showed a negative correlation with exposure index indicating that the more intensive and longer the time of exposure was, the more impaired is the verbal memory. It was also found that the affect of age on memory was stronger among workers after long-term exposure to organic solvents compared to the unexposed workers.

  8. Decayed, missing and filled teeth and dental anomalies in long term survived leukemic children: a prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritano, D; Petruzzi, M; Baldoni, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective controlled study is the comparison between long-term children survived leukaemia and a control group in terms of the decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and dental anomalies. Study design: Fifty-two long term children survived leukaemia, aged from 8 to 15 years (27 females, 25 males; mean age 11.5 years) were evaluated for the possible effects of the anti-leukaemic therapy on dental development and compared to a control group of 52 healthy ...

  9. Pros and Cons of Long-Term use of Nicotine Replacement Therapies: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Kaae, Susanne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2016-01-01

    , intrapersonal processes, the social environment of smoking vs. NRTs and finances. None of the ex-smokers feared to relapse to smoking, and few were motivated to quit NRTs. Non-nicotinic factors were found to have an important role in developing an addiction to NRTs. The use of NRTs yields some of the expected......, including perceived pros and cons of using NRTs, the risk of relapse to smoking and their motivation to quit using NRTs. The results identified five major themes that entailed pros and cons of the long-term use of NRTs. These were the non-nicotinic factors of NRTs, health risks of NRTs vs. smoking......In the last decade, harm reduction has been increasingly suggested as a method to reduce the harm caused by smoking in smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit all nicotine products. One of these methods includes long-term substitution of tobacco with nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs...

  10. Insights from the past: incorporating long-term landscape evolution in studies of land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Vazquez, Cruz; Lang, Carol; Kabora, Tabitha; Thornton-Barnett, Senna; Richer, Suzi; Gallello, Gianni; Stump, Daryl

    2017-04-01

    Modern approaches for assessing land degradation encompass multidisciplinary studies that have allowed a more realistic understanding of the causes and consequences of land degradation. This incipient perspective includes an increasingly important role of the studies of the past, including human history, to understand modern ecosystems and landscapes. Indeed, the current promotion of indigenous resource-use strategies as models of sustainable development was initially prompted by historical studies. However, systematic studies on whether or not indigenous management practices led to land degradation, and therefore their benefits or constraints for sustained use of natural resources, are not truly known. We argue that a joint approach combining the characterization of current soil properties with the archaeological study of traditional agricultural systems can provide insights on their sustainability. Archaeological excavation enables discerning the order in which sediments are deposited and the sequence in which structures are built. This provides data on coincident cultural and ecological change, and a long-term perspective on how agro-ecological systems operated in pre-modern states and the ways in which they resemble or differ from modern contexts. Simultaneously, these changes would have left a physical, chemical and isotopic imprint in soils that can be detected and interpreted to contribute to the production of a "usable past" (Stump, 2013). The premise is: since ancient agricultural sites may provide information on agronomic conditions after centuries to millennia of use, they can help in understanding the ways in which agroecosystems have survived, failed or adapted in the past. This will contribute to a better holistic understanding of social-ecological systems evolution by including a temporal perspective, and to a more nuanced assessment of land degradation and sustainable use. To illustrate this we present the outcome of our research at two traditional

  11. Long-term effects of a climate change teaching campaign – a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Søren Ib; Daugbjerg, Peer

    The authors perform in association with School of Education, Aarhus University an evaluation of the long term effects of the campaign visit. We are investigating the sustainable effect of science campaigns for schools by collecting teachers reflection on the value of the visit of “Klimakaravanen”...... of doing experiments c) Relations to technological companies and the civil society d) Skills of planning, performing and evaluating teaching...

  12. Instrument packages to study long-term sediment transport processes in a shallow bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Martini, Marinna A.; Davis, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure and near-surface and near-bottom measurements of current, temperature, salinity and light transmission were required in Mobile Bay, a 3 m deep estuary on the Gulf of Mexico. This environment presented several obstacles to obtaining long term observations. Boat traffic, soft estuary bottom, heavy biofouling, rapid sample rates and large data storage were overcome by using instrumentation techniques that are applicable to other estuary systems. Nearly two years of continuous data was collected.

  13. OECD/NEA Study on the Economics of Long Term Operation of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Cameron, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) established the Ad Hoc expert group on the Economics of Long-term Operation (LTO) of Nuclear Power Plants. The primary aim of this group is to collect and analyse technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries, and to assess the likely applications for future extensions. This paper describes the key elements of the methodology of economic assessment of LTO and initial findings for selected NEA member countries. (author)

  14. Treatment timing for functional jaw orthopaedics followed by fixed appliances: a controlled long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Chiara; Lombardo, Elisabetta Cretella; Lione, Roberta; Faltin, Kurt; McNamara, James A; Cozza, Paola; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of treatment timing on long-term dentoskeletal effects of Class II treatment with removable functional appliances followed by full-fixed appliance therapy. A group of 46 patients (23 females and 23 males) with Class II malocclusion treated consecutively with either Bionator or Activator, followed by fixed appliances was compared with a matched control group of 31 subjects (16 females and 15 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. The treated sample was evaluated at T1, start of treatment (mean age: 9.9 ± 1.3 years); T2, end of functional treatment and prior to fixed appliances (mean age: 11.9 ± 1.3 years); and T3, long-term observation (mean age: 18.3 ± 2.1 years). The treated and the control samples were divided into pre-pubertal and pubertal groups according to skeletal maturity observed at the start of treatment. Statistical comparisons were performed with independent sample t-tests. When treatment was initiated before puberty, Class II correction was mostly confined to the dentoalveolar changes, with significant improvements of both overjet and molar relationships. On the other hand, treatment with the outset at puberty produced significant long-term improvement of sagittal skeletal relationships, which were mainly sustained by mandibular changes. Treatment with removable functional appliances (Bionator or Activator) followed by full-fixed appliances produced significant skeletal long-term changes when it begins at puberty. Prepubertal Class II treatment results primarily in dentoalveolar changes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-03-08

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24 hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up before it actually came out, but 6- and 12-month-old infants did not. Next, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a different video story, in which a human grabbed one of two objects to hit back at the character. In their second viewing after a 24-hour delay, 18- and 24-month-old infants increased viewing time on the objects before the character grabbed one. In this viewing, 24-month-old infants preferentially looked at the object that the human had used, but 18-month-old infants did not show such preference. Our results show that infants at 18 months of age have developed long-term event memory, an ability to encode and retrieve a one-time event and this ability is elaborated thereafter.

  16. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum Haya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP (N = 2327, a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10% experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not

  17. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chung Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke

  18. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  19. Epilepsy after TIA or stroke in young patients impairs long-term functional outcome: The FUTURE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, R.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of poststroke epilepsy on long-term functional outcome in young stroke survivors. METHODS: This study is a prospective cohort study among 537 stroke survivors with a first-ever TIA, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke, aged 18 to 50 years.

  20. Long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept in patients with psoriasis: an open-label study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonardi, C.; Strober, B.; Gottlieb, A.B.; Elewski, B.E.; Ortonne, J.P.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Chiou, C.F.; Dunn, M.; Jahreis, A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In two previous phase 3 studies, up to 60 weeks of etanercept therapy significantly improved the symptoms of psoriasis and was well tolerated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety of etanercept in an open-label extension study for up to 72 weeks in patients with moderate-to-severe

  1. Depressive symptoms and the risk of long-term sickness absence: a prospective study among 4747 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. METHODS: This prospective study is based on 4,747 male and female employees, participating in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study...

  2. Infective endocarditis: long-term reversibility of kidney function impairment. A 1-y post-discharge follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term reversibility of kidney function decrease occurring during hospitalization and treatment for infective endocarditis (IE). A prospective observational cohort study was performed at a tertiary university hospital in Copenhagen from October 2002...

  3. Pilot Study on Long Term Effects of HZE Exposure on the Canine Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T.; Brennan, K.; Pearlstein, R.

    A ground-based pilot experiment was initiated in December 1992 to evaluate the long term effects on health and aging after HZE cosmic radiation of the canine brain. Six adult male beagle dogs (1 yr) from the UC Davis breeding colony at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research were researched in this study. Iron nuclei at 600 MeV/amu (180 keV/mm) were used to irradiate the whole brain. The fluence of 3 x 106 iron nuclei/ cm2 mimics the HZE exposure (all > He) for a 2- year mission to Mars. The HZE irradiation was a fully stripped iron particle beam at the LBNL BEVALAC. Using a Raster Scanner we were able to spread the beam to deliver a uniform dose over the brain. The total dose to the brain was 200 cGy. Four dogs were whole brain irradiated with iron and two dogs served as litter-mate controls. The control dogs received a similar amount of background neutron irradiation as the irradiated dogs. One of the control dogs died suddenly 3/98 of intestinal cancer unrelated to the brain irradiation. That brain was not harvested before autolysis had prevented analysis. Periodic PET metabolism and yearly MRI studies have been done on these dog's brain since irradiation. All dogs had yearly physical, neurological and blood chemistry work-ups. PET imaging was performed with the Donner 600-crystal high-resolution PET (2.6 mm resolution) and with the commercial PET, CTI/Siemens ECAT 951 PET Scanner (5 mm resolution). NMR imaging is performed with the 1 5T GE Signa at UCSF using T spoiled gradient imaging.1 sequences for T1 contrast at 1 mm resolution as well as a T2 weighted spin echo imaging sequence at 1 mm resolution. A major goal of this work is to present an accurate method for measuring surface areas and volumes of the irradiated vs the non-irradiated canine brain using MRI data which are isotropic in resolution at the 1 mm level. This allows us to monitor the changes in brain size with aging and radiation exposure. Nine years post irradiation, these dog brains

  4. Study of long term structural and functional changes in medically controlled glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:Prospectively analyze the long term structural and functional changes in patients of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG receiving medical therapy (beta blockers and non beta blockers. In this study an attempt has been made to evaluate whether medical reduction of IOP prevents or delays the progression of glaucomatous visual field loss and/or optic nerve damage in patients with open angle glaucoma.METHODS:Study conducted over a period of 27 months, at a tertiary eye care hospital including both eyes of 40 patients with POAG. Group 1 (20 patients, 40 eyes received beta-blockers, and Group 2 (20 patients, 40 eyes received non-beta-blockers. Each patient underwent intraocular pressure measurement, best corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp, fundus examination, gonioscopy, central corneal thickness, visual field assessment by Humphrey automated perimetry and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness by Stratus optical coherence tomography at baseline and at two subsequent visits. The average time interval between each visit was 10-11 months. The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Post-hoc test, using tukey’ method were adopted. Probablity (P value of 0.05 or less was considered to be statistically significant.RESULTS:A total of 80 eyes of 40 patients of POAG were enrolled, 24 males, 16 females, age group 50-80 years. In both beta and non beta blocker group, reduction (improvement in mean IOP from initial levels to the levels achieved at the 2nd and 3rd visits was statistically significant. One way ANOVA (df=2, fisher f value=11.64, P=0.000, one way ANOVA (df=3, fisher f value=35.61, P=0.000. Both mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD in both beta and non beta blockers at different visits were not statistically significant. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL -only mean inferior retinal nerve fibre layer, the difference between the mean value in beta and non beta blocker groupwere statistically

  5. Endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after acute pancreatitis: long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jingzhu; Ke, Lu; Yang, Yue; Yang, Qi; Lu, Guotao; Li, Baiqiang; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2017-10-27

    Patients could develop endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after acute pancreatitis (AP), but the morbidity, risk factors and outcome remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after AP and the risk factors of endocrine pancreatic insufficiency through a long-term follow-up investigation. Follow-up assessment of the endocrine and exocrine function was conducted for the discharged patients with AP episodes. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and faecal elastase-1(FE-1) test were used as primary parameters. Fasting blood-glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), glycosylated hemoglobin HBA1c, 2-h postprandial blood glucose (2hPG), Homa beta cell function index (HOMA-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FE-1 were collected. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) was performed to investigate the pancreatic morphology and the other related data during hospitalization was also collected. One hundred thirteen patients were included in this study and 34 of whom (30.1%) developed diabetes mellitus (DM), 33 (29.2%) suffered impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Moreover, 33 patients (29.2%) developed mild to moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with 100μg/gpancreatic insufficiency with FE-1pancreatic necrosis was significant higher than that in the non-pancreatic necrosis group (X 2  = 13.442,P = 0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that extent of pancreatic necrosisendocrine pancreatic insufficiency. HOMA-IR (P = 0.002, OR = 6.626), Wall-off necrosis (WON) (P = 0.013, OR = 184.772) were the risk factors. The integrated morbidity of DM and IGT after AP was 59.25%, which was higher than exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. 6.2% and 29.2% of patients developed severe and mild to moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, respectively. The extent of pancreatic necrosis>50%, WON and insulin resistance were

  6. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Margaret

    2009-11-01

    diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These improvements are expected to be maintained over the 2-year program. Discussion The findings from this study will advance the knowledge regarding the long-term efficacy and sustainability of interventions for childhood obesity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00934570

  7. Serum creatinine elevation after renin-angiotensin system blockade and long term cardiorenal risks: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morten; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Smeeth, Liam; Tomlinson, Laurie A

    2017-03-09

    Objective  To examine long term cardiorenal outcomes associated with increased concentrations of creatinine after the start of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker treatment. Design  Population based cohort study using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics. Setting  UK primary care, 1997-2014. Participants  Patients starting treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (n=122 363). Main outcome measures  Poisson regression was used to compare rates of end stage renal disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death among patients with creatinine increases of 30% or more after starting treatment against those without such increases, and for each 10% increase in creatinine. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, calendar period, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, cardiovascular comorbidities, and use of other antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Results  Among the 2078 (1.7%) patients with creatinine increases of 30% or more, a higher proportion were female, were elderly, had cardiorenal comorbidity, and used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, loop diuretics, or potassium sparing diuretics. Creatinine increases of 30% or more were associated with an increased adjusted incidence rate ratio for all outcomes, compared with increases of less than 30%: 3.43 (95% confidence interval 2.40 to 4.91) for end stage renal disease, 1.46 (1.16 to 1.84) for myocardial infarction, 1.37 (1.14 to 1.65) for heart failure, and 1.84 (1.65 to 2.05) for death. The detailed categorisation of increases in creatinine concentrations (creatinine increases of less than 30% were also associated with increased incidence rate ratios for all outcomes, including death (1.15 (1.09 to 1.22) for increases of 10-19% and 1.35 (1.23 to 1.49) for increases of 20-29%, using creatinine

  8. Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Luis A.; Martín-Pérez, Mar; Hennekens, Charles H.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Lanas, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has proven effectiveness in secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but is also associated with an increased risk of major bleeding events. For primary prevention, this absolute risk must be carefully weighed against the benefits of aspirin; such assessments are currently limited by a lack of data from general populations. Methods Systematic searches of Medline and Embase were conducted to identify observational studies published between 1946 and 4 March 2015 that reported the risks of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with long-term, low-dose aspirin (75–325 mg/day). Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) for bleeding events with aspirin versus non-use were calculated using random-effects models, based on reported estimates of RR (including odds ratios, hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios and standardized incidence ratios) in 39 articles. Findings The incidence of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was 0.48–3.64 cases per 1000 person-years, and the overall pooled estimate of the RR with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–1.7). For upper and lower GI bleeding, the RRs with low-dose aspirin were 2.3 (2.0–2.6) and 1.8 (1.1–3.0), respectively. Neither aspirin dose nor duration of use had consistent effects on RRs for upper GI bleeding. The estimated RR for ICH with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (1.2–1.7) overall. Aspirin was associated with increased bleeding risks when combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, clopidogrel and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with monotherapy. By contrast, concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors decreased upper GI bleeding risks relative to aspirin monotherapy. Conclusions The risks of major bleeding with low-dose aspirin in real-world settings are of a similar magnitude to those reported in randomized trials. These data will help inform clinical judgements regarding the use of low-dose aspirin

  9. Dengue virus infection among long-term travelers from the Netherlands: A prospective study, 2008-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbosch, Femke W.; Schinkel, Janke; Stolte, Ineke G.; Prins, Maria; Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Dengue is increasing rapidly in endemic regions. Data on incidence among travelers to these areas are limited. Five prospective studies have been performed thus far, mainly among short-term travelers. To obtain the attack and incidence rate (AR, IR) of dengue virus (DENV) infection among long-term

  10. The Long-Term Impact of Admission Policies: A Comparative Study of Two Emergent Research Institutions in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Gloria; Horn, Catherine; Dizinno, Gerry; Barlow, Libby

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the long-term impact of admission policies at two aspiring research institutions in Texas. Six years of longitudinal institutional data were analyzed for all full-time first time in college undergraduate students at both universities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships and…

  11. Low incidence of adrenal insufficiency after transsphenoidal surgery in patients with acromegaly: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Anne Marij G.; Kokshoorn, Nieke E.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term prevalence of adrenal insufficiency after transsphenoidal surgery for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas is unknown. However, recently a single study reported a high prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in acromegalic patients after surgical and/or medical treatment without postoperative

  12. Immune restoration does not invariably occur following long-term HIV-1 suppression during antiretroviral therapy. INCAS Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakker, N. G.; Kroon, E. D.; Roos, M. T.; Otto, S. A.; Hall, D.; Wit, F. W.; Hamann, D.; van der Ende, M. E.; Claessen, F. A.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Koopmans, P. P.; Kroon, F. P.; ten Napel, C. H.; Sprenger, H. G.; Weigel, H. M.; Montaner, J. S.; Lange, J. M.; Reiss, P.; Schellekens, P. T.; Miedema, F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current antiretroviral treatment can induce significant and sustained virological and immunological responses in HIV-1-infected persons over at least the short- to mid-term. OBJECTIVES: In this study, long-term immune reconstitution was investigated during highly active antiretroviral

  13. Predicting long-term mortality after Fontan procedures: A risk score based on 6707 patients from 28 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsaied, Tarek; Bokma, Jouke P.; Engel, Mark E.; Kuijpers, Joey M.; Hanke, Samuel P.; Zuhlke, Liesl; Zhang, Bin; Veldtman, Gruschen R.

    2017-01-01

    Reported long-term outcome measures vary greatly between studies in Fontan patients making comprehensive appraisal of mortality hazard challenging. We sought to create a clinical risk score to assist monitoring of Fontan patients in the outpatient setting. A systematic review was conducted to

  14. Pain in European long-term care facilities: Cross-national study in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Gambassi, G.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Liperoti, R.; Noro, A.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Cherubini, A.; Dell'Aquila, G.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    There have been very few and limited cross-national comparisons concerning pain among residents of long-term care facilities in Europe. The aim of the present cross-sectional study has been to document the prevalence of pain, its frequency and severity as well as its correlates in three European

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Legal Tech Graduates, 1984-1988. Volume XVIII, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; Hildebrandt, Sharrie

    In order to provide information for the 1989-90 program review at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) and to fulfill American Bar Association accreditation guidelines, a long-term, follow-up study was conducted of all Legal Tech program alumni who graduated between 1984 and 1988. A telephone survey generated usable responses from 106 (73%) of the…

  16. Ready-to-use parenteral amiodarone : A feasibility study towards a long-term stable product formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Maartje S.; Luinstra, Marianne; Moes, Jan Reindert; Chan, Tiffany C. Y.; Minovic, Isidor; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of preparing a long-term stable ready-to-use parenteral amiodarone formulation using cyclodextrins as dissolution enhancer. Methods A preformulation study was performed with different molar ratios of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-BCD) or

  17. Long-term consequences of switching handedness: a positron emission tomography study on handwriting in "converted" left-handers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebner, H.R.; Limmer, C.; Peinemann, A.; Drzezga, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Schwaiger, M.; Conrad, B.

    2002-01-01

    Until some decades ago, left-handed children who attended German schools were forced to learn to write with their right hand. To explore the long-term consequences of switching handedness, we studied the functional neuroanatomy of handwriting in 11 adult "converted" left-handers and 11 age-matched

  18. Long-term longitudinal study of patients treated with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Sander, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature regarding long-term treatment beyond 2 years with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nv-AMD). RECENT FINDINGS: Only few studies of anti-VEGF treatment for nv-AMD exist beyond...

  19. Disruption in proprioception from long-term thalamic deep brain stimulation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Semrau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an excellent treatment for tremor and is generally thought to be reversible by turning off stimulation. For tremor, DBS is implanted in the ventrointermedius (Vim nucleus of the thalamus, a region that relays proprioceptive information for movement sensation (kinaesthesia. Gait disturbances have been observed with bilateral Vim DBS, but the long-term effects on proprioceptive processing are unknown. We aimed to determine whether Vim DBS surgical implantation or stimulation leads to proprioceptive deficits in the upper limb. We assessed two groups of tremor subjects on measures of proprioception (kinaesthesia, position sense and motor function using a robotic exoskeleton. In the first group (Surgery, we tested patients before and after implantation of Vim DBS, but before DBS was turned on to determine if proprioceptive deficits were inherent to tremor or caused by DBS implantation. In the second group (Stim, we tested subjects with chronically implanted Vim DBS ON and OFF stimulation. Compared to controls, there were no proprioceptive deficits before or after DBS implantation in the Surgery group. Surprisingly, those that received chronic long-term stimulation (LT-stim, 3-10 years displayed significant proprioceptive deficits ON and OFF stimulation not present in subjects with chronic short-term stimulation (ST-stim, 0.5-2 years. LT-stim had significantly larger variability and reduced workspace area during the position sense assessment. During the kinesthetic assessment, LT-stim made significantly larger directional errors and consistently underestimated the speed of the robot, despite generating normal movement speeds during motor assessment. Chronic long-term Vim DBS may potentially disrupt proprioceptive processing, possibly inducing irreversible plasticity in the Vim nucleus and/or its network connections. Our findings in the upper limb may help explain some of the gait disturbances seen by others following Vim

  20. Possible Role of NPP in Long Term Low Carbon Development Strategy - Case Study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.; Rajsl, I.; Filipovic, M.

