WorldWideScience

Sample records for multi-product biosynthesis factory

  1. Modeling and optimization of a multi-product biosynthesis factory for multiple objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fook Choon; Pandu Rangaiah, Gade; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2010-05-01

    Genetic algorithms and optimization in general, enable us to probe deeper into the metabolic pathway recipe for multi-product biosynthesis. An augmented model for optimizing serine and tryptophan flux ratios simultaneously in Escherichia coli, was developed by linking the dynamic tryptophan operon model and aromatic amino acid-tryptophan biosynthesis pathways to the central carbon metabolism model. Six new kinetic parameters of the augmented model were estimated with considerations of available experimental data and other published works. Major differences between calculated and reference concentrations and fluxes were explained. Sensitivities and underlying competition among fluxes for carbon sources were consistent with intuitive expectations based on metabolic network and previous results. Biosynthesis rates of serine and tryptophan were simultaneously maximized using the augmented model via concurrent gene knockout and manipulation. The optimization results were obtained using the elitist non-dominant sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) supported by pattern recognition heuristics. A range of Pareto-optimal enzyme activities regulating the amino acids biosynthesis was successfully obtained and elucidated wherever possible vis-à-vis fermentation work based on recombinant DNA technology. The predicted potential improvements in various metabolic pathway recipes using the multi-objective optimization strategy were highlighted and discussed in detail.

  2. Alginate Biosynthesis Factories in Pseudomonas fluorescens: Localization and Correlation with Alginate Production Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Susan; Almaas, Eivind; Zotchev, Sergey; Valla, Svein; Ertesvåg, Helga

    2015-12-11

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is able to produce the medically and industrially important exopolysaccharide alginate. The proteins involved in alginate biosynthesis and secretion form a multiprotein complex spanning the inner and outer membranes. In the present study, we developed a method by which the porin AlgE was detected by immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Localization of the AlgE protein was found to depend on the presence of other proteins in the multiprotein complex. No correlation was found between the number of alginate factories and the alginate production level, nor were the numbers of these factories affected in an algC mutant that is unable to produce the precursor needed for alginate biosynthesis. Precursor availability and growth phase thus seem to be the main determinants for the alginate production rate in our strain. Clustering analysis demonstrated that the alginate multiprotein complexes were not distributed randomly over the entire outer cell membrane surface.

  3. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... anthocyanins. Yeast cell factories present a platform to circumvent the problem of low yields of interesting molecular structures in plant tissues, as hand-picking of desired enzyme activities allows for specific biosynthesis of the precise pigment of interest, as well as choosing more stable structures...... for heterologous biosynthesis is possible. In cell factories, great improvements in yields can be achieved through molecular engineering of flux from endogenous yeast precursors, e.g. by elimination of by-product formation, and by genetic optimization of pathway components, such as fine-tuning of expression levels...

  4. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  5. Transcription factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Dietmar; Trajanoski, Zlatko; McNally, James G.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that transcription does not occur homogeneously or diffusely throughout the nucleus, but rather at a number of specialized, discrete sites termed transcription factories. The factories are composed of ~4–30 RNA polymerase molecules, and are associated with many other molecules involved in transcriptional activation and mRNA processing. Some data suggest that the polymerase molecules within a factory remain stationary relative to the transcribed DNA, which is thought to be reeled through the factory site. There is also some evidence that transcription factories could help organize chromatin and nuclear structure, contributing to both the formation of chromatin loops and the clustering of active and co-regulated genes. PMID:23109938

  6. Internet factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  7. Internet Factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  8. Management of a multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoli, R.; Iacovoni, A. [Nuovo Pignone S.p.A., Roma (Italy). Div. Sistemi Automazione; Holden, D. [LICconsult, Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The paper describes the SCADA (System Control and Data Acquisition) Tele-supervisory System for the Kandla-Bhatinda (KBPL) multi-product pipeline. The KBPL pipeline is 1,443 km in length; it is to carry petroleum products, in a batch cycle organization, from the Kandla foreshore terminal to Bhatinda. It consists of two inlet stations, four pumping stations, five delivery stations, and two terminal stations, and is equipped with a total of 85 block valves. All the stations have the capability for launching and receiving scrapers. The SCADA system consists of 10 Station Control Centers (SCC) and one Master Control Center (MCC), all located along the pipeline.

  9. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  10. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    , and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve...... their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production...... or supply chains in a creative organization. The Smart factory is supposed to be organic, meaning it is able to reconfigure and adjust to new projects and customers and has to be seen and taken as a model for inspiration to manufacturing businesses in general. The project takes into consideration Danish...

  11. Neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogomilov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that θ_{13}>0. The measured value of θ_{13} is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (antineutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EUROν Design Study consortium. EUROν coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF collaboration. The EUROν baseline accelerator facility will provide 10^{21} muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  12. Solution Method of Multi-Product Two-Stage Logistics Problem with Constraints of Delivery Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataka, Shinichiro; Gen, Mitsuo

    The logistics network design is one of the important phase of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and it is the problem that should be optimized for long-term promotion of efficiency of the whole supply chain. Usually a plant produces different type of products. Even if it is a factory of the same company, delivery is different by a kind of a produced product. The restrictions which this model has are deeply concerned with TP in the real world. In this paper, we consider the logistics network design problems with multi-products and constraints for delivery course. To solve the problem, we used a hybrid priority-based Genetic Algorithm (h-priGA), and we tried the comparison experiment with priority-based Genetic Algorithm (priGA)and h-priGA, we show it about the effectiveness of h-priGA.

  13. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  14. Research on operation optimization of multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Y.; Gong, J.; Kang, Z.; Yang, F. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). College of Petroleum Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In order to operate complex, long-distance pipelines safely and efficiently while meeting energy demands, operators require offline optimization simulation software. This paper presented the newly developed STROBER software for simulating the operations of multi-product pipelines whose hydraulic characteristics vary continuously with batch movement in the pipeline. The software was based on a mathematical model that optimized the configuration of pumps in order to minimize the electricity costs associated with operating a multi-product pipeline. The energy conservation equation met the following restraining factors: the flow rate in an initial pumping station was as stable as possible for specific periods of time; the inlet and outlet pressures of the pumping stations and the pressures of some special points were within the preset limits; and, the off-take task was completed during a prescribed time. The optimization theory was solved using dynamic programming. The peak-to-valley ratio of electricity price was also taken into consideration in order to encourage pipeline companies to consume most electricity during off-peak periods of the electrical network. The STROBER software was successfully applied in the start-up and current operation of the LanZhou-ChengDu-ChongQing multi-product pipeline in China. This complex pipeline includes 13 off-take stations, 2 pressure-reducing stations and 4 pumping stations. The software provided off-take plans and information on pressure control. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Robustness analysis of pull strategies in multi-product systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonyelum Emmanuel Onyeocha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines the behaviour of shared and dedicated Kanban allocation policies of Hybrid Kanban-CONWIP and Basestock-Kanban-CONWIP control strategies in multi-product systems; with considerations to robustness of optimal solutions to environmental and system variabilities. Design/methodology/approach: Discrete event simulation and evolutionary multi-objective optimisation approach were utilised to develop Pareto-frontier or sets of non-dominated optimal solutions and for selection of an appropriate decision set for the control parameters in the shared Kanban allocation policy (S-KAP and dedicated Kanban allocation policy (D-KAP. Simulation experiments were carried out via ExtendSim simulation application software. The outcomes of PCS+KAP performances were compared via all pairwise comparison and Nelson’s screening and selection procedure for superior PCS+KAP under negligible environmental and system stability. To determine superior PCS+KAP under systems’ and environmental variability, the optimal solutions were tested for robustness using Latin hypercube sampling technique and stochastic dominance test. Findings: The outcome of this study shows that under uncontrollable environmental variability, dedicated Kanban allocation policy outperformed shared Kanban allocation policy in serial manufacturing system with negligible and in complex assembly line with setup times. Moreover, the BK-CONWIP is shown as superior strategy to HK-CONWIP. Research limitations/implications: Future research should be conducted to verify the level of flexibility of BK-CONWIP with respect to product mix and product demand volume variations in a complex multi-product system Practical implications: The outcomes of this work are applicable to multi-product manufacturing industries with significant setup times and systems with negligible setup times. The multi-objective optimisation provides decision support for selection of control-parameters such that

  16. Railways Factory in Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Iacob-Mare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an exemption Analysis railway factory in Resita impressed having experience and also provide some technical characteristics of freight wagons representative technology, used to transport products made in factories in ReşiŃa.

  17. PCs in the factory

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication.PCs have become as essential to the factory environment as they are to the office environment. This in-depth report examines how specially adapted PCs and peripherals are being established in Factory Process Control and Reporting. The report covers: * Hardware and Software* Typical Applications* Implementation Issues* Case Studies and Real Applications

  18. A Model of Production Planning with Multi-product, Multi time period and Multi-Objective with Fuzzy Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa gholamrezaii rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Production planning is one of the most important tasks of production and operations management and decides to determine the optimum amount of production, labor and inventory levels for each period of planning horizon with regard to productive resources and limits. This research presents a multi-product and multi-objective model of production planning with fuzzy parameters and soft constraints regarding the time value of money, inventory level, labor, capacity of machines and warehouse space. The proposed model attempts to maximize profit of the sale and minimize carrying and backordering costs and changes in labor levels. Case study conducted in the aluminum factory, shows the performance of this model comparing the current situation.

  19. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Photon collider Higgs factories

    CERN Document Server

    Telnov, V I

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  1. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  2. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler

    2011-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  3. Virtual Factory Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Factory Testbed (VFT) is comprised of three physical facilities linked by a standalone network (VFNet). The three facilities are the Smart and Wireless...

  4. Bubbles in extended inflation and multi-production of universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    Developing the thin-wall method of Israel, we present a formalism to investigate bubble dynamics in generalized Einstein theories. We derive the equations of motion for a bubble, finding that the space-time inside a bubble is always inhomogeneous. Applying this formalism to extended inflation, we find the following two results: (1) Any true vacuum bubble expands, contrary to the results of Goldwirth-Zaglauer, who claim that bubbles created initially later collapse. We show that their initial conditions for collapsing bubbles are physically inconsistent. (2) Concerning the global space-time structure of the Universe in extended inflation, we show that worm-holes are produced as in old inflation, resulting in the multi-production of universes.

  5. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman

    2013-04-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  6. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  7. Cell Factory Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-03-22

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories.

  8. The Red Seaweed Gracilaria gracilis as a Multi Products Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy, was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6, proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds.

  9. The red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Matteo; Franchi, Massimo; Monteleone, Massimo; Caroppo, Carmela

    2013-09-30

    In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy), was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6), proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds.

  10. Biomass and multi-product crops for agricultural and energy production - an AGE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops.

  11. Higgs Factory Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Designs for future high-energy circular electron-positron colliders are based on both established and novel concepts. An appropriate design will enable these facilities to serve not only as “Higgs factories”, but also as Z, W and top factories, and, in addition, to become a possible first step to a higher-energy hadron collider.

  12. B-factory detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marlow, D R

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B sup 0->J/PSI K sub S decays and related modes.

  13. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  14. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  15. The Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  16. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely...... focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies...... in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta...

  17. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  18. Phi factory detector requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisaka, K.; Atac, M.; Berg, R.; Buchanan, C.; Calvette, M.; Khazin, B.; Kinoshita, K.; Muller, T.; Ohshima, T.; Olsen, S.; Park, J.; Santoni, C.; Shirai, J.; Solodov, E.; Thompson, J.; Triggiani, G.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Detector and Simulation Working Group

    1991-08-01

    We identify the experimental problems and the conditions required for successful phi-factory operation, and show the range of detector parameters which, in conjunction with different machine designs, may meet these conditions. We started by considering, comparing and criticizing the Italian and Novosibirsk designs. With this discussion as a background, we defined the apparent experimental problems and detector constraints. In this article we summarize our understanding. (orig./HSI).

  19. Multi Product Inventory Optimization using Uniform Crossover Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Narmadha, S; Sathish, G

    2010-01-01

    Inventory management is considered to be an important field in Supply Chain Management because the cost of inventories in a supply chain accounts for about 30 percent of the value of the product. The service provided to the customer eventually gets enhanced once the efficient and effective management of inventory is carried out all through the supply chain. The precise estimation of optimal inventory is essential since shortage of inventory yields to lost sales, while excess of inventory may result in pointless storage costs. Thus the determination of the inventory to be held at various levels in a supply chain becomes inevitable so as to ensure minimal cost for the supply chain. The minimization of the total supply chain cost can only be achieved when optimization of the base stock level is carried out at each member of the supply chain. This paper deals with the problem of determination of base stock levels in a ten member serial supply chain with multiple products produced by factories using Uniform Crosso...

  20. Multi-product valid inequalities for the discrete lot-sizing and scheduling problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gicquel, Céline; Minoux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We consider a problem arising in the context of industrial production planning, namely the multi-product discrete lot-sizing and scheduling problem with sequence-dependent changeover costs. We aim at developing an exact solution approach based on a Cut & Branch procedure for this combinatorial optimization problem. To achieve this, we propose a new family of multi-product valid inequalities which corresponds to taking into account the conflicts between different produc...

  1. Heavy Metal Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  2. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Engineering the Polyketide Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Louise

    sufficient titers. To improve the production of polyketides biological engineering principles have been applied for the development and engineering of microbial polyketide cell factories. The two biological hosts used for heterologous polyketide production were Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces....... This indicates that even more copies of the genes for 6-MSA production could yield even higher titers. Thus the acyl-CoA substrates do not appear to be limiting the production of 6-MSA. Construction of a cell factory and engineering it to increase production is one approach to obtaining an efficient cell factory...... been taken towards engineering an effective polyketide cell factory....

  4. Micro Factory Systems and Tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular.......The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular....

  5. Micro Factory Systems and Tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular.......The presentation deals with the micro factory concept in general and with the issues related to manufacturing, handling/assembly and quality control in particular....

  6. Some Factories in Southern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study is an outgrowth, 267 Personnel Managers were elevated to management ... effect, the factory manager now occupies a more important position in the man- ... overview at an empirical and theoretical level of factory managers in Nigeria ... gerial work is diverse and this, according to Hales (1986), can be captured by ...

  7. A Multi-Product Lot-Sizing Model for a Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Herrera Juan Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Integer Linear Programming model for a multi-product lot-sizing problem. The problem considers demands, inventory policies, backorder costs and the search of an efficient use of resources (machines and workers. The real-world case used to illustrate the model is from a Colombian company, which produces raw material for the bakery industry. The short term planning for the company under study is critical, because there is a multi-product environment whit shared resources by different products and processes. The computational experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed model.R

  8. The Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Wood-Vasey, W M; Lee Byung Cheol; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Perlmutter, S; Siegrist, J L; Wang, L; Antilogus, P; Astier, Pierre; Hardin, D; Pain, R; Copin, Y; Smadja, G; Gangler, E; Castera, A; Adam, G; Bacon, R; Lemonnier, J P; Pecontal, A; Pécontal, E; Kessler, R

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) at redshifts 0.03

  9. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  10. [Immobilization of mixed bacteria by microcapsulation for hydrogen production--a trial of pseudo "Cell Factory"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianlan; Lin, Dongqiang; Yao, Shanjing

    2010-10-01

    Sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS)/Ploy-dimethyl-dially-ammonium-chloride (PDMDAAC) microcapsules were used as a novel pseudo "Cell Factory" to immobilize mixed bacteria for hydrogen production under anaerobic conditions. Compared to free cells, the hydrogen production was increased more than 30% with NaCS/PDMDAAC microcapsules as the pseudo "Cell Factory". The biomass was increased from 1.5 g/L in free cell culture to 3.2 g/L in the pseudo "Cell Factory". This pseudo "Cell Factory" system showed the excellent stability during 15 repeated-batches. The hydrogen yield maintained 1.73-1.81 mol H2/mol glucose. The fermentation cycle was shortened from 48 h to 24 h, resulting in an increase of 198.6% in the hydrogen production rate. There were high percentage of butyric acid and acetic acid in the culture broth, which meant that the pseudo "Cell Factory" established in the present work could be used for the multi-product system.

  11. Evaluating Feature Change Impact on Multi-Product Line Configurations Using Partial Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dintzner, N.J.R.; Kulesza, U.; Van Deursen, A.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolving large-scale, complex and highly variable systems is known to be a difficult task, where a single change can ripple through various parts of the system with potentially undesirable effects. In the case of product lines, and moreover multi-product lines, a change may affect only certain

  12. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-09-30

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station.

  13. Evaluating Feature Change Impact on Multi-Product Line Configurations Using Partial Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dintzner, N.J.R.; Kulesza, U.; Van Deursen, A.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolving large-scale, complex and highly variable systems is known to be a difficult task, where a single change can ripple through various parts of the system with potentially undesirable effects. In the case of product lines, and moreover multi-product lines, a change may affect only certain varia

  14. Using a Joint-Input, Multi-Product Formulation to Improve Spatial Price Equilibrium Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Phillip M.; Pratt, James E.; Novakovic, Andrew M.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical programming models, as typically formulated for international trade applications, may contain certain implied restrictions which lead to solutions which can be shown to be technically infeasible, or if feasible, then not actually an equilibrium. An alternative formulation is presented which allows joint-inputs and multi-products, with pure transshipment and product substitution forms of arbitrage.

  15. Energy and Environment in the multi product fabrication plants; Energia y Medio Ambiente en plantas multiproducto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigjaner, L.; Espuna, A.; Graells, M.; Corominas, J.; Grau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The minimization of energetic consumptions, the reduction of effluents and the effluents treatments are important aspects for the industrial sector. This work presents the minimization of energetic consumptions and the waste generation as problem of optimum programming of multi product production. The algorithms and their applications for concrete cases are presented.

  16. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  17. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(1021) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  18. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P; Stewart, G

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment’s computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ’pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to retrieve a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single VO, and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO’s distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new or improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is hig...

  19. BIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K Vithiya; S Sen

    2011-01-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is reviewed in detail in this study. Comparison of different synthesis methods, namely physical, chemical and green methods giving emphasis to biological synthesis is documented here...

  20. A heuristic algorithm for a multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to solve a complex multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem (LRP in which two specific constraints are taken into account: 1 plants have limited production capacity, and 2 central depots have limited capacity for storing and transshipping products. The LRP represents a multi-product four-layer distribution network that consists of plants, central depots, regional depots, and customers. A heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the four-layer LRP. The heuristic uses GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure and two probabilistic tabu search strategies of intensification and diversification to tackle the problem. Results show that the heuristic solves the problem effectively.

  1. Exponential Smoothing for Multi-Product Lot-Sizing With Heijunka and Varying Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaud Frédéric; Dolgui Alexandre; Korytkowski Przemyslaw

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss a multi-product lot-sizing problem for a job shop controlled with a heijunka box. Demand is considered as a random variable with constant variation which must be absorbed somehow by the manufacturing system, either by increased inventory or by flexibility in the production. When a heijunka concept (production leveling) is used, fluctuations in customer orders are not transferred directly to the manufacturing system allowing for a smoother production and better production capac...

  2. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  3. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  4. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  5. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  6. [Direct biosynthesis of ethylene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhilan; Chen, Yifeng

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene is the most widely used petrochemical feedstock globally. The development of bio-ethylene is essential due to limited fossil fuels and rising oil prices. Bio-ethylene is produced primarily by the dehydration of ethanol, but can alternatively be directly produced from ethylene biosynthesis pathways in plants, algae, or microorganisms by using cheap and renewable substrates. This review addressed the biosynthesis of ethylene in plants and microorganisms, the characterization of key enzymes, genetic engineering strategies for ethylene biosynthesis in microorganisms, and evaluated its perspective and successful cases toward the industrial application. The direct production of bio-ethylene from a biological process in situ is promising to supplement and even replace the petrochemical ethylene production.

  7. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  8. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  9. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  10. Exotic Hadrons from B Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulsom, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.

  11. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  12. Results from the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  13. Results from the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  14. Multi products single machine economic production quantity model with multiple batch size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Allah Taleizadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi products single machine economic order quantity model with discrete delivery is developed. A unique cycle length is considered for all produced items with an assumption that all products are manufactured on a single machine with a limited capacity. The proposed model considers different items such as production, setup, holding, and transportation costs. The resulted model is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming model. Harmony search algorithm, extended cutting plane and particle swarm optimization methods are used to solve the proposed model. Two numerical examples are used to analyze and to evaluate the performance of the proposed model.

  15. Exponential Smoothing for Multi-Product Lot-Sizing With Heijunka and Varying Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaud Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss a multi-product lot-sizing problem for a job shop controlled with a heijunka box. Demand is considered as a random variable with constant variation which must be absorbed somehow by the manufacturing system, either by increased inventory or by flexibility in the production. When a heijunka concept (production leveling is used, fluctuations in customer orders are not transferred directly to the manufacturing system allowing for a smoother production and better production capacity utilization. The problem rather is to determine a tradeoff between the variability in the production line capacity requirement and the inventory level.

  16. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  17. Reliable multi period multi product supply chain design with facility disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rafiei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a strategic multi segment, multi period and multi-product supply chain management to meet reliable networks for handling disruptions strike. We present a mixed-integer programming model whose objective is to minimize the expected cost composed of probability and cost of occurrence in each scenario. The proposed model of this paper considers time value of money for each operation and transportation cost. We attempt to minimize expected costs by considering the levels of inventory, back-ordering, the available machine capacity and labor levels for each source, transportation capacity at each transshipment node and available warehouse space at each destination. The problem is generalized by taking into account backup supplier with reserved capacity and backup transshipment node that, which satisfies demands at higher price without disruption facility. We use a priority-based genetic algorithms encoding to solve the proposed problem under multi period and multi product conditions. The performance of the proposed model is examined using some instances.

  18. Information Flow Scheduling in Concurrent Multi-Product Development Based on DSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Chao; Huang, Wei-Qiang; Jiang, Ying-Jie; Sun, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Multi-product collaborative development is adopted widely in manufacturing enterprise, while the present multi-project planning models don't take technical/data interactions of multiple products into account. To decrease the influence of technical/data interactions on project progresses, the information flow scheduling models based on the extended DSM is presented. Firstly, information dependencies are divided into four types: series, parallel, coupling and similar. Secondly, different types of dependencies are expressed as DSM units, and the extended DSM model is brought forward, described as a block matrix. Furthermore, the information flow scheduling methods is proposed, which involves four types of operations, where partitioning and clustering algorithm are modified from DSM for ensuring progress of high-priority project, merging and converting is the specific computation of the extended DSM. Finally, the information flow scheduling of two machine tools development is analyzed with example, and different project priorities correspond to different task sequences and total coordination cost. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for information flow scheduling in multi-product development, with specially concerning technical/data interactions.

