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Sample records for multiattribute utility approach

  1. An estimation approach for dividable multiattribute utility of housing via questionnaires of consumers' ordinal multicriteria preferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟凤勇; 王要武

    2004-01-01

    multi-function characteristic. How to evaluate the multi-functional nature of housing is very useful in both theory and in application, yet it is often ignored in China. This paper introduces an approach to estimate the muhicriteria function of housing using multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) based on consumers' ordinal multicriteria peferences as determined via questionnaires. When compared with the classic framework in which MAUT is applied, this approach needs less prior information and subjective comparisons and thus can allay many of the operational difficulties involved in assessment. Some potential applications to the China housing market are also discussed.

  2. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Stiggelbout; P.P. Wakker

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  3. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute ut

  4. Multiattribute utility scores for predicting family physicians' decisions regarding sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, GH; Reijneveld, SA; van Houwelingen, JC; Knottnerus, JA; Kievit, J

    1999-01-01

    To examine whether multiattribute utility (MAU) scores can be used to predict family physicians' decisions regarding patients suspected to have sinusitis and rhinitis, 100 randomly selected family physicians from the Leiden area (The Netherlands) were asked to rank a set of six attributes regarding

  5. Multiattribute utility scores for predicting family physicians' decisions regarding sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, GH; Reijneveld, SA; van Houwelingen, JC; Knottnerus, JA; Kievit, J

    1999-01-01

    To examine whether multiattribute utility (MAU) scores can be used to predict family physicians' decisions regarding patients suspected to have sinusitis and rhinitis, 100 randomly selected family physicians from the Leiden area (The Netherlands) were asked to rank a set of six attributes regarding

  6. Functional Relationships Between Risky and Riskless Multiattribute Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Riskless Multiattribute Utility Functions 1ER/ ORIN 12 R/17NUMBER 79 - 3 7. AUTHORYS)& A. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(S)Det of von Winterfeldt N00014-79-C-0038...4C.-2 Attention: Dr. Edgar M. Jchnson Aashingtcn, DC 20330 5 0 02. E7 s e rn *c -w e z !v e n u e S c e - f R S a C. ex a n C:ri’a, VA 22333 kir

  7. Utility Independence of Multiattribute Utility Theory is Equivalent to Standard Sequence Invariance of Conjoint Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); J.N. Doctor (Jason); M. Filko (Martin); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUtility independence is a central condition in multiattribute utility theory, where attributes of outcomes are aggregated in the context of risk. The aggregation of attributes in the absence of risk is studied in conjoint measurement. In conjoint measurement, standard sequences have been

  8. EXPERIMENTING WITH MULTI-ATTRIBUTE UTILITY SURVEY METHODS IN A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL VALUATION PROBLEM. (R824699)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe use of willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey techniques based on multi-attribute utility (MAU) approaches has been recommended by some authors as a way to deal simultaneously with two difficulties that increasingly plague environmental valuation. The first of th...

  9. Multi-Attribute Vickrey Auctions when Utility Functions are Unknown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Máhr, T.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-attribute auctions allow negotiations over multiple attributes besides price. For example in task allocation, service providers can define their service by means of multiple attributes, such as quality of service, deadlines, or delay penalties. Auction mechanisms assume that the players have e

  10. A Study on Multiattribute Aggregation Approaches to Product Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Zhong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s increasingly competitive market, consumers usually have to face a huge number of products with different designs but having the same use. Therefore, an important problem for manufacturers is to attract consumers by special designs of the products. This paper aims at the improvement of a consumer-oriented approach in recommending products, and proposing a recommendation system for Japanese traditional crafts based on target-oriented fuzzy method and ontological engineering. Specifically, a target-oriented fuzzy method is used for measuring the fitness of a selected attribute to a certain object. Two aggregation models for dealing with a multiattribute evaluation and ranking are introduced; four ranking methods are also examined for getting a recommendation list. To test the aggregation models and the ranking methods, a recommendation system was developed and a comparison test was conducted.

  11. Agricultural Tractor Selection: A Hybrid and Multi-Attribute Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. García-Alcaraz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Usually, agricultural tractor investments are assessed using traditional economic techniques that only involve financial attributes, resulting in reductionist evaluations. However, tractors have qualitative and quantitative attributes that must be simultaneously integrated into the evaluation process. This article reports a hybrid and multi-attribute approach to assessing a set of agricultural tractors based on AHP-TOPSIS. To identify the attributes in the model, a survey including eighteen attributes was given to agricultural machinery salesmen and farmers for determining their importance. The list of attributes was presented to a decision group for a case of study, and their importance was estimated using AHP and integrated into the TOPSIS technique. In this case, one tractor was selected from a set of six alternatives, integrating six attributes in the model: initial cost, annual maintenance cost, liters of diesel per hour, safety of the operator, maintainability and after-sale customer service offered by the supplier. Based on the results obtained, the model can be considered easy to apply and to have good acceptance among farmers and salesmen, as there are no special software requirements for the application.

  12. Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ramdhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied by increasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers to create and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward To Object Model and the Theory Of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1 that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared * with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle , Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2 consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3 the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family, while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others

  13. Multi-attribute decision-making approach dealing with uncertain linguistic assessment information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An approach is presented to deal with a multi-attribute decision-making problem in which the attribute weights are unknown and the attribute values take the form of uncertain linguistic variables. First, a linguistic assessment standard is set up to deal with the uncertain linguistic attributes, and the operation laws of uncertain linguistic variables and the uncertain linguistic weighting average(ULWA)operator are introduced. Then a ranking formula of uncertain linguistic variables based on expectation-var...

  14. A new multicriteria risk mapping approach based on a multiattribute frontier concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemshanov, Denys; Koch, Frank H; Ben-Haim, Yakov; Downing, Marla; Sapio, Frank; Siltanen, Marty

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species risk maps provide broad guidance on where to allocate resources for pest monitoring and regulation, but they often present individual risk components (such as climatic suitability, host abundance, or introduction potential) as independent entities. These independent risk components are integrated using various multicriteria analysis techniques that typically require prior knowledge of the risk components' importance. Such information is often nonexistent for many invasive pests. This study proposes a new approach for building integrated risk maps using the principle of a multiattribute efficient frontier and analyzing the partial order of elements of a risk map as distributed in multidimensional criteria space. The integrated risks are estimated as subsequent multiattribute frontiers in dimensions of individual risk criteria. We demonstrate the approach with the example of Agrilus biguttatus Fabricius, a high-risk pest that may threaten North American oak forests in the near future. Drawing on U.S. and Canadian data, we compare the performance of the multiattribute ranking against a multicriteria linear weighted averaging technique in the presence of uncertainties, using the concept of robustness from info-gap decision theory. The results show major geographic hotspots where the consideration of tradeoffs between multiple risk components changes integrated risk rankings. Both methods delineate similar geographical regions of high and low risks. Overall, aggregation based on a delineation of multiattribute efficient frontiers can be a useful tool to prioritize risks for anticipated invasive pests, which usually have an extremely poor prior knowledge base. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Why do multi-attribute utility instruments produce different utilities: the relative importance of the descriptive systems, scale and 'micro-utility' effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeff; Iezzi, Angelo; Khan, Munir A

    2015-08-01

    Health state utilities measured by the major multi-attribute utility instruments differ. Understanding the reasons for this is important for the choice of instrument and for research designed to reconcile these differences. This paper investigates these reasons by explaining pairwise differences between utilities derived from six multi-attribute utility instruments in terms of (1) their implicit measurement scales; (2) the structure of their descriptive systems; and (3) 'micro-utility effects', scale-adjusted differences attributable to their utility formula. The EQ-5D-5L, SF-6D, HUI 3, 15D and AQoL-8D were administered to 8,019 individuals. Utilities and unweighted values were calculated using each instrument. Scale effects were determined by the linear relationship between utilities, the effect of the descriptive system by comparison of scale-adjusted values and 'micro-utility effects' by the unexplained difference between utilities and values. Overall, 66 % of the differences between utilities was attributable to the descriptive systems, 30.3 % to scale effects and 3.7 % to micro-utility effects. Results imply that the revision of utility algorithms will not reconcile differences between instruments. The dominating importance of the descriptive system highlights the need for researchers to select the instrument most capable of describing the health states relevant for a study. Reconciliation of inconsistent utilities produced by different instruments must focus primarily upon the content of the descriptive system. Utility weights primarily determine the measurement scale. Other differences, attributable to utility formula, are comparatively unimportant.

  16. Using multi-attribute utility theory to select an information technology (IT infrastructure for learning object repositories (LOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bizarro Salve

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to apply the methodology to structure the decision problem and select an appropriate LOR architecture. This reflected in the need to invest and improve the technology for educational organizations. Selecting an appropriate infrastructure for LOR is usually a complex decision, because it has conflicting attributes. In situations of uncertainty, multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT assists in selecting the best alternative according to criteria established by the decision maker. Results demonstrated that the choice of indexing and distributing LOR (A4 is less sensitive to changes and has greater utility. According to the analysis, A4 is the option most suitable for deploying IT infrastructure in the case of application. Researchers and professional managers can assess the types of ROA architecture and replicate this decision model to find similar results.

  17. Development of the multi-attribute Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beusterien Kathleen M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Obtain utilities (preferences for a generalizable set of health states experienced by older children and adolescents who receive therapy for chronic health conditions. Methods A health state classification system, the Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM, was developed based on generic health status measures and input from children with Hunter syndrome and their caregivers. The AHUM contains six dimensions with 4–7 severity levels: self-care, pain, mobility, strenuous activities, self-image, and health perceptions. Using the time trade off (TTO approach, a UK population sample provided utilities for 62 of 16,800 AHUM states. A mixed effects model was used to estimate utilities for the AHUM states. The AHUM was applied to trial NCT00069641 of idursulfase for Hunter syndrome and its extension (NCT00630747. Results Observations (i.e., utilities totaled 3,744 (12*312 participants, with between 43 to 60 for each health state except for the best and worst states which had 312 observations. The mean utilities for the best and worst AHUM states were 0.99 and 0.41, respectively. The random effects model was statistically significant (p  Discussion The AHUM health state classification system may be used in future research to enable calculation of quality-adjust life expectancy for applicable health conditions.

  18. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sae Rom [Dept of Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Yeol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Nonproliferation System Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  19. An Integrated Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems for Long-term Sustainability on the Basis of an Equilibrium Model: Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation, and Multiattribute Utility Theory Combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  20. A multiattribute utility evaluation of different methods for the detection of enteric protozoa causing diarrhea in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    testing. Conclusion Thus, we conclude that a combination of minimum three procedures should be carried out for the screening of stool specimens of HIV positive patients. Kinyoun's staining should be made mandatory for every diarrheal stool sample from HIV patients. Also every laboratory should assign its own value to the attributes and apply Multiattribute utility theory or the Analytical hierarchy process to decide the most appropriate methodology.

  1. A Multi-Attribute Utility Decision Analysis for Treatment Alternatives for the DOE/SR Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.; Kuzio, K.; Sorenson, K.; Weiner, R.; Wheeler, T.

    1998-11-01

    A multi-attribute utility analysis is applied to the decision to select a treatment method for the management of aluminum-based spent nuclear i%el (A1-SNF) owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE will receive, treat, and temporarily store Al- SNF, most of which is composed of highly enriched uranium, at its Savannah River Site in South Carolina. DOE intends ultimately to send the treated Al-SNJ? to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE initially considered ten treatment alternatives for the management of A1-SNF, and has narrowed the choice to two of these the direct disposal and melt and dilute alternatives. The decision analysis presented in this document focuses on a decision between these two remaining alternatives.

  2. Analysis of the Usage of Magnetic Force-directed Approach and Visual Techniques for Interactive Context-based Drawing of Multi-attributed Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabiniako Vitaly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors perform an analysis in order to assess adaptation of magnetic force-directed algorithms for context-based information extraction from multi-attributed graphs during visualization sessions. Theoretic standings behind magnetic force-directed approach are stated together with review on how particular features of respective algorithms in combination with appropriate visual techniques are especially suitable for improved processing and presenting of knowledge that is captured in form of graphs. The complexity of retrieving multi-attributed information within the proposed approach is handled with dedicated tools, such as selective attraction of nodes to MFE (Magnetic Force Emitter based on search criteria, localization of POI (Point of Interest regions, graph node anchoring, etc. Implicit compatibility of aforementioned tools with interactive nature of data exploration is distinguished. Description of case study, based on bibliometric network analysis is given, which is followed by the review of existing related works in this field. Conclusions are made and further studies in the field of visualization of multi-attributed graphs are defined.

  3. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of water resources security in the Yellow River basin based on a Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis Approach (FMADAA was adopted in water resources security evaluation for the nine provinces in the Yellow River basin in 2006. A numerical approximation system and a modified left-right scoring approach were adopted to cope with the uncertainties in the acquired information. Four multi-attribute decision making methods were implemented in the evaluation model for impact evaluation, including simple weighted addition (SWA, weighted product (WP, cooperative game theory (CGT and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS which could be used for helping rank the water resources security in those nine provinces as well as the criteria alternatives. Moreover, several aggregation methods including average ranking procedure, borda and copeland methods were used to integrate the ranking results. The ranking results showed that the water resources security of the entire basin is in critical, insecurity and absolute insecurity state, especially in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces in which water resources were lower than the average quantity in China. Hence, future planning of the Yellow River basin should mainly focus on the improvement of water eco-environment status in the provinces above.

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of water resources security in the Yellow River basin based on a fuzzy multi-attribute decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. K.; Li, C. H.; Cai, Y. P.; Xu, M.; Xia, X. H.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy multi-attribute decision analysis approach (FMADAA) was developed for supporting the evaluation of water resources security in nine provinces within the Yellow River basin. A numerical approximation system and a modified left-right scoring approach were adopted to cope with the uncertainties in the acquired information. Also, four conventional multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) methods were implemented in the evaluation model for impact evaluation, including simple weighted addition (SWA), weighted product (WP), cooperative game theory (CGT) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Moreover, several aggregation methods including average ranking procedure, Borda and Copeland methods were used to integrate the ranking results, helping rank the water resources security in those nine provinces as well as improving reliability of evaluation results. The ranking results showed that the water resources security of the entire basin was in critical condition, including the insecurity and absolute insecurity states, especially in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces in which water resources were lower than the average quantity in China. Hence, the improvement of water eco-environment statuses in the above-mentioned provinces should be prioritized in the future planning of the Yellow River basin.

  6. Integrating Cost as an Independent Variable Analysis with Evolutionary Acquisition - A Multiattribute Design Evaluation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    within the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) software suite (version 5.x). With this capability, one can set cost targets or time...not allow the user to vary more than one decision variable. This limitation of the ACEIT approach thus hinders a holistic view when attempting to

  7. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that

  8. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that

  9. A multiattribute utility analysis of sites nominated for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository: A decision-aiding methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In December 1984, the Department of Energy (DOE) published draft environmental assessments (EAs) to support the proposed nomination of five sites and the recommendation of three sites for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository. A chapter common to all the draft EAs (Chapter 7) presented rankings of the five sites against the postclosure and the preclosure technical siting guidelines. To determine which three sites appeared most favorable for recommendation for characterization, three simple quantitative methods were used to aggregate the rankings assigned to each site for the various technical guidelines. In response to numerous comments on the methods, the DOE has undertaken a formal application of one of them (hereafter referred to as the decision-aiding methodology) for the purpose of obtaining a more rigorous evaluation of the nominated sites. The application of the revised methodology is described in this report. The method of analysis is known as multiattribute utility analysis; it is a tool for providing insights as to which sites are preferable and why. The decision-aiding methodology accounts for all the fundamental considerations specified by the siting guidelines and uses as source information the data and evaluations reported or referenced in the EAs. It explicitly addresses the uncertainties and value judgments that are part of all siting problems. Furthermore, all scientific and value judgments are made explicit for the reviewer. An independent review of the application of the decision-aiding methodology has been conducted by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences; the comments of the Board are included as an appendix to this report.

  10. A Comparison of Importance Weights for Multiattribute Utility Analysis Derived from Holistic, Indifference, Direct Subjective and Rank Order Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    attribute utility analysis ( MAUA ) models such subjective value judgments by eliciting value relevant attributes of the objects or acts, by assessing...single-attri- bute utilities and weights, and by aggregating these inputs into an overall value index. Proponents of MAUA argue that the choices...dictated by MAUA will, on the average, yield more favorable consequences than choices based on other types of evaluations, e.g., intuition. However, since

  11. Research on user-interest-based multi-attribute utility algorithm%基于用户兴趣的多属性效用算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾智楠

    2012-01-01

    It is always the aim of the search engine system to offer personal service for different users according to their own interests. This article designs a multi-attribute utility algorithm based on users' interests. It combines preference factors with forgetting factors from a multi-attribute entity. It achieves dynamic updating exactly to express users' preference better and to enhance the accuracy of researching,so as to supply a personal searching service.%针对用户兴趣提供个性化的搜索服务一直是搜索引擎系统追求的目标.提出了基于用户兴趣的多属性效用算法,该算法使用效用性算法并结合了实体多个属性偏好因子和遗忘因子,更好地表达用户的兴趣偏好并实现动态更新,提高检索的准确性,实现搜索过程的个性化服务.

  12. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Multi-Attribute Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most existing multi-attribute optimization researches for the modern CNC (computer numerical control turning industry were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances, or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme proposed is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, four parameters (cutting depth, feed rate, speed, tool nose runoff with three levels (low, medium, high are considered to optimize the multi-attribute (surface roughness, tool wear, and material removal rate finish turning. Through FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process with eighty intervals for each attribute, the weight of each attribute is evaluated from the paired comparison matrix constructed by the expert judgment. Additionally, twenty-seven fuzzy control rules using trapezoid membership function with respective to seventeen linguistic grades for each attribute are constructed. Considering thirty input and eighty output intervals, the defuzzifierion using center of gravity is thus completed. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution is moreover utilized to integrate and evaluate the multiple machining attributes for the Taguchi experiment, and thus the optimum general deduction parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment for optimum general deduction parameters is furthermore performed on an ECOCA-3807 CNC lathe. It is shown that the attributes from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters are all significantly advanced comparing to those from benchmark. This paper not only proposes a general deduction optimization scheme using orthogonal array, but also contributes the satisfactory fuzzy linguistic approach for multiple CNC turning attributes with profound insight.

  13. Key performance indicators (KPIs) and priority setting in using the multi-attribute approach for assessing sustainable intelligent buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALwaer, H. [The University of Dundee, School of Architecture, Matthew Building, 13 Perth Road, Dundee DD1 4HT (United Kingdom); Clements-Croome, D.J. [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The main objectives of this paper are to: firstly, identify key issues related to sustainable intelligent buildings (environmental, social, economic and technological factors); develop a conceptual model for the selection of the appropriate KPIs; secondly, test critically stakeholder's perceptions and values of selected KPIs intelligent buildings; and thirdly develop a new model for measuring the level of sustainability for sustainable intelligent buildings. This paper uses a consensus-based model (Sustainable Built Environment Tool- SuBETool), which is analysed using the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) for multi-criteria decision-making. The use of the multi-attribute model for priority setting in the sustainability assessment of intelligent buildings is introduced. The paper commences by reviewing the literature on sustainable intelligent buildings research and presents a pilot-study investigating the problems of complexity and subjectivity. This study is based upon a survey perceptions held by selected stakeholders and the value they attribute to selected KPIs. It is argued that the benefit of the new proposed model (SuBETool) is a 'tool' for 'comparative' rather than an absolute measurement. It has the potential to provide useful lessons from current sustainability assessment methods for strategic future of sustainable intelligent buildings in order to improve a building's performance and to deliver objective outcomes. Findings of this survey enrich the field of intelligent buildings in two ways. Firstly, it gives a detailed insight into the selection of sustainable building indicators, as well as their degree of importance. Secondly, it tesst critically stakeholder's perceptions and values of selected KPIs intelligent buildings. It is concluded that the priority levels for selected criteria is largely dependent on the integrated design team, which includes the client, architects, engineers and facilities managers

  14. 一种新的多属性决策方法%A New Approach of Fuzzy Multi-attribute Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽娜

    2012-01-01

    For the fuzzy multi-attribute decision making (FMADM) problems,a new FMADM method is proposed in which the attribute values is in the form triangular fuzzy numbers. Firstly, two central judgment matrix of trangular fuzzy numbers are defined. Secondly. the concepts and formulas for predominance strength and predominance comparative matrix between alternatives are introduced > and the alternatives are ranked according to the priority method of fuzzy complementary judgment matrix. An example shows the rationality of decision-making approach and the validity of the algorithm mentioned above.%针对模糊多属性决策问题,提出了一种新的属性值以三角模糊数形式给出的模糊多属性决策方法.首先定义了两三角模糊数的中心决策矩阵;其次通过引入方案间优势度和优势度比较矩阵概念及其计算公式,从而给出了方案的排序,实例分析说明了所提出的决策方法的合理性及其算法的有效性.

  15. Multi-Attribute Auctioning Resource in Grids: Model and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Auction models and protocols are found efficient in managing resources allocation, which are a key technology in grid computing system. In this paper, a new multi-attribute multi-round reverse auction is proposed, and related reverse auction based protocols are designed. The resource user’s satisfaction degree is introduced into the traditional grid resource allocation problem to help the grid resource broker make multi-attribute decisions with incomplete information. Numerical simulating experiments show that our model and protocols can satisfy the resource user’s quality demand on multiple attributes, and achieve high efficiency in user utility. The results also illustrate that the on-line multi-attribute algorithm in ONMRA protocol has better performance in an on-line setting for grid allocation.

  16. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  17. A compensation index for multiattribute decision strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koele, P; Westenberg, M R

    1995-09-01

    In multiattribute decision problems, the subject has to evaluate a number of alternatives with given values on a number of attributes, in order to arrive at some conclusion about the attractiveness or utility of these alternatives. The information processing procedure leading to a conclusion is called adecision strategy, and one of the main research topics in multiattribute decision research has been the extent to which these strategies follow compensatory principles. Judges are said to follow compensatory strategies when low values on some attributes are compensated for by high values on other attributes. In process tracing studies using the information board technique, descriptions of decision strategies are usually based on three indices of the information search process:variability of search,search pattern (Payne, 1976), anddepth of search. Variability of search, defined as the standard deviation of the proportion of information searched per alternative, is considered to give an indication of the degree of compensation of a decision strategy, compensation being smaller as variability increases. In this article, we propose an alternative way for establishing the degree of compensation of decision strategies in information board studies. We argue that the degree of compensation depends on both variability of searchand depth of search (the proportion of information searched), and that a valid compensation index has to be a multiplicative function of these two indices.

  18. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, and modeling evidence: Theory and Application. A Dempster-Shafer based approach to compromise decision making with multiattributes applied to product selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1992-01-01

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is applied to a multiattribute decision making problem whereby the decision maker (DM) must compromise with available alternatives, none of which exactly satisfies his ideal. The decision mechanism is constrained by the uncertainty inherent in the determination of the relative importance of each attribute element and the classification of existing alternatives. The classification of alternatives is addressed through expert evaluation of the degree to which each element is contained in each available alternative. The relative importance of each attribute element is determined through pairwise comparisons of the elements by the decision maker and implementation of a ratio scale quantification method. Then the 'belief' and 'plausibility' that an alternative will satisfy the decision maker's ideal are calculated and combined to rank order the available alternatives. Application to the problem of selecting computer software is given.

  19. Effects on decision quality of supporting multi-attribute evaluation in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.; Timmermans, D.

    1996-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of multi-attribute utility (MAU) decision support in groups is evaluated for personnel selection problems differing in complexity. Subjects were asked to make an initial individual decision with or without MAU decision support. Next individuals formed small groups and

  20. A Quadrupole Dalton-based multi-attribute method for product characterization, process development, and quality control of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weichen; Jimenez, Rod Brian; Mowery, Rachel; Luo, Haibin; Cao, Mingyan; Agarwal, Nitin; Ramos, Irina; Wang, Xiangyang; Wang, Jihong

    2017-08-14

    During manufacturing and storage process, therapeutic proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as isomerization, deamidation, oxidation, disulfide bond modifications and glycosylation. Certain PTMs may affect bioactivity, stability or pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics profile and are therefore classified as potential critical quality attributes (pCQAs). Identifying, monitoring and controlling these PTMs are usually key elements of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Traditionally, multiple analytical methods are utilized for these purposes, which is time consuming and costly. In recent years, multi-attribute monitoring methods have been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, these methods combine high-end mass spectrometry with complicated data analysis software, which could pose difficulty when implementing in a quality control (QC) environment. Here we report a multi-attribute method (MAM) using a Quadrupole Dalton (QDa) mass detector to selectively monitor and quantitate PTMs in a therapeutic monoclonal antibody. The result output from the QDa-based MAM is straightforward and automatic. Evaluation results indicate this method provides comparable results to the traditional assays. To ensure future application in the QC environment, this method was qualified according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline and applied in the characterization of drug substance and stability samples. The QDa-based MAM is shown to be an extremely useful tool for product and process characterization studies that facilitates facile understanding of process impact on multiple quality attributes, while being QC friendly and cost-effective.

  1. An agent architecture for multi-attribute negotiation using incomplete preference information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Catholijn; Robu, Valentin; Treur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A component-based generic agent architecture for multi-attribute (integrative) negotiation is introduced and its application is described in a prototype system for negotiation about cars, developed in cooperation with, among others, Dutch Telecom KPN. The approach can be characterized as cooperati

  2. Utilization integrated Fuzzy-QFD and TOPSIS approach in supplier selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is a typical multi-attribute problem that involves both qualitative and quantitative factors. To deal with this problem, different techniques have suggested. Being based on purely mathematical data, these techniques have significant drawbacks especially when we want to consider qualitative factors, which are very important in supplier selection and are not easy to measure. Some innovative approaches, based on artificial intelligence techniques such as Fuzzy Logic match very well with decision-making situations especially when decision makers express heterogeneous judgments. In this research, by the combination of Fuzzy logic and the House of Quality (HOQ, qualitative criteria are considered in the forward parts of car suppliers’ selection process in Sazehgostar SAIPA Company. Then, TOPSIS technique is adopted to consider quantitative metrics. Finally, by combining of Fuzzy QFD and TOPSIS techniques, these suppliers will be selected and ranked in this Company. Concern to the both qualitative and quantitative criteria, is the important point used in this research and also methodology utilized, counts innovative aspect. Limited number of experts associated with each piece and unavailability of some quantitative criteria has been limitations across of this study’s accomplishment.

  3. Expected Utility Optimization - Calculus of Variations Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Khoa

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I'll derive the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation for Merton's problem in Utility Optimization Theory using a Calculus of Variations (CoV) Approach. For stochastic control problems, Dynamic Programming (DP) has been used as a standard method. To the best of my knowledge, no one has used CoV for this problem. In addition, while the DP approach cannot guarantee that the optimum satisfies the HJ equation, the CoV approach does. Be aware that this is the first draft of this paper and many flaws might be introduced.

  4. A bayesian approach to laboratory utilization management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory utilization management describes a process designed to increase healthcare value by altering requests for laboratory services. A typical approach to monitor and prioritize interventions involves audits of laboratory orders against specific criteria, defined as rule-based laboratory utilization management. This approach has inherent limitations. First, rules are inflexible. They adapt poorly to the ambiguity of medical decision-making. Second, rules judge the context of a decision instead of the patient outcome allowing an order to simultaneously save a life and break a rule. Third, rules can threaten physician autonomy when used in a performance evaluation. Methods: We developed an alternative to rule-based laboratory utilization. The core idea comes from a formula used in epidemiology to estimate disease prevalence. The equation relates four terms: the prevalence of disease, the proportion of positive tests, test sensitivity and test specificity. When applied to a laboratory utilization audit, the formula estimates the prevalence of disease (pretest probability [PTP] in the patients tested. The comparison of PTPs among different providers, provider groups, or patient cohorts produces an objective evaluation of laboratory requests. We demonstrate the model in a review of tests for enterovirus (EV meningitis. Results: The model identified subpopulations within the cohort with a low prevalence of disease. These low prevalence groups shared demographic and seasonal factors known to protect against EV meningitis. This suggests too many orders occurred from patients at low risk for EV. Conclusion: We introduce a new method for laboratory utilization management programs to audit laboratory services.

  5. Market oriented approach by public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantel, J.J.; Verkuil, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    Public utilities, especially the larger ones, have an image of being inefficient, technocratic and bureaucratic institutions, unresponsive to modern lifestyles, growing consumerism, differentiated customer needs and changing social values. Improving this image and increasing customer satisfaction requires the adoption of a systematic market oriented approach, based on an appropriate segmentation of the client and general public. This article gives the broad outline of such an approach followed by some generally applicable practical recommendations. Finally it stresses the importance of human aspects of organizational behaviour and, consequently, the crucial part of corporate culture. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. MULTIATTRIBUTE DECISION SUPPORT AND COMPLEXITY - AN EVALUATION AND PROCESS ANALYSIS OF AIDED VERSUS UNAIDED DECISION-MAKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VLEK, C; Timmermans, D.

    The present study addresses the effectiveness of a computerized decision aid (DECAID, Pitz 1987) based on the Multi-Attribute Utility Model (MAU). The effectiveness of DECAID was investigated for personnel selection problems varying in complexity (number of alternatives and number of attributes).

  7. Pricing Model of Multiattribute Derivatives Based on Mixed Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By Analyzing the behavior and character of derivative security, the authorsestablished a pricing model of multiattribute derivative security whose underlying asset pricingprocess is a mixed process, and obtained a new model for option pricing of multiattribute derivatives based on mixed process, and improved some original results.

  8. Multiattribute Decision Making Based on Entropy under Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiattribute decision making (MADM is one of the central problems in artificial intelligence, specifically in management fields. In most cases, this problem arises from uncertainty both in the data derived from the decision maker and the actions performed in the environment. Fuzzy set and high-order fuzzy sets were proven to be effective approaches in solving decision-making problems with uncertainty. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the MADM problem with completely unknown attribute weights in the framework of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy (IVIF set (IVIFS. We first propose a new definition of IVIF entropy and some calculation methods for IVIF entropy. Furthermore, we propose an entropy-based decision-making method to solve IVIF MADM problems with completely unknown attribute weights. Particular emphasis is put on assessing the attribute weights based on IVIF entropy. Instead of the traditional methods, which use divergence among attributes or the probabilistic discrimination of attributes to obtain attribute weights, we utilize the IVIF entropy to assess the attribute weights based on the credibility of the decision-making matrix for solving the problem. Finally, a supplier selection example is given to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed MADM method.

  9. Treatment of Children's Fears: A Strategic Utilization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard

    1985-01-01

    Describes briefly Milton Erickson's strategic utilization approach to therapy. Discusses the usefulness of this approach in treating children's fears. Presents two case histories in which the approach successfully eliminated the fear of the child. (BH)

  10. Treatment of Children's Fears: A Strategic Utilization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard

    1985-01-01

    Describes briefly Milton Erickson's strategic utilization approach to therapy. Discusses the usefulness of this approach in treating children's fears. Presents two case histories in which the approach successfully eliminated the fear of the child. (BH)

  11. Comparison of the Multiattribute Utility Instruments EQ-5D and SF-6D in a Europe-Wide Population-Based Cohort of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease 10 Years after Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Huppertz-Hauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is costly, and limited resources call for analyses of the cost effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The present study evaluated the equivalency of the Short Form 6D (SF-6D and the Euro QoL (EQ-5D, two preference-based HRQoL instruments that are broadly used in cost-effectiveness analyses, in an unselected IBD patient population. Methods. IBD patients from seven European countries were invited to a follow-up visit ten years after their initial diagnosis. Clinical and demographic data were assessed, and the Short Form 36 (SF-36 was employed. Utility scores were obtained by calculating the SF-6D index values from the SF-36 data for comparison with the scores obtained with the EQ-5D questionnaire. Results. The SF-6D and EQ-5D provided good sensitivities for detecting disease activity-dependent utility differences. However, the single-measure intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.58, and the Bland-Altman plot indicated numerous values beyond the limits of agreement. Conclusions. There was poor agreement between the measures retrieved from the EQ-5D and the SF-6D utility instruments. Although both instruments may provide good sensitivity for the detection of disease activity-dependent utility differences, the instruments cannot be used interchangeably. Cost-utility analyses performed with only one utility instrument must be interpreted with caution.

  12. Comparison of the Multiattribute Utility Instruments EQ-5D and SF-6D in a Europe-Wide Population-Based Cohort of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease 10 Years after Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz-Hauss, Gert; Aas, Eline; Lie Høivik, Marte; Langholz, Ebbe; Odes, Selwyn; Småstuen, Milada; Stockbrugger, Reinhold; Hoff, Geir; Moum, Bjørn; Bernklev, Tomm

    2016-01-01

    Background. The treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is costly, and limited resources call for analyses of the cost effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The present study evaluated the equivalency of the Short Form 6D (SF-6D) and the Euro QoL (EQ-5D), two preference-based HRQoL instruments that are broadly used in cost-effectiveness analyses, in an unselected IBD patient population. Methods. IBD patients from seven European countries were invited to a follow-up visit ten years after their initial diagnosis. Clinical and demographic data were assessed, and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was employed. Utility scores were obtained by calculating the SF-6D index values from the SF-36 data for comparison with the scores obtained with the EQ-5D questionnaire. Results. The SF-6D and EQ-5D provided good sensitivities for detecting disease activity-dependent utility differences. However, the single-measure intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.58, and the Bland-Altman plot indicated numerous values beyond the limits of agreement. Conclusions. There was poor agreement between the measures retrieved from the EQ-5D and the SF-6D utility instruments. Although both instruments may provide good sensitivity for the detection of disease activity-dependent utility differences, the instruments cannot be used interchangeably. Cost-utility analyses performed with only one utility instrument must be interpreted with caution.

  13. Comparison of the Multiattribute Utility Instruments EQ-5D and SF-6D in a Europe-Wide Population-Based Cohort of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease 10 Years after Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Eline; Odes, Selwyn; Småstuen, Milada; Stockbrugger, Reinhold; Hoff, Geir; Moum, Bjørn; Bernklev, Tomm

    2016-01-01

    Background. The treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is costly, and limited resources call for analyses of the cost effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The present study evaluated the equivalency of the Short Form 6D (SF-6D) and the Euro QoL (EQ-5D), two preference-based HRQoL instruments that are broadly used in cost-effectiveness analyses, in an unselected IBD patient population. Methods. IBD patients from seven European countries were invited to a follow-up visit ten years after their initial diagnosis. Clinical and demographic data were assessed, and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was employed. Utility scores were obtained by calculating the SF-6D index values from the SF-36 data for comparison with the scores obtained with the EQ-5D questionnaire. Results. The SF-6D and EQ-5D provided good sensitivities for detecting disease activity-dependent utility differences. However, the single-measure intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.58, and the Bland-Altman plot indicated numerous values beyond the limits of agreement. Conclusions. There was poor agreement between the measures retrieved from the EQ-5D and the SF-6D utility instruments. Although both instruments may provide good sensitivity for the detection of disease activity-dependent utility differences, the instruments cannot be used interchangeably. Cost-utility analyses performed with only one utility instrument must be interpreted with caution. PMID:27630711

  14. Study of multi-objective optimization and multi-attribute decision-making for economic and environmental power dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuebin, Li [Research and Development Center, Wuhan 2nd Ship Design and Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430064 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Environmental awareness and the recent environmental policies have forced many electric utilities to restructure their practices to account for their emission impacts. One way to accomplish this is by reformulating the traditional economic dispatch problem such that emission effects are included in the mathematical model. The economic/environmental dispatch problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This study presents a hybrid approach to solve the combined economic-emission dispatch problem (CEED). In the first stage, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) is employed to approximate the set of Pareto solution through an evolutionary optimization process. In the subsequent stage, a multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) approach is adopted to rank these solutions from best to worst and to determinate the best solution in a deterministic environment with a single decision maker. This hybrid approach is tested on a six-unit system to illustrate the analysis process in present analysis. Pareto frontiers are obtained and the ranking of Pareto solutions is based on entropy weight and TOPSIS method. Results obtained show that the hybrid approach has a great potential in handling multi-objective optimization problem. (author)

  15. Automated Probabilistic System Architecture Analysis in the Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL: Iteratively Developed using Multiple Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lagerström

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL, an analysis metamodel for non-functional qualities of system architectures, is introduced. MAPL features automate analysis in five non-functional areas: service cost, service availability, data accuracy, application coupling, and application size. In addition, MAPL explicitly includes utility modeling to make trade-offs between the qualities. The article introduces how each of the five non-functional qualities are modeled and quantitatively analyzed based on the ArchiMate standard for enterprise architecture modeling and the previously published Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework, building on the well-known UML and OCL formalisms. The main contribution of MAPL lies in the probabilistic use of multi-attribute utility theory for the trade-off analysis of the non-functional properties. Additionally, MAPL proposes novel model-based analyses of several non-functional attributes. We also report how MAPL has iteratively been developed using multiple case studies.

  16. The zero condition: a simplying assumption in QALY measurement and mutliattribute utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; J.M. Miyamoto; H. Bleichrodt; H.J.M. Peters

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the implications of the "zero-condition" for multiattribute utility theory. The zero-condition simplifies the measurement and derivation of the Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) measure commonly used in medical decision analysis. For general multiattribute utility theory, no simpl

  17. Utility Indifference Pricing: A Time Consistent Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pirvu, Traian A

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal portfolio selection problem in a dynamic multi-period stochastic framework with regime switching. The risk preferences are of exponential (CARA) type with an absolute coefficient of risk aversion which changes with the regime. The market model is incomplete and there are two risky assets: one tradable and one non-tradable. In this context, the optimal investment strategies are time inconsistent. Consequently, the subgame perfect equilibrium strategies are considered. The utility indifference prices of a contingent claim written on the risky assets are computed via an indifference valuation algorithm. By running numerical experiments, we examine how these prices vary in response to changes in model parameters.

  18. Anonymity and verifiability in multi-attribute reverse auction

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, T R; Pais, Alwyn Roshan; 10.5121/ijitcs.2011.1401

    2011-01-01

    The use of e-Auction services has been increasing in recent years. Security requirements in conducting e-Auctions are mainly bid privacy, anonymity and public verifiability. Most of the secure protocols concentrate on privacy and anonymity, which are achieved through bidder-resolved multi-party computation, assuming two or more trusted third parties, either through numerous auctioneers or with asymmetric models in which the commercial entity of an auction issuer or registration manager is assumed in addition to the auctioneer. Multi-attribute reverse auctions promise higher market efficiency and effective information exchange. This work extends and uses the existing schemes. This scheme uses scoring function, winner determination in multi-attribute auctions to implement public verifiability. Anonymity is achieved through bidder side pseudonym generation. By results and analysis we say this is very simple and effective scheme. This scheme ensures public verifiability and anonymity in multi-attribute auctions w...

  19. Sustainable development through biomass utilization: A practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Malhotra

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) This paper is for folks involved in community development efforts targeted towards biomass utilization. Our approach to evaluate the potential for establishing enterprises that utilize locally available forest resources is tailored specifically to the needs of the local community. We evaluate the: 1. Technical feasibility and...

  20. Analysis of Generation Y Workforce Motivation Using Multiattribute Utility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    F. Kennedy assas- sinations, U.S. landing on the moon, the substantial role of television within society, the Vietnam War, the Watergate scandal , and...Iran Contra scandal , introduction of HIV/AIDS as a pandemic, oral contracep- tive pills, the 1973 oil crisis, the impeachment of President Richard M

  1. Decompositions of Multiattribute Utility Functions Based on Convex Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Angeles, CA 90024 Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Professor Morris H. DeGroot Professor Dennis G. Fryback Department of Statistics Health Systems Engineering...of Business Menlo Park, CA 94025 Administration Duke University Dr. Peter A. Morris Durham, NC 27706 Applied Decision Analysis, Inc. 3000 San Hill

  2. Multiattribute perceptual mapping with idiosyncratic brand and attribute sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; van de Velden, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an extremely flexible procedure for perceptual mapping based on multiattribute ratings, such that the respondent freely generates sets of both brands and attributes. Therefore, the brands and attributes are known and relevant to each participant. Collecting and analyzing such i

  3. Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea;

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b...

  4. An evidence reasoning approach based on projection multi-attribute decision making%一种基于投影多属性决策的证据推理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽芳; 初军田; 李强

    2015-01-01

    The Dempster’s rule of combination cannot efficiently handle highly conflicting evidence combination, because it can arouse counter-intuitive behaviors. Therefore, a novel evidence combination approach is proposed. Firstly, an objective programming model for determining the ideal attribute weights is proposed by considering in local. Then, the alternative is ranked by utilizing the projection on the interval ideal point. Finally, illustrative examples show that the proposed method can effectively handle conflicting evidence combination.%Dempster证据组合规则无法有效处理高冲突证据组合问题,往往引发反直观结果。针对这一问题,提出一种新的证据推理方法。该方法通过建立一个目标规划模型来获得各信源最优的属性权重向量,进而基于投影法对各个目标方案在区间型理想点上的投影进行排序。实验结果表明,所提出的方法能够有效应对高冲突证据组合问题。

  5. Turning symptoms into allies: utilization approaches with posttraumatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M

    1993-01-01

    Adult patients with symptoms connected to the trauma of childhood sexual abuse often present in therapy with multiple symptoms and life difficulties and offer a challenge to even the most experienced clinician. In this paper, I describe my work with three such patients who were crippled in different ways by symptoms that had proved resistant to years of various therapeutic interventions. In every case, I accepted and utilized these symptoms as positive resources for successful and rapid change. Patients were then taught self-utilization approaches which allowed them to sustain and extend initial improvements. I conclude that the indirect utilization principle introduced by Milton Erickson provides an effective method to use in approaching some of the more persistent patterns of posttraumatic symptomatology related to childhood sexual abuse.

  6. Decision support for personalized cloud service selection through multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment.

  7. An Efficient Novel Compensatory Multi-attribute Control Chart for Correlated Multinomial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadigh Raissi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring multi-attribute processes is an important issue in many quality control environments. Almost all the priory proposed control charts utilize equal weights for each Attribute Quality Characteristics (AQCs. In such condition, there is no priority among AQCs. But in real-world, compensatory may exist. Hence due to some applied reasons such as function or efficiency, unequal weights for each AQC are possible. This study proposed a novel efficient control chart for simultaneous monitoring of weighted AQC when data expressed by linguistic terms. Correspondingly a new procedure to interpret out-of-control signals is presented. Performance and comparison advantage of the proposed control chart is measured in terms of Average Run Length (ARL using a real case which priory was expressed. Consequences displayed that considering weight could efficiently extend the prior research for practical circumstancese.

  8. On the benefits of multi-attribute risk analysis in nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.; Sinkko, K. [The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    The radiation protection authorities have seen a need to apply multi-attribute risk analysis in the nuclear emergency management and planning processes to deal with the conflicting objectives, different parties involved and uncertainties. This type of an approach is expected to help in at least the following three areas; to ensure that all the relevant attributes are considered in the decision making, to enhance communication between concerned parties including the population, and to provide a method for including risk analysis explicitly in the process. A MAUT analysis was used to select a strategy for protecting the population after a simulated nuclear accident. A value-focused approach and the use of a neutral facilitator were seen as very useful.

  9. Assessing habitat utilization by neotropical primates: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark D

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain habitat utilization, in relation to forest structural variation, by a multi-species group of primates in tropical lowland rainforest in Southeast Peru during dry season. A new approach to assessing habitat utilization was used. Habitat variation was described by structural and indicator variables collected in quadrats along transects through a study area within Terra Firme and Floodplain forest. Variables were grouped into 'factors' accounting for most of the variation by means of a Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Presence or absence of the primates within the quadrats, assessed by repeat transect surveys, was taken to indicate habitat preferences. Discrimination between the habitat and forest structure in areas of primate presence as opposed to absence was carried out by means of Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). This highlighted patterns in most utilized habitat. Vertical utilization of the forest was also assessed along with presence in bamboo and general activity on encounter. Suggestions of habitat preference and utilization are made for each of the six sympatric species studied, based on significantly discriminating habitat factors, vertical stratification on encounter and relationships with bamboo. Saguinus fuscicollis and Cebus moloch appeared as habitat generalists. Cebus apella, Saimiri sciureus, and Aotus spp., exhibited varying degrees of preference for habitat factors suggesting disturbed forest, Cebus albifrons was more generalistic but with a possible association with primary, naturally disturbed forest. C. apella was encountered in Terra Firme forest significantly more than in Floodplain. For S. sciureus, C. moloch, and C. apella, upper understory was the most utilized forest layer, for C. albifrons, middle canopy and for S. sciureus and Aotus spp., lower understory. Both positive and negative relationships with bamboo were highlighted. Significant positive relationships between Aotus spp., and bamboo suggest

  10. Online Instructional Design Approaches Utilizing a Tablet PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Lowry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Online students can experience what instructional strategies can be utilized using a Tablet PC in online courses. This paper summarizes how inking in Word, Powerpoint, and Windows Journal can be effective in an online course both asynchronously and synchronously. Approaches concerning assignments, discussion boards, presentations, note taking are discussed and how they can be more effective for faculty members and students using a Tablet PC. Students actually experience how a Tablet PC can be utilized in an asynchronous and synchronous environment. In summary, preliminary data will be discussed from the students and professor’s point of view and next steps. As content and assignments are being designed and developed for an online graduate course, it is important to keep in mind teaching styles, student’s learning styles, and a faculty member’s approach to promoting a Tablet PC in an online course. Even though graduate students were not required to have a Tablet PC, the course enabled them to understand how effective a Tablet PC could be in an online course whether it was delivered asynchronous or synchronously. Powerpoint presentations were created to delivery asynchronously and synchronously content to students by utilizing a Tablet PC to illustrate concepts within the presentation. Assignments were created such as evaluating e-learning products, creating a Blackboard unit, evaluating online courses, group instruction sessions, and weekly discussion boards. As these assignments were graded, comments were written on their Word and Powerpoint files using Tablet PC inking. As the Tablet PC initiative is less than one year old at Lawrence Technological University, preliminary data is being collected from faculty members and students. After this class is taught summer 2008, additional research on the efforts of course design and student learning will be explored. The Tablet PC has the potential for enhancing online course delivery.

  11. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  12. Public utilities and low income customers - a marketing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-18

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of dealing with material hardship rather than just income poverty. This paper deals with electricity disconnection and shows how Electricite de France (EDF), the French monopoly provider of electricity, has been testing a number of new policy instruments to avoid disconnection among its low income residential customers. EDF's approach is grounded in marketing principles and techniques both in terms of its willingness to respond to French public customers surveys to analyses the satisfaction of this segment of clientele to its energy assistance programs. EDF's programmes show how utilities, both public and private, can go beyond financial assistance as represented by the LIHEAP energy voucher programme in the USA. (Author)

  13. A benders decomposition approach to multiarea stochastic distributed utility planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Susan Ann

    Until recently, small, modular generation and storage options---distributed resources (DRs)---have been installed principally in areas too remote for economic power grid connection and sensitive applications requiring backup capacity. Recent regulatory changes and DR advances, however, have lead utilities to reconsider the role of DRs. To a utility facing distribution capacity bottlenecks or uncertain load growth, DRs can be particularly valuable since they can be dispersed throughout the system and constructed relatively quickly. DR value is determined by comparing its costs to avoided central generation expenses (i.e., marginal costs) and distribution investments. This requires a comprehensive central and local planning and production model, since central system marginal costs result from system interactions over space and time. This dissertation develops and applies an iterative generalized Benders decomposition approach to coordinate models for optimal DR evaluation. Three coordinated models exchange investment, net power demand, and avoided cost information to minimize overall expansion costs. Local investment and production decisions are made by a local mixed integer linear program. Central system investment decisions are made by a LP, and production costs are estimated by a stochastic multi-area production costing model with Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Law constraints. The nested decomposition is a new and unique method for distributed utility planning that partitions the variables twice to separate local and central investment and production variables, and provides upper and lower bounds on expected expansion costs. Kirchhoff's Voltage Law imposes nonlinear, nonconvex constraints that preclude use of LP if transmission capacity is available in a looped transmission system. This dissertation develops KVL constraint approximations that permit the nested decomposition to consider new transmission resources, while maintaining linearity in the three

  14. Design of Multi-attribute Knowledge Base Based on Hybrid Knowledge Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-jie; YANG Bao-an; ZHANG Ke-jing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the knowledge representation and knowledge reasoning, this paper addresses the creation of the multiattribute knowledge base on the basis of hybrid knowledge representation, with the help of object-oriented programming language and relational database. Compared with general knowledge base, multi-attribute knowledge base can enhance the ability of knowledge processing and application;integrate the heterogeneous knowledge, such as model,symbol, case-based sample knowledge; and support the whole decision process by integrated reasoning.

  15. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-06

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact.

  16. A generalized measurement model to quantify health: the multi-attribute preference response model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F M Krabbe

    Full Text Available After 40 years of deriving metric values for health status or health-related quality of life, the effective quantification of subjective health outcomes is still a challenge. Here, two of the best measurement tools, the discrete choice and the Rasch model, are combined to create a new model for deriving health values. First, existing techniques to value health states are briefly discussed followed by a reflection on the recent revival of interest in patients' experience with regard to their possible role in health measurement. Subsequently, three basic principles for valid health measurement are reviewed, namely unidimensionality, interval level, and invariance. In the main section, the basic operation of measurement is then discussed in the framework of probabilistic discrete choice analysis (random utility model and the psychometric Rasch model. It is then shown how combining the main features of these two models yields an integrated measurement model, called the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR model, which is introduced here. This new model transforms subjective individual rank data into a metric scale using responses from patients who have experienced certain health states. Its measurement mechanism largely prevents biases such as adaptation and coping. Several extensions of the MAPR model are presented. The MAPR model can be applied to a wide range of research problems. If extended with the self-selection of relevant health domains for the individual patient, this model will be more valid than existing valuation techniques.