    2016-01-01

    The term low - carbon development strategies (LEDS) was developed on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2008. LEDS used to describe a long-term national economic development plans or strategies that include low emissions and economic growth resistant to climate change. The concept of Low Carbon Development Strategies (LCDS) has been introduced by the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC as a common but differentiated approach to meet the overall emissions reduction objectives: 'All countries shall prepare Low Emission Development Strategies - nationally-driven and represent[ing] the aims and objectives of individual Parties in accordance with national circumstances and capacities' (Cancun Agreement). Low Carbon Development Strategies (LCDS) in this way become an overarching framework to design and achieve Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) reflecting the Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) of all countries. For Long-Term National Strategy and Action Plan for Low-Carbon Development the main objective of this programme is the development of a long-term national strategy and action plan for low-carbon development to enable country to fulfil its commitment to carbon obligations. Low-carbon development strategy will become the fundamental for the development of the energy with low rate of carbon, but also for the entire economy. European Union is the leader in the effort to reduce emissions especially in the energy sector as the sector with the highest rate of emission. With the goal of reducing emissions, necessary measures are accentuated for energy in the EU Countries, as well as in Croatia. It will be presented the possibilities for realization of Croatian low-carbon development and particularly possible role and barriers for Nuclear power plants for Low carbon emissions development in the electricity sector until 2050. (author).

  1. Decayed, missing and filled teeth index and dental anomalies in long-term survivors leukaemic children: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this prospective controlled study is the comparison between long-term children survived leukaemia and a control group in terms of the decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and dental anomalies. Fifty-two long term children survived leukaemia, aged from 8 to 15 years (27 females, 25 males; mean age 11.5 years) were evaluated for the possible effects of the anti-leukaemic therapy on dental development and compared to a control group of 52 healthy children (27 females, 25 males, mean age 11 years). All long-term children who survived were at least 24 months in continuous complete remission. The study of the dental status with a routine oral examination and panoramic radiographs was performed. The DMFT (recorded according to the WHO criteria) and dental anomalies were registered and evaluated. The results of this study evidence that long-term children survived leukaemia, in comparison with the control group, have an higher risk to develop dental caries and show a greater severity of dental anomalies including V-shaped roots, dental agenesis, microdontia, enamel dysplasias. Paediatric patients with haemathological diseases require a special attentions in dental care in addition to the antineoplastic treatment. Therefore, oral hygiene and oral health can be maintained thanks to a close cooperation between the paediatric oncohaematologists, pediatrics dental surgeons and dental hygienists.

  2. Implantable repository adrenaline tablets for long-term studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsatko, W.; Porta, S.; Sadjak, A.; Supanz, S.

    1982-01-01

    Implantable coated Eudragit matrix tablets containing adrenaline in various concentrations should overcome the problem of additional handling stress during long-term infusions. The efficiency of those tablets was tested in vitro, as well as in vivo using 14 C-adrenaline. Both in vitro and in vivo testing yielded satisfactorily output rates up to 20 h whereby the liver and serum content of 14 C-fragments served as an additional prove for the postulated mode of action. Good correlation has been found between the mentioned out-put rates and adrenaline serum levels (measured according to Da Prada). (author)

  3. Percutaneous bioprosthetic venous valve: a long-term study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavcnik, Dusan; Uchida, Barry T; Timmermans, Hans A; Corless, Christopher L; O'Hara, Michael; Toyota, Naoyuki; Moneta, Gregory L; Keller, Frederick S; Rösch, Josef

    2002-03-01

    A long-term evaluation of a new percutaneously placed bioprosthetic, bicuspid venous valve (BVV) consisting of a square stent and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) covering was performed in 12 sheep. Of 26 BVVs placed into the jugular veins, 25 exhibited good valve function on immediate venography and 22 on venograms obtained before the sheep were killed. Gross and histologic examination results demonstrated incorporation of remodeled and endothelialized SIS BVVs into the vein wall. Slight to moderate leaflet thickening was found mostly at their bases. Percutaneously placed SIS BVV is a promising one-way, competent valve that resists venous back-pressure while allowing forward flow.

  4. Exploratory survey study of long-term users of nicotine replacement therapy in Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim; Tønnesen, Philip

    2015-01-01

    dependence. Method: Through advertisements in three national Danish newspapers, long-term NRT users were recruited to answer a short questionnaire about basic characteristics, health status and satisfaction with using NRT. A modified version of the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) questionnaire was applied...... addicted and fear of adverse health effects. Scoring on the modified HSI scale was 22.0% low, 68.0% moderate and 9.3% high dependent. Of the respondents, 67.0% used NRT within the first 30 min after waking. A validation check found a significant linear association between the two items in the modified HSI...

  5. Exploratory survey study of long-term users of nicotine replacement therapy in Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Christrup, Lona Louring; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim

    dependence. Method Through advertisements in three national Danish newspapers, long-term NRT users were recruited to answer a short questionnaire about basic characteristics, health status and satisfaction with using NRT. A modified version of the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) questionnaire was applied...... and fear of adverse health effects. Scoring on the modified HSI scale was 22.0% low, 68.0% moderate and 9.3% high dependent. Of the respondents, 67.0% used NRT within the first 30 min after waking. A validation check found a significant linear association between the two items in the modified HSI...

  6. Long-term outcomes of clinical transplantation of pancreatic islets with uncontrolled donors after cardiac death: a multicenter experience in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, T; Saito, T; Goto, M; Kenmochi, T; Uemoto, S; Itoh, T; Yasunami, Y; Kenjo, A; Kimura, T; Ise, K; Tsuchiya, T; Gotoh, M

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has emerged as an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus, but its use is limited due to an insufficient supply of cadaveric pancreata. In Japan, uncontrolled donors after cardiac death (DCD) are not deemed to be suitable for whole-organ pancreatic transplantation, and can provide a source of pancreas for islet transplantation. However, the long-term outcomes and utility of uncontrolled DCD in the clinical setting remain controversial. Here, we summarize the long-term outcomes of islet transplantation employing uncontrolled DCD as reported to the Japan Islet Transplantation Registry. Sixty-four isolations and 34 transplantations of pancreatic islets were conducted in 18 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus under the cover of immunosuppression with basiliximab, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. All donors were uncontrolled DCD at the time of harvesting. The mean follow-up time was 76 months. Of the 18 recipients, 8, 4, and 6 recipients received 1, 2, and 3 islet infusions, respectively. Overall graft survivals (defined as a C-peptide level ≥0.3 ng/mL) were 72.2%, 44.4%, and 22.2% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively, whereas the corresponding graft survivals after multiple infusions were 90.0%, 70.0%, and 30.0%, respectively. Three of these recipients achieved insulin independence in 14, 79, and 215 days. HbA1c levels and the requirement of exogenous insulin were improved before loss of graft function. All recipients became free of severe hypoglycemia unawareness, however, at least 5 of 14 patients who had graft failure experienced recurrence of severe hypoglycemia after the loss of graft function. Islet transplantation from DCD can relieve glucose instability and problems with hypoglycemia when the graft is functioning. However, islets from uncontrolled DCD may be associated with reduced long-term graft survival. Further improvements in the clinical outcome by modification of islet isolation/transplantation protocols are

  7. Hip protector compliance: a 13-month study on factors and cost in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Jeffrey B; Centola, James; Bonner, Alice; Burque, Colleen

    2003-01-01

    To determine if a high compliance rate for wearing external hip protectors could be achieved and sustained in a long-term care population. A 13-month prospective study of daytime use of external hip protectors in an at-risk long-term care population. One hundred-bed not-for-profit long-term care facility. Thirty-eight ambulatory residents having at least 1 of 4 risk factors (osteoporosis, recent fall, positive fall screen, previous fracture). The rehabilitation department coordinated an implementation program. Members of the rehabilitation team met with eligible participants, primary caregivers, families, and other support staff for educational instruction and a description of the program. The rehabilitation team assumed overall responsibility for measuring and ordering hip protectors and monitoring compliance. By the end of the third month, hip protector compliance averaged greater than 90% daily wear. The average number of falls per month in the hip protector group was 3.9 versus 1.3 in nonparticipants. Estimated total indirect staff time was 7.75 hours. The total cost of the study (hip protectors and indirect staff time) was 6,300 US dollars. High hip protector compliance is both feasible and sustainable in an at-risk long-term care population. Achieving high compliance requires an interdisciplinary approach with one department acting as a champion. The cost of protectors could be a barrier to widespread use. Facilities might be unable to cover the cost until the product is paid for by third-party payers.

  8. Clinical outcome of HIV-infected patients with sustained virologic response to antiretroviral therapy: long-term follow-up of a multicenter cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gutierrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on long-term prognosis of patients with sustained virologic response to antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to assess predictors of unfavorable clinical outcome in patients who maintain viral suppression with HAART. METHODS: Using data collected from ten clinic-based cohorts in Spain, we selected all antiretroviral-naive adults who initiated HAART and maintained plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <500 copies/mL throughout follow-up. Factors associated with disease progression were determined by Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: Of 2,613 patients who started HAART, 757 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 61% of them initiated a protease inhibitor-based HAART regimen, 29.7% a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen, and 7.8% a triple-nucleoside regimen. During 2,556 person-years of follow-up, 22 (2.9% patients died (mortality rate 0.86 per 100 person-years, and 40 (5.3% died or developed a new AIDS-defining event. The most common causes of death were neoplasias and liver failure. Mortality was independently associated with a CD4-T cell response <50 cells/L after 12 months of HAART (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 4.26 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.68-10.83]; P = .002, and age at initiation of HAART (AHR, 1.06 per year; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09; P = .001. Initial antiretroviral regimen chosen was not associated with different risk of clinical progression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sustained virologic response on HAART have a low mortality rate over time. Long-term outcome of these patients is driven by immunologic response at the end of the first year of therapy and age at the time of HAART initiation, but not by the initial antiretroviral regimen selected.

  9. Long-term survival in acute leukemia in Japan. A study of 304 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, K; Suzuki, H; Yamada, K; Kato, Y; Watanabe, E; Morishima, Y; Takeyama, H; Kobayashi, M

    1980-04-15

    In a national survey of five-year survivors with acute leukemia, 233 of 304 cases were children under 14 years of age and 71 were adults. There were 107 myeloblastic, 10 promyelocytic, 142 lymphocytic, and 37 undifferentiated leukemias, Forty-five cases at age 3 represented the peak. These long-term survivors have shown a yearly increase in number. In 1972, the number of childhood ALL cases reached 38 with no great changes in ANLL cases. With respect to prognosis among long-term survivors, it seemed that neither type of leukemia nor age at diagnosis were factors influencing the future survival. CNS relapse occurring before the third year was an unfavorable complication for a prognosis beyond five years. Only 8 patients died of leukemia among 155 patients who reached five years in their initial complete remission; 49 of 90 patients who had relapse within five years after diagnosis died of leukemia. From these findings, it seems very important to follow patients for five years in their initial complete remission.

  10. A trial epidemiological study on health effects of long term and low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Kazuho

    1980-01-01

    As a trial evaluation of applicability of multivariate model in an analysis of health effects of radiation workers, the multiple logistic function method was applied to the data of occupational exposure record and long term absence record obtained from 593 employees of two institutions both of which practice R and D relating nuclear power. In order to estimate parameters of multiple logistic function by maximum likelihood method, followings were defined as variables: age, length of employment and cumulative exposure dose of radiation as independent variables, and the fact that whether the individual worker had the experience of absence lasting more than a week or not as a dependent variable. As the results, due to shortage of amount of data, only the age of workers shows a significant relationship with the absence data, the other variables do not have any significant results in the association with absence. In this preliminary trial, the applicability of multiple logistic function model in risk estimation of long term occupational exposure was not clearly demonstrated because of data shortage. To testify the applicability, further investigations will be needed, accumulating plenty of data concerning exposure and health effects. (author)

  11. Long term performance studies of large oil-free bakelite resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganai, R.; Roy, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Choudhury, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shiroya, M.K.; Agarwal, K.

    2016-01-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) experiment in the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), India and the near detector in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Fermilab are two such examples. A single gap bakelite RPC of dimension 240 cm × 120 cm, with gas gap of 0.2 cm, has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for > 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It has shown an efficiency > 95% with an average time resolution of ∼ 0.83 ns at the point of measurement at ∼ 8700 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have been discussed.

  12. Long term performance studies of large oil-free bakelite resistive plate chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, R.; Roy, A.; Shiroya, M. K.; Agarwal, K.; Ahammed, Z.; Choudhury, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-09-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) experiment in the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), India and the near detector in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Fermilab are two such examples. A single gap bakelite RPC of dimension 240 cm × 120 cm, with gas gap of 0.2 cm, has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for > 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It has shown an efficiency > 95% with an average time resolution of ~ 0.83 ns at the point of measurement at ~ 8700 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have been discussed.

  13. Genomic mutation study for long-term cells induced by carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Furusawa, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Hirayama, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Qin, Y.

    2007-01-01

    samples at the HPRT locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine-resistant colonies. Results: The survival fraction of the cells irradiated by carbon ions was lower than sparsely ionizing (low LET) radiation, and it was also lower in high dose rate (∼1.5Gy/min) than in low dose rate (∼0.008Gy/min) irradiated at the same dose. Furthermore, high dose (D10 dose) induced high mutation fraction. Low dose and low dose rate had the low mutation fractions and different dose rate induced different mutation fraction even at the same dose. Mutation fraction had lower value before 6 days, and the higher level between 12 to 24 days after irradiated, then value went down. Conclusion: The results suggest that high LET radiation may cause higher mutation induction dependent with irradiated dose. Different dose rate also may induce different mutation affection. The heavy ion radiation may cause the long-term genomic mutation and instability of cells. HPRT mutant detection system can be application evaluating the carcinogenic effects of space environmental radiation and heavy ion radiation therapy.

  14. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  15. Long-term mortality and causes of death associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotland, N; Uhre, M L; Mejer, N; Skov, R; Petersen, A; Larsen, A R; Benfield, T

    2016-10-01

    Data describing long-term mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is scarce. This study investigated risk factors, causes of death and temporal trends in long-term mortality associated with SAB. Nationwide population-based matched cohort study. Mortality rates and ratios for 25,855 cases and 258,547 controls were analyzed by Poisson regression. Hazard ratio of death was computed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. The majority of deaths occurred within the first year of SAB (44.6%) and a further 15% occurred within the following 2-5 years. The mortality rate was 14-fold higher in the first year after SAB and 4.5-fold higher overall for cases compared to controls. Increasing age, comorbidity and hospital contact within 90 days of SAB was associated with an increased risk of death. The overall relative risk of death decreased gradually by 38% from 1992-1995 to 2012-2014. Compared to controls, SAB patients were more likely to die from congenital malformation, musculoskeletal/skin disease, digestive system disease, genitourinary disease, infectious disease, endocrine disease, injury and cancer and less likely to die from respiratory disease, nervous system disease, unknown causes, psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease and senility. Over time, rates of death decreased or were stable for all disease categories except for musculoskeletal and skin disease where a trend towards an increase was seen. Long-term mortality after SAB was high but decreased over time. SAB cases were more likely to die of eight specific causes of death and less likely to die of five other causes of death compared to controls. Causes of death decreased for most disease categories. Risk factors associated with long-term mortality were similar to those found for short-term mortality. To improve long-term survival after SAB, patients should be screened for comorbidity associated with SAB. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by

  16. Evaluating Long-term Outcomes of NHS Stop Smoking Services (ELONS): a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Fiona; Hiscock, Rosemary; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Murray, Susan; Shahab, Lion; Aveyard, Paul; Coleman, Tim; McEwen, Andy; McRobbie, Hayden; Purves, Richard; Bauld, Linda

    2015-11-01

    NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) provide free at the point of use treatment for smokers who would like to stop. Since their inception in 1999 they have evolved to offer a variety of support options. Given the changes that have happened in the provision of services and the ongoing need for evidence on effectiveness, the Evaluating Long-term Outcomes for NHS Stop Smoking Services (ELONS) study was commissioned. The main aim of the study was to explore the factors that determine longer-term abstinence from smoking following intervention by SSSs. There were also a number of additional objectives. The ELONS study was an observational study with two main stages: secondary analysis of routine data collected by SSSs and a prospective cohort study of service clients. The prospective study had additional elements on client satisfaction, well-being and longer-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use. The setting for the study was SSSs in England. For the secondary analysis, routine data from 49 services were obtained. For the prospective study and its added elements, nine services were involved. The target population was clients of these services. There were 202,804 cases included in secondary analysis and 3075 in the prospective study. A combination of behavioural support and stop smoking medication delivered by SSS practitioners. Abstinence from smoking at 4 and 52 weeks after setting a quit date, validated by a carbon monoxide (CO) breath test. Just over 4 in 10 smokers (41%) recruited to the prospective study were biochemically validated as abstinent from smoking at 4 weeks (which was broadly comparable with findings from the secondary analysis of routine service data, where self-reported 4-week quit rates were 48%, falling to 34% when biochemical validation had occurred). At the 1-year follow-up, 8% of prospective study clients were CO validated as abstinent from smoking. Clients who received specialist one-to-one behavioural support were twice as likely to have

  17. Long-term disability associated with war-related experience among Vietnam veterans: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip M; Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A

    2015-05-01

    Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20-30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%-70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9-24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4-1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7-3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2-2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent conflicts, significant additional resources will be needed to prevent and treat long-term

  18. Long-term effects of pegvisomant on comorbidities in patients with acromegaly: a retrospective single-center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Emmanuelle; Maione, Luigi; Bouchachi, Amir; Rozière, Myriam; Salenave, Sylvie; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques; Kamenicky, Peter; Assayag, Patrick; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Context The effect of pegvisomant on IGF1 levels in patients with acromegaly is well documented, but little is known of its long-term impact on comorbidity. Aim The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of long-term pegvisomant therapy on cardiorespiratory and metabolic comorbidity in patients with acromegaly. Patients and methods We analyzed the long-term (up to 10 years) effect of pegvisomant therapy given alone (n=19, 45%) or in addition to somatostatin analogues and/or cabergoline (n=23, 55%) on echocardiographic, polysomnographic and metabolic parameters in respectively 42, 12 and 26 patients with acromegaly followed in Bicêtre hospital. Results At the first cardiac evaluation, 20±16 months after pegvisomant introduction, IGF1 levels normalized in 29 (69%) of the 42 patients. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved significantly in patients whose basal LVEF was ≤60% and decreased in those whose LVEF was >70%. The left ventricular mass index (LVMi) decreased from 123±25 to 101±21 g/m2 (P<0.05) in the 17 patients with a basal LVMi higher than the median (91 g/m2), while it remained stable in the other patients. Pegvisomant reduced the apnoea–hypopnea index and cured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in four of the eight patients concerned. Long-term follow-up of 22 patients showed continuing improvements in cardiac parameters. The BMI and LDL cholesterol level increased minimally during pegvisomant therapy, and other lipid parameters were not modified. Conclusions Long-term pegvisomant therapy not only normalizes IGF1 in a large proportion of patients but also improves cardiac and respiratory comorbidity. PMID:26429918

  19. Chronic abdominal pain in long-term spinal cord injury: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen D; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Christensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    for at least 10 years; 203 of them responded. An almost identical questionnaire including questions on intensity and interference of pain within the past 7 days, as well as descriptors and treatment, was sent to the 178 surviving members in 2015. Of 130 (73%) responders, 125 answered the question on chronic...... abdominal pain. The mean time since injury was 30.5 (9.8) years. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort was reported by 32.8% (41/125), and 23% (29/125) of responders had been at least moderately bothered by this in the past week. Abdominal pain or discomfort was more common in women and in those with self...... it at both time points with a similar intensity. CONCLUSION: Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is common and bothersome in long-term SCI. It has a late onset, but the prevalence and severity do not seem to further increase between 20 and 30 years following SCI....

  20. Adherence to blood pressure measurement guidelines in long-term care facilities: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone, Sachiko; Sato, Mikiya; Takayashiki, Ayumi; Sakamoto, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-05-01

    To assess the extent to which long-term care facilities in Japan adhere to blood pressure (BP) measurement guidelines. Cross-sectional, observational survey. Japan (nationwide). Geriatric health service facilities that responded to a questionnaire among 701 facilities that provide short-time daycare rehabilitation services in Japan. A written questionnaire that asked about types of measurement devices, number of measurements used to obtain an average BP, resting time prior to measurement, and measurement methods when patients' arms were covered with thin (eg, a light shirt) or thick sleeves (eg, a sweater) was administered. Proportion of geriatric health service facilities adherent to BP measurement guidelines. The response rate was 63.2% (443/701). Appropriate upper-arm BP measurement devices were used at 302 facilities (68.2%). The number of measurements was appropriate at 7 facilities (1.6%). Pre-measurement resting time was appropriate (≥5 minutes) at 205 facilities (46.3%). Of the 302 facilities that used appropriate BP measurement devices, 4 (1.3%) measured BP on a bare arm if it was covered with a thin sleeve, while 266 (88.1%) measured BP over a thin sleeve. When arms were covered with thick sleeves, BP was measured on a bare arm at 127 facilities (42.1%) and over a sleeve at 78 facilities (25.8%). BP measurement guidelines were not necessarily followed by long-term care service facilities in Japan. Modification of guidelines regarding removing thick sweaters and assessing BP on a visit-to-visit basis might be needed.