  19. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  20. Xyloglucan and its biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Zabotina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulosic polysaccharide xyloglucan (XyG, found in the primary cell walls of most plant tissues, is important for structural organization of the cell wall and regulation of growth and development. Significant recent progress in structural characterization of XyGs from different plant species has shed light on the diversification of XyG during plant evolution. Also, identification of XyG biosynthetic enzymes and examination of their interactions suggests the involvement of a multiprotein complex in XyG biosynthesis. This mini-review presents an updated overview of the diversity of XyG structures in plant taxa and recent findings on XyG biosynthesis.

  1. Improving penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum by glyoxalase overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2013-07-01

    Genetic engineering of fungal cell factories mainly focuses on manipulating enzymes of the product pathway or primary metabolism. However, despite the use of strong promoters or strains containing the genes of interest in multiple copies, the desired strongly enhanced enzyme levels are often not obtained. Here we present a novel strategy to improve penicillin biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum by reducing reactive and toxic metabolic by-products, 2-oxoaldehydes. This was achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding glyoxalase I and II, which resulted in a 10% increase in penicillin titers relative to the control strain. The protein levels of two key enzymes of penicillin biosynthesis, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase, were increased in the glyoxalase transformants, whereas their transcript levels remained unaltered. These results suggest that directed intracellular reduction of 2-oxoaldehydes prolongs the functional lifetime of these enzymes.

  2. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  3. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  4. WQO is Decidable for Factorial Languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2017-08-08

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors, i.e. contiguous subwords. Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. We also discuss possible ways to extend our solution to permutations and graphs.

  5. Evaluation of taper functions aiming Eucalyptus sp stem optimizatio for multi-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Ribeiro de Mendonça

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate different models for estimating volume and height along the stem, in order to guarantee more precise inputs in the optimization systems for obtaining multi-products. It was tested the taper equations proposed by Demaerschalk, Ormerod, Schoepfer and Hradelzky. These models were tested for the commercial diameter of 7 and 28 cm in Eucalyptus sp. trees. The database was obtained from upper stem diameter measurements of 16 years-old trees, in a total of 32 sample trees for the model fitting and 27 sample trees for the validation test. Based on the graphic residual analysis, on the statistics (correlation coefficient, relative standard error, “bias” (B, average of the differences (MD and standard deviation of the differences (DPD and on the test of Leite & Oliveira (2002, it was verified that the Ormerod model presented better volume estimates and the Schoepfer model provided better height results.

  6. Optimal production policy for multi-product with inventory-level-dependent demand in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Yogender

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation has emerged as the primary means by which firms achieve optimal production policy. In this paper, we use market segmentation approach in multi-product inventory system with inventory-level-dependent demand. The objective is to make use of optimal control theory to solve the inventory-production problem and develop an optimal production policy that minimizes the total cost associated with inventory and production rate in segmented market. First, we consider a single production and inventory problem with multi-destination demand that vary from segment to segment. Further, we describe a single source production and multi destination inventory and demand problem under the assumption that firm may choose independently the inventory directed to each segment. The optimal control is applied to study and solve the proposed problem.

  7. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. Phase 1 was completed successfully, but the project did not continue on to Phase 2 due to withdrawal of CEMEX from the project. Attempts at replacing CEMEX were not successful. Problematic to the continuation of the project was its location in the Ohio Valley which is oversupplied and has low prices for fly ash and the change in CEMEX priorities due to merger and acquisitions. Thus, CAER concurred with the DOE to conclude the project at the end of Budget Period 1, March 31, 2007.

  8. Engineering Microbial Cells for the Biosynthesis of Natural Compounds of Pharmaceutical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jeandet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes constitute important platforms for the biosynthesis of numerous molecules of pharmaceutical interest such as antitumor, anticancer, antiviral, antihypertensive, antiparasitic, antioxidant, immunological agents, and antibiotics as well as hormones, belonging to various chemical families, for instance, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, polyketides, amines, and proteins. Engineering microbial factories offers rich opportunities for the production of natural products that are too complex for cost-effective chemical synthesis and whose extraction from their originating plants needs the use of many solvents. Recent progresses that have been made since the millennium beginning with metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biosynthesis of natural products of pharmaceutical significance will be reviewed.

  9. Biosynthesis of cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Tatsuo

    2003-06-01

    Cytokinins are adenine derivatives with an isoprenoid side chain and play an essential role in plant development. Plant isopentenyltransferases that catalyze the first and rate-limiting steps of cytokinin biosynthesis have recently been identified. Unlike bacterial enzymes, which catalyze the transfer of the isopentenyl moiety from dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMAPP) to the N(6) position of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), plant enzymes catalyze the transfer of the isopentenyl moiety from DMAPP preferentially to ATP and to ADP. The isopentenylated side chain is hydroxylated to form zeatin-type cytokinins. An alternative pathway, in which a hydroxylated side chain is directly added to the N(6) position of the adenine moiety, has also been suggested.

  10. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  11. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory...

  12. Factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure to test factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. When the group membership is at level 2, multilevel factorial invariance can be tested by a simple extension of the standard procedure. However level-1 group membership raises problems which cannot be appropriately handled by the standard procedure, because the dependency between members of different level-1 groups is not appropriately taken into account. The procedure presented in this article provides a solution to this problem. This paper also shows Muthén's maximum likelihood (MUML) estimation for testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups as a viable alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. Testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-2 groups and testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups are illustrated using empirical examples. SAS macro and Mplus syntax are provided.

  13. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  14. Upstream regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhayyat, Fahad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants of food and feed products, posing a substantial health risk to humans and animals throughout the world. A plethora of filamentous fungi has been identified as mycotoxin producers and most of these fungal species belong to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the molecular mechanisms of biosynthesis of key mycotoxins and the regulatory cascades controlling toxigenesis. In many cases, the mycotoxin biosynthetic genes are clustered and regulated by one or more pathway-specific transcription factor(s). In addition, as biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites is coordinated with fungal growth and development, there are a number of upstream regulators affecting biosynthesis of mycotoxins in fungi. This review presents a concise summary of the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, focusing on the roles of the upstream regulatory elements governing biosynthesis of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin in Aspergillus.

  15. Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Andreas; Rude, Mathew A; Li, Xuezhi; Popova, Emanuela; del Cardayre, Stephen B

    2010-07-30

    Alkanes, the major constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, are naturally produced by diverse species; however, the genetics and biochemistry behind this biology have remained elusive. Here we describe the discovery of an alkane biosynthesis pathway from cyanobacteria. The pathway consists of an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase, which together convert intermediates of fatty acid metabolism to alkanes and alkenes. The aldehyde decarbonylase is related to the broadly functional nonheme diiron enzymes. Heterologous expression of the alkane operon in Escherichia coli leads to the production and secretion of C13 to C17 mixtures of alkanes and alkenes. These genes and enzymes can now be leveraged for the simple and direct conversion of renewable raw materials to fungible hydrocarbon fuels.

  16. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  17. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utility's 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The secondary classification testing was concluded using a continuous demonstration-scale lamella classifier that was operated at a feed rate of 0.3 to 1.5 tons/hr. Feed to the secondary classifier was generated by operating the primary classifier at the conditions shown to be effective previously. Samples were taken while the secondary classifier was operated under a variety of conditions in order to determine the range of conditions where the unit could be efficiently operated. A Topical Report was prepared and included all of the pertinent processing data generated during Budget Period 1 of the project as well as results of beneficiated ash product evaluations in mortar and concrete, schematic plant designs with mass and water balances for the four flowsheets tested with equipment lists, capital and installation costs, expected product outputs and equipment justifications. A proposal for continuation of the project to Budget Period 2 was also prepared and submitted, with the exception of a Letter of Commitment from Cemex. The proposal is currently under internal review with Cemex and a decision is expected by the end of September, 2006.

  18. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The demonstration unit was hauled to the test site on trailers that were place on a test pad located adjacent to the ash pond and re-assembled. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities. Representative feed ash for the operation of the filed testing unit was excavated from a location within the lower ash pond determined from coring activities. Approximately 150 tons of ash was excavated and pre-screened to remove +3/8 inch material that could cause plugging problems during operation of the demonstration unit.

  19. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Jackura; John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-12-31

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The market study for the products of the processing plant (Subtask 1.6), conducted by Cemex, is reported herein. The study incorporated simplifying assumptions and focused only on pozzolan and ultra fine fly ash (UFFA). It found that the market for pozzolan in the Ghent area was oversupplied, with resultant poor pricing structure. Reachable export markets for the Ghent pozzolan market were mostly locally served with the exception of Florida. It was concluded that a beneficiated material for that market may be at a long term disadvantage. The market for the UFFA was more complex as this material would compete with other beneficiated ash and potential metakaolin and silica fume as well. The study concluded that this market represented about 100,000 tons of sales per year and, although lucrative, represented a widely dispersed niche market.

  20. Optimization of a Multi-Product Intra-Supply Chain System with Failure in Rework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Chen, Shin-Wei; Chang, Chih-Kai; Chiu, Yuan-Shyi Peter

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has created tremendous opportunities, but also made business environment highly competitive and turbulent. To gain competitive advantage, management of present-day transnational firms always seeks options to trim down various transaction and coordination costs, especially in the area of controllable intra-supply chain system. This study investigates a multi-product intra-supply chain system with failure in rework. To achieve maximum machine utilization, multiple products are fabricated in succession on a single machine. During the process, production of some defective items is inevitable. Reworking of nonconforming items is used to reduce the quality cost in production and achieving the goal of lower overall production cost. Because reworks are sometimes unsuccessful, failures in rework are also considered in this study. Finished goods for each product are transported to the sales offices when the entire production lot is quality assured after rework. A multi-delivery policy is used, wherein fixed quantity n installments of the finished lot are transported at fixed intervals during delivery time. The objective is to jointly determine the common production cycle time and the number of deliveries needed to minimize the long-term expected production-inventory-delivery costs for the problem. With the help of a mathematical model along with optimization technique, the optimal production-shipment policy is obtained. We have used a numerical example to demonstrate applicability of the result of our research.

  1. A modified ant colony optimization to solve multi products inventory routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lily; Moin, Noor Hasnah

    2014-07-01

    This study considers a one-to-many inventory routing problem (IRP) network consisting of a manufacturer that produces multi products to be transported to many geographically dispersed customers. We consider a finite horizon where a fleet of capacitated homogeneous vehicles, housed at a depot/warehouse, transport products from the warehouse to meet the demand specified by the customers in each period. The demand for each product is deterministic and time varying and each customer requests a distinct product. The inventory holding cost is product specific and is incurred at the customer sites. The objective is to determine the amount on inventory and to construct a delivery schedule that minimizes both the total transportation and inventory holding costs while ensuring each customer's demand is met over the planning horizon. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming problem and is solved using CPLEX 12.4 to get the lower and upper bound (best integer solution) for each problem considered. We propose a modified ant colony optimization (ACO) to solve the problem and the built route is improved by using local search. ACO performs better on large instances compared to the upper bound.

  2. Scheduling of multi-product batch processes with earliness and tardiness penalties using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyung [Samsung Engineering Co. (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hak [Yeungnam Univ., Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Beum [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Improving customer service and reducing inventory costs become more important aspects in the production scheduling of many batch processes. From this point of view, one of the important problems is to determine the optimum production sequence of a list of products or single-product campaigns so as to minimization the total penalty cost with earliness and tardiness means any later deliveries than the due date and earliness is any early production resulting in the inventory cost. In this paper, we present a Genetic Algorithm(GA) for multi-product batch process scheduling problems with minimum cost of earliness and tardiness penalties. For this algorithm, we have improved the three basic operators, reproduction, crossover and mutation. Additionally we have developed the extended operators, so called Crowding Factor Model, Elitist Model and Generation Gap. To evaluate the performance of this study, we have tested various scheduling problems with UIS and NIS policies and the results are compared with Simulate Annealing (SA) method by Ku and Karimi[16]. Finally the GA by this work is out performed to SA. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Changing Charlie and the Chocolate Factory

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this essay the various underlying themes in the two film adaptations of Roald Dahl’s book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964) are examined. These film adaptations, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005) directed by Tim Burton and Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (1971) directed by Mel Stuart are discussed, in order to refute critical views such as found in a review by Bernard Beck. Beck states that Tim Burton’s film is darker and closer to Dahl’s original tale, whilst Mel Stuar...

  4. The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Sean; Laing, William

    2016-10-01

    We review the regulation of ascorbate (vitamin C) biosynthesis, focusing on the l-galactose pathway. We discuss the regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis at the level of gene transcription (both repression and enhancement) and translation (feedback inhibition of translation by ascorbate concentration) and discuss the eight proteins that have been demonstrated to date to affect ascorbate concentration in plant tissues. GDP-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and GDP-mannose epimerase are critical steps that regulate ascorbate biosynthesis. These and other biosynthetic genes are controlled at the transcriptional level, while GGP is also controlled at the translational level. Ascorbate feedback on enzyme activity has not been observed unequivocally.

  5. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  6. Visual evoked potentials in rubber factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, O P; Kumar, V

    1997-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.

  7. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  8. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  9. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  10. A reference architecture for the component factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  11. Diverse inhibitors of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert A; Boston, Rebecca S; Payne, Gary A

    2008-03-01

    Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, extensive research has been focused on identifying compounds that inhibit its biosynthesis. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts containing activity inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis have been reported. Only recently, however, have tools been available to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these inhibitors affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many inhibitors are plant-derived and a few may be amenable to pathway engineering for tissue-specific expression in susceptible host plants as a defense against aflatoxin contamination. Other compounds show promise as protectants during crop storage. Finally, inhibitors with different modes of action could be used in comparative transcriptional and metabolomic profiling experiments to identify regulatory networks controlling aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  12. The physics of the B factories

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, A J; Mannel, Th; Prell, S; Yabsley, B D; Abe, K; Aihara, H; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aushev, T; Beneke, M; Beringer, J; Bianchi, F; Bigi, I I; Bona, M; Brambilla, N; Brodzicka, J; Chang, P; Charles, M J; Cheng, C H; Cheng, H -Y; Chistov, R; Colangelo, P; Coleman, J P; Drutskoy, A; Druzhinin, V P; Eidelman, S; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Faccini, R; Flood, K T; Gambino, P; Gaz, A; Gradl, W; Hayashii, H; Higuchi, T; Hulsbergen, W D; Hurth, T; Iijima, T; Itoh, R; Jackson, P D; Kass, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kou, E; Križan, P; Kronfeld, A; Kumano, S; Kwon, Y J; Latham, T E; Leith, D W G S; Lüth, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Meadows, B T; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Nishida, S; Ocariz, J; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palano, A; Pich, A; Playfer, S; Poluektov, A; Porter, F C; Robertson, S H; Roney, J M; Roodman, A; Sakai, Y; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekula, S J; Steinhauser, M; Sumisawa, K; Swanson, E S; Tackmann, F; Trabelsi, K; Uehara, S; Uno, S; van der Water, R; Vasseur, G; Verkerke, W; Waldi, R; Wang, M Z; Wilson, F F; Zupan, J; Zupanc, A; Adachi, I; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Ben-Haim, E; Biassoni, P; Cahn, R N; Cartaro, C; Chauveau, J; Chen, C; Chiang, C C; Cowan, R; Dalseno, J; Davier, M; Davies, C; Dingfelder, J C; Echenard, B; Epifanov, D; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Gary, J W; Godang, R; Graham, M T; Hafner, A; Hamilton, B; Hartmann, T; Hayasaka, K; Hearty, C; Iwasaki, Y; Khodjamirian, A; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Lafferty, G D; Lazzaro, A; Li, J; Lindemann, D; Long, O; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinelli, M; Miyabayashi, K; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Muller, D R; Nakazawa, H; Ongmongkolkul, P; Pacetti, S; Palombo, F; Pedlar, T K; Piilonen, L E; Pilloni, A; Poireau, V; Prothmann, K; Pulliam, T; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roudeau, P; Schrenk, S; Schroeder, T; Schubert, K R; Shen, C P; Shwartz, B; Soffer, A; Solodov, E P; Somov, A; Starič, M; Stracka, S; Telnov, A V; Todyshev, K Yu; Tsuboyama, T; Uglov, T; Vinokurova, A; Walsh, J J; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Ye, S; Zhang, C C; Abachi, S; Abashian, A; Abe, N; Abe, R; Abe, T; Abrams, G S; Adam, I; Adamczyk, K; Adametz, A; Adye, T; Agarwal, A; Ahmed, H; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Ahn, B S; Ahn, H S; Aitchison, I J R; Akai, K; Akar, S; Akatsu, M; Akemoto, M; Akhmetshin, R; Akre, R; Alam, M S; Albert, J N; Aleksan, R; Alexander, J P; Alimonti, G; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Alsmiller, J R G; Altenburg, D; Alwyn, K E; An, Q; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, D; Andreotti, M; Andress, J C; Angelini, C; Anipko, D; Anjomshoaa, A; Anthony, P L; Antillon, E A; Antonioli, E; Aoki, K; Arguin, J F; A, K; Arisaka, K; Asai, K; Asai, M; Asano, Y; Asgeirsson, D J; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Aspinwall, M L; Aston, D; Atmacan, H; Aubert, B; Aulchenko, V; Ayad, R; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Azzolini, V; Azzopardi, D E; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Bagnasco, S; Bahinipati, S; Bailey, D S; Bailey, S; Bailly, P; van Bakel, N; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Balagura, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Banas, E; Band, H R; Banerjee, S; Baracchini, E; Barate, R; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bard, D J; Barillari, T; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartel, W; Bartelt, J; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bay, A; Beaulieu, M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Becker, J; Becla, J; Bedny, I; Behari, S; Behera, P K; Behn, E; Behr, L; Beigbeder, C; Beiline, D; Bell, R; Bellini, F; Bellis, M; Bellodi, G; Belous, K; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Benitez, J F; Benkebil, M; Berger, N; Bernabeu, J; Bernard, D; Bernet, R; Bernlochner, F U; Berryhill, J W; Bertsche, K; Besson, P; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bhardwaj, V; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Biagini, M E; Biasini, M; van Bibber, K; Biesiada, J; Bingham, I; Bionta, R M; Bischofberger, M; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Blouw, J; Bly, M; Blyth, S; Boeheim, C T; Bomben, M; Bondar, A; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bonvicini, G; Booke, M; Booth, J; Borean, C; Borgland, A W; Borsato, E; Bosi, F; Bosisio, L; Botov, A A; Bougher, J; Bouldin, K; Bourgeois, P; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyce, R F; Boyd, J T; Bozek, A; Bozzi, C; Bračko, M; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, B; Brau, J; Breon, A B; Breton, D; Brew, C; Briand, H; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigljević, V; Britton, D I; Brochard, F; Broomer, B; Brose, J; Browder, T E; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Browne, M; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmueller, O L; Bünger, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Bulten, H; Burchat, P R; Burgess, W; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzykaev, A R; Buzzo, A; Cai, Y; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Camanzi, B; Campagna, E; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carassiti, V; Carpinelli, M; Carroll, M; Casarosa, G; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castelli, G; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cecchi, A; Cenci, R; Cerizza, G; Cervelli, A; Ceseracciu, A; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S

    2014-01-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  13. Identification of Colour Reconnection using Factorial Correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Hua; LIU Lian-Shou

    2000-01-01

    A new signal is proposed for the colour reconnection in the hadronic decay of W+ W- in e+e- collisions. Using Pythia Monte Carlo it is shown that factorial correlators for W+ and W- without colour reconnection are almost identical to unity, while those for the cases with colour reconnection fall down approximately linearly in the log log plot. This signal, being based on the factorial correlator, is more sensitive than the ones using only averaged quantities.

  14. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  15. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. Filter media candidates were evaluated for dewatering the ultrafine ash (UFA) product. Media candidates were selected based on manufacturer recommendations and evaluated using standard batch filtration techniques. A final media was selected; 901F, a multifilament polypropylene. While this media would provide adequate solids capture and cake moisture, the use of flocculants would be necessary to enable adequate filter throughput. Several flocculant chemistries were also evaluated and it was determined that polyethylene oxide (PEO) at a dosage of 5 ppm (slurry basis) would be the most suitable in terms of both settling rate and clarity. PEO was evaluated on a continuous vacuum filter using 901F media. The optimum cycle time was found to be 1.25 minutes which provided a 305% moisture cake, 85% solids capture with a throughput of 115 lbs dry solids per hour and a dry cake rate of 25 lb/ft2/hr. Increasing cycle time not did not reduce cake moisture or increase throughput. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities.

  16. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Avalos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusarium aquaeductuum have been recently extended in Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium oxysporum, well-known biotechnological and phytopathogenic models, respectively. The major Fusarium carotenoid is neurosporaxanthin, a carboxylic xanthophyll synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the activity of four enzymes, encoded by the genes carRA, carB, carT and carD. These fungi produce also minor amounts of β-carotene, which may be cleaved by the CarX oxygenase to produce retinal, the rhodopsin’s chromophore. The genes needed to produce retinal are organized in a gene cluster with a rhodopsin gene, while other carotenoid genes are not linked. In the investigated Fusarium species, the synthesis of carotenoids is induced by light through the transcriptional induction of the structural genes. In some species, deep-pigmented mutants with up-regulated expression of these genes are affected in the regulatory gene carS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the control by light and by the CarS protein are currently under investigation.

  17. Mathematical modeling of a multi-product EMQ model with an enhanced end items issuing policy and failures in rework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuan-Shyi Peter; Sung, Peng-Cheng; Chiu, Singa Wang; Chou, Chung-Li

    2015-01-01

    This study uses mathematical modeling to examine a multi-product economic manufacturing quantity (EMQ) model with an enhanced end items issuing policy and rework failures. We assume that a multi-product EMQ model randomly generates nonconforming items. All of the defective are reworked, but a certain portion fails and becomes scraps. When rework process ends and the entire lot of each product is quality assured, a cost reduction n + 1 end items issuing policy is used to transport finished items of each product. As a result, a closed-form optimal production cycle time is obtained. A numerical example demonstrates the practical usage of our result and confirms a significant savings in stock holding and overall production costs as compared to that of a prior work (Chiu et al. in J Sci Ind Res India, 72:435-440 2013) in the literature.