  17. Effects on Decision Quality of Supporting Multi-attribute Evaluation in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans; Vlek

    1996-11-01

    In this study the effectiveness of multi-attribute utility (MAU) decision support in groups is evaluated for personnel selection problems differing in complexity. Subjects were asked to make an initial individual decision with or without MAU decision support. Next individuals formed small groups and were asked to reach a decision about the same problem. Groups received either MAU support or no support. Results show that for relatively simple problems the most effective method is to provide subjects with both individual and group decision support. Here, decision support had a clear impact on subjects' preferences and the level of agreement between group members. In addition, satisfaction with the decision and the decision procedure was relatively high. Overall, decision support improved communication; subjects reported to find the problem easier, to have more influence on the group decision, and to find it easier to express their opinions. For more complex problems, however, decision making without group support (whether preceded by individual support or not) was evaluated most favorably. Individual decision support in this condition was sometimes better than no support; i.e., there was a lower reported problem difficulty, a higher satisfaction with the group decision, and a higher reported influence on the group decision. The effectiveness of group MAU decision support for complex problems was evaluated less favorably.

  18. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Agricultural Innovations on Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scatasta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some models made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support system is based on a rule-based model incorporating both economic and ecological criteria. In this paper we present an extension to previous results specifying further two sub-models assessing economic impacts of cropping systems at farm and regional level. Following a real option approach we show how both social and private costs and benefits, both at farm and regional level, can be classified in reversible and irreversible, and what irreversibility means for the size of the uncertainty associated to the adoption of agricultural innovations. All the qualitative models are developed using a qualitative multi-attribute modeling methodology, supported by the software tool DEXi.

  19. A Novel Method for Multiattribute Decision Making with Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Triangular Linguistic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the multiattribute decision making (MADM problems in which the attribute values take the form of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements and the weights of attributes take the form of real numbers. Firstly, to solve the situation where the membership degree and the nonmembership degree of an element to a triangular linguistic variable, the concept, operational laws, score function, and accuracy function of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements (DHFTLEs are defined. Then, some dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic geometric aggregation operators are developed for aggregating the DHFTLEs, including dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (DHFTLWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (DHFTLOWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic hybrid geometric (DHFTLHG operator, generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (GDHFTLWG operator, and generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (GDHFTLOWG operator. Furthermore, some desirable properties of these operators are investigated in detail. Based on the proposed operators, an approach to MADM with dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic information is proposed. Finally, a numerical example for investment alternative selection is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  20. A Hybrid Multiattribute Decision Making Model for Evaluating Students’ Satisfaction towards Hostels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anath Rau Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid multiattribute decision making (MADM model which deals with the interactions that usually exist between hostel attributes in the process of measuring the students’ satisfaction towards a set of hostels and identifying the optimal strategies for enhancing their satisfaction. The model uses systematic random stratified sampling approach for data collection purpose as students dwelling in hostels are “naturally” clustered by block and gender, factor analysis for extracting large set of hostel attributes into fewer independent factors, λ-measure for characterizing the interactions shared by the attributes within each factor, Choquet integral for aggregating the interactive performance scores within each factor, Mikhailov’s fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (MFAHP for determining the weights of independent factors, and simple weighted average (SWA operator to measure the overall satisfaction score of each hostel. A real evaluation involving fourteen Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM hostels was carried out in order to demonstrate the model’s feasibility. The same evaluation was performed using an additive aggregation model in order to illustrate the effects of ignoring the interactions shared by attributes in hostel satisfaction analysis.

  1. Factors Affecting Medical Services Utilization: A Behavioral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terence F.; Schieber, George J.

    This study describes behavioral response--both its theoretical specification and its estimation--which relates health service utilization and expenditures to a number of variables: demographic, psychological, economic, medical, and policy-related. By incorporating these behavioral relations into a recently developed microsimulation model, national…

  2. Exemplar-based inference in multi-attribute decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Karlsson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies propose that exemplar retrieval contributes to multi-attribute decisions. The authors have proposed a process theory enabling a priori predictions of what cognitive representations people use as input to their judgment process (extit{Sigma}, for ``summation''; P. Juslin, L. Karlsson, and H. Olsson, 2008. According to Sigma, exemplar retrieval is a back-up system when the task does not allow for additive and linear abstraction and integration of cue-criterion knowledge (e.g., when the task is non-additive. An important question is to what extent such shifts occur spontaneously as part of automatic procedures, such as error-minimization with the Delta rule, or if they are controlled extit{strategy} shifts contingent on the ability to identify a sufficiently successful judgment strategy. In this article data are reviewed that demonstrate a shift between exemplar memory and cue abstraction, as well as data where the expected shift does extit{not} occur. In contrast to a common assumption of previous models, these results suggest a controlled and contingent strategy shift.

  3. Reservoir characterization by multiattribute analysis: The Orito field case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to characterize the Caballos formation reservoir in the Orito field in the Putumayo basin - Colombia, a multiattribute analysis was applied to a 50 km2 seismic volume along with 16 boreholes. Some properties of the reservoir were reliably estimated and very accurate when compared with well data. The porosity, permeability and volume of shale were calculated in the seismic volume by at least second order multivariate polynomial. A good correlation between porosity and acoustic impedance was observed by means of crossplot analysis performed on properties measured and estimated in cores or borehole logs as well as on properties calculated in the seismic volume. The estimated property values were well behaved according to the rocks physics analysis. With the property maps generated and the geological environments of the reservoir a new interpretation of the Caballos formation was established. High correlation coefficients and low estimated errors point out competence to calculate these three reservoir properties in places far from the influence of the wells. The multiple equation system was established through weighted hierarchical grouping of attributes and their coefficients calculated applying the inverse generalized matrix method.

  4. Thinking Beyond Counterinsurgency: The Utility of a Balanced Approach to Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    successful and has often involved ex-prisoners, thereby aiding their reintegration in the community. The Reintegration of Political Prisoners This aspect...Thinking Beyond Counterinsurgency: The Utility of a Balanced Approach to Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration A Monograph by MAJ John L...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thinking Beyond Counterinsurgency: The Utility of a Balanced Approach to Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration

  5. Utilizing Distributed Resources in Smart Grids - A Coordination Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The Danish electricity grid is expected to face numerous challenges in the future. These are the combined effect of several factors, such as an increased use of renewable resources for power production; an increased use of electricity for previously fossil-fueled consumption; and an increase...... as well as its limitations. Enforcing coordination through temporal shifts of consumption and production requires the problems we consider to be solved across some predefined time-horizon. Utilizing flexibility of consumers through coordination, is known as demand management, and considers how consumers...

  6. The Utility Additive Method and Its Usage for Studying Consumer Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jun; XU Zhe

    2002-01-01

    Multiattribute utility theory is a powerful theory tool to reveal the preferences of the consumers according to multiple attribute points of view. Utility additive (UTA) method based on Multiattribute utility theory is an ordinal regression method using linear programming. The purpose of the UTA method presented in this paper is to assess additive utility functions that aggregate multiple attributes in a composite attribute.The results of it are important for the study of consumer behavior. Finally, a simple illustrative example is presented and some extensions of the method are proposed.

  7. An Approach to Ethics Utilizing the Experience of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    Delineates a generalized difference between men and women in approaches to ethics. Reiterates Carol Gilligan's theory that men generally believe in a morality of rights whereas women subscribe to a morality of relationships. Discusses other aspects of this dichotomy including ideas of good, evil, and sin. (MJP)

  8. A Utility-Based Approach to Some Information Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sandow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We review a decision theoretic, i.e., utility-based, motivation for entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy, the natural generalizations that follow, and various properties of thesegeneralized quantities. We then consider these generalized quantities in an easily interpreted spe-cial case. We show that the resulting quantities, share many of the properties of entropy andrelative entropy, such as the data processing inequality and the second law of thermodynamics.We formulate an important statistical learning problem – probability estimation – in terms of ageneralized relative entropy. The solution of this problem reflects general risk preferences via theutility function; moreover, the solution is optimal in a sense of robust absolute performance.

  9. Clinical application of plasma thermograms. Utility, practical approaches and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2015-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of blood plasma are part of an emerging area of the clinical application of DSC to biofluid analysis. DSC analysis of plasma from healthy individuals and patients with various diseases has revealed changes in the thermal profiles of the major plasma proteins associated with the clinical status of the patient. The sensitivity of DSC to the concentration of proteins, their interactions with other proteins or ligands, or their covalent modification underlies the potential utility of DSC analysis. A growing body of literature has demonstrated the versatility and performance of clinical DSC analysis across a range of biofluids and in a number of disease settings. The principles, practice and challenges of DSC analysis of plasma are described in this article.

  10. A Novel Approach for Improving Communication by Wavelength Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrangesh Dahat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM technology modulate multiple channels over a single fiber. The most common architecture utilized for establishing communication in WDM optical networks is wavelength routing, where the communication between a source and a destination node is performed by setting up optical channels between them, called light-paths from the network perspective. In optical WDM networks, transmission of information along optical lines is advantageous since it has high transmission capacity, scalability, feasibility and also high reliability. But since large amount of information is being carried, any problem during transmission can lead to severe damage to the data being carried. In this paper, we propose to develop a routing and wavelength utilization algorithm which considers two constraints for selecting the best path. The two constraints are based on the available free load and the number of wavelength used in the link. Based on these constraints, two cost functions on load and wavelength are determined, which yields a combined cost function. For each pair of source and destination, the path with the minimum combined cost function is selected as the primary path for data transmission, allocating the sufficient wavelength. This study paper proposes a RWU algorithm for the problem of establishing the set of efficient light paths for a given set of connection requests. The effectiveness of the proposed RWU algorithm is demonstrated by simulation. This study divides the routing and wavelength allocation process in two step problem with a goal of minimizing Number of wavelength channel and number of wavelength conversion required. This algorithm thus provides a reliable path for the data transmission.

  11. Introductory geology for elementary education majors utilizing a constructivist approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.M.; Kelso, P.R.; Rexroad, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    "Field Excursions in Earth Science" is designed as a non-prerequisite field-based course for elementary education majors. Classic Canadian Shield and Michigan Basin outcrops and Quaternary features are used to teach those Earth science objectives considered most important for K-8 teachers by the Michigan State Board of Education and by others. We integrated these objectives into five conceptual pathways rather than presenting them as discrete pieces of information. A variety of teaching techniques based on constructivist educational theory are employed, so that pre-service teachers experience active-learning strategies in the context of how science is practiced. Our learning strategies address the cognitive and affective domains and utilize personal experiences in conjunction with pre- and post-experience organizers to allow students to develop individual meanings. We place emphasis on observations and concepts and we encourage students to explain their understanding of concepts verbally and in a variety of written formats. Activities address spatial concepts and map reading; mineral, rock, and fossil identification; formation of rocks; surficial processes and landform development; structural deformation and plate tectonics; and environmental issues. Students keep field notes and have daily projects. They address the pedagogical structure of the course in a daily diary.

  12. 关键型多属性消错决策方法%A Key Multi-attribute Method for Error-eliminating and Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄灏然; 吴丽莉; 江尚乐; 俞守华

    2015-01-01

    针对关键型多属性决策问题,从消错理论的角度提出一种新的决策方法。通过消错理论阐述了关键型多属决策问题与“一票否决制”情形下的多属性决策问题之间的同质性。结合消错理论给出非劣策略和非优策略的概念。通过计算错误值的方式将非优策略从备选策略集中排除,通过计算错误偏离度对非劣策略进行排序和选优。并通过一个实例对决策方法的可行性和合理性进行说明。%For multi-attribute decision making ( MADM ) problems with key attributes, a new decision making approach on the base of error-eliminating theory is proposed.Firstly, multi-attribute decision making problem under“one vote negation system” situation is proved the same as multi-attribute decision making problem with key attributes.Secondly, the concepts of non-optimal strategy and non-dominated strategy are given on the basis of error-eliminating theory.Thirdly, non-optimal strategies are excluded from the set of alternative strategies by the way of calculating error values, and the non-dominated strate-gies are prioritized and selected according to the error deviation degree.The rationality and feasibility of this model will be shown by an illustrative example finally.

  13. Obesity and cancer: Mendelian randomization approach utilizing the FTO genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Moore, Lee; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chabrier, Amélie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Timpson, Nic; Hung, Rayjean J; Smith, George Davey

    2009-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cancers although appears to have an inverse association with cancers strongly related to tobacco. Studying obesity is difficult due to numerous biases and confounding. To avoid these biases we used a Mendelian randomization approach incorporating an analysis of variants in the FTO gene that are strongly associated with BMI levels among 7000 subjects from a study of lung, kidney and upper-aerodigestive cancer. The FTO A allele which is linked with increased BMI was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer (allelic odds ratio (OR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.00). It was also associated with a weak increased risk of kidney cancer, which was more apparent before the age of 50 (OR = 1.44, CI 1.09-1.90). Our results highlight the potential for genetic variation to act as an unconfounded marker of environmentally modifiable factors, and offer the potential to obtain estimates of the causal effect of obesity. However, far larger sample sizes than studied here will be required to undertake this with precision.

  14. Detection of selection utilizing molecular phylogenetics: a possible approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Wyckoff, Gerald J

    2011-05-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution (Kimura 1985) is the basis for most current statistical tests for detecting selection, mainly using polymorphism data within species, divergence data between species, and/or genomic structures like linkage disequilibrium (Wang et al. 2006). In most cases informative tests can only be constructed with ample variations within these parameters and many common tests are difficult to formulate when identity-by-descent is not clear, for example in gene families or repetitive elements. With the current progress being made toward whole-genome sequencing and re-sequencing efforts, as well as protein sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry where genomic sequencing is lacking, we felt it was necessary to re-visit possible methods for rapid screening and detection of evolutionary outliers. These outliers might be of interest for other research, such as candidate gene association studies or genome annotations, drug- and disease-target searches, and functional studies. We focused on methods that would work on both protein and nucleotide data, could be used on large gene or protein domain families, and could be generated quickly in order for "first pass" annotation of large scale data. For these reasons, we chose properties of trees generated routinely in molecular phylogenetic studies; genetic distance, tree shape and balance, and internal node statistics (Heard 1992). Our current research looking at protein domain family data and phylogenetic trees from PFAM (Finn et al. 2008) suggests this approach towards detecting evolutionary outliers is feasible, but additional work will be necessary to determine the parameters that suggest either positive or negative selection is occurring in specific gene families. This is particularly true when other factors such as rapid duplication and deletion of genes containing these domains is taking place, and we suggest phylogenetic statistics may be useful in combination with existing methodologies for

  15. Method for uncertain multi-attribute decision-making with preference information in the form of interval numbers complementary judgment matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hong'an; Liu Sanyang; Fang Xiangrong

    2007-01-01

    The uncertain multi-attribute decision-making problems because of the information about attribute weights being known partly, and the decision maker's preference information on alternatives taking the form of interval numbers complementary to the judgment matrix, are investigated.First, the decision-making information, based on the subjective uncertain complementary preference matrix on alternatives is made uniform by using a translation function, and then an objective programming model is established.The attribute weights are obtained by solving the model, thus the overall values of the alternatives are gained by using the additive weighting method.Second, the alternatives are ranked, by using the continuous ordered weighted averaging (C-OWA) operator.A new approach to the uncertain multi-attribute decision-making problems, with uncertain preference information on alternatives is proposed.It is characterized by simple operations and can be easily implemented on a computer.Finally, a practical example is illustrated to show the feasibility and availability of the developed method.

  16. Novel combinatorial algorithm for the problems of fuzzy grey multi-attribute group decision making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Congjun; Xiao Xinping; Peng Jin

    2007-01-01

    To study the fuzzy and grey information in the problems of multi-attribute group decision making, the basic concepts of both fuzzy grey numbers and grey interval numbers are given firstly, then a new model of fuzzy grey multi-attribute group decision making based on the theories of fuzzy mathematics and grey system is presented. Furthermore, the grey interval relative degree and deviation degree is defined, and both the optimistic algorithm of the grey interval relational degree and the algorithm of deviation degree minimization for solving this new model are also given. Finally, a decision making example to demonstrate the feasibility and rationality of this new method is given, and the results by using these two algorithms are uniform.

  17. Multi-attribute decision making model based on optimal membership and relative entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Congjun; Zhao Yong

    2009-01-01

    To study the problems of multi-attribute decision making in which the attribute values are given in the form of linguistic fuzzy numbers and the information of attribute weights are incomplete, a new multi-attribute decision making model is presented based on the optimal membership and the relative entropy. Firstly, the definitions of the optimal membership and the relative entropy are given. Secondly, for all alternatives, a set of preference weight vectors are obtained by solving a set of linear programming models whose goals are all to maximize the optimal membership. Thirdly, a relative entropy model is established to aggregate the preference weight vectors, thus an optimal weight vector is determined. Based on this optimal weight vector, the algorithm of deviation degree minimization is proposed to rank all the alternatives. Finally, a decision making example is given to demonstrate the feasibility and rationality of this new model.

  18. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros-Pérez, Pablo; del Campo-Hitschfeld, Maria Luisa; Mora-Melià, Daniel; Domínguez, David

    2015-01-01

    Currently, multi-attribute auctions are becoming widespread awarding mechanisms for contracts in construction, and in these auctions, criteria other than price are taken into account for ranking bidder proposals. Therefore, being the lowest-price bidder is no longer a guarantee of being awarded, thus increasing the importance of measuring any bidder’s performance when not only the first position (lowest price) matters.\\ud \\ud Modeling position performance allows a tender manager to calculate ...

  19. The Utility of Synthetic-based Approach of Writing among Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Derakhshandeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to examine the utility of synthetic-based approach versus traditional approaches of writing among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this end, ninety students at Upper-Intermediate level were randomly chosen from the English population of Kish and Gooyesh English Institutes. The students were divided into three groups. Group1 was asked to do a writing task based on product-based approach. A writing task based on process-oriented approach was administered to Group2; later on, Group 3 was invited to write a composition to assess their performance based on synthetic-based approach. The result of the t test and two-way ANOVA revealed that the students performed better in writing using synthetic approach rather than traditional approaches to writing.

  20. User centric approach to itemset utility mining in Market Basket Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Pillai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence is information about a company's past performance that is used to help predict the company's future performance. It can reveal emerging trends from which the company might profit [31]. Data mining allows users to sift through the enormous amount of information available in data warehouses; it is from this sifting process that business intelligence gems may be found [31]. Within the area of data mining, the problem of deriving associations from data has received a great deal of attention. This problem is referred as “market-basket problem”. Association Rule Mining (ARM, a well-studied technique in the data mining field, identifies frequent itemsets from databases and generates association rules by assuming that all items have the same significance andfrequency of occurrence in a record. However, items are actually different in many aspects in a number of real applications such as retail marketing, nutritional pattern mining, etc [26]. Rare items are less frequent items [32]. For many real world applications, however, utility of rare itemsets based on cost, profit or revenue is of importance. For extracting rare itemsets, the equal frequency based approaches like Apriori approach suffer from “rare item problem dilemma”. Utility mining aims at identifying rare itemsets with high utility. The main objective of Utility Mining is to identify the itemsets with highest utilities, by considering profit, quantity, costor other user preferences [40]. Also valuable patterns cannot be discovered by traditional non-temporal data mining approaches that treat all the data as one large segment, with no attention paid to utilizing the time information of transactions. Now, as increasingly complex real-world problems are addressed, temporal rare itemset utility problem, are taking center stage. In many real-life applications, high-utility itemsets consist of rare items. Rare itemsets provide useful information in different decision

  1. A case-comparison study of automatic document classification utilizing both serial and parallel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilges, B.; Bastos, R. C.; Mateus, G. P.; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    A well-known problem faced by any organization nowadays is the high volume of data that is available and the required process to transform this volume into differential information. In this study, a case-comparison study of automatic document classification (ADC) approach is presented, utilizing both serial and parallel paradigms. The serial approach was implemented by adopting the RapidMiner software tool, which is recognized as the worldleading open-source system for data mining. On the other hand, considering the MapReduce programming model, the Hadoop software environment has been used. The main goal of this case-comparison study is to exploit differences between these two paradigms, especially when large volumes of data such as Web text documents are utilized to build a category database. In the literature, many studies point out that distributed processing in unstructured documents have been yielding efficient results in utilizing Hadoop. Results from our research indicate a threshold to such efficiency.

  2. Utility maximization with partial information: Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Lihua; GUO Junyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of maximizing the expected utility of the terminal wealth when the stock price satisfies a stochastic differential equation with instantaneous rates of return modelled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.Here, only the stock price and interest rate can be observable for an investor.It is reduced to a partially observed stochastic control problem.Combining the filtering theory with the dynamic programming approach, explicit representations of the optimal value functions and corresponding optimal strategies are derived. Moreover, closed-form solutions are provided in two cases of exponential utility and logarithmic utility.In particular, logarithmic utility is considered under the restriction of shortselling and borrowing.

  3. Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.

  4. 作业车间区间型多属性瓶颈识别方法%Interval multi-attribute bottleneck identification in job shop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军强; 陈剑; 王烁; 郭银洲; 张映锋; 孙树栋

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the Job shop bottleneck identification problem under random disturbance resulting in the difficulty of obtaining the determinate value of machine feature attribute, interval form was used to describe these uncertain attributes of machine. Furthermore, a new interval multi-attribute bottleneck identification model was established, and an interval TOPSIS bottleneck identification approach was proposed. By considering the close relationship between bottleneck utilization and bottleneck identification, an integrated framework, under which they could be solved simultaneously, was presented. This framework included two layers. In the first layer of bottleneck utilization, the Plant-Simulation platform was used to simulate random disturbance including equipment failure. Genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to perform optimization and simulation for the scheduling problems under the random disturbance and the optimum scheduling solution was obtained. In the second layer of bottleneck identification, based on scheduling optimization, interval TOPSIS bottleneck identification approach was proposed to identify bottleneck machines with considerations of multiple feature attributes. Comparing the proposed approach with machine utilization, bottleneck occurrence rate and shifting bottleneck detection method in the existing literatures, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. Finally, the influence of machining cost and material cost on bottleneck identification was analyzed.%针对扰动情形下作业车间瓶颈识别时机器的特征属性难以用确定值表示的问题,采用区间形式描述机器特征属性,构建了区间型多属性瓶颈识别模型,提出了区间TOPSIS多属性瓶颈识别方法.考虑瓶颈识别与瓶颈利用的紧密关系,提出了先进行瓶颈利用再进行瓶颈识别的统一框架.其中瓶颈利用层基于Plant-Simulation 仿真平台设置了机器故障等随机扰动,采用遗传算法对扰动情形

  5. Computational approaches to metabolic engineering utilizing systems biology and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Stephen S

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic engineering modifies cellular function to address various biochemical applications. Underlying metabolic engineering efforts are a host of tools and knowledge that are integrated to enable successful outcomes. Concurrent development of computational and experimental tools has enabled different approaches to metabolic engineering. One approach is to leverage knowledge and computational tools to prospectively predict designs to achieve the desired outcome. An alternative approach is to utilize combinatorial experimental tools to empirically explore the range of cellular function and to screen for desired traits. This mini-review focuses on computational systems biology and synthetic biology tools that can be used in combination for prospective in silico strain design.

  6. A Computer Simulation Modeling Approach to Estimating Utility in Several Air Force Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AL-TR-1992-0006 AD-A252 322 /II" A COMPUTER SIMULATION MODELING A APPROACH TO ESTIMATING UTILITY IN R SEVERAL AIR FORCE SPECIALTIES M Brice M. Stone...I 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED IU 1Q::l.n1 Umrjh 1100 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS A Computer Simulation Modeling Approach...I DTIC TAB 0 Unannounced 0 justificatlon- By Distribut On . Availability Codes Avai an /r Dist Special v A COMPUTER SIMULATION MODELING APPROACH TO

  7. The Effects of Rising Interest Rates on Electric Utility Stock Prices: Regulatory Considerations and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This technical brief identifies conditions under which utility regulators should consider implementing policy approaches that seek to mitigate negative outcomes due to an increase in interest rates. Interest rates are a key factor in determining a utility’s cost of equity and investors find value when returns exceed the cost of equity. Through historical observations of periods of rising and falling interest rates and application of a pro forma financial tool, we identify the key drivers of utility stock valuations and estimate the degree to which those valuations might be affected by increasing interest rates.3 We also analyze the efficacy of responses by utility regulators to mitigate potential negative financial impacts. We find that regulators have several possible approaches to mitigate a decline in value in an environment of increasing interest rates, though regulators must weigh the tradeoffs of improving investor value with potential increases in customer costs. Furthermore, the range of approaches reflects today’s many different electric utility regulatory models and regulatory responses to a decline in investor value will fit within state-specific models.

  8. Cluster approach to the development of housing services and public utilities in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ivanovich Bazhenov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing crisis in the housing services and public utilities sphere determines the need to accelerate its integration into the market space. The author proposes to apply the cluster initiatives, which, in his opinion, provide the solution of housing services and public utilities problems in terms of their broader vision. This paper attempts to highlight the benefits of the cluster approach to the development of housing services and public utilities, and identifies the main provisions in the process of its implementation. The essence of the concept of «housing services and social cluster of the region» in terms of housing services and public utilities development is revealed, members of cluster unification are designated, its components are identified, the purpose of introducing the cluster model of housing services and public utilities reform management is determined, which essence is to change the mentality of the producers and consumers of housing services and public utilities in the direction of increasing responsibilities and respect for mutual interests in the market of housing services and public utilities. The main provisions and principles of formation of housing services and social cluster of the region are reviewed, as well as the characteristics and trends of its development. An authorial approach to the development of a strategy of forming a housing services and social cluster in the region in accordance with modern trends is presented. The leading role of several factors in establishing the basic prerequisites for sustainable operation of housing services and social cluster of the region is justified. These factors include governmental regulation of pricing and forms of support to small entrepreneurship development, creation of financial security system, development of public-private partnerships and implementation of innovative technologies. The role of non-governmental organizations and public associations in the formation of

  9. An innovative approach to diabetes education for a Hispanic population utilizing community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Mieca S; Narayan, Suzanne; Wedeking, Lorene

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects the Hispanic population. New approaches are needed to provide effective education to this population. This evidence-based project utilized community health workers (CHWs) to deliver a culturally relevant diabetes education program to a Hispanic population at a migrant clinic. The program emphasized culturally relevant interventions to improve self-efficacy. Formative evaluation was used to develop and improve the program. Participants showed improvement in diabetes knowledge and diabetes related self-efficacy scores. Outcomes also included improvement in CHWs' diabetes knowledge and development of an educational program that could be utilized in other settings serving Hispanic populations with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Occlusion of atrial septal defect utilizing occluder devise via minimally invasive right chest approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励峰; 李伟; 康宁; 龚宝生; 吴东进; 徐方杰; 邱兆昆; 吴卫华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion employing a small right anterior thoracotomy approach. Methods A total of 21 patients with ASD underwent general anesthesia and 2 -3 cm incision was made in the fourth right intercostal space. Utilizing transesophageal or transthoracic echocardiography, the occluder was released using a monotube unit. Results All patients were occluded successfully. No patient required open surgery utilizing extracorporeal circulation. There were no major complications and no evidence of residual atrial shunt. Conclusion ASD occlusion via a minimal surgical incision is safe, less invasive, and has excellent outcomes.

  11. Using Multiattribute Utility Copulas in Support of UAV Search and Destroy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2-16 GA Genetic Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 VRP Vehicle Routing Problem...The search problem presents a similarity with the Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ), which has a large body of work focusing on the use of GAs to solve...Ombuki [29] and Nagata [27] present improvements on the GA for VRPs with time windows for delivery by modifying the crossover and mutation steps. A

  12. Utilizing Electronic Health Record Information to Optimize Medication Infusion Devices: A Manual Data Integration Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Amanda; Maloney, Robert; Gawron, Joyce; Skinner, Colin

    Health information technology is increasingly utilized within healthcare delivery systems today. Two examples of this type of technology include the capture of patient-specific information within an electronic health record and intravenous medication infusion devices equipped with dose error reduction software known as drug libraries. Automatic integration of these systems, termed intravenous (IV) interoperability, should serve as the goal toward which all healthcare systems work to maximize patient safety. For institutions lacking IV interoperability, we describe a manual approach of querying the electronic health record to incorporate medication administration information with data from infusion device software to optimize drug library settings. This approach serves to maximize utilization of available information to optimize medication safety provided by drug library software.

  13. A GA-Based Approach to Hide Sensitive High Utility Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A GA-based privacy preserving utility mining method is proposed to find appropriate transactions to be inserted into the database for hiding sensitive high utility itemsets. It maintains the low information loss while providing information to the data demanders and protects the high-risk information in the database. A flexible evaluation function with three factors is designed in the proposed approach to evaluate whether the processed transactions are required to be inserted. Three different weights are, respectively, assigned to the three factors according to users. Moreover, the downward closure property and the prelarge concept are adopted in the proposed approach to reduce the cost of rescanning database, thus speeding up the evaluation process of chromosomes.

  14. Evaluation of Ski Center Services in Greece based on the Multiattribute Measurement Model of Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilos Masmanidis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to evaluate ski center services in Greece. Our research sample consists of n=1,614 visitors in 11 of the largest ski centers in Greece. The 22-item SERVQUAL standard questionnaire has been used, with each item classified based on five quality-assessment dimensions. In order to assess ski center offered services, the Multiattribute Attitude Measurement Model has been used. The values gathered by applying this model were used as reference values for ski center evaluation. Ski centers have then been ranked based on their total attitude score. The paper provides administrative suggestions on improving center offered services.

  15. Application of Interval Multi-attribute Decision-Making Method to Aeroengine Performance Ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haijun; Zuo Hongfu; Liang Jian

    2006-01-01

    In view of the uncertainty of the monitored performance parameters of aeroengines, the fluctuating scope of the monitored informarion during a period is taken as interval numbers, and the interval multi-attribute decision-making method is employed to predict the performance of aeroengine. The synthetic weights of interval numbers are obtained by calculating deviation degree and possibility degree. As an example of application, 5 performance parameters monitored on 10 CF6 aeroengines of China Eastern Airlines Co.,Ltd are adopted as decision attributes to verify the algorithm. The obtained synthetic ranking result shows the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed method in reflecting the performance status of aeroengins.

  16. Utilization and Outcomes of Nephroureterectomy for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma by Surgical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph F; Packiam, Vignesh T; Boysen, William R; Johnson, Scott C; Smith, Zachary L; Smith, Norm D; Shalhav, Arieh L; Steinberg, Gary D

    2017-07-01

    To compare outcomes and survival of open-, robotic-, and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (ONU, RNU, LNU) using population-based data. Using the National Cancer Database, we identified patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for localized upper tract urothelial carcinoma between 2010 and 2013. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics were compared among the three operative approaches. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the impact of approach on performance of lymphadenectomy (LND), positive surgical margins (PSM), and overall survival (OS). In total, there were 9401 cases identified for analysis, including 3199 ONU (34%), 2098 RNU (22%), and 4104 LNU (44%). From 2010 to 2013, utilization of RNU increased from 14% to 30%. On multivariate analysis, LND was more likely in RNU (odds ratio [OR] 1.52; p ONU. RNU was associated with decreased PSM compared with ONU (OR = 0.73; p = 0.04). After adjusting for other factors, OS was not significantly associated with surgical approach. RNU utilization doubled over the study period. While RNU was associated with greater likelihood of LND performance as well as lower PSM rates when compared with ONU and LNU, surgical approach did not independently affect OS.

  17. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  18. Advances in Research on the Approaches of Improving Water Utilization Efficiency in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-sheng; HUANG You-zhong; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    Water shortage is increasingly an important factor limiting the sustainable development of global economy, posing a huge threat to social security and human existence. Water usage in agriculture accounts for about 70% of total water consumption in the world, and rice cultivation is in turn the largest water user, which accounts for about 50% of total water usage in agriculture. Therefore, it is quite important to improve water utilization efficiency to reduce water consumption in rice.Water stress causes severe inhibition of plant growth and development as well as yield reduction, however the extent of inhibition or reduction varies greatly with the growth stages, duration and severity of stress, and plant genotypes. In rice,drought resistance and water utilization efficiency might be improved by developing stress resistant cultivars and conducting proper agronomic practices. It is hence imperative to determine the suitable criteria in morphological and physiological traits for drought resistance and water utilization efficiency in conventional breeding of rice. At present, leaf rolling, leaf water potential and carbon isotope discrimination are commonly used criteria for the evaluation and identification of germplasm with high drought resistance or water utilization efficiency. With rapid development of molecular biology,marker-assisted selection has been used in rice breeding against water stress. In this review, therefore, the agronomic aspect of water saving techniques such as selection of suitable rice cultivars, planting pattern, mulching, deficit irrigation and alternative drying and moist irrigation are discussed and effective approaches are also recommended.

  19. Analyzing the barriers affecting the effective utilization of quality tools and techniques using Integrated ISM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to recognize and scrutinize the barriers affecting the utilization of quality tools and techniques (QT&T in manufacturing organizations. For this purpose, twelve barriers af-fecting the execution of QT&T in manufacturing organizations have been identified from literature analysis and experts’ opinion (academicians and industrial. Questionnaire-based survey has been utilized for the validation of identified barriers. Afterwards, an integrated model of QT&T has been developed by using interpretive structural Modelling (ISM and Matriced Impacts Croisés Multi-plication Appliquée á un Classement (MICMAC approach. This research gives an apparent depic-tion to identify and handle the barriers by computing the effectiveness of each barrier. Barriers like accessibility of time and space, inability to change organizational culture and inadequate coordina-tion and teamwork are found to be the key barriers for utilization of QT&T in manufacturing organ-ization. The developed model will help the manufacturing organizations effectively utilize QT&T.

  20. Production Task Queue Optimization Based on Multi-Attribute Evaluation for Complex Product Assembly Workshop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hui Li

    Full Text Available The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility.

  1. A simplified multiattribute procurement auction with postponed scoring by a double revelation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    This paper provides a multiattribute procurement auction that eases the principal’s articulation of preferences. The suggested procurement auction applies yardstick techniques to enhance the multi-dimensional competition and to postpone the Principal’s scoring (the weighting ofattributes). The pr......This paper provides a multiattribute procurement auction that eases the principal’s articulation of preferences. The suggested procurement auction applies yardstick techniques to enhance the multi-dimensional competition and to postpone the Principal’s scoring (the weighting ofattributes...... of linear scoring functions, consistent with the principal’s choice given linear preferences. The resulting scoring functions are used to score the original bids. While the highest score wins the second highest score settle the compensation. If the auction results in more than one highest scoring bid......, the Principal ends the auction by selecting the most preferred. The auction provides almost ideal incentives for bidders to reveal prices less than or equal to true cost. In general bidding below true cost involves a risk of getting a oss, nevertheless it may also both increase the chance of winning and result...

  2. Production Task Queue Optimization Based on Multi-Attribute Evaluation for Complex Product Assembly Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Hui; Mo, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility.

  3. 3D modeling of geological anomalies based on segmentation of multiattribute fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Ning; Song, Cheng-Yun; Li, Zhi-Yong; Cai, Han-Peng; Yao, Xing-Miao; Hu, Guang-Min

    2016-09-01

    3D modeling of geological bodies based on 3D seismic data is used to define the shape and volume of the bodies, which then can be directly applied to reservoir prediction, reserve estimation, and exploration. However, multiattributes are not effectively used in 3D modeling. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method for building of 3D model of geological anomalies based on the segmentation of multiattribute fusion. First, we divide the seismic attributes into edge- and region-based seismic attributes. Then, the segmentation model incorporating the edge- and region-based models is constructed within the levelset-based framework. Finally, the marching cubes algorithm is adopted to extract the zero level set based on the segmentation results and build the 3D model of the geological anomaly. Combining the edge-and region-based attributes to build the segmentation model, we satisfy the independence requirement and avoid the problem of insufficient data of single seismic attribute in capturing the boundaries of geological anomalies. We apply the proposed method to seismic data from the Sichuan Basin in southwestern China and obtain 3D models of caves and channels. Compared with 3D models obtained based on single seismic attributes, the results are better agreement with reality.

  4. Integrated seismic stochastic inversion and multi-attributes to delineate reservoir distribution: Case study MZ fields, Central Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Novriyani, M.; Suparno, S.; Hidayat, R.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the integration of seismic stochastic inversion and multi-attributes for delineating the reservoir distribution in term of lithology and porosity in the formation within depth interval between the Top Sihapas and Top Pematang. The method that has been used is a stochastic inversion, which is integrated with multi-attribute seismic by applying neural network Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). Stochastic methods are used to predict the probability mapping sandstone as the result of impedance varied with 50 realizations that will produce a good probability. Analysis of Stochastic Seismic Tnversion provides more interpretive because it directly gives the value of the property. Our experiment shows that AT of stochastic inversion provides more diverse uncertainty so that the probability value will be close to the actual values. The produced AT is then used for an input of a multi-attribute analysis, which is used to predict the gamma ray, density and porosity logs. To obtain the number of attributes that are used, stepwise regression algorithm is applied. The results are attributes which are used in the process of PNN. This PNN method is chosen because it has the best correlation of others neural network method. Finally, we interpret the product of the multi-attribute analysis are in the form of pseudo-gamma ray volume, density volume and volume of pseudo-porosity to delineate the reservoir distribution. Our interpretation shows that the structural trap is identified in the southeastern part of study area, which is along the anticline.

  5. A Grey Interval Relational Degree-Based Dynamic Multiattribute Decision Making Method and Its Application in Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional grey interval relational degree model for dynamic Multiattribute decision making. In the model, the observed values are interval grey numbers. Elements are selected in the system as the points in an m-dimensional linear space. Then observation data of each element to different time and objects are as the coordinates of point. An optimization model is employed to obtain each scheme’s affiliate degree for the positive and negative ideal schemes. And a three-dimensional grey interval relational degree model based on time, index, and scheme is constructed in the paper. The result shows that the three-dimensional grey relational degree simplifies the traditional dynamic multiattribute decision making method and can better resolve the dynamic multiattribute decision making problem of interval numbers. The example illustrates that the method presented in the paper can be used to deal with problems of uncertainty such as dynamic multiattribute decision making.

  6. BEOS-A new approach to promote and organize industrial ISS utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmann, Helmut; Buchholz, Henning; Bratke, Burkhard; Hueser, Detlev; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop and to market innovative services and products for the operation of the ISS and its utilization, three players have teamed up together and established an entity called BEOS (Bremen Engineering Operations Science). The team is made up of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, OHB-System and ZARM, the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity at the University of Bremen. It is the aim of BEOS to represent a competent industrial interface to potential ISS users from the space and non-space industries. In this effort BEOS is supporting and supplementing the activities of the space agencies, especially in the field of industrial and/or commercial ISS utilization. With this approach BEOS is creating new business opportunities not only for its team members but also for its customers from industry. Besides the fostering of industrial research in space, nontechnical fields of space utilization like entertainment, advertisement, education and space travel represent further key sectors for the marketing efforts of BEOS. .

  7. THE MULTIATTRIBUTE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUBJECT OF MODERN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalynychenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research marketing subject as an object of scientific knowledge. Existing definitions of the subject marketing in modern specialized literature were systematized. The essence of the main characteristics and attributes (structure of the subject of marketing is determined; the features of marketing are highlighted in the narrow and broad sense. The author's definition of marketing subject is given including within the process and system approaches. It considers also the set of characteristics and attributes which reflect all possible objects of knowledge in marketing.

  8. Informing vaccine decision-making: A strategic multi-attribute ranking tool for vaccines-SMART Vaccines 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, Stacey; Bok, Karin; Gellin, Bruce

    2017-01-20

    SMART Vaccines 2.0 software is being developed to support decision-making among multiple stakeholders in the process of prioritizing investments to optimize the outcomes of vaccine development and deployment. Vaccines and associated vaccination programs are one of the most successful and effective public health interventions to prevent communicable diseases and vaccine researchers are continually working towards expanding targets for communicable and non-communicable diseases through preventive and therapeutic modes. A growing body of evidence on emerging vaccine technologies, trends in disease burden, costs associated with vaccine development and deployment, and benefits derived from disease prevention through vaccination and a range of other factors can inform decision-making and investment in new and improved vaccines and targeted utilization of already existing vaccines. Recognizing that an array of inputs influences these decisions, the strategic multi-attribute ranking method for vaccines (SMART Vaccines 2.0) is in development as a web-based tool-modified from a U.S. Institute of Medicine Committee effort (IOM, 2015)-to highlight data needs and create transparency to facilitate dialogue and information-sharing among decision-makers and to optimize the investment of resources leading to improved health outcomes. Current development efforts of the SMART Vaccines 2.0 framework seek to generate a weighted recommendation on vaccine development or vaccination priorities based on population, disease, economic, and vaccine-specific data in combination with individual preference and weights of user-selected attributes incorporating valuations of health, economics, demographics, public concern, scientific and business, programmatic, and political considerations. Further development of the design and utility of the tool is being carried out by the National Vaccine Program Office of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Fogarty International Center of the

  9. Assessing cost-utility of predictive biomarkers in oncology: a streamlined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Anton; Wang, Shiyi; Gross, Cary P; Agarwal, Divyansh; Bianchini, Giampaolo; Pusztai, Lajos; Hatzis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of cost-utility is critical in assessing the medical utility of predictive or prognostic biomarkers. Current methods involve complex state-transition models, requiring comprehensive data inputs. We propose a simplified decision-analytic tool to explore the relative effect of factors contributing to the cost-utility of a biomarker. We derived a cost-utility metric, the "test incremental cost-effectiveness ratio" (TICER) for biomarker-guided treatment compared to no biomarker use. This method uses data inputs readily accessible through clinical literature. We compared our results with traditional cost-effectiveness analysis of predictive biomarkers for established (HER2-guided trastuzumab, ALK-guided crizotinib, OncotypeDX-guided adjuvant chemotherapy) and emerging (ROS1-guided crizotinib) targeted treatments. We conducted sensitivity analysis to determine which factors had the greatest impact on TICER estimates. Base case TICER for HER2 was $149,600/quality-adjusted life year (QALY), for ALK was $22,200/QALY, and for OncotypeDX was $11,600/QALY, consistent with literature-reported estimates ($180,000/QALY, $202,800/QALY, $8900/QALY, respectively). Base case TICER for ROS1-guided crizotinib was $205,900/QALY. Generally, when treatment cost is considerably greater than biomarker testing costs, TICER is driven by clinical outcomes and health-related quality of life, while biomarker prevalence and treatment cost have a lesser effect. Our simplified decision-analytic approach produces values consistent with existing cost-effectiveness analyses. Our results suggest that biomarker value is mostly driven by the clinical efficacy of the targeted agent. A user-friendly web tool for complete TICER analysis has been made available for open use at http://medicine.yale.edu/lab/pusztai/ticer/ .

  10. Demonstrating a small utility approach to demand-side program implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE awarded a grant to the Burlington Electric Department (B.E.D.) to test a demand-side management (DSM) demonstration program designed to quickly save a significant amount of power with little disruption to the utility's customers or its normal operations. B.E.D. is a small municipal utility located in northern Vermont, with a lengthy history of successful DSM involvement. In our grant application, we proposed to develop a replicable program and approach to DSM that might be useful to other small utilities and to write a report to enable such replication. We believe that this DSM program and/or individual program components are replicable. This report is designed to allow other utilities interested in DSM to replicate this program or specific program design features to meet their DSM goals. We also wanted to use the opportunity of this grant to test the waters of residential heating fuel-switching. We hoped to test the application of one fuel-switching technology, and to benefit from the lessons learned in developing a full-scale DSM program for this end- use. To this end the pilot effort has been very successful. In the pilot pressure we installed direct-vent gas fired space heaters sized as supplemental heating units in 44 residences heated solely by electric resistance heat. We installed the gas space heating units at no cost to the owners or residents. We surveyed participating customers. The results of those surveys are included in this report and preliminary estimates of winter peak capacity load reductions are also noted in this report.

  11. Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

    2005-01-01

    In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are

  12. An Alternative Evaluation Approach for the Problem-Solving Training Program: A Utilization-Focused Evaluation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1984-01-01

    A utilization-focused approach in evaluating a problem-solving skills training program (see TM 510 179) would have placed more emphasis on identifying evaluation users, their information needs, and likely use of findings. Other methods options are also discussed, along with how to prepare decision makers for utilization. (Author/BW)

  13. Improving imaging utilization through practice quality improvement (maintenance of certification part IV): a review of requirements and approach to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brent; Brown, Manuel L; Jain, Rajan

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of this article are to review the American Board of Radiology requirements for practice quality improvement and to describe our approach to improving imaging utilization while offering a guide to implementing similar projects at other institutions, emphasizing the plan-do-study-act approach. There is increased emphasis on improving quality in health care. Our institution has undertaken a multiphase practice quality improvement project addressing the appropriate utilization of screening cervical spinal CT in an emergency department.

  14. Multiattribute probabilistic prostate elastic registration (MAPPER): Application to fusion of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, Rachel, E-mail: rachel.sparks@ucl.ac.uk; Barratt, Dean [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Nicolas Bloch, B. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States); Moses, Daniel [South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Ponsky, Lee [Department of Urology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anantm@case.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy is the current gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, up to 40% of prostate cancer lesions appears isoechoic on TRUS. Hence, TRUS-guided biopsy has a high false negative rate for prostate cancer diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better able to distinguish prostate cancer from benign tissue. However, MRI-guided biopsy requires special equipment and training and a longer procedure time. MRI-TRUS fusion, where MRI is acquired preoperatively and then aligned to TRUS, allows for advantages of both modalities to be leveraged during biopsy. MRI-TRUS-guided biopsy increases the yield of cancer positive biopsies. In this work, the authors present multiattribute probabilistic postate elastic registration (MAPPER) to align prostate MRI and TRUS imagery. Methods: MAPPER involves (1) segmenting the prostate on MRI, (2) calculating a multiattribute probabilistic map of prostate location on TRUS, and (3) maximizing overlap between the prostate segmentation on MRI and the multiattribute probabilistic map on TRUS, thereby driving registration of MRI onto TRUS. MAPPER represents a significant advancement over the current state-of-the-art as it requires no user interaction during the biopsy procedure by leveraging texture and spatial information to determine the prostate location on TRUS. Although MAPPER requires manual interaction to segment the prostate on MRI, this step is performed prior to biopsy and will not substantially increase biopsy procedure time. Results: MAPPER was evaluated on 13 patient studies from two independent datasets—Dataset 1 has 6 studies acquired with a side-firing TRUS probe and a 1.5 T pelvic phased-array coil MRI; Dataset 2 has 7 studies acquired with a volumetric end-firing TRUS probe and a 3.0 T endorectal coil MRI. MAPPER has a root-mean-square error (RMSE) for expert selected fiducials of 3.36 ± 1.10 mm for Dataset 1 and 3.14 ± 0.75 mm for Dataset 2. State

  15. A Modular Approach Utilizing Decision Tree in Teaching Integration Techniques in Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edrian E. Gonzales

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of modular approach using decision tree in teaching integration techniques in Calculus. It sought answer to the question: Is there a significant difference between the mean scores of two groups of students in their quizzes on (1 integration by parts and (2 integration by trigonometric transformation? Twenty-eight second year B.S. Computer Science students at City College of Calamba who were enrolled in Mathematical Analysis II for the second semester of school year 2013-2014 were purposively chosen as respondents. The study made use of the non-equivalent control group posttest-only design of quasi-experimental research. The experimental group was taught using modular approach while the comparison group was exposed to traditional instruction. The research instruments used were two twenty-item multiple-choice-type quizzes. Statistical treatment used the mean, standard deviation, Shapiro-Wilk test for normality, twotailed t-test for independent samples, and Mann-Whitney U-test. The findings led to the conclusion that both modular and traditional instructions were equally effective in facilitating the learning of integration by parts. The other result revealed that the use of modular approach utilizing decision tree in teaching integration by trigonometric transformation was more effective than the traditional method.

  16. Measuring the Capacity Utilization of Public District Hospitals in Tunisia: Using Dual Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Arfa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Public district hospitals (PDHs in Tunisia are not operating at full plant capacity and underutilize their operating budget. Methods Individual PDHs capacity utilization (CU is measured for 2000 and 2010 using dual data envelopment analysis (DEA approach with shadow prices input and output restrictions. The CU is estimated for 101 of 105 PDH in 2000 and 94 of 105 PDH in 2010. Results In average, unused capacity is estimated at 18% in 2010 vs. 13% in 2000. Of PDHs 26% underutilize their operating budget in 2010 vs. 21% in 2000. Conclusion Inadequate supply, health quality and the lack of operating budget should be tackled to reduce unmet user’s needs and the bypassing of the PDHs and, thus to increase their CU. Social health insurance should be turned into a direct purchaser of curative and preventive care for the PDHs.

  17. Diagnostic utility of musculoskeletal ultrasound in patients with suspected arthritis--a probabilistic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Hamed; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; af Klint, Erik;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the utility of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) in patients with joint symptoms using a probabilistic approach. METHODS: One hundred and three patients without prior rheumatologic diagnosis and referred to our clinic for evaluation of inflammatory arthritis...... by the responsible rheumatologist where the probability of a) any inflammatory arthritis and b) rheumatoid arthritis was given on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 to 20% up to 80 to 100% probability. Subsequently, an ultrasound examination of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints...... for presence/absence of inflammatory arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis was increased significantly following ultrasound performance. The proportion of patient for whom diagnostic certainty for inflammatory arthritis was maximal was 33.0% before and 71.8% after musculoskeletal ultrasound (P

  18. New Approach to a Practical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Utilizing an Inkjet Printing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fuchiwaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work demonstrates a valuable approach to developing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor units inexpensively for reliable determination of analytes. This QCM sensor unit is constructed by inkjet printing equipment utilizing background noise removal techniques. Inkjet printing equipment was chosen as an alternative to an injection pump in conventional flow-mode systems to facilitate the commercial applicability of these practical devices. The results demonstrate minimization of fluctuations from external influences, determination of antigen-antibody interactions in an inkjet deposition, and quantification of C-reactive protein in the range of 50–1000 ng∙mL−1. We thus demonstrate a marketable application of an inexpensive and easily available QCM sensor system.