  1. Long-term indoor air conditioner filtration and cardiovascular health: A randomized crossover intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Ho, Kin-Fai; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ma, Chi-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2017-09-01

    The association of short-term air pollution filtration with cardiovascular health has been documented. However, the effect of long-term indoor air conditioner filtration on the association between air pollution and cardiovascular health is still unclear. We recruited 200 homemakers from Taipei and randomly assigned 100 of them to air filtration or control intervention; six home visits were conducted per year from 2013 to 2014. The participants under air filtration intervention during 2013 were reassigned to control intervention in 2014. The air pollution measurements consisted of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs); blood pressure was monitored for each participant during each visit. The following morning, blood samples were collected after air pollution monitoring. The blood samples were used to analyze biological markers, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and fibrinogen. Household information, including cleaning, cooking, and air conditioning, was collected by a questionnaire. Mixed-effects models were used to investigate the associations among air pollution measurements, blood pressure and biological markers. The results showed that increased levels of PM 2.5 and total VOCs were associated with increased hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and blood pressure. The health variables were higher among participants in the control intervention phase than among those in the air filtration intervention phase. We concluded that air pollution exposure was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and elevated blood pressure. The long-term filtration of air pollution with an air conditioner filter was associated with cardiovascular health of adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY STUDY OF IC342 FROM XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Daisy S. Y.; Pun, Chun S. J.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-01-01

    We presented the results of an analysis of four XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy IC342 taken over a four-year span from 2001 to 2005, with an emphasis on investigating the long-term flux and spectral variability of the X-ray point sources. We detected a total of 61 X-ray sources within 35' x 30' of the galaxy down to a luminosity of (1-2) x 10 37 erg s -1 depending on the local background. We found that 39 of the 61 detected sources showed long-term variability, in which 26 of them were classified as X-ray transients. We also found 19 sources exhibiting variations in hardness ratios or undergoing spectral transitions among observations, and were identified as spectral variables. In particular, eight of the identified X-ray transients showed spectral variability in addition to flux variability. The diverse patterns of variability observed are indicative of a population of X-ray binaries. We used X-ray colors, flux and spectral variability, and in some cases the optical or radio counterparts to classify the detected X-ray sources into several stellar populations. We identified a total of 11 foreground stars, 1 supersoft source (SSS), 3 quasisoft sources (QSSs), and 2 supernova remnants (SNRs). The identified SSS/QSSs are located near or on the spiral arms, associated with young stellar populations; the 2 SNRs are very close to the starburst nucleus where current star formation activities are dominated. We also discovered a spectral change in the nuclear source of IC342 for the first time by a series of X-ray spectrum analysis.

  3. [Preoperational study for the improvement of hygiene conditions in long-term care facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, A C; Spegel, H; Kolb, S; Hierl, W; Müller, C; Höller, C; Liebl, B; Rudolph, P; Herr, C

    2014-12-01

    Hygiene is becoming more and more important in long-term care facilities. Long-term care facilities are subject to monitoring by the Public Health Service (PHS) and other authorities. For the PHS in Bavaria the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit, LGL) published a hygiene monitoring concept and there exists an inspection guide developed by a specialist department for nursing homes and institutions for the handicapped (Fachstelle für Pflege und Behinderteneinrichtungen, FQA). Because inspections are performed in multiprofessional teams, it makes sense to use a coordinated inspection catalog. The aim was to integrate hygienic requirements specified in the Bavarian guidelines for hygiene by the LGL into the inspection guide published by the FQA to obtain a quality assured surveillance. The involved parties were questioned about the inspection guide and their hygiene management and then the hygiene criteria of the LGL were implemented into the inspection guide. Questions dealing with hygiene requirements concerning intensive care, management of multidrug resistant bacteria and interviews with the person responsible for infection control in the facility itself were developed for the first time and were integrated into the inspection guide. The revised inspection guide was tested for its applicability. With the revised inspection guide there now exists a tool which allows not only comprehensive inspections of the facilities including hygiene issues but also a good cooperation of the various parties involved. There are many actions which have to be conveyed into the future, especially programs to train staff to apply the inspection guide and to enhance the ability of all participants to act in cooperation. The guide will also allow the facilities to cooperate more easily and more closely, as the guide takes the respective problems and challenges of the different facilities into consideration. Additionally the

  4. Work-unit social capital and long-term sickness absence: a prospective cohort study of 32 053 hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Eszter; Clark, Alice Jessie; Jensen, Johan Høy; Lange, Theis; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Rugulies, Reiner; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Hansen, Åse Marie; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2018-06-06

    There is a lack of studies investigating social capital at the workplace level in small and relatively homogeneous work-units. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-unit social capital predicts a lower risk of individual long-term sickness absence among Danish hospital employees followed prospectively for 1 year. This study is based on the Well-being in HospitAL Employees cohort. The study sample consisted of 32 053 individuals nested within 2182 work-units in the Capital Region of Denmark. Work-unit social capital was measured with an eight-item scale covering elements of trust, justice and collaboration between employees and leaders. Social capital at the work-unit level was computed as the aggregated mean of individual-level social capital within each work-unit. Data on long-term sickness absence were retrieved from the employers' payroll system and were operationalised as ≥29 consecutive days of sickness absence. We used a 12-point difference in social capital as the metric in our analyses and conducted two-level hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Adjustments were made for sex, age, seniority, occupational group and part-time work at the individual level, and work-unit size, the proportion of female employees and the proportion of part-time work at the work-unit level. The OR for long-term sickness absence associated with a 12-point higher work-unit social capital was 0.73 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.78). Further, we found an association between higher work-unit social capital and lower long-term sickness absence across quartiles of social capital: compared with the lowest quartile, the OR for long-term sickness absence in the highest quartile was 0.51 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.60). Our study provides support for work-unit social capital being a protective factor for individual long-term sickness absence among hospital employees in the Capital Region of Denmark. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  5. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Les G; Dalvi Tapashi B; Norkus Edward P; Jensen Christopher D; Block Gladys; McManus Jamie F; Hudes Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design...

  6. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Weichenthal, Scott; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between ...

  7. A comparative study of long-term energy demand and potential greenhouse gas emission control in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaquazzaman, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    This report presents a comparative study of long-term energy demand and potential greenhouse gas emissions projections from energy demand and supply sectors in Bangladesh covering the period 2000 to 2020. The study was conducted employing the IAEA's tool ENPEP- BALANCE model. This study presents a reliable energy system plan with minimal carbon emission for the country. Primary energy demands distributed by energy carriers and electricity demand have been projected based on macro-economic growth scenarios constructed for national energy policy of 1996. The conservation of indigenous energy resources was emphasized to build a long-term secured energy supply system. The potential energy supply options including nuclear energy and prospective greenhouse gas mitigation options were analyzed

  8. Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier...... and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of =11 years was not related to an increased vestibular...... reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma...

  9. Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier...... and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular...... reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma...

  10. Long-Term Nationwide Follow-Up Study of Simple Congenital Heart Disease Diagnosed in Otherwise Healthy Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Jørgen; Laursen, Henning Bækgaard; Olsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic follow-up is currently not recommended for patients with simple congenital heart disease; however, only a few data exist on the long-term prognosis of simple congenital heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a nationwide follow-up study of a cohort of 1241 simple...... congenital heart disease patients, diagnosed from 1963 through 1973, in otherwise healthy children and alive at 15 years of age. We identified 10 age- and sex-matched general population controls per patient. We followed the study population through Danish public registries from the age of 15 years up...... with simple congenital heart disease in the 1960s have substantially increased long-term mortality and cardiac morbidity compared with the general population. Further studies on the effectiveness of systematic medical follow-up programs appear warranted....

  11. LONG TERM RESULTS AFTER STAPLED HEMORRHOIDOPEXY ALONE AND COMPLEMENTED BY EXCISIONAL HEMORRHOIDECTOMY: A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Horcel, Lucas de Araujo; Seid, Victor Edmond; Bertoncini, Alexandre Bruno; Klajner, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is associated with less postoperative pain and faster recovery. However, it may be associated with a greater risk of symptomatic recurrence. We hypothesized that undertaking a limited surgical excision of hemorrhoid disease after stapling may be a valid approach for selected patients. To compare long-term results after stapled hemorrhoidopexy with and without complementation with closed excisional technique. In a retrospective uni-institutional cohort study, sixty-five (29 men) patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy and 21 (13 men) underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy with excision. The same surgeons operated on all cases. Patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidectomy associated with excisional surgery if symptoms attributable to external hemorrhoid piles were observed preoperatively, or if residual prolapse or bulky external disease was observed after the firing of the stapler. A closed excisional diathermy hemorrhoidectomy without vascular ligation was utilized in all complemented cases. All clinical variables were obtained from a questionnaire evaluation obtained through e-mail, telephone interview, or office follow-up. The median duration of postoperative follow-up was 48.5 (6-40) months. Patients with grades 3 and 4 hemorrhoid disease were operated on more frequently using stapled hemorrhoidopexy complemented with excisional technique (95.2% vs. 55.4%, p=0.001). Regarding respectively stapled hemorrhoidopexy and stapled hemorrhoidopexy complemented with excision, there was no difference between the techniques in relation to symptom recurrence (43% and 33%, p=0.45) and median interval between surgery and symptom recurrence (30 (8-84) and 38.8 (8-65) months, p=0.80). Eight (12.3%) patients were re-operated after stapled hemorrhoidopexy and 2 (9.6%), after hemorrhoidopexy with excision (p=0.78). Patient distribution in both groups according to the degree of postoperative satisfaction was similar (p=0.97). Stapled hemorrhoidopexy combined

  12. Long-term results of breast-conserving treatment for early-stage breast cancer in Japanese women from multicenter investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Shozo; Takashima, Shigemitsu; Sakamoto Goi

    2003-01-01

    Although many clinical data regarding breast-conserving treatment have already been reported from European and North American countries, few clinical data with long-term follow-up have been reported from Japan. We collected information on therapeutic and possible or developed prognostic factors and follow-up data for Japanese women who had received breast-conserving treatment consisting of wide excision of the primary tumor, axillary dissection and radiotherapy for unilateral breast cancer considered suitable for breast-conserving treatment from 18 Japanese major breast cancer treating hospitals; 1561 patients were registered. The median follow-up period was 77 months. Five-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 89.4 and 95.9%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence-free rate was 96.3%. The patients with histologically positive margins (P<0.0001) or estrogen receptor negative tumor (P=0.0340) or younger than 40 years old (P<0.0001) developed statistically significantly more local recurrences. Adjuvant endocrine therapy was essential for the estrogen receptor positive patients to have a lower local recurrence rate. Endocrine therapy did not change the local recurrence rate among estrogen receptor negative patients at all. Multivariate analysis showed histological margin status and the combination of estrogen receptor status and endocrine therapy were independent prognostic factors for local recurrence. The 5-year local recurrence rate of Japanese breast cancer patients who were treated with breast-conserving treatment using radiotherapy was 3.7%. Independent prognostic factors for local recurrence were histological margin status and the combination of estrogen receptor status and adjuvant endocrine therapy. (author)

  13. The Solar Neighborhood. XLI. A Study of the Wide Main Sequence for M Dwarfs—Long-term Photometric Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, Tiffany D.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Silverstein, Michele L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Hosey, Altonio D. [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA 17201 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dieterich, Sergio B. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Riedel, Adric R., E-mail: pewett@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: silverstein@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: toddhenry28@gmail.com, E-mail: altoniohosey@gmail.com, E-mail: jennifer.winters@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sdieterich@carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: adric.riedel@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We report findings from a long-term photometric variability study of M dwarfs carried out at the SMARTS 0.9 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. As part of a multi-faceted effort to investigate the range of luminosities of M dwarfs of a given color on the Hertzsprung–Russell Diagram, 76 M dwarfs have been observed for 3–17 years in the Johnson–Kron–Cousins V band. We find that stars elevated above the center of the main sequence distribution tend to have higher levels of variability, likely caused by magnetic activity, than their fainter counterparts below the center. This study provides insight into how the long-term magnetic activity of these stars may be affecting their sizes, luminosities, and thus positions on the H-R Diagram.

  14. Data and methods for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue, highway safety and long-term driver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Hal S; Blower, Daniel; Cohen, Michael L; Czeisler, Charles A; Dinges, David F; Greenhouse, Joel B; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J; Hartenbaum, Natalie P; Krueger, Gerald P; Mallis, Melissa M; Pain, Richard F; Rizzo, Matthew; Sinha, Esha; Small, Dylan S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Wegman, David H

    2018-03-09

    This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described. Statistical methods that can be used to improve understanding of the relevant relationships from observational data are also described. The recommendations for enhanced data collection and the use of modern statistical methods for causal inference have the potential to enhance our understanding of the relationship of fatigue to highway safety and to long-term driver health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Importation, Antibiotics, and Clostridium difficile Infection in Veteran Long-Term Care: A Multilevel Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin A; Jones, Makoto; Daneman, Nick; Adler, Frederick R; Stevens, Vanessa; Nechodom, Kevin E; Goetz, Matthew B; Samore, Matthew H; Mayer, Jeanmarie

    2016-06-21

    Although clinical factors affecting a person's susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection are well-understood, little is known about what drives differences in incidence across long-term care settings. To obtain a comprehensive picture of individual and regional factors that affect C difficile incidence. Multilevel longitudinal nested case-control study. Veterans Health Administration health care regions, from 2006 through 2012. Long-term care residents. Individual-level risk factors included age, number of comorbid conditions, and antibiotic exposure. Regional risk factors included importation of cases of acute care C difficile infection per 10 000 resident-days and antibiotic use per 1000 resident-days. The outcome was defined as a positive result on a long-term care C difficile test without a positive result in the prior 8 weeks. 6012 cases (incidence, 3.7 cases per 10 000 resident-days) were identified in 86 regions. Long-term care C difficile incidence (minimum, 0.6 case per 10 000 resident-days; maximum, 31.0 cases per 10 000 resident-days), antibiotic use (minimum, 61.0 days with therapy per 1000 resident-days; maximum, 370.2 days with therapy per 1000 resident-days), and importation (minimum, 2.9 cases per 10 000 resident-days; maximum, 341.3 cases per 10 000 resident-days) varied substantially across regions. Together, antibiotic use and importation accounted for 75% of the regional variation in C difficile incidence (R2 = 0.75). Multilevel analyses showed that regional factors affected risk together with individual-level exposures (relative risk of regional antibiotic use, 1.36 per doubling [95% CI, 1.15 to 1.60]; relative risk of importation, 1.23 per doubling [CI, 1.14 to 1.33]). Case identification was based on laboratory criteria. Admission of residents with recent C difficile infection from non-Veterans Health Administration acute care sources was not considered. Only 25% of the variation in regional C difficile incidence in long-term

  16. Long-term outcome of patients with dysthymia and panic disorder: a naturalistic 9-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, Cecilia; Wistedt, Anna Aberg; Svanborg, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The highly prevalent psychiatric disorders dysthymia and panic disorder have often a chronic or recurrent course with superimposed major depression. The prominent comorbidity between these diagnoses constitutes a confounding factor in the study of long-term outcome. We performed a 9-year follow-up of 38 patients with "pure" diagnoses, i.e. without comorbid dysthymia and panic disorder, selected from two 2-year naturalistic treatment studies with psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the stability of change, and 2) the impact of comorbid personality disorders (PDs) on long-term outcome. Patients were reassessed with SCID-I and SCID-II interviews, SCL-90/BSI and a detailed, modified life-charting interview, investigating course and treatment over time. About 50% of patients showed substantial improvement, of whom about half were in remission. Comorbid PD was a negative prognostic factor independently of Axis I diagnosis. Although patients with panic disorder had a lower frequency of comorbid PD, later onset, shorter duration of illness and better outcome after the original studies, there was no difference in the long-term outcome. The less stable outcome among panic patients suggests that standard treatments are not resulting in enduring remission. In order to achieve remission, it is necessary to 1) address comorbid PDs, 2) perform careful assessments of all comorbid diagnoses, and 3) build routines for the follow-up and augmentation of treatments.

  17. Geosphere Stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Case study for hydrological change with earthquakes and faulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate estimation and safety assessment for long-term changes in geological environment are essential to an improvement of reliability for geological disposal. Specifically, study on faults is important for understanding regional groundwater flow as well as an assessment as a trigger of future earthquakes. Here, possibility of changes in permeability of faulted materials induced by earthquakes was examined based on monitoring data of groundwater pressure before and after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. (author)

  18. Eating habits, weight reduction strategies and long-term treatment results in obese men : The "Gustaf" study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Ingalena

    1997-01-01

    Eating habits, weight reduction strategies and long-term treatment resultsin obese men. The "Gustaf" study. Ingalena Andersson Obesity Unit and Health Behaviour Research, Department of Medicine, HuddingeHospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Abdominal male obesity is associated with hypertension, abnormal blood lipidsand diabetes type 11. For development of a weight loss program for such males, 86obese men (BMI 37.7 [4.4] kg/m2) (mean [SD] ) from the wa...

  19. Long-term outcome following medial open reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Richard O. E.; Bradley, Catharine S.; Sharma, Om P.; Feng, Lin; Shin, Michelle EyunJung; Kelley, Simon P.; Wedge, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a serious complication of treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip. There is ongoing controversy regarding AVN and its influence on hip development following medial open reduction (MOR). Purpose The aim of our study was to (1) determine the long-term prevalence of AVN following MOR, (2) evaluate hip development after MOR, and (3) identify predictors of AVN and radiographic outcome at skeletal maturity after MOR. Methods A retrospective cohort a...

  20. Biometric Authentication Using the PPG: A Long-Term Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sancho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The photoplethysmogram (PPG is a biomedical signal that can be used to estimate volumetric blood flow changes in the peripheral circulation. During the past few years, several works have been published in order to assess the potential for PPGs to be used in biometric authentication systems, but results are inconclusive. In this paper we perform an analysis of the feasibility of using the PPG as a realistic biometric alternative in the long term. Several feature extractors (based on the time domain and the Karhunen–Loève transform and matching metrics (Manhattan and Euclidean distances have been tested using four different PPG databases (PRRB, MIMIC-II, Berry, and Nonin. We show that the false match rate (FMR and false non-match rate (FNMR values remain constant in different time instances for a selected threshold, which is essential for using the PPG for biometric authentication purposes. On the other hand, obtained equal error rate (EER values for signals recorded during the same session range from 1.0% for high-quality signals recorded in controlled conditions to 8% for those recorded in conditions closer to real-world scenarios. Moreover, in certain scenarios, EER values rise up to 23.2% for signals recorded over different days, signaling that performance degradation could take place with time.

  1. Transitions to Sustainable Development. New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grin, J.; Rotmans, J.; Schot, J.; Geels, F.; Loorbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a growing concern about the social and environmental risks which have come along with the progress achieved through a variety of mutually intertwined modernization processes. In recent years these concerns are transformed into a widely-shared sense of urgency, partly due to events such as the various pandemics threatening livestock, and increasing awareness of the risks and realities of climate change, and the energy and food crises. This sense of urgency includes an awareness that our entire social system is in need of fundamental transformation. But like the earlier transition between the 1750s and 1890s from a pre-modern to a modern industrial society, this second transition is also a contested one. Sustainable development is only one of many options. This book addresses the issue on how to understand the dynamics and governance of the second transition dynamics in order to ensure sustainable development. It will be necessary reading for students and scholars with an interest in sustainable development and long-term transformative change.

  2. An experimental study on the long-term stability of particle motion in hadron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1995-12-01

    Nonlinear magnetic fields in conjunction with tune modulation may lead to chaotic particle motion and thereby limit the dynamic aperture in hadron storage rings. This is on particular interest for high energy storage rings with superconducting magnets at injection energy where magnetic field errors and the beam size have their maximum values. At the CERN SPS a dynamic aperture experiment was performed with the aim of finding the relevant effects for the stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings. Experimental results are compared to long-term particle tracking to test to which extent computer programs can predict the dynamic aperture under well known conditions. In addition, detailed investigations of the loss mechanisms were pursued to improve the phenomenological understanding of the intricate details of particle motion in phase space. In a complementary experiment at the HERA proton ring at injection energy the dynamic aperture was measured under normal operating conditions. The computer simulations for these measurements included a very detailed model of the nonlinear fields which were measured for each individual magnet. Simulation results for the LHC are shown that estimate the effect of tune ripple of different strength on the dynamic aperture for different sets of random nonlinear field errors. (orig.)

  3. Biometric Authentication Using the PPG: A Long-Term Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Jorge; Alesanco, Álvaro; García, José

    2018-05-11

    The photoplethysmogram (PPG) is a biomedical signal that can be used to estimate volumetric blood flow changes in the peripheral circulation. During the past few years, several works have been published in order to assess the potential for PPGs to be used in biometric authentication systems, but results are inconclusive. In this paper we perform an analysis of the feasibility of using the PPG as a realistic biometric alternative in the long term. Several feature extractors (based on the time domain and the Karhunen⁻Loève transform) and matching metrics (Manhattan and Euclidean distances) have been tested using four different PPG databases (PRRB, MIMIC-II, Berry, and Nonin). We show that the false match rate ( FMR ) and false non-match rate ( FNMR ) values remain constant in different time instances for a selected threshold, which is essential for using the PPG for biometric authentication purposes. On the other hand, obtained equal error rate (EER) values for signals recorded during the same session range from 1.0% for high-quality signals recorded in controlled conditions to 8% for those recorded in conditions closer to real-world scenarios. Moreover, in certain scenarios, EER values rise up to 23.2% for signals recorded over different days, signaling that performance degradation could take place with time.