  18. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has...

  19. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  20. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler’s gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler’s factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are co...

  1. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  2. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ankenbrandt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a low-energy (4 GeV neutrino factory (NF is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The π^{±} decay to produce muons (μ^{±}, which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by ∼1.4×10^{21} μ^{+} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of μ^{-} decays.

  3. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  4. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  5. Rapid Application Development Using Software Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanovski, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Software development is still based on manufactory production, and most of the programming code is still hand-crafted. Software development is very far away from the ultimate goal of industrialization in software production, something which has been achieved long time ago in the other industries. The lack of software industrialization creates an inability to cope with fast and frequent changes in user requirements, and causes cost and time inefficiencies during their implementation. Analogous to what other industries had done long time ago, industrialization of software development has been proposed using the concept of software factories. We have accepted this vision about software factories, and developed our own software factory which produces three-layered ASP.NET web applications. In this paper we report about our experience with using this approach in the process of software development, and present comparative results on performances and deliverables in both traditional development and development usin...

  6. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasick, David A; Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C

    2013-06-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development.

  7. Remembering the Avonmouth mustard gas factory

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction \\ud \\ud The women of the Great War had undertaken a predominantly domestic role until that point in time. This changed during these testing times, as women took the place of the men in the factories. There was an urgent need to produce large quantities of ammunition and the women made up the majority of the workforce. In the factories of Avonmouth and Chittening hundreds of women worked in perilous conditions to produce shells, but these shells weren’t just filled with explosives...

  8. Transcription factories: genetic programming in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Lucas Brandon; Fraser, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Among the most intensively studied systems in molecular biology is the eukaryotic transcriptional apparatus, which expresses genes in a regulated manner across hundreds of different cell types. Several studies over the past few years have added weight to the concept that transcription takes place within discrete 'transcription factories' assembled inside the cell nucleus. These studies apply innovative technical approaches to gain insights into the molecular constituents, dynamical behaviour and organizational regulators of transcription factories, providing exciting insights into the spatial dimension of transcriptional control.

  9. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl; Robert Rathbone

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The secondary classification testing was concluded using a continuous demonstration-scale lamella classifier that was operated at a feed rate of 0.3 to 1.5 tons/hr. Feed to the secondary classifier was generated by operating the primary classifier at the conditions shown to be effective previously. Samples were taken while the secondary classifier was operated under a variety of conditions in order to determine the range of conditions where the unit could be efficiently operated. Secondary classification was effective for producing an ultra-fine ash (UFA) product. Inclined lamella plates provided an effective settling surface for coarser ash particles and plate spacing was shown to be an important variable. Results showed that the closer the plate spacing, the finer the size distribution of the UFA product. Flotation of the secondary classifier feed provided a lower LOI UFA product (2.5% LOI vs. 4.5% LOI) and a dispersant dosage of 2 to 2.5 g/kg was adequate to provide UFA grade (3.8 to 4.4 {micro}m) and recovery (53 to 68% 5{micro}m recovery). The UFA yield without flotation was {approx}33% and lower ({approx}20%) with flotation. Demonstration plant product evaluations showed that water requirements in mortar were reduced and 100% of control strength was achieved in 28 days for the coarser products followed by further strength gain of up to 130% in 56 days. The highest strengths of 110% of control in 7 days and 140% in 56 days were achieved with the finer products. Mortar air requirements for processed products were essentially the same as those for standard mortar, suggesting that the unburned carbon remaining does not have

  10. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Punt; C.A. van den Hondel; A.F. Ram; S. de Weert; A.C. Franken; Christien Lokman

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  11. Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants produce a large variety of low-molecular weight secondary compounds. Among them, nitrogen-containing alkaloids are the most biologically active and are often used pharmaceutically. Whereas alkaloid chemistry has been intensively investigated, alkaloid biosynthesis, including the relevant biosynthetic enzymes, genes and their regulation, and especially transcription factors, is largely unknown, as only a limited number of plant species produce certain types of alkaloids and they are difficult to study. Recently, however, several groups have succeeded in isolating the transcription factors that are involved in the biosynthesis of several types of alkaloids, including bHLH, ERF, and WRKY. Most of them show Jasmonate (JA) responsiveness, which suggests that the JA signaling cascade plays an important role in alkaloid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize the types and functions of transcription factors that have been isolated in alkaloid biosynthesis, and characterize their similarities and differences compared to those in other secondary metabolite pathways, such as phenylpropanoid and terpenoid biosyntheses. The evolution of this biosynthetic pathway and regulatory network, as well as the application of these transcription factors to metabolic engineering, is discussed.

  12. Biosynthesis and transport of terpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ting, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoids are the largest class of natural product that are produced by plants, with functions that range from a role in plant development to direct defence against pathogens and indirect defence against insects through the attraction of natural enemies. While terpene biosynthesis genes have been w

  13. Biosynthesis and transport of terpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ting, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoids are the largest class of natural product that are produced by plants, with functions that range from a role in plant development to direct defence against pathogens and indirect defence against insects through the attraction of natural enemies. While terpene biosynthesis genes have been w

  14. Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaibel, Andreas; Auwaerter, Andreas; Kravcik, Milos

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this paper as: Kaibel, A., Auwaerter, A., & Kravcik, M. (2006). Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning. October 1st-4th, Crete, Greece: Springer. Retrieved October 18th, 2006, from http://dspace.lear

  15. Cell factories for a sustainable world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindtler, Jens William

    2016-01-01

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a university research center under the Technical University of Denmark within the field of design, engineering and construction of superior cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals, anti-infective compounds, industrial...

  16. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  17. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  18. Plant factories; crop transpiration and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graamans, Luuk; Dobbelsteen, van den Andy; Meinen, Esther; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanisation may result in a shortage of food supplies for cities in the foreseeable future. Research on closed plant production systems, such as plant factories, has attempted to offer perspectives for robust (urban) agricultural systems. Insight into the explicit role

  19. The Energy Factory; EnergieFabriek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Boomen, M.; Van den Dungen, G.J.; Elias, T.; Jansen, M. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The Energy Factory is a collaboration of 26 Dutch local water boards in which options for energy saving and energy production are examined. According to the authors, the initiative of the Energy Factory will lead to a reframing of the role of the water boards. Moreover, they explain how the PPP concept (People, Planet, Profit) may act as platform for negotiations between actors who are involved in the Energy Factory. In addition, the PPP concept is used to demonstrate that the Energy Factory will lead to larger social involvement, social entrepreneurship and growing profits [Dutch] De Energiefabriek is een samenwerkingsverband van 26 waterschappen in Nederland waarin wordt gezocht naar mogelijkheden om energie te besparen en zelf energie te produceren. Volgens de auteurs van deze notitie leidt het initiatief van de Energiefabriek tot een reframing van de rol van waterschappen. Daarnaast leggen ze uit hoe het PPP-concept (People, Profit, Planet) kan fungeren als platform voor onderhandelingen tussen de actoren die betrokken zijn bij de Energiefabriek. Verder wordt met het PPP-concept aangetoond dat de Energiefabriek leidt tot ruimere maatschappelijke betrokkenheid, maatschappelijk ondernemen en winstvergroting.

  20. Software Development Factories, the Project Management Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2012-01-01

    In a software factory, the applications are developed in the same way Henri Ford started manufacturing cars. In such a way, a customized solution could be obtained within a reasonable budget and within the foreseen timeframe. This development method offers a flexible solution that can be readapted rapidly and automatically to the changing business needs, so the Project Management becomes a real challenge.

  1. Reinventing the Factory with Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopper, Norman S.

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell Inc.'s Canadian manufacturing facility offers comprehensive adult education and training programs. Courses offered spearhead cultural changes needed to become globally competitive. Changes start on the factory floor with those who directly affect three aspects of customer satisfaction: on-time delivery, product quality, and low cost.…

  2. Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaibel, Andreas; Auwaerter, Andreas; Kravcik, Milos

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this paper as: Kaibel, A., Auwaerter, A., & Kravcik, M. (2006). Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning. October 1st-4th, Crete, Greece: Springer. Retrieved October 18th, 2006, from

  3. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  4. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  5. Business plan Feed Factory Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other part

  6. Jean Desmet’s Dream Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Grignard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition review of "Jean Desmet’s Dream Factory. The Adventurous Years of Film (1907-1916" held in Eye Film Instituut in Amsterdam. Paying hommage to film operator and collector Jean Desmet, the exhibition presents a wide range of the film collection as well as a number of rare archival materials.

  7. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  8. Implementing Smart Factory of Industrie 4.0: An Outlook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Shiyong; Wan, Jiafu; Li, Di; Zhang, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    ..., the end-to-end integration of engineering value chain, and the vertical integration of factory inside. In this paper, we focus on the vertical integration to implement flexible and reconfigurable smart factory...

  9. Production of Tetraquark State Tcc at B-Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyima, Rashidin

    2013-12-01

    We study production of the tetraquark state Tcc via virtual photon at the B-factories in the QCD factorization framework. We predict the cross section of tetraquark state production in the leading order at the B-factories.

  10. An Interactive Simulation Tool for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory......The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory...

  11. Flow-based approach for holistic factory engineering and design

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, C.; Westkämper, E.

    2010-01-01

    The engineering of future factories requires digital tools along life cycle phases from investment planning to ramp-up. Manufacturers need scientific-based integrated highly dynamic data management systems for the participative and integrated factory planning. The paper presents a new approach for the continuously integrated product design, factory and process planning, through a service-oriented architecture for the implementation of digital factory tools. A first prototype of the digital fa...

  12. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 40.47 Section 40.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  13. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factory inspection. 164.009-23 Section 164.009-23...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... regular schedule. However, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which a factory is located...

  14. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section....050-13 Factory production and inspection. (a) Equipment manufactured under Coast Guard approval must... any time to visit a factory where the equipment is manufactured to conduct an inspection of...

  15. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  16. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704)...

  17. Internet factories: Creating application-specific networks on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Makkes, M.X.; Laat, C. de; Meijer, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of Internet factories. Internet factories structure the task of creating and managing application-specific overlay networks using infrastructure-as-a-service clouds. We describe the Internet factory architecture and report on a proof of concept with three examples that progr

  18. Gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberlla fujikuroi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S.W.; Coolbaugh, R.C. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of plant growth hormones which were first isolated from the fungus Gibberella fujikuori. We have examined the biosynthesis of GAs in this fungus in liquid cultures using HPLC followed by GC-MS. Furthermore we have used cell-free enzyme extracts with {sup 14}C-labeled intermediates to examine the regulation of specific parts of the biosynthetic pathway. GA{sub 3} is the predominant GA in well aerated cultures. GA{sub 4} and GA{sub 7}, intermediates in GA{sub 3} biosynthesis, accumulate in cultures with low levels of dissolved oxygen, but are not detectable in more aerated cultures. Light stimulates GA production in G. fujikuroi cultures grown from young stock. Cell-free enzyme studies indicate that light has no effect on incorporation of mevalonic acid into kaurene, but does significantly stimulate the oxidation of kaurenoic acid.

  19. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  20. The Physics of the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J. [Queen Mary Univ., London (United Kingdom); Golob, B. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mannel, T. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Theoretische Physik 1; Collaboration: BABAR Collaboration; Belle Collaboration; and others

    2014-11-15

    The inspiration for this book came from Fran@cois le Diberder. During his term as spokesperson for BABAR he laid down a vision for the two B Factory detector collaborations, BABAR and Belle, to work together on a book that would describe the methodologies used and physics results obtained by those experiments. A key ideal emphasized from the outset was that this book should be written from a pedagogical perspective; it should be of interest to the student and expert alike. This vision was presented during a BABAR collaboration meeting on the island of Elba in May 2008 and a follow up Belle collaboration meeting at KEK, with visiting colleagues from the BABAR collaboration, and was embraced by the community. A number of workshops involving people from the theoretical community as well as the two collaborations were held on four continents over the following years. The resulting book, ''The Physics of the B Factories'', is a testament to the way that this concept captured the zeitgeist on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. This book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides a brief description of the B Factories, including a short (though not exhaustive) historical perspective, as well as descriptions of the detectors, ancillary data acquisition systems and data (re)processing systems that were built by the two detector collaborations in the late 1990's. The second part of the book discusses tools and methods that are frequently used when analyzing the data collected. These range from details of low level reconstruction algorithms and abstract summaries of statistical methods to high level prescriptions used when evaluating systematic uncertainties on measurements of observables. The third part of the book is devoted to physics results. This includes sufficient theoretical discussion in order for the reader to understand the context of the work being described. We are indebted to our colleagues from the theoretical community who

  1. Assessment of noise in furniture factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Petusk Filipe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Work safety is of great importance in all industrial activities. The Norm NR15 of the Brazilian law determines that the work environment be tailored to employees to minimize biological, ergonomic, physical, chemical risks and accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of intermittent noise in a daily dose to workers in furniture factories. Measurements were made with a sound level meter and dosimeter in a workday of eight hours in 14 furniture factories located in the South of Minas Gerais. Noise values ranged from 66.0 to 117.4 dB(A. At a dose of 8 working hours it was observed that the values exceed the tolerance limit of a unit, being from 2.76 to 30.52 for minimum and maximum units, respectively. Both noises and daily doses were superior than the values set by the NR-15-Annex 01 (BRASIL, 2008.

  2. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group. (PMA)

  3. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  4. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C T; Prior, G; Gilardoni, S; Neuffer, D; Snopok, P; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  6. Software Development Factories, the Project Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a software factory, the applications are developed in the same way Henri Ford started manufacturing cars. In such a way, a customized solution could be obtained within a reasonable budget and within the foreseen timeframe. This development method offers a flexible solution that can be readapted rapidly and automatically to the changing business needs, so the Project Management becomes a real challenge.

  7. Neutrinos: from the Workshop to the Factory

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over the next 5 years much work will be done to reach a theoretical and practical description of a neutrino factory. How could this project turn out to be an interesting future option for CERN? Neutrino beams travelling from CERN to the Canary Islands? And to the Svalbard archipelago in Norway? Or even to the Pyhaesalmi Mine in Finland? Why neutrinos? And why so far? The answers provide one of CERN's next challenging options: the construction of a high-energy muon storage ring to provide neutrino beams. This project, nicknamed 'neutrino factory', now figures in CERN's middle term plan as a recognized and supported research and development project. International collaborations, with other European laboratories and also with America and Japan, are now being set up. Long baseline locations for neutrino oscillations studies at a CERN based neutrino factory. Early in its history, LEP established that there exist just three kinds of light neutrinos, those associated with the electron, muon, and tau leptons. For a...

  8. Factorial complexity and Morally Debatable Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldo Muchotrigo, Mirian P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, from the scientific and professional practice point of view, comes out the necessity to know more about moral permissiveness, as it seems to be an increase in “moral relativism”.. Because it, it this is important to have tools to collect valid and reliable information about moral in social situations defined as social and personal behavior issue. This paper presents a technical note of The Morally Debatable Behaviors Scale (MDBS from Harding & Phillips (1986, which was developed in USA and mainly focused on young people and adults. This technical note makes direct reference to a recent Latin American study (Merino & Grimaldo, 2010; this article focuses on the internal structure and the problems associated with evidences of factorial complexity among items of the MDBS. This means that the interpretation of scores is not factorially simple and could not be achieved by a conceptual distinction between the latent constructs applied to the study sample.. The results in the previous study of the factorial complexity leads the researcher to decide whether an instrument for measuring this aspect may contain a reasonable amount of complexity that is consistent with what is in reality, or look for the unidimensional and simple structure.

  9. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  10. Chk1 inhibits replication factory activation but allows dormant origin firing in existing factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xin Quan

    2010-01-01

    Replication origins are licensed by loading MCM2-7 hexamers before entry into S phase. However, only ∼10% of licensed origins are normally used in S phase, with the others remaining dormant. When fork progression is inhibited, dormant origins initiate nearby to ensure that all of the DNA is eventually replicated. In apparent contrast, replicative stress activates ataxia telangiectasia and rad-3–related (ATR) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases that inhibit origin firing. In this study, we show that at low levels of replication stress, ATR/Chk1 predominantly suppresses origin initiation by inhibiting the activation of new replication factories, thereby reducing the number of active factories. At the same time, inhibition of replication fork progression allows dormant origins to initiate within existing replication factories. The inhibition of new factory activation by ATR/Chk1 therefore redirects replication toward active factories where forks are inhibited and away from regions that have yet to start replication. This minimizes the deleterious consequences of fork stalling and prevents similar problems from arising in unreplicated regions of the genome. PMID:21173116

  11. Microbial Cell Factories for the Production of Terpenoid Flavor and Fragrance Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Florence M; Drummond, Laura; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens

    2017-04-18

    Terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds are of high interest to the aroma industry. Microbial production offers an alternative sustainable access to the desired terpenoids independent of natural sources. Genetically engineered microorganisms can be used to synthesize terpenoids from cheap and renewable resources. Due to its modular architecture, terpenoid biosynthesis is especially well suited for the microbial cell factory concept: a platform host engineered for a high flux toward the central C5 prenyl diphosphate precursors enables the production of a broad range of target terpenoids just by varying the pathway modules converting the C5 intermediates to the product of interest. In this review typical terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds marketed or under development by biotech and aroma companies are given, and the specificities of the aroma market are discussed. The main part of this work focuses on key strategies and recent advances to engineer microbes to become efficient terpenoid producers.

  12. A novel approach toward coordinated inventory management of an agile multi-echelon multi-product supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alimardani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control systems development is one of the most appealing issues of the supply chain management which have recently been studied by academicians and practitioners. In this paper, an inventory management framework and deterministic cost models within the context of this framework are structured for effective supply chain (SC in an agile environment. To do so, we propose a three-echelon multi-product SC including multiple suppliers, multiple manufacturing firms, and multiple retailers. Moreover, a fuzzy-ANP framework is employed to evaluate suppliers’ agility level and to elicit suitable suppliers aiming at achieving an agile network. To develop operational measures of SC flexibility, a cost structure is defined which captures some different operational cost factors including inventory holding, backordering, lost sell, and ordering costs. Furthermore, a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm is developed to tackle the computational complexity of a production-inventory planning task. Finally, numerical experiments validate the proposed solution methodology.

  13. Multi-product newsvendor problem with hybrid demand and its applications to ordering pharmaceutical reference standard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Qin, Zhongfeng

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in the newsvendor problem. Most of the existing literature is devoted to characterizing the uncertainty either by randomness or by fuzziness. However, in many cases, randomness and fuzziness simultaneously appear in the same problem. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the multi-product newsvendor problem by considering the demands as hybrid variables which are proposed to describe quantities with double uncertainties. According to the expected value criterion, we formulate an expected profit maximization model and convert it to a deterministic form when the chance distributions are given. We discuss two special cases of hybrid variable demands and give their chance distributions. Then we design hybrid simulation to estimate the chance distribution and use genetic algorithm to solve the proposed models. Finally, we proceed to present numerical examples of purchasing pharmaceutical reference standard materials to illustrate the applicability of our methodology and the effectiveness of genetic algorithm.

  14. Stochastic multi-period multi-product multi-objective Aggregate Production Planning model in multi-echelon supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Khalili-Damghani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-period multi-product multi-objective aggregate production planning (APP model is proposed for an uncertain multi-echelon supply chain considering financial risk, customer satisfaction, and human resource training. Three conflictive objective functions and several sets of real constraints are considered concurrently in the proposed APP model. Some parameters of the proposed model are assumed to be uncertain and handled through a two-stage stochastic programming (TSSP approach. The proposed TSSP is solved using three multi-objective solution procedures, i.e., the goal attainment technique, the modified ε-constraint method, and STEM method. The whole procedure is applied in an automotive resin and oil supply chain as a real case study wherein the efficacy and applicability of the proposed approaches are illustrated in comparison with existing experimental production planning method.

  15. A comparison of HK-CONWIP and BK-CONWIP control strategies in a multi-product manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonyelum Emmanuel Onyeocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of the Hybrid Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy and Basestock Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy operating Shared Kanban Allocation Policy (S-KAP and Dedicated Kanban Allocation Policy (D-KAP in a multi-product serial flow line. We explored the effect of an increase of product types on the WIP inventory in the system. A simulation-based optimisation technique was used in determining the optimal settings for the strategies. The strategies were compared via pairwise comparison technique and Nelson’s ranking and selection procedure. S-KAP responds quicker to demand than D-KAP. BK-CONWIP outperforms HK-CONWIP in a serial manufacturing system. It was shown that an increase in the number of product-type increases the number of PAC and WIP inventory.

  16. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  17. Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp / Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ –Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical issues were discussed.

  18. Control of tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cundliffe, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tylosin biosynthesis is controlled in cascade fashion by multiple transcriptional regulators, acting positively or negatively, in conjunction with a signalling ligand that acts as a classical inducer...

  19. Lignin biosynthesis and its molecular regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lignin biosynthesis has become increasingly highlighted because it plays an important role in the growth and development of plant, in the systematic evolution of plant and in the human life. Due to the progress in the field of lignin studies in recent years, the lignin biosynthesis pathway has been 修订日期:. Here we discuss some genetic engineering approaches on lignin biosynthesis, and conceive strategy to regulate lignin biosynthesis in order to use lignin resource more efficiently in agricultural and industrial productions.

  20. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,R. B.; J. B. Almeida e Silva; Lima,U. A.; Assis,A. N.

    2000-01-01

    A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort) were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and es...

  1. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2007-12-21

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  2. Tau/Charm Factory Accelerator Report

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, M E; Boscolo, M; Chiarucci, A; Cimino, R; Clozza, A; Drago, A; Guiducci, S; Ligi, C; Mazzitelli, G; Ricci, R; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Bini, S; Cioeta, F; Cittadino, D; D'Agostino, M; Del Franco, M; Piane, A Delle; Di Pasquale, E; Frascadore, G; Gazzana, S; Gargana, R; Incremona, S; Michelotti, A; Sabbatini, L; Schillaci, G; Sedita, M; Raimondi, P; Petronzio, R; Paoloni, E; Liuzzo, S M; Carmignani, N; Pivi, M

    2013-01-01

    The present Report concerns the current status of the Italian Tau/Charm accelerator project and in particular discusses the issues related to the lattice design, to the accelerators systems and to the associated conventional facilities. The project aims at realizing a variable energy Flavor Factory between 1 and 4.6 GeV in the center of mass, and succeeds to the SuperB project from which it inherits most of the solutions proposed in this document. The work comes from a cooperation involving the INFN Frascati National Laboratories accelerator experts, the young newcomers, mostly engineers, of the Cabibbo Lab consortium and key collaborators from external laboratories.