  19. Utilizing Soize's Approach to Identify Parameter and Model Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in model parameters is a challenging task for analysts. Soize has derived a method that is able to characterize both model and parameter uncertainty independently. This method is explained with the assumption that some experimental data is available, and is divided into seven steps. Monte Carlo analyses are performed to select the optimal dispersion variable to match the experimental data. Along with the nominal approach, an alternative distribution can be used along with corrections that can be utilized to expand the scope of this method. This method is one of a very few methods that can quantify uncertainty in the model form independently of the input parameters. Two examples are provided to illustrate the methodology, and example code is provided in the Appendix.

  20. A Discrepancy-based Framework to Compare Robustness between Multi-Attribute Evaluations

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault, Juste

    2016-01-01

    Multi-objective evaluation is a necessary aspect when managing complex systems, as the intrinsic complexity of a system is generally closely linked to the potential number of optimization objectives. However, an evaluation makes no sense without its robustness being given (in the sense of its reliability). Statistical robustness computation methods are highly dependent of underlying statistical models. We propose a formulation of a model-independent framework in the case of integrated aggregated indicators (multi-attribute evaluation), that allows to define a relative measure of robustness taking into account data structure and indicator values. We implement and apply it to a synthetic case of urban systems based on Paris districts geography, and to real data for evaluation of income segregation for Greater Paris metropolitan area. First numerical results show the potentialities of this new method. Furthermore, its relative independence to system type and model may position it as an alternative to classical s...

  1. PLANE: A Platform for Negotiation of Multi-attribute Multimedia Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rharon M. Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the definition of a system to negotiate products in an e-commerce scenario. This negotiation system is defined as PLANE – Platform to Assist Negotiation – and it is carried in a semi-automatic way, using multi-attributes functions, based on attributes of the negotiated content. It also presents an architecture to interconnect the participant through an inter-network in the television broadcasters context. Each participant of the inter-network applies policies for its own contents, and all of them must comply these policies. If a participant needs a content not covered by the policies, it is possible to start a negotiation process for this specific content. Experiments present a simulation scenario where PLANE assists the negotiation between three sellers and one buyer with predefined negotiation profiles. Results demonstrated the success of the system in approximate the negotiator after some few interactions, reducing time and cost.

  2. Partner Selection in a Virtual Enterprise: A Group Multiattribute Decision Model with Weighted Possibilistic Mean Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an extended technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS for partner selection in a virtual enterprise (VE. The imprecise and fuzzy information of the partner candidate and the risk preferences of decision makers are both considered in the group multiattribute decision-making model. The weighted possibilistic mean values are used to handle triangular fuzzy numbers in the fuzzy environment. A ranking procedure for partner candidates is developed to help decision makers with varying risk preferences select the most suitable partners. Numerical examples are presented to reflect the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed TOPSIS. Results show that the varying risk preferences of decision makers play a significant role in the partner selection process in VE under a fuzzy environment.

  3. Evaluation of a systematic approach to pediatric back pain: the utility of magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norman; Flynn, John M; Hill, Brian W; Serrano, Jose A; Calvo, Carlos E; Bredy, Rafael; Macchiavelli, Raul E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that back pain in the majority of pediatric patients does not have an identifiable cause. Many children undergo extensive diagnostic workup that ultimately results in a nonconfirmative diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the prevalence of back pain seen in a pediatric orthopaedic clinic; (2) evaluate the efficacy of a systematic approach dependent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of pediatric back pain; and (3) analyze sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of various clinical signs and symptoms. For a 24-month period, all patients that presented with a chief complaint of back pain were prospectively enrolled in this study and evaluated in a systematic approach which utilized MRI for patients with constant pain, night pain, radicular pain, or abnormal neurological examination after an initial history, physical examination, and negative radiographic examination. The prevalence of chief complaint of back pain was 8.6% (261/3042 patients). Of the 261 patients, 34% had an identifiable pathology following the systematic approach. In 8.8% of patients, the diagnosis was established with the history, physical examination, and plain radiographs. MRI yielded a definitive diagnosis in another 25% of patients. It is noteworthy that of the 89 patients with a confirmed pathology, 26% were identified with plain radiographs and 74% with MRI. A systematic approach to diagnose pediatric back pain demonstrated that 34% of pediatric patients that present to an outpatient orthopaedic clinic complaining of back pain will have identifiable pathology. The diagnostic yield increased from 8.8% with the history, physical examination, and plain radiographs to 22% with the TCN Bone Scan to 36% with the use of the MRI. The clinician should be aware that the presences of lumbar pain or constant pain are red flags for the presence of underlying pathology. Level III.

  4. Testing the Utility of a Data-Driven Approach for Assessing BMI from Face Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Wolffhechel

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that facial cues of adiposity may be important for human social interaction. However, tests for quantifiable cues of body mass index (BMI in the face have examined only a small number of facial proportions and these proportions were found to have relatively low predictive power. Here we employed a data-driven approach in which statistical models were built using principal components (PCs derived from objectively defined shape and color characteristics in face images. The predictive power of these models was then compared with models based on previously studied facial proportions (perimeter-to-area ratio, width-to-height ratio, and cheek-to-jaw width. Models based on 2D shape-only PCs, color-only PCs, and 2D shape and color PCs combined each performed significantly and substantially better than models based on one or more of the previously studied facial proportions. A non-linear PC model considering both 2D shape and color PCs was the best predictor of BMI. These results highlight the utility of a "bottom-up", data-driven approach for assessing BMI from face images.

  5. Testing the Utility of a Data-Driven Approach for Assessing BMI from Face Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffhechel, Karin; Hahn, Amanda C; Jarmer, Hanne; Fisher, Claire I; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that facial cues of adiposity may be important for human social interaction. However, tests for quantifiable cues of body mass index (BMI) in the face have examined only a small number of facial proportions and these proportions were found to have relatively low predictive power. Here we employed a data-driven approach in which statistical models were built using principal components (PCs) derived from objectively defined shape and color characteristics in face images. The predictive power of these models was then compared with models based on previously studied facial proportions (perimeter-to-area ratio, width-to-height ratio, and cheek-to-jaw width). Models based on 2D shape-only PCs, color-only PCs, and 2D shape and color PCs combined each performed significantly and substantially better than models based on one or more of the previously studied facial proportions. A non-linear PC model considering both 2D shape and color PCs was the best predictor of BMI. These results highlight the utility of a "bottom-up", data-driven approach for assessing BMI from face images.

  6. Utility of syndromic approach in management of sexually transmitted infections:public health perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are mainly transmitted from person-to-person through sexual contact. Untreated or inadequately treated STIs can have significant impact on the maternal and newborn health. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was made using library sources including PubMed, Medline and World Health Organization website for a period of one month. Relevant documents, technical publication series, systematic reviews, research articles focusing on the practice of syndromic management in treatment of STIs published in the period 1995-2013 were included in the review. The identified articles were then re-grouped into different sections for better understanding. Keywords used in the search include syndromic management, sexually transmitted infections, women, reproductive age-group and pregnancy. There is an immense need for implementation of prevention and control of STIs because of the associated morbidity/mortality, association with HIV and adverse outcomes of pregnancy and burdening of the health system. Multiple socio-demographic determinants have been identified, which usually precipitates STIs. In addition, some of the barriers have been recognized which is hampering with the expected utilization of the health care services. To counter the high prevalence of reproductive tract infection/STI, especially in countries with limited resources, syndromic diagnostic approach has been adopted by countries for the standardized management of sexually transmitted disease cases. The aim of syndromic management is to identify a syndrome and treat it accordingly with combination therapy which will cover the main pathogens that cause it. Strategies have been suggested to overcome the limitations of the syndromic approach and bring the problem under control. To conclude, syndromic management is a rapid and cost-effective approach in reducing the transmission of STIs.

  7. An intelligent approach to optimize the EDM process parameters using utility concept and QPSO algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmaya P. Mohanty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although significant research has gone into the field of electrical discharge machining (EDM, analysis related to the machining efficiency of the process with different electrodes has not been adequately made. Copper and brass are frequently used as electrode materials but graphite can be used as a potential electrode material due to its high melting point temperature and good electrical conductivity. In view of this, the present work attempts to compare the machinability of copper, graphite and brass electrodes while machining Inconel 718 super alloy. Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been employed to collect data for the study and analyze effect of machining parameters on performance measures. The important performance measures selected for this study are material removal rate, tool wear rate, surface roughness and radial overcut. Machining parameters considered for analysis are open circuit voltage, discharge current, pulse-on-time, duty factor, flushing pressure and electrode material. From the experimental analysis, it is observed that electrode material, discharge current and pulse-on-time are the important parameters for all the performance measures. Utility concept has been implemented to transform a multiple performance characteristics into an equivalent performance characteristic. Non-linear regression analysis is carried out to develop a model relating process parameters and overall utility index. Finally, the quantum behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithms have been used to compare the optimal level of cutting parameters. Results demonstrate the elegance of QPSO in terms of convergence and computational effort. The optimal parametric setting obtained through both the approaches is validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

  8. MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischer, Marc E. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

    2013-09-12

    Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is

  9. Determining winner in multi-attribute procurement auction:a method based on technical and business exper ts’ evaluation information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxin Gao; Zhiping Fan; Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    A method for solving the winner determination problem (WDP) in multi-attribute procurement auctions is proposed, based on technical and business experts’ evaluation information. Firstly, on the background of procurements in China, a multi-attribute pro-curement auction mechanism is presented, where technical and business experts participate in the bid evaluation. Then, the con-cept of TOPSIS is used to determine the positive and negative ideal points of the WDP according to bid prices, the technical and business experts’ evaluation information. Further, the closeness coefficient of each bidder (candidate supplier) is obtained by calcu-lating the distances to the positive and negative ideal points. Thus, the winning supplier can be determined according to the closeness coefficients. Final y, a numerical example is used to il ustrate the use of the proposed method.

  10. An application of multiattribute decision analysis to the Space Station Freedom program. Case study: Automation and robotics technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Levin, Richard R.; Carpenter, Elisabeth J.

    1990-01-01

    The results are described of an application of multiattribute analysis to the evaluation of high leverage prototyping technologies in the automation and robotics (A and R) areas that might contribute to the Space Station (SS) Freedom baseline design. An implication is that high leverage prototyping is beneficial to the SS Freedom Program as a means for transferring technology from the advanced development program to the baseline program. The process also highlights the tradeoffs to be made between subsidizing high value, low risk technology development versus high value, high risk technology developments. Twenty one A and R Technology tasks spanning a diverse array of technical concepts were evaluated using multiattribute decision analysis. Because of large uncertainties associated with characterizing the technologies, the methodology was modified to incorporate uncertainty. Eight attributes affected the rankings: initial cost, operation cost, crew productivity, safety, resource requirements, growth potential, and spinoff potential. The four attributes of initial cost, operations cost, crew productivity, and safety affected the rankings the most.

  11. Simulation of petrous bone drilling in subtemporal approach utilizing virtual reality system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Ke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the utilizing value of virtual reality technique for microanatomy of petrous bone by comparing the anatomic characteristics and data measurement between virtual reality and cadaveric head specimens in subtemporal approach. Methods CT scan data of 15 adult cadaveric heads were inputted into the Dextroscope virtual reality system to build three-dimensional model of petrous bone. Petrous bone drilling was performed on cadaveric heads and virtual reality models respectively to expose anatomic structures step by step, and the distance and angle was measured based on selected mark points. Bland-Altman method was used for the uniformity of checking. Results Visibility effect of simulation of petrous bone drilling in virtual reality system was good. The anatomical structure of facial nerve in petrous bone, greater superficial petrosal nerve, cochlea, semicircular canal, internal carotid artery and glomus jugulare, were displayed clearly. Comparative analysis between cadaveric head and virtual reality by Bland-Altman method showed that bias for distance between geniculate ganglion and start point of common osseus crus of semicircular canal bony, geniculate ganglion and vertex of cochlea, and vertex of cochlea and start point of horizontal segment of internal carotid artery in petrous bone, were 0.020, 0.020, and -0.010 respectively, and 95% confidence intervals were -0.240-0.270, -0.190-0.220, and -0.170-0.150, respectively. Good consistency was demonstrated in scatter diagram. For the limitation of visual angle in cadaveric head, the angle between internal acoustic meatus and groove of great superficial petrosal nerve and the distance between start point of common osseus crus of semicircular canal and superior margin of glomus jugulare could not be measured, while data measurement of petrous bone model in virtual reality system was convenient and quick, without limitation of visual angle. The distance between start point of common

  12. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  13. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  14. Clinical utility of machine learning approaches in schizophrenia: Improving diagnostic confidence for translational neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina eIwabuchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine-learning approaches are becoming commonplace in the neuroimaging literature as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for the study of clinical populations. However, very few studies provide clinically informative measures to aid in decision-making and resource allocation. Head-to-head comparison of neuroimaging-based multivariate classifiers is an essential first step to promote translation of these tools to clinical practice. We systematically evaluated the classifier performance using back-to-back structural MRI in two field strengths (3-Tesla and 7-Tesla to discriminate patients with schizophrenia (n=19 from healthy controls (n=20. Grey (GM and white matter (WM images were used as inputs into a support vector machine (SVM to classify patients and control subjects. 7T classifiers outperformed the 3T classifiers with accuracy reaching as high as 77% for the 7T GM classifier compared to 66.6% for the 3T GM classifier. Furthermore, diagnostic odds ratio (a measure that is not affected by variations in sample characteristics and number needed to predict (a measure based on Bayesian certainty of a test result indicated superior performance of the 7T classifiers, whereby for each correct diagnosis made, the number of patients that need to be examined using the 7T GM classifier was one less than the number that need to be examined if a different classifier was used. Using a hypothetical example, we highlight how these findings could have significant implications for clinical decision-making. We encourage the reporting of measures proposed here in future studies utilizing machine-learning approaches. This will not only promote the search for an optimum diagnostic tool but also aid in the translation of neuroimaging to clinical use.

  15. A risk-based approach to management of leachables utilizing statistical analysis of extractables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, Cheryl L M; Mikl, Jaromir; Whelehan, Oliver; Morrical, Bradley; Duffield, William; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-04-01

    To incorporate quality by design concepts into the management of leachables, an emphasis is often put on understanding the extractable profile for the materials of construction for manufacturing disposables, container-closure, or delivery systems. Component manufacturing processes may also impact the extractable profile. An approach was developed to (1) identify critical components that may be sources of leachables, (2) enable an understanding of manufacturing process factors that affect extractable profiles, (3) determine if quantitative models can be developed that predict the effect of those key factors, and (4) evaluate the practical impact of the key factors on the product. A risk evaluation for an inhalation product identified injection molding as a key process. Designed experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of molding process parameters on the extractable profile from an ABS inhaler component. Statistical analysis of the resulting GC chromatographic profiles identified processing factors that were correlated with peak levels in the extractable profiles. The combination of statistically significant molding process parameters was different for different types of extractable compounds. ANOVA models were used to obtain optimal process settings and predict extractable levels for a selected number of compounds. The proposed paradigm may be applied to evaluate the impact of material composition and processing parameters on extractable profiles and utilized to manage product leachables early in the development process and throughout the product lifecycle.

  16. A unique in vivo approach for investigating antimicrobial materials utilizing fistulated animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berean, Kyle J.; Adetutu, Eric M.; Zhen Ou, Jian; Nour, Majid; Nguyen, Emily P.; Paull, David; McLeod, Jess; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bansal, Vipul; Latham, Kay; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McSweeney, Chris; Ball, Andrew S.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-06-01

    Unique in vivo tests were conducted through the use of a fistulated ruminant, providing an ideal environment with a diverse and vibrant microbial community. Utilizing such a procedure can be especially invaluable for investigating the performance of antimicrobial materials related to human and animal related infections. In this pilot study, it is shown that the rumen of a fistulated animal provides an excellent live laboratory for assessing the properties of antimicrobial materials. We investigate microbial colonization onto model nanocomposites based on silver (Ag) nanoparticles at different concentrations into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). With implantable devices posing a major risk for hospital-acquired infections, the present study provides a viable solution to understand microbial colonization with the potential to reduce the incidence of infection through the introduction of Ag nanoparticles at the optimum concentrations. In vitro measurements were also conducted to show the validity of the approach. An optimal loading of 0.25 wt% Ag is found to show the greatest antimicrobial activity and observed through the in vivo tests to reduce the microbial diversity colonizing the surface.

  17. Argentinian pistachio oil and flour: a potential novel approach of pistachio nut utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Marcela Lilian; Fabani, María Paula; Baroni, María Verónica; Huaman, Rocío Nahime Magrini; Ighani, Marcelo; Maestri, Damián M; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly

    2016-05-01

    In order to searching a potential novel approach to pistachio utilization, the chemical and nutritional quality of oil and flour from natural, roasted, and salted roasted pistachios from Argentinian cultivars were evaluated. The pistachio oil has high contents of oleic and linoleic acid (53.5 - 55.3, 29 - 31.4 relative abundance, respectively), tocopherols (896 - 916 μg/g oil), carotenoids (48 - 56 μg/g oil) and chlorophylls (41 - 70 μg/g oil), being a good source for commercial edible oil production. The processing conditions did not affect significantly the fatty acid and minor composition of pistachio oil samples. The content of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoids (FL) was not significantly modified by the roasting process, whereas free radical scavenging (DPPH radical) and antioxidant power decreased in a 20% approximately. Furthermore, salted roasted pistachio flour (SRPF) showed a significant decrease in TP and FL content in comparison to others samples. The phenolic profile of pistachio flours evaluated by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The major compounds identified were (+)-catechin (38 - 65.6 μg/g PF d.w.), gallic acid (23 - 36 μg/g PF d.w.) and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (21 - 23 μg/g PF d.w.). The treatments effects on the phenolics constituents of pistachio flour. Roasting caused a significant reduction of some phenolics, gallic acid and (+)- catechin, and increased others, naringenin and luteolin. Salting and roasting of pistachio increased garlic acid and naringenin content.

  18. A unique in vivo approach for investigating antimicrobial materials utilizing fistulated animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berean, Kyle J.; Adetutu, Eric M.; Zhen Ou, Jian; Nour, Majid; Nguyen, Emily P.; Paull, David; Mcleod, Jess; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bansal, Vipul; Latham, Kay; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McSweeney, Chris; Ball, Andrew S.; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Unique in vivo tests were conducted through the use of a fistulated ruminant, providing an ideal environment with a diverse and vibrant microbial community. Utilizing such a procedure can be especially invaluable for investigating the performance of antimicrobial materials related to human and animal related infections. In this pilot study, it is shown that the rumen of a fistulated animal provides an excellent live laboratory for assessing the properties of antimicrobial materials. We investigate microbial colonization onto model nanocomposites based on silver (Ag) nanoparticles at different concentrations into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). With implantable devices posing a major risk for hospital-acquired infections, the present study provides a viable solution to understand microbial colonization with the potential to reduce the incidence of infection through the introduction of Ag nanoparticles at the optimum concentrations. In vitro measurements were also conducted to show the validity of the approach. An optimal loading of 0.25 wt% Ag is found to show the greatest antimicrobial activity and observed through the in vivo tests to reduce the microbial diversity colonizing the surface. PMID:26098413

  19. Extensions of WC-OWA operator and their applications in risk multi-attribute decision making%WC-OWA算子的拓展及其在风险型多属性决策中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春芳; 朱传喜; 余克弟

    2011-01-01

    The extensions of the weighted C-OWA (WC-OWA) operators ware investigated. Some new aggregation operators and the properties of them were obtained. Futhernore.it proposd an approach to solve risk multi-attribute decision making,in which the attribute values were interval numbers. Finally,an illustrative example was illustrated to show the feasibility of the approach.%研究WC-OWA算子的拓展形式,得到了一些新的数据集成算子,并对其性质进行了研究.在此基础上,探讨属性值以区间形式给出的风险型多属性决策的方法,并用实例进行分析说明该方法的可行性.

  20. A Bayesian approach to utilizing prior data in new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Larry Z; Coffey, Todd; Deng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Bayesian method to combine safety data collected from two separate drug development programs using the same active drug substance but for different indications, formulations, or patient populations. The objective of combining the data across the programs is to better define the level of safety risk associated with the new indication or target population. There may be adverse events (AEs) observed in the new program that represent new safety signals. Our method is to explore the AEs using data from both development programs. Our approach utilizes data collected previously to assist in analyzing safety data from the new program. It is assumed that the frequency of a certain AE follows a distribution with a parameter that characterizes the safety risk level. The parameter is assumed to follow a distribution function. In the Bayesian framework, this distribution function is called a prior distribution in the absence of data and posterior distribution when updated by real data. The key concept behind our method is to use data from the previous program to construct a posterior distribution that will in turn serve as a prior distribution for the new program. The construction of this updated prior down weights data from the previous program to emphasize the new program and thus avoids simple pooling of the data across programs. Such "soft use" of previous information minimizes the potential for undue influence of previous data on the analysis. Data from the new program are used to update the prior distribution and compute the posterior distribution for the new program. Key statistics are then calculated from the posterior distribution to quantify the risk level for the new program. We have tested the proposed approach using data from a real Phase 2 study that was conducted as part of a clinical development program for a new indication of an approved drug. The results indicate that the estimated risk level was affected both by the observed event

  1. Assessing socioeconomic health care utilization inequity in Israel: impact of alternative approaches to morbidity adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicer Ran D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ability to accurately detect differential resource use between persons of different socioeconomic status relies on the accuracy of health-needs adjustment measures. This study tests different approaches to morbidity adjustment in explanation of health care utilization inequity. Methods A representative sample was selected of 10 percent (~270,000 adult enrolees of Clalit Health Services, Israel's largest health care organization. The Johns-Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups® were used to assess each person's overall morbidity burden based on one year's (2009 diagnostic information. The odds of above average health care resource use (primary care visits, specialty visits, diagnostic tests, or hospitalizations were tested using multivariate logistic regression models, separately adjusting for levels of health-need using data on age and gender, comorbidity (using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, or morbidity burden (using the Adjusted Clinical Groups. Model fit was assessed using tests of the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve and the Akaike Information Criteria. Results Low socioeconomic status was associated with higher morbidity burden (1.5-fold difference. Adjusting for health needs using age and gender or the Charlson index, persons of low socioeconomic status had greater odds of above average resource use for all types of services examined (primary care and specialist visits, diagnostic tests, or hospitalizations. In contrast, after adjustment for overall morbidity burden (using Adjusted Clinical Groups, low socioeconomic status was no longer associated with greater odds of specialty care or diagnostic tests (OR: 0.95, CI: 0.94-0.99; and OR: 0.91, CI: 0.86-0.96, for specialty visits and diagnostic respectively. Tests of model fit showed that adjustment using the comprehensive morbidity burden measure provided a better fit than age and gender or the Charlson Index. Conclusions Identification of

  2. Grid Computing: A Collaborative Approach in Distributed Environment for Achieving Parallel Performance and Better Resource Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashi Tarun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From the very beginning various measures are taken or consider for better utilization of available limited resources in the computer system for operational environment, this is came in consideration because most of the time our system get free and not able to exploit the system resource/capabilities as whole cause low performance. Parallel Computing can work efficiently, where operations are handled by multi-processors independently or efficiently, without any other processing capabilities. All processing unit’s works in a parallel fashioned and increases the system throughput without any resource allocation problem among different processing units. But this is limited and effective within a single machine. Today in this computing world, maintaining and establishing high speed computational work environment in a distributed scenario seems to be a challenging task because this environment made all operations by not depending on single resources but by interacting with otherresources in the vast network architecture. All current resource management system can only work smoothly if they apply these resources within their clusters, local organizations or disputed among many users who needs processing power, but for vast distributed environment performing various operational activities seems to be difficult because data is physically not maintained in a centralized location, it is geographically dispersed on multiple remote computers systems. Computers in the distributed environment have to depend on multiple resources for their task completion. Effective performance with high availability of resources to each computer in this speedy distributed computational environment is the major concern. To solve this problem a new approach is coined called “Grid Computing” environment. Grid uses a Middleware to coordinate disparate resources across a network, allows users to function as a virtual whole and make computing fast. In this paper I want to

  3. An informatics approach to assess pediatric pharmacotherapy: design and implementation of a hospital drug utilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppa, Athena; Vijayakumar, Sundararajan; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Patel, Dimple; Narayan, Mahesh; Vijayakumar, Kalpana; Mondick, John T; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2007-09-01

    Drug utilization in the inpatient setting can provide a mechanism to assess drug prescribing trends, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of hospital formularies and examine subpopulations for which prescribing habits may be different. Such data can be used to correlate trends with time-dependent or seasonal changes in clinical event rates or the introduction of new pharmaceuticals. It is now possible to provide a robust, dynamic analysis of drug utilization in a large pediatric inpatient setting through the creation of a Web-based hospital drug utilization system that retrieves source data from our accounting database. The production implementation provides a dynamic and historical account of drug utilization at the authors' institution. The existing application can easily be extended to accommodate a multi-institution environment. The creation of a national or even global drug utilization network would facilitate the examination of geographical and/or socioeconomic influences in drug utilization and prescribing practices in general.

  4. An intelligent approach to machine component health prognostics by utilizing only truncated histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Tao, Laifa; Fan, Huanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to reduce the production downtime, spare-part inventory, maintenance cost, and safety hazards of machineries and equipment. Prognostics are regarded as a significant and promising tool for achieving these benefits for machine maintenance. However, prognostic models, particularly probabilistic-based methods, require a large number of failure instances. In practice, engineering assets are rarely being permitted to run to failure. Many studies have reported valuable models and methods that engage in maximizing both truncated and failure data. However, limited studies have focused on cases where only truncated data are available, which is common in machine condition monitoring. Therefore, this study develops an intelligent machine component prognostics system by utilizing only truncated histories. First, the truncated Minimum Quantization Error (MQE) histories were obtained by Self-organizing Map network after feature extraction. The chaos-based parallel multilayer perceptron network and polynomial fitting for residual errors were adopted to generate the predicted MQEs and failure times following the truncation times. The feed-forward neural network (FFNN) was trained with inputs both from the truncated MQE histories and from the predicted MQEs. The target vectors of survival probabilities were estimated by intelligent product limit estimator using the truncation times and generated failure times. After validation, the FFNN was applied to predict the machine component health of individual units. To validate the proposed method, two cases were considered by using the degradation data generated by bearing testing rig. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising intelligent prognostics approach for machine component health.

  5. Empirical Approaches of the Public-Private Partnership in the Services of Public Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches from a theoretical and empirical perspective the public-private partnership in Romania with special reference to the services of public utility. The premises for the approach are as follows: 1. The economic-social development and the reform of the public sector in the world, with the corresponding budgetary constraints and cutting off the number of jobs in the public sector represent dimensions of the development of the change management, known on world level since the ’80s period. These issues have created the conditions and opportunities for new economic, managerial, social, political concepts and theories of law and have “invented” new models of public services to which specific models of management correspond. The theory is enriched with new dimensions switching from an immediate conception of the public sector reform and public services reform – that can be temporarily delimited in a political mandate – to a conception based on stages, with rules that are well thought, accepted and understood by all the involved actors (politicians, users-citizens, suppliers. 2. The development of the adequate institutional context for the promotion of the public-private partnership simultaneously with the stable, coherent legal context inscribes in extremely diverse backgrounds, differing from country to country and awarding a different place to the intervention of the public power, within the framework of the capacity building process. Therefore, the models promoted by the developed countries can be considered experiences, varying from a public service to another, from a city to another or from country to country, requiring contextual, cultural, economic, social adjustments. 3. The public authority through the public-private partnership seeks an improvement of the public service quality and the private operator seeks a profit proportional with the capital invested, with his competencies and risks. The diversity of the

  6. Basketball training influences shot selection assessment: a multi-attribute decision-making approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Llorca-Miralles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del hecho de que la selección de tiro es un ingrediente crucial del rendimiento en baloncesto, el juicio y la toma de decisiones que participan en él han sido ampliamente descuidado. En el presente trabajo, analizamos las estrategias de los individuos para evaluar la adecuación de tiro (en una tarea de laboratorio de simulación en situaciones que varían en el grado de bienestar físico presión defensiva, rebote, balance defensivo y la distancia de lanzamiento. Los resultados mostraron que las cuatro dimensiones de destino tenían un impacto en los juicios de los participantes. Más importante aún, la formación influye en el grado en que una de las dimensiones no evidentes (balance defensivo es tomado en cuenta por los participantes para hacer sus juicios. Estos resultados subrayan la necesidad de desarrollar medidas de calidad de disparo selección de decisión más allá de las tasas de puntuación.

  7. Multi-attribute decision making parametric optimization and modeling in hard turning using ceramic insert through grey relational analysis: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlana Panda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining of hardened work materials with appropriate levels of process parameters is still a burning issue in manufacturing sectors and challenging. It is because of pressing demand of surface quality which adversely affected by evolution of tool wear. Therefore the present investigation is undertaken to make a decision on parametric optimization of multi-responses such as flank wear and surface roughness during machining hardened AISI 52100 steel (55±1 steel using mixed ceramic insert under dry environment through grey relational analysis combined with Taguchi approach. Also predicted mathematical models of 1st and 2nd order have been developed for responses and checked for its accuracy. Second order mathematical model presented higher R2 value and represents best fit of the model and adequate compared to first order model. Model indicates good correlations between the experimental and predicted results. The proposed grey-based Taguchi methodology has been proved to be efficient for solving multi-attribute decision making problem as a case study in hard machining environment.

  8. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones....

  9. Can we delay the replacement of this component?-an asset management approach to the question [for electric utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Jensen, A. Norsk

    2001-01-01

    Asset management is emerging as a new approach on how to exploit an electric utility physical asset in the most profitable way. One of the major questions to answer by the asset management staff is when to do replacements? This is a difficult question, which require weighting of several parameter...

  10. Can we delay the replacement of this component?-an asset management approach to the question [for electric utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Jensen, A. Norsk

    2001-01-01

    Asset management is emerging as a new approach on how to exploit an electric utility physical asset in the most profitable way. One of the major questions to answer by the asset management staff is when to do replacements? This is a difficult question, which require weighting of several parameter...

  11. A creative approach to the development of an agenda for knowledge utilization: outputs from the 11th international knowledge utilization colloquium (KU 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Joyce E; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Davies, Huw T O; McCormack, Brendan

    2012-12-01

    A group of researchers and practitioners interested in advancing knowledge utilization met as a colloquium in Belfast (KU 11) and used a "world café" approach to exploit the social capital and shared understanding built up over previous events to consider the research and practice agenda. We considered three key areas of relevance to knowledge use: (1) understanding the nature of research use, influence and impact; (2) blended and collaborative approaches to knowledge production and use; and (3) supporting sustainability and spread of evidence-informed innovations. The approach enabled the development of artifacts that reflected the three areas and these were analyzed using a creative hermeneutic approach. The themes that emerged and which are outlined in this commentary are not mutually exclusive. There was much overlap in the discussions and therefore of the themes, reflecting the complex nature of knowledge translation work. The agenda that has emerged from KU 11 also reflects the participatory and creative approach in which the meeting was structured and focused, and therefore emphasizes the processual, relational and contingent nature of some of the challenges we face. The past 20 years has seen an explosion in activity around understanding KU, and we have learned much about the difficulties. Whilst the agenda for the next decade may be becoming clearer, colloquia such as KU 11, using creative and engaging approaches, have a key role to play in dissecting, articulating and sharing that agenda. In this way, we also build an ever-expanding international community that is dedicated to working towards increasing the chances of success for better patient care. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. A depression network of functionally connected regions discovered via multi-attribute canonical correlation graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Bowman, F DuBois; Mayberg, Helen; Liu, Han

    2016-11-01

    To establish brain network properties associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data, we develop a multi-attribute graph model to construct a region-level functional connectivity network that uses all voxel level information. For each region pair, we define the strength of the connectivity as the kernel canonical correlation coefficient between voxels in the two regions; and we develop a permutation test to assess the statistical significance. We also construct a network based classifier for making predictions on the risk of MDD. We apply our method to Rs-fMRI data from 20 MDD patients and 20 healthy control subjects in the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study. Using this method, MDD patients can be distinguished from healthy control subjects based on significant differences in the strength of regional connectivity. We also demonstrate the performance of the proposed method using simulationstudies.

  13. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs.

  14. A new task format for investigating information search and organization in multiattribute decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt; Henninger, Mirka

    2015-06-01

    In research on multiattribute decisions, information is typically preorganized in a well-structured manner (e.g., in attributes-by-options matrices). Participants can therefore conveniently identify the information needed for the decision strategy they are using. However, in everyday decision situations, we often face information that is not well-structured; that is, we not only have to search for, but we also need to organize the information. This latter aspect--subjective information organization--has so far largely been neglected in decision research. The few exceptions used crude experimental manipulations, and the assessment of subjective organization suffered from laborious methodology and a lack of objectiveness. We introduce a new task format to overcome these methodological issues, and we provide an organization index (OI) to assess subjective organization of information objectively and automatically. The OI makes it possible to assess information organization on the same scale as the strategy index (SI) typically used for assessing information search behavior. A simulation study shows that the OI has a similar distribution as the SI but that the two indices are a priori largely independent. In a validation experiment with instructed strategy use, we demonstrate the usefulness of the task to trace decision processes in multicue inference situations.

  15. Enhanced multi-attribute trust protocol for malicious node detection in wireless sensor networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V RAM PRABHA; P LATHA

    2017-02-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in recent years, which is reflected in various applications. As the use of WSN applications increases, providing security to WSNs becomes a leading issue. This is complex due to the unique features of WSNs. This paper proposes a trust-based intrusion detection that uses multi-attribute trust metrics to improve detection accuracy. It uses an enhanced distributive trust calculation algorithm that involves monitoring neighbouring nodes and trust calculation using the trust metrics message success rate (MSR), elapsed time at node (ETN), correctness (CS) and fairness (FS). In addition to the normal communication-based trust property MSR, this paper uses effective parameters like ETN, which focuses on data and address modification attacks in an effective manner, and two social-interaction-based parameters CS and FS, which address trust-related attacks effectively. Simulation results show that the proposed method has higher performance and provides more security in terms of detection accuracy and false alarm rate.

  16. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yin, Na; Fu, Xiong; Lin, Qiaomin; Wang, Ruchuan

    2017-03-08

    With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR). This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes' reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes' communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service.

  17. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR. This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes’ reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes’ communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service.

  18. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yin, Na; Fu, Xiong; Lin, Qiaomin; Wang, Ruchuan

    2017-01-01

    With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR). This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes’ reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes’ communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service. PMID:28282894

  19. 概率OWA算子及其在多属性决策中的应用%Probability OWA Operator and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄先玖; 朱传喜; 陈春芳; 武林

    2009-01-01

    We proposed probability ordered weighted averaging(P-OWA) operator, and study some of its characteristics. Based on this operator, we develop a approach forsolving uncertain multi-attribute decision-making problems, in which the attribute weights and the probability of the situation are completely known. Finally, an illustrative example is given.%提出了概率有序加权平均算子(P-OWA算子),研究了该算子的一些基本性质,基于该算子提出了属性权重确知、各状态概率已知的不确定多属性决策方法,最后,进行了实例分析.

  20. Carbon footprint of forest and tree utilization technologies in life cycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, András; Pécsinger, Judit

    2017-04-01

    In our research project a suitable method has been developed related the technological aspect of the environmental assessment of land use changes caused by climate change. We have prepared an eco-balance (environmental inventory) to the environmental effects classification in life-cycle approach in connection with the typical agricultural / forest and tree utilization technologies. The use of balances and environmental classification makes possible to compare land-use technologies and their environmental effects per common functional unit. In order to test our environmental analysis model, we carried out surveys in sample of forest stands. We set up an eco-balance of the working systems of intermediate cutting and final harvest in the stands of beech, oak, spruce, acacia, poplar and short rotation energy plantations (willow, poplar). We set up the life-cycle plan of the surveyed working systems by using the GaBi 6.0 Professional software and carried out midpoint and endpoint impact assessment. Out of the results, we applied the values of CML 2001 - Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) [kg CO2-Equiv.] and Eco-Indicator 99 - Human health, Climate Change [DALY]. On the basis of the values we set up a ranking of technology. By this, we received the environmental impact classification of the technologies based on carbon footprint. The working systems had the greatest impact on global warming (GWP 100 years) throughout their whole life cycle. This is explained by the amount of carbon dioxide releasing to the atmosphere resulting from the fuel of the technologies. Abiotic depletion (ADP foss) and marine aquatic ecotoxicity (MAETP) emerged also as significant impact categories. These impact categories can be explained by the share of input of fuel and lube. On the basis of the most significant environmental impact category (carbon footprint), we perform the relative life cycle contribution and ranking of each technologies. The technological life cycle stages examined

  1. 基于多属性逆向拍卖的博弈分析%A Game Analysis on Multi-attribute Reverse Auctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周学广; 张坚; 梅强; 杜建国

    2011-01-01

    Online Reverse Auction (ORA) have emerged to enable buyers to obtain auction items from a seller. ORAs allow the buyer to find the lowest bidder from qualified sellers. Although ORAs have substantially reduced procurement costs for the buyer, the new business model creates new challenges to the existing supply chain. Many international firms, including General Electric, IBM and Dell, have been utilizing ORAs to procure materials to lower operating costs and stay competitive.Academic ORA literature is primarily composed of empirical studies based on the data collected from the industry and analyzed using regression methods. However, there is a lack ORA studies to analyze optimal bidding strategies from a bidder's perspective using the game theory. In addition, researchers generally use the bidding price without considering multi-attributes of a bidding activity ( e. g. quality and lead time) when constructing a game model.We proposed a non-cooperative game model to study the sub-game Nash Equilibrium of sellers and optimal ORA strategies. We further analyzed how these ORA strategies can affect supply chain integration and optimization. The model is applicable to the situation which one buyer and n qualified sellers participate in multi-attribute reverse auctions. This research model is built upon some assumptions. First, sellers differentiate from each other in better quality and shorter lead time. Second, ORA participants aim to maximize their own benefits if they can have perfect information. ORA processes are dynamic in nature. Sub-game Nash Equilibrium strategy is derived from the dynamic gaming process. Third, a seller's optimal bidding price is a function of bidding quality and lead time.The buyer always awards the procurement contract to the best seller that has the optimal bidding price. Multiple attributes of ORA can encourage buyer and seller to arrive at a win-win situation, rather than at the expense of a seller's profit. In a non-cooperative game

  2. A new approach of cascade utilization of the chemical energy of fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei; JIN Hongguang; LIN Rumou

    2006-01-01

    The indirect release of chemical energy of fuel is investigated, and a new mechanism is proposed to identify the cascade utilization of chemical energy of fuel more clearly. Based on the concept of energy level, the internal phenomenon of the indirect chemical energy release is disclosed, and the equations of energy level describing the utilization of chemical energy and thermal energy during the indirect chemical energy release process are obtained. From theoretical analysis, we find that the superiority of the indirect chemical energy release of fuel comes from the cascade utilization of the fuel's chemical energy. Moreover, the cascade utilization of chemical energy is verified by the investigation of CRGT (chemically recuperated gas turbine). As a result, the thermal exergy obtained from the chemical energy release of fuel increases by 2 % -3 %. The results obtained here may help a deeper understanding of indirect chemical energy release of fuel and provide a theoretical basis for the synthesis of innovative energy systems.

  3. Alternative Approaches to Modeling the Individual Enlistment Decision: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    weights may be problematic. Therefore, it is proposed that a multi-attribute utility assessment ( MAUA ) technique be pilot tested to determine whether... MAUA would in- volve having individuals weight the attribute they had weighted most heavily for the attitudinal component in relation to the

  4. Effects of Counselor Race and Counseling Approach on Asian Americans' Perceptions of Counselor Credibility and Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Donald R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Two studies are described in which Asian Americans rated a counselor's performance in a simulated counseling session with an Asian American student. The counselor was rated as more credible and approachable when employing a directive counseling approach than when using a nondirective counseling approach. (Author/MFD)

  5. Estimating health state utility values from discrete choice experiments--a QALY space model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Norman, Richard; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-09-01

    Using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to estimate health state utility values has become an important alternative to the conventional methods of Time Trade-Off and Standard Gamble. Studies using DCEs have typically used the conditional logit to estimate the underlying utility function. The conditional logit is known for several limitations. In this paper, we propose two types of models based on the mixed logit: one using preference space and the other using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) space, a concept adapted from the willingness-to-pay literature. These methods are applied to a dataset collected using the EQ-5D. The results showcase the advantages of using QALY space and demonstrate that the preferred QALY space model provides lower estimates of the utility values than the conditional logit, with the divergence increasing with worsening health states. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Utilization of Brine Sludge in Nonstructural Building Components: A Sustainable Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and influence of brine sludge on the properties of cement-fly ash-sludge binders are presented. The reaction products formed during the hydration of binder provide an interlocking framework to physically encapsulate the waste particles and are responsible for the development of strength. The utilization of brine sludge in making paver blocks and bricks and the effect of sludge concentration on the engineering properties of these products are also discussed. These results clearly exhibited that brine sludge up to 35 and 25% can safely be utilized for making paver blocks and bricks, respectively. The leachability studies confirm that the metals ions and impurities in the sludge are substantially fixed in the matrix and do not readily leach from there. The utilization of brine sludge in construction materials could serve as an alternative solution to disposal and reduce pollution.

  7. Adaptive interaction a utility maximization approach to understanding human interaction with technology

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds high promise for theory-driven research and design in Human-Computer Interaction. The framework is designed to tackle the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. It is designed to help scientists and practitioners reason about why people choose to behave as they do and to explain which strategies people choose in response to utility, ecology, and cognitive information processing mechanisms. A key idea is that people choose strategies so as to maximise utility given constraints. The frame

  8. The Stability of the Constrained Utility Maximization Problem - A BSDE Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mocha, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the sensitivity of the power utility maximization problem with respect to the investor's relative risk aversion, the statistical probability measure, the investment constraints and the market price of risk. We extend previous descriptions of the dual domain then exploit the link between the constrained utility maximization problem and continuous semimartingale quadratic BSDEs to reduce questions on sensitivity to results on stability for such equations. This then allows us to prove appropriate convergence of the primal and dual optimizers in the semimartingale topology.

  9. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  10. Visualizing multifactorial and multi-attribute effect sizes in linear mixed models with a view towards sensometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and straightforward idea is to interpret effects relative to the residual error and to choose the proper effect size measure. For multi-attribute bar plots of F-statistics this amounts, in balanced settings, to a simple transformation of the bar heights to get them transformed into depicting what can be seen...... better comparable for factors with differences in number of levels. For mixed models, where in general the relevant error terms for the fixed effects are not the pure residual error, it is suggested to base the d-prime-like interpretation on the residual error. The methods are illustrated...... mechanisms inherently challenging effect size measure estimates in ANOVA settings....

  11. Visualizing multifactorial and multi-attribute effect sizes in linear mixed models with a view towards sensometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Brockhoff et al (2016), the close link between Cohen's d, the effect size in an ANOVA framework, and the so-called Thurstonian (Signal detection) d-prime was used to suggest better visualizations and interpretations of standard sensory and consumer data mixed model ANOVA results. The basic...... as approximately the average pairwise d-primes between products. For extensions of such multi-attribute bar plots into more complex models, similar transformations are suggested and become more important as the transformation depends on the number of observations within factor levels, and hence makes bar heights...

  12. An Epidemiological Approach to Screening Gifted Students Utilizing WISC-R Subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol A.; Carran, Deborah H.

    1986-01-01

    Full Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised evaluations have become a drain on school resources. A screening formula for gifted students, utilizing three WISC-R subtests, was evaluated using traditional epidemiological techniques. The screen correctly detected the majority of gifted students and could have major implications in terms of…

  13. E-Learning as a Knowledge Management Approach for Intellectual Capital Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabat, Issa; Mahdi, Saad A.; Khoualdi, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the…

  14. A Quantitative Approach To Improve Classroom-Space Utilization. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.

    A study was conducted to assess classroom utilization at a university and to make recommendations to optimize the use of the space available. Seven steps were involved in the study: (1) preparing the inventory of space; (2) identifying the variables; (3) making assumptions for the study and changes to carry it out; (4) calculating mean numbers of…

  15. Utilization of pre-cleaned greige cotton in nonwovens: a sensible approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton – a consumer-preferred, naturally sustainable fiber – has been extensively used in traditional textiles for centuries, its utilization in nonwoven fabrics has been minimal (~2% by weight). A major reason thus far for the cotton not being a preferred fiber for modern nonwovens has be...

  16. Excision and Patch Grafting of a Lateral Peyronie's Plaque—Utilizing a Longitudinal “Window” Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Lue, BS

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A lateral longitudinal incision for PIEG is a feasible technique and may reduce the postoperative morbidity and dissection required with traditional circumcising incision with penile degloving. Larger comparative studies are necessary for further evaluation. Lue K, Emtage JB, Martinez DR, Yang C, and Carrion R. Excision and patch grafting of a lateral Peyronie's plaque—Utilizing a longitudinal “window” approach. Sex Med 2015;3:86–89.

  17. Multi-Attribute Credit Risk Evaluation Method for Financial Leasing over High Default Rate%高违约率下融资租赁信用风险的多属性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 翟伟静

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种高违约率下融资租赁信用风险的评价方法,基于专家群体对评价指标赋值类型的不同引入多属性决策的指标权重确定方法.以我国工程机械行业融资租赁信用风险评价为例,分析了我国工程机械行业融资租赁信用风险的特征,构建了以定量的财务指标与定性的非财务指标相结合的信用风险评价指标体系,进而运用上述方法确定了各级指标的权重,阐述了该评价方法的合理性.%In considering high default rate in financial leasing, a multi-attribute credit risk evaluation method is presented in this paper. This study is conducted with financial leasing for the construction machinery industry as a case. By analyzing the credit risk for this industry, an index system is developed, which contains both the financial indexes and non-financial indexes. Then, the risk evaluation is based on the experts' scores on the given index set. With subjective preference of experts considered, a new method for multi-attribute group decision-making is proposed to determine the attribute weights. Numerical results show that the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Comparison of subtemporal versus presigmoidal approaches for exposing petrous apex utilizing virtual reality technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke TANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To perform quantitative comparison of microanatomical features between subtemporal and presigmoidal minimally invasive approaches for exposing petrous apex on the basis of virtual reality image model.  Methods CT and MRI were performed on 15 adult cadaver heads (30 sides to establish virtual reality three-dimensional anatomical model of petrous apex. The superior edge of the root of temporal bone zygomatic process and the mastoidale on the calvaria were selected as landmark points of craniotomy through subtempral and presigmoidal approaches. Petrous apex was selected as exposure landmark point on the skull base. The lines between craniotomy and exposure landmark points were used as axis to outline a cylinder simulating surgical routes of subtemporal and presigmoidal approaches. Anatomical exposures in two surgical routes were observed and measured. Statistical comparison was launched by paired t test.  Results Surgical route of subtemporal approach passed through middle skull base and temporal lobe, and then reached petrous apex. Petrous bone drilling was performed to expose internal acoustic meatus, facial nerve and labyrinth. Then, trigeminal nerve, superior petrous sinus and cavernous sinus were exposed. Surgical route of presigmoidal approach was performed by drilling petrous bone through mastoid and passing vertical segment of facial nerve. Then, glomus jugulare, the lower cranial nerves, ossicular chain, labyrinth and internal carotid artery (ICA were exposed in turn. Reaching internal acoustic meatus, the route exposed anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and facial-acoustic nerve complex. Reaching petrous apex, the route involved superior cerebellar artery, superior petrous sinus, inferior petrous sinus, cavernous sinus, trigeminal nerve and partial temporal lobe. The volumes of route, osseous structures, facial-acoustic complex, labyrinth and vein involved in presigmoidal approach were more than those in subtemporal

  19. On Innovation: A Theoretical Approach on the Challenges of Utilities Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina PÎNZARU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the markets not long ago closed and completely regulated is now in the growing process of liberalization and deregulation: it is the utilities market we refer to (water, sewege, gas, electricity, waste collection. The deregulation of a market is usually followed by the appearance of competition expression conditions and, unassailably, the occurrence of specific marketing strategies. This paper investigates the specific of utilities marketing as it develops now, an bourgeoning domain, although with a rather discreet presence in this field’s theoretical analysis studies. Exploratory research on the analysis type products, promotional offers and communication of this market’s players shows an effervescent players practice, but also a continuous innovation necessary in a market where consumers are unfamiliar with bein persuaded by commercial means

  20. NEW APPROACH TO OIL PALM WOOD UTILIZATION FOR WOODWORKING PRODUCTION Part 1: Basic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Balfas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An explosive development in oil palm plantations in the country has produced a consequence in the generation of  plantation wastes. The  disposal of these wastes  has created  an  enormous environmental problem that some practical solution to their economic utilization has to  be sought.  A series of experiments have been accomplished to observe the possibility of converting the oil palm stem into valuable woodworking products. The  first stage of  this effort was determining basic characteristics of oil palm wood.  Results in general showed that the wood has a great characteristic variation across and along the stem, which may develop problems in its utilization. Characteristics of this wood also vary according to species variety.  Quality degradations of oil palm wood were mostly happened during drying process; hence, modifications to upgrade quality should be undertaken before or within the drying process.