  4. Transitions to Sustainable Development. New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, J. [Department of Political Science, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rotmans, J. [Sustainability Transitions and Transition Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schot, J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Geels, F. [Science Policy Research Unit SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Loorbach, D. [Dutch Research Institute for Transitions Drift, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a growing concern about the social and environmental risks which have come along with the progress achieved through a variety of mutually intertwined modernization processes. In recent years these concerns are transformed into a widely-shared sense of urgency, partly due to events such as the various pandemics threatening livestock, and increasing awareness of the risks and realities of climate change, and the energy and food crises. This sense of urgency includes an awareness that our entire social system is in need of fundamental transformation. But like the earlier transition between the 1750s and 1890s from a pre-modern to a modern industrial society, this second transition is also a contested one. Sustainable development is only one of many options. This book addresses the issue on how to understand the dynamics and governance of the second transition dynamics in order to ensure sustainable development. It will be necessary reading for students and scholars with an interest in sustainable development and long-term transformative change.

  5. Estimating long-term uranium resource availability and discovery requirements. A Canadian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Azis, A.; Williams, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Well-founded estimates of the rate at which a country's resources might be made available are a prime requisite for energy planners and policy makers at the national level. To meet this need, a method is discussed that can aid in the analysis of future supply patterns of uranium and other metals. Known sources are first appraised, on a mine-by-mine basis, in relation to projected domestic needs and expectable export levels. The gap between (a) production from current and anticipated mines, and (b) production levels needed to meet both domestic needs and export opportunities, would have to be met by new sources. Using as measuring sticks the resources and production capabilities of typical uranium deposits, a measure can be obtained of the required timing and magnitude of discovery needs. The new discoveries, when developed into mines, would need to be sufficient to meet not only any shortfalls in production capability, but also any special reserve requirements as stipulated, for example, under Canada's uranium export guidelines. Since the method can be followed simply and quickly, it can serve as a valuable tool for long-term supply assessments of any mineral commodity from a nation's mines. (author)

  6. Study of archaeological analogs for the validation of nuclear glass long-term behavior models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verney-Carron, A.

    2008-10-01

    Fractured archaeological glass blocks collected from a shipwreck discovered in the Mediterranean Sea near Embiez Island (Var) were investigated because of their morphological analogy with vitrified nuclear waste and of a known and stable environment. These glasses are fractured due to a fast cooling after they were melted (like nuclear glass) and have been altered for 1800 years in seawater. This work results in the development and the validation of a geochemical model able to simulate the alteration of a fractured archaeological glass block over 1800 years. The kinetics associated with the different mechanisms (interdiffusion and dissolution) and the thermodynamic parameters of the model were determined by leaching experiments. The model implemented in HYTEC software was used to simulate crack alteration over 1800 years. The consistency between simulated alteration thicknesses and measured data on glass blocks validate the capacity of the model to predict long-term alteration. This model is able to account for the results from the characterization of crack network and its state of alteration. The cracks in the border zone are the most altered due to a fast renewal of the leaching solution, whereas internal cracks are thin because of complex interactions between glass alteration and transport of elements in solution (influence of initial crack aperture and of the crack sealing). The lowest alteration thicknesses, as well as their variability, can be explained. The analog behavior of archaeological and nuclear glasses from leaching experiments makes possible the transposition of the model to nuclear glass in geological repository. (author)

  7. Executive Functioning Skills in Long-Term Users of Cochlear Implants: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B.; Henning, Shirley C.; Colson, Bethany G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in executive functioning between deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. The cognitive effects of auditory deprivation in childhood may extend beyond speech–language skills to more domain-general areas including executive functioning. Methods Executive functioning skills in a sample of 53 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received CIs prior to age 7 years and who had used their CIs for ≥7 years were compared with age- and nonverbal IQ-matched NH peers and with scale norms. Results Despite having above average nonverbal IQ, the CI sample scored lower than the NH sample and test norms on several measures of short-term/working memory, fluency–speed, and inhibition–concentration. Executive functioning was unrelated to most demographic and hearing history characteristics. Conclusions Prelingual deafness and long-term use of CIs was associated with increased risk of weaknesses in executive functioning. PMID:23699747

  8. Long-term corrosion/oxidation studies under controlled humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    Independent of thermal loading scenarios, the waste packages at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will be exposed to environmental conditions where there is the possibility of significant water film formation occurring on the waste packages. Water films can cause aggressive aqueous film electrochemical corrosion on susceptible metals or alloys. Water film formation will be facilitated when relative humidities are high, when hygroscopic salts are present on the surfaces, when corrosion products are hygroscopic, and when particles form crevices with the surfaces (capillary effect). Also certain gaseous contaminants, such as, NO x and SO 2 , can facilitate water film formation. It should be noted that water film formation can occur at isolated spots (e.g. surface defects and salt particles) and need not cover the entire surface for electrochemical corrosion to occur. This activity will characterize the long term corrosion of metal specimens at two nominal relative humidities (50 and 85%) and at 80 C. Under the low relative humidity (50%) condition, water film formation is expected to be limited and therefore aqueous film electrochemical corrosion is expected also to be limited. Under the high relative humidity (85%) condition, significant water film formation is expected to occur under some test conditions, and subsequently aqueous film electrochemical corrosion will occur on susceptible materials

  9. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  10. The social integration of healthcare agency workers in long-term care facilities: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalme, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Olivier

    2018-06-01

    Patient care quality is a key concern for long-term care facilities and is directly related to effective collaboration between healthcare professionals. The use of agency staff in long-term care facilities creates important challenges in terms of coordination and communication within work units. The purpose of this study is to assess the mediating effect of common in-group identity in the relationship between permanent employees' perceptions regarding the use of agency workers -namely distributive justice, perceptions of threat, perceived similarities with agency workers, and leader inclusiveness toward agency staff- and the permanent employees' adoption of collaborative behaviours. Cross-sectional study. Three long-term care facilities. 290 regular healthcare employees (nurses and care attendants). Data were obtained through questionnaires filled out by employees. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation analyses. The results showed the indirect effects of perceived distributive justice, perceived similarity and leader inclusiveness toward agency workers on permanent employees' cooperation behaviours through common group identification. Perceptions of threat were not related to common group identification or collaborative behaviours. The results also showed that common in-group identification is related to cooperation behaviours only for employees without previous experience as agency workers. This study suggests that permanent healthcare employees who feel they are fairly compensated relative to agency workers, who consider these workers as similar to them, and who believe their supervisor appreciates agency workers' contributions tend to develop a common in-group identity, which fosters collaborative behaviours. Managers of long-term care facilities who wish to foster collaboration among their blended workforce should thus create an environment conducive of a more inclusive identity, particularly if their employees have no previous experience as agency

  11. The long-term risk of malignant astrocytic tumors after structural brain injury--a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Gørtz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    % CI: 0.49-0.90) compared with no injury. The specific long-term risks by type of injury were: traumatic brain injury RR = 0.32 (95% CI: 0.10-0.75); cerebral ischemic infarction RR = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47-0.96); and intracerebral hemorrhage RR = 1.39 (95% CI: 0.64-2.60). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence......BACKGROUND: Neoplastic transformation of damaged astrocytes has been proposed as a possible pathological mechanism behind malignant astrocytic tumors. This study investigated the association between structural brain injuries causing reactive astrogliosis and long-term risk for malignant astrocytic...... tumors. METHODS: The cohort consisted of all individuals living in Denmark between 1978 and 2011. The personal identification number assigned to all individuals allowed retrieval of diagnoses of traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemic infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage from the National Patient...

  12. An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Peck Yean [Department of Engineering-Energy and Environment Science, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Li, ZhiDong [Department of Management and Information System Science, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    We developed a comprehensive econometric model to study the long-term outlook of Malaysia's economy, energy and environment to 2030. Our projections under the reference scenario indicated that Malaysia's gross domestic production (GDP) is expected to average 4.6% from 2004 to 2030, and total primary energy consumption will triple by 2030. Coal import will increase following governmental policy of intensifying its use for power generation. Oil import is predicted to take place by 2013 and reach 45 Mtoe in 2030. Hence, in the near future, Malaysia's energy import dependency will rise. Carbon emissions will triple by 2030. On the other hand, our projections under an alternative renewable energy (RE) scenario showed that the utilization of RE is a strategic option to improve the long-term energy security and environmental performance of Malaysia. However, substantial governmental involvements and support, as well as the establishment of a regulatory framework are necessary. (author)

  13. An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Peck Yean; Li, ZhiDong

    2008-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive econometric model to study the long-term outlook of Malaysia's economy, energy and environment to 2030. Our projections under the reference scenario indicated that Malaysia's gross domestic production (GDP) is expected to average 4.6% from 2004 to 2030, and total primary energy consumption will triple by 2030. Coal import will increase following governmental policy of intensifying its use for power generation. Oil import is predicted to take place by 2013 and reach 45 Mtoe in 2030. Hence, in the near future, Malaysia's energy import dependency will rise. Carbon emissions will triple by 2030. On the other hand, our projections under an alternative renewable energy (RE) scenario showed that the utilization of RE is a strategic option to improve the long-term energy security and environmental performance of Malaysia. However, substantial governmental involvements and support, as well as the establishment of a regulatory framework are necessary. (author)

  14. Designing Program Roadmaps to Catalyze Community Formation: A Case Study of the Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmapword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Brent; Hanson, Duane; Matthern, Gretchen

    2003-01-01

    A number of broad perspective technology roadmaps have been developed in the last few years as tools for coordinating nation-wide research in targeted areas. These roadmaps share a common characteristic of coalescing the associated stakeholder groups into a special-interest community that is willing to work cooperatively in achieving the roadmap goals. These communities are key to roadmap implementation as they provide the collaborative energy necessary to obtain the political support and funding required for identified science and technology development efforts. This paper discusses the relationship between roadmaps and special-interest communities, using the recently drafted Department of Energy's Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap as a case study. Specific aspects this roadmap's design facilitated the development of a long-term stewardship community while specific realities during roadmap development impacted the realization of the design

  15. Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Olsen, Jørgen H; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-08-15

    Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular schwannoma risk in men (relative risk estimate = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 1.46), and no vestibular schwannoma cases among long-term subscribers occurred in women versus 1.6 expected. Vestibular schwannomas did not occur more often on the right side of the head, although the majority of Danes reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma and possible diagnostic delay, further surveillance is indicated.

  16. Short- and long-term eating habit modification predicts weight change in overweight, postmenopausal women: results from the WOMAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Kinzel, Laura S; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Kuller, Lewis H

    2012-09-01

    Standard behavioral obesity treatment produces poor long-term results. Focusing on healthy eating behaviors rather than energy intake may be an alternative strategy. In addition, important behaviors might differ for short- vs long-term weight control. Our aim was to describe and compare associations between changes in eating behaviors and weight after 6 and 48 months. We performed secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized weight-loss intervention trial with 48-month follow-up. We studied 481 overweight and obese postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women on the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study. We measured changes in weight from baseline to 6 and 48 months. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between 6- and 48-month changes in eating habits assessed by the Conner Diet Habit Survey and changes in weight. Analyses were conducted in the combined study population and stratified by randomization group. At 6 months in the combined population, weight loss was independently associated with decreased desserts (Pstudies should determine whether interventions targeting these behaviors could improve long-term obesity treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long term health-related quality of life in survivors of sepsis in South West Wales: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Ceri E; Davies, Gareth; Evans, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of sepsis report persistent problems that can last years after hospital discharge. The main aim of this study was to investigate long-term health-related quality of life in survivors of SIRS and sepsis compared with Welsh normative data, controlling for age, length of stay and pre-existing conditions. The second aim was to investigate any differences in long-term health-related quality of life specifically with the patients categorised into three groups; SIRS, uncomplicated sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock. A prospective study design was used in order to investigate all sepsis patients either presenting to the Emergency Department or admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a regional trauma centre. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and surviving patients were sent a SF-12v2 survey at between six months to two years post-hospital discharge. Quality of life was significantly reduced in all patients when compared to local normative data (all pquality of life were more pronounced in severe sepsis/septic shock patients when compared to uncomplicated sepsis and SIRS patients, when controlling for age, pre-existing conditions, hospital and ICU length of stay. This is the first observational study to specifically focus on the different groups of SIRS and sepsis patients to assess long-term quality of life. Local population norms were used for comparison, rather than UK-wide norms that fail to reflect the intricacies of a country's population.

  18. The Value of Median Nerve Sonography as a Predictor for Short- and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Marschall

    Full Text Available To investigate the prognostic value of B-mode and Power Doppler (PD ultrasound of the median nerve for the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Prospective study of 135 patients with suspected CTS seen 3 times: at baseline, then at short-term (3 months and long-term (15-36 months follow-up. At baseline, the cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve was measured with ultrasound at 4 levels on the forearm and wrist. PD signals were graded semi-quantitatively (0-3. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at each visit with the Boston Questionnaire (BQ and the DASH Questionnaire, as well as visual analogue scales for the patient's assessment of pain (painVAS and physician's global assessment (physVAS. The predictive values of baseline CSA and PD for clinical outcomes were determined with multivariate logistic regression models.Short-term and long-term follow-up data were available for 111 (82.2% and 105 (77.8% patients, respectively. There was a final diagnosis of CTS in 84 patients (125 wrists. Regression analysis revealed that the CSA, measured at the carpal tunnel inlet, predicted short-term clinical improvement according to BQ in CTS patients undergoing carpal tunnel surgery (OR 1.8, p = 0.05, but not in patients treated conservatively. Neither CSA nor PD assessments predicted short-term improvement of painVAS, physVAS or DASH, nor was any of the ultrasound parameters useful for the prediction of long-term clinical outcomes.Ultrasound assessment of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet may predict short-term clinical improvement in CTS patients undergoing carpal tunnel release, but long-term outcomes are unrelated to ultrasound findings.

  19. Long-term dietary patterns and carotid artery intima media thickness: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Vera; Räsänen, Leena; Laaksonen, Marika M L; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Pietinen, Pirjo; Raitakari, Olli T

    2009-11-01

    A whole-diet approach has proven useful for characterising dietary exposure in cardiovascular epidemiology research. In our previous analyses, we found dietary patterns to be significant determinants of CVD risk factor levels among the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort. We investigated the associations of major dietary patterns with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical predictor of CVD, in healthy adults. The Young Finns Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up to date. The subjects were children and adolescents at baseline in 1980 (aged 3-18 years), and all had reached adulthood by the latest follow-up in 2001 (aged 24-39 years). Complete dietary data from the years 1980, 1986 and 2001 and outcome data from the year 2001 were obtained from 785 subjects. The long-term average pattern score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of rye, potatoes, butter, sausages, milk and coffee) was associated with IMT especially among subjects with a low score for the health-conscious dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of vegetables, legumes and nuts, rye, tea, cheese and other dairy products). In multivariable regression analyses using long-term pattern scores as predictors, the traditional dietary pattern was independently associated with IMT in men (P < 0.01), but not in women (P = 0.66). Long-term adherence to traditional food choices seems to increase the risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis among Finnish men.

  20. In vivo studies of the long-term 51Cr red cell survival of serologically incompatible red cell units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.L.; Ness, P.M.; Barrasso, C.; Kickler, T.S.; Drew, H.; Tsan, M.F.; Shirey, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term survival of serologically incompatible red cell units was measured in five patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens. Initially, the survival of 1 ml of 51 Cr-labeled incompatible red cells was measured over 1 hour. After demonstrating that the 1-hour survival times were successful (greater than 70%), each patient then received 5 ml of the same 51 Cr-labeled red cells followed by the transfusion of the remainder of the red cell unit. The long-term T 1/2Cr survival for each case was patient 1 (anti-McCa), 15 days; patient 2 (anti-JMH), 12 days; patient 3 (anti-Kna), 31 days; patient 4 (anti-McCa), 12 days; and patient 5 (anti-Hya), 14 days. Each antibody tested in an in vitro homologous macrophage assay showed less than 5 percent phagocytosis. Anti-JMH was the only antibody to react with IgG subclass antisera and was determined to be IgG4. The macrophage assay, IgG subclass testing, and short-term (1 hour, 1 ml) 51 Cr survival studies all indicated that the short-term survival was good. However, only the measurement of long-term survival with transfused units of serologically incompatible red cells was able to determine the actual survival, and clinical significance of the alloantibodies. Determining the actual long-term survival by the method described here can be of importance for patients requiring chronic red cell transfusion

  1. Long-term outcome following medial open reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Richard O E; Bradley, Catharine S; Sharma, Om P; Feng, Lin; Shin, Michelle EyunJung; Kelley, Simon P; Wedge, J H

    2016-06-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a serious complication of treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip. There is ongoing controversy regarding AVN and its influence on hip development following medial open reduction (MOR). The aim of our study was to (1) determine the long-term prevalence of AVN following MOR, (2) evaluate hip development after MOR, and (3) identify predictors of AVN and radiographic outcome at skeletal maturity after MOR. A retrospective cohort analysis of 60 patients (70 hips) who underwent MOR with a mean follow-up of 10.83 years (5.23-16.74) was conducted. AVN was recorded according to Bucholz and Ogden classification and radiographic outcome based on Severin grading. AVN and hip morphology related to length of follow-up were evaluated. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to identify relationships between AVN and other variables. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of AVN and Severin outcome. The rate of clinically significant AVN (types 2-4) following MOR was 32.9 % with type 2 accounting for 82.6 % of these cases. While early acetabular development was satisfactory, long-term outcome was unsatisfactory in 26 % of cases with AVN (vs 8.7 % of cases without AVN). A higher rate of AVN was identified when hips were immobilized in ≥60° of abduction postoperatively. A higher rate of poor Severin outcome was identified in hips with AVN. Our findings suggest that there is a high rate of AVN and unsatisfactory long-term outcome following MOR. AVN remains a significant concern following MOR surgery for developmental dysplasia of the hip that may not be apparent until long-term evaluation.

  2. Timing and risk of mood disorders requiring psychotropics in long-term survivors of adult cancers: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Kuan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Chung, Chia-Chi; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yung-Chang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Tsai, Chieh-Sheng; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; See, Lai-Chu

    2018-08-15

    The increasing number of long-term cancer survivors over the past few decades poses the challenge of mental health care needs. However, little is known about risks of mood disorders in long-term cancer survivors. Long-term survivors (≥5 years) of adult cancers (LSAC) (n = 190,748) newly diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 were matched with one control. The primary outcome was diagnosis of mood disorders requiring psychotropics. Cumulative incidences and sub-hazard ratios (SHR) were calculated and multivariate analyses were conducted after accounting for mortality. The mood disorder risk was significantly higher in the LSAC cohort than in the control cohort (adjusted SHR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.18, P < 0.001). Patients with certain cancer types were at increased risk, particularly in the first 2 years after diagnosis. However, patients with head and neck cancers or esophageal cancers had a higher risk after the 5-year follow-up period. Multivariate analysis indicated that being female, aged 40-59 years, with more than two primary cancers, receiving two or more treatment modalities, having CCI scores higher than 3, a higher urbanization level, and lower monthly income were independently associated with an increased risk of mood disorders. Some potential confounders such as lifestyle factors were not available in the study. These findings call for increased mental health awareness not only in the early years after the cancer diagnosis, but also during long-term follow-up for certain cancer subtypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long Term Clinical Prognostic Factors in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from a 10-Year Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bsteh

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult.The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset.This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ≤2.5, moderate (EDSS 3.0-5.5 or severe (EDSS ≥6.0 disability were calculated to correct for confounders.Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0-1580.1; p<0.001. Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23-0.77; p = 0.005, while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14-11.24; p = 0.028 and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11-19.50; p = 0.036 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability.We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms.