  3. Targeting population heterogeneity for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Carlqvist, Magnus; Helmark, S.

    , substrates, and pH are typically observed in many industrial scale fermentation processes. Consequently, the microbial cells experience rapid changes in environmental conditions as they circulate throughout the reactor, which might pose stress on the cells and affect their metabolism and consequently affect...... analysis, and thereby created the possibility to map population heterogeneity. A factorial design with pH, glucose concentration and oxygen level was performed in batch cultivations using the growth reporter strains to evaluate the effect of those environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount...

  4. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  5. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  6. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Dimitra; Omirou, Michalis; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Tsikou, Daniela; Delis, Costas; Garagounis, Constantine; Krokida, Afrodite; Zambounis, Antonis; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2016-12-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a highly important group of secondary metabolites in the Caparalles order, both due to their significance in plant-biome interactions and to their chemoprotective properties. This study identified genes involved in all steps of aliphatic and indolic GSL biosynthesis in Eruca sativa, a cultivated plant closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana with agronomic and nutritional value. The impact of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability on GSL biosynthetic pathways at a transcriptional level, and on the final GSL content of plant leaf and root tissues, was investigated. N and S supply had a significant and interactive effect on the GSL content of leaves, in a structure-specific and tissue-dependent manner; the metabolites levels were significantly correlated with the relative expression of the genes involved in their biosynthesis. A more complex effect was observed in roots, where aliphatic and indolic GSLs and related biosynthetic genes responded differently to the various nutritional treatments suggesting that nitrogen and sulfur availability are important factors that control plant GSL content at a transcriptional level. The biological activity of extracts derived from these plants grown under the specific nutritional schemes was examined. N and S availability were found to significantly affect the cytotoxicity of E. sativa extracts on human cancer cells, supporting the notion that carefully designed nutritional schemes can promote the accumulation of chemoprotective substances in edible plants.

  7. Optimization of a furniture factory layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Kanduč

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimizing a factory floor layout in a Slovenian furniture factory. First, the current state of the manufacturing system is analyzed by constructing a discrete event simulation (DES model that reflects the manufacturing processes. The company produces over 10,000 different products, and their manufacturing processes include approximately 30,000 subprocesses. Therefore, manually constructing a model to include every subprocess is not feasible. To overcome this problem, a method for automated model construction was developed to construct a DES model based on a selection of manufacturing orders and relevant subprocesses. The obtained simulation model provided insight into the manufacturing processes and enable easy modification of model parameters for optimizing the manufacturing processes. Finally, the optimization problem was solved: the total distance the products had to traverse between machines was minimized by devising an optimal machine layout. With the introduction of certain simplifications, the problem was best described as a quadratic assignment problem. A novel heuristic method based on force-directed graph drawing algorithms was developed. Optimizing the floor layout resulted in a significant reduction of total travel distance for the products.

  8. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  9. Carbonate factories: A conundrum in sedimentary geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, L.; Hallock, P.

    2008-03-01

    by the end-Permian extinctions, excess photosynthesis by phytoplankton and microbial assemblages in surface waters, induced by moderately high CO 2 and temperature during the Early Mesozoic, supported proliferation of non-tissular metazoans (e.g., sponges) and heterotrophic bacteria at the sea floor. Metabolic activity by those microbes, especially sulfate reduction, resulted in abundant biologically-induced geochemical carbonate precipitation on and within the sea floor. For example, with the opening of Tethyan seaways during the Triassic, massive sponge/microbe boundstones (the benthic automicrite factory) formed steep, massive and thick progradational slopes and, locally, mud-mounds. As tectonic processes created shallow epicontinental seas, photosynthesis drove lime-mud precipitation in the illuminated zone of the water column. The resulting neritic lime-mud component of the shallow-water carbonate factory became predominant during the Jurassic, paralleling the increase in atmospheric pCO 2, while the decreasing importance of the benthic automicrite factory parallels the diversification of calcifying metazoans, phytoplankton and zooplankton. With atmospheric pCO 2 declining through the Cretaceous, the potential habitats for neritic lime-mud precipitation declined. At the same time, peak oceanic Ca 2+ concentrations promoted biotically-controlled calcification by the skeletal factory. With changes produced by extinctions and turnovers at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, adaptations to decreasing Ca 2+ and pCO 2, coupled with increasing global temperature gradients (i.e., high-latitude and deep-water cooling), and strategies that efficiently linked photosynthesis and calcification, promoted successive changes of the dominant skeletal factory through the Cenozoic: larger benthic foraminifers (protist-protist symbiosis) during the Paleogene, red algae during the Miocene and modern coral reefs (metazoan-protist symbiosis) since Late Miocene.

  10. A novel mathematical model for a multi-period, multi-product optimal ordering problem considering expiry dates in a FEFO system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazvar, Z.; Mirzapour Al-e-hashem, S. M J; Govindan, K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges of retail units is to determine the order quantities of different types of products, each with a specific expiry date, so that the system cost including shortage cost is minimized. We study a new multi-product multi-period replenishment problem for a First Expired...

  11. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  12. Review of the Neutrino Factory Muon Front End

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C

    2011-01-01

    Three major facilities have been proposed for the precision study of neutrino oscillation parameters, the Neutrino Factory, the Betabeam and the Superbeam. Of these the Neutrino Factory offers high precision measurement of oscillations parameters. The Neutrino Factory generates neutrinos by firing protons onto a target in order to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured before being accelerated to 25 GeV and stored in racetrack-shaped rings where they decay to neutrinos. In this note the pion decay channel, longitudinal drift, adiabatic buncher, phase rotation and ionisation cooling system that make up the Neutrino Factory muon front end are reviewed.

  13. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  14. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  15. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  16. Moscow Meson Factory DTL RF System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Esin, S K; Kvasha, A I; Serov, V L

    2004-01-01

    The last paper devoted to description of the first part (DTL) RF system of Moscow Meson Factory upgrade was published in the Proceedings of PAC95 Conference in Dallas. Since then some new works directed at improvement of reliability and efficiency of the RF system were carried out. Among them there are a new powerful pulse triode “Katran” installed in the output RF power amplifiers (PA) of three channels, modifications of the anode modulator control circuit and crow-bar system, a new additional RF channel for RF supply of RFQ and some alterations in placing of the anode modulator equipment decreasing a level of interference’s at crow-bar circuits. Some new checked at MMF RF channels ideas concerning of PA tuning are of interest for people working in this sphere of activity.

  17. Improved premises for cell factory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie

    The sustainable manufacturing of medicines, materials and chemicals is enabled with biotechnology, and the key to the development of new processes, as well as improvement of existing ones, lies in our fundamental understanding of the biological systems we manipulate. Recombinant protein production...... of protein in a sustainable, costefficient manner. In this thesis I report the joined efforts of my colleagues and myself, to improve the premises for cell factory development by optimizing the cloning strategies, improving the awareness of unforeseen side-effects in complex bacterial expression systems......, and building a platform for enhanced expression of certain plant genes in bacteria. The relevance of the conducted research to the field of biotechnology is covered, as well as necessary scientific background and history. Specifically, the surprisingly minor effects of tRNA overexpression on the production...

  18. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  19. AutoPyFactory and the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P

    2013-01-01

    AutoPyFactory (APF) is a next-generation pilot submission framework that has been used as part of the ATLAS workload management system (PANDA) for two years. APF is reliable, scalable, and offers easy and flexible configuration. Using a plugin-based architecture, APF polls for information from configured information and batch systems (including grid sites), decides how many additional pilot jobs are needed, and submits them. With the advent of cloud computing, providing resources goes beyond submitting pilots to grid sites. Now, the resources on which the pilot will run also need to be managed. Handling both pilot submission and controlling the virtual machine life cycle (creation, retirement, and termination) from the same framework allows robust and efficient management of the process. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of these virtual machine management capabilities of APF. Expanding on our plugin-based approach, we allow cascades of virtual resources associated with a job queue. A si...

  20. Producción escrita: Estructura factorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza HERRERA GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se planteó con la idea de comprobar de forma empírica si los indicadores lingüísticos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas sobre comprensión lectora aparecían también como significativos en el análisis de la producción escrita. Si bien la investigación psicológica ha demostrado en numerosas ocasiones la relación existente entre comprensión y producción en el sentido de una maduración anterior de la primera con respecto a la segunda, podemos considerar a priori la existencia de indicadores que nos permitan medir ambos aspectos. Para ello buscamos la estructura factorial que presentan los indicadores lingüísticos que vamos a considerar y comprobaremos si presenta los factores encontrados en comprensión lectora.

  1. Systems Factorial Technology Explained to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of mental processes is at the forefront of research in cognitive psychology. However, the ability to identify the architectures responsible for specific behaviors is often quite difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, recent progress in mathematical psychology has brought forth Systems Factorial Technology (SFT; Townsend & Nozawa, 1995. Encompassing a series of analyses, SFT can diagnose and discriminate between five types of information processing architectures that possibly underlie a mental process. Despite the fact that SFT has led to new discoveries in cognitive psychology, the methodology itself remains far from intuitive to newcomers. This article therefore seeks to provide readers with a simple tutorial and a rudimentary introduction to SFT. This tutorial aims to encourage newcomers to read more about SFT and also to add it to their repertoire of analyses.

  2. Future e+ e- Flavor Factories: accelerator challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, M E

    2008-01-01

    Operation of the B-Factories (PEP-II and KEKB) has been very successful, both having exceeded their design peak and integrated luminosity and provided a huge amount of good data to the experiments. Proposal for upgrades, in order to achieve about two order of magnitude larger luminosity, are in progress in Japan, with Super-KEKB, and in Europe, with SuperB. Very high beam intensity, very short bunch length and low Interaction Point beta-functions are the key points of the Japanese design, very challenging for the hardware components (RF, vacuum). On the other hand SuperB exploits a new collision scheme, namely large Piwinski angle and "crab waist", which will allow to reach a luminosity two order of magnitude larger without increasing beam currents and decreasing bunch lengths. In this talk the present status of the two projects will be reviewed.

  3. ATHEROSCLEROSIS DISEASE: A MULTI-FACTORIAL PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcieli da Luz Giroldo1; Arienne Serrano Alves1; Francielle Baptista1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis or arterial stiffening is a gradual disease that restricts the normal blood flow in different areas of body and maylead to secondary illnesses as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Innumerable factors are related to the development ofatherosclerosis, among them are the dyslipidemia; genetic factors; arterial hypertension; diabetes mellitus; obesity; smoking;lack of exercise; pulmonary infection by Chlamydia and stress. Due to multi-factorial atherosclerosis characteristics,innumerable drugs, with differentiated mechanisms of action, are being elaborated to be used in prevention and control of thisdisease. However, beyond the pharmacological therapy, a balanced diet, physical activity and elimination of risk habits, assmoking, also are need for controlling atherosclerosis progression, as well as for the increase of expectative and quality of life

  4. Review: Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jerry D; Kocíncová, Dana; Westman, Erin L; Lam, Joseph S

    2009-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious nosocomial infections, and an important virulence factor produced by this organism is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This review summarizes knowledge about biosynthesis of all three structural domains of LPS - lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O polysaccharides. In addition, based on similarities with other bacterial species, this review proposes new hypothetical pathways for unstudied steps in the biosynthesis of P. aeruginosa LPS. Lipid A biosynthesis is discussed in relation to Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the biosyntheses of core sugar precursors and core oligosaccharide are summarised. Pseudomonas aeruginosa attaches a Common Polysaccharide Antigen and O-Specific Antigen polysaccharides to lipid A-core. Both forms of O polysaccharide are discussed with respect to their independent synthesis mechanisms. Recent advances in understanding O-polysaccharide biosynthesis since the last major review on this subject, published nearly a decade ago, are highlighted. Since P. aeruginosa O polysaccharides contain unusual sugars, sugar-nucleotide biosynthesis pathways are reviewed in detail. Knowledge derived from detailed studies in the O5, O6 and O11 serotypes is applied to predict biosynthesis pathways of sugars in poorly-studied serotypes, especially O1, O4, and O13/O14. Although further work is required, a full understanding of LPS biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa is almost within reach.

  5. Connection Among Some Optimal Criteria for Symmetrical Fractional Factorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qin; Ming-yao Ai; Jian-hui Ning

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental and practical question for fractional factorial designs is the issue of optimal factor assignment. Recently, some new criteria, such as generalized minimum aberration, WV-criterion, NB-criterion and uniformity criterion are proposed for comparing and selecting fractions. In this paper, we indicate that these criteria agree quite well for symmetrical fraction factorial designs.

  6. China’s Largest Copper Foil Factory Opened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On October 28,civil engineering and steel structure projects by Nanya No.3 Copper Foil Factory,the largest copper foil factory on the Chinese mainland by Shanghai Baoye Group Corp.,Ltd.,opened on Changjiang Nan Road in Kunshan’s

  7. Students Tackle Academics in Practical Context at Skateboard Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    High school student Nick Robertson came to Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF) from a suburban Toronto district. He was surfing the web when he spotted a reference to Oasis Skateboard Factory, an alternative program in the Toronto District School Board. He says his first reaction was "Skateboards in school? It didn't seem possible." He…

  8. Students Tackle Academics in Practical Context at Skateboard Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    High school student Nick Robertson came to Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF) from a suburban Toronto district. He was surfing the web when he spotted a reference to Oasis Skateboard Factory, an alternative program in the Toronto District School Board. He says his first reaction was "Skateboards in school? It didn't seem possible." He…

  9. Factory Gate Pricing : An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Factory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution.Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers.Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks (the supplier

  10. Factory Gate Pricing: An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. le Blanc; F. Cruijssen (Frans); H.A. Fleuren; M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFactory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution. Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers. Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks

  11. 27 CFR 40.70 - Separation of and access to factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to factory. 40.70 Section 40.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... § 40.70 Separation of and access to factory. Where the factory consists of a portion of a building, or where portions of buildings are part of the factory, the factory shall be completely separated by...

  12. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  13. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  14. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  15. Biosynthesis and Genetic Engineering of Polyketides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiang-Cheng; WANG Qiao-Mei; SHEN Yue-Mao; DU Liang-Cheng; HUFFMAN Justin; GERBER Ryan; LOU Li-Li; XIE Yun-Xuan; LIN Ting; JORGENSON Joel; MARESCH Andrew; VOGELER Chad

    2008-01-01

    Polyketides are one of the largest groups of natural products produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. Many of these metabolites have highly complex chemical structures and very important biological activities, including antibiotic, anticancer, immunosuppressant, and anti-cholesterol activities. In the past two decades, extensive investigations have been carried out to understand the molecular mechanisms for polyketide biosynthesis. These efforts have led to the development of various rational approaches toward engineered biosynthesis of new polyketides. More recently, the research efforts have shifted to the elucidation of the three-dimentional structure of the complex enzyme machineries for polyketide biosynthesis and to the exploitation of new sources for polyketide production, such as filamentous fungi and marine microorganisms. This review summarizes our general understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms and the progress in engineered biosynthesis of polyketides.

  16. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Jongedijk, E.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana

  17. Optimal operation of multi-product pipeline network%成品油管网运行优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永图; 刘增哲

    2011-01-01

    After studying features of multi-product pipeline network, using the minimum energy cost as the objective function, an optimal mathematical model was established considering pressures and flow rate restraints, operation restraints of different pump stations and energy balance of pipeline network. The model was solved using dynamic programming algorithm.The optimal pump configuration was provided by the model. Then the optimal mathematical model was applied to some products pipeline network to demonstrate its feasibility. The results by the optimal model were compared with those of exhaustive method. The results show that the model could draw out the optimal pump configuration and work efficiently in pipeline transpertation engineering.%针对我国成品油管网的特点,以管网运行周期内的能耗费用最小为目标函数,考虑管网中各站场的进、出站压力约束、管网高低点压力约束及管网运行时的能量平衡约束等建立成品油管网优化运行的数学模型,并采用分阶段动态规划方法求解模型,得出管网系统在输送周期内各时段的优化配泵方案.将模型应用于某成品油管网,并将优化模拟计算结果与穷举法的计算结果进行对比分析.结果表明,优化模型可以得到令人满意的配泵方案,且计算效率更高,可以较好地应用于工程实践.

  18. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton.

  19. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

  20. The Gamma Factory proposal for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold

    2015-01-01

    This year, 2015, marks the centenary of the publication of Einsteins Theory of General Relativity and it has been named the International Year of Light and light-based technologies by the UN General Assembly. It is thus timely to discuss the possibility of broadening the present CERN research program by including a new component based on a novel concept of the light source which could pave a way towards a multipurpose Gamma Factory. The proposed light source could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 1 < Ephoton < 400 MeV. This domain is out of reach for the FEL-based light sources. The energy-tuned, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven, high intensity secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutro...

  1. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  2. Agile manufacturing: The factory of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Joseph M.; Bossieux, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The factory of the future will require an operating methodology which effectively utilizes all of the elements of product design, manufacturing and delivery. The process must respond rapidly to changes in product demand, product mix, design changes or changes in the raw materials. To achieve agility in a manufacturing operation, the design and development of the manufacturing processes must focus on customer satisfaction. Achieving greatest results requires that the manufacturing process be considered from product concept through sales. This provides the best opportunity to build a quality product for the customer at a reasonable rate. The primary elements of a manufacturing system include people, equipment, materials, methods and the environment. The most significant and most agile element in any process is the human resource. Only with a highly trained, knowledgeable work force can the proper methods be applied to efficiently process materials with machinery which is predictable, reliable and flexible. This paper discusses the affect of each element on the development of agile manufacturing systems.

  3. Future Accelerators, Muon Colliders, and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A Carrigan, Jr.

    2001-12-19

    Particle physics is driven by five great topics. Neutrino oscillations and masses are now at the fore. The standard model with extensions to supersymmetry and a Higgs to generate mass explains much of the field. The origins of CP violation are not understood. The possibility of extra dimensions has raised tantalizing new questions. A fifth topic lurking in the background is the possibility of something totally different. Many of the questions raised by these topics require powerful new accelerators. It is not an overstatement to say that for some of the issues, the accelerator is almost the experiment. Indeed some of the questions require machines beyond our present capability. As this volume attests, there are parts of the particle physics program that have been significantly advanced without the use of accelerators such as the subject of neutrino oscillations and many aspects of the particle-cosmology interface. At this stage in the development of physics, both approaches are needed and important. This chapter first reviews the status of the great accelerator facilities now in operation or coming on within the decade. Next, midrange possibilities are discussed including linear colliders with the adjunct possibility of gamma-gamma colliders, muon colliders, with precursor neutrino factories, and very large hadron colliders. Finally visionary possibilities are considered including plasma and laser accelerators.

  4. Cell Factory Stability and Genetic Circuits for Improved Strain Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter

    Development of new chemical-­‐producing microbial cell factories is an iterative trial-­and-­error process, and to screen candidate cells at high throughput, genetic biosensor systems are appealing. Each biosensor has distinct biological parameters, making modular tuning networks attractive....... However, all synthetic gene systems -­ including the target metabolic pathways themselves -­ represent a possible fitness burden to the cell and thus constitute a threat to strain stability. In this thesis, several studies served to develop genetic systems for optimizing cell factory development...... factories in future....

  5. Environmental radioactivity level at a mantle factory in eastern Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; ZENG Guang-Jian; WU Zong-Mei; LIU Hong-Shi; NI Shi-Ying

    2003-01-01

    The γ radiation level, alpha potential energy of thoron and alpha surface contamination level at amantle factory in the east of Zhejiang Province are reported. The measured results show that the additional annual ef-fective dose equivalent absorbed by the worker in some workshops of the factory was higher than 15mSv-management limit. The alpha surface contamination on the workers' hands in some workshops was 10 timesmore than the management limit of National Standard (0.04 Bq/cm2). The mantle factory's main danger to body wasinternal irradiation of α rays from thoron aerosol.

  6. Uniformity pattern and related criteria for two-level factorials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Kaitai; QIN; Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,the study of projection properties of two-level factorials in view of geometry is reported.The concept of uniformity pattern is defined.Based on this new concept,criteria of uniformity resolution and minimum projection uniformity are proposed for comparing two-level factorials.Relationship between minimum projection uniformity and other criteria such as minimum aberration,generalized minimum aberration and orthogonality is made explict.This close relationship raises the hope of improving the connection between uniform design theory and factorial design theory.Our results provide a justification of orthogonality,minimum aberration,and generalized minimum aberration from a natural geometrical interpretation.

  7. Insulin biosynthesis and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permutt, A; Chirgwin, J; Giddings, S; Kakita, K; Rotwein, P

    1981-10-01

    This review reports the use of recombinant DNA techniques in the study of the structure and regulation of expression of insulin genes in man and experimental animals. Insulin biosynthesis by pancreatic islet cells is predominantly regulated by change in plasma glucose concentration. Using a cell-free protein synthesizing system as an assay of functional proinsulin messenger RNA (mRNA), and hybridization analysis with a cloned DNA complementary to proinsulin mRNA, it has been determined that through changes in proinsulin mRNA levels. Insulin genes of the rat, chicken and human have been isolated and sequenced. The 5' ends of the genes have similar sequences suggesting areas important for regulation of transcription. There are two non-allelic insulin genes in the rat, but only one in chickens and humans. Intervening sequences, areas of DNA transcribed into precursor mRNA but which do not appear in mature mRNA, have been described within insulin genes. The insulin gene resides on chromosome 11 of humans as determined by DNA hybridization analysis of mouse human hybrid cells. The structure of the insulin gene in genomic DNA of humans has been analyzed in diabetics and non-diabetics. Insertions of DNA between 1500 and 3400 base pairs have been detected near the transcription initiation site in 65% of type II diabetics, and 25-30% of non-diabetics (this difference is significant at the p less than 0.001 level). Limitation of these insertions to this potential promotor region of the insulin gene suggests that they may alter gene expression in type II diabetes. These insertions of DNA may prove to be useful genetic markers for diabetes.