  1. Utility Theory for Evaluation of Optimal Process Condition of SAW: A Multi-Response Optimization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saurav; Biswas, Ajay; Bhaumik, Swapan; Majumdar, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective optimization problem has been solved in order to estimate an optimal process environment consisting of optimal parametric combination to achieve desired quality indicators (related to bead geometry) of submerged arc weld of mild steel. The quality indicators selected in the study were bead height, penetration depth, bead width and percentage dilution. Taguchi method followed by utility concept has been adopted to evaluate the optimal process condition achieving multiple objective requirements of the desired quality weld.

  2. E-LEARNING AS A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa SHEHABAT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems.The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage.Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.

  3. E-LEARNING AS A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa SHEHABAT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems. The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage. Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.

  4. Site Assessment of Multiple-Sensor Approaches for Buried Utility Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. D. Royal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. Open-cut methods are predominantly used, in preference to trenchless technology, to effect a repair, replace or install a new section of the network. This is, in part, due to the inability to determine the position of all utilities below the carriageway, making open-cut methods desirable in terms of dealing with uncertainty since the buried infrastructure is progressively exposed during excavation. However, open-cut methods damage the carriageway and disrupt society's functions. This paper describes the progress of a research project that aims to develop a multi-sensor geophysical platform that can improve the probability of complete detection of the infrastructure buried beneath the carriageway. The multi-sensor platform is being developed in conjunction with a knowledge-based system that aims to provide information on how the properties of the ground might affect the sensing technologies being deployed. The fusion of data sources (sensor data and utilities record data is also being researched to maximize the probability of location. This paper describes the outcome of the initial phase of testing along with the development of the knowledge-based system and the fusing of data to produce utility maps.

  5. Net protein utilization during total parenteral nutrition of injured critically ill patients: an original approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, G; Solca, M; Radrizzani, D; Zucchetti, M; Damia, G

    1981-01-01

    Traumatized critically ill patients with either a moderate or severe catabolic response were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous solution which was either protein-free or contained protein and hypertonic glucose. The overall energy intake in both groups was equivalent to each patient's daily requirement. In both the moderately catabolic and severely catabolic patients the urinary nitrogen loss with the protein-free solution was negatively correlated to the energy intake/energy need ratio (p less than 0.01, moderate catabolism; p less than 0.001, severe catabolism). The ratio of energy intake/energy need was correlated with the nitrogen loss. From the resultant straight line, the obligatory nitrogen loss was determined for those patients receiving the protein containing solution (test diet). The net protein utilization was subsequently calculated using this value of the obligatory nitrogen loss. The net protein utilization was inversely correlated with the severity of trauma. It was significantly (p less than 0.005) greater in the patients with a moderate catabolic response. In the acute postinjury phase, the net protein utilization of infused amino acids was similar to that for protein fed orally to normal healthy subjects.

  6. Enhancement in xylose utilization using Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K1 through evolutionary adaptation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nilesh Kumar; Behera, Shuvashish; Arora, Richa; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary adaptation was carried out on the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K1 at 45 °C up to 60 batches to enhance its xylose utilization capability. The adapted strain showed higher specific growth rate and 3-fold xylose uptake rate and short lag phase as compared to the native strain. During aerobic growth adapted yeast showed 2.81-fold higher xylose utilization than that of native. In anaerobic batch fermentation, adapted yeast utilized about 91% of xylose in 72 h and produced 2.88 and 18.75 g l⁻¹ of ethanol and xylitol, respectively, which were 5.11 and 5.71-fold higher than that of native. Ethanol yield, xylitol yield and specific sugar consumption rate obtained by the adapted cells were found to be 1.57, 1.65 and 4.84-fold higher than that of native yeast, respectively. Aforesaid results suggested that the evolutionary adaptation will be a very effective strategy in the near future for economic lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  7. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  8. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  9. Differential Weighting in Multi-Attribute Utility Measurement: When it Should Not and When it does make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    policy and value tradeoffs. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis , Research Memorandum, December 1975. Keeney, R.L. and Sicherman, A. An...interactive computer program for assessing and analyzing preferences concerning multiple objectives. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis , Research

  10. Multi-attribute compositional voting advice applications (MacVAAs) : a methodology for educating and assisting voters and eliciting their preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, R.A.; Levels, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a technique to elicit voter preferences, by integrating multiattribute compositional analyses (Macs) with a voting advice application (VAA). The technique requires users to make trade-offs between different positions on a single issue, and between different issues. MacVAAs more

  11. Multi-attribute compositional voting advice applications (MacVAAs) : a methodology for educating and assisting voters and eliciting their preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, R.A.; Levels, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a technique to elicit voter preferences, by integrating multi-attribute compositional analyses (Macs) with a voting advice application (VAA). The technique requires users to make trade-offs between different positions on a single issue, and between different issues. MacVAAs mor

  12. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  13. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupl, J.; Faber, N.; Foster, C.; Yang, F.; Nelson, B.; Aziz, J.; Nuttall, A.; Henze, C.; Levit, C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an updated efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme. LightForce aims to prevent collisions on warning by utilizing photon pressure from ground based, commercial off the shelf lasers. Past research has proven that a few ground-based systems consisting of 10 kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m telescopes with adaptive optics could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. Our simulation approach utilizes the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalogue in LEO for a given day as initial input. Least-squares fitting of a TLE time series is used for an improved orbit estimate. We then calculate the probability of collision for all LEO objects in the catalogue for a time step of the simulation. The conjunctions that exceed a threshold probability of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the probability of collision and evaluate the efficiency. This paper describes new simulations with three updated aspects: 1) By utilizing a highly parallel simulation approach employing hundreds of processors, we have extended our analysis to a much broader dataset. The simulation time is extended to one year. 2) We analyze not only the efficiency of LightForce on conjunctions that naturally occur, but also take into account conjunctions caused by orbit perturbations due to LightForce engagements. 3) We use a new simulation approach that is regularly updating the LightForce engagement strategy, as it would be during actual operations. In this paper we present both our simulation approach to parallelize the efficiency analysis, its computational performance and the resulting expected efficiency of the LightForce collision avoidance system.

  14. Breaking down the barriers to efficiency improvements in the rental housing market: a comparison of two utility approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Katherine (Johnson Consulting Group, Frederick, MD (United States)); Volker, Michael (Midwest Energy, Hays, KA (United States)); Shimoda, Wade; Willoughby, George (Hawaii Electric Company, Honolulu (United States))

    2009-07-01

    The rental market is a difficult segment to target for residential energy efficiency improvements. This is primarily due to the split-incentive in which the landlord has little interest in paying for energy efficiency improvements because the tenant pays the utility bills. However, that is changing since several utilities have implemented on-the-bill financing programs, patterned after the Pay-As-You-Save Program Model. This paper compares the approaches used by Midwest Energy and Hawaiian Electric. Midwest Energy debuted its How$mart SM Program in 2007 to provide renters and landlords a mechanism to pay for a variety of energy efficiency improvements. Hawaii Electric developed the SolarSaver Pilot Program in 2007 to encourage installations of solar water heaters. In both programs, the utility provides the upfront capital as a way to encourage the investment in these energy efficiency improvements. Other program features include: No upfront capital required by customer; Efficiency improvements are paid for through a surcharge on the utility bill; The surcharge is tied to the location, not to the individual customer; This paper compares the results from both programs based on their first-year program evaluations, and includes the following key metrics: Number of residences reached; Value of home improvements; Estimated energy savings; Strategies for targeting home improvement contractors; Lessons Learned. On-the-bill financing can be a successful program strategy to reach the underserved rental market.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  16. Flight management research utilizing an oculometer. [pilot scanning behavior during simulated approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Kurbjun, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight management work being conducted using NASA Langley's oculometer system. Tests have been conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator to investigate pilot scan behavior during approach and landing for simulated IFR, VFR, motion versus no motion, standard versus advanced displays, and as a function of various runway patterns and symbology. Results of each of these studies are discussed. For example, results indicate that for the IFR approaches a difference in pilot scan strategy was noted for the manual versus coupled (autopilot) conditions. Also, during the final part of the approach when the pilot looks out-of-the-window he fixates on his aim or impact point on the runway and holds this point until flare initiation.

  17. A non-equilibrium equation-of-motion approach to quantum transport utilizing projection operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael; Ratner, Mark A

    2014-11-12

    We consider a projection operator approach to the non-equilibrium Green function equation-of-motion (PO-NEGF EOM) method. The technique resolves problems of arbitrariness in truncation of an infinite chain of EOMs and prevents violation of symmetry relations resulting from the truncation (equivalence of left- and right-sided EOMs is shown and symmetry with respect to interchange of Fermi or Bose operators before truncation is preserved). The approach, originally developed by Tserkovnikov (1999 Theor. Math. Phys. 118 85) for equilibrium systems, is reformulated to be applicable to time-dependent non-equilibrium situations. We derive a canonical form of EOMs, thus explicitly demonstrating a proper result for the non-equilibrium atomic limit in junction problems. A simple practical scheme applicable to quantum transport simulations is formulated. We perform numerical simulations within simple models and compare results of the approach to other techniques and (where available) also to exact results.

  18. Flight management research utilizing an oculometer. [pilot scanning behavior during simulated approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Kurbjun, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight management work being conducted using NASA Langley's oculometer system. Tests have been conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator to investigate pilot scan behavior during approach and landing for simulated IFR, VFR, motion versus no motion, standard versus advanced displays, and as a function of various runway patterns and symbology. Results of each of these studies are discussed. For example, results indicate that for the IFR approaches a difference in pilot scan strategy was noted for the manual versus coupled (autopilot) conditions. Also, during the final part of the approach when the pilot looks out-of-the-window he fixates on his aim or impact point on the runway and holds this point until flare initiation.

  19. Recovery and Utilization of Lignin Monomers as Part of the Biorefinery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Davis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a substantial component of lignocellulosic biomass but is under-utilized relative to the cellulose and hemicellulose components. Historically, lignin has been burned as a source of process heat, but this heat is usually in excess of the process energy demands. Current models indicate that development of an economically competitive biorefinery system requires adding value to lignin beyond process heat. This addition of value, also known as lignin valorization, requires economically viable processes for separating the lignin from the other biomass components, depolymerizing the lignin into monomeric subunits, and then upgrading these monomers to a value-added product. The fact that lignin’s biological role is to provide biomass with structural integrity means that this heteropolymer can be difficult to depolymerize. However, there are chemical and biological routes to upgrade lignin from its native form to compounds of industrial value. Here we review the historical background and current technology of (thermo chemical depolymerization of lignin; the natural ability of microbial enzymes and pathways to utilize lignin, the current prospecting work to find novel microbial routes to lignin degradation, and some applications of these microbial enzymes and pathways; and the current chemical and biological technologies to upgrade lignin-derived monomers.

  20. Optimization in wire-cut EDM of Nimonic-80A using Taguchi's approach and utility concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a multi response optimization method using utility concept is proposed for wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM of Nimonic-80A alloy. The machining characteristics that are being investigated are material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR along with surface topography of the machined surface. The study makes use of experimentation planned and executed as per Taguchi's robust design methodology. The Investigation indicated that material removal rate and surface roughness increases with increase in pulse-on time and decreases with increase in pulse-off time. Significant interactions have been found between pulse-on time (Ton and pulse-off time (Toff, pulse-on time (Ton and peak current (IP, pulse-off time (Toff and peak current (IP for material removal rate; and pulse-on time (Ton and peak current (IP for surface roughness. Multi-response optimization with utility concept provides the collective optimization of both responses for improving the mean of the process.

  1. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  2. Edward’s syndrome: A rare cause of difficult intubation-utility of left molar approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18 is an autosomal abnormality with dysmorphic face, visceral deformities and delayed mental and motor development including congenital heart disease. Challenges may arise during mask ventilation, laryngoscopy and/or intubation of the trachea due to dysmorphic face. Difficult airway cart should be kept ready. Left molar approach using a standard Macintosh blade improves the laryngoscopic view in patients with difficult midline laryngoscopy. We hereby present a case report of a 2 year old male child with Edward’s syndrome posted for evacuation and drainage of brain abscess, intubated successfully using left molar approach.

  3. A risk-based approach to maintenance planning utilizing in-line inspection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenyvesi, L.L. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Colquhoun, I.; Kania, R.; Gu, B. [GE Power Systems (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The pipeline industry routinely performs in-line inspections (ILI) to manage external corrosion in pipelines. ILIs are followed by repairs of defects that fail a deterministic criterion. Re-inspection is then performed after a prescribed time interval has elapsed. However, due to uncertainties associated with magnetic flux leakage (MFL) defect sizing and corrosion growth rates, a deterministic repair and re-inspection may result in nonessential maintenance expenditure. In addition, critical features may sometimes remain unidentified. This paper suggested that in order to evaluate the sensitivity of a defect's failure probability more effectively, a better approach would be to evaluate corrosion defects by viewing the process as an analysis of a set of stochastic variables rather than deterministic values. Therefore, this paper outlined the proposed stochastic approach in which tool error and growth rate uncertainty were explicitly considered. Computer simulation was used along with a process for continuously improving the characterization of each variable through a feedback loop. In order to minimize analysis time, the paper also outlined alternative methods to Monte Carlo, such as Importance Sampling. The approach has been successfully applied in field situations. It was shown that the approach can incorporate new information through repeat inspections or field excavations. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective.

  5. Open versus minimally invasive surgical approaches in pediatric urology: Trends in utilization and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, Rohit; Young, Brian J; Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Wolf, Steven; Purves, J Todd; Wiener, John S; Routh, Jonathan C

    2017-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques are anecdotally reported to be increasingly used, but little objective data supports this. Our objective was to assess trends in MIS utilization across various procedures in pediatric urology and to compare postoperative complication rates between MIS and open procedures. We analyzed the 1998-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified children (<18 years old) undergoing open and MIS inpatient procedures and any in-hospital post-operative complications that occurred during that postoperative hospitalization. We utilized propensity score matching and multivariable logistic regression to adjust for confounding factors. We identified 163,838 weighted encounters in the "overall cohort," 70,273 of which were at centers performing more than five MIS procedures over the years studied. Use of MIS techniques increased significantly over time for several procedures, most prominently for nephrectomy (Fig.). The overall rate of complications was lower in patients undergoing MIS compared with open surgery (6% vs. 11%, p < 0.001). Specialized centers had a significantly lower overall rate of complications than unspecialized centers (9% vs. 12%, p < 0.001). Within specialized centers, MIS had lower complication rates than open procedures (7% vs. 9%, p < 0.001); this finding was consistent even after adjusting for other factors (OR 0.71, p = 0.02). Limitations include that these data may not be generalizable to encounters not in the sample pool. As a large, retrospective, administrative database, NIS may be affected by miscoding bias - rendering our analysis sensitive to the accuracy of procedure coding in NIS. Although the accuracy level of NIS is high for an administrative database, it is possible at least some portion of our cohort may be incorrectly coded. Further, the NSQIP complications we identified may represent associated comorbidities and not true postoperative complications, as NIS does not provide temporal

  6. Mean-variance portfolio optimization by using time series approaches based on logarithmic utility function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeryana, E.; Fadhlina, N.; Sukono; Rusyaman, E.; Supian, S.

    2017-01-01

    Investments in stocks investors are also faced with the issue of risk, due to daily price of stock also fluctuate. For minimize the level of risk, investors usually forming an investment portfolio. Establishment of a portfolio consisting of several stocks are intended to get the optimal composition of the investment portfolio. This paper discussed about optimizing investment portfolio of Mean-Variance to stocks by using mean and volatility is not constant based on logarithmic utility function. Non constant mean analysed using models Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA), while non constant volatility models are analysed using the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH). Optimization process is performed by using the Lagrangian multiplier technique. As a numerical illustration, the method is used to analyse some Islamic stocks in Indonesia. The expected result is to get the proportion of investment in each Islamic stock analysed.

  7. Estimation of melting points of large set of persistent organic pollutants utilizing QSPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The presence of polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as Cl/Br-substituted benzenes, biphenyls, diphenyl ethers, and naphthalenes has been identified in all environmental compartments. The exposure to these compounds can pose potential risk not only for ecological systems, but also for human health. Therefore, efficient tools for comprehensive environmental risk assessment for POPs are required. Among the factors vital for environmental transport and fate processes is melting point of a compound. In this study, we estimated the melting points of a large group (1419 compounds) of chloro- and bromo- derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenylethers, and benzenes by utilizing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) techniques. The compounds were classified by applying structure-based clustering methods followed by GA-PLS modeling. In addition, random forest method has been applied to develop more general models. Factors responsible for melting point behavior and predictive ability of each method were discussed.

  8. A new approach for modeling the peak utility impacts from a proposed CUAC standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris; Chan, Peter; Coughlin, Katie

    2004-08-01

    This report describes a new Berkeley Lab approach for modeling the likely peak electricity load reductions from proposed energy efficiency programs in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This method is presented in the context of the commercial unitary air conditioning (CUAC) energy efficiency standards. A previous report investigating the residential central air conditioning (RCAC) load shapes in NEMS revealed that the peak reduction results were lower than expected. This effect was believed to be due in part to the presence of the squelch, a program algorithm designed to ensure changes in the system load over time are consistent with the input historic trend. The squelch applies a system load-scaling factor that scales any differences between the end-use bottom-up and system loads to maintain consistency with historic trends. To obtain more accurate peak reduction estimates, a new approach for modeling the impact of peaky end uses in NEMS-BT has been developed. The new approach decrements the system load directly, reducing the impact of the squelch on the final results. This report also discusses a number of additional factors, in particular non-coincidence between end-use loads and system loads as represented within NEMS, and their impacts on the peak reductions calculated by NEMS. Using Berkeley Lab's new double-decrement approach reduces the conservation load factor (CLF) on an input load decrement from 25% down to 19% for a SEER 13 CUAC trial standard level, as seen in NEMS-BT output. About 4 GW more in peak capacity reduction results from this new approach as compared to Berkeley Lab's traditional end-use decrement approach, which relied solely on lowering end use energy consumption. The new method has been fully implemented and tested in the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) version of NEMS and will routinely be applied to future versions. This capability is now available for use in future end-use efficiency or other policy analysis

  9. Imaging MALDI MS of Dosed Brain Tissues Utilizing an Alternative Analyte Pre-extraction Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiason, Cristine M.; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin K.

    2015-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry has been adopted in the pharmaceutical industry as a useful tool to detect xenobiotic distribution within tissues. A unique sample preparation approach for MALDI imaging has been described here for the extraction and detection of cobimetinib and clozapine, which were previously undetectable in mouse and rat brain using a single matrix application step. Employing a combination of a buffer wash and a cyclohexane pre-extraction step prior to standard matrix application, the xenobiotics were successfully extracted and detected with an 8 to 20-fold gain in sensitivity. This alternative approach for sample preparation could serve as an advantageous option when encountering difficult to detect analytes.

  10. Minimally invasive research of presigmoidal approach for exposure of jugular foramen region utilizing virtual reality system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke TANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss minimally invasive tactics for exposure of jugular foramen region in transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach based on virtual reality image model. Methods CT and MRI scans were performed to 15 adult cadaver heads (30 sides, and image data was inputted into Vitrea virtual reality system to establish three-dimensional anatomical model of jugular foramen region. The transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach was simulated with selecting osseous landmark points to draw a cylinder. Minimally invasive simulation was performed by reducing the diameter of cylinder. Anatomic exposures in surgical trajectory following minimally invasive design were observed, measured and compared.  Results Spacial sequence of nerves and vessels of jugular foramen region was exposured clearly with the route simulating transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach. Route before and after minimally invasive design passed through the interval between vertical segment of facial nerve and sigmoid sinus. There was a part of sigmoid sinus in the route. Cerebellar hemisphere was not included in the route. Data measurement and comparative analysis showed that volume of route, petrosal osseous structure and venous sinus involved in route before minimally invasive design was more than that after minimally invasive design. The differences reached statistical significance (P = 0.000. The volumes of lower cranial nerves between routes before and after minimally invasive design did not show significant differences (P = 0.552.  Conclusions Minimally invasive route of transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach is helpful to reduce surgical injury of vital structures in effective exposure for target structures of jugular foramen region. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.011

  11. AN UTILITIES BASED APPROACH FOR MULTI-PERIOD DYNAMIC PORTFOLIO SELECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a multi-period dynamic optimal portfolio selection model. Assumptions were made to assure the strictness of reasoning. This Approach depicted the developments and changing of the real stock market and is an attempt to remedy some of the deficiencies of recent researches. The model is a standard form of quadratic programming. Furthermore, this paper presented a numerical example in real stock market.

  12. Analysis on potential approaches to utilize genic male sterility in plant hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.

  13. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupl, Jan; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang, Fan Yang; Nelson, Bron; Aziz, Jonathan; Nuttall, Andrew; Henze, Chris; Levit, Creon

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an updated efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme. LightForce aims to prevent collisions on warning by utilizing photon pressure from ground based, commercial off the shelf lasers. Past research has shown that a few ground-based systems consisting of 10 kilowatt class lasers directed by 1.5 meter telescopes with adaptive optics could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. Our simulation approach utilizes the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalogue in LEO for a given day as initial input. Least-squares fitting of a TLE time series is used for an improved orbit estimate. We then calculate the probability of collision for all LEO objects in the catalogue for a time step of the simulation. The conjunctions that exceed a threshold probability of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the probability of collision and evaluate the efficiency of the system. This paper describes new simulations with three updated aspects: 1) By utilizing a highly parallel simulation approach employing hundreds of processors, we have extended our analysis to a much broader dataset. The simulation time is extended to one year. 2) We analyze not only the efficiency of LightForce on conjunctions that naturally occur, but also take into account conjunctions caused by orbit perturbations due to LightForce engagements. 3) We use a new simulation approach that is regularly updating the LightForce engagement strategy, as it would be during actual operations. In this paper we present our simulation approach to parallelize the efficiency analysis, its computational performance and the resulting expected efficiency of the LightForce collision avoidance system. Results indicate that utilizing a network of four LightForce stations with 20 kilowatt lasers, 85% of all conjunctions with a

  14. A modular approach for the construction and modification of glyco-SAMs utilizing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Mike; Winkler, Tobias; Terfort, Andreas; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2008-06-21

    We report the synthesis of a broad variety of functionalized molecules for assembly on gold, allowing the formation of biologically relevant SAMs by a modular approach: either utilizing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkynes and azides in solution or by 'click on SAM'. Extensive studies into the various parameters of SAM formation and stability have been carried out, leading us to deduce reliable conditions under which glyco-decorated self-assembled monolayers can be formed and studied such as in SPR-supported binding assays.

  15. A building extraction approach for Airborne Laser Scanner data utilizing the Object Based Image Analysis paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Ivan; Tiede, Dirk; Blaschke, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In the past two decades Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) established itself as an efficient approach for the classification and extraction of information from remote sensing imagery and, increasingly, from non-image based sources such as Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) point clouds. ALS data is represented in the form of a point cloud with recorded multiple returns and intensities. In our work, we combined OBIA with ALS point cloud data in order to identify and extract buildings as 2D polygons representing roof outlines in a top down mapping approach. We performed rasterization of the ALS data into a height raster for the purpose of the generation of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) and a derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Further objects were generated in conjunction with point statistics from the linked point cloud. With the use of class modelling methods, we generated the final target class of objects representing buildings. The approach was developed for a test area in Biberach an der Riß (Germany). In order to point out the possibilities of the adaptation-free transferability to another data set, the algorithm has been applied "as is" to the ISPRS Benchmarking data set of Toronto (Canada). The obtained results show high accuracies for the initial study area (thematic accuracies of around 98%, geometric accuracy of above 80%). The very high performance within the ISPRS Benchmark without any modification of the algorithm and without any adaptation of parameters is particularly noteworthy.

  16. Commentary: Utilizing Community-Engaged Approaches to Investigate and Address Hmong Women’s Cancer Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M.A. Sparks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a growing concern for women in the Hmong community. Hmong women experience poor health outcomes for both cervical and breast cancer, largely due to low rates of screening and resultant late-stage at diagnosis. Both breast and cervical cancer screening are complicated by a multitude of social, cultural and environmental factors which influence health care decision-making and can otherwise serve to restrict access. We argue that community-engaged research, an orientation which prioritizes collaborative, equitable partnerships and community voice in identifying both problems and solutions, can be a valuable approach to helping address cancer health disparities for Hmong women. Using the Milwaukee-based “Healthy Hmong Women” project as a case example, we detail how the community-engaged approach implemented by the project partners was critical in identifying factors contributing to Hmong cancer disparities and appropriate interventions, as well as the overall acceptance and success of the project. Specifically, we discuss how this approach: (1 promoted community investment and ownership in the project; (2 facilitated the integration of local perspectives and experiences; (3 built capacity to address cancer screening disparities; (4 facilitated the creation of interventions targeting multiple ecological levels; and (5 framed the community as the foundation and driver of positive change.

  17. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  18. A Neurodynamic Approach for Real-Time Scheduling via Maximizing Piecewise Linear Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhishan; Baruah, Sanjoy K

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we study a set of real-time scheduling problems whose objectives can be expressed as piecewise linear utility functions. This model has very wide applications in scheduling-related problems, such as mixed criticality, response time minimization, and tardiness analysis. Approximation schemes and matrix vectorization techniques are applied to transform scheduling problems into linear constraint optimization with a piecewise linear and concave objective; thus, a neural network-based optimization method can be adopted to solve such scheduling problems efficiently. This neural network model has a parallel structure, and can also be implemented on circuits, on which the converging time can be significantly limited to meet real-time requirements. Examples are provided to illustrate how to solve the optimization problem and to form a schedule. An approximation ratio bound of 0.5 is further provided. Experimental studies on a large number of randomly generated sets suggest that our algorithm is optimal when the set is nonoverloaded, and outperforms existing typical scheduling strategies when there is overload. Moreover, the number of steps for finding an approximate solution remains at the same level when the size of the problem (number of jobs within a set) increases.

  19. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951

  20. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Nicola; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Coutinho, Pedro M; Cutting, Simon M; Henrissat, Bernard; Ricca, Ezio

    2011-09-05

    Spore-forming Bacilli are gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  1. Utility of an Automated Thermal-Based Approach for Monitoring Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermans Wim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A very simple remote sensing-based model for water use monitoring is presented. The model acronym DATTUTDUT (Deriving Atmosphere Turbulent Transport Useful To Dummies Using Temperature is a Dutch word which loosely translates as “it’s unbelievable that it works”. DATTUTDUT is fully automated and only requires a surface temperature map, making it simple to use and providing a rapid estimate of spatially- distributed fluxes. The algorithm is first tested over a range of environmental and land-cover conditions using data from four short-term field experiments and then evaluated over a growing season in an agricultural region. Flux model output is in satisfactory agreement with observations and established remote sensing-based models, except under dry and partial canopy cover conditions. This suggests that DATTUTDUT has utility in identifying relative water use and as an operational tool providing initial estimates of ET anomalies in data-poor regions that would be confirmed using more robust modeling techniques.

  2. Application of Taguchi approach and Utility Concept in solving the Multi-objective Problem when

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaladhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Taguchi method is widely used for optimizing the process parameters of a single response problem. Optimizationof a single response results the non-optimum values for remaining. But, the performance of the manufactured products isoften evaluated by several quality characteristics/responses. Under such circumstances, multi-characteristics response optimizationmay be the solution to optimize multi-responses simultaneously. In the present work, a multi-characteristics responseoptimization model based on Taguchi and Utility concept is used to optimize process parameters, such as speed, feed, depthof cut, and nose radius on multiple performance characteristics, namely, surface roughness (Ra and material removal rate(MRR during turning of AISI 202 austenitic stainless steel using a CVD coated cemented carbide tool. Taguchi’s L8 orthogonalarray (OA is selected for experimental planning. The experimental result analysis showed that the combination of higherlevels of cutting speed, depth of cut, and nose radius and lower level of feed is essential to achieve simultaneous maximizationof material removal rate and minimization of surface roughness. The ANOVA and F-tests are used to analyze the results.Further, the confirmation tests are conducted and the results are found to be within the confidence interval.

  3. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  4. An Approach for Enhancing Adoption, Use and Utility of Shared Digital Health Records in Rural Australian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Helen; Cummings, Elizabeth; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, shared digital health records are considered an important addition to improving modern health care provision. Australia launched its version, My Health Record (MyHR), in 2012 but has experienced low adoption and challenges in practical implementation and evaluation. Individuals living with complex and chronic conditions in rural and remote communities often experience challenges in obtaining equitable access to health care provision. They are also supposed to face additional barriers to adopting and using eHealth services. This paper reports on research investigating adoption, use and utility of MyHR, in rural remote Australian community settings. Based on this research an approach for improving national roll out of MyHR is presented. The approach highlights a means to understand and engage communities with complex care needs, to support their adoption and use of digital tools. It also draws attention to holistic methods for evaluating and assessing impact at individual, community and health care provision levels.

  5. Social Media Impact: Utility of Reflective Approach in the Practice of Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Zia; Shahid, Hassan; Shuaib, Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Social media is rapidly being incorporated into medical education. We created a small group, reflective practice sessions by integrating specific medical cases to improve awareness about professionalism on social media. Medical scenarios were generated for reflective practice sessions on social media professionalism. Anonymous pre/post-session surveys evaluated residents' use of social media and gathered their opinions on the session. Thirty-eight of 48 (79 %) residents replied to the presession survey with 50 % (19/38) reporting daily digital media use, 76 % (29/38) witnessed unprofessional postings on social media, and 21 % (8/38) posted unprofessional content themselves. Of the 79 % (30/38) residents who attended the session, 74 % (28/38) completed the post-session survey. Residents reported the session added to the longevity of their professional career 4.11, 95 % CI (3.89-4.36). As a result of the session, they were more conscious of using the social media more professionally 3.47, 95 % CI (2.88-3.96) and would be proactive in protecting patient privacy and confidentiality on social media sites 3.96, 95 % CI (3.50-4.37). In summary, reflective practice-based sessions regarding the impact of social media on professionalism in surgery was well favored by the residents. The majority agreed that it had important implications for the longevity of their professional career. Participants reported having an increased awareness to protect patient privacy and utilize social media more professionally.

  6. Phytoremediation: a novel approach for utilization of iron-ore wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Monalisa; Dhal, Nabin Kumar; Patra, Parikshita; Das, Bisweswar; Reddy, Palli Sita Rama

    2010-01-01

    Large quantities of iron-ore tailings are being generated annually in the world from mining and processing of iron ores. It has been estimated that around 10-15% of the iron ore mined in India has remained unutilized and discarded as slimes during mining and subsequent processing. Soil contamination resulting from mining activities affects surrounding flora and fauna and presents a large clean-up challenge to the mining industry. Innovative new methodologies have been proposed and among the most promising are those that rely on new phytoremediation technology. In this paper we address and review the status of phytoremediation as a technology to reduce and control contaminated mine wastes. Several different approaches and different plant species are used to remove environmentally toxic metals from mine waste sites. Such approaches have the objective of restoring mining waste sites to human and animal use, or at least, to curtail or eliminate the off-site movement of toxic entities that potentially could reach humans. How well phytoremediation performs as an alternative soil restoration technology depends on several factors, including the composition of soil, toxicity level of the contaminant, degree to which plant species fit natural local growth patterns and type of concentration of metal/contaminant in such plants. Phytoremediation has opened prospects for less costly, yet practicable approaches to clean-up contaminated waste sites, particularly those associated with mineral extraction mining. We discuss several plant species that are capable of phytoextracting and/or phytostabilizing harmful elements from contaminated soil and water; such processes are prospectively effective for addressing waste problems that derive from mining and processing activities, as well as those that derive from mitigating the threat posed by waste that surrounds mining sites. Unfortunately, phytoremediation is still in the embryonic stage, and more research is needed to find the plant

  7. Elastic Model Transitions: a Hybrid Approach Utilizing Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurenko, Robert J.; Bush, T. Jason; Ottander, John A.

    2014-01-01

    A method for transitioning linear time invariant (LTI) models in time varying simulation is proposed that utilizes both quadratically constrained least squares (LSQI) and Direct Shape Mapping (DSM) algorithms to determine physical displacements. This approach is applicable to the simulation of the elastic behavior of launch vehicles and other structures that utilize multiple LTI finite element model (FEM) derived mode sets that are propagated throughout time. The time invariant nature of the elastic data for discrete segments of the launch vehicle trajectory presents a problem of how to properly transition between models while preserving motion across the transition. In addition, energy may vary between flex models when using a truncated mode set. The LSQI-DSM algorithm can accommodate significant changes in energy between FEM models and carries elastic motion across FEM model transitions. Compared with previous approaches, the LSQI-DSM algorithm shows improvements ranging from a significant reduction to a complete removal of transients across FEM model transitions as well as maintaining elastic motion from the prior state.

  8. Two Comments to Utilization of Structure Function Approach in Deep Inelastic Scattering Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kuraev, E A; Ilichev, A S

    2002-01-01

    The "returning to resonance" mechanism can be used to obtain the simple procedure of taking radiative corrections (RC) to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) cross sections into account in the framework of Drell-Yan picture. Iteration procedure is proposed. Kinematical region y\\to 1 can be described in the framework of Drell-Yan picture using the structure function approach. The large RC in the lowest order reflect the Sudakov form factor suppression, which can be taken into account in all orders of perturbation theory. Based on explicit calculation in two lowest orders of perturbation theory we construct the cross section in y\\to 1 region obeying renormalization group equations and including the Sudakov-like form factor suppression.

  9. Improved Approach for Utilization of FPGA Technology into DAQ, DSP, and Computing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenhower, Larry Donald

    2009-01-28

    Innovation Partners proposed and successfully demonstrated in this SBIR Phase I grant a software/hardware co-design approach to reduce both the difficulty and time to implement Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) solutions to data acquisition and specialized computational applications. FPGAs can require excessive time for programming and require specialized knowledge that will be greatly reduced by the company's solution. Not only are FPGAs ideal for DAQ and embedded solutions, they can also be the best solution to specialized signal processing to replace Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). By allowing FPGA programming to be done in C with the equivalent of a simple compilation, algorithm changes and improvements can be implemented decreasing the life-cycle costs and allow subsitution of new FPGA designs staying above the technological details.

  10. Identifying the Critical Links in Road Transportation Networks: Centrality-based approach utilizing structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Supriya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Surface transportation road networks share structural properties similar to other complex networks (e.g., social networks, information networks, biological networks, and so on). This research investigates the structural properties of road networks for any possible correlation with the traffic characteristics such as link flows those determined independently. Additionally, we define a criticality index for the links of the road network that identifies the relative importance in the network. We tested our hypotheses with two sample road networks. Results show that, correlation exists between the link flows and centrality measures of a link of the road (dual graph approach is followed) and the criticality index is found to be effective for one test network to identify the vulnerable nodes.

  11. Testing the Utility of a Data-Driven Approach for Assessing BMI from Face Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Hahn, Amanda C.; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that facial cues of adiposity may be important for human social interaction. However, tests for quantifiable cues of body mass index (BMI) in the face have examined only a small number of facial proportions and these proportions were found to have relatively low...... predictive power. Here we employed a data-driven approach in which statistical models were built using principal components (PCs) derived from objectively defined shape and color characteristics in face images. The predictive power of these models was then compared with models based on previously studied...... facial proportions (perimeter-to-area ratio, width-to-height ratio, and cheek-to-jaw width). Models based on 2D shape-only PCs, color-only PCs, and 2D shape and color PCs combined each performed significantly and substantially better than models based on one or more of the previously studied facial...

  12. Population health-based approaches to utilizing digital technology: a strategy for equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth N; Ostrowski, MaryLynn; Sabina, Alyse B

    2016-11-01

    Health care disparities and high chronic disease rates burden many communities and disproportionally impact racial/ethnic populations in the United States. These disparities vary geographically, increase health care expenses, and result in shortened lifespans. Digital technologies may be one tool for addressing health disparities and improving population health by increasing individuals' access to health information-especially as most low-income U.S. residents gain access to smartphones. The Aetna Foundation partners with organizations to use digital technologies, including mobile applications, data collection, and related platforms, for learning and sharing. Projects range from the broad-childhood education, lifestyle modification, health IT training, and nutrition education, to the specific-local healthy foods, stroke rehabilitation, and collection of city-level data. We describe our approaches to grantmaking and discuss lessons learned and their implications. When combined with sound policy strategies, emerging, scalable, digital technologies will likely become powerful allies for improving health and reducing health disparities.

  13. Review of remediation techniques for arsenic (As) contamination: a novel approach utilizing bio-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahedur; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Swaraz, A M; Paul, Dipak Kumar

    2014-02-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination has recently become a worldwide problem, as it is found to be widespread not only in drinking water but also in various foodstuffs. Because of the high toxicity, As contamination poses a serious risk to human health and ecological system. To cope with this problem, a great deal of effort have been made to account for the mechanisms of As mineral formation and accumulation by some plants and aquatic organisms exposed to the high level of As. Hence, bio-remediation is now considered an effective and potent approach to breakdown As contamination. In this review, we provide up-to-date knowledge on how biological tools (such as plants for phytoremediation and to some extent microorganisms) can be used to help resolve the effects of As problems on the Earth's environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational intelligence approach for NO{sub x} emissions minimization in a coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hao, E-mail: zhouhao@cmee.zju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zheng Ligang; Cen Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The current work presented a computational intelligence approach used for minimizing NO{sub x} emissions in a 300 MW dual-furnaces coal-fired utility boiler. The fundamental idea behind this work included NO{sub x} emissions characteristics modeling and NO{sub x} emissions optimization. First, an objective function aiming at estimating NO{sub x} emissions characteristics from nineteen operating parameters of the studied boiler was represented by a support vector regression (SVR) model. Second, four levels of primary air velocities (PA) and six levels of secondary air velocities (SA) were regulated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) so as to achieve low NO{sub x} emissions combustion. To reduce the time demanding, a more flexible stopping condition was used to improve the computational efficiency without the loss of the quality of the optimization results. The results showed that the proposed approach provided an effective way to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from 399.7 ppm to 269.3 ppm, which was much better than a genetic algorithm (GA) based method and was slightly better than an ant colony optimization (ACO) based approach reported in the earlier work. The main advantage of PSO was that the computational cost, typical of less than 25 s under a PC system, is much less than those required for ACO. This meant the proposed approach would be more applicable to online and real-time applications for NO{sub x} emissions minimization in actual power plant boilers.

  15. Computational intelligence approach for NO{sub x} emissions minimization in a coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hao; Zheng, Ligang; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The current work presented a computational intelligence approach used for minimizing NO{sub x} emissions in a 300 MW dual-furnaces coal-fired utility boiler. The fundamental idea behind this work included NO{sub x} emissions characteristics modeling and NO{sub x} emissions optimization. First, an objective function aiming at estimating NO{sub x} emissions characteristics from nineteen operating parameters of the studied boiler was represented by a support vector regression (SVR) model. Second, four levels of primary air velocities (PA) and six levels of secondary air velocities (SA) were regulated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) so as to achieve low NO{sub x} emissions combustion. To reduce the time demanding, a more flexible stopping condition was used to improve the computational efficiency without the loss of the quality of the optimization results. The results showed that the proposed approach provided an effective way to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from 399.7 ppm to 269.3 ppm, which was much better than a genetic algorithm (GA) based method and was slightly better than an ant colony optimization (ACO) based approach reported in the earlier work. The main advantage of PSO was that the computational cost, typical of less than 25 s under a PC system, is much less than those required for ACO. This meant the proposed approach would be more applicable to online and real-time applications for NO{sub x} emissions minimization in actual power plant boilers. (author)

  16. World Climate Classification and Search: Data Mining Approach Utilizing Dynamic Time Warping Similarity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Netzel, P.; Jasiewicz, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a novel method for classification and search of climate over the global land surface excluding Antarctica. Our method classifies climate on the basis of the outcome of time series segmentation and clustering. We use WorldClim 30 arc sec. (approx. 1 km) resolution grid data which is based on 50 years of climatic observations. Each cell in a grid is assigned a 12 month series consisting of 50-years monthly averages of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures as well as the total precipitation. The presented method introduces several innovations with comparison to existing data-driven methods of world climate classifications. First, it uses only climatic rather than bioclimatic data. Second, it employs object-oriented methodology - the grid is first segmented before climatic segments are classified. Third, and most importantly, the similarity between climates in two given cells is performed using the dynamic time warping (DTW) measure instead of the Euclidean distance. The DTW is known to be superior to Euclidean distance for time series, but has not been utilized before in classification of global climate. To account for computational expense of DTW we use highly efficient GeoPAT software (http://sil.uc.edu/gitlist/) that, in the first step, segments the grid into local regions of uniform climate. In the second step, the segments are classified. We also introduce a climate search - a GeoWeb-based method for interactive presentation of global climate information in the form of query-and-retrieval. A user selects a geographical location and the system returns a global map indicating level of similarity between local climates and a climate in the selected location. The results of the search for location: "University of Cincinnati, Main Campus" are presented on attached map. The results of the search for location: "University of Cincinnati, Main Campus" are presented on the map. We have compared the results of our method to Koeppen classification scheme

  17. Content-oriented Approach to Organization of Theories and Its Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguch, Riichiro

    In spite of the fact that the relation between theory and practice is a foundation of scientific and technological development, the trend of increasing the gap between theory and practice accelerates in these years. The gap embraces a risk of distrust of science and technology. Ontological engineering as the content-oriented research is expected to contribute to the resolution of the gap. This paper presents the feasibility of organization of theoretical knowledge on ontological engineering and new-generation intelligent systems based on it through an application of ontological engineering in the area of learning/instruction support. This area also has the problem of the gap between theory and practice, and its resolution is strongly required. So far we proposed OMNIBUS ontology, which is a comprehensive ontology that covers different learning/instructional theories and paradigms, and SMARTIES, which is a theory-aware and standard-compliant authoring system for making learning/instructional scenarios based on OMNIBUS ontology. We believe the theory-awareness and standard-compliance bridge the gap between theory and practice because it links theories to practical use of standard technologies and enables practitioners to easily enjoy theoretical support while using standard technologies in practice. The following goals are set in order to achieve it; computers (1) understand a variety of learning/instructional theories based on the organization of them, (2) utilize the understanding for helping authors' learning/instructional scenario making and (3) make such theoretically sound scenarios interoperable within the framework of standard technologies. This paper suggests an ontological engineering solution to the achievement of these three goals. Although the evaluation is far from complete in terms of practical use, we believe that the results of this study address high-level technical challenges from the viewpoint of the current state of the art in the research area

  18. An alternative approach for choice models in transportation: Use of possibility theory for comparison of utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’orco Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of human choice mechanism has been a topic of intense discussion in the transportation community for many years. The framework of modeling has been rooted in probability theory in which the analyst’s uncertainty about the integrity of the model is expressed in probability. In most choice situations, the decision-maker (traveler also experiences uncertainty because of the lack of complete information on the choices. In the traditional modeling framework, the uncertainty of the analyst and that of the decision-maker are both embedded in the same random term and not clearly separated. While the analyst's uncertainty may be represented by probability due to the statistical nature of events, that of the decision maker, however, is not always subjected to randomness; rather, it is the perceptive uncertainty. This paper proposes a modeling framework that attempts to account for the decision maker’s uncertainty by possibility theory and then the analyst's uncertainty by probability theory. The possibility to probability transformation is performed using the principle of uncertainty invariance. The proposed approach accounts for the quality of information on the changes in choice probability. The paper discusses the thought process, mathematics of possibility theory and probability transformation, and examples.

  19. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: A Novel Approach Towards Weed Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naheed; Sharma, Seema; Singh, V N; Shamsi, S F; Fatma, Anjum; Mehta, B R

    2011-01-01

    A single-step environmental friendly approach is employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The biomolecules found in plants induce the reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ions demonstrated a peak at 425 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles in the range of 5-20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the AgNPs exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal. The process of reduction is extracellular and fast which may lead to the development of easy biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plants during glycolysis produce a large amount of H(+) ions along with NAD which acts as a strong redoxing agent; this seems to be responsible for the formation of AgNPs. Water-soluble antioxidative agents like ascorbic acids further seem to be responsible for the reduction of AgNPs. These AgNPs produced show good antimicrobial activity against common pathogens.

  20. Public service allocation, social utility and spillover effects: a revised benefit incidence approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mainardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, public service provision continues to fall short of demand. In the presence of severe infrastructure backlogs and different returns on public investment expenditure, marginal benefit incidence theory envisages that measures aimed at maximizing average access rates have contradictory impacts in the medium term. While relatively uniform expansion of access coverage across target areas can be achieved in some sectors, geographical disparities may persist or worsen in others. This study revises and extends a previous modeling approach by testing for endogenous eligibility, geographically-varying functional relationships, and number of uncompensated losers (numbers effect as an additional social welfare objective. Relative to medium-term changes in access rates in primary schools and healthcare, spatial and geographically weighted regression models are applied to districts in Niger. Results point to an eligibility threshold which exceeds the average coverage rate for primary education, some evidence of numbers effect as a target for healthcare, and substantial spatial heterogeneity particularly for primary schools.

  1. A large health system's approach to utilization of the genetic counselor CPT® 96040 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Shanna L; Pfeiffer, Gail; Eng, Charis

    2011-12-01

    : In 2007, CPT® code 96040 was approved for genetic counseling services provided by nonphysician providers. Because of professional recognition and licensure limitations, experiences in direct billing by genetic counselors for these services are limited. A minority of genetics clinics report using this code because of limitations, including perceived denial of the code and confusion regarding compliant use of this code. We present results of our approach to 96040 billing for genetic counseling services under a supervising physicians National Provider ID number in a strategy for integration of genetics services within nongenetics specialty departments of a large academic medical center. : The 96040 billing encounters were tracked for a 14-month period and analyzed for reimbursement by private payers. Association of denial by diagnosis code or specialty of genetics service was statistically analyzed. Descriptive data regarding appointment availability are also summarized. : Of 350 encounters January 2008 to February 2009, 289 (82%) were billed to private payers. Of these, 62.6% received some level of reimbursement. No association was seen for denial when analyzed by the diagnosis code or by genetics focus. Through this model, genetics appointment availability minimally doubled. : Using 96040 allowed for expanding access to genetics services, increased appointment availability, and was successful in obtaining reimbursement for more than half of encounters billed.

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: A Novel Approach Towards Weed Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-step environmental friendly approach is employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The biomolecules found in plants induce the reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ions demonstrated a peak at 425 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed the formation of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles in the range of 5–20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD spectrum of the AgNPs exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal. The process of reduction is extracellular and fast which may lead to the development of easy biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plants during glycolysis produce a large amount of H+ ions along with NAD which acts as a strong redoxing agent; this seems to be responsible for the formation of AgNPs. Water-soluble antioxidative agents like ascorbic acids further seem to be responsible for the reduction of AgNPs. These AgNPs produced show good antimicrobial activity against common pathogens.

  3. Combining psychological and engineering approaches to utilizing social robots with children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein-Fischer, Laurie; Fischer, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 children. Early identification of an ASD is exceedingly important to the introduction of an intervention. We are developing a robot-assisted approach that will serve as an improved diagnostic and early intervention tool for children with autism. The robot, named PABI® (Penguin for Autism Behavioral Interventions), is a compact humanoid robot taking on an expressive cartoon-like embodiment. The robot is affordable, durable, and portable so that it can be used in various settings including schools, clinics, and the home. Thus enabling significantly enhanced and more readily available diagnosis and continuation of care. Through facial expressions, body motion, verbal cues, stereo vision-based tracking, and a tablet computer, the robot is capable of interacting meaningfully with an autistic child. Initial implementations of the robot, as part of a comprehensive treatment model (CTM), include Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy where the child interacts with a tablet computer wirelessly interfaced with the robot. At the same time, the robot makes meaningful expressions and utterances and uses stereo cameras in eyes to track the child, maintain eye contact, and collect data such as affect and gaze direction for charting of progress. In this paper we present the clinical justification, anticipated usage with corresponding requirements, prototype development of the robotic system, and demonstration of a sample application for robot-assisted ABA therapy.

  4. Empirical Green's Function Approach for Utilizing Millisecond Focal and Pupil Plane Telemetry in Exoplanet Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Millisecond focal plane telemetry is now becoming practical due to a new generation of near-IR detector arrays with sub-electron noise that are capable of kHz readout rates. Combining these data with those simultaneously available from the wavefront sensing system allows the possibility of self-consistently determining the optical aberrations (the cause of quasi-static speckles) and the planetary image. This approach may be especially advantageous for finding planets within about 3 $\\lambda / D$ of the star where differential imaging is ineffective. As shown in a recent article by the author (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A., 33, 712, 2016), one must account for unknown aberrations in several non-conjugate planes of the optical system, which, in turn, requires ability to computational propagate the field between these planes. These computations are likely to be difficult to implement and expensive. Here, a far more convenient alternative based on empirical Green's functions is provided. It is shown that the empirical Gree...

  5. Determinants of brain cell metabolic phenotypes and energy substrate utilization unraveled with a modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitana Neves

    Full Text Available Although all brain cells bear in principle a comparable potential in terms of energetics, in reality they exhibit different metabolic profiles. The specific biochemical characteristics explaining such disparities and their relative importance are largely unknown. Using a modeling approach, we show that modifying the kinetic parameters of pyruvate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial NADH shuttling within a realistic interval can yield a striking switch in lactate flux direction. In this context, cells having essentially an oxidative profile exhibit pronounced extracellular lactate uptake and consumption. However, they can be turned into cells with prominent aerobic glycolysis by selectively reducing the aforementioned parameters. In the case of primarily oxidative cells, we also examined the role of glycolysis and lactate transport in providing pyruvate to mitochondria in order to sustain oxidative phosphorylation. The results show that changes in lactate transport capacity and extracellular lactate concentration within the range described experimentally can sustain enhanced oxidative metabolism upon activation. Such a demonstration provides key elements to understand why certain brain cell types constitutively adopt a particular metabolic profile and how specific features can be altered under different physiological and pathological conditions in order to face evolving energy demands.