  4. Fundamental study on long-term stability of rock from the macroscopic point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke

    2004-02-01

    In the fiscal year of 1994 when this project was started, a pneumatic creep testing machine was modified. At the end of the fiscal year of 1994, Inada granite was purchased, and the preliminary tests such as P-wave velocity measurement and Schmidt hammer testing were carried out. Through the fiscal year of 1995, a specimen of Tage tuff under water-saturated condition had been loaded in uniaxial condition in the pneumatic creep testing machine. In the fiscal year of 1995, the uniaxial compression and tension tests, and the short-term creep test of Inada granite were also carried out in the servo-controlled testing machines to obtain the complete stress-strain curves. A hydraulic creep testing machine which was planned to use in the next year was modified for long-term creep testing. Finally, a constitutive equation of variable compliance type was examined based on the experimental results. In the fiscal year of 1996, creep, compression and tension tests were carried out. Two types of pressure maintenance equipment (hydraulic and pneumatic types) were developed and examined. In the fiscal year of 1997, creep, compression and tension tests etc. were again carried out on the basis of the results heretofore. The experimental results of long-term creep testing of Tage tuff, middle-term creep testing of Inada granite were described. In both creep tests, samples were submerged in water. In the fiscal year of 1998, creep testing of Tage tuff was conducted. Results of relatively short-term (middle-term) creep conducted on a servo-controlled testing machine were also described. Sample rock was Sirahama sandstone that showed a considerably large creep strain in low stress level such as 17% of the uniaxial compression strength. Results of triaxial compression test and uniaxial tension test including unloading-reloading tests were described. In the fiscal years of 1999-2002, creep testing of Tage tuff was continuously conducted. A multi-cylinder hydraulic creep testing machine

  5. Long-term outcome of phenobarbital treatment for epilepsy in rural China: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Patrick; Wang, Wenzhi; Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Shichuo; Yang, Hongchao; Ding, Ding; Hong, Zhen; Dai, Xiuying; Yang, Bing; Wang, Taiping; Yuan, Chenglin; Ma, Guangyu; de Boer, Hanneke M; Sander, Josemir W

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcome of phenobarbital treatment for convulsive epilepsy in rural China, and to explore factors associated with overall seizure outcomes. We carried out follow-up assessments of people who took part in an epilepsy community management program conducted in rural counties of six provinces in China. People with convulsive epilepsy who were previously untreated (or on irregular treatment) were commenced on regular treatment with phenobarbital. Information was collected using a standardized questionnaire by face-to-face interviews of the individuals (and their families where necessary). Information collected included treatment status, medication change, seizure frequency, and mortality. Among the 2,455 people who participated in the original program, outcomes were successfully ascertained during the follow-up assessment in 1986. Among them, 206 had died. Information on treatment response was obtained in 1,780 (56% male; mean age 33.9 years, range 3-84; mean duration of follow-up 6.4 years). Among them, 939 (53%) were still taking phenobarbital. The most common reasons for stopping phenobarbital were seizure freedom or substantial seizure reduction, socioeconomic reasons, and personal preference. Four hundred fifty-three individuals (25%) became seizure-free for at least 1 year while taking phenobarbital, 88% of whom did so at daily doses of 120 mg or below. Four hundred six (23%) reported adverse events, which led to withdrawal of phenobarbital in phenobarbital for convulsive epilepsy in rural China. One hundred years after the discovery of its antiepileptic effect, phenobarbital is still playing an important role in the management of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. A long-term follow-up study of subtotal splenectomy in children with hereditary spherocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, C W K; Broens, P M A; Trzpis, M; Tamminga, R Y J

    2017-10-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a heterogeneous hemolytic anemia treated with splenectomy in patients suffering from severe or moderate disease. Total splenectomy, however, renders patients vulnerable to overwhelming postsplenectomy infection despite preventive measures. Although subtotal splenectomy has been advocated as an alternative to total splenectomy, long-term follow-up data are scarce. We investigated how often hematologic recurrences requiring secondary total splenectomy occurred. With a follow-up of at least 5 years, we analyzed the data of 12 patients, aged 11 years maximum (median 6.5 years), who had undergone intended subtotal splenectomy, and 9 patients (median age 11.9 years), who had undergone total splenectomy. We compared their hematologic results and searched for factors associated with secondary spleen surgery. Hemolysis was reduced after subtotal splenectomy and absent after total splenectomy. Subtotal splenectomy was not successful in three children because no functional splenic remnant remained after 6 months (one conversion at surgery; one necrosis of splenic remnant; one early secondary splenectomy). Four children required secondary splenectomy after a median of 5 years for hematologic recurrence. In the remaining five patients, a functional splenic remnant was present for at least 5.5 years. The median time to secondary total splenectomy after intended subtotal splenectomy was 5.2 years. In all patients requiring secondary total splenectomy, increased reticulocyte levels within 2 years indicated hematologic recurrence. Subtotal splenectomy can be an alternative for total splenectomy in young patients with HS. It allows for hematologic improvement and may preserve splenic immune function for as many as 5 years. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mols, Floortje; Korfage, Ida J.; Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M.; Kil, Paul J.M.; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain insight into the long-term (5- to 10-year) effects of prostate cancer and treatment on bowel, urinary, and sexual function, we performed a population-based study. Prostate-specific function was compared with an age-matched normative population without prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Through the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, we selected all men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998 in the southern Netherlands. In total, 964 patients, alive in November 2004, received questionnaire; 780 (81%) responded. Results: Urinary problems were most common after a prostatectomy; bowel problems were most common after radiotherapy. Compared with an age-matched normative population both urinary and bowel functioning and bother were significantly worse among survivors. Urinary incontinence was reported by 23-48% of survivors compared with 4% of the normative population. Bowel leakage occurred in 5-14% of patients compared with 2% of norms. Erection problems occurred in 40-74% of patients compared with 18% of norms. Conclusions: These results form an important contribution to the limited information available on prostate-specific problems in the growing group of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems occur more often among long-term survivors compared with a reference group and cannot be explained merely by age. Because these problems persist for many years, urologists should provide patients with adequate information before treatment. After treatment, there should be an appropriate focus on these problems

  8. Long-term outcome of lobar ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC): a comparative study with patients of completion thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amburanjan; Maharjan, S.; Bal, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Completion thyroidectomy (CT) is usually recommended after partial surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine lobar ablation (RAILA) is an easy alternative and avoids complications that might be associated with re-surgery. But its effectiveness in terms of long-term outcome and recurrence free survival is yet to be established. This study was aimed to compare long term outcome of RAILA with that of completion thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done from the case records of patients treated in our thyroid clinic for last 25 years. Records of all patients of RAILA (364) and CT (372) were analyzed. Complete ablation rate, cumulative dose needed for complete ablation, Recurrence rate and recurrence free survival was estimated in each group. Comparison was made between two groups by statistical method. Results: There was 73% ablation rate at 1st dose of RAILA itself. Second dose in LA and first dose of remnant ablation after CT is comparable (92% and 93% respectively). Cumulative dose to achieve 100% ablation rate is more for RAILA group. Seven patients developed recurrence in RAILA group, compared to 14 in CT group. No statistically significant difference was noted between recurrence rate and recurrence free survival between two groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine Lobar ablation is a safe, effective and less costly alternative to completion thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with comparable long term outcome like recurrence rate and recurrence free survival

  9. Predicting long-term outcomes for children affected by HIV and AIDS: perspectives from the scientific study of children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alan; Desmond, Christopher; Garbarino, James; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Barbarin, Oscar; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D; Hillis, Susan D; Kalichman, Seth C; Mercy, James A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Saul, Janet R; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A; Richter, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families.

  10. Influence of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation practice on emotional processing in the brain: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Loktev, K V; Korenyok, V V; Aftanas, L I

    2014-12-05

    Despite growing interest in meditation as a tool for alternative therapy of stress-related and psychosomatic diseases, brain mechanisms of beneficial influences of meditation practice on health and quality of life are still unclear. We propose that the key point is a persistent change in emotional functioning, specifically the modulation of the early appraisal of motivational significance of events. The main aim was to study the effects of long-term meditation practice on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during affective picture viewing. ERPs were recorded in 20 long-term Sahaja Yoga meditators and 20 control subjects without prior experience in meditation. The meditators' mid-latency (140-400ms) ERPs were attenuated for both positive and negative pictures (i.e. there were no arousal-related increases in ERP positivity) and this effect was more prominent over the right hemisphere. However, we found no differences in the long latency (400-800ms) responses to emotional images, associated with meditation practice. In addition we found stronger ERP negativity in the time window 200-300ms for meditators compared to the controls, regardless of picture valence. We assume that long-term meditation practice enhances frontal top-down control over fast automatic salience detection, based on amygdala functions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Original Paper Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends in the western region of Cameroon ... antibiotic era, IDs used to be serious threats because of lack or insufficient ...... antimicrobial use in livestock; AMR. Control., 116-122. Vandini ...

  12. Multicentric cohort study on the long-term efficacy and safety of electronic cigarettes: study design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Lamberto; La Vecchia, Carlo; Flacco, Maria Elena; Capasso, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Valentina; Boccia, Stefania; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Villari, Paolo; Mezzetti, Andrea; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2013-09-24

    While electronic cigarettes are forbidden in several countries, their sales are exploding in many others. Although e-cigarettes have been proposed as long-term substitutes for traditional smoking or as a tool for smoking cessation, very scarce data are available on their efficacy and safety.We describe the protocol of a 5-year multicentric prospective study aimed to evaluate short- and long-term adherence to e-cigarette smoking and the efficacy of e-cigarettes in reducing and/or quitting traditional cigarette smoking. The study will also compare the health effects of electronic vs traditional vs mixed cigarette smoking. From June to December 2013, we will enroll adult smokers of: (EC) e-cigarettes (self-reported inhaling ≥ 50 puffs per week since ≥ 6 months); (TC) traditional cigarettes (≥ 1 per day since ≥ 6 m); (Mixed) both electronic and traditional cigarettes (≥ 1 per day since ≥ 6 m). Eligible subjects will be requested participation through newspaper advertisements and direct contact at the shops. Each subject will have to compile a structured questionnaire at enrolment and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months. The level of carbon monoxide in expired after breath will be evaluated in all subjects declaring no traditional cigarette smoking in any follow-up phase, using portable carbon monoxide analyzers. The primary outcomes are traditional smoking cessation rates and number of smoked cigarettes. Secondary outcomes include adherence to e-cigarettes, self-reported adverse events, quality of life, and time to hospital admission for one among cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cancer of the lung, esophagus, larynx, oral cavity, bladder, pancreas, kidney, stomach, cervix, and myeloid leukemia. Admissions will be checked using official discharge data of the Abruzzo Region. A minimum of 500 subjects in each group will be enrolled, for a total of 1500 participants. Cox proportional hazards analysis will be used to calculate

  13. Long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release in children 5-11 years of age: results from a 12-month, open-label study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijman, Rien J M; Borgstein, Niels G; Ellsworth, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in children (aged 5-11 yr) with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label extension of a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolterodine ER. Patients had UUI...... suggestive of detrusor overactivity (>/=1 diurnal incontinence episode per 24h for >/=5 of 7 d) and >/=6 voids per 24h at baseline and had completed the 12-wk double-blind study. Patients received tolterodine ER (2mg once daily) for 12 mo. The primary end points were the incidence and severity of adverse......-blind tolterodine ER, n=221; placebo, n=97). The majority of patients were white (90%), mean+/-SD age was 7.6+/-1.5 yr, and 54% were boys. Forty-nine percent of patients reported >/=1 AE during the study, similar to that observed in the preceding 12-wk study (42%). The most frequent AEs were urinary tract infection...

  14. The use of echosounders for long-term studies of the overwintering ecology of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Upward-facing echosounders, were used to study the overwintering ecology of sprat during four winters in a Norwegian fjord. The echosounders provided continuous data at a temporal resolution of seconds and enabled studies of individual swimming behavior of sprat in addition to population behavior. The long-term coverage of several winters enabled us to study how the sprat responded to different environmental conditions, like ice-free waters versus ice covered waters and hypoxic conditions versus well-oxygenated waters. The studies unveiled that the overwintering strategies of the sprat are flexible, varying in accordance with environmental conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Longitudinal study of long-term smoking behaviour by biomarker-supported determination of exposure to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Errington, Graham; Prasad, Krishna

    2014-04-12

    Long-term studies of smokers who switch to lower nicotine yield cigarettes have been identified by the World Health Organization Study Group TobReg and the US Food and Drug Administration as one key area where new knowledge is required to guide science based regulation. The limited number of long-term switching studies have concluded that smokers who switch to lower nicotine yield cigarettes show evidence of partial compensation. Since the European Union tobacco product directive of 2001 introduced tar and nicotine yield ceilings, there has been no long-term observational switching study. To address the limitations of previous studies where smokers were forced switched for relatively short durations, we plan to undertake a long-term study of spontaneous switching which is appropriately powered and includes non-switchers as a control group. Healthy adult smokers aged 21-64 years will be enrolled into this 5-year non-residential, multicentre study across 10 cities in Germany. They will be assessed at 10 timepoints with 6 month intervals during which inclusion criteria will be reassessed and spent cigarette filter tips, saliva and 24 h urine samples will be collected. These samples will be used to determine average daily cigarette consumption, estimate mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine and measure selected biomarkers of exposure, respectively. Spontaneous changes in subjects' preferred cigarette products and any consequent change in tar or nicotine yield will be monitored. Subjects will be required to complete questionnaires on quality of life, smoking behaviours, smoking-related sensory attributes and recent life changes. The planned study is anticipated to contribute to understanding smokers' behaviours and their consequent exposure to smoke constituents. It will also allow assessment of compensatory changes in their behaviour following spontaneous switching of cigarette product smoked. Data from this study are expected to provide insights into study design

  16. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  17. Long-term Conventionally Dosed Vancomycin Therapy In Patients With Orthopaedic Implant-related Infections Seems As Effective And Safe As Long-term Penicillin Or Clindamycin Therapy. A Retrospective Cohort Study Of 103 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Jacomien; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; van Ogtrop, Marc L; Poolman, Rudolf W; Franssen, Eric J F

    2018-01-01

    Objectives : Antimicrobial therapy is one of the cornerstones of orthopaedic implant-related infections (OIRI) treatment. Infections with Gram-positive bacteria are often treated with vancomycin, penicillin or clindamycin. A recent IDSA guideline suggests increasing the dose of vancomycin to increase the trough vancomycin target serum concentrations. This is deemed necessary because of an observed decrease in vancomycin susceptibility among Gram-positive bacteria. However, elevated vancomycin concentrations are correlated with the risk of nephrotoxicity, especially with prolonged therapy. Compared to most countries, rates of resistance against antibiotics among bacteria in the Netherlands are lower for currently available antibiotics, therefore lower target concentrations of vancomycin are probably efficacious for the treatment of infections. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term conventionally dosed vancomycin therapy, as an initial therapy for OIRI, and compared this with long-term penicillin and clindamycin therapy, as initial therapy, in patients with Gram-positive orthopaedic implant-related infections. Methods : A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 103 adult patients treated for OIRI, with vancomycin, penicillin or clindamycin for at least 10 days. The target trough serum concentration of vancomycin was 10-15 mg/l. Results : 74% of our patients were treated successfully with vancomycin, as initial therapy, (no reinfection within 1 year) versus 55% of our patients treated with either an antibiotic of the penicillin class (mostly flucloxacillin) or clindamycin (p=0.08), as initial therapy. For patients treated with vancomycin we observed a serum creatinine increase of 6 μmol/l, for patients treated with either an antibiotic of the penicillin class or clindamycin the serum creatinine increase was 4 μmol/l (p=0.395). Conclusions : In our population of patients with OIRI long-term treatment with conventionally dosed

  18. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  19. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Marciniak

    Full Text Available Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  20. The health-related quality of life in long-term colorectal cancer survivors study: objectives, methods and patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, M Jane; Coons, Stephen Joel; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa J; Wendel, Christopher S; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the complex mixed-methods design of a study conducted to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes and ostomy-related obstacles and adjustments among long-term (>5 years) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with ostomies (cases) and without ostomies (controls). In addition, details are provided regarding the study sample and the psychometric properties of the quantitative data collection measures used. Subsequent manuscripts will present the study findings. The study design involved a cross-sectional mail survey for collecting quantitative data and focus groups for collecting qualitative data. The study subjects were individuals identified as long-term CRC survivors within a community-based health maintenance organization's enrolled population. Focus groups comprised of cases were conducted. The groups were divided by gender and HRQOL high and low quartile contrasts (based on the mail survey data). The modified City of Hope Quality of Life (mCOH-QOL)-Ostomy and SF-36v2 questionnaires were used in the mail survey. An abridged version of the mCOH-QOL-Ostomy was used for the control subjects. Focus groups explored ostomy-related barriers to self-care, adaptation methods/skills, and advice for others with an ostomy. The survey response rate was 52% (679/1308) and 34 subjects participated in focus groups. The internal consistency reliability estimates for the mCOH-QOL-Ostomy and SF-36v2 questionnaires were very acceptable for group comparisons. In addition, evidence supports the construct validity of the abridged version of the mCOH-QOL-Ostomy. Study limitations include potential non-response bias and limited minority participation. We were able to successfully recruit long-term CRC survivors into this study and the psychometric properties of the quantitative measures used were quite acceptable. Mixed-methods designs, such as the one used in this study, may be useful in identification and further elucidation of

  1. A patient cohort on long-term sequelae of sepsis survivors: study protocol of the Mid-German Sepsis Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, André; Hartog, Christiane S; Fleischmann, Carolin; Ouart, Dominique; Hoffmann, Franziska; König, Christian; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Fiedler, Sandra; Philipp, Monique; Braune, Anke; Eichhorn, Cornelia; Gampe, Christin; Romeike, Heike; Reinhart, Konrad

    2017-08-23

    An increasing number of patients survive sepsis; however, we lack valid data on the long-term impact on morbidity from prospective observational studies. Therefore, we designed an observational cohort to quantify mid-term and long-term functional disabilities after intensive care unit (ICU)-treated sepsis. Ultimately, findings for the Mid-German Sepsis Cohort (MSC) will serve as basis for the implementation of follow-up structures for patients with sepsis and help to increase quality of care for sepsis survivors. All patients surviving ICU-treated sepsis are eligible and are recruited from five study centres in Germany (acute care hospital setting in Jena, Halle/Saale, Leipzig, Bad Berka, Erfurt; large long-term acute care hospital and rehabilitation setting in Klinik Bavaria Kreischa). Screening is performed by trained study nurses. Data are collected on ICU management of sepsis. On written informed consent provided by patients or proxies, follow-up is carried out by trained research staff at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter. The primary outcome is functional disability as assessed by (instrumental) activities of daily living. Other outcomes cover domains like mortality, cognitive, emotional and physical impairment, and resource use. The estimated sample size of 3000 ICU survivors is calculated to allow detection of relevant changes in the primary outcome in sepsis survivors longitudinally. The study is conducted according to the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by four local/federal responsible institutional ethics committees and by the respective federal data protection commissioners. Results of MSC will be fed back to the patients and published in peer-reviewed journals. German Clinical Trials Registry DRKS00010050. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Postwar environment and long-term mental health problems in former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Stochl, Jan; Ovuga, Emilio; Abbott, Rosemary; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Croudace, Tim J; Jones, Peter B

    2014-05-01

    War experiences (WE) and postwar environments (PWE) are associated with mental ill-health. The present study aims to investigate the pathways from WE and PWE to mental ill-health and to define opportunities for intervention through analysis of the war-affected youths study (WAYS) cohort study. WAYS is an ongoing study of a large cohort of former child soldiers being conducted in Uganda. Mental health problems, subjective WE and PWE contexts were assessed by local adaptations of internationally developed measures for use with former child soldiers at least 6 years after the end of the war. Structural equation modeling was used to test two mediation hypotheses: (1) the 'trauma model' in which WE directly influence long-term mental health and (2) the 'psychosocial path' in which WE influence long-term mental health through PWE stressors. WE were linked to depression/anxiety (β=0.15 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.30)) through PWE (accounting for 44% of the variance in the relationship between these variables) and to conduct problems (β=0.23 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.43); (accounting for 89% of the variance, ie, near complete mediation)). The direct relation between WE and depression/anxiety attenuated but remained statistically significant. For conduct problems, the direct relationship was no longer significant after accounting for PWE. PWE are a key determinant of continued mental health problems in former child soldiers. Interventions to reduce long-term mental problems should address both PWE stressors (psychosocial model) and specialised mental healthcare (trauma model) and consider both models of intervention as complementary.

  3. Effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on anxiety and depression in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Martínez, David; Gotsens, Xavier; Gramunt, Nina; Cirach, Marta; Molinuevo, José Luis; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Crous-Bou, Marta; Gascon, Mireia

    2017-08-01

    The association between exposure to air pollutants and mental disorders among adults has been suggested, although results are not consistent. To analyze the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and history of anxiety and depression disorders and of medication use (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) in adults living in Barcelona. A total of 958 adults (45-74 years old) residents in Barcelona, most of them having at least one of their parents diagnosed with dementia (86%), and participating in the ALFA (Alzheimer and Families) study, were included. We used Land Use Regression (LUR) models to estimate long-term residential exposure (period 2009-2014) to PM 2.5 , PM 2.5 absorbance (PM 2.5 abs), PM 10 , PM coarse, NO 2 and NO x . Between 2013 and 2014 participants self-reported their history of anxiety and depression disorders and related medication use. The analysis was focused on those participants reporting outcome occurrence from 2009 onwards (until 2014). We observed an increased odds of history of depression disorders with increasing concentrations of all air pollutants [e.g. an increased odds of depression of 2.00 (95% CI; 1.37, 2.93) for each 10μg/m 3 NO 2 increase]. Such associations were consistent with an increased odds of medication use in relation to higher concentrations of air pollutants [e.g. an increased odds of antidepressants use of 1.23 (1.04, 1.44) for each 20μg/m 3 NO x increase]. Associations regarding anxiety disorders did not reach statistical significance. Our study shows that increasing long-term exposure to air pollution may increase the odds of depression and the use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines. Further studies are needed to replicate our results and confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and respiratory disease incidence in in Toronto, Canada: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Bai, Li; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Jerrett, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Burnett, Richard T; Lu, Hong; Chen, Hong

    2017-06-19

    Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012. UFP exposures were assigned to residential locations using a land use regression model. Random-effect Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) describing the association between ambient UFPs and respiratory disease incidence adjusting for ambient fine particulate air pollution (PM 2.5 ), NO 2 , and other individual/neighbourhood-level covariates. In total, 74,543 incident cases of COPD, 87,141 cases of asthma, and 12,908 cases of lung cancer were observed during follow-up period. In single pollutant models, each interquartile increase in ambient UFPs was associated with incident COPD (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09) but not asthma (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.01) or lung cancer (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.03). Additional adjustment for NO 2 attenuated the association between UFPs and COPD and the HR was no longer elevated (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.03). PM 2.5 and NO 2 were each associated with increased incidence of all three outcomes but risk estimates for lung cancer were sensitive to indirect adjustment for smoking and body mass index. In general, we did not observe clear evidence of positive associations between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and respiratory disease incidence independent of other air pollutants. Further replication is required as few studies have evaluated these relationships.