  8. Make your company a talent factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A; Conger, Jay A

    2007-06-01

    Despite the great sums of money companies dedicate to talent management systems, many still struggle to fill key positions - limiting their potential for growth in the process. Virtually all the human resource executives in the authors' 2005 survey of 40 companies around the world said that their pipeline of high-potential employees was insufficient to fill strategic management roles. The survey revealed two primary reasons for this. First, the formal procedures for identifying and developing next-generation leaders have fallen out of sync with what companies need to grow or expand into new markets. To save money, for example, some firms have eliminated positions that would expose high-potential employees to a broad range of problems, thus sacrificing future development opportunities that would far outweigh any initial savings from the job cuts. Second, HR executives often have trouble keeping top leaders' attention on talent issues, despite those leaders' vigorous assertions that obtaining and keeping the best people is a major priority. If passion for that objective doesn't start at the top and infuse the culture, say the authors, talent management can easily deteriorate into the management of bureaucratic routines. Yet there are companies that can face the future with confidence. These firms don't just manage talent, they build talent factories. The authors describe the experiences of two such corporations - consumer products icon Procter & Gamble and financial services giant HSBC Group -that figured out how to develop and retain key employees and fill positions quickly to meet evolving business needs. Though each company approached talent management from a different direction, they both maintained a twin focus on functionality (rigorous talent processes that support strategic and cultural objectives) and vitality (management's emotional commitment, which is reflected in daily actions).

  9. The Experiment Factory: standardizing behavioral experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa V Sochat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (de Leeuw (2015; McDonnell et al. (2012; Mason and Suri (2011; Lange et al. (2015 have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker (2015; Open Science Collaboration (2015 highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  10. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochat, Vanessa V.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  11. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-07-29

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 {angstrom} for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the low-redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and follow-up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based follow-up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of follow-up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager.

  12. Application of fiber laser for a Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    2014-06-04

    This paper proposes a medium size(~6km) circular Higgs factory based on a photon collider. The recent breakthrough in fiber laser technology by means of a coherent amplifier network makes such a collider feasible and probably also affordable.

  13. Toroidal magnetized iron neutrino detector for a neutrino factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bross, A.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Burguet-Castell, J.

    2013-08-01

    A neutrino factory has unparalleled physics reach for the discovery and measurement of CP violation in the neutrino sector. A far detector for a neutrino factory must have good charge identification with excellent background rejection and a large mass. An elegant solution is to construct a magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) along the lines of MINOS, where iron plates provide a toroidal magnetic field and scintillator planes provide 3D space points. In this report, the current status of a simulation of a toroidal MIND for a neutrino factory is discussed in light of the recent measurements of large $\\theta_{13}$. The response and performance using the 10 GeV neutrino factory configuration are presented. It is shown that this setup has equivalent $\\delta_{CP}$ reach to a MIND with a dipole field and is sensitive to the discovery of CP violation over 85% of the values of $\\delta_{CP}$.

  14. Factorial kriging analysis applied to geological data from petroleum exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquet, O.

    1989-10-01

    A regionalized variable, thickness of the reservoir layer, from a gas field is decomposed by factorial kriging analysis. Maps of the obtained components may be associated with depositional environments that are favorable for petroleum exploration.

  15. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai S; Apiwathnasorn C; Leemingsawat S; Wongwit W; Overgaard HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods: Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 μg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions: The Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques.

  16. Factorial Schur functions via the six vertex model

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    For a particular set of Boltzmann weights and a particular boundary condition for the six vertex model in statistical mechanics, we compute explicitly the partition function and show it to be equal to a factorial Schur function.

  17. D and Ds Hadronic Branching Fractions at B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappagallo, Marco; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2008-01-07

    Recent measurements of hadronic branching fractions of D and D{sub s} mesons, performed by the BABAR and Belle experiments at the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B factories colliders PEP II and KEKB, are reviewed.

  18. Oscillations of factorial cumulants to factorial moments ratio from an eikonal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggio, P.C., E-mail: beggio@uenf.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro – UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-02

    We study the factorial moments (F{sub q}), the factorial cumulants (K{sub q}) and the ratio of K{sub q} to F{sub q} (H{sub q}=K{sub q}/F{sub q}) in pp/pp{sup ¯} collisions using an updated approach, in which the multiplicity distribution is related to the eikonal function. The QCD inspired eikonal model adopted contains contributions of quark–quark, quark–gluon and gluon–gluon interactions. Our work shows that the approach can reproduce the collision energy dependence of the F{sub q} moments, correctly predicts that the first minimum of the H{sub q} lies around q=5 and qualitatively reproduces the oscillations of the H{sub q} moments, as shown in the experimental data and predicted by QCD at preasymptotic energy. The result of this study seems to indicate that the H{sub q} oscillations are manifestations of semihard component in the multiparticle production process. Predictions for multiplicity distribution and H{sub q} moments at the LHC energy of √(s)=14 TeV are presented.

  19. Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    chemical diversity and biodiversity of ascomycetous fungi. This rationale could be very handy for the selection of potentially safe fungal cell factories not only for polyketide pigments but also for the other industrially important polyketides; the molecular and genetic basis for the biosynthesis of which...... provide readily available additional and/or alternative sources of natural colorants that are independent of agro-climatic conditions. With an appropriately selected fungus; using in particular chemotaxonomy as a guide, the fungal natural colorants could be produced in high yields by using the optimized...... cultivation technology. This approach could secure efficient production of pigments avoiding use of genetic manipulation. Results: Polyketide pigment producing ascomycetous fungi were evaluated for their potential as production organisms based on a priori knowledge on species-specific pigment and potential...

  20. Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Factory Farming in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Asbjørn Lupo; Giersing, Josephine; Magrane, David; Breitenstein, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper is written with the purpose of looking into sustainable development. More specifically, it will look at the relationship between the environmental and economical pillars of sustainability. In order for sustainable development to take place, the economy must be growing while maintaining earth’s natural resources. Factory farming might be strong from an economic point of view, but it does not seem to be environmentally friendly. Therefore we used factory farming as an example of an i...

  1. EVALUASI PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN TEACHING FACTORY DI SEKOLAH USAHA PERIKANAN MENENGAH

    OpenAIRE

    Fuadi, Afnan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the implementation of Teaching Factory Learning Program inSUPM Negeri Tegal. This research is a qualitative research using CIPP Model (Context, Input, Process, Product).The main subjects of this research were the teachesr of Teaching Factory and the students of class XII in FishProcessing Technology. The data were collected through participant observation using interview, observation,document study, and questionnaire. The research found that the impleme...

  2. Development of law relating to factories in India

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Sahu

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of industrial town and factories has paved the way to develop our industrial legislation accordingly. The Government of India never expressed their interest in framing separate legislation vis-à-vis factories which resulted in implementation of the same statute which was enacted pre-independence. It was done by virtue of Art. 372 of the Constitution of India. However, the Constitutional Lawmakers created vacuum for the implementation of new statute in accordance with the dema...

  3. Virtual Factory Framework for Supporting Production Planning and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibira, Deogratias; Shao, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Developing optimal production plans for smart manufacturing systems is challenging because shop floor events change dynamically. A virtual factory incorporating engineering tools, simulation, and optimization generates and communicates performance data to guide wise decision making for different control levels. This paper describes such a platform specifically for production planning. We also discuss verification and validation of the constituent models. A case study of a machine shop is used to demonstrate data generation for production planning in a virtual factory.

  4. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Kohli, Charu; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ekta

    2012-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS) questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR). P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8%) and three (8.8%) subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9%) factory and eight (21.6%) non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7%) factory worker and nine (24.3%) subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01). Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out.

  5. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  6. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  7. Invariabilidad de la estructura factorial del "California Personality Inventory" (CPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio J. A. Rimoldi

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Tbe factor analysis of the California Personality Inventory (CPI and Rokeaeh Dogmatism Scale was performed using the results obtained from 161 college students, of both sexes, between 18 and 22 years of age, Four factors were extracted using the principal axes solution and graphic rotations. The results were compared with other factorial studíes, They showed a highly satistory agreement with some other solution strenghtening the factorial invariance of the CPI.

  8. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Kohli, Charu; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS) questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR). P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8%) and three (8.8%) subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9%) factory and eight (21.6%) non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7%) factory worker and nine (24.3%) subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01). Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Conclusion: Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out. PMID:23776324

  9. Noncommunicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugal Kishore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs are becoming more prevalent in India. The data for presence of NCDs and its risk factors among factory workers is deficient in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among 37 factory workers and equal number of comparable subjects from general population. Screening for presence of diabetes along with its risk factors was made in both the groups using pretested predesigned World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS questionnaire in rural area of Delhi. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. The estimation of risk in two groups was done with calculation of odds ratio (OR. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: A total of 74 participants were included in the present study. Hypertension and diabetes was present in 13.5 and 5.4% of factory workers and four (10.8% and three (8.8% subjects in comparative group, respectively. Seven (18.9% factory and eight (21.6% non-factory subjects fell in the category of current smoker or smokeless tobacco users. High density lipoprotein levels were found abnormal among one (2.7% factory worker and nine (24.3% subjects in comparative group (P-value = 0.01. Behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption, and fruits and vegetable intake were significantly different among two groups. Conclusion: Factory workers were having better profile than non-factory subjects except for risk factors such as alcohol intake and inadequate fruits and vegetable intake. However, healthy worker effect phenomenon cannot be ruled out.

  10. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: A green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Ikram, Saiqa; Yudha S, Salprima

    2016-08-01

    Nanotechnology is an immensely developing field due to its extensive range of applications in different areas of technology and science. Different types of methods are employed for synthesis of nanoparticles due to their wide applications. The conventional chemical methods have certain limitations with them either in the form of chemical contaminations during their syntheses procedures or in later applications and use of higher energy. During the last decade research have been focussed on developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost effective and eco-friendly protocols for synthesis of nanoparticles. In order to get this objective, biosynthesis methods have been developed in order to fill this gap. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is simple, single step, eco-friendly and a green approach. The biochemical processes in biological agents reduce the dissolved metal ions into nano metals. The various biological agents like plant tissues, fungi, bacteria, etc. are used for biosynthesis for metal nanoparticles. In this review article, we summarised recent literature on biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles which have revolutionised technique of synthesis for their applications in different fields. Due to biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles, it has find its applications in biomedical applications. The protocol and mechanism of biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles along with various applications have also been discussed.

  11. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research is done in two different methods. One is empirical data collection using thermal data loggers and the other is questionnaire survey on the spots for three factory buildings. The field study was conducted in four different months of the same year during winter and summer period. Expected findings of this research are that the indoor environment is not comfortable for works at day time during summer season. This research will help the factory workers in providing a comfortable thermal environment and also help the employers or factory owners to increase their production margin.

  12. The Terpenoid Biosynthesis Toolkit of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravindra; Mukherjee, Prasun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The widely used biotechnologically important fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma are rich sources of secondary metabolites. Even though the genomes of several Trichoderma spp. have been published, and data are available on the genes involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, no genome-wide data are available for the terpenoid biosynthesis machinery in these organisms. In the present study, we have identified the genes involved in terpene biosynthesis in the genomes of three Trichoderma spp., viz., T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. While the genes involved in the condensation steps are highly conserved across the three species, these fungi differed in the number and organization of terpene cyclases. T. virens genome harbours eleven terpene cyclases, while T. atroviride harbours seven, and T. reeseisix in their genomes; seven, three and two being part of putative secondary metabolism related gene clusters.

  13. The Spatial Organization of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nintemann, Sebastian

    . However, questions concerning the spatial arrangement of the glucosinolate biosynthetic machinery and the consequential distribution of the metabolites remain. Different types of glucosinolates require specialized enzymes for certain steps in their biosynthetic pathways and whether these act in the same...... cells is an open question. Likewise, it is not known how glucosinolate biosynthesis is orchestrated at the subcellular level. These open questions were addressed with several approaches in this project, with the aim of shedding light on the spatial organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis from...... between the individual classes of glucosinolates under constitutive and induced conditions and identified the source tissues of these defense compounds. Protein-protein interaction studies were carried out to investigate the subcellular organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis. We identified a family...

  14. Flavonoids: biosynthesis, biological functions, and biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone Ferreyra, María L.; Rius, Sebastián P.; Casati, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. The elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways, as well as their regulation by MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40-type transcription factors, has allowed metabolic engineering of plants through the manipulation of the different final products with valuable applications. The present review describes the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as the biological functions of flavonoids in plants, such as in defense against UV-B radiation and pathogen infection, nodulation, and pollen fertility. In addition, we discuss different strategies and achievements through the genetic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis with implication in the industry and the combinatorial biosynthesis in microorganisms by the reconstruction of the pathway to obtain high amounts of specific compounds. PMID:23060891

  15. Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, Biological functions and Biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lorena eFalcone Ferreyra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. The elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways, as well as their regulation by MYB, bHLH and WD40-type transcription factors, has allowed metabolic engineering of plants through the manipulation of the different final products with valuable applications. The present review describes the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as the biological functions of flavonoids in plants, such as in defense against UV-B radiation and pathogen infection, nodulation, pollen fertility. In addition, we discuss different strategies and achievements through the genetic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis with implication in the industry and the combinatorial biosynthesis in microorganisms by the reconstruction of the pathway to obtain high amounts of specific compounds.

  16. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the

  17. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Method for determining heterologous biosynthesis pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2017-08-10

    The present invention relates to a method and system for dynamically analyzing, determining, predicting and displaying ranked suitable heterologous biosynthesis pathways for a specified host. The present invention addresses the problem of finding suitable pathways for the endogenous metabolism of a host organism because the efficacy of heterologous biosynthesis is affected by competing endogenous pathways. The present invention is called MRE (Metabolic Route Explorer), and it was conceived and developed to systematically and dynamically search for, determine, analyze, and display promising heterologous pathways while considering competing endogenous reactions in a given host organism.

  20. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.

  1. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  2. Erythrocentaurin, Biosynthesis Postulation and Biomimetic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI,Jun; YUAN,Xiang-Hui; LIU,Zhu-Lan; LIU,Jian-Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ Erythrocentaurin is a relatively simple nature product isolated from the root of Gentiana macrophylla Pall.[1] The co-existed of gentiopicroside from the same species led to speculation that erythrocentaurin is a biosynthesis product of gentiopicroside. The transformation of secologanin to carbocyclic aglycone under biomimetic condition has already known (Scheme 1).[2,3] The postulated biosynthesis pathway of erythrocentaurin may be in the same way. In the process the cyclic hemiacetal of the aglycone opened to the dialdehyde which then undergoes a vinylogous aldol reaction, and then dehydroxylation and double bond migration to the title compound (Scheme 2).

  3. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli cell factory for highly active xanthine dehydrogenase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Hua; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate the first proof-of-concept for the use of ab initio-aided assembly strategy intensifying in vivo biosynthesis process to construct Escherichia coli cell factory overproducing highly active xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). Three global regulator (IscS, TusA and NarJ) and four chaperone proteins (DsbA, DsbB, NifS and XdhC) were overexpressed to aid the formation and ordered assembly of three redox center cofactors of Rhodobacter capsulatus XDH in E. coli. The NifS, IscS and DsbB enhanced the specific activity of RcXDH by 30%, 94% and 49%, respectively. The combinatorial expression of NarJ and IscS synergistically increased the specific activity by 129% and enhanced the total enzyme activity by a remarkable 3.9-fold. The crude enzyme showed nearly the same coupling efficiency of electron transfer and product formation as previously purified XDHs, indicating an integrity and efficient assembly of highly active XDH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF LAW RELATING TO FACTORIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of industrial town and factories has paved the way to develop our industrial legislation accordingly. The Government of India never expressed their interest in framing separate legislation vis-à-vis factories which resulted in implementation of the same statute which was enacted pre-independence. It was done by virtue of Art. 372 of the Constitution of India. However, the Constitutional Lawmakers created vacuum for the implementation of new statute in accordance with the demand of society by inserting scope under the Directive Principles of State Policies. However, in the 67 years history of Indian Republic, there are unprecedented developments of law relating to factories in India.The Government of India, with the adoption of existed statute, made an effort to incorporate the welfare legislation but it never developed along with the change in time. It is to be noticed that as far as existing statutes are concerned, the development is an effect of judicial pronouncement or some tragic incident like Bhopal Gas Tragedy. This paper succinctly describes the history of factory legislation, the constitutional validity of the previous statute and necessary amendment which have already been done and / or on the verge of being amended. It will further discuss contribution of judiciary in developing the law relating to factories, scope of industrial jurisprudence in promoting the development of factory legislation. The primary focus of the research project is to reflect upon the areas where factory legislation has developed, so that proper yardstick could be made in order to put emphasis on those areas which have been remained untouched.

  5. Microbially induced and microbially catalysed precipitation: two different carbonate factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The landmark paper by Schlager (2003) has revealed three types of benthic carbonate production referred to as "carbonate factories", operative at different locations at different times in Earth history. The tropical or T-factory comprises the classical platforms and fringing reefs and is dominated by carbonate precipitation by autotrophic calcifying metazoans ("biotically controlled" precipitation). The cool or C-factory is also biotically controlled but via heterotrophic, calcifying metazoans in cold and deep waters at the continental margins. A further type is the mud-mound or M-factory, where carbonate precipitation is supported by microorganisms but not controlled by a specific enzymatic pathway ("biotically induced" precipitation). How exactly the microbes influence precipitation is still poorly understood. Based on recent experimental and field studies, the microbial influence on modern mud mound and microbialite growth includes two fundamentally different processes: (1) Metabolic activity of microbes may increase the saturation state with respect to a particular mineral phase, thereby indirectly driving the precipitation of the mineral phase: microbially induced precipitation. (2) In a situation, where a solution is already supersaturated but precipitation of the mineral is inhibited by a kinetic barrier, microbes may act as a catalyser, i.e. they lower the kinetic barrier: microbially catalysed precipitation. Such a catalytic effect can occur e.g. via secreted polymeric substances or specific chemical groups on the cell surface, at which the minerals nucleate or which facilitate mechanistically the bonding of new ions to the mineral surface. Based on these latest developments in microbialite formation, I propose to extend the scheme of benthic carbonate factories of Schlager et al. (2003) by introducing an additional branch distinguishing microbially induced from microbially catalysed precipitation. Although both mechanisms could be operative in a M-factory

  6. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Würthwein, F.; Andrews, W.; Dost, J. M.; MacNeill, I.; McCrea, A.; Sheripon, E.; Murphy, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  7. Kinetic models in industrial biotechnology - Improving cell factory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Nielsen, Jens; Jirstrand, Mats

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of industrial bioprocesses capitalize on living cells by using them as cell factories that convert sugars into chemicals. These processes range from the production of bulk chemicals in yeasts and bacteria to the synthesis of therapeutic proteins in mammalian cell lines. One of the tools in the continuous search for improved performance of such production systems is the development and application of mathematical models. To be of value for industrial biotechnology, mathematical models should be able to assist in the rational design of cell factory properties or in the production processes in which they are utilized. Kinetic models are particularly suitable towards this end because they are capable of representing the complex biochemistry of cells in a more complete way compared to most other types of models. They can, at least in principle, be used to in detail understand, predict, and evaluate the effects of adding, removing, or modifying molecular components of a cell factory and for supporting the design of the bioreactor or fermentation process. However, several challenges still remain before kinetic modeling will reach the degree of maturity required for routine application in industry. Here we review the current status of kinetic cell factory modeling. Emphasis is on modeling methodology concepts, including model network structure, kinetic rate expressions, parameter estimation, optimization methods, identifiability analysis, model reduction, and model validation, but several applications of kinetic models for the improvement of cell factories are also discussed.

  8. Factorial Schur functions and the Yang-Baxter equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bump, Daniel; Nakasuji, Maki

    2011-01-01

    Factorial Schur functions are generalizations of Schur functions that have, in addition to the usual variables, a second family of "shift" parameters. We show that a factorial Schur function times a deformation of the Weyl denominator may be expressed as the partition function of a particular statistical-mechanical system (six vertex model). The proof is based on the Yang-Baxter equation. There is a deformation parameter $t$ which may be specialized in different ways. If $t=-1$, then we recover the expression of the factorial Schur function as a ratio of alternating polynomials. If $t=0$, we recover the description as a sum over tableaux. If $t=\\infty$ we recover a description of Lascoux that was previously considered by McNamara. We also are able to prove using the Yang-Baxter equation the asymptotic symmetry of the factorial Schur functions in the shift parameters. Finally, we give a proof using our methods of the dual Cauchy identity for factorial Schur functions. Thus using our methods we are able to give...

  9. Incense and Joss Stick Making in Small Household Factories, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Siripanich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incense and joss stick are generally used in the world. Most products were made in small household factories. There are many environmental and occupational hazards in these factories. Objective: To evaluate the workplace environmental and occupational hazards in small household incense and joss stick factories in Roi-Et, Thailand. Methods: Nine small household factories in rural areas of Roi-Et, Thailand, were studied. Dust concentration and small aerosol particles were counted through real time exposure monitoring. The inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used for quantitative measurement of heavy metal residue in incense products. Results: Several heavy metals were found in dissolved dye and joss sticks. Those included barium, manganese, and lead. Rolling and shaking processes produced the highest concentration of dust and aerosols. Only 3.9 % of female workers used personal protection equipment. Conclusion: Dust and chemicals were major threats in small household incense and joss stick factories in Thailand. Increasing awareness towards using personal protection equipment and emphasis on elimination of environmental workplace hazards should be considered to help the workers of this industry.

  10. Bile acid biosynthesis and its regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areta Hebanowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile acid biosynthesis is the main pathway of cholesterol catabolism. Bile acids are more soluble than cholesterol so are easier to excrete. As amphipathic molecules they participate in lipid digestion and absorption in the intestine and they help to excrete free cholesterol with bile. They are also ligands for nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Interconversion of cholesterol into bile acids is an important point of its homeostasis. Seventeen enzymes are engaged in this process and many of them are cytochromes P450. Bile acid synthesis initiation may proceed with the “classical” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C7α position or the “alternative” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C27 position. Two additional pathways are possible, though their quantitative significance is small (initiated with cholesterol hydroxylations of C24 and C25 positions. Oxysterols produced are not only intermediates of bile acid biosynthesis but also important regulators of metabolism. Bile acid biosynthesis takes place in the liver, but some enzymes are also present in other organs, where they participate in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Those enzymes are potential targets for new drugs against cholesterol metabolism disturbances. This article is a brief description of the bile acid biosynthesis pathway and participating enzymes.