  6. Application of the Multi-Attribute Value Theory for engaging stakeholders in groundwater protection in the Vosvozis catchment in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, Kyriakos; Yang, Hong; Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2014-02-01

    Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) was used to investigate stakeholders' preferences and beliefs in ameliorating a deteriorating ecosystem, i.e. Vosvozis River and Ismarida Lake in Northeastern Greece. Various monetary and environmental criteria were evaluated with scores and weights by different stakeholder groups and key individuals such as farmers, fishermen, entrepreneurs, residents and ecologists to elicit their preferences concerning alternative protection scenarios. The ultimate objective was to propose policy recommendations for a sustainable water resources management for the case study area. The analysis revealed an overwhelming agreement among stakeholders regarding the dire need for immediate actions in order to preserve and enhance Vosvozis ecosystem. With a two stage evaluation process, the MAVT analysis led to a high consensus among the stakeholders on the alternative that favors water recycling from the wastewater treatment plant combined with small dams for rainwater harvesting. © 2013.

  7. 90Sr liquid scintillation urine analysis utilizing different approaches for tracer recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piraner, Olga; Preston, Rose T.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Jones, Robert

    2010-08-01

    90Sr is one of the isotopes most commonly produced by nuclear fission. This medium lived isotope presents serious challenges to radiation workers, the environment, and following a nuclear event, the general public. Methods of identifying this nuclide have been in existence for a number of years (e.g. Horwitz, E.P. [1], Maxwell, S.L.[2], EPA 905.0 [3]) which are time consuming, requiring a month or more for full analysis. This time frame is unacceptable in the present security environment. It is therefore important to have a dependable and rapid method for the determination of Sr. The purposes of this study are to reduce analysis time to less than half a day by utilizing a single method of radiation measurement while continuing to yield precise results. This paper presents findings on three methods that can meet this criteria; (1) stable Sr carrier, (2) 85Sr by gamma spectroscopy, and (3) 85Sr by LSC. Two methods of analyzing and calculating the 85Sr tracer recovery were investigated (gamma spectroscopy and a low energy window-Sr85LEBAB by LSC) as well as the use of two different types of Sr tracer (85Sr and stable Sr carrier). Three separate stock blank urine samples were spiked with various activity levels of 239Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr /90Y to determine the effectiveness of the Eichrome Sr-spec resin 2mL extractive columns. The objective was to compare the recoveries of 85Sr versus a stable strontium carrier, attempt to compare the rate at which samples can be processed by evaluating evaporation, neutralization, and removing the use of another instrument (gamma spectrometer) by using the LSC spectrometer to obtain 85Sr recovery. It was found that when using a calibration curve comprised of a different cocktail and a non-optimum discriminator setting reasonable results (bias of « 25%) were achieved. The results from spiked samples containing 85Sr demonstrated that a higher recovery is obtained when using gamma spectroscopy (89-95%) than when using the LEB window

  8. A restraint molecular dynamics and simulated annealing approach for protein homology modeling utilizing mean angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Till

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed the program PERMOL for semi-automated homology modeling of proteins. It is based on restrained molecular dynamics using a simulated annealing protocol in torsion angle space. As main restraints defining the optimal local geometry of the structure weighted mean dihedral angles and their standard deviations are used which are calculated with an algorithm described earlier by Döker et al. (1999, BBRC, 257, 348–350. The overall long-range contacts are established via a small number of distance restraints between atoms involved in hydrogen bonds and backbone atoms of conserved residues. Employing the restraints generated by PERMOL three-dimensional structures are obtained using standard molecular dynamics programs such as DYANA or CNS. Results To test this modeling approach it has been used for predicting the structure of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein HPr from E. coli and the structure of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (Ppar γ. The divergence between the modeled HPr and the previously determined X-ray structure was comparable to the divergence between the X-ray structure and the published NMR structure. The modeled structure of Ppar γ was also very close to the previously solved X-ray structure with an RMSD of 0.262 nm for the backbone atoms. Conclusion In summary, we present a new method for homology modeling capable of producing high-quality structure models. An advantage of the method is that it can be used in combination with incomplete NMR data to obtain reasonable structure models in accordance with the experimental data.

  9. Enhancing Stud Arc Welding Technique Vai Utilizing FuzzyLogic Approach (FLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel K. Abid AL-Sahib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy logic approach (FLA application in the process of stud arc welding environment was implemented under the condition of fuzziness input data. This paper is composed of the background of FLA, related research work review and points for developing in stud welding manufacturing. Then, it investigates thecase of developingstud arc welding process on the controversial certaintyof available equipment and human skills.Five parameters (welding time, sheet thickness, type of coating, welding current and stud shape were studied.A pair of parameter was selected asiteration whichis welding current and welding time and used for verification corresponding with tensile strength as output results and this willconsider it as schema for other cases.The testing result in the case of crisp (exact value verifyingied the uncertainty value of some criteria selected which open the concept to make the decision making process for some advance cases without implementation. This paper applied the proposed methodology using Matlab program, the graphic user interface (GUI fuzzy tool box for the case study of screw DABOTEKSTUD welding machine, for 6 mm diameter stud. The sheet materials are (K14358 and K52355 according to (USN standards, and the stud materials are (54NiCrMoS6 and 4OCrMnMoS8-6 according to (DIN standards.This given information is very inevitable for the conventional crisp determination of the tensile stress for the particular specimens experimented and also for verifying the tensile test value estimate in the case of changing to a fuzzy value for two of the input variables.

  10. Daylight Utilization with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production: A Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pacheco Diéguez’

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pipes offer a passive way to bring daylight inside deep buildings, such as agricultural buildings. However, the lack of reliable performance predictability methods for light pipes represents a major obstacle preventing their widespread use. This paper evaluates a simulation approach for performance prediction and identifies key light pipe design parameters affecting their daylight transmission performance. The study was carried out through continuous monitoring of daylight in two full-scale, identical pig stables fitted with two light pipe systems, Solatube® and Velux®. The experiment included three continuously measuring sensors in each stable and an outdoor sensor during 2013 and 2014. A forward raytracing tool, TracePro®, was used for illuminance prediction and parametric simulations. The simulation results for overcast skies indicated discrepancies between the simulated and average measurement results below 30% in all cases. The discrepancies for clear skies were somewhat higher, i.e., below 30% for 67% of the cases. The higher discrepancies with clear skies were due to the overestimation of absolute sunlight levels and absence of an advanced and detailed optical characterization of the dome collector’s surface. The parametric results have shown that light pipes’ performance is better during summer time, in sunny climates, at low to mid-latitudes, which provides higher solar altitudes than during winter and cloudy climates at high latitudes. Methods to improve the luminous transmittance for low solar altitudes occurring in Scandinavia include: bending or tilting the pipe, increasing the aspect ratio, improving the pipe specular reflectance, tilting the collector to the south, and using optical redirecting system in the collector.

  11. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed

  12. Robust Optimization Approach for Design for a Dynamic Cell Formation Considering Labor Utilization: Bi-objective Mathematical Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, robust optimization of a bi-objective mathematical model in a dynamic cell formation problem considering labor utilization with uncertain data is carried out. The robust approach is used to reduce the effects of fluctuations of the uncertain parameters with regards to all the possible future scenarios. In this research, cost parameters of the cell formation and demand fluctuations are subject to uncertainty and a mixed-integer programming (MIP model is developed to formulate the related robust dynamic cell formation problem. Then the problem is transformed into a bi-objective linear one. The first objective function seeks to minimize relevant costs of the problem including machine procurement and relocation costs, machine variable cost, inter-cell movement and intra-cell movement costs, overtime cost and labor shifting cost between cells, machine maintenance cost, inventory, holding part cost. The second objective function seeks to minimize total man-hour deviations between cells or indeed labor utilization of the modeled.

  13. Detection of subsurface metallic utilities by means of a SAP technique: Comparing MUSIC- and SVM-based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, Simone; Pajewski, Lara; Pastorino, Matteo; Randazzo, Andrea; Schettini, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The identification of buried cables, pipes, conduits, and other cylindrical utilities is a very important task in civil engineering. In the last years, several methods have been proposed in the literature for tackling this problem. Most commonly employed approaches are based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radars, i.e., they extract the needed information about the unknown scenario starting from the electromagnetic field collected by a set of antennas. In the present paper, a statistical method, based on the use of smart antenna techniques, is used for the localization of a single buried object. In particular, two efficient algorithms for the estimation of the directions of arrival of the electromagnetic waves scattered by the targets, namely the MUltiple SIgnal Classification and the Support Vector Regression, are considered and their performances are compared.

  14. Search for Heavy Stable Charged Particles at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV Utilizing a Multivariate Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ackert, Andrew Kenjiro

    Heavy stable charged particles (HSCPs) have been searched for at the Large Hadron Collider since its initial data taking in 2010. The search for heavy stable charged particles provide a means of directly probing the new physics realm, as they produce a detector signature unlike any particle discovered to date. The goal of this research is to investigate an idea that was introduced in the later stages of 2010-2012 data taking period. Rather than utilizing the current tight selection on the calculated particle mass the hypothesis is that by incorporating a multivariate approach, specif- ically an artificial neural network, the remaining selection criteria could be loosened allowing for a greater signal acceptance while maintaining acceptable background rejection via the multivariate discriminator from the artificial neural network. The increase in signal acceptance and retention or increase in background rejection increases the discovery potential for HSCPs and as a secondary objective calculates improved limit...

  15. Enrichment, Development, and Assessment of Indian Basil Oil Based Antiseptic Cream Formulation Utilizing Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed to develop an antiseptic cream formulation of Indian basil oil utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach. In order to determine the required-hydrophilic lipophilic balance (rHLB of basil oil, emulsions of basil oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80, and Span 80. Formulated emulsions were assessed for creaming (BE9; 9.8, BE10; 10.2, droplet size (BE18; 3.22 ± 0.09 μm, and turbidity (BE18; 86.12 ± 2.1%. To ensure correctness of the applied methodology, rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined. After rHLB determination, basil oil creams were prepared with two different combinations of surfactants, namely, GMS : Tween 80 (1 : 3.45 and SLS : GMS (1 : 3.68, and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity, skin irritation test, viscosity and consistency. The rHLB of basil oil and light liquid paraffin were found to be 13.36 ± 0.36 and 11.5 ± 0.35, respectively. Viscosity, and consistency parameters of cream was found to be consistent over 90 days. Cream formulations showed net zone of growth inhibition in the range of 5.0–11.3 mm against bacteria and 4.3–7.6 mm against fungi. Primary irritation index was found to be between 0.38 and1.05. Conclusively stable, consistent, non-irritant, enriched antiseptic basil oil cream formulations were developed utilizing HLB approach.

  16. Enrichment, Development, and Assessment of Indian Basil Oil Based Antiseptic Cream Formulation Utilizing Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Pandey, Neelam; Luqman, Suaib; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Chanda, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed to develop an antiseptic cream formulation of Indian basil oil utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach. In order to determine the required-hydrophilic lipophilic balance (rHLB) of basil oil, emulsions of basil oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80, and Span 80. Formulated emulsions were assessed for creaming (BE9; 9.8, BE10; 10.2), droplet size (BE18; 3.22 ± 0.09 μm), and turbidity (BE18; 86.12 ± 2.1%). To ensure correctness of the applied methodology, rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined. After rHLB determination, basil oil creams were prepared with two different combinations of surfactants, namely, GMS : Tween 80 (1 : 3.45) and SLS : GMS (1 : 3.68), and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity, skin irritation test, viscosity and consistency. The rHLB of basil oil and light liquid paraffin were found to be 13.36 ± 0.36 and 11.5 ± 0.35, respectively. Viscosity, and consistency parameters of cream was found to be consistent over 90 days. Cream formulations showed net zone of growth inhibition in the range of 5.0–11.3 mm against bacteria and 4.3–7.6 mm against fungi. Primary irritation index was found to be between 0.38 and1.05. Conclusively stable, consistent, non-irritant, enriched antiseptic basil oil cream formulations were developed utilizing HLB approach. PMID:23984361

  17. Enrichment, development, and assessment of Indian basil oil based antiseptic cream formulation utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Pandey, Neelam; Luqman, Suaib; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Chanda, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed to develop an antiseptic cream formulation of Indian basil oil utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach. In order to determine the required-hydrophilic lipophilic balance (rHLB) of basil oil, emulsions of basil oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80, and Span 80. Formulated emulsions were assessed for creaming (BE9; 9.8, BE10; 10.2), droplet size (BE18; 3.22 ± 0.09 μ m), and turbidity (BE18; 86.12 ± 2.1%). To ensure correctness of the applied methodology, rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined. After rHLB determination, basil oil creams were prepared with two different combinations of surfactants, namely, GMS : Tween 80 (1 : 3.45) and SLS : GMS (1 : 3.68), and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity, skin irritation test, viscosity and consistency. The rHLB of basil oil and light liquid paraffin were found to be 13.36 ± 0.36 and 11.5 ± 0.35, respectively. Viscosity, and consistency parameters of cream was found to be consistent over 90 days. Cream formulations showed net zone of growth inhibition in the range of 5.0-11.3 mm against bacteria and 4.3-7.6 mm against fungi. Primary irritation index was found to be between 0.38 and1.05. Conclusively stable, consistent, non-irritant, enriched antiseptic basil oil cream formulations were developed utilizing HLB approach.

  18. Methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in rural settlements in the long term after the Chernobyl accident on the multi-attribute analysis basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Fesenko, S.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Lab. (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    A methodology has been developed for the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures in agriculture based on a multi-attribute analysis of quantitative (radiological, economic, regulatory) and qualitative (social, psychological, technological) indicators characterizing their application. The method makes use of weight coefficients established for the countermeasures parameters with their subsequent comparison adjusted to a single scale. The method is realized with the P.R.I.M.E. Decision support system adapted for the task of countermeasures planning. The multi-attribute analysis of countermeasures effectiveness was made depending on the aspect of rehabilitation works considered: dose, financial or social. Presented are results from the analysis of effectiveness of individual countermeasures and most effective countermeasures and their combinations. Based on the multi attribute analysis data, rating of the most effective countermeasures and their combinations was performed. (authors)

  19. Multi-attribute compositional voting advice applications (MacVAAs) : a methodology for educating and assisting voters and eliciting their preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Korthals, R.A.; Levels, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a technique to elicit voter preferences, by integrating multi-attribute compositional analyses (Macs) with a voting advice application (VAA). The technique requires users to make trade-offs between different positions on a single issue, and between different issues. MacVAAs more closely resemble the electoral decision-making process in elections in which more than two parties participate than classic VAAs. MacVAA’s also overcomes the assumption of issue orthogonality and...

  20. Identification of evolutionarily conserved Momordica charantia microRNAs using computational approach and its utility in phylogeny analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Saravanan, Subramanian; Karikalan, Kulandaivelu; Bharanidharan, Rajaraman; Lalitha, Perumal; Ilango, S; HairulIslam, Villianur Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd, bitter melon) is a monoecious Cucurbitaceae with anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-diabetic potential. Molecular studies on this economically valuable plant are very essential to understand its phylogeny and evolution. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved, small, non-coding RNA with ability to regulate gene expression by bind the 3' UTR region of target mRNA and are evolved at different rates in different plant species. In this study we have utilized homology based computational approach and identified 27 mature miRNAs for the first time from this bio-medically important plant. The phylogenetic tree developed from binary data derived from the data on presence/absence of the identified miRNAs were noticed to be uncertain and biased. Most of the identified miRNAs were highly conserved among the plant species and sequence based phylogeny analysis of miRNAs resolved the above difficulties in phylogeny approach using miRNA. Predicted gene targets of the identified miRNAs revealed their importance in regulation of plant developmental process. Reported miRNAs held sequence conservation in mature miRNAs and the detailed phylogeny analysis of pre-miRNA sequences revealed genus specific segregation of clusters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Novel Approach Utilizing pnetCDF applying to the WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Yang, Cheng-en; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Fu, Joshua; Wong, Kwai; Gao, Yang

    2014-05-01

    I/O is part of a scientific model and it takes up a significant portion of the simulation. There is no exception for the newly developed WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model at US EPA. This two-way coupled meteorology and air quality model is composed of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We are using this two-way model to evaluate how accurate it simulates the effects of aerosol loading on radiative forcing between 1990 and 2010 when there were substantial aerosol emissions such as SO2 and NOx, reduction in North America and Europe. The I/O scheme in the current model does not make use of any parallel file system or parallel I/O approach. In addition the I/O takes about 15% - 28% of the entire simulation. Our novel approach not only utilizes pnetCDF parallel I/O technique but goes one step further to aggregate the data locally, i.e. along column dimension or row dimension in the spatial domain. This approach not only reduces the I/O traffic contention but also aggregated data enhances the I/O efficiency. In terms of I/O time, we have shown this method is about 6 to 10 times faster than the current existing I/O scheme in the model and about 20% - 3 times faster than strict application of pnetCDF. We are currently running the model on a Cray XE6 machine and finding ways to reduce the overall simulation time is crucial to the success to achieve our objective.

  2. The episodic random utility model unifies time trade-off and discrete choice approaches in health state valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Benjamin M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present an episodic random utility model that unifies time trade-off and discrete choice approaches in health state valuation. Methods First, we introduce two alternative random utility models (RUMs for health preferences: the episodic RUM and the more common instant RUM. For the interpretation of time trade-off (TTO responses, we show that the episodic model implies a coefficient estimator, and the instant model implies a mean slope estimator. Secondly, we demonstrate these estimators and the differences between the estimates for 42 health states using TTO responses from the seminal Measurement and Valuation in Health (MVH study conducted in the United Kingdom. Mean slopes are estimates with and without Dolan's transformation of worse-than-death (WTD responses. Finally, we demonstrate an exploded probit estimator, an extension of the coefficient estimator for discrete choice data that accommodates both TTO and rank responses. Results By construction, mean slopes are less than or equal to coefficients, because slopes are fractions and, therefore, magnify downward errors in WTD responses. The Dolan transformation of WTD responses causes mean slopes to increase in similarity to coefficient estimates, yet they are not equivalent (i.e., absolute mean difference = 0.179. Unlike mean slopes, coefficient estimates demonstrate strong concordance with rank-based predictions (Lin's rho = 0.91. Combining TTO and rank responses under the exploded probit model improves the identification of health state values, decreasing the average width of confidence intervals from 0.057 to 0.041 compared to TTO only results. Conclusion The episodic RUM expands upon the theoretical framework underlying health state valuation and contributes to health econometrics by motivating the selection of coefficient and exploded probit estimators for the analysis of TTO and rank responses. In future MVH surveys, sample size requirements may be reduced through

  3. Detection capability of a pulsed Ground Penetrating Radar utilizing an oscilloscope and Radargram Fusion Approach for optimal signal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    In scientific research pulsed radars often employ a digital oscilloscope as sampling unit. The sensitivity of an oscilloscope is determined in general by means of the number of digits of its analog-to-digital converter and the selected full scale vertical setting, i.e., the maximal voltage range displayed. Furthermore oversampling or averaging of the input signal may increase the effective number of digits, hence the sensitivity. Especially for Ground Penetrating Radar applications high sensitivity of the radar system is demanded since reflection amplitudes of buried objects are strongly attenuated in ground. Hence, in order to achieve high detection capability this parameter is one of the most crucial ones. In this paper we analyze the detection capability of our pulsed radar system utilizing a Rohde & Schwarz RTO 1024 oscilloscope as sampling unit for Ground Penetrating Radar applications, such as detection of pipes and cables in the ground. Also effects of averaging and low-noise amplification of the received signal prior to sampling are investigated by means of an appropriate laboratory setup. To underline our findings we then present real-world radar measurements performed on our GPR test site, where we have buried pipes and cables of different types and materials in different depths. The results illustrate the requirement for proper choice of the settings of the oscilloscope for optimal data recording. However, as we show, displaying both strong signal contributions due to e.g., antenna cross-talk and direct ground bounce reflection as well as weak reflections from objects buried deeper in ground requires opposing trends for the oscilloscope's settings. We therefore present our Radargram Fusion Approach. By means of this approach multiple radargrams recorded in parallel, each with an individual optimized setting for a certain type of contribution, can be fused in an appropriate way in order to finally achieve a single radargram which displays all

  4. 多属性网上拍卖市场的发展现状和提升对策%Research on Development and Promotion Countermeasures of Multi-attribute Online Auction Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红岩

    2014-01-01

    Multi-attribute online auction is one of the primary means of e-procurement, and has a broad market space for development. This paper analyzes the multi-attribute online auction service model, designs a multi-attribute online platform architecture, and gives an analysis of multi-attribute online auction application range and economic benefits. For the development of multi-attribute online auction market, we find that the current multi-attribute online auction market exists fraud problem, credit evaluation mechanism defects, and limited market participation etc. On this basis, we propose some countermeasures to solve these problems. These countermeasures include of designing a incentive-compatible multi-attribute auction mechanism,establishing an effective credit evaluation system of multi-attribute online auction, and developing a intelligent software agents of multi-attribute online auction to improve the number of participants.%多属性网上拍卖是电子采购的主要手段之一,具有广阔的市场发展空间。本文剖析了多属性网上拍卖的服务模式,设计了多属性网上平台架构,对多属性网上拍卖的应用范围和经济效益进行深入分析。通过分析多属性网上拍卖市场的发展现状,指出当前多属性网上拍卖市场存在欺诈、信用评价机制缺陷、以及有限的参与性等问题。在此基础上,提出了多属性网上拍卖市场的提升对策:设计满足激励相容的多属性拍卖机制,建立有效的多属性网上拍卖信用评价体系,开发智能化的代理软件以提高多属性网上拍卖的参与人数。

  5. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Understanding Human Migration Patterns and their Utility in Forensic Human Identification Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Holobinko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human migration patterns are of interest to scientists representing many fields. Theories have been posited to explain modern human evolutionary expansion, the diversity of human culture, and the motivational factors underlying an individual or group decision to migrate. Although the research question and subsequent approach may vary between disciplines, one thread is ubiquitous throughout most migration studies: why do humans migrate and what is the result of such an event? While the determination of individual attributes such as age, sex, and ancestry is often integral to migration studies, the positive identification of human remains is usually irrelevant. However, the positive identification of a deceased is paramount to a forensic investigation in which human remains have been recovered and must be identified. What role, if any, might the study of human movement patterns play in the interpretation of evidence associated with unidentified human remains? Due to increasing global mobility in the world's populations, it is not inconceivable that an individual might die far away from his or her home. If positive identification cannot immediately be made, investigators may consider various theories as to how or why a deceased ended up in a particular geographic location. While scientific evidence influences the direction of forensic investigations, qualitative evaluation can be an important component of evidence interpretation. This review explores several modern human migration theories and the methodologies utilized to identify evidence of human migratory movement before addressing the practical application of migration theory to forensic cases requiring the identification of human remains.

  6. An Approach for Synthesis of Modulated -Channel FIR Filter Banks Utilizing the Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Linnéa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.

  7. An Approach for Synthesis of Modulated M-Channel FIR Filter Banks Utilizing the Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Johansson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by 40% in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.

  8. Preference-based approaches to measuring the benefits of perinatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Henderson, Jane

    2003-12-01

    Studies that measure benefits of health care interventions in natural or physical units cannot incorporate the several health changes that might occur within a single measure, and they overlook individuals' preferences for those health changes. This paper discusses and critically appraises the application of preference-based approaches to the measurement of the benefits of perinatal care that have developed out of economic theory. These include quality adjusted life year (QALY)-based approaches, monetary-based approaches, and discrete choice experiments. QALY-based approaches use scaling techniques, such as the rating scale, standard gamble approach, and time trade-off approach, or multi-attribute utility measures, to measure the health-related quality of life weights of health states. Monetary-based approaches include the revealed preference approach, which involves observing decisions that individuals actually make concerning health risks, and the willingness-to-pay approach, which provides a framework for investigating individuals' willingness to pay for benefits of health care interventions. Discrete choice experiments describe health care interventions in terms of their attributes, and elicit preferences for scenarios that combine different levels of those attributes. Empirical examples are used to illustrate each preference-based approach to benefit measurement, and several methodological issues raised by the application of these approaches to the perinatal context are discussed. Particular attention is given to identifying the relevant attributes to incorporate into the measurement instrument, appropriate respondents for the measurement exercise, potential sources of bias in description and valuation processes, and the practicality, reliability, and validity of alternative measurement approaches. The paper's conclusion is that researchers should be explicit and rigorous in their application of preference-based approaches to benefit measurement in the context

  9. High-Throughput, Automated Protein A Purification Platform with Multiattribute LC-MS Analysis for Advanced Cell Culture Process Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia; Migliore, Nicole; Mehrman, Steven J; Cunningham, John; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping

    2016-09-06

    The levels of many product related variants observed during the production of monoclonal antibodies are dependent on control of the manufacturing process, especially the cell culture process. However, it is difficult to characterize samples pulled from the bioreactor due to the low levels of product during the early stages of the process and the high levels of interfering reagents. Furthermore, analytical results are often not available for several days, which slows the process development cycle and prevents "real time" adjustments to the manufacturing process. To reduce the delay and enhance our ability to achieve quality targets, we have developed a low-volume, high-throughput, and high-content analytical platform for at-line product quality analysis. This workflow includes an automated, 96-well plate protein A purification step to isolate antibody product from the cell culture fermentation broth, followed by rapid, multiattribute LC-MS analysis. We have demonstrated quantitative correlations between particular process parameters with the levels of glycosylated and glycated species in a series of small scale experiments, but the platform could be used to monitor other attributes and applied across the biopharmaceutical industry.

  10. Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics Technology Evaluation and Selection Using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making Process and Non-Deterministic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Cecile M.; Hill, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Geiselhart, Karl A.

    2004-01-01

    The Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has investigated revolutionary Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) technologies and configurations for a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) type aircraft as part of its research for NASA s Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project. Within the context of the long-term NASA goal of reducing the perceived aircraft noise level by a factor of 4 relative to 1997 state of the art, major configuration changes in the propulsion airframe integration system were explored with noise as a primary design consideration. An initial down-select and assessment of candidate PAA technologies for the BWB was performed using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) process consisting of organized brainstorming and decision-making tools. The assessments focused on what effect the PAA technologies had on both the overall noise level of the BWB and what effect they had on other major design considerations such as weight, performance and cost. A probabilistic systems analysis of the PAA configurations that presented the best noise reductions with the least negative impact on the system was then performed. Detailed results from the MADM study and the probabilistic systems analysis will be published in the near future.

  11. Overall Performance Evaluation of Tubular Scraper Conveyors Using a TOPSIS-Based Multiattribute Decision-Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Properly evaluating the overall performance of tubular scraper conveyors (TSCs can increase their overall efficiency and reduce economic investments, but such methods have rarely been studied. This study evaluated the overall performance of TSCs based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS. Three conveyors of the same type produced in the same factory were investigated. Their scraper space, material filling coefficient, and vibration coefficient of the traction components were evaluated. A mathematical model of the multiattribute decision matrix was constructed; a weighted judgment matrix was obtained using the DELPHI method. The linguistic positive-ideal solution (LPIS, the linguistic negative-ideal solution (LNIS, and the distance from each solution to the LPIS and the LNIS, that is, the approximation degrees, were calculated. The optimal solution was determined by ordering the approximation degrees for each solution. The TOPSIS-based results were compared with the measurement results provided by the manufacturer. The ordering result based on the three evaluated parameters was highly consistent with the result provided by the manufacturer. The TOPSIS-based method serves as a suitable evaluation tool for the overall performance of TSCs. It facilitates the optimal deployment of TSCs for industrial purposes.

  12. Evaluation of rope shovel operators in surface coal mining using a Multi-Attribute Decision-Making model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vukotic Ivana; Kecojevic Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Rope shovels are used to dig and load materials in surface mines. One of the main factors that influence the production rate and energy consumption of rope shovels is the performance of the operator. This paper presents a method for evaluating rope shovel operators using the Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) model. Data used in this research were collected from an operating surface coal mine in the southern United States. The MADM model consists of attributes, their weights of importance, and alter-natives. Shovel operators are considered the alternatives. The energy consumption model was developed with multiple regression analysis, and its variables were included in the MADM model as attributes. Preferences with respect to min/max of the defined attributes were obtained with multi-objective opti-mization. Multi-objective optimization was conducted with the overall goal of minimizing energy con-sumption and maximizing production rate. Weights of importance of the attributes were determined by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The overall evaluation of operators was performed by one of the MADM models, i.e., PROMETHEE II. The research results presented here may be used by mining professionals to help evaluate the performance of rope shovel operators in surface mining.

  13. Compulsivity and Impulsivity in Pathological Gambling: Does a Dimensional-Transdiagnostic Approach Add Clinical Utility to DSM-5 Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottesi, Gioia; Ghisi, Marta; Ouimet, Allison J; Tira, Michael D; Sanavio, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Although the phenomenology of Pathological Gambling (PG) is clearly characterized by impulsive features, some of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-5) criteria for PG are similar to those of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Therefore, the compulsive-impulsive spectrum model may be a better (or complementary) fit with PG phenomenology. The present exploratory research was designed to further investigate the compulsive and impulsive features characterizing PG, by comparing PG individuals, alcohol dependents (ADs), OCD patients, and healthy controls (HCs) on both self-report and cognitive measures of compulsivity and impulsivity. A better understanding of the shared psychological and cognitive mechanisms underlying differently categorized compulsive and impulsive disorders may significantly impact on both clinical assessment and treatment strategies for PG patients. With respect to self-report measures, PG individuals reported more compulsive and impulsive features than did HCs. As regards motor inhibition ability indices, PG individuals and HCs performed similarly on the Go/No-go task and better than AD individuals and OCD patients. Results from the Iowa Gambling Task highlighted that PG, AD, and OCD participants performed worse than did HCs. An in-depth analysis of each group's learning profile revealed similar patterns of impairment between PG and AD individuals in decision-making processes. Current findings support the utility of adopting a dimensional-transdiagnostic approach to complement the DSM-5 classification when working with PG individuals in clinical practice. Indeed, clinicians are encouraged to assess both compulsivity and impulsivity to provide individualized case conceptualizations and treatment plans focusing on the specific phenomenological features characterizing each PG patient.

  14. Hydrogen Production Technologies Evaluation Based on Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiattribute Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a decision making model for evaluating hydrogen production technologies in China, based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. First of all, we propose a series of interaction interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operators comparing them with some widely used and cited aggregation operators. In particular, we focus on the key issue of the relationships between the proposed operators and existing operators for clear understanding of the motivation for proposing these interaction operators. This research then studies a group decision making method for determining the best hydrogen production technologies using interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy approach. The research results of this paper are more scientific for two reasons. First, the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy approach applied in this paper is more suitable than other approaches regarding the expression of the decision maker’s preference information. Second, the results are obtained by the interaction between the membership degree interval and the nonmembership degree interval. Additionally, we apply this approach to evaluate the hydrogen production technologies in China and compare it with other methods.

  15. 基于置信规则库推理的多属性双边匹配决策方法%Belief rule base inference methodology for two-sided matching decision with multi-attribute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志坚; 杨隆浩; 傅仰耿; 陈建华

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a tentative study on a new two-sided matching approach,which is proposed to solve the two-sided matching problem with uncertain information and multiple attributes.The multi-attributes matching decision making(MAMDM)problem is one of the most important key points in the two-sided matching study,which has evoked great attention for the scholars in recent years.A belief rule-base inference methodology using the evidence reasoning approach(RIMER)has been introduced in this thesis to solve the problem of MAMDM.At the beginning of this thesis,the authors explain the reason why they choose to use belief degree.The current research on the problem of MAMDM is mainly restricted to the study of a kind of two-sided matching,whose evaluation information is linguistic values or interval values.But there exists a lack of study in belief degree as evaluation value. As belief degree can be used to deal with different kinds of uncertain and incomplete information,using it as evaluation value may trigger a new breakthrough in the study of MAMDM.Through the analysis of simulation ex-periments datas and the application of RIMER,belief degrees evaluation information is converted into different levels of confidence information.Then a 0-1 programming model is built by making use of different levels of confidence information to obtain a final matching scheme.It is also pointed out in the thesis that an output error may be caused when BRB(belief rule-base)input is higher than threshold value.To solve this problem,the authors propose that the input value can be incorporated into the uncertainty by the adoption of cutting method.If cutting method is not suitable,linear mapping method can be applied to reduce the influence of the results.The case study analysis shows that it is feasible and effective to adopt the new proposed approach to solve the problem of multi-attributes matching decision making.%针对具有不确定信息的多属性双边匹配决策问题,引

  16. Underground coal gasification with extended CO2 utilization as economic and carbon neutral approach to address energy and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Christine Nakaten; Rafiqul Islam; Thomas Kempka

    2014-01-01

    The application of underground coal gasification (UCG) with proven carbon mitigation techniques may provide a carbon neutral approach to tackle electricity and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh. UCG facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coal seams, not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. The high- calorific synthesis gas produced by UCG can be used for e.g. electricity generation or as chemical raw material for hydrogen, methanol and fertilizer production....

  17. The Experienced Utility of Expected Utility Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Choice theory offers a variety of other non-compensatory deci- sion rules (e.g., minimax) whose use has been observed in one situation or another (e.g...appli- cations of this within-person behavioral choice theory (thereby increasing the amount of error variance), analogous within-per- son studies

  18. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits.

  19. Influence of models and scales on the ranking of multiattribute alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Moshkovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of three multiple criteria methods to determining rank of residential real estate options. Methods SAW and TODIM are based on eliciting the decision maker's preferences (weights and values directly in a quantitative form while using linear (SAW and non-linear (TODIM aggregation functions for alternatives' evaluation. ZAPROS seeks and uses preferences in an ordinal form as an indirect comparison of trade-offs between criteria. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are discussed.

  20. Discussion of impact of relics activation on protection and utilization approaches-take the old summer palace as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqi, J.

    2015-08-01

    As the popularization of cultural relics and the rapid development of cultural tourism industry, a large number of cultural relic tourism resources goes into public eyes. Activation of relics has became an important way for tourist to contact and understand culture relics. The way of how to properly interpret the historical sense and cultural uniqueness to the masses of tourists in order to achieve social service functions of relic resources has always been research focal point of site protection and utilization, so nowadays it has important significance to protection and utilization of heritage resources in our country. From the point of activation of relics and based on the analysis of resource characteristic, the paper in depth discuss ways of activation of relics of the Old Summer Palace, in order to provide reference for sustainable development of sites tourism in China.

  1. A Systems Engineering Approach to Multiple Attribute Utility Theory and Multiple Objective Optimization Theory: With Application To Aircraft Retrofit Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Keeney, R., Sicherman, A., "An Interactive Computer Program for Assess- ing and Analyzing Preferences Concerning Multiple Objectives," IIASA ...With Cardinal Utility," ,Management Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Oct., 1976a. Keeney, R.L., "Energy Policy and Value Tradeoffs," IIASA , Report RM-75-76...Objectives," IIASA , Schloss Laxenburg, Austria, April, 1975. Keeney, R.L., Raiffa, H., Decisions With Multiple Objectives: Prefer- ences and Value

  2. A System-Wide Approach to Physician Efficiency and Utilization Rates for Non-Operating Room Anesthesia Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mitchell H; Huynh, Tinh T; Breidenstein, Max W; O'Donnell, Stephen E; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    There has been little in the development or application of operating room (OR) management metrics to non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) sites. This is in contrast to the well-developed management framework for the OR management. We hypothesized that by adopting the concept of physician efficiency, we could determine the applicability of this clinical productivity benchmark for physicians providing services for NORA cases at a tertiary care center. We conducted a retrospective data analysis of NORA sites at an academic, rural hospital, including both adult and pediatric patients. Using the time stamps from WiseOR® (Palo Alto, CA), we calculated site utilization and physician efficiency for each day. We defined scheduling efficiency (SE) as the number of staffed anesthesiologists divided by the number of staffed sites and stratified the data into three categories (SE 1). The mean physician efficiency was 0.293 (95% CI, [0.281, 0.305]), and the mean site utilization was 0.328 (95% CI, [0.314, 0.343]). When days were stratified by scheduling efficiency (SE 1), we found differences between physician efficiency and site utilization. On days where scheduling efficiency was less than 1, that is, there are more sites than physicians, mean physician efficiency (95% CI, [0.326, 0.402]) was higher than mean site utilization (95% CI, [0.250, 0.296]). We demonstrate that scheduling efficiency vis-à-vis physician efficiency as an OR management metric diverge when anesthesiologists travel between NORA sites. When the opportunity to scale operational efficiencies is limited, increasing scheduling efficiency by incorporating different NORA sites into a "block" allocation on any given day may be the only suitable tactical alternative.

  3. Intuitionist Normal Fuzzy Information Aggregation Operators and Their Applications to Multi-attribute Decision Making%基于直觉正态模糊信息集成的多属性决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时恩早; 范颖

    2016-01-01

    在直觉正态模糊环境下,首先定义了直觉正态模糊数的新的运算法则,并探究了运算法则的性质;其次,提出了直觉正态模糊信息集成算子,包括直觉正态模糊加权平均算子和直觉正态模糊加权几何算子,并对新提出的两种算子间的大小进行比较;最后在新的信息集成算子基础上,提出了一种处理多属性决策问题的方法;结合区域经济发展研究实例,对提出的系统决策方法进行验证。测试结果表明,多属性决策方法是正确的、可行的与高效的。%In this paper, under the intuitionist normal fuzzy environment, new intuitionist normal fuzzy operational laws are defined and their properties are discussed. Then, the intuitionist normal fuzzy information aggregation operators are investigated, including intuitionist normal fuzzy weighted averaging operator (INFWA) and intuitionist normal fuzzy weighted geometric operator (INFWG). The relationship between these two operators is studied. In the end, based on these two proposed operators, we develop a new method to deal with the multi-attribute decision making problems under the intuitionist normal fuzzy environment, and then apply the presented method to the research on the development of the regional economy. The results obtained from the performance analysis show that our approach is correct, feasible and efficient.

  4. Multi-attribute Decision-making Method Based on Hesitant Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linguistic Set%基于犹豫直觉模糊语言数的多属性决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹青; 陈小波

    2016-01-01

    综合犹豫直觉模糊集和语言集,提出犹豫直觉模糊语言集。首先,给出犹豫直觉模糊语言数的运算法则,并探讨犹豫直觉模糊语言数的加权算术平均算子和加权几何平均算子。其次,构建犹豫直觉模糊语言数的得分函数和精确函数,并给出犹豫直觉模糊语言数的排序方法。最后,给出犹豫直觉模糊语言数的多属性决策方法,并通过实例验证。%In this paper,we define hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic set by intergrating hesitant intuitionis⁃tic fuzzy set with linguistic set.Firstly,the operational laws of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic number are given,and the weighted arithmetic averaging operator and the weighted geometric averaging operator of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic number are explored.Secondly,score function and accuracy function of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic number are given,then an approach of raking hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic number is studied.Finally,the multi-attribute decision making method of hesitant intuitionis⁃tic fuzzy linguistic number is proposed,and an example is given to verify the proposed method.

  5. 运用时序多指标决策的专家库动态优化%Dynamic Optimization of Expert-Base Based on Time Series Multi-Attribute Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳瑾; 郭鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对同行评议在专家评审方面的局限性,指出了对专家工作业绩进行静态评价的缺陷,提出了对专家的工作业绩进行实时追踪的思想,应用时序多指标决策方法并在选定所需的"时间度"的基础上,从业绩指标的好坏程度和业绩指标的变化情况两个角度,对专家业绩进行动态评价,进而达到对专家库进行动态优化的目的.%Peer review is a widely recognized approach. It is an expert review process and the performance is greatly dependent on the selection of experts that is done by using an expert-base. The information in an expert-base is often obtained by statically evaluating the experts' performance, but not dynamically updated. In this paper, the drawbacks are analyzed for such a review process. Based on the analysis, to solve this problem, we propose to dynamically update the expert-base by tracking their real-time performances. With time series multi-attribute decision making, dynamic experts'work performance evaluation is presented by choosing the appropriate time scale. Thus, the expert-base can be dynamically updated based on not only the static indexes but also their changes. In other words, the expert-base is dynamically optimized.

  6. Assessing the value for money of pharmaceuticals in New Zealand--PHARMAC's approach to cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Rachel; Metcalfe, Scott; Alexander, Paul; Werner, Rachel

    2013-07-12

    Cost-utility analysis (CUA) is a form of economic analysis that has been used by PHARMAC for nearly 20 years. It is also used by many health funding and assessment agencies internationally. So what is CUA and why is it so important? This article describes the process involved in undertaking CUA, including critical appraisal of clinical evidence; transforming the evidence to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); estimating costs; and how this information is combined to obtain an output that can be used to inform decision-making. The article also describes how PHARMAC uses CUA to prioritise pharmaceuticals for funding in New Zealand.

  7. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PCR approach for detection of Fragile X syndrome and Huntington disease based on modified DNA: limits and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra; Vilatela, Elisa Alonso; Ojeda, Rosario Macias; Arce-Rivas, Aura; Sandoval, Lucila; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Barros-Núñez, Patricio

    2007-01-01

    A group of mutations characterized by trinucleotide repeat expansion causes human diseases such as the Fragile X syndrome, Huntington disease (HD), and myotonic dystrophy. Methods based on PCR amplification of the CGG and CAG repeats region could facilitate the development of a rapid screening assay; unfortunately, amplification across CGG and CAG repeats can be inefficient and unreliable due to the G + C base composition. The utility of the PCR on modified DNA for amplification of the CGG and CAG repeats at the Fragile X syndrome and HD has been reported. In the present study, we analyzed the utility of PCR on modified DNA as a rapid screening method for diagnosis of patients with Fragile X syndrome and HD. A comparative analysis realized with 38 Fragile X and 29 HD patients showed that the molecular diagnosis by simple PCR on modified DNA has a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in Fragile X patients and 94.1% and 91.6% in HD patients. The results achieved from the statistical analysis allowed us to conclude that the amplification by simple PCR on modified DNA is a reliable and useful method for the molecular diagnosis of the Fragile X syndrome, but not for the HD.

  9. An approach to link water resource management with landscape art to enhance its aesthetic appeal, ecological utility and social benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anita; Sen, Somnath; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Landscape art or land art is the discourse of scientific application of artistic skill to integrate man-made structures with the natural landscape for planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of natural and built environment. It does beautification of the landscape enhancing its utility for habitats. Availability of water with acceptable quality is crucial for economic growth, social peace and equality and of course for environmental sustainability. Development of new and growth of existing urban and suburban units are obvious. It postulates the increase of population density and percent of the impervious area in an urban unit. The demand for water is increasing with progressive concentration of population, the volume and velocity of surface runoff increase and the travel time decreases. At the same time, an increase in the volume of gray water not only contaminate water bodies, it also reduces the quantity of available freshwater transforming a portion of blue and green water to gray one and would intensify the pressure on water resources of the area. Therefore, to meet the incremental pressure of demand for and pollution of water collection, treatment and reuse of wastewater, both sewage and storm water, are on the requirement to improve urban water security. People must be concerned not to stifle urban lives with concrete; rather must provide all basic amenities for achieving a higher standard of life than the previous one with the essence of natural green spaces. The objective of the study is to propose a conceptual design and planning guidelines for developing urban and suburban drainage network and reuse of surface runoff and sewage water utilizing less used natural water bodies, such as paleo-channels or lakes or moribund channels as retention or detention basin. In addition to wastewater management, the proposal serves to promote the aesthetics of environmental engagement, ecological utility and restoration of moribund channels

  10. User-driven health care: answering multidimensional information needs in individual patients utilizing post-EBM approaches: an operational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rakesh; Maniam, Jayanthy; Lee, Edwin Wen Huo; Gopal, Premalatha; Umakanth, Shashikiran; Dahiya, Sumit; Ahmed, Sayeed

    2008-10-01

    The hypothesis in the conceptual model was that a user-driven innovation in presently available information and communication technology infrastructure would be able to meet patient and health professional users information needs and help them attain better health outcomes. An operational model was created to plan a trial on a sample diabetic population utilizing a randomized control trial design, assigning one randomly selected group of diabetics to receive electronic information intervention and analyse if it would improve their health outcomes in comparison with a matched diabetic population who would only receive regular medical intervention. Diabetes was chosen for this particular trial, as it is a major chronic illness in Malaysia as elsewhere in the world. It is in essence a position paper for how the study concept should be organized to stimulate wider discussion prior to beginning the study.

  11. A regional approach to the Co-Production of climate information for water utilities- Managing Messages, Approaches, Benefits, and Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, water utility managers across Colorado have joined together to advance their understanding of the role of climate information in their planning process. In an unprecedented step, managers from 5 different organizations and agencies pooled their resources and worked collaboratively to better understand the ever evolving role of science in helping understand risks, uncertainties, and opportunities that climate uncertainty and change might bring to this semi-arid region. The group developed an ongoing educational process to better understand climate projections (Scale); cohesively communicate with customers and the media (Communication); provided institutional coverage to an often contentious topic (Safety); and helped coordinate with other investigations and participants to facilitate education and training (Collaboration); and pooled finances, staff, and expert resources (Resources). We will share this experience and give examples of concrete outcomes.

  12. Train Stop Scheduling in a High-Speed Rail Network by Utilizing a Two-Stage Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the most commonly used methods of scheduling train stops are practical experience and various “one-step” optimal models. These methods face problems of direct transferability and computational complexity when considering a large-scale high-speed rail (HSR network such as the one in China. This paper introduces a two-stage approach for train stop scheduling with a goal of efficiently organizing passenger traffic into a rational train stop pattern combination while retaining features of regularity, connectivity, and rapidity (RCR. Based on a three-level station classification definition, a mixed integer programming model and a train operating tactics descriptive model along with the computing algorithm are developed and presented for the two stages. A real-world numerical example is presented using the Chinese HSR network as the setting. The performance of the train stop schedule and the applicability of the proposed approach are evaluated from the perspective of maintaining RCR.

  13. A Novel Approach to River Basin Management that Utilizes a Multi-Day Forum to Educate Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale river basin management has long been a challenging task. Stakeholder involvement has often been posited as a means to provide a broad base of input and support for management decisions. This has been successful in some situations and not in others. The Desert Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) has proposed a novel approach to large scale watershed management for conservation purposes by stakeholders. This approach involves conducting a multi-day stakeholder forum to gather interested parties, provide them science-based information about the watershed, and solicit their input regarding the research and management needs within the basin. Included within this forum is a Water Tournament patterned after those being developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources. These tournaments bring stakeholders (such as the various water users, agencies, conservation organizations, and others) in small teams that develop watershed management scenarios (within appropriate constraints) that are then judged based on their merit for addressing the various issues within the basin. These tournaments serve to educate participants and to sensitize them to the perspectives of other participants. Another goal of the forum is to recruit a representative group of stakeholders who will provide guidance for further research to meet the basins management needs. The South Central Climate Science Center (SC CSC) has partnered with the Desert, Southern Rockies, Gulf Coast Prairie, Great Plains, and Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks LCCs to implement this approach in the Rio Grande and the Red River Basins. The LCCs are well positioned to convene stakeholders from across political boundaries and throughout these basins. The SC CSC's roles will be providing leadership, funding climate science for the effort, and evaluating the effectiveness of the forum-centered approach.

  14. Traditional utilization of wild date palm (Phoenix sylvestris) in rural Bangladesh: an approach to sustainable biodiversity management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Md. Abdul Halim; Nur Muhammed; Farhana Haque; Masao Koike

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the traditional utilization pattern and indigenous management practices of wild date palm (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb) in the rural agrarian regions of Bangladesh. A multistage sampling method with 10% intensity and a semi-structured questionnaire were used for the study. The farmers manage the palm mainly for sap production with which sugar based secondary goods are manufactured. The sap is either used fresh as drink or after some sort of processing as molasses and/or alcoholic beverage. Seven diversified sites support the palm as its habitat and most palms (20.40%) occur in orchards. Besides growing naturally, the palm is also established in orchards using the wildings as the staple planting material. Although the medium category farmers own most of the palms (33%), a considerable portion (28.68%) of it is managed by the landless farmers, who earn a substantial livelihood from the palms. The farmers practice their own indigenous wisdom in every stage of the palm's maintenance from planting through tapping for sap collection to the processing of products. If managed more scientifically on a sustainable basis with the collaboration of farmers' indigenous knowledge, this familiar palm could be able to support the rural economy of the country to a great extent. Side by side, it would also be able to contribute to the richness of biodiversity in the region.

  15. Utilization of silkworm litter and pupal waste-an eco-friendly approach for mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sarvamangala R; Amena, S; Vikas, A; Rahul, P; Jagadeesh, K; Praveen, K

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of pupal waste and silkworm litter separately as production media for the mass cultivation of the potential biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is the most successful commercial biopesticide accounting for 90% of all biopesticides sold all over the world. Biochemical analysis of the dry pupal waste revealed to be consisting of 4% carbohydrates, 44.9% proteins and 40% lipids. Similarly the biochemical composition of dry silkworm litter was found to be 4% carbohydrates, 57.5% proteins and 30.5% lipids. B. thuringiensis NCIM No. 2159 was mass cultivated in a semi-solid-state fermentation at a pH 7.0 and temperature 32°C. Changes in the pH and biochemical composition of the substrates were evaluated during the course of the fermentation. The reliability of the two substrates as production media was evaluated by determination of growth at regular intervals. Maximum growth was recorded at 96h incubation showing a spore count in the order of 3.5×10(10) and 3.0×10(10)CFU/g in pupal waste and silkworm litter respectively.