  5. Preliminary study of an exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep among long-term haemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Radha; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Singh, Surindar Kaur Surat; Lim, Soo Kun; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Fatigue and quality of sleep are the main factors that contribute to a poor quality of life among patients on long-term haemodialysis. Studies have also emphasised the importance of exercise for improving the wellbeing of dialysis patients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a predialysis low-to-moderate-intensity exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep disorders among long-term haemodialysis patients. METHODS In this quasi-experimental study, an exercise programme was conducted three times a week for 12 weeks before long-term haemodialysis patients underwent dialysis at two centres. The patients were categorised into either the exercise group (n = 28) or control group (n = 27). The latter was asked to maintain their current lifestyles. Assessments of fatigue and sleep disorder levels were performed for both groups using self-reported questionnaires at baseline and after intervention. The patients’ perception of the exercise programme was also determined using self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS Paired sample t-test indicated improvements in fatigue level in the exercise group (mean fatigue score: post-treatment 40.5 ± 7.9 vs. pre-treatment 30.0 ± 10.9). Improvements in sleep disorders were also observed in the exercise group (mean score: post-treatment 7.6 ± 3.3 vs. pre-treatment 10.1 ± 3.8). However, sleep quality deteriorated in the control group (mean score: post-treatment 10.7 ± 2.9 vs. pre-treatment 9.3 ± 2.9). CONCLUSION Simple low-to-moderate-intensity exercise is effective for improving fatigue, sleep disorders and the overall quality of life among haemodialysis patients. PMID:25273932

  6. Self-reported work ability in long-term breast cancer survivors. A population-based questionnaire study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Jensen, Anette Jung; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2013-01-01

    to understand the work problems experienced by cancer survivors, including their ability to work. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ability of long-term breast cancer survivors to work was different from that of a cancer-free control group.......Although up to 80% of women can return to work after treatment for breast cancer, maintaining an affiliation to the labour market may be a challenge, as shown by the fact that the risks for unemployment and early retirement are increased in the years after treatment of cancer. It is important...

  7. Predictors of long-term recovery in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: Data from a 22-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L; Tabri, Nassim; Keshaviah, Aparna; Murray, Helen B; Herzog, David B; Thomas, Jennifer J; Coniglio, Kathryn; Keel, Pamela K; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate predictors of long-term recovery from eating disorders 22 years after entry into a longitudinal study. One hundred and seventy-six of the 228 surviving participants (77.2%) were re-interviewed 20-25 years after study entry using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation to assess ED recovery. The sample consisted of 100 women diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 76 with bulimia nervosa (BN) at study entry. A comorbid diagnosis of major depression at the start of the study strongly predicted having a diagnosis of AN-Restricting type at the 22-year assessment. A higher body mass index (BMI) at study intake decreased the odds of being diagnosed with AN-Binge Purge type, relative to being recovered, 22 years later. The only predictor that increased the likelihood of having a diagnosis of BN at the 22-year assessment was the length of time during the study when the diagnostic criteria for BN were met. Together, these results indicate that the presence and persistence of binge eating and purging behaviors were poor prognostic indicators and that comorbidity with depression is particularly pernicious in AN. Treatment providers might pay particular attention to these issues in an effort to positively influence recovery over the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term visual damage after acute methanol poisonings: Longitudinal cross-sectional study in 50 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Sergey; Pelclova, Daniela; Diblik, Pavel; Urban, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Nurieva, Olga; Kotikova, Katerina; Navratil, Tomas; Komarc, Martin; Belacek, Jaromir; Seidl, Zdenek; Vaneckova, Manuela; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Klempir, Jiri; Yurchenko, Maksim; Ruzicka, Evzen; Miovsky, Michal; Janikova, Barbara; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2015-11-01

    Visual disturbances due to the toxic effect of formic acid in acute methanol poisonings are generally transient. The subjective symptoms of visual toxicity may resolve within few weeks and fundoscopic signs of acute optic neuropathy subside within 1-2 months; therefore, the prevalence of long-term visual sequelae in the population of survivors of poisonings may be underestimated. To study the prevalence and character of long-term visual sequelae of acute methanol poisonings based on the data from the Czech mass methanol outbreak in 2012. A total of 50 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning were included in this longitudinal cross-sectional study, median age: 48 (range, 23-73) years. The following tests were performed: optical coherence tomography or OCT with evaluation of the retinal nerve fibers layer (RNFL), visual evoked potentials (VEP), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, complete ocular examination (visual acuity/field, color vision, contrast sensitivity, and fundus), neurological examinations, and biochemical tests. Of 50 patients, 7/50 (14%) were discharged with diagnosed visual sequelae and 6/50 (12%) were discharged with both visual and central nervous system sequelae of poisoning. On the follow-up examination, 20/50 (40%) of the patients had long-term visual sequelae, with 8% of blindness. A total of 38% of the patients had abnormal (28% borderline) findings on RNFL, and 40% had abnormal (18% borderline) VEP. Among the patients discharged without detected visual sequelae, 8/37 (22%) had abnormal RNFL and VEP. Patients with visual sequelae had brain lesions more often (70% vs. 27%, p methanol, ethanol, HCO3-, formate, pH, anion gap, and base deficit (all p methanol poisonings in general.

  9. A qualitative study explaining nurses' perceptions of quality care for older people in long-term care settings in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathy

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this research was to explore nurses' perceptions of the attributes of quality care and the factors that facilitate or hinder high-quality nursing care in long-term care. The quality of care for older people living in long-term care has been identified as an issue of concern in many nursing research studies. While many factors have been identified, it is difficult to determine key factors from current research. The study was a qualitative exploration of nurses' perceptions of quality care for older people and the factors that facilitate or hinder quality care. It involved 20 interviews with nurses. Respondents were asked to illustrate their accounts with examples from practice. This phase of the research was guided by the principles of hermeneutic phenomenology and the analysis process by Van Manen. The findings indicated that nurses perceived quality care for older people in Ireland as holistic, individualized and focused on promoting independence and choice. The research revealed, however, that care in many practice areas was not individualized, patient choice and involvement in decision making was limited and some areas engendered dependency. While staffing was identified as a factor which had an impact on the provision of patient choice, other issues, such as the motivation of staff, the role of the ward manager and the dominance of routine were also highlighted. There is a need to review organizational approaches to care, develop patient centred approaches to care and provide educational support for managers. This research focuses on care for older people; it helps practitioners identify key factors in the provision of quality care for older people living in long-term care.

  10. The FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: a study of the long term fate of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, Pascal; Waldmann, Svenja; Pearce, Jonathan; Dimier, Alain; Le Gallo, Yann; Frykman, Peter; Maurand, Nicolas; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Yalamas, Thierry; Cremer, Holger; Spiers, Chris; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project are to study specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2, mainly: the trapping mechanisms occurring in the storage reservoir, the influence of fluid-rock interactions on mechanical integrity of caprock and well vicinity, and also the modifications induced at the regional scale (brine displacement, fault reactivation, hydrogeology changes...). A comprehensive approach combining laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and natural analogue studies is developed to assess all the processes mentioned above. A collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. To address geochemical trapping at reservoir scale, an experimental approach is developed using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose. To evaluate the interactions between CO2 (and formation fluid) and the well environment (formation, cement, casing) and to assess the consequences of these interactions on the transport properties of well materials, a 1 to 1 scale experiment has been set in the Mont Terri Gallery Opalinus clay to reproduce classical well objects (cemented annulus, casing and cement plug) perforating caprock formations. An extensive program of numerical modeling is also developed to calibrate, to reproduce and to extrapolate the experimental results at longer time scales including uncertainty

  11. Implementing the supportive supervision intervention for registered nurses in a long-term care home: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Robinson, Angela

    2013-11-01

    This pilot study was conducted in response to the call in 2009 by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics to focus on effective leadership structures in nursing homes and to develop leadership capacity. Few researchers have evaluated interventions aimed at enhancing the leadership ability of registered nurses in long-term care. The aim of the pilot study was to test the feasibility of a three-part supportive supervisory intervention to improve supervisory skills of registered nurses in long-term care. A repeated measures group design was used. Quantitative data were collected from healthcare aides, licensed practical nurses (i.e., supervised staff), and registered nurses (i.e., supervisors). Focus groups with care managers and supervisors examined perceptions of the intervention. There were nonsignificant changes in both the registered nurse supervisors' job satisfaction and the supervised staff's perception of their supervisors' support. Supervised staff scores indicated an increase in the use of research utilization but did not reflect an increase in job satisfaction. Focus group discussions revealed that the supervisors and care managers perceived the workshop to be valuable; however, the weekly self-reflection, coaching, and mentoring components of the intervention were rare and inconsistent. While the primary outcomes were not influenced by the Supportive Supervision Intervention, further effort is required to understand how best to enhance the supportive supervisory skills of RNs. Examples of how to improve the possibility of a successful intervention are advanced. Effective supervisory skills among registered nurses are crucial for improving the quality of care in long-term care homes. Registered nurses are receptive to interventions that will enhance their roles as supervisors. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Long-term persistence with injectable therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: an 18-year observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    Full Text Available Disease modifying therapies (DMTs reduce the frequency of relapses and accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. Long-term persistence with treatment is important to optimize treatment benefit. This long-term, cohort study was conducted at the Calgary MS Clinic. All consenting adults with relapsing-remitting MS who started either glatiramer acetate (GA or interferon-β 1a/1b (IFN-β between January 1st, 1996 and July 1st, 2011 were included. Follow-up continued to February 1st, 2014. Time-to-discontinuation of the initial and subsequently-prescribed DMTs (switches was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Group differences were compared using log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression models. Analysis included 1471 participants; 906 were initially prescribed GA and 565 were initially prescribed IFN-β. Follow-up information was available for 87%; 29 (2% were lost to follow-up and 160 (11% moved from Southern Alberta while still using DMT. Median time-to-discontinuation of all injectable DMTs was 11.1 years. Participants with greater disability at treatment initiation, those who started treatment before age 30, and those who started between 2006 and 2011 were more likely to discontinue use of all injectable DMTs. Median time-to-discontinuation of the initial DMT was 8.6 years. Those initially prescribed GA remained on treatment longer. Of 610 participants who discontinued injectable DMT, 331 (54% started an oral DMT, or a second-line DMT, or resumed injectable DMT after 90 days. Persistence with injectable DMTs was high in this long-term population-based study. Most participants who discontinued injectable DMT did not remain untreated. Further research is required to understand treatment outcomes and outcomes after stopping DMT.

  13. A cross-sectional study to assess the long-term health status of patients with lower respiratory tract infections, including Q-fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A.S.G. van; Loenhout, J.A.F. van; Peters, J.B.; Rietveld, A.; Paget, W.J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Olde Loohuis, A.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Velden, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) might be at risk for long-term impaired health status. We assessed whether LRTI patients without Q fever are equally at risk for developing long-term symptoms compared to LRTI patients with Q fever. The study was a cross-sectional cohort

  14. Long-term impacts of prescribed burns on soil thermal conductivity and soil heating at a Colorado Rocky Mountain site: a data/model fusion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank; N. B. Reisch

    2008-01-01

    Heating any soil during a sufficiently intense wild fire or prescribed burn can alter that soil irreversibly, resulting in many significant, and well studied, long-term biological, chemical, and hydrological effects. On the other hand, much less is known about how fire affects the thermal properties and the long-term thermal regime of soils. Such knowledge is important...

  15. Long-term psychological impact of carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation and prophylactic surgery: a 5-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Lodder, Litanja N.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; van Gool, Arthur R.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van der Meer, Conny A.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; van Geel, Bert N.; Burger, Curt W.; Wladimiroff, Juriy W.; Tibben, Aad

    2003-01-01

    To explore long-term psychosocial consequences of carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation and to identify possible risk factors for long-term psychological distress. Five years after genetic test disclosure, 65 female participants (23 carriers, 42 noncarriers) of our psychological follow-up study completed a

  16. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, L.H.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Ederle, J.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Mali, W.P.; Beard, J.D.; Cleveland, T.; Engelter, S.T.; Lyrer, P.A.; Ford, G.A.; Dorman, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic carotid

  17. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, Leo H.; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Ederle, Jörg; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Mali, Willem P. Th M.; Beard, Jonathan D.; Cleveland, Trevor; Engelter, Stefan T.; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Ford, Gary A.; Dorman, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Doig, D.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Kennedy, F.; Tindall, H.; Turner, E.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. Methods Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis

  18. Patient-reported safety incidents in older patients with long-term conditions: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Blakeman, Thomas; Hann, Mark; Bower, Peter

    2017-05-30

    Increasing evidence suggests that patient safety is a serious concern for older patients with long-term conditions. Despite this, there is a lack of research on safety incidents encountered by this patient group. In this study, we sought to examine patient reports of safety incidents and factors associated with reports of safety incidents in older patients with long-term conditions. The baseline cross-sectional data from a longitudinal cohort study were analysed. Older patients (n=3378 aged 65 years and over) with a long-term condition registered in general practices were included in the study. The main outcome was patient-reported safety incidents including availability and appropriateness of medical tests and prescription of wrong types or doses of medication. Binary univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken to examine factors associated with patient-reported safety incidents. Safety incidents were reported by 11% of the patients. Four factors were significantly associated with patient-reported safety incidents in multivariate analyses. The experience of multiple long-term conditions (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13), a probable diagnosis of depression (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.74) and greater relational continuity of care (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.52) were associated with increased odds for patient-reported safety incidents. Perceived greater support and involvement in self-management was associated with lower odds for patient-reported safety incidents (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.97). We found that older patients with multimorbidity and depression are more likely to report experiences of patient safety incidents. Improving perceived support and involvement of patients in their care may help prevent patient-reported safety incidents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Long-term exposure to air pollution and the risk of suicide death: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2018-07-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. Previous studies have reported a significant association between acute exposure to air pollution and suicide; little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of air pollution on risk of suicide. We investigated whether long-term exposure to particulate matter of ≤10μm in diameter (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) would be associated with a greater risk of death by suicide. The study sample comprised 265,749 adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013) in South Korea. Suicide death was defined as per ICD-10 code. Data on air pollution exposure used nationwide monitoring data, and individual exposure levels were assigned using geographic information systems. Air pollution exposure was categorized as the interquartile range (IQR) and quartiles. Hazards ratios (HRs) were calculated for the occurrence of suicide death after adjusting for potential covariates. During the study period, 564 (0.2%) subjects died from suicide. Increases in IQR pollutants (7.5μg/m 3 for PM 10 , 11.8ppb for NO 2 , and 0.8ppb for SO 2 ) significantly increased HR for suicide death [PM 10 : HR=3.09 (95% CI: 2.63-3.63); NO 2 : HR=1.33 (95% CI: 1.09-1.64); and SO 2 : HR=1.15 (95% CI: 1.07-1.24)]. Compared with the lowest level of air pollutants (Quartile 1), the risk of suicide significantly increased in the highest quartile level (Quartile 4) for PM 10 (HR=4.03; 95% CI: 2.97-5.47) and SO 2 (HR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.29-2.11) and in the third quartile for NO 2 (HR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.17-1.96). HRs for subjects with a physical or mental disorder were higher than that those for subjects without the disorder. Subjects living in metropolitan areas were more vulnerable to long-term PM 10 exposure than those living in non-metropolitan areas. Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with a significantly increased risk of suicide death. People having underlying diseases or

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation Treated with Percutaneous Discectomy: Comparative Study with Microendoscopic Discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengui; Wu Xiaotao; Guo Jinhe; Zhuang Suyang; Teng Gaojun

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the long-term outcomes of patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLD) or microendoscopic discectomy (MED). A retrospective study was performed in consecutive patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with PLD (n = 129) or MED (n = 101) in a single hospital from January 2000 to March 2002. All patients were followed up with MacNab criteria and self-evaluation questionnaires comprising the Oswestry Disability Index and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Several statistical methods were used for analyses of the data, and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 104 patients (80.62%) with PLD and 82 patients (81.19%) with MED were eligible for analyses, with a mean follow-up period of 6.64 ± 0.67 years and 6.42 ± 0.51 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, number of lesions, major symptoms and physical signs, and radiological findings. According to the MacNab criteria, 75.96% in the PLD group and 84.15% in the MED group achieved excellent or good results, respectively, this was statistically significant (p = 0.0402). With the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaires, the average scores and minimal disability, respectively, were 6.97 and 71.15% in the PLD group and 4.89 and 79.27% in the MED group. Total average scores of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were 75.88 vs. 81.86 in PLD group vs. MED group (p = 0.0582). The cost and length of hospitalization were higher or longer in MED group, a statistically significant difference (both p < 0.0001). Long-term complications were observed in two patients (2.44%) in the MED group, no such complications were observed in the PLD group. Both PLD and MED show an acceptable long-term efficacy for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Compared with MED patients, long-term satisfaction is slightly lower in the PLD patients; complications

  1. The Long-Term Consumption of Oats in Celiac Disease Patients Is Safe: A Large Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Katri; Laurikka, Pilvi; Huhtala, Heini; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) can be diversified by non-contaminated oats, but there is a shortage of long-term studies concerning its safety. We compared long-term treatment outcomes and factors associated with the introduction of oats between celiac patients on a GFD with or without oats. Eight hundred sixty-nine previously diagnosed celiac patients were interviewed. The validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and quality of life, serological tests were performed, and results of histology were confirmed from patient records. We found the median duration of GFD to be 10 years and 82% using oats. Factors predicting the consumption of oats were diagnosis after the year 2000, advice from a dietitian, detection by screening, and mild clinical presentation. Oat consumers and non-consumers did not differ in dietary adherence (96.5% vs. 97.4%, p = 0.746), the prevalence of symptoms (22.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.931), positivity for endomysial antibodies (8.8% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.237), histological recovery after one year (63.1% vs. 60.0%, p = 0.773), malignancy (4.8% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.420), osteoporosis/osteopenia (9.2% vs. 11.0%, p = 0.489), or fractures (26.9% vs. 27.9%, p = 0.791). The oat consumers had better SF-36 physical role limitations and general health scores. Based on our results, the long-term consumption of oats in celiac disease patients is safe and may improve quality of life. PMID:28617328

  2. Caught in suffering bodies: a qualitative study of immigrant women on long-term sick leave in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Line; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Kumar, Bernadette N; Lohne, Vibeke

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the issues faced by immigrant women on long-term sick leave due to chronic pain, focusing on their personal perspectives on their daily lives, their bodies and their pain. An increasing number of immigrants in Norway present a challenge to the public health service, above all in relation to the health needs of immigrant women, many of whom risk having to take long-term sick leave due to chronic pain. This study has a qualitative design, with participant observation and in-depth interviews. Participant observations were carried out from a sample of fourteen immigrant women in an outpatient clinic at a rehabilitation hospital. In addition, qualitative interviews were conducted after the rehabilitation period. A hermeneutic approach was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. The analysis revealed one main theme, 'Bodies marked by onerous experiences', as well as two subthemes: 'It is in my body' and 'Invisible pain'. The immigrant women struggled with invisible, chronic pain, which they blamed on physically tiring workdays and stressful life situations. Furthermore, they felt that their experiences of discriminative attitudes at the workplace worsened their suffering. The chronic pain made the immigrant women suffer, because they experienced it as a threatening, incomprehensible and unreal force, without meaning or the ability to be controlled. Their own psychological distress exacerbated their pain. Immigrant women on long-term sick leave are likely to need special approaches that are closely adapted to their different backgrounds and their unique personal experiences. We recommend culturally appropriate family counselling and collaboration with employers at the women's workplaces. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Small amounts of tissue preserve pancreatic function: Long-term follow-up study of middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zipeng; Yin, Jie; Wei, Jishu; Dai, Cuncai; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Xu, Qing; Dai, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Feng; Chen, Jianmin; Xi, Chunhua; Wu, Pengfei; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a novel procedure for treating multifocal lesions of the pancreas while preserving pancreatic function. However, long-term pancreatic function after this procedure remains unclear.The aims of this current study are to investigate short- and long-term outcomes, especially long-term pancreatic endocrine function, after MPP.From September 2011 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent MPP in our institution, and 5 cases with long-term outcomes were further analyzed in a retrospective manner. Percentage of tissue preservation was calculated using computed tomography volumetry. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels after oral glucose challenge were evaluated in 5 patients. Beta-cell secreting function including modified homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA2-beta), area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide, and C-peptide index were evaluated and compared with those after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and total pancreatectomy. Exocrine function was assessed based on questionnaires.Our case series included 3 women and 2 men, with median age of 50 (37-81) years. Four patients underwent pylorus-preserving PD together with distal pancreatectomy (DP), including 1 with spleen preserved. The remaining patient underwent Beger procedure and spleen-preserving DP. Median operation time and estimated intraoperative blood loss were 330 (250-615) min and 800 (400-5500) mL, respectively. Histological examination revealed 3 cases of metastatic lesion to the pancreas, 1 case of chronic pancreatitis, and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. Major postoperative complications included 3 cases of delayed gastric emptying and 2 cases of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Imaging studies showed that segments representing 18.2% to 39.5% of the pancreas with good blood supply had been preserved. With a median 35.0 months of follow-ups on pancreatic functions, only 1 patient developed new-onset diabetes mellitus of the 4 preoperatively euglycemic

  4. Natural analogue studies for the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Lessons learned from the nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Yasuhisa

    2002-01-01

    'Natural analogues' can be defined as the processes or materials analogous to those operating in the geological disposal system of radioactive waste. Natural analogue studies provide the only means by which long-term data can be obtained under the real natural conditions, and also the most convincing support to the long-term performance assessment of the geological disposal system. The framework of our natural analogue studies concerning the stability of the engineered barrier materials for geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste is reviewed. One of the results is that the volcanic glass included in a clay bed did not alter during the past one million years. The Tono Uranium Deposits are studied as geochemical analogues of radioactive waste disposal in Japan. We conclude that although the deposits have been subjected to a variety of geological processes and events such as faulting, erosion and uplift/subsidence, the reducing condition has been maintained and uranium has not migrated for at least the past ten million years. Application and further development of the natural analogue studies are also discussed. (author)

  5. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  6. Factors influencing the long-term sustainment of quality improvements made in addiction treatment facilities: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Stumbo

    2017-11-01

    quality elsewhere, even absent overall sustainment of original study outcome goals. Available quantitative data on wait-time reduction demonstrated general concordance between agency perceptions of, and evidence for, sustainment 2 years following the end of the intervention. Additional quantitative data suggested that greater engagement during the intervention period showed some association with sustainment. Conclusions Factors identified in QI frameworks as important for short-term sustainment—organizational capacity (e.g. staffing and leadership and intervention characteristics (e.g. flexibility and fit—are also important to long-term sustainment.