  11. Combinatorial biosynthesis of medicinal plant secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julsing, Mattijs K.; Koulman, Albert; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial biosynthesis is a new tool in the generation of novel natural products and for the production of rare and expensive natural products. The basic concept is combining metabolic pathways in different organisms on a genetic level. As a consequence heterologous organisms provide precursors

  12. Biosynthesis of sphinganine-analog mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Zhu, X; Gerber, R; Huffman, J; Lou, L; Jorgenson, J; Yu, F; Zaleta-Rivera, K; Wang, Q

    2008-06-01

    Sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMT) are polyketide-derived natural products produced by a number of plant pathogenic fungi and are among the most economically important mycotoxins. The toxins are structurally similar to sphinganine, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of ceramides and sphingolipids, and competitive inhibitors for ceramide synthase. The inhibition of ceramide and sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with several fatal diseases in domestic animals and esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans. SAMT contains a highly reduced, acyclic polyketide carbon backbone, which is assembled by a single module polyketide synthase. The biosynthesis of SAMT involves a unique polyketide chain-releasing mechanism, in which a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme catalyzes the termination, offloading and elongation of the polyketide chain. This leads to the introduction of a new carbon-carbon bond and an amino group to the polyketide chain. The mechanism is fundamentally different from the thioesterase/cyclase-catalyzed polyketide chain releasing found in bacterial and other fungal polyketide biosynthesis. Genetic data suggest that the ketosynthase domain of the polyketide synthase and the chain-releasing enzyme are important for controlling the final product structure. In addition, several post-polyketide modifications have to take place before SAMT become mature toxins.

  13. Melanin biosynthesis pathway in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    With the full genome sequence of Agaricus bisporus available, it was possible to investigate the genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of button mushrooms. Based on different BLAST and alignments, genes were identified in the genome which are postulated to be involved in this pathway.

  14. Combinatorial biosynthesis of medicinal plant secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julsing, Mattijs K.; Koulman, Albert; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial biosynthesis is a new tool in the generation of novel natural products and for the production of rare and expensive natural products. The basic concept is combining metabolic pathways in different organisms on a genetic level. As a consequence heterologous organisms provide precursors

  15. New insights into Pseudomonas fluorescens alginate biosynthesis relevant for the establishment of an efficient production process for microbial alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Susan; Mærk, Mali; Hrudikova, Radka; Valla, Svein; Ertesvåg, Helga

    2017-07-25

    Alginate denotes a family of linear polysaccharides with a wide range of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Presently, all commercially available alginates are manufactured from brown algae. However, bacterial alginates have advantages with regard to compositional homogeneity and reproducibility. In order to be able to design bacterial strains that are better suited for industrial alginate production, defining limiting factors for alginate biosynthesis is of vital importance. Our group has been studying alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens using several complementary approaches. Alginate is synthesised and transported out of the cell by a multiprotein complex spanning from the inner to the outer membrane. We have developed an immunogold labelling procedure in which the porin AlgE, as a part of this alginate factory, could be detected by transmission electron microscopy. No time-dependent correlation between the number of such factories on the cell surface and alginate production level was found in alginate-producing strains. Alginate biosynthesis competes with the central carbon metabolism for the key metabolite fructose 6-phosphate. In P. fluorescens, glucose, fructose and glycerol, are metabolised via the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. Mutational analysis revealed that disruption of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene zwf-1 resulted in increased alginate production when glycerol was used as carbon source. Furthermore, alginate-producing P. fluorescens strains cultivated on glucose experience acid stress due to the simultaneous production of alginate and gluconate. The combined results from our studies strongly indicate that the availability of fructose 6-phosphate and energy requires more attention in further research aimed at the development of an optimised alginate production process.

  16. The Study of a European Neutrino Factory Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, P; Amand, J F; Autin, Bruno; Baldy, J L; Benedikt, Michael; Benett, R; Bernardon, A; Blondel, A; Bongardt, K; Cappi, R; Castellano, M G; Chiaveri, Enrico; Delahaye, J P; Densham, C J; Drumm, P V; Edgecocka, R; Fabich, A; Franchetti, Giuliano; Gareyte, Jacques; Garoby, R; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gerigk, F; Gilardoni, S S; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Haseroth, H; Hill, C; Hoffman, I; Holzer, B; Hübner, K; Jansson, A; Johnson, C D; Johnston, C; Küchler, D; Lettry, Jacques; Lindroos, M; Lombardi, A M; Martini, M; Migliorati, M; Méot, F; Métral, Elias; Möhl, D; Müller, A S; Neuffer, David V; Palumbo, L; Pasternak, J; Perrin, A; Pirkl, Werner; Poehler, M; Prior, C R; Ravn, H L; Rees, G; Riche, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Ryne, Robert D; Schindl, Karlheinz; Schriber, Stanley O; Schönauer, Horst Otto; Scrivens, R; Senichev, Yu V; Sievers, P; Silari, Marco; Tazzioli, F; Ullrich, H M; Vassilopoulos, N; Verdier, A; Vretenar, Maurizio; Wenander, F; Wilson, Edmund J N; Wyss, C; Zimmermann, M F; Zisman, M S; Zucchelli, P

    2004-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is a new concept for an accelerator that produces a high-intensity, high-energy beam of electron and muon neutrinos - the ultimate tool for neutrino oscillation studies and the only machine conceived up today that could help detect CP violation of leptons. The basic concept of the Neutrino Factory is the production of neutrinos from the decay of high-energy muons. Due to their short lifetime, these muons have to be accelerated very fast. Several new accelerator techniques, like a high-intenstiy proton linac, high-power targets, ionization cooling or recirculating muon linacs are required. This paper presents a snapshot of the accelerator design at CERN. Although some aspects of this European Neutrino Factory Scheme have been optimised for the CERN site, the basic principle is site-independent.

  17. Novel and improved yeast cell factories for biosustainable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    utilizing traditionally applied cell factories are generally based on a limited range of substrates (mainly glucose). However, a wider diversity in substrate range is highly desirable in developing biorefinery scenarios where feed-stocks containing a number of carbon sources are typically employed....... In addition to plant biomass hydrolysates, glycerol is of interest here, being available in amounts relevant for industrial scale bioprocesses due to increased production of biodiesel. The well characterised cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a clear preference for glucose as a carbon source...... with relevant applications as cell factories (including Pichia spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica) and other less well characterized strains (e.g. Pachysolen tannophilus). This presentation will address how we evaluate cellular performance with a view to utilizing yeast species in industrial biotechnology...

  18. Longitudinal Beam Stability in the SUPER B-FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC; Zobov, M.; /Frascati

    2009-07-06

    We give an overview of wake fields and impedances in a proposed Super B project, which is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large angle with a crab waist transformation. Understanding the effects that wake fields have on the beam is critical for a successful machine operation. We use our combined experience from the operation of the SLAC B-factory and DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-factory to eliminate strong HOM sources and minimize the chamber impedance in the Super B design. Based on a detailed study of the wake fields in this design we have developed a quasi-Green's function for the entire ring that is used to study bunch lengthening and beam stability. In particular, we check the stability threshold using numerical solutions of the Fokker-Plank equation. We also make a comparison of numerical simulations with the bunch lengthening data in the B- factory.

  19. Moving toward the digital factory in raw material resources area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Zelko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our concept proposal of objectives to reach the challenges of some new European concepts: The Factoriesof the Future (FoF initiative and The Intelligent Deep Mine (IDM initiative launched to respond to the global economic crisis. Theseconcepts aims at helping EU manufacturing and mining enterprises, to adapt to global competitive pressures by improvingthe technological base of production across a broad range of sectors. The ICT contribution to these initiatives should improvethe efficiency, adaptability and sustainability of production systems as well as their better integration within business processesin an increasingly globalised industrial context. The challenges include the areas of digital factories, virtual factories and enterprisesand finally smart factories. Next research should address these challenges in particular and will encourage international cooperationunder the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems concepts.

  20. Summation of Divergent Power Series by Means of Factorial Series

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Ernst Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Factorial series played a major role in Stirling's classic book "Methodus Differentialis" (1730), but now only a few specialists still use them. This article wants to show that this neglect is unjustified, and that factorial series are useful numerical tools for the summation of divergent (inverse) power series. This is documented by summing the divergent asymptotic expansion for the exponential integral $E_{1} (z)$ and the factorially divergent Rayleigh-Schr\\"{o}dinger perturbation expansion for the quartic anharmonic oscillator. Stirling numbers play a key role since they occur as coefficients in expansions of an inverse power in terms of inverse Pochhammer symbols and vice versa. It is shown that the relationships involving Stirling numbers are special cases of more general orthogonal and triangular transformations.

  1. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  2. PowerFactory applications for power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and applications of DIgSILENT PowerFactory, an advanced power system simulation software package, for different types of power systems studies. Written by specialists in the field, it combines expertise and years of experience in the use of DIgSILENT PowerFactory with a deep understanding of power systems analysis. These complementary approaches therefore provide a fresh perspective on how to model, simulate and analyse power systems. It presents methodological approaches for modelling of system components, including both classical and non-

  3. A cost-Effective Design for a Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.; Bogacz, S.A.; Caspi, S.; Cobb, J.; Fernow, R.C.; Gallardo, J.C.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Witte, H.; Zisman, M.

    2006-06-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a Neutrino Factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed Feasibility Study (FS2) for a Neutrino Factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as Study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  4. Cost-effective design for a neutrino factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Bogacz

    2006-01-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a neutrino factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high-energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed feasibility study (FS2) for a neutrino factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling, and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  5. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. CONFOUNDING STRUCTURE OF TWO-LEVEL NONREGULAR FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai

    2012-01-01

    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  7. Characterizing Yarrowia lipolytica as a cell factory for sustainable bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubuta, Patrice; Workman, Mhairi

    With current global focus on renewable and sustainable technologies, there is a strong need to develop innovative solutions in industrial biotechnology. The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has considerable potential as a versatile cell factory, especially when compared to the typically...... applied organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which utilizes glycerol very slowly and requires genetic engineering for conversion of lignocellulosic sugar monomers xylose and arabinose. In this study we could show that Y. lipolytica IBT 446 is versatile and interesting as a biorefinery cell factory...

  8. Heartwood-specific transcriptome and metabolite signatures of tropical sandalwood (Santalum album) reveal the final step of (Z)-santalol fragrance biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, Jose M; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire M S; Diaz-Chavez, Maria L; Madilao, Lufiani L; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Tropical sandalwood (Santalum album) produces one of the world's most highly prized fragrances, which is extracted from mature heartwood. However, in some places such as southern India, natural populations of this slow-growing tree are threatened by over-exploitation. Sandalwood oil contains four major and fragrance-defining sesquiterpenols: (Z)-α-santalol, (Z)-β-santalol, (Z)-epi-β-santalol and (Z)-α-exo-bergamotol. The first committed step in their biosynthesis is catalyzed by a multi-product santalene/bergamotene synthase. Sandalwood cytochromes P450 of the CYP76F sub-family were recently shown to hydroxylate santalenes and bergamotene; however, these enzymes produced mostly (E)-santalols and (E)-α-exo-bergamotol. We hypothesized that different santalene/bergamotene hydroxylases evolved in S. album to stereo-selectively produce (E)- or (Z)-sesquiterpenols, and that genes encoding (Z)-specific P450s contribute to sandalwood oil formation if co-expressed in the heartwood with upstream genes of sesquiterpene biosynthesis. This hypothesis was validated by the discovery of a heartwood-specific transcriptome signature for sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, including highly expressed SaCYP736A167 transcripts. We characterized SaCYP736A167 as a multi-substrate P450, which stereo-selectively produces (Z)-α-santalol, (Z)-β-santalol, (Z)-epi-β-santalol and (Z)-α-exo-bergamotol, matching authentic sandalwood oil. This work completes the discovery of the biosynthetic enzymes of key components of sandalwood fragrance, and highlights the evolutionary diversification of stereo-selective P450s in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis. Bioengineering of microbial systems using SaCYP736A167, combined with santalene/bergamotene synthase, has potential for development of alternative industrial production systems for sandalwood oil fragrances.

  9. Functional specialization in proline biosynthesis of melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica De Ingeniis

    Full Text Available Proline metabolism is linked to hyperprolinemia, schizophrenia, cutis laxa, and cancer. In the latter case, tumor cells tend to rely on proline biosynthesis rather than salvage. Proline is synthesized from either glutamate or ornithine; both are converted to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C, and then to proline via pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases (PYCRs. Here, the role of three isozymic versions of PYCR was addressed in human melanoma cells by tracking the fate of (13C-labeled precursors. Based on these studies we conclude that PYCR1 and PYCR2, which are localized in the mitochondria, are primarily involved in conversion of glutamate to proline. PYCRL, localized in the cytosol, is exclusively linked to the conversion of ornithine to proline. This analysis provides the first clarification of the role of PYCRs to proline biosynthesis.

  10. Functional Specialization in Proline Biosynthesis of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Adam D.; Scott, David A.; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; De, Surya K.; Kazanov, Marat; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Ronai, Ze'ev; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Proline metabolism is linked to hyperprolinemia, schizophrenia, cutis laxa, and cancer. In the latter case, tumor cells tend to rely on proline biosynthesis rather than salvage. Proline is synthesized from either glutamate or ornithine; both are converted to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and then to proline via pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases (PYCRs). Here, the role of three isozymic versions of PYCR was addressed in human melanoma cells by tracking the fate of 13C-labeled precursors. Based on these studies we conclude that PYCR1 and PYCR2, which are localized in the mitochondria, are primarily involved in conversion of glutamate to proline. PYCRL, localized in the cytosol, is exclusively linked to the conversion of ornithine to proline. This analysis provides the first clarification of the role of PYCRs to proline biosynthesis. PMID:23024808

  11. Carotenoid Metabolism: Biosynthesis, Regulation,and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Lu; Li Li

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are Indispensable to plants and play a critical role in human nutrition and health. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of carotenoid metabolism in plants. The biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied.Nearly all the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes have been isolated and characterized from various organisms. In recent years, there is an increasing body of work on the signaling pathways and plastid development, which might provide global control of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation. Herein, we will highlight recent progress on the biosynthesis,regulation, and metabolic engineering of carotenoids in plants, as well as the future research towards elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and metabolic network that control carotenoid metabolism.

  12. Natural rubber biosynthesis in plants: rubber transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Katrina; Xie, Wenshuang

    2012-01-01

    Rubber biosynthesis in plants is a fascinating biochemical system, which evolved at the dawn of the dicotyledoneae and is present in at least four of the dictolydonous superorders. Rubber biosynthesis is catalyzed by a membrane complex in a monolayer membrane envelope, requires two distinct substrates and a divalent cation cofactor, and produces a high-molecular-weight isoprenoid polymer. A solid understanding of this system underpins valuable papers in the literature. However, the published literature is rife with unreliable reports in which the investigators have fallen into traps created by the current incomplete understanding of the biochemistry of rubber synthesis. In this chapter, we attempt to guide both new and more established researchers around these pitfalls.

  13. Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanie, Stephanie; Thodey, Kate; Trenchard, Isis J; Filsinger Interrante, Maria; Smolke, Christina D

    2015-09-04

    Opioids are the primary drugs used in Western medicine for pain management and palliative care. Farming of opium poppies remains the sole source of these essential medicines, despite diverse market demands and uncertainty in crop yields due to weather, climate change, and pests. We engineered yeast to produce the selected opioid compounds thebaine and hydrocodone starting from sugar. All work was conducted in a laboratory that is permitted and secured for work with controlled substances. We combined enzyme discovery, enzyme engineering, and pathway and strain optimization to realize full opiate biosynthesis in yeast. The resulting opioid biosynthesis strains required the expression of 21 (thebaine) and 23 (hydrocodone) enzyme activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. This is a proof of principle, and major hurdles remain before optimization and scale-up could be achieved. Open discussions of options for governing this technology are also needed in order to responsibly realize alternative supplies for these medically relevant compounds.

  14. Biosynthesis and toxicological effects of patulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, Olivier; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2010-04-01

    Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children. Exposure to this mycotoxin is associated with immunological, neurological and gastrointestinal outcomes. Assessment of the health risks due to patulin consumption by humans has led many countries to regulate the quantity in food. A full understanding of the molecular genetics of patulin biosynthesis is incomplete, unlike other regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes and fumonisins), although the chemical structures of patulin precursors are now known. The biosynthetic pathway consists of approximately 10 steps, as suggested by biochemical studies. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes involved in patulin biosynthesis was reported, containing characterized enzymes, a regulation factor and transporter genes. This review includes information on the current understanding of the mechanisms of patulin toxinogenesis and summarizes its toxicological effects.

  15. Circular bacteriocins: biosynthesis and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2014-11-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides.

  16. Chemical genetics to examine cellulose biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eDebolt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term efforts to decode plant cellulose biosynthesis via molecular genetics and biochemical strategies are being enhanced by the ever-expanding scale of omics technologies. An alternative approach to consider are the prospects for inducing change in plant metabolism using exogenously supplied chemical ligands. Cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors (CBI have been identified among known herbicides, during diverse combinatorial chemical libraries screens, and natural chemical screens from microbial agents. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the inhibitory effects of CBIs and further group them by how they influence fluorescently tagged cellulose synthase A (CESA proteins. Additional attention is paid to the continuing development of the CBI toolbox to explore the cell biology and genetic mechanisms underpinning effector molecule activity.

  17. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A. Bromke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity.

  18. Probing allelochemical biosynthesis in sorghum root hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathic interaction between plants is thought to involve the release of phytotoxic allelochemicals by one species, thus inhibiting the growth of neighboring species in competition for limited resources. Sorgoleone represents one of the more potent allelochemicals characterized to date, and its prolific production in root hair cells of Sorghum spp. has made the investigation of its biosynthetic pathway ideally-suited for functional genomics investigations. Through the use of a recently-released EST data set generated from isolated Sorghum bicolor root hair cells, significant inroads have been made toward the identification of genes and the corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of this compound in root hairs. Here we provide additional information concerning our recent report on the identification of a 5-n-alk(en) ylresorcinol utilizing O-methyltransferase, as well as other key enzymes likely to participate in the biosynthesis of this important allelochemical. PMID:19704820

  19. Microbial Exopolysaccharides: Biosynthesis and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Madhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs with commercially significant physiological and therapeutic activities. Microbial polysaccharides have also been reported to have potential therapeutic applications. Recently, much attention has been devoted to the microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs due to their numerous health benefits.EPSs from lactic acid bacteria are reported to possess antitumor effects, immunostimulatory activity, and the ability to lower blood cholesterol. EPSs also offer an alternative class of biothickeners that are widely used in the food and dairy industries and have been proven to provide strong emulsifying activity, which is important in many food formulations. It is also important to understand the mechanism of microbial biosynthesis of EPSs in order to enhance their production by genetic alterations. The potential applications and the mode of microbial biosynthesis of the EPSs have been presented in this article.

  20. Plant Terpenoids: Biosynthesis and Ecological Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Xia Cheng; Yong-Gen Lou; Ying-Bo Mao; Shan Lu; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2007-01-01

    Among plant secondary metabolites terpenoids are a structurally most diverse group; they function as phytoalexins in plant direct defense, or as signals in indirect defense responses which involves herbivores and their natural enemies. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the investigation of the ecological role of plant terpenoids. The biosynthesis pathways of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes include the synthesis of C5 precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its allylic isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the synthesis of the immediate diphosphate precursors, and the formation of the diverse terpenoids. Terpene synthases (TPSs) play a key role in volatile terpene synthesis. By expression of the TPS genes, significant achievements have been made on metabolic engineering to increase terpenoid production. This review mainly summarizes the recent research progress in elucidating the ecological role of terpenoids and characterization of the enzymes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis. Spatial and temporal regulations of terpenoids metabolism are also discussed.

  1. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-12-17

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  2. The Case for a Muon Collider Higgs Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Alexahin, Yuri; Cline, David B.; Conway, Alexander; Cummings, Mary Anne; Di Benedetto, Vito; Eichten, Estia; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Gatto, Corrado; Grinstein, Benjamin; Gunion, Jack; Han, Tao; Hanson, Gail; Hill, Christopher T.; Ignatov, Fedor; Johnson, Rolland P.; Lebedev, Valeri; Lederman, Leon M.; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Zhen; Markiewicz, Tom; Mazzacane, Anna; Mokhov, Nikolai; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Neuffer, David; Palmer, Mark; Purohit, Milind V.; Raja, Rajendran; Rubbia, Carlo; Striganov, Sergei; Summers, Don; Terentiev, Nikolai; Wenzel, Hans

    2013-01-01

    We propose the construction of a compact Muon Collider Higgs Factory. Such a machine can produce up to \\sim 14,000 at 8\\times 10^{31} cm^-2 sec^-1 clean Higgs events per year, enabling the most precise possible measurement of the mass, width and Higgs-Yukawa coupling constants.

  3. A Comprehensive Guide to Factorial Two-Level Experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mee, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Statistical design of experiments is useful in virtually every quantitative field. This book focuses on two-level factorial designs that provide efficient plans for exploring the effects of many factors at once. It is suitable for engineers, physical scientists, and those who conduct experiments.

  4. ULTRA HIGH SPEED FACTORIAL DESIGN IN SUB-NANOMETER TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Banerjee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a high speed and low power factorial design in 22nm technology and also it counts the effect of sub nano-meter constraints on this circuit. A comparative study for this design has been done for 90nm, 45nm and 22nm technology. The rise in circuit complexity and speed is accompanied by the scaling of MOSFET’s. The transistor saturation current Idsat is an important parameter because the transistor current determines the time needed to charge and discharge the capacitive loads on chip, and thus impacts the product speed more than any other transistor parameter. The efficient implementation of a factorial number is carried out by using a decremented and multipliers which has been lucidly discussed in this paper. Normally in a factorial module a number is calculated as the iterative multiplication of the given number to the decremented value of the given number. A Parallel adder based decremented has been proposed for calculating the factorial of any number that also includes 0 and 1. The performances are calculated by using the existing 90-nm CMOS technology and scaling down the existing technology to 45-nm and 22-nm.