  16. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product.

  17. In-situ resource utilization for the human exploration of Mars : a Bayesian approach to valuation of precursor missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    The need for sufficient quantities of oxygen, water, and fuel resources to support a crew on the surface of Mars presents a critical logistical issue of whether to transport such resources from Earth or manufacture them on Mars. An approach based on the classical Wildcat Drilling Problem of Bayesian decision theory was applied to the problem of finding water in order to compute the expected value of precursor mission sample information. An implicit (required) probability of finding water on Mars was derived from the value of sample information using the expected mass savings of alternative precursor missions.

  18. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar.

  19. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masako, I.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  20. Utility of the pooling approach as applied to whole genome association scans with high-density Affymetrix microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Joanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an attempt to extend the previously successful approach of combining SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP employing high-density microarrays. Whereas earlier studies employed a range of Affymetrix SNP microarrays comprising from 10 K to 500 K SNPs, this most recent investigation used the 6.0 chip which displays 906,600 SNP probes and 946,000 probes for the interrogation of CNVs (copy number variations. The genotyping assay using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array is highly demanding on sample quality due to the small feature size, low redundancy, and lack of mismatch probes. Findings In the first study published so far using this microarray on pooled DNA, we found that pooled cheek swab DNA could not accurately predict real allele frequencies of the samples that comprised the pools. In contrast, the allele frequency estimates using blood DNA pools were reasonable, although inferior compared to those obtained with previously employed Affymetrix microarrays. However, it might be possible to improve performance by developing improved analysis methods. Conclusions Despite the decreasing costs of genome-wide individual genotyping, the pooling approach may have applications in very large-scale case-control association studies. In such cases, our study suggests that high-quality DNA preparations and lower density platforms should be preferred.

  1. The Incidence of Dislocation Utilizing a Neck Sparing Stem in Primary THA in Community Based Practices with the Posterior Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study retrospectively reviews the clinical results of a novel proximal neck-sparing cementless prosthesis for primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA. This neck-sparing prosthesis preserves the entire circumference of the femoral neck. The porous coated surface is located only within the femoral neck region. This study group included 338 primary THA’s from three institutions. All approaches and techniques were similar, using a postero-lateral approach in all cases. Average follow-up was 38 months (range 12-56 months. There were five stem revisions (1.5% in this group. Two stems were revised for aseptic loosening, two were revised for recurrent dislocation, and one was revised for a chronic periprosthetic infection employing a two-stage protocol. We had 3 dislocations (0.88% and all three had re-operations. The neck sparing prosthesis is alluring as it saves almost the entire femoral neck and requires minimal deep posterior soft tissue releases. Our dislocation rate in this series was low. Insertion of a neck sparing prosthesis requires fastidious preparation and gentle insertion, but we find this design to provide reliable clinical function at short-term follow-up.

  2. Inhibitors of MyD88-dependent proinflammatory cytokine production identified utilizing a novel RNA interference screening approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The events required to initiate host defenses against invading pathogens involve complex signaling cascades comprised of numerous adaptor molecules, kinases, and transcriptional elements, ultimately leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha. How these signaling cascades are regulated, and the proteins and regulatory elements participating are still poorly understood. RESULTS: We report here the development a completely random short-hairpin RNA (shRNA library coupled with a novel forward genetic screening strategy to identify inhibitors of Toll-like receptor (TLR dependent proinflammatory responses. We developed a murine macrophage reporter cell line stably transfected with a construct expressing diphtheria toxin-A (DT-A under the control of the TNF-alpha-promoter. Stimulation of the reporter cell line with the TLR ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS resulted in DT-A induced cell death, which could be prevented by the addition of an shRNA targeting the TLR adaptor molecule MyD88. Utilizing this cell line, we screened a completely random lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA library for sequences that inhibited TLR-mediated TNF-alpha production. Recovery of shRNA sequences from surviving cells led to the identification of unique shRNA sequences that significantly inhibited TLR4-dependent TNF-alpha gene expression. Furthermore, these shRNA sequences specifically blocked TLR2 but not TLR3-dependent TNF-alpha production. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we describe the generation of novel tools to facilitate large-scale forward genetic screens in mammalian cells and the identification of potent shRNA inhibitors of TLR2 and TLR4- dependent proinflammatory responses.

  3. Potential Utility of a Combined Approach with US and MR Arthrography to Image Medial Elbow Pain in Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedl, Johannes B; Gonzalez, Felix M; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Nevalainen, Mika T; Ciccotti, Michael G; Nazarian, Levon N

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate a combined imaging approach with both ultrasonography (US; conventional US and valgus stress US) and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in baseball players with medial elbow pain. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The study is compliant with HIPAA. Baseball players with medial elbow pain underwent US in addition to MR arthrography. Findings were assessed with each modality alone and both combined in this retrospective investigation. For the evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears with stress US, the interval gapping of the medial elbow joint was measured between rest and valgus stress both at the injured and at the uninjured (contralateral) elbow. Surgical or arthroscopic correlation was available as the so-called gold standard. McNemar tests compared the accuracies of the imaging modalities. Results In this study, 144 baseball players had 191 findings of medial elbow pain, including 53 UCL tears. With stress US, joint gapping at the injured elbow greater than 1.0 mm compared with the contralateral elbow yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96%, 81%, and 87%, respectively, for diagnosing UCL tears. With MR arthrography, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for UCL tears were 81%, 91%, and 88%, respectively, and increased to 96% (P = .013, McNemar test), 99% (P = .023), and 98% (P < .001), respectively, when combined with US to a dual modality MR and US approach. For 31 patients with ulnar neuritis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy increased from 74%, 92%, and 88%, respectively, with MR arthrography alone to 90% (P = .07, McNemar test), 100% (P < .001), and 98% (P < .001) combined with US. For the 59 myotendinous and the 48 osteochondral diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with MR arthrography alone were 93%, 93%, and 93%, and 94%, 98%, and 97%, respectively, with no additional diagnostic value

  4. Integrative approaches utilizing oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: from animal and human social behavior to autistic social dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Yee, Jason R; Hurlemann, René; Rilling, James K; Chen, Frances S; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Tost, Heike

    2012-10-10

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is as high as 1 in 100 individuals and is a heavy burden to society. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. Here, we briefly review the topics covered in our 2012 Society for Neuroscience Mini-Symposium entitled "Integrative Approaches Using Oxytocin to Enhance Prosocial Behavior: From Animal and Human Social Behavior to ASD's Social Dysfunction." This work is not meant to be a comprehensive review of oxytocin and prosocial behavior. Instead, we wish to share the newest findings on the effects of oxytocin on social behavior, the brain, and the social dysfunction of ASD at the molecular, genetic, systemic, and behavior levels, in varied subjects ranging from animal models to humans suffering from autism for the purpose of promoting further study for developing the clinical use of oxytocin in treating ASD.

  5. Utilization of optical tracking to validate a software-driven isocentric approach to robotic couch movements for proton radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, Wen C., E-mail: Wen.Hsi@Mclaren.org, E-mail: Wenchien.hsi@sphic.org.cn; Zeidan, Omar A., E-mail: omar.zeidan@orlandohealth.com [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); Law, Aaron; Schreuder, Andreas N., E-mail: niek.schreuder@provisionhp.com [ProCure Training and Development Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: An optical tracking and positioning system (OTPS) was developed to validate the software-driven isocentric (SDI) approach to control the six-degrees-of-freedom movement of a robotic couch. Methods: The SDI approach to movements rotating around a predefined isocenter, referred to as a GeoIso, instead of a mechanical pivot point was developed by the robot automation industry. With robotic couch-sag corrections for weight load in a traditional SDI approach, movements could be accurately executed for a GeoIso located within a 500 mm cubic volume on the couch for treatments. The accuracy of SDI movement was investigated using the OTPS. The GeoIso was assumed to align with the proton beam isocenter (RadIso) for gantry at the reference angle. However, the misalignment between GeoIso and RadIso was quantitatively investigated by measuring the displacements at various couch angles for a target placed at the RadIso at an initial couch angle. When circular target displacements occur on a plane, a relative isocenter shift (RIS) correction could be applied in the SDI movement to minimize target displacements. Target displacements at a fixed gantry angle without and with RIS correction were measured for 12 robotic couches. Target displacements for various gantry angles were performed on three couches in gantry rooms to study the gantry-induced RadIso shift. The RIS correction can also be applied for the RadIso shift. A new SDI approach incorporating the RIS correction with the couch sag is described in this study. In parallel, the accuracy of SDI translation movements for various weight loads of patients on the couch was investigated during positioning of patients for proton prostate treatments. Results: For a fixed gantry angle, measured target displacements without RIS correction for couch rotations in the horizontal plane varied from 4 to 20 mm. However, measured displacements perpendicular to couch rotation plane were about 2 mm for all couches. Extracted

  6. A Synergistic Approach to Atmospheric Compensation of Neon's Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery Utilizing an Airborne Solar Spectral Irradiance Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L.; Karpowicz, B. M.; Kindel, B. C.; Schmidt, S.; Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Pilewskie, P.

    2014-12-01

    A wide variety of critical information regarding bioclimate, biodiversity, and biogeochemistry is embedded in airborne hyperspectral imagery. Most, if not all of the primary signal relies upon first deriving the surface reflectance of land cover and vegetation from measured hyperspectral radiance. This places stringent requirements on terrain, and atmospheric compensation algorithms to accurately derive surface reflectance properties. An observatory designed to measure bioclimate, biodiversity, and biogeochemistry variables from surface reflectance must take great care in developing an approach which chooses algorithms with the highest accuracy, along with providing those algorithms with data necessary to describe the physical mechanisms that affect the measured at sensor radiance. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) part of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is developing such an approach. NEON is a continental-scale ecological observation platform designed to collect and disseminate data to enable the understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on ecology. The instrumentation package used by the AOP includes a visible and shortwave infrared hyperspectral imager, waveform LiDAR, and high resolution (RGB) digital camera. In addition to airborne measurements, ground-based CIMEL sun photometers will be used to help characterize atmospheric aerosol loading, and ground validation measurements with field spectrometers will be made at select NEON sites. While the core instrumentation package provides critical information to derive surface reflectance of land surfaces and vegetation, the addition of a Solar Spectral Irradiance Radiometer (SSIR) is being investigated as an additional source of data to help identify and characterize atmospheric aerosol, and cloud contributions contributions to the radiance measured by the hyperspectral imager. The addition of the SSIR provides the opportunity to

  7. Controls on Algal Bloom Propagation in the Kuwait Bay Utilizing: An Integrated Remote Sensing and Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manche, C. J.; Sultan, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Uddin, S.; Al-Dousari, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    prediction performance (area under receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve: 0.99), and (5) findings are being utilized for the development of an early warning system in the Kuwait Bay.

  8. Excision and Patch Grafting of a Lateral Peyronie’s Plaque—Utilizing a Longitudinal “Window” Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Kathy; Emtage, Justin B; Martinez, Daniel R; Yang, Christopher; Carrion, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder in which collagen deposition, fibrosis, and plaques in the tunica albuginea result in penile curvature, shortening, and pain. For severe curvatures requiring plaque incision or excision with grafting (PIEG), a subcoronal circumcising incision with penile degloving has historically been used. Aims The aim of this study was to report our unique approach to PIEG via a longitudinal “window” incision for the correction of PD, minimizing the surgical manipulation and dissection accompanying the traditional circumcising incisional approach that may lead to increased postoperative edema, pain, and prolonged healing time. Methods A patient presented with a stable, painless, 90-degree midshaft leftward curvature causing penetration difficulties and painful intercourse for his partner. His Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score was 23. The patient opted for surgical correction with plaque excision and grafting via a 4-cm longitudinal incision overlying the point of maximal curvature along the left lateral penile shaft. This direct access to the left corpus cavernosum and plaque, along with dissecting skin, dartos, and Buck’s fascia, created a window with sufficient exposure for excision and patch grafting. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were objective data and subjective data in men undergoing PIEG via lateral longitudinal “window” incision for PD repair. Results The plaque was excised and a porcine small intestinal submucosa graft was sewn in. Intraoperative artificial tumescence at the end of surgery revealed complete correction of the curvature. The patient experienced painless rigid erections by postoperative day three with minimal penile edema. By postoperative week four, he could successfully partake in coitus. His SHIM score remained unchanged. At maximum follow-up 6 months postoperatively, he still endorsed excellent cosmetic and functional outcomes with spontaneous

  9. Administrative risk quantification of subcutaneous and intravenous therapies in Italian centers utilizing the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzetti C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clemente Ponzetti,1 Monica Canciani,2 Massimo Farina,2 Sara Era,3 Stefan Walzer4,5 1Gruppo Policlinico di Monza, Alessandria, ANMDO National Association of Hospital Physicians, Bologna, 2Studio EmmEffe Srl, Milan, 3Roche Spa, Monza, Italy; 4MArS Market Access & Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, 5State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Health Care Management, Loerrach, Germany Background: In oncology, an important parameter of safety is the potential treatment error in hospitals. The analyzed hypothesis is that of subcutaneous therapies would provide a superior safety benefit over intravenous therapies through fixed-dose administrations, when analyzed with trastuzumab and rituximab.Methods: For the calculation of risk levels, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis approach was applied. Within this approach, the critical treatment path is followed and risk classification for each individual step is estimated. For oncology and hematology administration, 35 different risk steps were assessed. The study was executed in 17 hematology and 16 breast cancer centers in Italy. As intravenous and subcutaneous were the only injection routes in medical available for trastuzumab and rituximab in oncology at the time of the study, these two therapies were chosen.Results: When the risk classes were calculated, eight high-risk areas were identified for the administration of an intravenous therapy in hematology or oncology; 13 areas would be defined as having a median-risk classification and 14 areas as having a low-risk classification (total risk areas: n=35. When the new subcutaneous formulation would be applied, 23 different risk levels could be completely eliminated (65% reduction. Important high-risk classes such as dose calculation, preparation and package labeling, preparation of the access to the vein, pump infusion preparation, and infusion monitoring were included in the eliminations. The overall risk level for the intravenous administration was estimated

  10. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B A; Jones, A; Biggs, B K; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8-14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) "very easy" or "easy" to use. The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies.

  11. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part II: A review of potential technologies and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Environmental legislation is increasing the amounts of bought-in electricity required for sewage treatment, and generating larger volumes of sewage sludge to be treated and disposed of. Concurrently, concerns over global warming and food safety from sewage sludge recycling on agricultural land is augmenting the costs of conventional sewage and sludge treatment technologies and practices. This paper reviews some emerging technologies and practices that may assist in mitigating these problems in the future. In addition, a number of potential renewable energy technologies available to water companies are reviewed. Results suggest that through the take-up of new technologies, current and future water quality standards could be delivered in a more sustainable way. However, this series of papers also highlights that institutional and political conflicts may have inadvertently failed to recognise the wider effects of improving water quality and lessened the financial support necessary for their widespread take-up. It is also suggested that through the use of a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) approach, stakeholders could gain a better understanding of the broader environmental effects of achieving certain water quality standards and develop policy and long-term investment strategies accordingly. However, to fulfill the information requirements of an SEA, an appropriate appraisal tool that considers many of these factors in unison is required, and a possible technique is suggested.

  12. Antibiotic combinatorial approach utilized against extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL bacteria isolates from Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Afunwa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic options in the treatment of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing bacteria are very limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze several commonly applied antibiotics in quite various novel combinations for use against ESBL-producing bacteria isolates.Methods: Total of 460 samples of urine, throat and anal swab were collected from volunteers and patients from nursery, primary and secondary schools and from other individuals in the community. Hospital and community isolates comprised of 65% and 35% respectively. The identification and characterization of the isolates were done by standard culturing and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity procedures.Results: The antibiotic combination studies showed that the combination of gentamicin with the other antibiotics had predominantly synergistic effects. The percentage synergistic effect for the combinations of gentamicin/pefloxacin was 69%, gentamicin/[Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid] 72%, gentamicin/ceftriaxone 68%, gentamicin/cefuroxime 81.9%, and gentamicin/ciprofloxacin 80.6%, against the community and hospital derived ESBL producing organisms of both Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species.Conclusion: Good antimicrobial monitoring exercise and corresponding antimicrobial screening activities should work towards a dynamic approach to generate effective treatment options using combination therapy.

  13. Exploring the utility of a GIScience approach to modeling invasive species: A case study of Ailanthus altissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Arthur

    This thesis investigated the potential for integration of remotely sensed and GIS data into an agent-based modeling environment in order to model seed dispersal and subsequent establishment of windborne seeds. In order to explore the applicability of agent-based modeling to predicting seed dispersal, a case study was carried out using the representative example species Ailanthus altissima, an invasive tree found throughout North America's temperate regions. Seed movement was modeled in two stages, primary and secondary dispersal; primary dispersal was calibrated using existing field data, while secondary dispersal was calibrated only qualitatively. Establishment potential was accounted for probabilistically, based on landuse type. Environmental controls on seed movement and establishment were accounted for with several remotely sensed datasets. The general model characteristics and structure are representative of a potential class of predictive models that incorporate raster data and vector-based seed movement. Agent-based modeling provides a link between raster and vector data and processing methods, and is therefore a potential tool for projects involving both raster and vector data types as well as vector processing. Because seed dispersal and establishment modeling benefits from incorporating both of these data types, it was found that the agent-based approach provided an appropriate framework for modeling the phenomenon, while further research is necessary to fully parameterize and field-validate the model.

  14. Behavior-Based Approach for the Detection of Land Mines Utilizing off the Shelf Low Cost Autonomous Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Nour Alshbatat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several countries all of the world are affected by landmines. The presence of mines represents a major threat to lives and causes economic problems. Currently, detecting and clearing mines demand specific expertise with special equipment. In this context, this paper offers the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enable the robot to detect mines by means of sensors and of processing the fused information to guide soldiers when passing landmines.  This is accomplished by broken down the overall system into two subsystems: sensor technologies and robotic device. Sensors devices include infrared distance sensor, metal detector, ultrasonic range finder, accelerometer sensor, while the structure of the robot in our case consists mainly  of a commercial  off-the-shelf  parts which  are  available  at  low  costs. The proposed controller is mainly based on creating fuzzy rules that reflect the behaviors of soldier beings in controlling a robot in a well known landmine. Simulation and experimental results are presented her to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. The results show that the system is able to detect landmines and guide soldiers while crossing mines area.

  15. Utilization of Away-From-Home Food Establishments, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Dietary Pattern, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tarra L; Jones, Nicholas R V; Adams, Jean; Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-08-14

    Eating meals away from home has been associated with the consumption of unhealthy foods and increased body weight. However, more rigorous assessment of the contribution of different types of away-from-home food establishments to overall diet quality and obesity is minimal. This study examined usage of these food establishments, accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and obesity status in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional analysis of data from a national survey (N=2,083 aged ≥19 years, from 2008 to 2012) with dietary intake measured using a 4-day food diary, and height and weight measured objectively. Exposures included usage of (i.e., by proportion of energy) all away-from-home food establishments combined, and fast-food outlets, restaurants, and cafés separately. Outcomes included accordance with the DASH diet, and obesity status. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 2016 to estimate associations between food establishments, diet quality, and obesity. People consuming a higher proportion of energy from any away-from-home food establishment had lower odds of DASH accordance (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.31, 0.67) and increased odds of obesity (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.10, 1.99). After adjustment, only use of fast-food outlets was significantly associated with lower odds of DASH accordance (OR=0.48, 95%=0.33, 0.69) and higher odds of obesity (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.01, 1.69). Although a greater reliance on eating away-from-home is associated with less-healthy diets and obesity, dietary public health interventions that target these food establishments may be most effective if they focus on modifying the use of fast-food outlets. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating preference weights for the Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mörk Ann-Christin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI is a preference-based outcome measure used in US clinical trials and cost-effectiveness studies for asthma. This study evaluated ASUI preference weights in Europe to determine whether the multi-attribute utility function, based on preferences from a US population, is generalizable across countries. Methods Data were collected from ninety asthma patients from Italy, France, and the United Kingdom using the Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the ASUI. Subjects rated their preferences for 10 asthma health states using a visual analogue scale (VAS and a standard gamble (SG interview. Results All multi-symptom states showed statistically significant differences (p Conclusion Results of this study suggest that the ASUI may be a complementary patient-reported outcome for clinical studies and may be useful for applications in cost-effectiveness studies comparing different asthma treatments.

  17. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion, and treatment of disease. Part 2--Ayurveda in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari; Chandola, H M; Singh, Gurdip; Basisht, Gopal

    2007-12-01

    Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system that originated in India more than 5000 years ago. It is still widely used in India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide as well. Ayurveda has unique concepts and methodologies to address health care throughout the course of life, from pregnancy and infant care to geriatric disorders. Common spices are utilized, as well as herbs, herbal mixtures, and special preparations known as Rasayanas. Purification procedures known as Panchakarma remove toxins from the physiology. Research has been conducted worldwide on Ayurveda. There are encouraging results for its effectiveness in treating various ailments, including chronic disorders associated with the aging process. Pilot studies presented in this paper were conducted on depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. These preliminary studies yielded positive results and provide a basis for conducting larger, more rigorous clinical trials. Conducting research that compares Ayurveda's comprehensive treatment approach, Western allopathic treatment, and an integrated approach combining the Ayurvedic and allopathic treatments would shed light on which treatment approach is the most effective for the benefit of the patient.

  18. Discovery of orally bioavailable cyclohexanol-based NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists with analgesic activity utilizing a scaffold hopping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Kosuke; Masui, Moriyasu; Hara, Shinichiro; Ohara, Miho; Kume, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shoichi; Shinohara, Shunji; Tsuji, Hiroki; Shimada, Shinji; Yagi, Shigenori; Hasebe, Nobuyoshi; Kai, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    NR2B subunit containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is an attractive target for chronic pain due to its involvement in disease states and its limited distribution in the central nervous system. Cyclohexanol-based leads 6a and 6c were identified as potent NR2B-selective NMDA antagonists utilizing a scaffold hopping approach. Further optimization of this series through replacement of the amide in the leads with an isoxazole and efforts to optimize the pharmacokinetic profiles led to the discovery of orally available brain penetrants 7k and 7l, which demonstrated analgesic activity in the mouse formalin test at early and late phases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  20. Do visual analogue scale (VAS derived standard gamble (SG utilities agree with Health Utilities Index utilities? A comparison of patient and community preferences for health status in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Aslam H

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL has become increasingly important and various direct and indirect methods and instruments have been devised to measure it. In direct methods such as Visual Analog Scale (VAS and Standard Gamble (SG, respondent both assesses and values health states therefore the final score reflects patient's preferences. In indirect methods such as multi-attribute health status classification systems, the patient provides the assessment of a health state and then a multi-attribute utility function is used for evaluation of the health state. Because these functions have been estimated using valuations of general population, the final score reflects community's preferences. The objective of this study is to assess the agreement between community preferences derived from the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2 and Mark 3 (HUI3 systems, and patient preferences. Methods Visual analog scale (VAS and HUI scores were obtained from a sample of 320 rheumatoid arthritis patients. VAS scores were adjusted for end-aversion bias and transformed to standard gamble (SG utility scores using 8 different power conversion formulas reported in other studies. Individual level agreement between SG utilities and HUI2 and HUI3 utilities was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Group level agreement was assessed by comparing group means using the paired t-test. Results After examining all 8 different SG estimates, the ICC (95% confidence interval between SG and HUI2 utilities ranged from 0.45 (0.36 to 0.54 to 0.55 (0.47 to 0.62. The ICC between SG and HUI3 utilities ranged from 0.45 (0.35 to 0.53 to 0.57 (0.49 to 0.64. The mean differences between SG and HUI2 utilities ranged from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.12 to 0.22 (0.20 to 0.24. The mean differences between SG and HUI3 utilities ranged from 0.18 (0.16 to 0.2 to 0.28 (0.26 to 0.3. Conclusion At the individual level, patient and community preferences

  1. A systems approach to water recovery testing for space life support - Initial biomedical results from the ECLSS Water Recovery Test and plans for testbed utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aten, Laurie A.; Crump, William J.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Among the challenges of designing and constructing Space Station Freedom is the development of the water system. A review of past efforts in reclaiming waste water in enclosed environments reveals that there are many gaps in the biomedical understanding of this process. Some of the key uncertainties of human interaction with a closed water system include determining potential contaminants and establishing safe levels of multiple compounds in the enclosed system of Space Station. Another uncertainty is the microbial constituency of such a system and what impact it could have on crew health and performance. The use of iodine as the passive biocide may have both an indirect and direct impact on the crew. In this paper the initial results of the Water Recovery Test are reviewed from a biomedical perspective, revealing areas where more information is needed to develop the ECLSS water system. By including the approach of 'man as a subsystem', consideration is given to how man interacts with the total water system. Taking this systems approach to providing the crew with a safe source of water gives useful insight into the most efficient design and utilization of closed system testbeds.

  2. The utilization of an ultrasound-guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system as an innovative approach to accomplishing complete eradication of multiple bilateral breast fibroadenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povoski Stephen P

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy technology is extremely useful for diagnostic biopsy of suspicious breast lesions and for attempted complete excision of appropriately selected presumed benign breast lesions. Case presentation A female patient presented with 16 breast lesions (eight within each breast, documented on ultrasound and all presumed to be fibroadenomas. Over a ten and one-half month period of time, 14 of these 16 breast lesions were removed under ultrasound guidance during a total of 11 separate 8-gauge Mammotome® excision procedures performed during seven separate sessions. Additionally, two of these 16 breast lesions were removed by open surgical excision. A histopathologic diagnosis of fibroadenoma and/or fibroadenomatous changes was confirmed at all lesion excision sites. Interval follow-up ultrasound imaging revealed no evidence of a residual lesion at the site of any of the 16 original breast lesions. Conclusion This report describes an innovative approach of utilizing ultrasound-guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy technology for assisting in achieving complete eradication of multiple bilateral fibroadenomas in a patient who presented with 16 documented breast lesions. As such, this innovative approach is highly recommended in similar appropriately selected patients.

  3. 犹豫模糊EWAA算子及其多属性决策方法%Hesitant fuzzy EWAA aggregation operators and their application to multi-attribute decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金飞飞; 裴利丹; 陈华友; 周礼刚

    2015-01-01

    犹豫模糊信息集结是犹豫模糊集理论中的重要组成部分,近年来由于其越来越受到关注,已成为一个新的研究方向。基于Einstein运算定义了犹豫模糊元间的运算法则,比如:Einstein和、Einstein积以及Einstein幂运算。提出了三种新的Einstein算术平均集结算子,即犹豫模糊Einstein加权平均(HFEWA)算子、犹豫模糊Einstein有序加权平均(HFEOWA)算子以及犹豫模糊Einstein混合平均(HFEHA)算子。基于新的Einstein算术平均集结算子给出一种新的处理犹豫模糊环境下多属性决策问题的方法,并结合实例对决策方法的可行性与有效性进行检验。%Hesitant fuzzy information aggregation plays an important part in hesitant fuzzy set theory, which has emerged to be a new research direction receiving more and more attention in recent years. Some operations on hesitant fuzzy ele-ments are defined, such as Einstein sum, Einstein product and Einstein exponentiation. Three new kinds of Einstein arith-metic averaging aggregation operators are proposed, such as Hesitant Fuzzy Einstein Weighted Averaging(HFEWA)oper-ator, Hesitant Fuzzy Einstein Ordered Weighted Averaging(HFEOWA)operator and Hesitant Fuzzy Einstein Hybrid Aver-aging(HFEHA)operator. According to these new kinds of Einstein arithmetic average aggregation operators, a new approach for hesitant fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making problems is developed, and an illustrative example is given to verify the developed method and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  4. A qualitative multi-attribute model for the selection of the private hydropower plant investments in Turkey: By foundation of the search results clustering engine (Carrot2, hydropower plant clustering, DEXi and DEXiTree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Omer Saracoglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The electricity demand in Turkey has been increasing for a while. Hydropower is one of the major electricity generation types to compensate this electricity demand in Turkey. Private investors (domestic and foreign in the hydropower electricity generation sector have been looking for the most appropriate and satisfactory new private hydropower investment (PHPI options and opportunities in Turkey. This study aims to present a qualitative multi-attribute decision making (MADM model, that is easy, straightforward, and fast for the selection of the most satisfactory reasonable PHPI options during the very early investment stages (data and information poorness on projects. Design/methodology/approach: The data and information of the PHPI options was gathered from the official records on the official websites. A wide and deep literature review was conducted for the MADM models and for the hydropower industry. The attributes of the model were identified, selected, clustered and evaluated by the expert decision maker (EDM opinion and by help of an open source search results clustering engine (Carrot2 (helpful for also comprehension. The PHPI options were clustered according to their installed capacities main property to analyze the options in the most appropriate, decidable, informative, understandable and meaningful way. A simple clustering algorithm for the PHPI options was executed in the current study. A template model for the selection of the most satisfactory PHPI options was built in the DEXi (Decision EXpert for Education and the DEXiTree software. Findings: The basic attributes for the selection of the PHPI options were presented and afterwards the aggregate attributes were defined by the bottom-up structuring for the early investment stages. The attributes were also analyzed by help of Carrot2. The most satisfactory PHPI options in Turkey in the big options data set were selected for each PHPI options cluster by the EDM evaluations in

  5. Underground coal gasification with extended CO2 utilization as economic and carbon neutral approach to address energy and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Islam, Rafiqul; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The application of underground coal gasification (UCG) with proven carbon mitigation techniques may provide a carbon neutral approach to tackle electricity and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh. UCG facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coal seams, not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. The high-calorific synthesis gas produced by UCG can be used for e.g. electricity generation or as chemical raw material for hydrogen, methanol and fertilizer production. Kempka et al. (2010) carried out an integrated assessment of UCG operation, demonstrating that about 19 % of the CO2 produced during UCG may be mitigated by CO2 utilization in fertilizer production. In the present study, we investigated an extension of the UCG system by introducing excess CO2 storage in the gas deposit of the Bahkrabad gas field (40 km east of Dhaka, Bangladesh). This gas field still holds natural gas resources of 12.8 million tons of LNG equivalent, but is close to abandonment due to a low reservoir pressure. Consequently, applying enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by injection of excess carbon dioxide from the coupled UCG-urea process may mitigate carbon emissions and support natural gas production from the Bahkrabad gas field. To carry out an integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled system, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014) to consider the urea and EGR processes. Reservoir simulations addressing EGR in the Bakhrabad gas field by utilization of excess carbon dioxide from the UCG process were carried out to account for the induced pressure increase in the reservoir, and thus additional gas recovery potentials. The Jamalganj coal field in Northwest Bangladesh provides favorable geological and infrastructural conditions for a UCG operation at coal seam depths of 640 m to 1,158 m. Excess CO2 can be transported via existing pipeline networks to the Bahkrabad gas field (about 300 km distance from the coal deposit) to be

  6. Utilization of legacy P in soils, a strategic approach meeting the 40% loading reduction goal while sustaining agricultural production in the Lake Erie basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiequan; Tan, Chin, S.; Wang, Yutao; Welacky, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Legacy phosphorus (P) in agricultural lands has been deemed the major source contributing to eutrophication of the Lake Erie. Canada and USA bilateral governments have set up a goal of 40% P loading reduction by 2025. Soil P draw-down (PDD) is a potential beneficial management practice for high P soils to overcome legacy P effect and mitigate soil P loss. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effects of PDD on crop yields, soil test P change, and soil P losses in both surface runoff and tile drainage under a corn-soybean rotation in a Brookston clay loam soil in a 9-year period from 2008 to 2016. Both yields of corn and soybean with PDD were highly identical to those with continuous P addition (CPA). Soil Olsen P with PDD declined with time at about 2.3 mg P kg-1 year-1, while with CPA it remained unchanged. Relative to CPA, PDD significantly decreased dissolved P and particular P losses, eventually the total P loss by 36%. In addition, farmers' production profitability increased by 15% through savings in investment for P fertilizer. The results indicate that utilization of soil legacy P can be an effective approach that enables us to reach the agri-P loading reduction goal, while improving production profitability and conserving world P resource.

  7. A metabolic-based approach to improve xylose utilization for fumaric acid production from acid pretreated wheat bran by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanyi; Huang, Di; Li, Yong; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, wheat bran (WB) was utilized as feedstock to synthesize fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae. Firstly, the pretreatment process of WB by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis undertaken at 100°C for 30min offered the best performance for fumaric acid production. Subsequently, through optimizing the seed culture medium, a suitable morphology (0.55mm pellets diameter) of R. oryzae was obtained. Furthermore, a metabolic-based approach was developed to profile the differences of intracellular metabolites concentration of R. oryzae between xylose (the abundant sugar in wheat bran hydrolysate (WBH)) and glucose metabolism. The xylitol, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, proline and serine were responsible for fumaric acid biosynthesis limitation in xylose fermentation. Consequently, regulation strategies were proposed, leading to a 149% increase in titer (up to 15.4g/L). Finally, by combinatorial regulation strategies the highest production was 20.2g/L from WBH, 477% higher than that of initial medium.

  8. Burr Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This note proposes the Burr utility function. Burr utility is a flexible two-parameter family that behaves approximately power-like (CRRA) remote from the origin, while exhibiting exponential-like (CARA) features near the origin. It thus avoids the extreme behavior of the power family near the origi

  9. Object-oriented multi-attribute differences matrix grey clustering method and its application%面向对象多属性差异的矩阵型灰色聚类方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红旗; 方志耕; 李维东; 陶良彦

    2015-01-01

    针对传统灰聚类法对聚类对象间的关系信息和属性间的差异信息利用不充分、灰类划分宽泛、聚类结果约束相对严格、完备性不足等问题,提出一种面向对象多属性差异的矩阵型灰色聚类方法。该方法充分利用对象已有的多属性信息,可以在不同的属性类别组合上获得多元、客观的聚类结果,使对象的分类更贴近于实际。通过对安徽省国家级贫困县进行聚类分析,展示了矩阵型灰色聚类方法的应用,表明了矩阵型灰色聚类方法的实用性和有效性。%An object-oriented multi-attribute differences matrix grey clustering method is proposed considering that the traditional grey clustering methods cannot make full use of the information relationships between the clustering objects and differences information of object’s multi-attributes. Grey class division is more general and the results of clustering have relatively strict constraints, lack of completeness. This method makes full use of existing multi-attribute information of the object, and can receive various, objective clustering results on different attribute category combination, making the classification of objects more realistic. Through the clustering analysis of state-level poverty-stricken counties in Anhui province, the results show the matrix grey clustering method’s application and indicates practicality and effectiveness of the matrix grey clustering method.

  10. The utility of cadaver-based approaches for the teaching of human anatomy: A survey of British and Irish anatomy teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2017-03-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire based approach was used to gain a better insight into the opinion of anatomists on the use of preserved cadavers for the teaching of human anatomy. This study focused on anatomy teachers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. From the 125 participating anatomists, 34.4% were medically qualified, 30.4% had a PhD in a non-anatomical science and 22.4% had a PhD in an anatomical science, these figures include ten anatomists who had combinations of MD with the two other PhD qualifications. The main findings from the questionnaire were that 61.6% of participants agreed that hard-fixed formalin cadavers accurately resemble features of a human body whereas 21.6% disagreed. Moreover, anatomists rated the teaching aids on how accurately they resemble features of the human body as follows: plastic models the least accurate followed by plastinated specimens, hard fixed cadavers; soft preserved cadavers were considered to be the most accurate when it comes to resembling features of the human body. Though anatomists considered soft preserved cadavers as the most accurate tool, further research is required in order to investigate which techniques or methods provide better teaching tool for a range of anatomical teaching levels and for surgical training. Anat Sci Educ 10: 137-143. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Psychostimulant use among college students during periods of high and low stress: an interdisciplinary approach utilizing both self-report and unobtrusive chemical sample data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David R; Burgard, Daniel A; Larson, Ramsey G; Ferm, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study quantified psychostimulant use patterns over periods of high and low stress from both self-report measures and chemical wastewater analyses and identified possible predictors of psychostimulant abuse on a college campus. Self-report data were collected at three times of varying stress levels throughout one college semester: during the first week of school (N=676), midterms (N=468), and shortly before final exams (N=400). Campus wastewater samples were collected over 72-hour periods during the same time frames as the surveys. The metabolites of Adderall and Ritalin were quantified through solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Samples were normalized with creatinine. Evidence was found to suggest an increase in psychostimulant use during periods of stress, with significant differences found from self-report data between the first week and midterms and from chemical data between these same two assessment periods as well as between the first week of classes and finals. Key predictors of lifetime non-prescriptive psychostimulant use included self-reported procrastination and poor time-management, use of other substances (especially nicotine/tobacco, alcohol, and cocaine), and students' perception of non-prescriptive psychostimulant use as normative on campus. The findings shed further light on psychostimulant use patterns among college students, particularly as a function of stress; the study also highlights the benefit of utilizing an interdisciplinary approach that uses both subjective and objective empirical data. The results have implications for prevention/intervention programs on college campuses designed to reduce stress and facilitate healthier coping.

  12. Utility of Machine-Learning Approaches to Identify Behavioral Markers for Substance Use Disorders: Impulsivity Dimensions as Predictors of Current Cocaine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Ramesh, Divya; Moeller, Frederick Gerard; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying objective and accurate markers of cocaine dependence (CD) can innovate its prevention and treatment. Existing evidence suggests that CD is characterized by a wide range of cognitive deficits, most notably by increased impulsivity. Impulsivity is multidimensional and it is unclear which of its various dimensions would have the highest predictive utility for CD. The machine-learning approach is highly promising for discovering predictive markers of disease. Here, we used machine learning to identify multivariate predictive patterns of impulsivity phenotypes that can accurately classify individuals with CD. Current cocaine-dependent users (N = 31) and healthy controls (N = 23) completed the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and five neurocognitive tasks indexing different dimensions of impulsivity: (1) Immediate Memory Task (IMT), (2) Stop-Signal Task, (3) Delay-Discounting Task (DDT), (4) Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and (5) Probabilistic Reversal-Learning task. We applied a machine-learning algorithm to all impulsivity measures. Machine learning accurately classified individuals with CD and predictions were generalizable to new samples (area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.912 in the test set). CD membership was predicted by higher scores on motor and non-planning trait impulsivity, poor response inhibition, and discriminability on the IMT, higher delay discounting on the DDT, and poor decision making on the IGT. Our results suggest that multivariate behavioral impulsivity phenotypes can predict CD with high degree of accuracy, which can potentially be used to assess individuals' vulnerability to CD in clinical settings.

  13. Study on information utility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  14. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  15. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Metabolism and Nitrate Utilization at Reduced Nitrate Levels Using a Chamber-Based Approach: Looking Below, Scaling Up, and Thinking Inside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijo, C. J.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    As nitrate levels in lotic systems have increased, nutrient reduction strategies have become the centerpiece of water quality standards to protect and restore stream ecosystems. While reducing anthropogenic nitrate (NO3) loads has many positive effects, we lack a fundamental understanding of how lotic systems respond to changing concentrations and no methods exist to characterize nutrient uptake behavior below ambient levels. Therefore, it is difficult to predict whether nutrient reductions will meet management goals. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a chamber-based method which allows characterization of NO3 utilization along the two major uptake pathways at reduced NO3 levels. The chamber blocks flow by insertion into upper sediments but allows light in and sediment-water-air interactions to occur. At Gum Slough Springs, Florida, high-resolution in-situ sensors measured water quality while NO3 reduced from ambient levels (1.40 mg N/L) to below regulatory thresholds (ca. 0.20 mg N/L) within one week. Daytime NO3 uptake, resulting from both plant uptake and denitrification, was consistently greater than nighttime uptake, which is denitrification alone. Using this method, we compared NO3 uptake rates (UNO3) and gross primary production (GPP) across three vegetative regimes (i.e. submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), SAV with epiphytic algae, and algae alone) and related GPP estimates from the chamber to reach scale. Results showed that UNO3 and GPP were greatest in SAV, GPP was negatively correlated to [NO3] in algae, denitrification rates did not vary by vegetation type, and chamber GPP (e.g. 6-8 g O2/m2/day in SAV) was comparable to reach-scale estimates (6-12 g O2/m2/day). Our results suggest UNO3 and GPP differ by vegetation regimes, GPP scales from chamber to reach level, algal presence potentially reduces GPP, and a lack of nutrient limitation even at low [NO3]. Current work includes replicating measurements across systems as well as refining the

  16. Multi-Attribute Strategy and Performance Architectures in R&D: The Case of The Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    mark any five) Bibliometrics (e.g.# of patent, # of papers etc.) Impact metrics (e.g. # of paper or patent citations) Return on Investment...healthcare (McGlynn and Brook, 2001,) governance (Kauffman et al., 1999,) management,  and measurement  theory  itself. In the business, management, and...approaches and prior  theory  building to improve generalizability, adopted an experimental design approach to  select our case study participants to ensure

  17. Fuzzy multi-attribute decision making evaluation of e-learning websites using FAHP, COPRAS, VIKOR, WDBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes on the development of a hierarchical model using Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making (FMADM method for the selection of E-learning websites. The working of the model developed in this research mainly consists of three steps: (i Summarization and identification of selection indexes, (ii Selection indexes weights calculations using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP and (iii Ranking of alternatives by implementing three MADM analytical methods as Complex Proportional Assessment (COPRAS, Visekriterijumsko Kompromisno Rangiranje (VIKOR and Weighted Distance Based Approximation (WDBA. In order to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the proposed methods, an empirical example related to the selection of E-learning websites that are widely used to learn the ‘C’ Programming Language for the software development is carried out. In addition, the results of these three methods are also compared to analyze the critical aspects of the selection indexes. It strongly shows that the developed FMADM model of this paper could be an efficient and effective assessment tool.

  18. A Novel approach for Low temperature Condenser waste heat Utilization in winter air conditioning for overall Performance Improvement of a Power Plant in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper to highlight the scope of utilization of waste heat of condenser for winter air conditioning in and around thermal power stations. The vast amount of low grade condenser waste heat can be used to provide winter air conditioning by utilizing the existing system of year round central air conditioning without additional heavy capital expenditure .The present case study is about North India where peak winter lasts about 90 days . The waste heat utilization for winter conditioning will not only save large amount of electrical energy being used in electrical heaters but also generate additional revenue by selling out extra/spared power ,increase thermal energy utilization ,improve performance of the plant .The novel method of winter air conditioning will also reduce the heat load of the cooling towers, avoid pumping and blow down power as the returning water from air conditioning system can be used as blow down to maintain cooling water parameters in the plant.

  19. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  20. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  1. An Improved KNN Algorithm Based on Multi-attribute Classification%基于多属性分类的KNN改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯辉; 许尧舜

    2013-01-01

    To improve the classification accuracy of the conventional Euclidean KNN algorithm and the im-proved KNN algorithm based on information entropy,this paper proposes an improved KNN algorithm based on multi-attribute classification. The procedures of the new algorithm comprise:i) classify the attributes according to the percentage of their attribute values in an entire attribute of sample set into those discrete attributes suit-able for entropy-based KNN algorithm and those continuous attributes suitable for conventional Euclidean KNN similarity-based algorithm;ii) process the two types of attributes separately and then sum up the two series of results with weighing and put the sum as the distance between samples;iii) select k samples those are closest to the test sample to determine the decision attribute type of the test sample.%提出了一种基于多属性分类的KNN改进算法,可有效提高传统的欧几里德KNN算法和基于信息熵的KNN改进算法的分类准确度。首先,按照单个属性不同属性值的个数占整个属性包含样本的比例进行属性的分类,分为基于信息熵的KNN算法处理的离散属性和基于传统欧几里德KNN相似度处理的连续属性两类,然后分别对不同属性进行区别处理;其次,将两类不同处理后得到的结果按比例求和作为样本之间的距离;最后,选取与待测样本的距离最小的k个样本判断测试样本的决策属性类别。

  2. Web service selection based on multi-attribute double auction%基于多属性双向拍卖的Web服务选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵生慧; 吴国新; 陈桂林; 王汇彬

    2011-01-01

    提出了在多种服务质量的非功能属性基础上,通过双向拍卖实现电子市场的服务交易.设计了一个多属性的双向拍卖模型并给出了相应的形式化定义.分别提出了基于服务质量属性和基于服务可信度的2个双向拍卖算法,并分析了2个算法均满足激励相容、预算均衡和个体理性的原则,符合电子服务交易的市场规律.仿真实验结果表明,2个算法均具有较好的稳定性,能够有效保障服务交易双方的收益并能提高交易的成功率;而基于服务可信度的双向拍卖,其平均交易成功率和平均总收益率均高于基于服务质量属性的双向拍卖.%On the basis of non-functional attributes of service qualities, double auction is proposed to deal with the transactions of Web services in the electronic market. A model of multi-attribute double auction is designed and the corresponding formalization definition is given. Two double auction algorithms are proposed based on service quality attributes and service credibility, respectively. It is theoretically concluded that two algorithms satisfy the properties of incentive compatibility, budget balance and individual rationality, which accords with the market law. Simulation experimental results show that these two algorithms have good stability and can effectively guarantee the profits of both sides, and improve the transactions' success rate; both the average success rates and the average total profits in the double auction based on service credibility are higher than those in the double auction based on service quality attributes.

  3. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  4. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  5. Assessment of distance-based multi-attribute group decision-making methods from a maintenance strategy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Siew-Hong; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2015-07-01

    Maintenance has been acknowledged by industrial management as a significant influencing factor of plant performance. Effective plant maintenance can be realized by developing a proper maintenance strategy. However, selecting an appropriate maintenance strategy is difficult because maintenance is a non-repetitive task such as production activity. Maintenance also does not leave a consistent traceable record that can be referred to during the decision-making process. The involvement of tangible and intangible factors in the assessment process further increases the complexity of the decision-making process. The technique of preference order by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is one of the most well-known decision-making methods and has been widely used by organizations to conduct effective decisions regarding maintenance issues. TOPSIS has also evolved by integrating different approaches such as the fuzzy concept. Although numerous TOPSIS applications for maintenance decision making have been published, the effectiveness of crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS needs to be investigated further. This paper attempts to present a comparison between conventional crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS from a group maintenance decision-making perspective by an empirical illustration. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to demonstrate further the resilience of crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS.

  6. The value of open access and a patient centric approach to oral oncolytic utilization in the treatment of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: A U.S. perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lopamudra; Gitlin, Matthew; Siegartel, Lisa R; Makenbaeva, Dinara

    2017-04-01

    Since the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has resulted in significant improvement in patient survival but at a higher pharmaceutical cost to payers. The recent introduction of generic imatinib presents an opportunity to lower pharmacy costs within a population that is growing due to improved survival. Recent literature has focused on the likely benefits to payers of step therapy through generic imatinib. Areas covered: This review provides a perspective that is broader than the evaluation of financial savings or narrowly defined health economic metrics by incorporating factors such as CML patient heterogeneity, including varying levels of disease progression risk, comorbidities and genetic mutation status, differences in TKI product profiles, clinical guideline recommendations, and the importance of individualized patient care. A focused literature review evaluating the real-world impact of utilization management programs is presented. Expert commentary: The findings indicate that payers can achieve substantial savings without the need to implement utilization management policies. Compromises in the ability to provide individualized patient care and unwanted economic consequences resulting from increased costs of disease progression, adverse events, and lack of response to treatment due to utilization management are summarized.

  7. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  8. Modular repowering of power plants with nominal ratings lower than 180 MW: A rational design approach and its application to the Italian utility system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melli, R.; Naso, V.; Sciubba, E. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica)

    1994-09-01

    The paper describes the rationale, the technical/economical details and the results of a study which is part of a large-scale energy conservation program enacted by the Italian Public Utility (ENEL), within a broader framework of structural interventions on the national electricity production/transportation/utilization network. The objectives of the larger, long-term plan is to increase by a significant percentage (> 5 percent) the net conversion efficiency of the national system. The purpose of the present study is to recover'' a large number of nearly obsolete steam power plants by converting them to a combined cycle configuration. The expression generalized repowering'' has been used to synthetically describe this plant reconfiguration plan, and will be employed in this paper. After giving a brief description of the existing Italian electricity generation situation, the authors list some possible criteria for repowering and describe in detail the configurations which were considered to be feasible. Finally, the proposed options are comparatively analyzed, and the major parameters which can be of importance in the actual decision-making process on the part of the Public Utility are computed and presented in tabular form. In the conclusions the authors try to put the present work in the broader perspective of a large-scale (supernational), economically sound and ecologically acceptable energy conservation program.

  9. Approaches to Accounting and Prediction of Fast Neutron Fluence on VVER Pressure Vessels for Estimation of RPV Residual Lifetime in Compliance with Russian Utility's Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkin, Gennady; Borodkin, Pavel; Khrennikov, Nikolay; Ryabinin, Yuriy; Adeev, Valeriy

    2016-02-01

    The Paper describes a new Russian Utility's regulatory document (RD EO) which has been recently developed and implemented since the beginning of 2013. This RD EO includes the procedure of RPV FNF monitoring and provides recommendations on how to predict fluence over the design lifetime taking into account results of FNF monitoring. The basic method of RPV neutron fluence monitoring is neutron transport calculations of FR in the vicinity of the RPV. Reliability of the calculation results should be validated by ex-vessel neutron-activation measurements, which were performed during different fuel cycles with different core loadings including new types of fuel.

  10. Approaches to Accounting and Prediction of Fast Neutron Fluence on VVER Pressure Vessels for Estimation of RPV Residual Lifetime in Compliance with Russian Utility's Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodkin Gennady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paper describes a new Russian Utility's regulatory document (RD EO which has been recently developed and implemented since the beginning of 2013. This RD EO includes the procedure of RPV FNF monitoring and provides recommendations on how to predict fluence over the design lifetime taking into account results of FNF monitoring. The basic method of RPV neutron fluence monitoring is neutron transport calculations of FR in the vicinity of the RPV. Reliability of the calculation results should be validated by ex-vessel neutron-activation measurements, which were performed during different fuel cycles with different core loadings including new types of fuel.