  7. Understanding the Risk Factors and Long-Term Consequences of Cisplatin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenat Yousuf Bhat

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a well-known complication of cisplatin-based chemotherapy; however, its impact on long-term patient survival is unclear. We sought to determine the incidence and risk factors for development of cisplatin-associated AKI and its impact on long-term renal function and patient survival. We identified 233 patients who received 629 cycles of high-dose cisplatin (99±9mg/m2 for treatment of head and neck cancer between 2005 and 2011. These subjects were reviewed for development of AKI. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity (CN was defined as persistent rise in serum creatinine, with a concomitant decline in serum magnesium and potassium, in absence of use of nephrotoxic agents and not reversed with hydration. All patients were hydrated per protocol and none had baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR via CKD-EPI<60mL/min/1.73m2. The patients were grouped based on development of AKI and were staged for levels of injury, per KDIGO-AKI definition. Renal function was assessed via serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR via CKD-EPI at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Patients with AKI were screened for the absence of nephrotoxic medication use and a temporal decline in serum potassium and magnesium levels. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine risk factors for cisplatin-associated AKI. Twelve-month renal function was compared among groups using ANOVA. Kaplan-Maier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to study its impact on patient survival. Of 233 patients, 158(68% developed AKI; 77 (49% developed stage I, 55 (35% developed stage II, and 26 (16% developed stage III AKI. Their serum potassium and magnesium levels correlated negatively with level of injury (p<0.05. African American race was a significant risk factor for cisplatin-associated AKI, OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 6.3 and 2.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 6.7 patients with stage III AKI had the lowest eGFR value at 12 months (p = 0.05 and long-term

  8. Factors influencing the long-term sustainment of quality improvements made in addiction treatment facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbo, Scott P; Ford, James H; Green, Carla A

    2017-11-01

    original study outcome goals. Available quantitative data on wait-time reduction demonstrated general concordance between agency perceptions of, and evidence for, sustainment 2 years following the end of the intervention. Additional quantitative data suggested that greater engagement during the intervention period showed some association with sustainment. Factors identified in QI frameworks as important for short-term sustainment-organizational capacity (e.g. staffing and leadership) and intervention characteristics (e.g. flexibility and fit)-are also important to long-term sustainment.

  9. Normal white matter microstructure in women long-term recovered from anorexia nervosa: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2018-01-01

    Studies point to white matter (WM) microstructure alterations in both adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). These include reduced fractional anisotropy in several WM fiber tracts, suggesting reduced WM integrity. The extent to which these alterations are reversible with recovery from AN is unclear. There is a paucity of research investigating the presence of WM microstructure alterations in recovered AN patients, and results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the presence of WM microstructure alterations in women long-term recovered from AN. Twenty-one adult women who were recovered from AN for at least 1 year were compared to 21 adult comparison women. Participants were recruited via user-organizations for eating disorders, local advertisements, and online forums. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare WM microstructure between groups. Correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics were also explored. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in WM microstructure. These null findings remained when employing liberal alpha level thresholds. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics. Our findings showed normal WM microstructure in long-term recovered patients, indicating the alterations observed during the acute phase are reversible. Given the paucity of research and inconsistent findings, future studies are warranted to determine the presence of WM microstructure alterations following recovery from AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Health effects following long-term exposure to thorium dusts: a twenty-year follow-up study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.A.; Cheng, Y.E.; Xiao, H.; Chen, L.; Yang, Y.J.; Dong, Z.H.; Zheng, R.; Feng, G.; Deng, Y.H.; Feng, Z.L.; Han, X.M.

    2004-01-01

    A twenty-year follow-up study was carried out at Baiyun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine in China, This mine has been mined since 1958. Its ore contains 0.04% of ThO 2 and 10% of SiO 2 . The purpose of this study is to investigate possible health effects in dust-exposed miners following long-term exposure to thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. By using the negative high voltage exhaled thoron progeny measurement system to estimate the miner's thorium lung burden. The highest thorium lung burden among 1 158 measurements of 638 miners was 11.11 Bq. The incidence of stage 0 + pneumoconiosis was increased among dust-exposed miners. An epidemiological study showed that the lung cancer mortality of the dust-exposed miners was significantly (p 2 and SiO 2 ) and thoron progeny. This is the first evidence in humans of the carcinogenicity after long-term inhalation of thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. The total person-years of observation for the dust-exposed miners and the controls were 62 712 and 34 672 respectively. (author)

  11. Long-term effectiveness of a back education programme in elementary schoolchildren: an 8-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Danneels, Lieven; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of a spine care education programme conducted in 9- to 11-year-old schoolchildren. The study sample included 96 intervention subjects and 98 controls (9- to 11-year-olds at baseline). Intervention consisted of a 6-week school-based back education programme (predominantly biomechanically oriented) and was implemented by a physical therapist. Self-reported outcomes on back care knowledge, spinal care behaviour, self-efficacy towards favourable back care behaviour, prevalence of back and neck pain during the week and fear-avoidance beliefs were evaluated by the use of questionnaires. Post-tests were performed within 1 week after programme completion, after 1 year and after 8 years. Whereas the educational back care programme resulted in increased back care knowledge up to adulthood (P cognitive aspect of back care up to adulthood, yet not in changing actual behaviour or self-efficacy. The current study does not provide evidence that educational back care programmes have any impact on spinal pain in adulthood. The true long-term impact of school-based spinal health interventions on clinically relevant outcome measures merits further attention.

  12. Long-term outcomes of thoracic transplant recipients following conversion to everolimus with reduced calcineurin inhibitor in a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial lv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestad, Lars; Eiskjaer, Hans; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    The NOCTET study randomized 282 patients ≥1 year after heart or lung transplantation to continue conventional calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy or to start everolimus with reduced-exposure CNI. Last follow-up, at ≥5 years postrandomization (mean: 5.6 years) was attended by 72/140 everolimus...

  13. Auditory-perceptual speech analysis in children with cerebellar tumours: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hyo Jung; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene; Aarsen, Femke; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter; Paquier, Philippe F

    2012-09-01

    Mutism and Subsequent Dysarthria (MSD) and the Posterior Fossa Syndrome (PFS) have become well-recognized clinical entities which may develop after resection of cerebellar tumours. However, speech characteristics following a period of mutism have not been documented in much detail. This study carried out a perceptual speech analysis in 24 children and adolescents (of whom 12 became mute in the immediate postoperative phase) 1-12.2 years after cerebellar tumour resection. The most prominent speech deficits in this study were distorted vowels, slow rate, voice tremor, and monopitch. Factors influencing long-term speech disturbances are presence or absence of postoperative PFS, the localisation of the surgical lesion and the type of adjuvant treatment. Long-term speech deficits may be present up to 12 years post-surgery. The speech deficits found in children and adolescents with cerebellar lesions following cerebellar tumour surgery do not necessarily resemble adult speech characteristics of ataxic dysarthria. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-Term Impact of Cyclosporin Reduction with MMF Treatment in Chronic Allograft Dysfunction: REFERENECE Study 3-Year Follow Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Frimat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI toxicity contributes to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN. In the 2-year, randomized, study, we showed that 50% cyclosporin (CsA reduction in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF treatment improves kidney function without increasing the risk for graft rejection/loss. To investigate the long-term effect of this regimen, we conducted a follow up study in 70 kidney transplant patients until 5 years after REFERENCE initiation. The improvement of kidney function was confirmed in the MMF group but not in the control group (CsA group. Four graft losses occurred, 2 in each group (graft survival in the MMF group 95.8% and 90.9% in control group. One death occurred in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events or acute graft rejections. A limitation is the weak proportion of patient still remaining within the control group. On the other hand, REFERENCE focuses on the CsA regimen while opinions about the tacrolimus ones are still debated. In conclusion, CsA reduction in the presence of MMF treatment seems to maintain kidney function and is well tolerated in the long term.

  15. Assessing state efforts to meet baby boomers' long-term care needs: a case study in compensatory federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    The role of the state government and the character of federal-state relations in social policy have evolved considerably. Frank Thompson uses the phrase compensatory federalism to describe increased activity by state governments to make up for a diminished federal role. For compensatory federalism to work, it is essential for states to take leadership roles in key policy areas. Few studies examine whether states have risen to the challenge of compensatory federalism in social policy. This paper examines an emerging issue of great significance in social policy-challenges involved in meeting future long-term care needs for the baby boomer generation. The paper provides an in-depth case study of attempts by Maryland to meet the challenges of financing long-term care needs for the baby boomer generation. The detailed description of the agenda-setting and problem-structuring process in Maryland is followed by an analysis that uses three different frameworks to assess the policy development processes. These models are rooted in a bureaucratic politics perspective, an agenda-setting perspective and an interest group politics perspective. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations and possibilities of state leadership in the social policy sphere.

  16. Cancer risk in long-term users of vitamin K antagonists: A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    performed for selected cancer sites, subgroups and measures of exposure. A total of 238,196 cases and 1,713,176 controls were included. The adjusted OR for cancer associated with long-term VKA exposure was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.95–1.02). Long-term VKA use was associated with increased ORs for alcohol- or obesity-related...... a matched case–control analysis. We used data from four Danish nationwide registers. Cases were all Danish individuals with a first-time cancer diagnosis (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) between 2000 and 2009. For each case, eight controls, matched by birth year and gender, were selected from the source...... cancer sites, whereas we observed a decreased risk of prostate cancer (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78–0.95). Our study does not support a general chemopreventive effect of VKA drugs. However, in accordance with findings from previous studies, we found an inverse association between use of VKA and prostate cancer....

  17. A quality of life study in 20 adult long-term survivors of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D I; Gale, D J; Vedhara, K; Bird, J M

    1999-07-01

    There are few specific data available concerning quality of life (QOL) of survivors of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (UD-BMT). The procedure is expensive, difficult and is being employed increasingly yet we have little information concerning the QOL of survivors to justify this intervention. In this study, 20 long-term (>1 year post-BMT) survivors were studied with four self report questionnaires designed to assess quality of life, satisfaction with life, social support and employment status. Overall, satisfaction with life measures was above average but there was dissatisfaction with physical strength and appearance. The post-transplant employment data indicates that 60% of long-term survivors returned to full-time work and 15% to part-time work. Failure to return to work was not correlated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse, age at or time since transplant. In general, there was a good correlation between the clinician's and patient's view of their health but the clinician's assessment of the patients mental health and energy was higher than the patients reported. Further research is required in the area of QOL post-UD-BMT. This will enable transplant physicians to counsel patients better pre-BMT and to evaluate fully the results achieved by different centres performing the procedure.

  18. Long-term outcome of a cohort of adults with autism and intellectual disability: A pilot prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Laura; Brondino, Natascia; Orsi, Paolo; Provenzani, Umberto; De Micheli, Andrea; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a long-life condition frequently associated with intellectual disability. To date, long-term outcome has been investigated mostly in ASD people with average or above-average intelligence and there is a paucity of data about autistic adults with comorbid intellectual disability. The aim of the present study is to assess long-term variations of adaptive abilities in a sample of autistic adults with intellectual disability and severe language impairment. 22 adults (17 males and 5 females) affected by autism and intellectual disability were recruited and evaluated after their admission in an Italian farm-community. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were used as outcome measure for adaptive abilities. After ten years the measurement was repeated in order to study the evolution of patients' skills along time. Additionally, sociodemographic variables, changes in medication and comorbidities were recorded. No statistically significant improvement neither deterioration was found according to VABS raw scores in the entire sample. On the contrary, a significant improvement was evident in standard scores for the Adaptive Behavior Composite Scale and for each domain. In general, our patients remained stable in adaptive abilities. However, our results are not generalisable to the entire autistic population, but only to inpatients with autism and comorbid intellectual disability. New measures should be developed in order to better assess changes in this particular population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short- and long-term effects of synchronized metronome training in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a two case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna-Maria; Domellöf, Erik; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) require individualized long-term management to maintain and improve motor functions. The objective of this study was to explore potential effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement kinematics in two children diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic CP (HCP). Both children underwent 4-weeks/12 sessions of SMT by means of the Interactive Metronome (IM). Optoelectronic registrations of goal-directed uni- and bimanual upper-limb movements were made at three occasions; pre-training, post completed training and at 6-months post completed training. Significant changes in kinematic outcomes following IM training were found for both cases. Findings included smoother and shorter movement trajectories in the bimanual condition, especially for the affected side. In the unimanual condition, Case I also showed increased smoothness of the non-affected side. The observed short- and long-term effects on the spatio-temporal organization of upper-limb movements need to be corroborated and extended by further case-control studies.

  20. Long-term repetitive sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritation of the skin: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Nara; Lee, Ivy; Zhai, Hongbo; Maibach, Howard I

    2005-11-01

    Skin may adapt to topical irritants through accommodation. This study focuses on long-term exposure to irritants and attempts to demonstrate accommodation. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) induced irritant contact dermatitis at 3 concentrations (0.025% to 0.075%). Distilled water, acetone and an empty chamber served as controls. Experimental compounds were applied to forearms of 7 healthy volunteers for 24 hr before replacing by a fresh chamber for 6 non-consecutive weeks over 103 days. Possible accommodation was quantified by visual scoring (erythema and dryness) and by bioengineering parameters: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, chromametry and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Significant erythema, dryness, elevated TEWL, skin colour reflectance and LDF values occurred during the exposure periods. Upon repeat exposure, an immediate and augmented response in erythema, TEWL, skin colour reflectance and LDF developed. However, irritant skin changes were not sustained. Irritation parameters return to baseline after cessation of exposure. There was no evidence of sustained irritation or accommodation after the last exposure. Study findings do not document sustained accommodation or adaptive hyposensitivity after long-term repetitive irritant exposure under these test conditions. Alternative models should be developed to prove or disprove the accommodation hypothesis.

  1. A prospective study of severe hypoglycemia and long-term spatial memory in children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Tamara; Lillie, Rema; Sadler, Michelle; White, Neil H

    2004-06-01

    In a previous retrospective study, severe hypoglycemia (SH) was associated with decreased long-term spatial memory in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prospectively ascertained SH would also be associated with decreased spatial long-term memory over time. Children with T1DM (n = 42) and sibling controls (n = 25) performed a spatial delayed response (SDR) task with short and long delays and other neuropsychological tests at baseline and after 15 months of monitoring. Extreme glycemic events and other medical complications were recorded prospectively during follow-up. Fourteen T1DM children experienced at least one episode of SH during the follow-up period (range = 1-5). After controlling for long-delay SDR performance at baseline, age, gender, and age of onset, the presence of SH during the prospective period was statistically associated with decreased long-delay SDR performance at follow-up (semipartial r = -0.38, p = 0.017). This relationship was not seen with short-delay SDR or with verbal or object memory, attention, or motor speed. These results, together with previously reported data, support the hypothesis that SH has specific, negative effects on spatial memory skills in T1DM children.

  2. Study on the correlation between long-term exposure tests and accelerated corrosion tests by the combined damage of salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Soon; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the durability assessment and structural performance has increased according to an increase of concrete structures in salt damage environment recent years. Reliable way ensuring the most accelerated corrosion test is a method of performing the rebar corrosion monitoring as exposed directly to the marine test site exposure. However, long-term exposure test has a disadvantage because of a long period of time. Therefore, many studies on reinforced concrete in salt damage environments have been developed as alternatives to replace this. However, accelerated corrosion test is appropriate to evaluate the critical chlorine concentration in the short term, but only accelerated test method, is not easy to get correct answer. Accuracy of correlation acceleration test depends on the period of the degree of exposure environments. Therefore, in this study, depending on the concrete mix material, by the test was performed on the basis of the composite degradation of the salt damage, and investigate the difference of corrosion initiation time of the rebar, and indoor corrosion time of the structure, of the marine environment of the actual environments were investigated. The correlation coefficient was derived in the experiment. Long-term exposure test was actually conducted in consideration of the exposure conditions submerged zone, splash zone and tidal zone. The accelerated corrosion tests were carried out by immersion conditions, and by the combined deterioration due to the carbonation and accelerated corrosion due to wet and dry condition

  3. Study of Duchenne muscular dystrophy long-term survivors aged 40 years and older living in specialized institutions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshio; Kawai, Mitsuru; Kimura, En; Ogata, Katsuhisa; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Michio; Takada, Hiroto; Kuru, Satoshi; Mikata, Takashi; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo

    2017-02-01

    The national muscular dystrophy wards database of Japan lists 118 long-term Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients who were at least 40 years old as of October 1, 2013. To elucidate the clinical features of DMD patients aged 40 years and older, we obtained gene analysis and muscle biopsy findings, as well as medical condition information. Ninety-four of the registered patients consented to participate, of whom 55 meeting genetic or biochemical criteria confirming DMD were analyzed. The mean age at the time of the study was 43.6 ± 3.0 years, while at the time of independent ambulation loss it was 10.6 ± 1.5 years and at mechanical ventilation introduction it was 24.1 ± 5.5 years. All were receiving continuous ventilation support, 27 with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and 28 with tracheal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Thirty-eight were receiving β-blockers or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor, while 9 were free from those agents. Forty had maintained oral nutrition. The 55 analyzed patients had survived into their 40s by receiving multidisciplinary intervention. Our findings emphasize the need of future studies to investigate disease modifiers and the mechanism of long-term survival. In addition, establishment of a worldwide care standard with focus on quality of life for adult males with DMD is important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  5. Long-term Prognosis of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Negative Renal Vasculitis: Cohort Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Yu, Mi-Yeon; Baek, Seon Ha; Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have reported on the long-term prognosis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative renal vasculitis. Between April 2003 and December 2013, 48 patients were diagnosed with renal vasculitis. Their ANCA status was tested using indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 933.5 (257.5-2,079.0) days, 41.7% of patients progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and 43.8% died from any cause. Of 48 patients, 6 and 42 were ANCA-negative and positive, respectively. The rate of ESRD within 3 months was higher in ANCA-negative patients than in ANCA-positive patients (P = 0.038). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed shorter renal survival than did ANCA-positive patients (log-rank P = 0.033). In univariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis, ANCA-negative patients showed increased risk of ESRD, with a hazard ratio 3.190 (95% confidence interval, 1.028-9.895, P = 0.045). However, the effect of ANCA status on renal survival was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Finally, ANCA status did not significantly affect patient survival. In conclusion, long-term patient and renal survival of ANCA-negative renal vasculitis patients did not differ from those of ANCA-positive renal vasculitis patients. Therefore, different treatment strategy depending on ANCA status might be unnecessary.

  6. Biosynthetic hydrogels--studies on chemical and physical characteristics on long-term cellular response for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-07-01

    Biosynthetic hydrogels can meet the drawbacks caused by natural and synthetic ones for biomedical applications. In the current article we present a novel biosynthetic alginate-poly(propylene fumarate) copolymer based chemically crosslinked hydrogel scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Partially crosslinked PA hydrogel and fully cross linked PA-A hydrogel scaffolds were prepared. The influence of chemical and physical (morphology and architecture of hydrogel) characteristics on the long term cellular response was studied. Both these hydrogels were cytocompatible and showed no genotoxicity upon contact with fibroblast cells. Both PA and PA-A were able to resist deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species and sustain the viability of L929 cells. The hydrogel incubated oxidative stress induced cells were capable of maintaining the intra cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) expression to the normal level confirmed their protective effect. Relatively the PA hydrogel was found to be unstable in the cell culture medium. The PA-A hydrogel was able to withstand appreciable cyclic stretching. The cyclic stretching introduced complex macro and microarchitectural features with interconnected pores and more structured bound water which would provide long-term viability of around 250% after the 24th day of culture. All these qualities make PA-A hydrogel form a potent candidate for cardiac tissue engineering. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term climate change assessment study plan for the Hanford Site permanent isolation Barrier Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.L.; Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.

    1992-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the Hanford Site (Adams and Wing 1986; Wig and Gee 1990). The goal of the Barrier Development Program is to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration; plant and animal intrusion; and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 yr and isolate wastes from the accessible environment and warm inadvertent human intruders using markers. This document describes the long-term climate change studies planned to support the Barrier Development Program. The plan outlines a multi-year and multi-discipline approach to assess long-term climate change issues and to help optimize the design of the permanent isolation barriers. A multi-disciplinary approach to climatic data acquisition will be responsible for obtaining needed information for concurrent barrier tasks and for developing a local climate forecast model. This model will couple past climate patterns with models of regional and global climate drivers to provide bounding conditions for barrier performance assessment analyses

  8. Long-term Exon Skipping Studies With 2′-O-Methyl Phosphorothioate Antisense Oligonucleotides in Dystrophic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Tanganyika-de Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-mediated exon skipping for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is currently tested in phase 3 clinical trials. The aim of this approach is to modulate splicing by skipping a specific exon to reframe disrupted dystrophin transcripts, allowing the synthesis of a partly functional dystrophin protein. Studies in animal models allow detailed analysis of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs. Here, we tested the safety and efficacy of subcutaneously administered 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate AON at 200 mg/kg/week for up to 6 months in mouse models with varying levels of disease severity: mdx mice (mild phenotype and mdx mice with one utrophin allele (mdx/utrn+/−; more severe phenotype. Long-term treatment was well tolerated and exon skipping and dystrophin restoration confirmed for all animals. Notably, in the more severely affected mdx/utrn+/− mice the therapeutic effect was larger: creatine kinase (CK levels were more decreased and rotarod running time was more increased. This suggests that the mdx/utrn+/− model may be a more suitable model to test potential therapies than the regular mdx mouse. Our results also indicate that long-term subcutaneous treatment in dystrophic mouse models with these AONs is safe and beneficial.