  5. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Yow Lian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  6. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  7. An Overview of the The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) has conducted a range of time-domain surveys since 2013. As iPTF concludes, I will review the these goals of surveys, their on-sky performance, and implications for next-generation surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility and LSST. Finally, I will describe the public data products being released.

  8. A versatile expression vector system for mammalian cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Hansen, Bjarne Gram

    The development of the field of mammalian cell factories requests fast and high-throughput methods which means high need for simpler and more efficient cloning techniques. This project applies the ligation-free USERTM (uracil-specific excision reagent) cloning technique to construct mammalian...

  9. Learning Factory--Assembling Learning Content with a Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many of the challenges currently facing lectures are symptoms of problems with learning content creation, development and presentation. Learning Factory solves these problems by integrating critical innovations that have been proven over the last ten to twenty years in different industrial areas, but have not yet been brought or ported together in…

  10. Bioretention Systems: Partial Factorial Designs for Nitrate Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in nutrient loadings are monitored by introducing captured stormwater runoff into eight outdoor rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey scaled for residential and urban landscapes. The partial factorial design includes non-vegetated meso...

  11. Status of the Neutrino Factory accelerator design studies

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, Gersende

    2013-01-01

    This document is a review of the present status of the Neutrino Factory design study, after the publication of the Interim Design Report and before the publication of the Reference Design Report. The different components of the accelerator as well as their current design stage and future tasks are described here.

  12. Micro-Opportunistic Scheduling: The Micro-Boss Factory Scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson. Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. Freeman and Co., 1979. [13] Eliyahu M. Goldratt ...techniques is the one developed by Goldratt and his colleagues within the context of the OPT factory scheduling system [13, 15, 10]. OPT demonstrated

  13. Reallocating resources to focused factories: a case study in chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, Peter T.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Hans, Erwin W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Litvak, Nelly; Lent, van Wineke A.M.; Harten, van Wim H.; Blake, J.; Carter, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the expected service performance associated with a proposal to reallocate resources from a centralized chemotherapy department to a breast cancer focused factory. Using a slotted queueing model we show that a decrease in performance is expected and calculate the amount of add

  14. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  15. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  16. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular fra

  17. 3D thermal climate monitoring in factory buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posselt, G.; Booij, P.S.; Thiede, S.; Fransman, J.E.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Herrmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Guaranteeing defined conditions, such as the temperature levels inside the factory's building shell, is often important to produce high-quality products. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, as part of the technical building services, is energy intensive and accounts for a maj

  18. An investigation of hadronization mechanism at a Z~0 factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the hadronization pictures adopted in the LUND String Fragmentation Model (LSFM),Webber Cluster Fragmentation Model (WCFM) and Quark Combination Model (QCM),respectively.Predictions of hadron multiplicity,baryon to meson ratios and baryon-antibaryon flavor correlations,especially those related to heavy hadrons at a Z 0 factory obtained by LSFM and QCM,are reported.

  19. Lettuce growth and quality optimization in a plant factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicole, C.C.S.; Charalambous, F.; Martinakos, S.; De Voort, Van S.; Li, Z.; Verhoog, M.; Krijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, plant factory (or vertical farm) technology has been introduced for growing vegetables and soft fruits. With a well-controlled environment, new health benefits, food safety, optimized nutrients and increased shelf-life can be offered to consumers. With the progress of light

  20. Providing a Meaningful Social Studies Experience: Champions' Chocolate Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Laurie L.; Shaw, Donna Gail

    1988-01-01

    Describes a student teacher's experiences using a classroom simulation to teach fifth graders about the world of work. Summarizes the economic concepts and principles that were illustrated through the simulation of a candy factory. Discusses student activities and reporting in the five-six day lesson and includes a list of resources for teaching…

  1. [Detection of occupational hazards in a large shipbuilding factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weijia; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Hai; Zhou, Liping; Huang, Minzhi; Liu, Yimin

    2014-03-01

    To provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases by the analysis of existing major occupational hazards and health conditions of workers in a large shipbuilding factory. Field investigation of occupational conditions was conducted to examine the existence of occupational hazards from 2009 to 2012 in a large shipbuilding factory, and then the results of physical examination among its workers were analyzed. Other than the metal dust (total dust), the levels of other dusts and manganese dioxide were beyond the national standard to various degrees, and through a sampling point detection, it was found that the levels of manganese dioxide exceeded the standard by 42.8%. The maximum time-weighted average concentration in individuals was 27.927 mg/m(3), much higher than the national standard limit. For harmful gas detection in individuals, xylene was 38.4%above the standard level (the highest concentration reached 1447.7 mg/m(3)); moreover, both toluene and ethylbenzene exceeded the national standard at different levels. Among the noise-exposed workers, 71%worked in the environment where the daily noise was above the limit of the national standard (85 dB). Physical examinations in 2010 and 2012 showed that the abnormal rate of audiometry in workers was higher than 15%. Dust (total dust), manganese dioxide, benzene, and noise are the main occupational hazards among the workers in the large shipbuilding factory, and strict protection and control for these hazards should be implemented for the workers in the factory.

  2. Manufacturing data analytics using a virtual factory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjay; Shao, Guodong; Shin, Seung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Large manufacturers have been using simulation to support decision-making for design and production. However, with the advancement of technologies and the emergence of big data, simulation can be utilised to perform and support data analytics for associated performance gains. This requires not only significant model development expertise, but also huge data collection and analysis efforts. This paper presents an approach within the frameworks of Design Science Research Methodology and prototyping to address the challenge of increasing the use of modelling, simulation and data analytics in manufacturing via reduction of the development effort. The use of manufacturing simulation models is presented as data analytics applications themselves and for supporting other data analytics applications by serving as data generators and as a tool for validation. The virtual factory concept is presented as the vehicle for manufacturing modelling and simulation. Virtual factory goes beyond traditional simulation models of factories to include multi-resolution modelling capabilities and thus allowing analysis at varying levels of detail. A path is proposed for implementation of the virtual factory concept that builds on developments in technologies and standards. A virtual machine prototype is provided as a demonstration of the use of a virtual representation for manufacturing data analytics.

  3. Porcelain Self Management : Report of observations in a Serbian factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kester (Gerard)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarizes observations in the "Elektroporcelana" plant in Arandelovac, in the Socialist Republic of Serbia, Yugoslavia. A group of 5 foreigners, we were the guests of this factory for a period of three days. Even with the most competent help of an interpreter and with excell

  4. Metabolic shifts: a fitness perspective for microbial cell factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, A.; Wortel, M.T.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Performance of industrial microorganisms as cell factories is limited by the capacity to channel nutrients to desired products, of which optimal production usually requires careful manipulation of process conditions, or strain improvement. The focus in process improvement is often on understanding a

  5. Occupational cobalt and chromium dermatitis in an offset printing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, D; Malten, K E

    1975-01-01

    A case history of three offset printers and the atomic absorption analysis of their contact materials is described. Though the factory direction and personnel felt strongly about cooperating in order to combat the disease, it became apparent that the prescribed measures had not been effectively carried out. The chemical analysis of the materials proved to be a necessary supplement to the patch testing procedure.

  6. The Use of Factorial Forecasting to Predict Public Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Policies that call for members of the public to change their behavior fail if people don't change; predictions of whether the requisite changes will take place are needed prior to implementation. I propose to solve the prediction problem with Factorial Forecasting, a version of functional measurement methodology that employs group designs. Aspects…

  7. Tactility Factory in the Museum of the Here and Now

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Ruth; Belford, Trish

    2013-01-01

    Tactility Factory Story and Panels on display as part of Showcase of Northern Irish Innovation, Pump House. Organized by Innovation Centre, NI Science Park, Belfast. Showcasing 14 of NI most innovative companies. (Jan 2013-ongoing) presented to HRH Prince Andrew (Jan 2013)

  8. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  9. 3D thermal climate monitoring in factory buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posselt, G.; Booij, P.S.; Thiede, S.; Fransman, J.E.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Herrmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Guaranteeing defined conditions, such as the temperature levels inside the factory's building shell, is often important to produce high-quality products. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, as part of the technical building services, is energy intensive and accounts for a

  10. Report of the B-factory group: II, Accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; Cassel, D.G.; Feldman, G.J.; Alam, M.S.; Aleksan, R.; Atwood, W.B.; Bartelt, J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Boyce, J.R.; Cline, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on B-factory accelerators: Storage rings for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuing Linear colliders for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuum; and storage rings and linear colliders for the Z. 52 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  12. A Neutrosophic Binomial Factorial Theorem with their Refrains

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Huda; Smarandache, Florentin; Essa, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The Neutrosophic Precalculus and the Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the method used to deal with such indeterminacy. This article is innovative since the form of neutrosophic binomial factorial theorem was constructed in addition to its refrains.

  13. Search for Light New Physics at B Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Echenard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many extensions of the Standard Model include the possibility of light new particles, such as light Higgs bosons or dark matter candidates. These scenarios can be probed using the large datasets collected by B factories, complementing measurements performed at the LHC. This paper summarizes recent searches for light new physics conducted by the BABAR and Belle experiments.

  14. Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Penjualan Tunai PT. Madjin Crumb Rubber Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Permata Sayang

    2009-01-01

    PT. Madjin Crumb Rubber Factory adalah perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang export karet menjadi SIR-20. Dalam penelitian ini penulis menggunakan metode deskriptif. Jenis data yang digunakan adalah data primer dan data sekunder. Adapun teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah wawancara dan observasi. Metode penganalisaan data adalah metode deskriptif, dimana data dikumpulkan, disusun, diikhtisarkan, dianalisis, dan interpretasikan sehingga menghasilkan keterangan dan jawaban yang jelas ...

  15. Two Ways Factorial Design for round robin test of anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1998-07-01

    This work presents a way to carry out an inter-comparison between different cup anemometers that are tested in different wind tunnels. The method applied is known as Factorial design and allows determining the influence in the test of different factors in this case the anemometer itself and the wind tunnel where it is tested. (Author) 4 refs.

  16. Factorial Validity of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Marcia R.; And Others

    The factorial validity of four of the nine Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (FSMASs) was examined for use in measuring fifth graders' interaction with a subject. The following four scales were assessed: (1) the Confidence in Learning Mathematics Scale; (2) the Attitude Toward Success in Mathematics Scale (ATSMS); (3) the Mathematics…

  17. Holland Code, Job Satisfaction and Productivity in Clothing Factory Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Martin; And Others

    Published research on vocational interests and personality has not often assessed the characteristics of workers and the work environment in blue-collar, women-dominated industries. This study administered the Self-Directed Search (Form E) to 318 sewing machine operators in three clothing factories. Holland codes, productivity, job satisfaction,…

  18. 3D thermal climate monitoring in factory buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posselt, G.; Booij, P.S.; Thiede, S.; Fransman, J.E.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Herrmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Guaranteeing defined conditions, such as the temperature levels inside the factory's building shell, is often important to produce high-quality products. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, as part of the technical building services, is energy intensive and accounts for a maj

  19. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Swarup, E-mail: swaruproy@klyuniv.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Das, Tapan Kumar [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Maiti, Guru Prasad [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Department of Anesthesiology, Texas Tech University Health science Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Basu, Utpal [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  20. Biosynthesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Rebecca A.; Ragains, Justin R.; Li, Weiqing; RUVKUN, GARY; Clardy, Jon; Mak, Ho Yi

    2009-01-01

    To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant is the only known mutant defective in dauer pheromone production. Here, we show that daf-22 encodes a homolog of human sterol carrier protein...

  1. Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbis, Karin; Vaz, Frédéric M; Distel, Ben

    2010-05-01

    The water-soluble zwitterion carnitine is an essential metabolite in eukaryotes required for fatty acid oxidation as it functions as a carrier during transfer of activated acyl and acetyl groups across intracellular membranes. Most eukaryotes are able to synthesize carnitine endogenously, besides their capacity to take up carnitine from the diet or extracellular medium through plasma membrane transporters. This review discusses the current knowledge on carnitine homeostasis with special emphasis on the enzymology of the four steps of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway.

  2. Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations at the neutrino factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jian

    2011-12-19

    We consider the prospects for a neutrino factory measuring mixing angles, the CP violating phase and mass-squared differences by detecting wrong-charge muons arising from the chain {mu}{sup +} {yields} {nu}{sub e} {yields} {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {mu}{sup -} and the right-charge muons coming from the chain {mu}{sup +} {yields} anti {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} anti {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {mu}{sup -} (similar to {mu}{sup -} chains), where {nu}{sub e} {yields} {nu}{sub {mu}} and anti {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} anti {nu}{sub {mu}} are neutrino oscillation channels through a long baseline. First, we study physics with near detectors and consider the treatment of systematic errors including cross section errors, flux errors, and background uncertainties. We illustrate for which measurements near detectors are required, discuss how many are needed, and what the role of the flux monitoring is. We demonstrate that near detectors are mandatory for the leading atmospheric parameter measurements if the neutrino factory has only one baseline, whereas systematic errors partially cancel if the neutrino factory complex includes the magic baseline. Second, we perform the baseline and energy optimization of the neutrino factory including the latest simulation results from the magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND). We also consider the impact of {tau} decays, generated by appearance channels {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} and {nu}{sub e} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}, on the discovery reaches of the mass orderings, the leptonic CP violation, and the non-zero {theta}{sub 13}, which we find to be negligible for the considered detector. Third, we make a comparison of a high energy neutrino factory to a low energy neutrino factory and find that they are just two versions of the same experiment optimized for different regions of the parameter space. In addition, we briefly comment on whether it is useful to build the bi-magic baseline at the low energy neutrino factory. Finally, the

  3. [Regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomycetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matseliukh, B P

    2006-01-01

    The review of literature presents the modern data about cascade regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomycetes including basal and global levels. The first regulatory level is presented by related proteins of SARP family playing the role of positive transcription factors of pathway-specific genes of clusters of antibiotic biosynthesis. In their turn these regulatory genes are under the control of higher regulatory level represented by bldA- and A-factor-dependent cascade regulation and two-component signal transduction system (AfsK-AfsR, AbsAl-AbsA2, AfsQ1-AfsQ2 and others), consisting of sensor protein kinase and response regulator protein.Streptomycetes, in contrast to other microorganisms, have dozens of protein kinases and related regulator proteins that testifies to the great importance of protein phosphorylation in regulation of secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in cell response to internal and external signals. The role of camp, ppGpp and other proteins in regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis was also considered in this review.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Biosynthesis in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liao, Tingting; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Tang, Hong; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    This review covers the current knowledge and gaps in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and biosynthesis. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the luminal surface of the human gastric epithelium. Both a constitutive alteration of the lipid A preventing TLR4 elicitation and host mimicry of the Lewis antigen decorated O-antigen of H. pylori LPS promote immune escape and chronic infection. To date, the complete structure of H. pylori LPS is not available, and the proposed model is a linear arrangement composed of the inner core defined as the hexa-saccharide (Kdo-LD-Hep-LD-Hep-DD-Hep-Gal-Glc), the outer core composed of a conserved trisaccharide (-GlcNAc-Fuc-DD-Hep-) linked to the third heptose of the inner core, the glucan, the heptan and a variable O-antigen, generally consisting of a poly-LacNAc decorated with Lewis antigens. Although the glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for the biosynthesis of the H. pylori O-antigen chains have been identified and characterized, there are many gaps in regard to the biosynthesis of the core LPS. These limitations warrant additional mutagenesis and structural studies to obtain the complete LPS structure and corresponding biosynthetic pathway of this important gastric bacterium.

  5. Transcellular biosynthesis of eicosanoid lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Valérie; Rovati, G Enrico; Mangano, Paolo; Buccellati, Carola; Murphy, Robert C; Sala, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of oxygenated eicosanoids is the result of the coordinated action of several enzymatic activities, from phospholipase A2 that releases the polyunsaturated fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, to primary oxidative enzymes, such as cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, to isomerases, synthases and hydrolases that carry out the final synthesis of the biologically active metabolites. Cells possessing the entire enzymatic machinery have been studied as sources of bioactive eicosanoids, but early on evidence proved that biosynthetic intermediates, albeit unstable, could move from one cell type to another. The biosynthesis of bioactive compounds could therefore be the result of a coordinated effort by multiple cell types that has been named transcellular biosynthesis of the eicosanoids. In several cases cells not capable of carrying out the complete biosynthetic process, due to the lack of key enzymes, have been shown to efficiently contribute to the final production of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins. We will review in vitro studies, complex functional models, and in vivo evidences of the transcellular biosynthesis of eicosanoids and the biological relevance of the metabolites resulting from this unique biosynthetic pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  6. Functional analysis of fungal polyketide biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Isao

    2010-05-01

    Fungal polyketides have huge structural diversity from simple aromatics to highly modified complex reduced-type compounds. Despite such diversty, single modular iterative type I polyketide synthases (iPKSs) are responsible for their carbon skeleton construction. Using heterologous expression systems, we have studied on ATX, a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from Aspergillus terreus as a model iPKS. In addition, iPKS functions involved in fungal spore pigment biosynthesis were analyzed together with polyketide-shortening enzymes that convert products of PKSs to shorter ketides by hydrolytic C-C bond cleavage. In our studies on reducing-type iPKSs, we cloned and expressed PKS genes, pksN, pksF, pksK and sol1 from Alternaria solani. The sol gene cluster was found to be involved in solanapyrone biosynthesis and sol5 was identified to encode solanapyrone synthase, a Diels-Alder enzyme. Our fungal PKS studies were further extended to identify the function of PKS-nonribosomal peptide synthase involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis.

  7. Tobacco smoking among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jin; Fellmeth, Gracia; Griffiths, Sian; Dawes, Martin; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    While several studies of smoking behaviors in rural-to-urban Chinese migrants exist, none to our knowledge have focused on factory workers, estimated to represent between 10% and 20% of China's total rural-to-urban migratory population. This paper assesses factors associated with smoking behavior among rural-to-urban migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A cross-sectional survey of migrant workers from 44 randomly selected factories in Shenzhen, China. Participants were migrant factory workers aged 16-59 years and holding nonlocal household registration. The main outcome measures were demographic, migration-related, and behavioral factors associated with smoking status. Four thousand and eighty-eight completed questionnaires were obtained (response rate 95.5%). Overall smoking prevalence (including occasional, daily, and heavy daily smoking) was 19.1%. The prevalence of daily smoking (including heavy daily smoking) was higher in men (27.3%) than women (0.7%). These rates are significantly lower than national smoking rates (59.5% in men, 3.7% in women) and rates found in a similar study. A high-risk group of men who smoke heavily and consume alcohol frequently was identified. Longer working hours and less rest were associated with higher rates of smoking. Frequent Internet use and lack of insurance were associated with lifetime smoking. Gender-adjusted models showed that poorer mental health and an accumulated working time in Shenzhen of 2-3 years increased female workers' likelihood of smoking. Migrant factory workers in Shenzhen had lower rates of smoking than other population groups in China. The identification of risk factors for heavy smoking may help to effectively target health promotion interventions.

  8. On the batch cut and products quality procedures in multi-product pipelines; Corte de interfaces e integridade de produtos em polidutos e terminais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepedino, A. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baptista, R.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rachid, F.B.Freitas; Araujo, J.H.Carneiro de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The increasing complexity in specifying the quality of petroleum products has a great impact on the way it is transported in pipelines so as to avoid degradation and contamination. This work aims to presenting a global and preliminary approach about the transport of petroleum products in batches in pipelines and in multi-product terminal lines towards its automation. Emphasis is placed on the batch formation and batch cut procedures, as well as on the features associated with the installation and instrumentation required to perform this task. The main factors responsible for increasing the mixing volume in batch transfers and for threatening the integrity of the products are highlighted. Several effective measures are pointed out to minimize the mixing volume generation. Among other benefits, they can promote reduction in the cost of transportation and in the amount of degraded products, simplified operational procedures and a minimum need for stocks to cope with its logistic. (author)

  9. A Graphical Interactive Simulation Environment for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a graphical interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories........The paper describes a graphical interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories.....

  10. Factorial correlator data from pp collisions at 400GeV/c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韶舜; 李祖豪; 张杰; 肖臣国; 叶云秀

    1996-01-01

    The factorial correlators have been calculated by using the experimental data of the pseudorapidity distribution of the charged particles produced in pp collisions at 400GeV/c. The results show that the factorial correlators increase with the decrease of the correlation distance independently of the pseudorapidity resolution. The existence of the sum rules between the factorial moments and factorial correlators has been tested by using the experimental data.

  11. 27 CFR 40.513 - Change in location or address of factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... address of factory. 40.513 Section 40.513 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Qualification § 40.513 Change in location or address of factory. Whenever a manufacturer of processed tobacco intends to relocate its factory, the manufacturer shall, before commencing operations at the new...

  12. 27 CFR 44.210 - Return of shipment to factory or export warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... factory or export warehouse. 44.210 Section 44.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Proprietors Miscellaneous Provisions § 44.210 Return of shipment to factory or export warehouse. A manufacturer or export warehouse proprietor may return to his factory or export warehouse, without...

  13. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long... Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck, NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display... Guard to define regulatory safety zones. On May 10, 2012 New York Fun Factory Events is sponsoring...

  14. 78 FR 13056 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...)(1) concerning the Factory H Superfund Site in Meriden, Connecticut (``Site'') with the following... refer to the Factory H Superfund Site, U.S. EPA Docket No. CERCLA-01-2012-0112. FOR FURTHER...

  15. Bulgar Factories (Trading Posts) in the Kama River Area as a Factor of Adjustment to Feudalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylasova, Natalia B.; Belavin, Andrei M.; Podosenova, Yulia A.

    2016-01-01

    At the start of the 2nd ML AD a number of trading posts, or factories, emerged in the Cis-Ural region with participation of Bulgar handicraftsmen and merchants. They were townships populated by various ethnic groups. Several centuries later similar factories were set up by natives of the Cis-Ural region in Western Siberia. These factories have…

  16. Cost-effective design for a neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Berg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a neutrino factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high-energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed feasibility study (FS2 for a neutrino factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling, and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as study 2B (ST2B, that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  17. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias C.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  18. Software factory techniques applied to process control at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dutour, Mathias D

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) - SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software, ...