  11. A modified method using a two-port approach for accessing the hilar vasculature without transferring an endostapler from camera port to utility port during thoracoscopic right upper lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, W; Zhao, Y; Xuan, Y; Wang, M

    2015-02-01

    For thoracoscopic upper lobectomies, most cutting endostaplers must be inserted through the camera port when using a two-port approach. Access to the hilar vasculature through only the utility port remains a challenge. In this study, we describe a procedure to access the hilar vasculature without transferring the endostapler site during a thoracoscopic right upper lobectomy. A 2.5-cm utility anterior incision was made in the fourth intercostal space. The posterior mediastinal visceral pleura were dissected to expose the posterior portion of the right upper bronchus and the anterior trunk of the right pulmonary artery. The pleura over the right hilar vasculature were then peeled with an electrocoagulation hook. The anterior trunk of the right pulmonary artery was then transected with a cutting endostapler through the utility port firstly. This crucial maneuver allowed the endostapler access to the right upper lobe pulmonary vein. The hilar structures were then easily handled in turn. This novel technique was performed successfully in 32 patients, with no perioperative deaths. The average operation time was 120.6 min (range 75-180 min). This novel technique permits effective control of the hilar vessels through the utility port, enabling simple, safe, quick and effective resection.

  12. 多属性融合的坦克分队作战效能评估%Research on Combat Effectiveness Evaluation of Tank Unit for Multi-attribute Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟强; 徐克虎; 李科

    2012-01-01

    In the modern battlefield environment, it has numerous factors to influence combat effectiveness and most of them are uncertain. In order to obtain the more precision and credible evaluation result, it should build a new evaluation model of combat effectiveness of tank unit for multi-attribute fusion. A new method to combine highly conflict evidence and fusion strategy is proposed based on existing improved evidence theory algorithm, then using them to fusion the qualitative indexes in the evaluation model. The final evaluation result is obtained through combination of linearity and non-linearity weighted synthesis algorithm. Testified by a practical example, this model is conform to reality, and it can be taken as a reference for evaluation of multi-attribute model.%现代条件下战场情况复杂,影响作战效能的因素众多且具有不确定性,为了获得对作战效能更为准确,可靠的评价,构建了一种新的基于多属性融合的坦克分队作战效能评估模型.结合已有的证据理论改进算法,给出了一种新的解决冲突证据的组合规则,并提出了一种新的组合策略,将其应用于评估模型中定性指标的融合;通过线性与非线性综合加权的方法求得评价的综合分值,得出了最终的评估结果.通过实例表明,该模型符合评估实际,对多属性模型的评估具有一定的借鉴意义.

  13. Air Defense Fire Distribution Based on NSGA-Ⅱ and Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Method%基于NSGA-Ⅱ和多属性决策的防空火力分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐奇; 杨新

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of air defense fire force distribution, NSGA-Ⅱ is used to obtain Pareto optimal solution set of the problem at first,then the Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Method is used to find the optimal solution by making comprehensive assessment of solutions.A three-objective optimization model is built by qualitatively depicting the properties with interval.Steps of NSGA-Ⅱ and Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Method are introduced.The optimal scheme of air defense fire force distribution is obtained in the application example.It verify the application value of the method is presented of air defense fire force distribution.%为了解决防空火力分配问题,首先运用NSGA-Ⅱ算法求出Pareto最优解集,然后运用多属性决策方法对Pareto最优解集中的解进行综合评估,并从中找出一个最优解.用区间数定性描述各属性,建立了防空火力分配的三目标优化模型.描述了NSGA-Ⅱ算法和多属性决策方法的运算步骤.在仿真算例中,得到了一个最佳防空火力分配方案,说明该方法对于防空火力分配问题有良好的应用价值.

  14. Supplier bidding strategy model for multi-attribute reverse auction based on bee colony algorithm%基于蜂群算法的多属性反向拍卖中供应商投标策略模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高珊; 张惠珍; 马良

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented a supplier bidding strategy model for multi-attribute reverse auction to get the optimal bidding strategy of the target supplier for the next round in the multi-attribute combinatorial bidding process.Considering the bidding strategy of competitive vendors and winner determination rules,the model combined the solving procedure of ABCA and the decision-making process of the target suppliers.It used ABCA to search the optimal strategy of the target supplier for the next round of bids with the analysis of the competitive vendors’cost function.The simulation result shows that this model can effec-tively find out the optimal bidding strategy of the target supplier in the dynamic bidding process.%为了确定多因素多组合投标环境下当前供应商的最佳投标策略,给出一种多属性反向拍卖中供应商投标策略模型。该模型分析了竞争供应商的投标策略和获胜者确定规则,着重将人工蜂群算法的优化流程与当前供应商的决策过程相结合,根据竞争供应商的投标策略计算其成本函数,利用人工蜂群算法进行探索,得到当前投标组合下一轮最优投标策略。仿真实验表明,该模型在动态变化的投标过程中能快速高效求得当前供应商每一个投标组合的最优投标策略。

  15. Scaling Critical Zone analysis tasks from desktop to the cloud utilizing contemporary distributed computing and data management approaches: A case study for project based learning of Cyberinfrastructure concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Merchant, N.; Callahan, N.; Lyons, E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth science is making rapid advances through effective utilization of large-scale data repositories such as aerial LiDAR and access to NSF-funded cyberinfrastructures (e.g. the OpenTopography.org data portal, iPlant Collaborative, and XSEDE). Scaling analysis tasks that are traditionally developed using desktops, laptops or computing clusters to effectively leverage national and regional scale cyberinfrastructure pose unique challenges and barriers to adoption. To address some of these challenges in Fall 2014 an 'Applied Cyberinfrastructure Concepts' a project-based learning course (ISTA 420/520) at the University of Arizona focused on developing scalable models of 'Effective Energy and Mass Transfer' (EEMT, MJ m-2 yr-1) for use by the NSF Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) project. EEMT is a quantitative measure of the flux of available energy to the critical zone, and its computation involves inputs that have broad applicability (e.g. solar insolation). The course comprised of 25 students with varying level of computational skills and with no prior domain background in the geosciences, collaborated with domain experts to develop the scalable workflow. The original workflow relying on open-source QGIS platform on a laptop was scaled to effectively utilize cloud environments (Openstack), UA Campus HPC systems, iRODS, and other XSEDE and OSG resources. The project utilizes public data, e.g. DEMs produced by OpenTopography.org and climate data from Daymet, which are processed using GDAL, GRASS and SAGA and the Makeflow and Work-queue task management software packages. Students were placed into collaborative groups to develop the separate aspects of the project. They were allowed to change teams, alter workflows, and design and develop novel code. The students were able to identify all necessary dependencies, recompile source onto the target execution platforms, and demonstrate a functional workflow, which was further improved upon by one of the group leaders over

  16. A novel green and template free approach for the synthesis of gold nanorice and its utilization as a catalyst for the degradation of hazardous dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-05-05

    Herein, we describe a simple, green and template free method for the production of rice shaped gold nanostructures using an aqueous extract of the egg shells of Anas platyrhynchos. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED) and FT-IR studies. The UV-visible spectrum of the synthesized gold nanostructures showed a transverse mode surface plasmon resonance peaks (SPR) at around 540nm and a longitudinal mode at 880nm. The TEM and SAED pattern confirmed the morphology, size and crystallographic structure of the synthesized gold nanorice. The synthesized gold nanorice was utilized for the removal of a toxic Eosin Y dye by photodegradation. It was observed that the dye was degraded completely within 1h and the percentage efficiency was found to be 96.1%.

  17. 我国核能利用与能源可持续发展探讨%Approach on Nuclear Power Utilization and Energy Sustainable Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭衢霖; 邵芸

    2001-01-01

    Description on the status quo of energy utilization, com parison of the impacts of coal power and nuclear power on environment, and treatment technique of nuclear waste and safty of nuclear electricity were presented and indicated that development of efficient and cleaner nuclear electricity greatly is an inevitable necessity for implementing sustainable development strategy in China.%阐述了我国目前的能源利用状况,火电与核电对环境影响的比较,核废物的处理技术及核电的安全性等,指出大力发展高效清洁的核电是我国实施可持续发展战略的必然要求。

  18. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue part 3: issues of utility and alternative approaches in psychiatric diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In face of the multiple controversies surrounding the DSM process in general and the development of DSM-5 in particular, we have organized a discussion around what we consider six essential questions in further work on the DSM. The six questions involve: 1 the nature of a mental disorder; 2 the definition of mental disorder; 3 the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4 the role of pragmatic considerations in the construction of DSM-5; 5 the issue of utility of the DSM – whether DSM-III and IV have been designed more for clinicians or researchers, and how this conflict should be dealt with in the new manual; and 6 the possibility and advisability, given all the problems with DSM-III and IV, of designing a different diagnostic system. Part 1 of this article took up the first two questions. Part 2 took up the second two questions. Part 3 now deals with Questions 5 & 6. Question 5 confronts the issue of utility, whether the manual design of DSM-III and IV favors clinicians or researchers, and what that means for DSM-5. Our final question, Question 6, takes up a concluding issue, whether the acknowledged problems with the earlier DSMs warrants a significant overhaul of DSM-5 and future manuals. As in Parts 1 & 2 of this article, the general introduction, as well as the introductions and conclusions for the specific questions, are written by James Phillips, and the responses to commentaries are written by Allen Frances.

  19. Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Utilized in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyas, Josef; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes various approaches for making sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to recover uranium from used oxide fuel. The approaches include sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt.

  20. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J., E-mail: brian.riley@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Frank, Steven M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes the various approaches evaluated for making solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl–Li{sub 2}O oxide reduction salt selected to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol–gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na{sub 2}O–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na{sup +} and Cl{sup −} to form halite in solution and Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2} to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (∼92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl–Li{sub 2}O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  1. Prediction of Epitope-Based Peptides for the Utility of Vaccine Development from Fusion and Glycoprotein of Nipah Virus Using In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadman Sakib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design epitope-based peptides for the utility of vaccine development by targeting glycoprotein G and envelope protein F of Nipah virus (NiV that, respectively, facilitate attachment and fusion of NiV with host cells. Using various databases and tools, immune parameters of conserved sequence(s from G and F proteins of different isolates of NiV were tested to predict probable epitope(s. Binding analyses of the peptides with MHC class-I and class-II molecules, epitope conservancy, population coverage, and linear B cell epitope prediction were analyzed. Predicted peptides interacted with seven or more MHC alleles and illustrated population coverage of more than 99% and 95%, for G and F proteins, respectively. The predicted class-I nonamers, SLIDTSSTI and EWISIVPNF, superimposed on the putative decameric B cell epitopes, were also identified as core sequences of the most probable class-II 15-mer peptides GPKVSLIDTSSTITI and EWISIVPNFILVRNT. These peptides were further validated for their binding to specific HLA alleles using in silico docking technique. Our in silico analysis suggested that the predicted epitopes, either GPKVSLIDTSSTITI or EWISIVPNFILVRNT, could be a better choice as universal vaccine component against NiV irrespective of different isolates which may elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

  2. Utilizing a Novel Approach at the Fuzzy Front-End of New Product Development: A Case Study in a Flexible Fabric Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Tsuen Jou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy front-end plays a most crucial part in new product development (NPD, leading to the success of product development and product launch in the market. This study proposes a novel method, TTRI_MP, by combining Crawford and Di Benedetto’s model and Cooper’s model, to strengthen the management of the fuzzy front-end. The proposed method comprises four stages: market exploration and technology forecasting, idea generation and segmentation, portfolio analysis and technology roadmapping (TRM. In the first stage, SWOT was utilized to identify the key strategic areas, and the technology readiness level (TRL was adopted to position the level of developed technologies. In the second stage, the business concepts were required to go through the viability test and customers, collaborators, competitors and company (4C. In the third stage, the Strategic Position Analysis (SPAN and Financial Analysis (FAN developed by IBM were employed in the portfolio analysis to screen out potential NPD projects. In the last stage, the selected NPD projects were linked with their functions and technologies in the TRM chart. The method was successfully implemented by a research team working on a flexible fabric supercapacitor at the Taiwan Textile Research Institute (TTRI.

  3. Identification of leads through in silico approaches utilizing benzylthio-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl acetic acid derivatives: A potent CRTh2 antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sathya; Kulkarni, Seema A.; Sohn, Honglae; Madhavan, Thirumurthy

    2015-12-01

    Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2) is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Herein, we describe the pharmacophore based virtual screening combined with molecular docking and 3D-QSAR methods to identify new potent CRTh2 inhibitors. Several pharmacophore models were generated and validated by Guner-Henry scoring method. The best models were utilized as 3D Pharmacophore query to screen against ZINC database and the retrieved hits were further validated by fitness score, Lipinski's rule of five, Surflex docking and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) process. The optimum CoMFA model was developed using known inhibitors and the predictive ability of model was examined by statistical parameters like q2 = 0.552 and r2pred = 0.636. The biological activities of the screened compounds were calculated using the generated CoMFA model. Finally nine compounds were found to have good potential and high inhibitory activities and they may act as novel lead compounds for CRTh2 inhibitor designing.

  4. An approach to utilize the artificial high power LED UV-A radiation in photoreactors for the degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Buitrago, L A; Vásquez, C; Veitia, L; Ossa-Echeverry, O; Rodriguez-Vallejo, J; Barraza-Burgos, J; Marriaga-Cabrales, N; Machuca-Martínez, F

    2017-01-18

    Utilization of UV LED light is trending in the development of photoreactors for pollutant treatment. In this study, two different geometries were studied in the degradation of methylenebBlue (MB) using high power UVA LED as a source of light. The dosage, initial concentration, electric power, and H2O2 addition were evaluated in the two geometries: a mini CPC (Cilindrical Parabolic Collector) and a vertical cylindrical with external irradiation both coupled with LED UVA. Best degradation was obtained for 0.3 g L(-1) TiO2, 40 min, and 15 ppm of MB of initial concentration in the standard batch reactor. It was found that the best system was a cpc geometry. Also, hydrogen peroxide was used as an electron acceptor and 97% degradation was obtained in 30 min with 10 mM H2O2 and 0.4 g TiO2/L. Power of the LEDs was also evaluated and it was found that 20 W m(-2) is the best operational condition to achieve the best MB degradation avoiding the oxidant species recombination.

  5. Novel approach to utilizing electronic health records for dermatologic research: developing a multi-institutional federated data network for clinical and translational research in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Reddy, Shalini B; Garg, Amit

    2012-05-15

    The implementation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in the United States has created new opportunities for research using automated data extraction methods. A large amount of information from the EHR can be utilized for clinical and translational research. To date, a number of institutions have the capability of extracting clinical data from EHR to create local repositories of de-identified data amenable to research queries through the Informatics for Integrated Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) platform. Collaborations among institutions sharing a common i2b2 platform hold exciting opportunities for research in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. With the automated extraction of patient-level data from multiple institutions, this novel informatics network has the ability to address high-priority research questions. With commitment to high-quality data through applied algorithms for cohort identification and validation of outcomes, the creation of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Integrated Research Data Network (PIONEER) will make a significant contribution to psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis research.

  6. Assessment of trading partners for China's rare earth exports using a decision analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyan; Lei, Yalin; Ge, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese rare earth export policies currently result in accelerating its depletion. Thus adopting an optimal export trade selection strategy is crucial to determining and ultimately identifying the ideal trading partners. This paper introduces a multi-attribute decision-making methodology which is then used to select the optimal trading partner. In the method, an evaluation criteria system is established to assess the seven top trading partners based on three dimensions: political relationships, economic benefits and industrial security. Specifically, a simple additive weighing model derived from an additive utility function is utilized to calculate, rank and select alternatives. Results show that Japan would be the optimal trading partner for Chinese rare earths. The criteria evaluation method of trading partners for China's rare earth exports provides the Chinese government with a tool to enhance rare earth industrial policies.

  7. Anatomic research of suboccipito-retrosigmoidal approach for minimally invasive exposure of facial-acoustic nerve complex utilizing virtual reality skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke TANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss microanatomy features of facial-acoustic nerve complex in suboccipito-retrosigmoidal minimally invasive approach based on virtual reality image model. Methods CT and MRI scans were performed to 5 adult cadaver heads, and then, image data was inputted into Vitrea virtual reality system to establish three-dimensional anatomy model of facial-acoustic nerve complex. Suboccipito-retrosigmoidal approach was simulated by selecting osseous landmark points on the calvaria and skull base. Anatomic exposures in surgical trajectory were observed and measured following minimally invasive design. Statistical comparison was launched by paired t test. Results Routes simulating suboccipito-retrosigmoidal approach for exposure of facial-acoustic nerve complex passed under the inferior edge of transverse sinus. Spacial sequence of nerves and vessels in the route was displayed clearly. Vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery did not show in the route. Cerebella, lower cranial nerves, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, facial-acoustic nerve complex were exposed successively in route before minimally invasive design. Then, lower cranial nerves pierced the jugular foramen at the site between the jugular bulb and inferior petrosal sinus. Minimally invasive route was higher than that before minimally invasive design and involved cerebella, anterior inferior cerebellar artery and facial-acoustic nerve complex successively. Lower cranial nerves and jugular bulb were not shown in minimally invasive route. Measure and comparative analysis showed that volumes of route (t = 36.331, P = 0.000 and cerebella (t = 16.775, P = 0.000 involved before minimally invasive design were more than that after minimally invasive design with statistically significant difference. Comparison did not show significant differences for the volumes of facial-acoustic nerve complex (t = 1.680, P = 0.127 and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (t = 1.278, P = 0

  8. An Interdependent Multi-attribute Group Decision Making Method for Complex Systems Based upon Fuzzy Input with Interval-valued Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers%基于I ITFN输入的复杂系统关联MAGDM方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振颂; 李延来

    2014-01-01

    The interval-valued intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy number (IITFN) is an efficient tool for describing uncer-tainties of complex systems. In this paper, we propose the improved operational laws of IITFNs and discuss their partial closure property. Then an interval-valued intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy geometric Bonferroni mean operator is developed, and some relative properties of this operator are also investigated. With respect to a multi-attribute group decision mak-ing (MAGDM) problem, in which there are both interactions among decision-makers and attributes with both unknown decision-makers0 weights and attributes0 weights, an interdependent MAGDM method based on a prospect hybrid interval-valued intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy geometric Bonferroni (PHIITFGB) mean operator is proposed. Firstly, the prospect effect, prospect value function, and prospect value of IITFN are defined to obtain the prospect value matrixes. Secondly, the prospect value matrixes are transformed into the corresponding prospect score function matrixes, then a maximum entropy optimization model for determining the objective attribute weights based on a principle of grey correlation deep coefficient and a model for obtaining decision-maker weights based on the combination of 2-additive fuzzy measures and Choquet integral are integrated to determine the decision-makers0 weights and attributes0 weights. Thirdly, evaluations of all the alternatives derived from all the decision makers are aggregated by utilizing the PHIITFGB mean operator, and then the comprehensive prospect value corresponding to each alternative is obtained by integrating the decision-makers0 weights. Finally, a ranking of alternatives is determined by calculating score functions of the alternatives. A practical example is given to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed decision-making methods.%区间直觉梯形模糊数(Interval-valued intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy number, IITFN)是刻画复杂

  9. Utility of the first few100 approach during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gageldonk-Lafeber Arianne B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To guide policy and control measures, decent scientific data are needed for a comprehensive assessment of epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of the First Few hundred (FF100 cases. We discuss the feasibility of the FF100 approach during the 2009 pandemic and the added value compared with alternative data sources available. Methods The pandemic preparedness plan enabled us to perform a case–control study, assessing patient characteristics and risk factors for experiencing symptomatic influenza A(H1N12009 infection and providing insight into transmission. We assessed to what extent timely and novel data were generated compared to other available data sources. Results In May-December 2009, a total of 68 cases and 48 controls were included in the study. Underlying non-respiratory diseases were significantly more common among cases compared to controls, while a protective effect was found for frequent hand washing. Seroconversion was found for 7/30 controls (23%, and persisting high titers for 4/30 controls (13%. The labour-intensive study design resulted in slow and restricted recruitment. Conclusions The findings of our case–control study gave new insights in transmission risks and possible interventions for improved control. Nevertheless, the FF100 approach lacked timeliness and power due to limited recruitment. For future pandemics we suggest pooling data from several countries, to enable collecting sufficient data in a relatively short period.

  10. A systematic approach for the accurate non-invasive estimation of blood glucose utilizing a novel light-tissue interaction adaptive modelling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybynok, V O; Kyriacou, P A [City University, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media.

  11. Utilização de medicamentos por indivíduos HIV positivos: abordagem qualitativa Utilization of prescribed drugs by HIV infected individuals: qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Acurcio

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, em sua dimensão qualitativa, a utilização de medicamentos por indivíduos infectados pelo HIV, durante o processo de procura e atendimento em serviços de saúde. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 52 entrevistas semi-estruturadas com pacientes, trabalhadores da saúde e voluntários de organizações não-governamentais, e revistos 1.079 prontuários médicos para obtenção de informações sobre a utilização de medicamentos por portadores do HIV, cuja primeira visita a um dos serviços públicos de referência estudados ocorreu entre janeiro de 1989 e dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Os problemas relacionados à utilização de anti-retrovirais foram: recusa ao uso, dificuldade de obtenção e de cumprimento da prescrição. Outros problemas foram a auto-medicação, dificuldade de obter medicamentos para patologias associadas e de cumprimento da prescrição de sulfas. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados permitiram compreender melhor os principais obstáculos e dificuldades vivenciados pelo usuário dos serviços, desde o ato da prescrição até a continuidade do tratamento.OBJECTIVE: The assessment, in its qualitative dimension, of the utilization - by HIV infected individuals - of selected prescribed drugs during the process of the search for and the obtaining of care in public health services in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHOD: Fifty two semi-structured interviews with patients, health care workers and non- governamental organizations volunteers were carried out and 1,079 medical records were reviewed. Data were obtained on the utilization of prescribed drugs by HIV infected individuals, whose first visit to one of the public services studied occurred between January 1989 and December 1992. Problems related to the use of anti-retroviral and/or opportunistic infection medication were identified and a qualitative description of their possible causes and consequences was commented on. RESULTS: Refusal to use, difficulty in obtaining and

  12. An investigation of used electronics return flows: a data-driven approach to capture and predict consumers storage and utilization behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbaghi, Mostafa; Esmaeilian, Behzad; Raihanian Mashhadi, Ardeshir; Behdad, Sara; Cade, Willie

    2015-02-01

    Consumers often have a tendency to store their used, old or un-functional electronics for a period of time before they discard them and return them back to the waste stream. This behavior increases the obsolescence rate of used still-functional products leading to lower profitability that could be resulted out of End-of-Use (EOU) treatments such as reuse, upgrade, and refurbishment. These types of behaviors are influenced by several product and consumer-related factors such as consumers' traits and lifestyles, technology evolution, product design features, product market value, and pro-environmental stimuli. Better understanding of different groups of consumers, their utilization and storage behavior and the connection of these behaviors with product design features helps Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and recycling and recovery industry to better overcome the challenges resulting from the undesirable storage of used products. This paper aims at providing insightful statistical analysis of Electronic Waste (e-waste) dynamic nature by studying the effects of design characteristics, brand and consumer type on the electronics usage time and end of use time-in-storage. A database consisting of 10,063 Hard Disk Drives (HDD) of used personal computers returned back to a remanufacturing facility located in Chicago, IL, USA during 2011-2013 has been selected as the base for this study. The results show that commercial consumers have stored computers more than household consumers regardless of brand and capacity factors. Moreover, a heterogeneous storage behavior is observed for different brands of HDDs regardless of capacity and consumer type factors. Finally, the storage behavior trends are projected for short-time forecasting and the storage times are precisely predicted by applying machine learning methods.

  13. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  14. Operational reliability evaluation of restructured power systems with wind power penetration utilizing reliability network equivalent and time-sequential simulation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    and reserve provides, fast reserve providers and transmission network in restructured power systems. A contingency management schema for real time operation considering its coupling with the day-ahead market is proposed. The time-sequential Monte Carlo simulation is used to model the chronological...... with high wind power penetration. The proposed technique is based on the combination of the reliability network equivalent and time-sequential simulation approaches. The operational reliability network equivalents are developed to represent reliability models of wind farms, conventional generation...... characteristics of corresponding reliability network equivalents. A simplified method is also developed in the simulation procedures for improving the computational efficiency. The proposed technique can be used to evaluate customers’ reliabilities considering high penetration of wind power during the power...

  15. (η(4)-Butadiene)Sn(0) Complexes: A New Approach for Zero-Valent p-Block Elements Utilizing a Butadiene as a 4π-Electron Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Takuya; Nakada, Marisa; Hamada, Jumpei; Guo, Jing Dong; Nagase, Shigeru; Saito, Masaichi

    2016-09-07

    Research on zero-valent p-block elements is a recent hot topic in synthetic and theoretical chemistry because of their novel electronic states having two lone pairs in both the s- and p-orbitals. It is considered that σ-donating ligands bearing large substituents are essential to stabilize these species. Herein, we propose a new approach using butadiene as a 4π-electron donor to stabilize zero-valent group 14 elements. During our study to explore the coordination chemistry of stannacyclopentadienyl ligands, unexpected products, in which the tin atom is coordinated by a butadiene in a η(4)-fashion, were obtained. Because butadiene is a neutral 4π-electron donating ligand, the formal oxidation number of the tin atoms of the products should be zero, which is supported by X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical calculations. A mechanism for the formation of the products is also described.

  16. New Approaches of Utilization of Spent Residue Hydrotreating Catalysts%渣油加氢失活催化剂有效利用的新途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 邓潇; 黎臣麟

    2014-01-01

    Processes and methods of preparing new residue catalysts from spent residue hydrotreating catalysts were discussed. In this paper, new catalysts were divided into hydroprocessing and non-hydroprocessing types. More attention had been paid to the approaches of processing spent catalysts with high banadium content to new hydroprocessing catalysts. At last, the reaction mechanism of vanadium in residue hydrotreating process was also concluded.%论述了将渣油加氢失活催化剂制备成加氢型和非加氢型新催化剂的工艺和方法,着重探讨了钒含量较高的失活催化剂加工为新型渣油加氢催化剂的方法和思路,并对渣油加氢过程中钒的作用机理进行归纳。

  17. An investigation of used electronics return flows: A data-driven approach to capture and predict consumers storage and utilization behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbaghi, Mostafa, E-mail: mostafas@buffalo.edu [Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, 437 Bell Hall, Buffalo, NY (United States); Esmaeilian, Behzad, E-mail: b.esmaeilian@neu.edu [Healthcare Systems Engineering Institute, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Raihanian Mashhadi, Ardeshir, E-mail: ardeshir@buffalo.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, 437 Bell Hall, Buffalo, NY (United States); Behdad, Sara, E-mail: sarabehd@buffalo.edu [Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, 437 Bell Hall, Buffalo, NY (United States); Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, 437 Bell Hall, Buffalo, NY (United States); Cade, Willie, E-mail: willie@pcrr.com [PC Rebuilder and Recyclers, 4734 W Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60651-3322 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed a data set of HDDs returned back to an e-waste collection site. • We studied factors that affect the storage behavior. • Consumer type, brand and size are among factors which affect the storage behavior. • Commercial consumers have stored computers more than household consumers. • Machine learning models were used to predict the storage behavior. - Abstract: Consumers often have a tendency to store their used, old or un-functional electronics for a period of time before they discard them and return them back to the waste stream. This behavior increases the obsolescence rate of used still-functional products leading to lower profitability that could be resulted out of End-of-Use (EOU) treatments such as reuse, upgrade, and refurbishment. These types of behaviors are influenced by several product and consumer-related factors such as consumers’ traits and lifestyles, technology evolution, product design features, product market value, and pro-environmental stimuli. Better understanding of different groups of consumers, their utilization and storage behavior and the connection of these behaviors with product design features helps Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and recycling and recovery industry to better overcome the challenges resulting from the undesirable storage of used products. This paper aims at providing insightful statistical analysis of Electronic Waste (e-waste) dynamic nature by studying the effects of design characteristics, brand and consumer type on the electronics usage time and end of use time-in-storage. A database consisting of 10,063 Hard Disk Drives (HDD) of used personal computers returned back to a remanufacturing facility located in Chicago, IL, USA during 2011–2013 has been selected as the base for this study. The results show that commercial consumers have stored computers more than household consumers regardless of brand and capacity factors. Moreover, a heterogeneous storage behavior is

  18. Heavy precipitation and the responses within emergency management - a new approach for emergency planning and disaster prevention by utilizing fire brigade operation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An increase of intense rainfall events in the center regions of Europe is one of the assumed effects of climate change. Climate scenarios indicate also large seasonal and regional differences concerning the magnitude. Structural damages and financial loss resulting from heavy precipitation depend on natural parameters such as topography and vegetation cover of the specific area, but also on socio-economic parameters such as urbanized and industrialized areas, population density and the presence of critical infrastructure. In particular mudflows and floods cause damages such as flooded basements and streets, undercutting of roads or spilled sewage drains. The emergency management has to consider these effects appropriately. Commonly, this is the responsibilities is taken by the fire brigades and civil protection units. Within their daily routines, numerous data is collected, but commonly not utilized for scientific purposes. In particular fire brigade operation data can be used accordingly to describe the intensity of the aftermath when heavy precipitation strikes a certain area. One application is described in this study based on a example in Offenbach, Germany. The civil protection in Germany is based on a federal system with a bottom-up command-structure and responsibility to the local community. Therefore it is not easy to collect the overall incident data for a widespread affected area. To examine particular local effects of heavy precipitation events it is necessary to match the meteorological data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) with the incident data of all effected fire brigades, which sometimes is impeded by the usual resolution of meteorological data. In this study, a method of comprehensive evaluation of meteorological data and the operation data from local fire brigades has been developed for the Rhine-Main-Area. This area is one of the largest metropolitan regions in Germany with a very high density in population as well as

  19. [How should be a psychiatric hospital to take in and utilize the psycho-social approaches in Japan? -- From the view point of psychiatry, medical model, medical system and economical management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Kohei; Horikawa, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    The author developed argument that a cause of the present condition of our country, in which psycho-social approaches have not fully spread though its clinical efficacy has been well recognized, is in the medical institution side. Because, our psychiatric reforms over 17 years, that reduced the average duration of hospitalization from about 2156 days to 61 days, has attained by deployment of various psycho-social approaches based on "therapeutic community model" and "psychodynamic team treatment". Furthermore, it has done by the affinity, continuity and complementarities of "psychodynamic team treatment" and psychosocial approaches with following special features. That is, since psycho-social approaches is 1. techniques to acquire the social life skill and to prevent re-hospitalization, 2. the group psychotherapy by facilitating the patient's mutual help capability, 3. based on "acceptance of the disease" by "noticing the diagnosis". Even if the therapeutic orientation or assumption of the psychiatric hospital does not comprehend above all of 1-3, it is important whether it is in the same direction or not. In other words, it is the issue of the medical-economical-management system, medical model and also the kind of psychiatry that is the source of them. Our hospital is for short term hospitalization and in focus on the outpatient treatment with "psychodynamic team treatment" based on "therapeutic community model". That is why our hospital has a potential advantage to take in and utilize the psycho-social approaches. On the other hand, there is the same reason why it is difficult for the traditional psychiatric hospital for long term hospitalization with higher hierarchical "physical medicine model" based on the descriptive psychiatry. The further problem is that both psychiatric hospital staff and psycho-social therapists do not realize it. The most important issue for us is having the recognition and exploring the method not to adapt to a psychiatric hospital but

  20. Rapid optimization of antibotulinum toxin antibody fragment production by an integral approach utilizing RC-SELDI mass spectrometry and statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun T; Bradbury, Lisa; Kragl, Frank J; Lukens, Dennis C; Valdes, James J

    2006-01-01

    A process for the rapid development and optimization of the fermentation process for an antibotulinum neurotoxin antibody fragment (bt-Fab) production expressed in Escherichia coli was achieved via a high-throughput process proteomics and statistical experimental design. This process, using retentate chromatography-surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (RC-SELDI MS), was employed for identifying and quantifying bt-Fab antibody in complex biological samples for the optimization of microbial fermentation conditions. Five variables (type of culture media, glycerol concentration, post-induction temperature, IPTG concentration, and incubation time after induction) were statistically combined using an experimental 2(5)(-1) fractional factorial design and tested for their effects on maximal bt-Fab antibody production. When the effects of individual variables and their interactions were assessed, type of media and post-induction temperature showed statistically significant increase in yield of the fermentation process for the maximal bt-Fab antibody production. This study establishes an integral approach as a valuable tool for the rapid development of manufacturing processes for producing various biological materials. To verify the RC-SELDI MS method, a Fab-specific immuno-affinity HPLC assay developed here was also employed for the quantification of the bt-Fab antibody in crude lysate samples obtained during the fermentation optimization process. Similar results were obtained.

  1. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Tho; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Nukman, Yusoff; Aoyama, Hideki; Case, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS) for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment.

  2. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Tho Nguyen

    Full Text Available Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment.

  3. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  4. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  5. Utilizing Novel Non-traditional Sensor Tasking Approaches to Enhance the Space Situational Awareness Picture Maintained by the Space Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, A.; Herz, E.; Center, K.; George, P.; Axelrad, P.; Mutschler, S.; Jones, B.

    2016-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Network (SSN) is tasked with the increasingly difficult mission of detecting, tracking, cataloging and identifying artificial objects orbiting the Earth, including active and inactive satellites, spent rocket bodies, and fragmented debris. Much of the architecture and operations of the SSN are limited and outdated. Efforts are underway to modernize some elements of the systems. Even so, the ability to maintain the best current Space Situational Awareness (SSA) picture and identify emerging events in a timely fashion could be significantly improved by leveraging non-traditional sensor sites. Orbit Logic, the University of Colorado and the University of Texas at Austin are developing an innovative architecture and operations concept to coordinate the tasking and observation information processing of non - traditional assets based on information-theoretic approaches. These confirmed tasking schedules and the resulting data can then be used to "inform" the SSN tasking process. The 'Heimdall Web' system is comprised of core tasking optimization components and accompanying Web interfaces within a secure, split architecture that will for the first time allow non-traditional sensors to support SSA and improve SSN tasking. Heimdall Web application components appropriately score/prioritize space catalog objects based on covariance, priority, observability, expected information gain, and probability of detect - then coordinate an efficient sensor observation schedule for non-SSN sensors contributing to the overall SSA picture maintained by the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The Heimdall Web Ops concept supports sensor participation levels of "Scheduled", "Tasked" and "Contributing". Scheduled and Tasked sensors are provided optimized observation schedules or object tracking lists from central algorithms, while Contributing sensors review and select from a list of "desired track objects". All sensors are "Web Enabled" for tasking and feedback

  6. Utilizing the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli to interrogate the substrate specificities of exogenous glycosyltransferase genes in a combinatorial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Eric B; Szoka, Francis C; Zaleski, Anthony; Apicella, Michael A; Gibson, Bradford W

    2010-06-01

    In previous work, our laboratory generated novel chimeric lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing exogenous lipooligosaccharide synthesis genes (lsg) from Haemophilus influenzae. Analysis of these novel oligosaccharide-LPS chimeras allowed characterization of the carbohydrate structures generated by several putative glycosyltransferase genes within the lsg locus. Here, we adapted this strategy to construct a modular approach to study the synthetic properties of individual glycosyltransferases expressed alone and in combinations. To this end, a set of expression vectors containing one to four putative glycosyltransferase genes from the lsg locus, lsgC-F, were transformed into E. coli K12 (XL-1) which is defective in LPS O-antigen biosynthesis. This strategy relied on the inclusion of the H. influenzae gene product lsgG in every plasmid construct, which partially rescues the E. coli LPS biosynthesis defect by priming uridine diphosphate-undecaprenyl in the WecA-dependent O-antigen synthetic pathway with N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc). This GlcNAc-undecaprenyl then served as an acceptor substrate for further carbohydrate extension by transformed glycosyltransferases. The resultant LPS-linked chimeric glycans were isolated from their E. coli constructs and characterized by mass spectrometry, methylation analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These structural data allowed the specificity of various glycosyltransferases to be unambiguously assigned to individual genes. LsgF was found to transfer a galactose (Gal) to terminal GlcNAc. LsgE was found to transfer GlcNAc to Gal-GlcNAc, and both LsgF and LsgD were found to transfer Gal to GlcNAc-Gal-GlcNAc but with differing linkage specificities. This method can be generalized and readily adapted to study the substrate specificity of other putative or uncharacterized glycosyltransferases.

  7. Burnout and health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C N; Manning, M R

    1995-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between burnout and health care utilization of 238 employed adults. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and health care utilization by insurance company records regarding these employees' health care costs and number of times they accessed health care services over a one year period. ANOVAs were conducted using Golembiewski and Munzenrider's approach to define the burnout phase. Significant differences in health care costs were found.

  8. Landscape patterns and the optimal utilization of alpine grassland based on RS and GIS approach: a case study in TianZhu alpine grassland, Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Wei, Wei; Feng, Cui-qin; Wang, Xu-feng; Zheng, Jia-jia

    2008-10-01

    Using RS, GIS, landscape ecological technology to analyze landscape patterns based on alpine grassland region as the study area and TM/ETM+ image in 2002 as the study data in this article. Landscape patterns in the study area have been analyzed from such point of view as the landscape's patch characters, shapes, and spatial distributions through the indexes of diversity, predominance, fragmentation, evenness, and etc. The analysis on the ecological landscape patterns of land using indicates that the grassland occupies 45.45% and the woodland occupies 31.53% of the whole area. They are the main landscape types, which occupy 76.98% of the total study area and grassland is the matrix of the whole landscape according to ecological definitions. The distribution of landscape types has evident altitudinal tonality, and the distribution order is approximately as follows: town-residential area-farmland-grassland-woodland-unused land from valley to mountain top for the big vertical space of the height above the sea level. Take species protection as target communities, and depend on the surface pervasion consuming and the minimum clog model, we have designed much secure approaches of landscape patterns. Through analyzing we know the area of the chiasms buffer of class one in the grassland and the woodland is2422.15hm2 and the perimeter is 19882.02km. The area of the buffer of class two is 879.79hm2 and its perimeter is 10552.96km. Some fields and segments based on the minimum clog model need to pay much attention to: 1. The batch around cost isoclines layers in the central of grassland. 2. The Grassland-Woodland Ecotone should be mainly protected, and the textures among the small batches must be marked out in order to reduce the obstruction which species across the boundary. 3. It must prevent the interferences caused by human being activities in the ecotone, and improve the using efficiency of physical flows and circulation efficiency of nutritional elements. 4. The isolated

  9. [Comparative analysis of the promoting blood effects of the combination of different proportions of danggui and honghua by the principal component analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Jiao; Li, Wei-Xia; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shen, Juan; Shang, Er-Xin; Guo, Jian-Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-09-01

    The combination of Danggui and Honghua (GH) is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinic for the treatment of blood stasis syndrome in China. To evaluate the activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effects of the combination of different proportions of Danggui and Honghua on acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the proportion of GH to have the best activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effect. Acute blood stasis rat model was induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenaline and ice water bath. The blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with GH (1 : 0, 4 : 1, 2 : 1, 3 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 3, 1: 2, 1 : 4 and 0 : 1) extracts. The whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), and high shear whole blood relative index (HSWBRI), low shear whole blood relative index (LSWBRI), and erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI) were tested to observe the effects of GH on hemorheology of blood stasis rats. And the maximum aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was tested to observe the effect of GH on platelet aggregation index of blood stasis rats. In addition, the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and plasma fibrinogen (FIB) were tested to observe the effects of GH on blood coagulation function of blood stasis rats. Then principal component analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were both used to comprehensively evaluate the total activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effects of GH. The results showed that the hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group both had significant differences with normal group. Compared with model group, GH (1 : 0, 4 : 1, 2: 1, 3 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 3, 1 : 2, 1 : 4 and 0 : 1) could improve all the blood hemorheology indexes and regulate part indexes of blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation in acute blood stasis rats. Based on principal component analysis and multi-attribute

  10. Multi-Attribute Group Decision-Making for Water Resources Management Based on Two-Tuple Linguistic%二元语义的水资源管理方案多属性递阶群决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌湧

    2014-01-01

    基于二元语义的水资源管理多属性递阶群决策模型,将水资源管理决策群体分为基层技术组 A、中层专家组 B和高层管理组 C,提出了二元语义决策评价准则,建立了 A、B、C 三层决策矩阵的联合矩阵;最后由联合矩阵求出全体专家的最满意方案。绵阳市水资源合理配置决策分析的实例应用结果表明,该决策模型既能合理集结不同层次决策群体的信息,又能避免语言评价信息集结和运算中出现的信息损失和扭曲,是一种可行的建模方法。%Water resources management often involves many complex factors,such as social values,economic development,environmental protec-tion and industry management. Usually,decision-making on water resources system is an uncertain,hierarchical,and multi-attribute group deci-sion-making process. In this paper,the conversion relationship between three types of weight function-whiten and two-tuple linguistic were studied and water resources management multi-attribute group decision-making model based on two-tuple linguistic was proposed. Decision groups of water resources management were classified into the technical group A of basic-level,the experts group B of middle-level and the management group C of high-level. Then it put forward water resources management decision-making criteria based on two-tuple linguistic and established the confederate matrix according to the decision-making matrices A,B and C;finally,it found out all expertsˊmost satisfying scheme by the conjoint matrix. The results of Mianyang Cityˊs water resources decision-making analysis show that the decision-making model can reasonably aggregate the information of different decision-making groups and avoid information loss and distortion in the aggregating and operations of linguistic assessment information.

  11. 区间犹豫模糊三角相似度及其多属性群决策%Interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity and its application in multi-attribute group decision making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金飞飞; 裴利丹; 陈华友; 周礼刚

    2015-01-01

    构建了区间犹豫模糊三角相似度公式,并且研究了区间犹豫模糊环境下属性权重信息完全未知的多属性群决策方法。首先基于正弦三角函数构造了区间犹豫模糊三角相似度公式,并证明其满足区间犹豫模糊相似度公理化定义的四个条件;接着给出了区间犹豫模糊交叉熵的公理性定义,同时研究了区间犹豫模糊相似度和区间犹豫模糊交叉熵的关系;最后基于区间犹豫模糊三角相似度,提出了在属性权重信息完全未知条件下的区间犹豫模糊多属性群决策方法,并用实例验证该方法的可行性和有效性。%Interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity is constructed, and investigate the multi-attribute group decision making method with attribute weight information is completely unknown under the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy environ-ment. Based on the sine triangle function, the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity formula is developed, and it proves that the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity satisfies four axiomatic requirements of interval-valued hesitant fuzzy similarity. The axiomatic definition of cross-entropy for interval-valued hesitant fuzzy sets is presented, and the relationships between interval-valued hesitant fuzzy similarity measures and interval-valued hesitant fuzzy cross-entropy is studied. According to the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy triangle similarity, a new method for interval-valued hesitant fuzzy multi-attribute group decision making problems with completely unknown attribute weight information is proposed, and an illustrative example is given to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  12. 直觉模糊和粗集的复合多属性保障力量优选%Compound multi-attribute decision-making for selecting power based on intuitionist fuzzy sets and rough sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 陈桂明; 颜宁; 苏保忠

    2013-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of equipment maintenance power,aiming at optimizing the collocation for power,combining with rough sets and multi-attribute group decision-making,intuitionist fuzzy sets (IFS) are introduced to manage compound data,and the knowledge system model based on IFS multi-attribute rough sets (RS) group decision-making is established.An induced-intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted averaging operator (I-IFOWA) is used for information fusion,the score function based on cross entropy is defined,and the evaluated result is used to construct the decision table.The improved RS and information entropy method are adopted to obtain the attribute power,and the maintenance power is evaluated and ranked by integrative value.The result of an example is in accordance with the fact,and the optimized sequence provides technique support for decision-making.%根据装备维修保障力量特点,以优化维修保障力量配置为目标,结合粗集(rough sets,RS)和多属性群决策理论,引入直觉模糊集(intuitionist fuzzy sets,IFS)处理复合型决策数据,建立基于IFS多属性粗集群决策的知识系统,用诱导集结算子融合群组信息,定义基于交叉熵的得分函数,并基于其评估结果构建粗集决策系统.采用综合的粗集信息熵属性重要度及粗集权重方法确定属性权重,通过对象的综合评价值判断其优劣,对装备维修保障力量进行优选排序.实例分析结果符合实际,最优排序结果为决策者提供技术支持.

  13. Cognitive Engineering of Advanced Information Technology for Air Force Systems Design and Deployment: Prototype for Air Defense Intelligence and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    communication. One approach to evaluation is anchored in multi-attribute utility assessment ( MAUA ) methodology. As Adelman suggests (1990), MAUA is a powerful...approaches are used to measure a range of behavioral phenomena. Figure 6.1 presents a generic MAUA evaluation structure comprised of criteria for systems

  14. Collocated cokriging and neural-network multi-attribute transform in the prediction of effective porosity: A comparative case study for the Second Wall Creek Sand of the Teapot Dome field, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seonghoon; Lee, Gwang H.; Kim, Hyeonju; Choi, Yosoon; Kim, Han-Joon

    2016-08-01

    Collocated cokriging (CCK) and neural-network multi-attribute transform (NN-MAT) are widely used in the prediction of reservoir properties because they can integrate sparsely-distributed, high-resolution well-log data and densely-sampled, low-resolution seismic data. CCK is a linear-weighted averaging method based on spatial covariance model. NN-MAT, based on a nonlinear relationship between seismic attributes and log values, treats data as spatially independent observations. In this study, we analyzed 3-D seismic and well-log data from the Second Wall Creek Sand of the Teapot Dome field, Wyoming, USA to investigate: (1) how CCK and NN-MAT perform in the prediction of porosity and (2) how the number of wells affects the results. Among a total of 64 wells, 25 wells were selected for CCK and NN-MAT and 39 wells were withheld for validation. We examined four cases: 25, 20, 15, and 10 wells. CCK overpredicted the porosity in the validation wells for all cases likely due to the strong influence of high values, but failed to predict very large porosities. Overprediction of CCK porosity becomes more pronounced with decreasing number of wells. NN-MAT largely underpredicted the porosity for all cases probably due to the band-limited nature of seismic data. The performance of CCK appears to be not affected significantly by the number of wells. Overall, NN-MAT performed better than CCK although its performance decreases continuously with decreasing number of wells.

  15. 基于直觉模糊信息多属性群决策的新方法%A New Method of Multi-attribute Large Group Decision Making Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶志富; 陈华友; 周礼刚

    2011-01-01

    给出了直觉模糊信息的比较可能度和数乘运算的概念,考虑了基于直觉模糊信息且属性权重完全未知的多属性群决策问题.基于直觉模糊熵权理论和相对熵原理建立相应最优化模型,讨论了模型的求解,获得了属性的客观权重和方案的最终权重,并依据方案的最终权重对方案进行排序.通过一个算例表明所提方法的有效性.%The comparing possibility and numerical multiplication of intuitionistic fuzzy information are given, and the multi-attribute group decision making based on intuitionistic fuzzy information and unknown weights of each attribute are considered. Some models on the basis of intuitionistic fuzzy entropy weights and relative entropy theory are contributed, their solutions are discussed, through which the corresponding objective weights of each attribute and the final weights of each scheme, and then obtain the order of all schemes based on the final scheme weights. Finally, a numerical example is introduced to show the application of this method.

  16. [Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach.

  17. Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model in combination with tool for multi-attributed decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. This paper extends previously published work entitled “Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model” to a general case where there is disagreement between groups of managers or expert...

  18. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  19. Multimodal imaging and detection approach to 18F-FDG-directed surgery for patients with known or suspected malignancies: a comprehensive description of the specific methodology utilized in a single-institution cumulative retrospective experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povoski Stephen P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 18F-FDG PET/CT is widely utilized in the management of cancer patients. The aim of this paper was to comprehensively describe the specific methodology utilized in our single-institution cumulative retrospective experience with a multimodal imaging and detection approach to 18F-FDG-directed surgery for known/suspected malignancies. Methods From June 2005-June 2010, 145 patients were injected with 18F-FDG in anticipation of surgical exploration, biopsy, and possible resection of known/suspected malignancy. Each patient underwent one or more of the following: (1 same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT imaging, (2 intraoperative gamma probe assessment, (3 clinical PET/CT specimen scanning of whole surgically resected specimens (WSRS, research designated tissues (RDT, and/or sectioned research designated tissues (SRDT, (4 micro PET/CT specimen scanning of WSRS, RDT, and/or SRDT, (5 total radioactivity counting of each SRDT piece by an automatic gamma well counter, and (6 same-day postoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT imaging. Results Same-day 18F-FDG injection dose was 15.1 (± 3.5, 4.6-26.1 mCi. Fifty-five same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scans were performed. One hundred forty-two patients were taken to surgery. Three of the same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scans led to the cancellation of the anticipated surgical procedure. One hundred forty-one cases utilized intraoperative gamma probe assessment. Sixty-two same-day postoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scans were performed. WSRS, RDT, and SRDT were scanned by clinical PET/CT imaging and micro PET/CT imaging in 109 and 32 cases, 33 and 22 cases, and 49 and 26 cases, respectively. Time from 18F-FDG injection to same-day preoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scan, intraoperative gamma probe assessment, and same-day postoperative patient diagnostic PET/CT scan were 73 (± 9, 53-114, 286 (± 93, 176-532, and 516 (± 134, 178-853 minutes

  20. The development and utilization prospect and approach of the characteristic economic forest of west area of Liaoning%辽宁西部地区特色经济林开发利用前景与途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铮; 王莹; 冯望

    2014-01-01

    The species character , application prospect and development and utilization prospect and approach of the charac -teristic economic forest of Aronia melanocarpa, Ribes rubrum L., Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt., Hippophaaerhamnoidesi, Cerasus humilis ( Bunge ) Sak and Hybrid hazelnuts which were suitable to develop in Liaoxi area was elucidated .Especially laying emphasis on developing characteristic economic forest species in the degraded site of Liaoxi area for the sake of a -chieving the dual function of protecting ecology and developing economy .%本文阐述了适宜辽西地区发展的黑果腺肋花楸、红醋栗、桤叶唐棣、大果沙棘、钙果、平欧杂交榛子等特色经济林树种特性、应用前景和开发利用途径。在辽西困难立地条件下,开发利用特色经济林树种,可以达到保护生态和发展经济的双重作用。

  1. Utilization-focused evaluation for agricultural innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Michael Quinn; Horton, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Utilization-focused evaluation (UFE) is based on the principle that an evaluation should be judged by its utility. So no matter how technically sound and methodologically elegant, an evaluation is not truly a good evaluation unless the findings are used. UFE is a framework for enhancing the likelihood that evaluation findings will be used and lessons will be learnt from the evaluation process. This Brief, based on the book Utilization-focused evaluation, introduces this approach to evaluation...