  9. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  10. Long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on working memory and attention: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Gerry; Kahn, Rene S; Van Den Brink, Wim; Van Ree, Jan M; Ramsey, Nick F

    2006-04-01

    Excessive use of cannabis may have long-term effects on cognitive abilities. Mild impairments have been found in several cognitive domains, particularly in memory and attention. It is not clear, however, whether these effects also occur with moderate, recreational use of cannabis. Furthermore, little is known about underlying brain correlates. The aim of this study is to assess brain function in frequent but relatively moderate cannabis users in the domains of working memory and selective attention. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine verbal working memory and visuo-auditory selective attention in ten frequent cannabis users (after 1 week of abstinence) and ten non-using healthy controls. Groups were similar in age, gender and estimated IQ. Cannabis users and controls performed equally well during the working memory task and the selective attention task. Furthermore, cannabis users did not differ from controls in terms of overall patterns of brain activity in the regions involved in these cognitive functions. However, for working memory, a more specific region-of-interest analysis showed that, in comparison to the controls, cannabis users displayed a significant alteration in brain activity in the left superior parietal cortex. No evidence was found for long-term deficits in working memory and selective attention in frequent cannabis users after 1 week of abstinence. Nonetheless, frequent cannabis use may affect brain function, as indicated by altered neurophysiological dynamics in the left superior parietal cortex during working memory processing.

  11. Natural course of care dependency in residents of long-term care facilities: prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caljouw, Monique A A; Cools, Herman J M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2014-05-22

    Insight in the natural course of care dependency of vulnerable older persons in long-term care facilities (LTCF) is essential to organize and optimize individual tailored care. We examined changes in care dependency in LTCF residents over two 6-month periods, explored the possible predictive factors of change and the effect of care dependency on mortality. A prospective follow-up study in 21 Dutch long-term care facilities. 890 LTCF residents, median age 84 (Interquartile range 79-88) years participated. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, care dependency was assessed by the nursing staff with the Care Dependency Scale (CDS), range 15-75 points. Since the median CDS score differed between men and women (47.5 vs. 43.0, P = 0.013), CDS groups (low, middle and high) were based on gender-specific 33% of CDS scores at baseline and 6 months. At baseline, the CDS groups differed in median length of stay on the ward, urine incontinence and dementia (all P dependency status, predicted an increase in care dependency over time. The majority of residents were stable in their care dependency status over two subsequent 6-month periods. Highly care dependent residents showed an increased mortality risk. Awareness of the natural course of care dependency is essential to residents and their formal and informal caregivers when considering therapeutic and end-of-life care options.

  12. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  13. Limited agreement between current and long-term asthma control in children : the PACMAN cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; Vijverberg, Susanne J. H.; Koenderman, Leo; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that predictors of asthma treatment outcomes differ depending on the definition of the outcome chosen. This provides evidence that different outcomes studied may reflect distinct aspects of asthma control. To assess predictors of asthma control, we need firm

  14. Long-term studies in children following low radiation doses in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Waesser, S.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective clinical study was started in 1967 in order to give optimal advice to parents who want to have children after radiation exposure in early pregnancy. Recommendations were elaborated, whether an interruption is necessary or not. Within this study embryologic studies after interruptio were carried out and children irradiated in utero were examined clinically and genetically. Until 1. May 1982 more than 200 cases were examined and lomg-term studies of 73 children up to 10 years of age were performed. The results of cytogenetic, biochemico-genetic, clinical and other investigations are reported. It is concluded that the recommendation to carry the child to full term if the radiation exposure was less than 0.1 Sv had been correct. (author)

  15. Visualization of regulations to support design and quality control--a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomé, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to visualize design regulations of furniture by means of interactive technology based on earlier studies and practical examples. The usage of the visualized regulations was evaluated on two occasions: at the start when the first set of regulations was presented, and after six years of usage of all regulations. The visualized regulations were the result of a design process involving experts and potential users in collaboration with IKEA of Sweden AB. The evaluations by the different users showed a very positive response to using visualized regulations. The participative approach, combining expertise in specific regulations with visualization of guidelines, resulted in clear presentations of important regulations, and great attitudes among the users. These kinds of visualizations have proved to be applicable in a variety of product areas at IKEA, with a potential for further dissemination. It is likely that the approaches to design and visualized regulations in this case study could function in other branches.

  16. Long-term care planning study: strengths and learning needs of nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruttenden, Kathleen E

    2006-01-01

    This planning study was designed and conducted in a predominantly rural Canadian province to examine the strengths and learning needs of four categories of nursing staff practising in New Brunswick nursing homes. Participants included directors of care, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and resident attendants. The nursing homes ranged in size from 38 to 196 beds and were located throughout the province. In health and planning studies, ethnography conveys a coherent statement of peoples' local knowledge as culture-sharing groups (Muecke, 1994). The study derived information from the Nursing Home Act, reports, the literature, key informants, and direct observations of and interviews with participants. Leadership strengths defined the roles for categories of staff and supported the capacity of each category to identify their learning needs. In conclusion, nurses practising in nursing homes can and must take an active role in decision making for their learning.

  17. Study on the Long Term Effects of Radiation on Irradiated Manawthukha Rice Grain (Mahsuri-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Aye Mar; Aye Aye Mon; Hnin Hnin Than; Ba Han; Tin Tin; Myint U

    2008-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring of first and second generations Manawthukha paddy grain before cultivations were carried out. It was found out that there were no induced activity. Therefore it can be concluded that similarly it will be the same for third generation rice. The second generation rice was obtained from cultivation and harvesting of first generation [(i) non-irradiated (control), (ii) gamma-irradiated, (iii) neutron-one hour irradiated, (iv) neutron one-day irradiated rice]. Agronomical characteristics of three different types of generation of rice were studied. Morphological characteristics studies such as plant height, leaf width and panicle length,there was no large variation between three generations of rice. Phenotypes were found to be stable. Yield improvement was calculated. Nutritional values of rice generation were studied. They were (i) element analysis by different methods (NAA, EDXRF and AAS), vitamin determination and protein percent determination. There was no distinctive difference between first, second and third generation rice. In element analysis, eleven elements such as Mg, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Ca, Fe, Zn, P and Cu were observed by NAA, AAS and EDXRF methods. Vitamin content (B1, B2) and protein content were also studied. Determination of amylose content, gel consistency and gelatinization temperature were involved in grain quality study. There was no large variation in three generations. Surface texture of first, second and third generation Manawthukha rice were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the change of texture from generation to generation tend to become more distinctive in third generation.

  18. Dissociation of explicit and implicit long-term memory consolidation in semantic dementia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, S; Mioshi, E; Savage, S; Hodges, J R; Hornberger, M

    2013-08-01

    We report a case study of a semantic dementia patient, whose episodic memory consolidation was tested over a 2-month period. The results reveal that despite early retention of information, the patient lost all explicit information of the newly learnt material after 2 weeks. By contrast, he retained implicit word information even after a 4-week delay. These findings highlight the critical time window of 2-4 weeks in which newly learnt information should be re-encoded in rehabilitations studies. The results also indicate that learnt information can be still accessed with implicit retrieval strategies when explicit retrieval fails.

  19. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: Long-term efficacy and safety results from 2 randomized phase-III studies and 1 open-label long-term extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kim A; Krueger, James G; Feldman, Steven R; Langley, Richard G; Thaci, Diamant; Torii, Hideshi; Tyring, Stephen; Wolk, Robert; Gardner, Annie; Mebus, Charles; Tan, Huaming; Luo, Yingchun; Gupta, Pankaj; Mallbris, Lotus; Tatulych, Svitlana

    2016-05-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor being investigated for psoriasis. We sought to report longer-term tofacitinib efficacy and safety in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Data from 2 identical phase-III studies, Oral-treatment Psoriasis Trial Pivotal 1 and 2, were pooled with data from these patients in an ongoing open-label long-term extension study. Patients (n = 1861) were randomized 2:2:1 to tofacitinib 5 mg, 10 mg, or placebo twice daily (BID). At week 16, placebo patients were rerandomized to tofacitinib. Pivotal study participants could enroll into the long-term extension where they received tofacitinib at 10 mg BID for 3 months, after which dosing could be 5 or 10 mg BID. At week 28, the proportions of patients randomized to tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID achieving 75% or greater reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score from baseline were 55.6% and 68.8%, and achieving Physician Global Assessment of clear or almost clear were 54.7% and 65.9%. Efficacy was maintained in most patients through 24 months. Serious adverse events and discontinuations because of adverse events were reported in less than 11% of patients over 33 months of tofacitinib exposure. There was no dose comparison beyond week 52. Oral tofacitinib demonstrated sustained efficacy in patients with psoriasis through 2 years, with 10 mg BID providing greater efficacy than 5 mg BID. No unexpected safety findings were observed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cessation of Long-Term Naltrexone Therapy and Self-Injury: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, W. David, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This case study of a woman with profound mental retardation and a history of severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) found that the dramatic decrease in SIB following Naltrexone administration was maintained through placebo and no drug phases and at six-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of endogenous opioid system theories of SIB. (DB)

  1. Primary radiotherapy in progressive optic nerve sheath meningiomas: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, P.; Blank, L.; Selva, D.; Wolbers, J.G.; Nowak, P.J.C.M.; Geskus, R.B.; Weis, E.; Mourits, M.P.; Rootman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aims To report the outcome of primary radiotherapy in patients with progressive optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Methods The clinical records of all patients were reviewed in a retrospective, observational, multicentre study. Results Thirty-four consecutive patients were included.

  2. Barriers to Physical Activity for People with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Hilda F.; Hale, Leigh A.; Whitehead, Lisa; Baxter, G. David

    2012-01-01

    People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between…

  3. Long Term Exposure to NO2 and Diabetes Incidence in the Black Women's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F.; White, Laura F.; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T.; Marshall, Julian D.; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While laboratory studies show that air pollutants can potentiate insulin resistance, the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association of air pollution with diabetes incidence is conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of the traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the incidence of diabetes in a longitudinal cohort study of African American women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes associated with exposure to NO2 among 43,003 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). Pollutant levels at participant residential locations were estimated with 1) a land use regression model for participants living in 56 metropolitan areas, and 2) a dispersion model for participants living in 27 of the cities. From 1995-2011, 4387 cases of diabetes occurred. The hazard ratios per interquartile range of NO2 (9.7 ppb), adjusted for age, metropolitan area, education, vigorous exercise, body mass index, smoking, and diet, were 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06) using the land use regression model estimates and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.10) using the dispersion model estimates. The present results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to NO2 contributes to diabetes incidence in African American women. PMID:27124624

  4. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Welden; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2012-01-01

    ill patients dropping out of the study in the usual-detection area. Except for higher levels of excitative symptoms in the early-detection area, there were no symptom differences between the groups. Early-detection recovery rates were higher largely because of higher employment rates for patients...

  5. Historical and Future Trends in Studying the Development of Long-Term Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the relative lack of research attention to retention in developmental psychology and recent findings on age differences in retention. Highlights unresolved issues and how Bauer and colleagues' work may help set the research agenda and contribute to a shift in how early childhood retention is studied. Discusses memory strength,…

  6. Long-term weight regain after gastric bypass: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Daniéla Oliveira; Geloneze, Bruno; Delfini, Regis; Pareja, Bruna Contini; Callejas, Francisco; Pareja, José Carlos

    2008-06-01

    A certain weight gain occurs after obesity surgery compared to the lower weight usually observed between 18 and 24 months postsurgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate weight regain in patients submitted to gastric bypass over a 5-year follow-up period. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 782 obese patients of both genders. Only patients with at least 2 years of surgery were included. The percentage of excess body mass index (BMI) loss at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months postsurgery was compared to the measurements obtained at 18 months after surgery. Surgical therapeutic failure was also evaluated. Percent excess BMI loss was significant up to 18 months postsurgery (p < 0.001), with a mean difference in BMI of 1.06 kg/m2 compared to 12 months postsurgery. Percent BMI loss was no longer significant after 24 months, and weight regain became significant within 48 months after surgery (p < 0.01). Among the patients who presented weight regain, a mean 8% increase was observed within 60 months compared to the lowest weight obtained at 18 months after surgery. The percentage of surgical failure was higher in the superobese group at all times studied, reaching 18.8% at 48 months after surgery. Weight regain was observed within 24 months after surgery in approximately 50% of patients. Both weight regain and surgical failure were higher in the superobese group. Studies in regard to metabolic and hormonal mechanisms underlying weight regain might elucidate the causes of this finding.

  7. Long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle; de Bock, Truuske; Gansevoort, Ronald; Bakker, Stephan; Vredeveld, Eline; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; van der Horst, Iwan; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem; Plukker, John; Links, Thera P.; Lefrandt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to study the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Secondary aims were to evaluate all-cause mortality and explore the relation between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotropin) level and these outcome

  8. Long-term culture of organotypic multicellular glioma spheroids: a good culture model for studying gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Das, P. K.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gliomas, as well as other solid tumours, contain tumour stroma composed of connective tissue, macrophages, capillaries and other non-cellular constituents. Therefore, a homogeneous culture of tumour cells alone, as is often used as a culture model for gliomas, is not ideal to study all aspects of

  9. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Norman, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  10. Impact of Hyperuricemia on Long-term Outcomes of Kidney Transplantation: Analysis of the FAVORIT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Roberto S; Carpenter, Myra A; Ivanova, Anastasia; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; John, Alin A; Weir, Matthew R; Pesavento, Todd; Bostom, Andrew G; Pfeffer, Marc A; Hunsicker, Lawrence G

    2017-12-01

    Elevated uric acid concentration is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in the general population. It is not known whether hyperuricemia increases the risk for CV death or transplant failure in kidney transplant recipients. Post hoc cohort analysis of the FAVORIT Study, a randomized controlled trial that examined the effect of homocysteine-lowering vitamins on CV disease in kidney transplantation. Adult recipients of kidney transplants in the United States, Canada, or Brazil participating in the FAVORIT Study, with hyperhomocysteinemia, stable kidney function, and no known history of CV disease. Uric acid concentration. The primary end point was a composite of CV events. Secondary end points were all-cause mortality and transplant failure. Risk factors included in statistical models were age, sex, race, country, treatment assignment, smoking history, body mass index, presence of diabetes mellitus, history of CV disease, blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), donor type, transplant vintage, lipid concentrations, albumin-creatinine ratio, and uric acid concentration. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to examine the association of uric acid concentration with study end points after risk adjustment. 3,512 of 4,110 FAVORIT participants with baseline uric acid concentrations were studied. Median follow-up was 3.9 (IQR, 3.0-5.3) years. 503 patients had a primary CV event, 401 died, and 287 had transplant failure. In unadjusted analyses, uric acid concentration was significantly related to each outcome. Uric acid concentration was also strongly associated with eGFR. The relationship between uric acid concentration and study end points was no longer significant in fully adjusted multivariable models (P=0.5 for CV events; P=0.09 for death, and P=0.1 for transplant failure). Unknown use of uric acid-lowering agents among study participants. Following kidney transplantation, uric acid concentrations are not

  11. Long term functioning in early onset psychosis: Two years prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Ghada RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There were few studies on the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries. Whether the outcome is similar to or different from developed world is still a point for research. The main aim of the current study was to know if patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from start of the illness or not. Other aims included investigation of possible predictors and associated factors with remission and outcome. Method The study prospectively investigated a group of 56 patients with onset of psychosis during childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis made according to DSM-IV criteria and included; schizophrenia, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and acute psychosis. Severity of psychosis was measured by PANSS. Measures of the outcome included; remission criteria of Andreasen et al 2005, the children's global assessment scale and educational level. Results Analysis of data was done for only 37 patients. Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 7 with Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Mean duration of follow up was 38.4 +/- 16.9 months. At the end of the study, 6 patients (16.2% had one episode, 23(62.1% had multiple episodes and 8 (21.6% continuous course. Nineteen patients (51.4% achieved full remission, and only 11(29.7% achieved their average educational level for their age. Twenty seven percent of the sample had good outcome and 24.3% had poor outcome. Factors associated with non remission and poor outcome included gradual onset, low IQ, poor premorbid adjustment, negative symptoms at onset of the illness and poor adherence to drugs. Moreover, there was tendency of negative symptoms at illness start to predict poor outcome. Conclusion Some patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from the start of the illness. Although remission is a difficult target in childhood psychosis, it is still achievable.

  12. Long-term pulmonary function in esophageal atresia-A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke N; Markøv, Simone; Kruse-Andersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital anomaly associated with substantial pulmonary morbidity throughout childhood. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary complications among 59 five to 15-year-old children and adolescents with surgically corrected congenital EA. METHO...... ventilatory impairment occurring in EA is probably due to poor lung growth after thoracotomy. No single factor predicted ventilatory impairment in children and adolescents with EA. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 9999:XX-XX. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. The long-term neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes of gastroschisis: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Emma L; Hart, Susannah J; Minutillo, Corrado; Ravikumara, Madur; Warner, Teresa M; Williams, Yvette; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Dickinson, Jan E

    2016-04-01

    Previous gastroschisis specific neurodevelopmental studies have focused on the first 3years of life. The aim of this study was to assess the intellectual, behavioral and neurological outcomes of older children and adolescents born with gastroschisis. Of 99 gastroschisis survivors born in Western Australia, 1992 to 2005, and who were at least 5years old, 42 agreed to take part in this study. The study assessed: intellectual ability, with age appropriate Wechsler intelligence scales; neurological status; hearing; vision; behavioral status with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); and parenting style with the Parenting Relationship Questionnaire (PRQ). All results were compared to normative means. Median age at follow-up was 10years (range 5-17). No child had evidence of cerebral palsy or hearing loss; 1 child had amblyopia. Psychometric tests were completed in 39 children: mean full scale IQ was 98.2 (standard deviation [SD] 10.7); the working memory index was the only subscale to show a significant decrease from the normative mean (mean 95.5, SD 12.4, p=0.038). The mean SDQ behavioral scores were significantly lower for 3 of 5 domains and the Total Difficulties score. PRQ scores were significantly abnormal for 4 of 7 domains: Communication, Discipline, Satisfaction with School and Relational Frustration. Overall intellectual abilities were within a normal range. The decrease in working memory index and the behavioral and parenting relationship impairments could be an effect of perinatal factors, gastroschisis management and complications or the complexity of the socio-economic environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Data requirements for meaningful long-term epidemiology study of the commercial nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews typical data collected at nuclear plants and questions whether more definitive information is required to ensure that the risk cancer from radiation exposure can be adequately addressed in the future. Activities by the National Research Council, National Institute of Health, Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are briefly reviewed, as is the recent study, Federal Research on the Biological and Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation. A potential role for the Health Physics Society is identified

  15. Long-term study of an estuarine mudflat subjected to petro-chemical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLusky, D.A.; Martins, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Kinneil intertidal area, situated in the middle reaches of the Forth estuary, eastern Scotland, has been subject to the effects of industrial discharges, principally from petro-chemical industries (oil refinery and chemical works) since the 1920s. The intertidal fauna has been studied annually since 1976 using consistent methodology. The study continues, now providing over 20 yrs of data. During the study period the discharges from the industrial sources have been reduced substantially through a combination of plant closure and modernization and the installation of effluent treatment works. Furthermore, the River Avon which flows across the area has experienced substantial improvements in water quality, attributed to improvements in waste treatment works at localities upstream from the estuarine site. Overall, however, the clearest trends have been increases in diversity, expressed either as mean number of species per station, or as diversity indices. These increases in diversity are shown to be a clear community response to the improvements made to the petro-chemical wastes discharged to the area. (author)

  16. Feasibility study and technical proposal for long-term observations of bedrock stability with gps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruizhi Chen; Kakkuri, J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the regional crustal deformation pattern in the territory of Finland, the Finnish Geodetic Institute is establishing the Finnish Permanent GPS Network, which is part of the Fennoscandian Permanent GPS Network. The Finnish GPS Network consists of a 12 stations located in different geological structures. The operation procedure of the network is described in the report. Feasibility study for monitoring the bedrock stability at local scale was performed. The study was carried out on the basis of an experiment on a baseline of 1041 metres. Twelve artificial movements ranging from 1 mm to 22 mm were generated with a precision-manufactured screw drive (with an accuracy of better than +-0.05 mm). The artificial movements were then detected with the GPS measurements. A preliminary analysis of the GPS data shows that the maximum difference between the GPS detected movements and the artificial movements is 0.9 mm with a standard deviation of +-0.46 mm. The observation time for reaching such accuracy is about 55 minutes. Three GPS networks were preliminarily designed for the radioactive waste disposal investigation sites of Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. Detailed research plan for achieving the best possible result from GPS measurements was proposed. (58 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.)

  17. A Long-Term Study of Neospora caninum Infection in a Swedish Dairy Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uggla Arvid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was performed in a Swedish dairy herd where Neospora caninum had been isolated from a stillborn calf. Starting in autumn 1994, blood samples from all female animals in the herd were collected once yearly until 1999. The sera were analysed for presence of IgG1 antibodies to N. caninum by the iscom ELISA, and by an avidity ELISA to establish the timing of infection. In addition, data on reproductive performance were compiled. During the study the percentage of seropositive female animals increased from 63% to 87%. In 1994 a large number of young animals tested seropositive although their dams were seronegative, indicating that a transmission of the parasite other than the vertical had recently occurred. Low avidity values supported this assumption. The annual abortion rate increased from a mean of 2% before the initiation of the study to 9% in 1994–1998. During the same time, as judged by the avidity data, a large