  2. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  3. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health.

  4. Utility usage forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, Jonathan R. M.; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2017-08-22

    The computer creates a utility demand forecast model for weather parameters by receiving a plurality of utility parameter values, wherein each received utility parameter value corresponds to a weather parameter value. Determining that a range of weather parameter values lacks a sufficient amount of corresponding received utility parameter values. Determining one or more utility parameter values that corresponds to the range of weather parameter values. Creating a model which correlates the received and the determined utility parameter values with the corresponding weather parameters values.

  5. Heterogeneous Evidence Chains Based Fusion Reasoning for Multi-attribute Group Decision Making%实体异构性下证据链融合推理的多属性群决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈江; 余海燕; 徐曼

    2015-01-01

    针对多属性群决策中可解释性证据融合推理的实体异构性问题,给出了一个实体异构性下证据链融合推理的多属性群决策方法。基于证据推理理论,引入证据链关联的概念,从多数据表提供的数据矩阵中获取可区分的近邻证据集,推导了各数据表的相似度矩阵,并构建半正定矩阵的二次优化模型,共享群决策专家的经验知识。使用Dempster 正交规则,论证了异构实体之间可解释性推理中可信度融合的合理性,并使用证据融合规则集成各个数据表的近邻证据中获得的可信度,验证了调和多源异构数据中不一致信息的有效性。通过具有实体异构性的心脏病多决策数据诊断实例说明了方法的可行性与合理性。%In multi-attribute group decision making, the heterogeneity of entities causes a lot difficulties for the inter-pretable evidence fusion reasoning process, thus a novel heterogeneous evidential chains based fusion reasoning (Hefur) method is proposed for multi-attribute group decision making. Based on the theory of evidential reasoning, the concept of evidential chain association is introduced to obtain the nearest neighbor set of distinct evidences from the data matrix of multiple decision tables. Similarity matrices are derived from data tables, and positive semi-definite matrix quadratic optimization model is built to share, sharing the experience knowledge of the group decision-making experts. Using the Dempster’s quadrature rule, the rationality of the belief integrating is verified in the interpretable reasoning process with heterogeneous entities, and the combined belief is obtained from nearest neighbor evidences for each data table using the evidence fusion rules. Moreover, the validity is verified for dealing with the harmonic information inconsistence of the multi-heterogeneous data sources. Numerical experiments on the heart disease diagnosis with entity

  6. A qualitative multi-attribute model for the selection of the private hydropower plant investments in Turkey: By foundation of the search results clustering engine (Carrot2), hydropower plant clustering, DEXi and DEXiTree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracoglu, B.O.

    2016-07-01

    The electricity demand in Turkey has been increasing for a while. Hydropower is one of the major electricity generation types to compensate this electricity demand in Turkey. Private investors (domestic and foreign) in the hydropower electricity generation sector have been looking for the most appropriate and satisfactory new private hydropower investment (PHPI) options and opportunities in Turkey. This study aims to present a qualitative multi-attribute decision making (MADM) model, that is easy, straightforward, and fast for the selection of the most satisfactory reasonable PHPI options during the very early investment stages (data and information poorness on projects). The data and information of the PHPI options was gathered from the official records on the official websites. A wide and deep literature review was conducted for the MADM models and for the hydropower industry. The attributes of the model were identified, selected, clustered and evaluated by the expert decision maker (EDM) opinion and by help of an open source search results clustering engine (Carrot2) (helpful for also comprehension). The PHPI options were clustered according to their installed capacities main property to analyze the options in the most appropriate, decidable, informative, understandable and meaningful way. A simple clustering algorithm for the PHPI options was executed in the current study. A template model for the selection of the most satisfactory PHPI options was built in the DEXi (Decision EXpert for Education) and the DEXiTree software. The basic attributes for the selection of the PHPI options were presented and afterwards the aggregate attributes were defined by the bottom-up structuring for the early investment stages. The attributes were also analyzed by help of Carrot2. The most satisfactory PHPI options in Turkey in the big options data set were selected for each PHPI options cluster by the EDM evaluations in the DEXi. (Author)

  7. 多属性群决策视角下的虚拟企业伙伴选择%Partner Selection of Virtual Enterprises in View of Multi-Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 肖人彬

    2011-01-01

    在虚拟企业组建过程中,合作伙伴的选择关系到虚拟企业的成败.为解决该问题,文中基于逼近理想点的基本思想,建立了属性值为区间数的伙伴选择多属性群决策模型.根据不同决策者对属性赋权的不同,得出候选企业相对于决策者个体理想点的接近度;根据决策者权威性的不同,得出候选企业相对于群体理想点的接近度,并据此对候选企业排序.最后通过一个算例验证了该方法是合理和有效的.%As the partner selection is crucial to the establishment of virtual enterprises, a multi-attribute group decision-making model is proposed based on the thought of similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), which takes the attribute values as the interval number. In this model, according to the individual weight of each decision maker for each attribute, the closeness of each candidate enterprise to the individual ideal point of each decision maker is obtained. Then, according to the authorities of all decision makers, the closeness of each candidate to the group ideal point is computed, by which a right order of candidate enterprises can be acquired. The rationality and feasibility of the proposed method is verified by a numerical example in the end.

  8. Application of Porosity Prediction Based on Seismic Multiattributes to Eastern Sichuan A Gas Field%基于地震多属性的孔隙度预测——以川东A气田为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新亮; 何丽箐; 吴俊

    2011-01-01

    利用基于地震多属性的孔隙度预测方法,可综合权衡各属性参数,更客观、有效地反映孔隙度的变化。建立测井孔隙度同地震属性联系,运用多元回归、误差分析、交叉验证等技术来确定最优的属性类型及数量;结合人工神经网络方法建立这些属性与测井孔隙度之间的映射关系,预测孔隙度在平面、垂向上的分布特征。首次将地震多属性孔隙度预测方法运用于川东A气田超致密砂岩储集层孔隙度的预测研究,取得了良好的效果。%Using porosity prediction method based on seismic multiattributes can comprehensively balance individual attribute parameters so that more objectively and effectively reflect the variation of porosity,develop the relationship between the well log porosity and the seismic attribute and determine the optimal type and amount of attribute by means of multielement regression,error analysis and cross-validation techniques,and finally establish the mapping relations between the attributes and well log porosity and predict the lateral and vertical distributions of porosity.This paper first applies this method to the eastern Sichuan A gas field and predicts the porosity distribution of its super-dense sandstone reservoir.And good result is gained.

  9. 基于多属性的移动终端安全接入网络认证协议%A SECURITY ACCESS NETWORK AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE DEVICES BASED ON MULTI-ATTRIBUTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕震方

    2013-01-01

    很多网络安全事件是由恶意用户具有较大访问的权限而引起的.先预防网络恶意行为的发生,首先解决好网络安全按入认证.基于此,提出一个基于多属性的移动终端安全接入网络认证协议.该协议将移动设备属性和用户属性映射为一个网络访问标识符,在移动设备和网络之间建立一个双向认证过程,并支持设备的移动性.另外网络在移动终端的访问过程中采取定期认证检验,避免假冒用户现象发生.仿真实验表明,该协议具有较好的安全性和较短的认证延时.%Many network security events are caused by malicious users which have greater access privileges.In order to prevent the occurrence of malicious behaviour in networks,the first is to solve the network security access authentication.Based on this concept,we present a multi-attribute based mobile terminal security access network authentication protocol.The protocol maps the attributes of both mobile devices and users to a network access identifier,sets up a mutual authentication process between the mobile devices and the networks,and the protocol supports the equipment mobility as well.Besides,the network will authenticate regularly the mobile terminal in its access process to avoid the fake user.Simulation results show that this authentication protocol has better security and a shorter authentication delay.

  10. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  11. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  12. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  13. Nonexpected utility and coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diecidue, E.

    2001-01-01

    The descriptive power of expected utility has been challenged by behavioral evidence showing that people deviate systematically from the expected utility paradigm. Since the end of the 70's several alternatives to the classical expected utility paradigm have been proposed in order to accommodate the

  14. Information, evolution and utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Samuelson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human utility embodies a number of seemingly irrational aspects. The leading example in this paper is that utilities often depend on the presence of salient unchosen alternatives. Our focus is to understand why an evolutionary process might optimally lead to such seemingly dysfunctional features in our motivations and to derive implications for the nature of our utility functions.

  15. Generalized dominance-based rough set approach to security evaluation with imprecise information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Liang; Xue Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The model of grey multi-attribute group decision-making(MAGDM)is studied,in which the attribute values are grey numbers.Based on the generalized dominance-based rough set approach(G-DRSA),a synthetic security evaluation method is presented.With the grey MAGDM security evaluation model as its foundation,the extension of technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS)integrates the evaluation of each decision-maker(DM)into a group's consensus and obtains the expected evaluation results of information system.Via the quality of sorting(QoS)of G-DRSA,the inherent information hidden in data is uncovered,and the security attribute weight and DMs'weight are rationally obtained.Taking the computer networks in a certain university as objects,the example illustrates that this method can effectively remove the bottleneck of the grey MAGDM model and has practical significance in the synthetic security evaluation.

  16. Fuzzy MADM Approach for Identification of Key Sectors of Tajikistan Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ASADULLO Abdulhamidov; TANG Bing-yong; LI Dan

    2006-01-01

    The development strategy, focused on the promotion of the efficient and prospective production sectors required for effectively solving social, economic and other problems becomes very important in resource allocation decision making process of developing countries. The structural hierarchy, comprising social, economic, technological and environmental aspects, which is involved in the selection of sectors constructed according to the hierarchical system of objectives. The Fuzzy Multi-attribute Decision Making method is used to rank the sectors by indicating the degree to which an alternative satisfies the global objectives of criteria obtained by aggregation operations in fuzzy environment. By applying the developed approach to defming and identifying the key sectors of an economy, we can rank the aggregated 17 sectors of the Tajikistan economy according to their degree of achievement in satisfying key criteria.

  17. A response-time approach to comparing generalized rational and take-the-best models of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergert, F Bryan; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The authors develop and test generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for subjective attribute weighting, probabilistic orders of attribute inspection, and noisy decision making. A key new test involves a response-time (RT) approach. TTB predicts that RT is determined solely by the expected time required to locate the 1st discriminating attribute, whereas RAT predicts that RT is determined by the difference in summed evidence between the 2 alternatives. Critical test pairs are used that partially decouple these 2 factors. Under conditions in which ideal observer TTB and RAT strategies yield equivalent decisions, both the RT results and the estimated attribute weights suggest that the vast majority of subjects adopted the generalized TTB strategy. The RT approach is also validated in an experimental condition in which use of a RAT strategy is essentially forced upon subjects.

  18. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  19. Capturing the Stakeholders’ View in Sustainability Reporting: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bellantuono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reporting is the process by which companies describe how they deal with their own economic, environmental, and social impacts, thus making stakeholders able to recognize the value of sustainable practices. As stressed in the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines, which act as a de facto standard for sustainability reporting, sustainable reports should take into account the stakeholders’ view. In particular, engaging stakeholders is essential to carry out the materiality analysis, by which organizations can identify their own more relevant sustainability aspects. Yet, on the one hand, the existing guidelines do not provide specific indications on how to get stakeholders actually engaged; on the other hand, research on quantitative techniques to support stakeholder engagement in materiality analysis is scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is the development of a quantitative structured approach based on multi-attribute group decision-making techniques to effectively and reliably support stakeholder engagement during materiality analysis in sustainability reporting. As it more strictly guides the reporting process, the proposed approach at the same time simplifies materiality analysis and makes it more reliable. Though any company can adopt the approach, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are expected to particularly benefit from it, due to the quite limited implementation effort that is required. With this respect, the approach has been validated on a sample of Italian SMEs belonging to different sectors.

  20. Evaluating the comparative effectiveness of different demand side interventions to increase maternal health service utilization and practice of birth spacing in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: an innovative, mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbaugh, Mari; Bapolisi, Wyvine; van de Weerd, Jennie; Zabiti, Michel; Mommers, Paula; Balaluka, Ghislain Bisimwa; Merten, Sonja

    2017-07-03

    In this protocol we describe a mixed methods study in the province of South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo evaluating the effectiveness of different demand side strategies to increase maternal health service utilization and the practice of birth spacing. Conditional service subsidization, conditional cash transfers and non-monetary incentives aim to encourage women to use maternal health services and practice birth spacing in two different health districts. Our methodology will comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches against each other and no intervention. This study comprises four main research activities: 1) Formative qualitative research to determine feasibility of planned activities and inform development of the quantitative survey; 2) A community-based, longitudinal survey; 3) A retrospective review of health facility records; 4) Qualitative exploration of intervention acceptability and emergent themes through in-depth interviews with program participants, non-participants, their partners and health providers. Female community health workers are engaged as core members of the research team, working in tandem with female survey teams to identify women in the community who meet eligibility criteria. Female community health workers also act as key informants and community entry points during methods design and qualitative exploration. Main study outcomes are completion of antenatal care, institutional delivery, practice of birth spacing, family planning uptake and intervention acceptability in the communities. Qualitative methods also explore decision making around maternal health service use, fertility preference and perceptions of family planning. The innovative mixed methods design allows quantitative data to inform the relationships and phenomena to be explored in qualitative collection. In turn, qualitative findings will be triangulated with quantitative findings. Inspired by the principles of grounded theory, qualitative

  1. 基于直觉模糊理论的混合多属性 Web 服务选择%Hybrid multi-attribute Web service selection based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小林; 张力娜

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the multiple services with the same or similar function,a hybrid multi-attribute Web service selection based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory was proposed.The QoS attributes were divided into the exact numeric type,interval numeric type and linguistic type.The calculation method for the QoS preference of users was obtained with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).In addition,the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS)theory was introduced to unify the hybrid QoS attributes into the intuitionistic fuzzy number,and the intuitionistic fuzzy weighted arithmetic average operator was used to assemble the indexes of QoS decision matrix.Moreover,the ranking for each decision scheme was performed with the intuitionistic fuzzy scoring function,and the Web service selection based on QoS was realized.The results of example verification show that the proposed method has certain effectiveness.%针对多个功能相同或相似的服务,提出了基于直觉模糊理论的混合多属性 Web 服务选择。将 QoS 属性分为精确数值型、区间数值型和语言型,并利用层次分析法给出了用户 QoS 偏好的计算方法。引入直觉模糊集理论将混合型 QoS 属性统一为直觉模糊数,采用直觉模糊加权算术平均算子对 QoS 决策矩阵各指标集结,利用直觉模糊得分函数对各决策方案进行排序,实现了基于 QoS 的 Web 服务选择。实例验证结果表明,该方法具有一定的有效性。

  2. Multi-attribute decision making method based on improved similarity measure of intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets%基于直觉模糊粗糙集相似度的多属性决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范成礼; 邢清华; 邹志刚; 范学渊

    2014-01-01

    将直觉模糊粗糙集应用于多属性决策问题,提出了基于改进的直觉模糊粗糙集相似度的多属性决策方法。针对现有的直觉模糊粗糙集相似度忽略犹豫度而造成度量不精确的问题,提出了一种改进的直觉模糊粗糙集相似性度量方法,并揭示其若干重要性质。在此基础上,将属性值用直觉模糊粗糙集表示,并通过各个方案与直觉模糊粗糙集正、负理想方案的相似度比较,实现决策方案排序。数值实例表明了该方法的可行性和有效性,其在态势评估、目标识别等信息融合领域有良好的应用前景。%Intuitionistic Fuzzy Rough Sets(IFRS) are applied to the problems of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), and the method of MADM base on the improved similarity measure of IFRS is presented. Firstly, the im-proved similarity measure of IFRS is proposed which conquers the question of accurate degree of similarity measure by adding the hesitancy degree, and several important characters of it are revealed. Furthermore, the new method compares the alternatives with positive and negative ideal solution to realize alternative ranking, whose attribute values are consid-ered as IFRS. At last, the practical example shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, which has the preferable application foreground in information fusion field, such as situation assessment and target recognition.

  3. 基于多专家区间数的多属性群决策方法%Method for multi-attribute group decision-making based on multi-experts' interval numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛军军; 王翠翠; 姚登宝

    2012-01-01

    针对区间数的多专家多属性决策问题,提出了一种基于非线性规划模型的群决策方法.该方法建立如下准则:在不同对象和属性下,当某专家的估计值与所有专家估计值的均值越靠近时,则其专家权重就越大;反之就越小.基于该准则利用区间距离公式和规划模型解决了专家权重难以确定的问题.结合集成算子理论,利用区间数算术平均算子将决策矩阵集成为综合决策矩阵,再利用属性权重将其集成为综合属性值,通过二维可能度建立比较可能度矩阵,然后利用排序向量法进行排序.最后通过实例分析验证了该方法的可行性和合理性.%A group decision-making method based on non-linear programming model was proposed for multi-attribute problem based on multi-experts' interval numbers. This method had constructed the following principles: under different objects and attribute conditions, the weight of an expert would be bigger if his evaluation value was close to the mean value of all experts' evaluation; on the other hand, smaller. Based on this, the problem that experts' weights were hard to be determined had been solved successfully with interval distance formula and programming model. According to aggregated operator theory, decision-making matrices had be aggregated into a collective decision-making matrix by use of interval weighted arithmetic aggregated operator, then aggregated into an overall attribute value by attribute weights, and with two-dimensions possibility degree, a possibility degree matrix had been constructed to rank all objects by ranking vectors method. Finally, a case study was presented to verify the proposed method's feasibility and rationality.

  4. Web Service Composition Optimization Method Based on QoS Multi-attribute Decision Making%基于QoS多属性决策的Web服务组合优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳; 陈富赞

    2015-01-01

    从海量候选服务组合计划中选择具有最优/满意服务质量( QoS)的计划,即基于QoS的Web服务组合,是面向服务计算的难题之一。为此,将该问题建模为多属性决策问题,同时针对传统多属性决策方法难以处理海量搜索空间的问题,提出一种结合折中比例法和遗传算法的新型智能进化算法( GACRM )。 GACRM结合了折中比例法的方案排序优势和遗传算法高效的全局搜索能力,能够从海量搜索空间中快速找到全局近似最优解。实验结果表明,该算法不仅能够高效地产生与折中比例法接近的最优方案排序,且在解决大规模Web服务组合问题上具有良好的可伸缩性。%The problem of Quality of Service ( QoS)-based Web Service Composition ( QWSC), i. e. , selecting an optimal/satisfactory Service Composition Plan( SCP) from numerous candidate plans on the basis of QoS properties,is the most critical issue in the service-oriented computing. In this paper,the problem of QWSC is formulated as a Multi-Attribute Decision Making ( MADM ) representation. Furthermore, an intelligent evolutionary algorithm:Genetic Algorithm based Compromise Ratio Method ( GACRM ) is developed to solve the MADM problem. Combining with the advantage of Compromise Ratio Method( CRM) in terms of ranking alternatives,together with the superiority of Genetic Algorithm( GA) in terms of global search,GACRM is capable of finding an approximate optimal solution from a massive search space. Experimental result shows that GACRM is highly efficient and scalable for large-scale QWSC problems.

  5. VIKOR Method for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making%直觉模糊多属性群决策的 VIKOR 方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张市芳

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of the totally unknown attribute weights and the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers given to the attribute values ,a decision making method based on VIKOR (Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje ) is presented .Firstly ,the group decision making information is obtained by using the intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA ) operator to aggregate all the individual decision making information .Then ,the entropy weights of the criteria are obtained by utilizing the intuitionistic fuzzy entropy formula .According to the basic concept of the traditional VIKOR method and by means of the distance formula of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers ,the alternatives are ranked ,from w hich the best ones are picked over .Finally ,the analysis of a numerical example proves the practicality and feasibility of the proposed method .%针对属性权重信息完全未知且属性值以直觉模糊数形式给出的多属性群决策问题,提出了一种基于多准则妥协解排序的决策方法。利用直觉模糊加权平均算子集成所有的个体决策信息,以获取群决策信息。利用直觉模糊数熵权公式求得属性的熵权。依据传统VIKOR法的基本思想,结合直觉模糊数的距离公式,对备选方案进行排序择优。文中通过实例分析,表明该方法的实用性与可行性。

  6. Methods to improve computer-assisted seismic interpretation using seismic attributes: Multiattribute display, spectral data reduction, and attributes to quantify structural deformation and velocity anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao

    Computer-assisted seismic interpretation gained widespread acceptance in the mid 1980s that no 3D survey and few 2D surveys are interpreted without the aid of an interpretation workstation. Geoscientists routinely quantify features of geologic interest and enhance their interpretation through the use of seismic attributes. Typically these attributes are examined sequentially, or within different interpretation windows. In this dissertation, I present two novel means of presenting the information content of multiple attributes by a single image. In the first approach, I show how two, three, or four attributes can be displayed by an appropriate use of color. I use a colorstack model of Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) to map attributes of similar type such as volumes of near-, mid-, and far-angle amplitude or low-, moderate-, high-frequency spectral components. I use an HLS model to display a theme attribute modulated by another secondary attribute, such as dip magnitude modulating dip azimuth, or amplitude of the peak spectral frequency modulating the phase measured at the peak frequency. Transparency/opacity provides a 4th color dimension and provides additional attribute modulation capabilities. In the second approach I use principal component analysis to reduce the multiplicity of redundant data into a smaller, more manageable number of components. The importance of each principal component is proportional to its corresponding eigenvalue. By mapping the three largest principal components against red, green, and blue, we can represent more than 80% of the original information with a single colored image. I then use these tools to help quantify and correlate structural deformation with velocity anisotropy. I develop an innovative algorithm that automatically counts the azimuth distribution of the fast P-wave velocity (or alternatively, the strike of the structural lineaments) weighted by the amount of anisotropy (or the intensity of the lineaments) at any point in the

  7. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhangBing Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability.

  8. Asymptotics of robust utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Knispel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.

  9. Multi-attribute cloud resources range-query algorithm based on hierarchical P2P cloud network%一种基于分层云对等网络的多属性云资源区间查找算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 陈世平; 蒲云花

    2016-01-01

    In order to research the problem how to locate multi-attribute cloud resources quickly in cloud P2P network,consi-dering the advantage of cloud P2P network,this paper proposed a multi-attribute cloud resources query algorithm based on cloud P2P network.This algorithm established multi-dimensional indexes on the hierarchical cloud P2P network by the type and value of cloud resources.First,it aggregated the correlative data to a resource cluster,then divided the resource value range into multiple sections and stored the corresponding resources therein.At the same time,it designed the mechanism of resource clus-ters mergence and section-neighbors maintenance to make the algorithm more efficient and scalable.The results show that this algorithm realizes multi-attribute cloud resources query fast and efficiently.It will not produce larger query delay with the in-crease of nodes and type dimension and it has a good scalability.%为了研究多维属性云资源在云对等网络中快速定位问题,结合云对等网络的优势,提出一种基于云对等网络的多属性云资源的查找算法。在分层云对等网络的基础上,分别利用云资源的类型和属性值建立多维索引。首先根据类型索引将相关的数据聚集在同一个资源簇内;然后将属性值的值域划分为多个区段,并将相应资源存储其中。同时建立资源簇融合、区间邻居维护等机制使算法更具效率和扩展性。仿真实验表明,该算法实现了多属性云资源的快速定位,它不会随着网络节点和类型维度增加而产生较大查询迟延,具有很好的扩展性。

  10. Risk and utility in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Morrel H.; Natoli, Vincent D.

    2003-06-01

    Modern portfolio theory (MPT) addresses the problem of determining the optimum allocation of investment resources among a set of candidate assets. In the original mean-variance approach of Markowitz, volatility is taken as a proxy for risk, conflating uncertainty with risk. There have been many subsequent attempts to alleviate that weakness which, typically, combine utility and risk. We present here a modification of MPT based on the inclusion of separate risk and utility criteria. We define risk as the probability of failure to meet a pre-established investment goal. We define utility as the expectation of a utility function with positive and decreasing marginal value as a function of yield. The emphasis throughout is on long investment horizons for which risk-free assets do not exist. Analytic results are presented for a Gaussian probability distribution. Risk-utility relations are explored via empirical stock-price data, and an illustrative portfolio is optimized using the empirical data.

  11. Contribution of the Multi-attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental system (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Llopis-Albert, C.

    2012-04-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, with consideration of environmental, economic and social objectives, claims for participatory water resource management methods. To deal with different conflicting objectives it is necessary to apply a method for clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying values and opinions of stakeholders, and quantifying their valuations), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from alternatives towards fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach) and valuing trade-offs, facilitating negotiation. The method allows the incorporation of stakeholders in the planning process, which should guarantee a higher acceptance of the policies to be implemented. This research has been conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system Spain, subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. The main goals according to the WFD are: a good qualitative and quantitative status of the aquifer and a good quantitative and ecological status of related surface water resources (mainly the Jucar river and dependent ecosystems). The aim is to analyze the contribution of the MAVT for conflict resolution and a sustainable groundwater management, involving the stakeholders in the valuation process. A complex set of objectives and attributes has been defined. The alternatives have been evaluated according to the compliance of ecological, economic and social interests. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation status. A high conflict potential is expected from alternatives consisting of one unique measure. Uncertainties of the results are notable, but do not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. Different future scenarios also influence on the preference of alternatives. For instance, an expected reduction of future groundwater resources by climate change increases the conflict potential, with two

  12. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  13. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  14. Utilization of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machihara, A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical structure of lignin, the composition of pulping spent liquors, conversion of lignin into fine chemicals, utilization of lignin products, and physical and chemical properties of lignin and and derivatives are reviewed. (Refs 29).

  15. UtilityOther_ELCFRANCHISE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate and should be used...

  16. UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC data layer contains points which are intended to represent the location of telecommunications facilities (towers and/or antennas) in...

  17. Biotechnology of space utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumiya, Hiroyuki

    1989-10-05

    This paper introdued the practical results of biotechnological experiments utilizing features of space and the present Japanese plan. The electrophoresis and crystal growth of protein utilize the microgravity field and cell culture utilizes the influence of microgravity on organism. Of practical results in space experiments, the electrophoresis was made by US but others were carried out by Europian countries. It was thought that the electrophoresis utilizing space environment could be demonstrated to be promosing for the separating and refining techniques by the experiment on the basis of the Apolo Project. The crystal growth of protein was reported by Litke of Denmark as to the crystal of lyzozyme. The space experiment of cell culture was carried out by Cogoli of Switzerland as to the culture of lymphocyte in the Shattle. Japan is studying the primary material experiment project(FMPT) in the Space Shattle and unmanned experiment for electrophoresis. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  19. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  20. 基于信息熵的多属性决策方法在商品住宅价格中的研究%Research of Entropy-based Multi-attribute Decision-making Method in Commercial Residence Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一洁

    2012-01-01

    In the market economy, real estate prices play an important function and role in the economic development and economic operation of the real estate, therefore, forecasting price the changes in housing price and how to rationally develop housing prices is particularly important. Price forecast, in essence, is the decision-making activity which reflects on the numerical value. This paper conducted predicted study on housing prices, combing with multi-attribute decision model and regression analysis. Through the selection of parts of macroscopical factors of affecting housing prices to build entropy-based multi-attribute decision-making model, the relationships between various factors and housing prices are obtained, and housing prices are predicted by regression analysis.%在市场经济条件下,房地产价格在房地产经济发展和房地产经济运行中有着重要的功能和作用,因此,对房价变动的预测以及如何能够合理制定房价,显得尤为重要.价格的预测,究其本质,是一种体现在数值上的决策活动,本文结合了多属性综合决策模型与回归分析对房价进行了预测研究.通过选取影响房价的部分宏观因素,建立基于熵的多属性综合决策模型,得到各因素与房价之间的关系,并通过回归分析,对房价进行预测.

  1. 基于多重属性的P2P网络节点重要性度量方法%P2 P network node importance measurement method based on multi-attribute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓磊; 杨岳湘; 何杰

    2014-01-01

    P2P network node importance measurement is of importance in practical application. Due to that the evaluation results based on some existing node importance evaluation metrics have the shortcoming of one-sidedness, therefore the importance of nodes in P2P network can' t be evaluated effectively by single metric. To solve this problem, a comprehensive metric based on multi-attribute was proposed. Node degree was selected as the basis of the comparision, the inherent relevance between various metrics was firstly analyzed through the Kendall correlation coefficient compution and a comprehensive evaluation metric based on degree, betweenness, K-core and PageRank were used to compute the comprehensive metric. Through the experiment verification by real P2P network, the comprehensive evaluation metric can more effectively evaluate the node importance in P2P network when compared to original single metrics and existing comprehensive metrics. Also the comprehensive metrics has so strong universality that can be used to most other P2P networks.%P2 P网络中的节点重要性评价在实际应用中有重要意义。现有的一些重要性评价指标如度、紧密度等存在度量结果较为片面等缺点,单一指标并不能有效地对P2 P网络中的节点重要性进行度量。针对此问题,提出了一种基于多重属性的综合度量指标。以节点度作为对比基础,计算多个度量指标与节点度指标的肯德尔相关系数,通过分析多个指标之间的内在关联性,最终选择节点度、介数、K-核和PageRank四个属性来进行节点重要性的综合度量。通过真实的P2 P网络进行实验验证,结果表明,相对原有单一度量指标和现有的综合度量指标,该综合指标更能够有效地对P2 P网络中的节点重要性进行度量,而且具有较强的普适性,可以应用到大多数P2 P网络中。

  2. Multi-Attribute Network Process Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Smart Grid and Its Application%智能电网多属性网络层次组合评价法及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 葛旭波; 刘林; 张义斌; 徐欣

    2012-01-01

    According to developing features and basic attributions of smart grids in China, a smart grid comprehensive evaluation index system, which is based on strongness, reliability, efficiency, economy, environmental friendliness and interaction, is established, and a multi-attribute network process comprehensive evaluation method and a calculation and analysis model for comprehensive evaluation of smart grid are proposed. In the proposed model, the entropy weight-analytic network process (ANP), which combines subjectivity with objectivity, is used for weight analysis, and according to the features of smart grid attributes a combinational evaluation method based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)-entropy weight-ANP and a combinational evaluation method based on grey correlation degree-entropy weight-ANP are put forward for the evaluation on different attributes of smart grid. Results of applying the proposed method in practical case shows that the proposed method is valuable in following aspects: adjusting and perfecting of planning and layout of smart grid, clarifying the technology roadmap and key fields for development of smart grid, summarizing and analyzing implementation effect of smart grid construction, and so on.%根据我国智能电网的发展特点和基本属性,构建了基于坚强性、可靠性、高效性、经济性、环境友好性和互动性的智能电网综合评价指标体系,提出了开展智能电网综合评价的多属性网络层次组合评价方法和计算分析模型.该模型采用主客观结合的熵权-网络层次分析(analytic network process,ANP)法作为权重分析方法,根据智能电网属性指标的特点,分别提出采用理想点排序法(the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution,TOPSIS)-熵权-ANP组合评价和灰色关联度-熵权-ANP组合评价进行智能电网不同属性的评估.通过在案例中的应用分析表明,该方法可为调

  3. 基于聚类的多属性群决策专家权重确定方法%A Method for Determining the Experts’ Weights of Multi-Attribute Group Decision-Making Based on Clustering Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立华; 王栎绮; 张连营

    2014-01-01

    对于多属性群决策中专家权重确定的问题,本文提出了基于聚类的专家权重确定方法,将专家权重分为类别间权重和类别内权重,对专家聚类步骤和类别间权重的计算方法进行了改进。通过专家给出的判断矩阵构建相容度矩阵,利用系统聚类原理,对相容度矩阵进行聚类,得到最大相容度谱系图。通过最大相容度间的距离和给定阈值的比较,对专家进行恰当分类,从而避免了根据现有研究步骤只能将专家分为两类的不足。此外,在确定类别间权重时,除继续对类容量较大的类赋予较大的类别间权重系数外,还引入专家判断矩阵的属性权重一致性来反映类别间的差异,从而有效避免了当某几类专家中含有相等数目专家时,赋予这几类专家相同类别间权重系数的问题。所提方法结构清晰、计算简便,并使得专家权重计算结果更为合理准确。最后运用一个算例对比验证了该方法的可行性和有效性。%An experts’ weight determining method based on the experts ’ weights clustering analysis is proposed to determine the experts’ weights of multi-attribute group decision-making.The experts’ weight is divided into the weights between categories and within category .The steps of experts ’ clustering and the calculation method of the weights between categories are improved .The clustering pedigree chart of the maximum compatibility de-gree is got by building the expert judgment compatibility matrix according to the expert judgment matrix , making use of the system clustering principle to cluster the compatibility degree matrix .The experts are classified proper-ly according to the comparison of the distance between the maximum compatibility degree and the given threshold value, which overcomes the shortcoming of only clustering the experts into two categories in existing literatures . In addition, while determining the

  4. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...... are important, but that economics cannot alone explain the differences in health care utilization....

  5. High-value utilization of egg shell to synthesize Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles and their application for the degradation of hazardous dyes from aqueous phase-A green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-09-01

    The common household material, egg shell of Anas platyrhynchos is utilized for the synthesis of Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles using greener, environment friendly and economic way. The egg shell extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates and solvents. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, concentration in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of NPs have also been presented. The synthesized Ag NPs formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of particles in the range of 6-26 nm. While, Au-Ag core shell nanoparticles formed were spherical and oval shaped, within a narrow size spectrum of 9-18 nm. Both the Ag NPs Au-and Ag core shell nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure and surface plasmon resonance at 430 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B and Methylene Blue from aqueous phase. Approximately 98.2%, 98.4% and 97% degradations of Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B, and Methylene Blue were observed with Ag NPs, while the percentage degradation of these dyes was 97.3%, 97.6% and 96% with Au-Ag NPs, respectively. Therefore, the present study has opened up an innovative way for synthesizing Ag NPs and Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures of different morphologies and sizes involving the utilization of egg shell extract. The high efficiency of the NPs as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dyes from the industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogenesis, characterization, and the effect of vicenin-gold nanoparticles on glucose utilization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: a bioinformatic approach to illuminate its interaction with PTP 1B and AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Shivashri; Thada, Rajarajeshwari; Dhandapani, Ramesh Kumar; Panchamoorthy, Rajasekar

    2015-01-01

    This study reported the synthesis of Vicenin-2 gold nanoparticles (VN-AuNPs) and evaluated their effect on the glucose utilization efficiency of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The VN-AuNPs were characterized by microscopic, DLS and spectral analysis. The bio-reducing efficiency of Vicenin-2 (VN) was computed and confirmed by HPLC analysis. The stability of VN-AuNPs in various physiological media was explored. The cytotoxicity and glucose uptake assays were performed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The docking of VN with PTP1B and AMPK was also performed. The color change and UV absorption at 537 nm preliminarily confirmed the VN reduced gold nanoparticles. The VN-AuNPs appeared as spherical particles (57 nm) and face centered cubic crystals under TEM and XRD analysis, respectively. Its zeta potential was found to be -6.53 mV. The FT-IR spectra of VN and its AuNPs confirmed its stability. The computed reducing potential of VN was similar to the extent of VN utilized during the synthesis of VN-AuNPs. The VN-AuNPs showed a remarkable stability in different physiological media. At 100 µM concentration, VN-AuNPs displayed 78.21% cell viability. A concentration dependent increase in glucose uptake was noted in 3T3-L1 adipocytes when incubated with VN-AuNPs. The docking data revealed a strong interaction of VN with the binding pockets of PTP1B and AMPK. This demonstrates that the fabricated VN-AuNPs might enhance the intracellular VN availability mediated cellular glucose utilization and this would serve as a novel nanodrug for the management of diabetes.

  7. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The work reported here is on the reservoir characterization and project design objective. This objective is scheduled to be completed in early 1996 at which time work on the field demonstration phase is scheduled to begin.

  8. Module utilization committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  9. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  10. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  11. What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuld, L.M.; Borska, D.L. [Fuld & Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer (rather than competitor) intelligence is desparately needed, (2) Competitor Costs-As prices drive markets, utilities must learn how competitors use the technology to gain a cost advantage, and (3) Market Savvy-Recognizing threats means more that just crunching the numbers. It means converting raw data into a strategy that will expose a competitor`s weakness. The complex economics will require companies to apply all types of intelligence to solve competitive problems. This coherent approach requires changes in the way both management and the organization handle vital intelligence.

  12. Obsolescence, Weeding, and the Utilization of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests an objective approach to weeding library materials and discusses ways of measuring obsolescence and of controlling variables to provide a true picture of aging. Weeding is shown to improve space utilization and the quality of a collection. (5 references) (MES)

  13. Deriving minimal models for resource utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brinke, Steven; Bockisch, Christoph; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh; Aksit, Mehmet; Katz, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    We show how compact Resource Utilization Models (RUMs) can be extracted from concrete overly-detailed models of systems or sub-systems in order to model energy-aware software. Using the Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) approach, along with model-checking tools, abstract models

  14. Nutrient Digestion and Utilization in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present current research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fish. The book is organised into six sections that cover a range of topics and modelling approaches; these are (i) absorption and passage; (ii) growth and devel

  15. Utilizing the Design Charrette for Teaching Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jason B.; Seymour, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the design charrette as a method for teaching sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a student-based design charrette for the Mississippi Gulf Coast comprising a framework for teaching sustainability. An assessment of the charrette's role in promoting sustainability in higher…

  16. Utilities:Other:Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:utilpnt_other)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, not including water- and power-related utilities, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities...

  17. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  18. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  19. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  20. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-01-01

    After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  1. Windpower utilization possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities of windpower utilization for mechanical pumps, electric generators, mechanical water vortex pumps, and heat pumps are reviewed. Application possibilities can be realized by windpower systems of different size. It must however be determined for which purpose and for which power range they are used. The site and the concomitant wind potential is of utmost importance. Small units in the 10 kW power range are very interesting for autonomous or semiautonomous energy supply.

  2. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  3. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  4. Adaptable formations utilizing heterogeneous unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Laura E.; Garcia, Richard; Fields, MaryAnne; Valavanis, Kimon

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling and coordinating heterogeneous unmanned systems required to move as a group while maintaining formation. We propose a strategy to coordinate groups of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) with one or more unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs can be utilized in one of two ways: (1) as alpha robots to guide the UGVs; and (2) as beta robots to surround the UGVs and adapt accordingly. In the first approach, the UAV guides a swarm of UGVs controlling their overall formation. In the second approach, the UGVs guide the UAVs controlling their formation. The unmanned systems are brought into a formation utilizing artificial potential fields generated from normal and sigmoid functions. These functions control the overall swarm geometry. Nonlinear limiting functions are defined to provide tighter swarm control by modifying and adjusting a set of control variables forcing the swarm to behave according to set constraints. Formations derived are subsets of elliptical curves but can be generalized to any curvilinear shape. Both approaches are demonstrated in simulation and experimentally. To demonstrate the second approach in simulation, a swarm of forty UAVs is utilized in a convoy protection mission. As a convoy of UGVs travels, UAVs dynamically and intelligently adapt their formation in order to protect the convoy of vehicles as it moves. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the approach using a fully autonomous group of three UGVs and a single UAV helicopter for coordination.

  5. Time functions as utilities

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E

    2009-01-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed...

  6. Design and Implementation of Ultra-Small-Size and Ultra-Low-Power Digital Systems on GaAs-based Hexagonal Nanowire Networks Utilizing a Hexagonal BDD Quantum Circuit Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, S.; Yumoto, M; Sato, T.; Hasegawa, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses feasibility of design and future implementation of ultrasmall-size and ultra-low-power digital logic systems by a hexagonal BDD (binary-decision diagram) quantum circuit approach. The discussion is based on various circuits formed on GaAs-based hexagonal nanowire networks controlled by nanometer scale Schottky wrap gates (WPGs). Starting from basic node devices and elementary logic function blocks, fabrication technology of hexagonal BDD quantum circuits up to 8-bit adder...

  7. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  8. Adapting to Sea Level Rise to the Year 2100 and Beyond in the State of Florida, USA: A Regional Approach Based upon Common Vulnerabilities and the Utility of Shared Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Harlem, P. W.; Meeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the vulnerability of all 35 Florida coastal counties to the ongoing Anthropocene marine transgression unconstrained by the artificial end date of year 2100. Coastal submergence was emulated using a 'bathtub model' and rising sea level associated with an atmospheric temperature increase of +1 oC to +4 oC (see Levermann et al. [1]). Simulation results are organized into seven regions, each representing an area of common vulnerability characterized in this study as high (9% to 30% land loss), higher (16 to 68% land loss) and highest (48% to 97% land loss). This grouping provides a logical basis for establishing or re-enforcing collaboration based upon a common threat and the utility of shared technical and financial resources. Our bathtub model assumes Florida terrain is simply submerged as the shoreline migrates across a static landscape without change in the physical and biological materials subject to marine transgression. However, geologic studies of past and present Florida shorelines indicate the rate of rise is as important as the magnitude when predicting coastal response. To determine the utility of the bathtub model as a representative simulation of Florida's response to future sea level rise, we considered Florida's coastal response to varying rates of sea level rise over the last 14,000 years. Available data clearly demonstrate predicted rates of sea level rise will result in widespread submergence; the rate of rise will be too fast to be offset by the stabilizing forces of biogenic or physical sediment accumulation. Hence the magnitude of land loss and associated shoreline retreat in each of the seven Florida regions - and likely other coastal zones in the southeast U.S. - will be solely a function of topographic elevation and can therefore be reasonably forecast using a bathtub model. While our focus is on Florida's coastal counties, we recognize in some regions the effects of sea level rise will extend further inland. In these areas, the

  9. Fuzzy Multi-attribute Auction Model Used for Merger and Acquisition Decisions of State-owned Enterprises under Incomplete Preference Information%不完全偏好信息下国有企业并购多属性拍卖的模糊决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦全德; 王晓晖; 李荣钧

    2012-01-01

    In the past twenty years, the auction theory has grown into one of the most prominent applied economics theories. Auction is an effective way to optimize the allocation of market through competitive bidding in order to produce the market equilibrium price. The early auction theory often studies the single-attribute auction, in which price is the only factor considered. Many researchers suggest that multi-attribute auction should be adopted because of its feasibility in the purchasing economics theory. How to design proper mechanisms and select the winner are two critical problems in the multi-attribute auction. Mergers and acquisitions ( M&A) of state-owned enterprises in China are mostly done by the government through negotiation and consultation, which may not only increase the rent-seeking behavior, resulting in the loss of state assets, but also lead to inefficiency of resource allocation. It has demonstrated that auction in the M&A of state-owned enterprises can effectively enhance the effectiveness of asset allocation and reduce the loss of state-owned assets. From the perspective of the social overall effectiveness, the method of multi-attribute auctions is more effective than single-attribute auctions. Based on the analysis of the outstanding questions in M&A of state-owned enterprises, this article develops the multi-attribute auction and a set of decision-making attributes for state-owned enterprises. In this attribute set, some quantitative and qualitative factors have to be considered. As the extension of traditional fuzzy set, vague sets are characterized by a truth-membership function and a false-membership function, which makes it more flexible and practical than traditional fuzzy sets. As for this reason, vague sets method is used to describe the fuzzy information for state-owned enterprises. We define a new distance measure of vague sets, which integrate the merits of Hamming distance and Hausdorff distance, and prove that the measure meets the

  10. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  11. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  12. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  13. MUNI-FITS-Utils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastina, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The FITS standard allows arbitrary use of name-space for keywords, except some reserved keywords. Result of this freedom is that several keywords have the same meaning. Similar problem is that values of keywords have different physical units. These facts complicate automated data processing and also creation of FITS file archives with simple structure. MUNI-FITS-Utils is a package of Python scripts which have been developed in PyFITS, a Python FITS Module. Scripts are user-friendly and allow manipulating FITS headers to get uniform shape. Further functions will be added soon.

  14. Meeting processing challenges in clean coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Barnwal, J.P. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2003-02-01

    The paper identifies some of the major challenges facing processing for clean coal utilization today. Some of the ongoing research at Southern Illinois University in the areas of plant optimization, fine coal cleaning and dewatering, fine coal-water slurry combustion, development of multiple products and mine-mouth utilization for lower grade products, and co-management of coal processing wastes and coal combustion byproducts underground, or as a cover material suitable for vegetation in surface mine reclamation is approaching commercialization. Additional research has been initiated recently in low cost desulfurization for SOx reduction, and/or reducing scrubbing costs. An integrated approach to evaluating processing unit operation for enhancing overall profitability of a mining complex is paying dividends. The approach is a good tool to assess role of processing for clean coal utilization in any setting. The authors have attempted to demonstrate its use for Indian coals. They plan to develop a computer program for making this integrated assessment approach more user friendly. 33 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  17. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, June 3, 1994--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    The work reported here covers Budget Phase I of the project. The principal tasks in Budget Phase I are the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task. Completion of these tasks have enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed and evaluated from an economic and risk analysis standpoint. Field implementation of the project has been recommended to the working interest owner of the South Cowden Unit (SCU) and approval has been obtained. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take or pay requirements, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing cost as opposed to large capital investments for compression) were negotiated to further improve project economics. A detailed reservoir characterization study was completed by an integrated team of geoscientists and engineers. The study consisted of detailed core description, integration of log response to core descriptions, mapping of the major flow units, evaluation of porosity and permeability relationships, geostatistical analysis of permeability trends, and direct integration of reservoir performance with the geological interpretation. The study methodology fostered iterative bidirectional feedback between the reservoir characterization team and the reservoir engineering/simulation team to allow simultaneous refinement and convergence of the geological interpretation with the reservoir model. The fundamental conclusion from the study is that South Cowden exhibits favorable enhanced oil recovery characteristics, particularly reservoir quality and continuity.

  18. Towards rational approaches of health care utilization in complex patients: an exploratory randomized trial comparing a novel combined clinic to multiple specialty clinics in patients with renal disease-cardiovascular disease-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Catherine; Beaulieu, Monica; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Er, Lee; Taylor, Paul; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Burnett, Shelley; Levin, Adeera

    2012-10-01

    Optimal utilization of health care resources for patients with chronic conditions is an increasing focus of health care policy researchers and clinicians. Kidney disease, diabetes (DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) often coexist within one individual, but current systems are designed to manage individual conditions. We sought to examine if streamlining medical care of complex patients (two or more conditions) is associated with similar, worse or improved outcomes using a randomized controlled study design. Patients attending a kidney care clinic (KCC) and at least one other specialty clinic of interest (DM, CVD) were randomly assigned to either the 'combined clinic (CC)' arm, where resources from all three were integrated into one clinic, or to the 'standard care' arm with continued attendance at multiple specialty clinics (MC), including the KCC. The primary outcome was hospitalization rate and sample size was calculated based on non-inferiority. Of 150 subjects enrolled, 11 subjects exited before study commencement: 139 remained for final analysis. Other than older age in the MC group (P = 0.009), the demographics were comparable. Hospitalization rates were not different (95% CI for the difference: 0.013-0.207; P = 0.03). Similar proportions in each group achieved clinical and laboratory targets. Mortality (13%) and dialysis (32%) rates were the same between groups. Differences in the cost of clinic visits alone were $86,400 per year in favor of the CC. Medical care of complex patients may be delivered in a single combined specialty clinic as compared to multiple disease specific clinics without compromising patient care or important health outcomes, with demonstrable outpatient costs savings.

  19. Time management problems and discounted utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

    2007-05-01

    The lens of behavioral decision theory offers a new perspective for research on time management. The basic idea of this approach is that people discount future consequences of their time management decisions, meaning that they work on tasks with smaller but sooner outcomes rather than on tasks with larger but later outcomes. The authors performed 2 experimental studies to test whether people are sensitive to differences in the discounted utility of time management decisions. In Experiment 1, they used vignettes of typical time management situations; Experiment 2 was a laboratory simulation (an in-basket task that was part of a training assessment). Participants in both studies were German students. As expected, manipulating the discounted utility of options resulted in different time management decisions. In Experiment 1, reactions to time management situations were judged as less likely if the reactions had lower discounted utilities. In Experiment 2, people spent less time on an interruption.

  20. Metabolic Engineering for Substrate Co-utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawand, Pratish

    mutant LMSE2, the mutant is subjected to targeted and whole genome sequencing. Finally, we use the mutant LMSE2 to produce D-ribose from a mixture of glucose and xylose by overexpressing an endogenous phosphatase. The methods developed in this thesis are anticipated to provide a novel approach to solve sugar co-utilization problem in industrial microorganisms, and provide insights into microbial response to forced co-utilization of sugars.