  19. Eficiency factory - Quo Vadis? Brief study; Effizienzfabrik - Quo Vadis? Kurzstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Katharina; Kleine, Oliver; Hirzel, Simon; Rhode, Clemens

    2012-11-15

    The demand for an enhanced resource efficiency and energy efficiency in production arises not only from a purely economic perspective, but also from environmental and social reasons. Nevertheless, the issue of resource efficiency did not gain the necessary attention at the corporate level. In 2009, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) launched a program to develop resource-efficient production technologies in which 31 integrated research projects with the efficiency factory and a dedicated accompanying project are promoted immediately in order to improve the transfer of the results. The contribution under consideration reports on the performance of the efficiency factory as a transfer platform in the context of the funding priority and the research results achieved up to now.

  20. Plant factory: A new method for reducing carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Tong; Ma, Jianshe

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a focus issue all over the world. Many scientific studies have confirmed the relationship between the emission of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide and global climate change. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gas is an effective way to solve the problem of climate change. This paper presents a new method for reducing carbon emissions: using the photosynthesis of plants to achieve carbon fixation in plant factory. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we built a closed artificial light plant factory adopting LED lighting to conduct the experiment of carbon dioxide enrichment. The results shows that the production of the plants increased by 20%-25% and the plants fixed a considerable amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment to 1000 ppm.

  1. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  2. Search for new physics at a super- factory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas E Browder; Amarjit Soni

    2004-12-01

    The importance of a super- factory in the search for new physics, in particular, due to CP-odd phase(s) from physics beyond the standard model is surveyed. The first point to emphasize is that we now know how to directly measure all three angles of the unitarity triangle very cleanly, i.e. without theoretical assumptions with irreducible theory error $\\lesssim 1$%. However, this requires much more luminosity than is currently available at -factories. Direct searches via penguin-dominated hadronic modes as well as radiative, pair-leptonic and semi-leptonic decays are also discussed. Null tests of the SM are stressed as these will play a crucial role especially if the effects of BSM phase(s) on -physics are small.

  3. Evolutionary algorithm for the neutrino factory front end design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.; /Michigan State U.; Neuffer, David; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is an important tool in the long-term neutrino physics program. Substantial effort is put internationally into designing this facility in order to achieve desired performance within the allotted budget. This accelerator is a secondary beam machine: neutrinos are produced by means of the decay of muons. Muons, in turn, are produced by the decay of pions, produced by hitting the target by a beam of accelerated protons suitable for acceleration. Due to the physics of this process, extra conditioning of the pion beam coming from the target is needed in order to effectively perform subsequent acceleration. The subsystem of the Neutrino Factory that performs this conditioning is called Front End, its main performance characteristic is the number of the produced muons.

  4. Kinetics of wet air oxidation (WAO) of alcaloide factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunukcu, Y Kaçar

    2005-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) of Afyon alcaloide factory wastewater, a typical high strength industrial wastewater, was carried out. The process was performed in a specifically designed titanium bubble reactor at temperatures in the range of 140-160 degrees C. The kinetics of WAO of alcaloide factory wastewater was modeled by assuming two distinct steps. The rates of destruction were measured with respect to reduction in COD. The oxidation reaction was found to be first order with respect to COD concentration and also second order with respect to oxygen concentration in both steps. The values of activation energies were found to be in the range of 4.93 x 10(4)-7.85 x 10(4) kJ/kmol.

  5. Physics at e sup + e sup minus factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueth, V. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); MacFarlane, D.B. (McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    Feasible designs are well advanced for high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage rings which produce B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0} pairs either at rest or, in what appears to be a more promising option, boosted in the detector frame. Facilities which could provide samples of 30--100 fb{sup {minus}1} per year on the {Upsilon}(4S) will be proposed in early 1991. Here we examine the principal physics goal of such B Factories, namely CP violation in the b system. Methods in a variety of channels, estimated event samples, and detector requirements are all considered. We conclude that the physics argument for an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} B Factory is well documented, and compelling. 50 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Environmental history of a factory producing friction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J W; Dufficy, B L

    1983-02-01

    The fibre concentrations generated during the production of friction materials, incorporating asbestos, over the past 60 years have been studied to provide cumulative dust exposure data for a mortality study of the work-force. Chrysotile has been used almost exclusively during this period. The measurements made routinely by the factory staff provided information from 1950 onwards; concentrations for earlier years were derived from simulation studies using original materials, machines, and methods. These have shown that while high concentrations prevailed in the earliest years dust suppression measures initiated in 1931, and other factors, reduced the time-weighted average concentrations to moderate levels. There were two four-year periods when the production of brake blocks incorporating crocidolite occupied a well-defined area of the factory. The simulation of this production was not permissible, but the employees concerned could be identified.

  7. SEARCH FOR NEW PHYSICS AT A SUPER-B FACTORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWDER,T.E.; SONI,A.

    2004-01-05

    The importance of a Super-B Factory in the search for New Physics, in particular, due to CP-od phase(s) from physics beyond the Standard Model is surveyed. The first point to emphasize is that we know now how to directly measure all three angles of the unitarity triangle very cleanly, i. e. without theoretical assumptions with irreducible theory error {le} 1%; however this requires much more luminosity than is currently available at B-factories. Direct searches via penguin-dominated hadronic modes as well as radiative, pair-leptonic and semi-leptonic decays are also discussed. Null tests of the SM are stressed as these will play a crucial role especially if the effects of BSM phase(s) on B-physics are small.

  8. Software factory techniques applied to Process Control at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Dutour, MD

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) – SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software...

  9. Acetamido sugar biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboori, Seema C; Graham, David E

    2008-04-01

    Archaea and eukaryotes share a dolichol phosphate-dependent system for protein N-glycosylation. In both domains, the acetamido sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forms part of the core oligosaccharide. However, the archaeal Methanococcales produce GlcNAc using the bacterial biosynthetic pathway. Key enzymes in this pathway belong to large families of proteins with diverse functions; therefore, the archaeal enzymes could not be identified solely using comparative sequence analysis. Genes encoding acetamido sugar-biosynthetic proteins were identified in Methanococcus maripaludis using phylogenetic and gene cluster analyses. Proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were purified and assayed for the predicted activities. The MMP1680 protein encodes a universally conserved glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. The MMP1077 phosphomutase converted alpha-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate to alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate, although this protein is more closely related to archaeal pentose and glucose phosphomutases than to bacterial glucosamine phosphomutases. The thermostable MJ1101 protein catalyzed both the acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate and the uridylyltransferase reaction with UTP to produce UDP-GlcNAc. The MMP0705 protein catalyzed the C-2 epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc, and the MMP0706 protein used NAD(+) to oxidize UDP-N-acetylmannosamine, forming UDP-N-acetylmannosaminuronate (ManNAcA). These two proteins are similar to enzymes used for proteobacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and gram-positive bacterial capsule production, suggesting a common evolutionary origin and a widespread distribution of ManNAcA. UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA biosynthesis evolved early in the euryarchaeal lineage, because most of their genomes contain orthologs of the five genes characterized here. These UDP-acetamido sugars are predicted to be precursors for flagellin and S-layer protein modifications and for the biosynthesis of methanogenic coenzyme B.

  10. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation: Towards understanding and improvement of heme biosynthesis in filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, A.C.W.; Lokman, B.C.; Ram, A.F.J.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Weert, S. de

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  11. Analysis of reproductive performance of sows in the factory farming

    OpenAIRE

    Němec, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the analysis of some conditions to increase the level of piglets in factory farms. In addition to the genetic material used in crossing the farm, there is really important material support: good nutrition, breeding environment and nursing care. All these requirements were fullfilled in evaulated plant. In the breeding herd, were revealed a significant effect of early estrus and early pregnancy rate in the interval weaning of piglets. The obtained data showed that the perce...

  12. A Pulsed Synchrotron for Muon Acceleration at a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Summers, D J; Berg, J S; Palmer, R B

    2003-01-01

    A 4600 Hz pulsed synchrotron is considered as a means of accelerating cool muons with superconducting RF cavities from 4 to 20 GeV/c for a neutrino factory. Eddy current losses are held to less than a megawatt by the low machine duty cycle plus 100 micron thick grain oriented silicon steel laminations and 250 micron diameter copper wires. Combined function magnets with 20 T/m gradients alternating within single magnets form the lattice. Muon survival is 83%.

  13. THE MICROBIAL ANALYSIS IN A BREAD FACTORY IN DAMBOVITA COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Maracinaru; Daniela Avram; Magda Gabriela Bratu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the degree of microbial charge of the air in a bread factory. In food industry theair represents one of the biggest riscs of microbiological contamination (with bacteria, yeast, mildew) of food productswith repercusions in the sanitary area (intoxications) as well as in industrial area (modification of organolepticproperties of products, rebutting in fabrication, depositing problems, etc. For food industry it is very important that theair is not filled wi...

  14. Corrections to the fluxes of a neutrino factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broncano, A.; Mena, O. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To reach their physical goals, future neutrino factories using muon decay aim at an overall flux precision of O(1%) or better. We analytically study the QED radiative corrections to the neutrino differential distributions from muon decay. Kinematic uncertainties due to the divergence of the muon beam are considered as well. The resulting corrections to the neutrino flux turn out to be of order O(0.1%), safely below the required precision. (orig.)

  15. SuperB: a Linear High-Luminosity B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, J.; Bettarini, S.; Biagini, M.; Bonneaud, G.; Cai, Y.; Calderini, G.; Ciuchini, M.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Forti, F.; Gershon, T.J.; Giorgi, M.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Lusiani, A.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Neri, N.; Novokhatski, A.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; /Caltech /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale

    2006-02-08

    This paper is based on the outcome of the activity that has taken place during the recent workshop on ''SuperB in Italy'' held in Frascati on November 11-12, 2005. The workshop was opened by a theoretical introduction of Marco Ciuchini and was structured in two working groups. One focused on the machine and the other on the detector and experimental issues.. The present status on CP is mainly based on the results achieved by BABAR and Belle. Establishment of the indirect CP violation in B sector in 2001 and of the direct CP violation in 2004 thanks to the success of PEP-II and KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric B Factories operating at the center of mass energy corresponding to the mass of the {Upsilon}(4S ). With the two B Factories taking data, the Unitarity Triangle is now beginning to be over constrained by improving the measurements of the sides and now also of the angles {alpha}, and {gamma}. We are also in presence of the very intriguing results about the measurements of sin2{beta} in the time dependent analysis of decay channels via penguin loops, where b {yields} s{bar s}s and b {yields} s{bar d}d. {tau} physics, in particular LFV search, as well as charm and ISR physics are important parts of the scientific program of a SuperB Factory. The physics case together with possible scenarios for the high luminosity SuperB Factory based on the concepts of the Linear Collider and the related experimental issues are discussed.

  16. Green biosynthesis of floxuridine by immobilized microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Cintia W; Britos, Claudia N; Lozano, Mario E; Sinisterra, Jose V; Trelles, Jorge A

    2012-06-01

    This work describes an efficient, simple, and green bioprocess for obtaining 5-halogenated pyrimidine nucleosides from thymidine by transglycosylation using whole cells. Biosynthesis of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (floxuridine) was achieved by free and immobilized Aeromonas salmonicida ATCC 27013 with an 80% and 65% conversion occurring in 1 h, respectively. The immobilized biocatalyst was stable for more than 4 months in storage conditions (4 °C) and could be reused at least 30 times without loss of its activity. This microorganism was able to biosynthesize 2.0 mg L(-1) min(-1) (60%) of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine in 3 h. These halogenated pyrimidine 2'-deoxynucleosides are used as antitumoral agents.

  17. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  18. Biosynthesis of Nitrogenase FeMoco

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2011-01-01

    Biosynthesis of nitrogenase FeMoco is a highly complex process that requires, minimally, the participation of nifS, nifU, nifB, nifE, nifN, nifV, nifH, nifD and nifK gene products. Previous genetic analyses have identified the essential factors for the assembly of FeMoco; however, the exact functions of these factors and the precise sequence of events during the assembly process had remained unclear until recently, when a number of the biosynthetic intermediates of FeMoco were identified and ...

  19. Blakeslea trispora Genes for Carotene Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, M.; de Paz, B.; De la Fuente, J L; López-Nieto, M J; Cabri, W.; Barredo, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    We cloned the carB and carRA genes involved in β-carotene biosynthesis from overproducing and wild-type strains of Blakeslea trispora. The carB gene has a length of 1,955 bp, including two introns of 141 and 68 bp, and encodes a protein of 66.4 kDa with phytoene dehydrogenase activity. The carRA gene contains 1,894 bp, with a single intron of 70 bp, and encodes a protein of 69.6 kDa with separate domains for lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase. The estimated transcript sizes for carB and c...

  20. The cell factory approach toward biotechnological production of high-value chitosan oligomers and their derivatives: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Shoa; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2017-02-01

    production of defined COS using recombinant microbial strains expressing chitin oligomer synthases and chitin oligomer deacetylases. In this review, we will describe the state-of-the-art of this cell factory approach, as a basis for upcoming developments. We will briefly describe traditional chemical protocols and enzymatic production of COS as a background to the more detailed presentation of what has been achieved through in vivo biosynthesis. We will only briefly describe those as a background to the more detailed presentation of what has been achieved through in vivo biosynthesis. We will also touch on the production of COS derivatives that has been achieved in this way, as these oligomers open up another plethora of potential applications when used as building blocks for defined biomaterials.

  1. Data Processing Factory for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Christopher; Adelman, Jennifer; Annis, James T.; Hendry, John; Inkmann, John; Jester, Sebastian; Kent, Steven M.; Kuropatkin, Nickolai; Lee, Brian; Lin, Huan; Peoples, John, Jr.; Sparks, Robert; Tucker, Douglas; Vanden Berk, Dan; Yanny, Brian; Yocum, Dan

    2002-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data handling presents two challenges: large data volume and timely production of spectroscopic plates from imaging data. A data processing factory, using technologies both old and new, handles this flow. Distribution to end users is via disk farms, to serve corrected images and calibrated spectra, and a database, to efficiently process catalog queries. For distribution of modest amounts of data from Apache Point Observatory to Fermilab, scripts use rsync to update files, while larger data transfers are accomplished by shipping magnetic tapes commercially. All data processing pipelines are wrapped in scripts to address consecutive phases: preparation, submission, checking, and quality control. We constructed the factory by chaining these pipelines together while using an operational database to hold processed imaging catalogs. The science database catalogs all imaging and spectroscopic object, with pointers to the various external files associated with them. Diverse computing systems address particular processing phases. UNIX computers handle tape reading and writing, as well as calibration steps that require access to a large amount of data with relatively modest computational demands. Commodity CPUs process steps that require access to a limited amount of data with more demanding computations requirements. Disk servers optimized for cost per Gbyte serve terabytes of processed data, while servers optimized for disk read speed run SQLServer software to process queries on the catalogs. This factory produced data for the SDSS Early Data Release in June 2001, and it is currently producing Data Release One, scheduled for January 2003.

  2. A Low energy neutrino factory for large theta(13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, Steve; Mena, Olga; /Fermilab /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Pascoli, Silvia; /Durham U., IPPP

    2007-01-01

    If the value of {theta}{sub 13} is within the reach of the upcoming generation of long-baseline experiments, T2K and NOvA, they show that a low-energy neutrino factory, with peak energy in the few GeV range, would provide a sensitive tool to explore CP-violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy. They consider baselines with typical length 1000-1500 km. The unique performance of the low energy neutrino factory is due to the rich neutrino oscillation pattern at energies between 1 and 4 GeV at baselines {Omicron}(1000) km. They perform both a semi-analytical study of the sensitivities and a numerical analysis to explore how well this setup can measure {theta}{sub 13}, CP-violation, and determine the type of mass hierarchy and the {theta}{sub 23} quadrant. A low energy neutrino factory provides a powerful tool to resolve ambiguities and make precise parameter determinations, for both large and fairly small values of the mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}.

  3. Advanced factory managing technology. Sentan kojo kanri gijuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, M. (Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-04-05

    With respect to a managing technology of advanced factories in the Japanese chemical industry, this paper enumerates the following three examples to discuss the ways the future factory technologies should be: operation techniques and problems in a newest ethylene plant, operation supports and facility control in chemical factories, and CIM structuring in beer breweries. The paper describes the operation techniques in an ethylene plant that are broken down into the following: measures for safety and material diversification, environment preservation, means to minimize the required labor, adoption of multi-variables, non-interference control technology for ethylene-propylene columns, and operation techniques that have been introduced with such a new technique as an integrated instrumentation room equipped with a gas leakage detection system. Structuring of CIM in the cited beer brewery has followed the transition of IE-TQC-JIT-FMS-CIM. Although a beer brewery may give somewhat different image from an ordinary chemical plant, the beer brewing process resembles a chemical plant in that it operates reacting machines in batch multiple tanks, and uses instrumentations and controllers using sensors. The key point in the future development is an organic link between market fluctuation and production activities. 1 fig.

  4. The self consistent expansion applied to the factorial function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alon; Bialy, Shmuel; Schwartz, Moshe

    2016-12-01

    Most of the interesting systems in statistical physics can be described as nonlinear stochastic field theories. A common feature in the theoretical study of such systems is that ordinary perturbation theory seldom works. On the other hand, there exists a useful tool for the study of systems of that generic nature. That tool, the Self Consistent Expansion (SCE) is technically similar to the ordinary perturbation expansion, in the sense that it is an expansion around a solvable problem. The key point which distinguishes the SCE from an ordinary perturbation expansion, is that the small parameter of the expansion is adjustable and determined inherently by optimization of the expansion. Therefore, it allows the adaptive SCE to remain accurate relative to the inflexible ordinary expansion. The goal of the present paper is to present the SCE by applying it to a well-known zero dimensional problem. We choose the evaluation of the factorial function, x!, as the test case for the SCE, because the Stirling approximation for that function is one of the best known asymptotic expansions, with a very wide use in statistical physics. We show that the SCE approximation holds for small and even negative arguments of the factorial function, where the Stirling expansion fails miserably. It does so without paying any penalty at high values of the argument, where the Stirling formula is excellent. We present numerical as well as analytic SCE approximations of the factorial function.

  5. How Important is Geographical Agglomeration to Factory Efficiency in Japan’s Manufacturing Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukao, Kyoji; Kravtsova, Victoria; Nakajima, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the productivity spillovers from efficient factories have been investigated using factory-level data of Japan’s Census of Manufactures. The following three steps have been performed by estimating: first, efficiency of each factory using a nonparametric data envelopment analysis model...... in total firms is particularly high in the Chubu and Tohoku regions. For many industries closeness to the most efficient factories plays a statistically significant positive role in the efficiency of manufacturing factories in Japan. However, this is not the case in high-tech industries....

  6. Nematode community structure in the vicinity of a metallurgical factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamún, Peter; Renčo, Marek; Miklisová, Dana; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2011-12-01

    Soil nematode communities (taxa composition, trophic structure, ecological indices) in the area of metallurgical factory (Oravské ferozliatinárske závody) in Široká, Northern Slovakia were investigated in 2009. The factory belongs to main sources of emissions originated by ferroalloy production in this region. Four sites (meadows) were selected in a downwind direction from the factory: site A was located 0.85 km far from the factory, and the other sites were maintained in approximately 2-km intervals from each other. Chemical analysis of soil samples showed low concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), with all values being under Slovak limit concentrations of heavy metals in soils. Only the Cd content in the soil sample from site A slightly exceeded the allowable threshold, but it was decreasing with the distance from the factory, similarly as remaining metals except Cr, with slightly increasing trend of concentration. Within 64 identified nematode genera, the Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Rhabditis were most common and eudominant. This was clearly reflected on the trophic structure of nematode communities, where plant feeding nematodes and bacteriovorous prevailed. Significant negative correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between the abundance of bacteriovores and the concentration of Cu in the soil. On the other hand, fungivores showed significant correlation with Ni and Cr (P < 0.05) as well as predators with Cd, Pb and Zn contents in the soil (P < 0.01). The highly significant correlation (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) was found between As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn and Maturity Index 2-5. A negative relationship was detected between Maturity Index and the concentration of Cr in the soil (P < 0.01). On the other hand, Cu was in positive correlation with MI values. The MI, reflecting the degree of disturbances and changes in the structure and function of the soil ecosystem, was found

  7. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among cashew factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, N; Ramachandra, Kamath; Arun G, Maiya; Asha, Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are impairments of the bodily structures, such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, or the localized blood circulation system, which are caused or aggravated primarily by the performance of work and by the effects of the immediate environment in which work is carried out. Types of work in the cashew factory include cutting, peeling, grading, packing, and boiling. All these activities have risk factors for the musculoskeletal disorders, which include repetition, contact stress, forceful contraction, awkward postures, as well as sustained positions. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to find out the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among cashew factory workers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 246 cashew factory workers, working in a randomly selected factory of a selected locality in Karkala taluk of Udupi district, Karnataka. Participants' name, age, gender, literacy level, income, type of work, duration of employment, hours of work per day, hand dominance, pain and discomfort status were obtained by structured interview. A total of 246 cashew factory workers participated in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. Around 28.5% (n = 70) reported pain, whereas 71.5% (n = 176) of workers did not report pain. The largest number of workers (n = 22; 32.4%) complained of pain in the knee, followed by back (n = 21; 30.9%) and then shoulder (n = 8; 11.8%). Seventy percent of the workers who reported pain were having more than 5 years of work experience. A 68.6% (n = 48) of the workers who reported pain were in the cutting category, followed by the grading (17%; n = 12), boiling (8.6%; n = 6), and peeling (5.7%; n = 4) categories. Prevalence of pain and discomfort among workers was 28.5%, which is a not ignorable and has to be addressed. Self-reported pain and discomfort were more prevalent in knee, followed by

  8. BIOSYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF ANTIBIOTIC BATUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Klochko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of antistaphylococcal antibiotic batumin under periodic conditions of Pseudomonas batumici growth has been studied. Antibiotic synthesis in fermenter occurred across the culture growth and achieved its maximal value after 50–55 hours. The active oxygen utilization by the producing strain was observed during 20–55 hours of fermentation with maximum after 40–45 hours. Antibiotic yield was 175–180 mg/l and depended on intensity of aeration. contrast to «freshly isolated» antibiotic after fermentation the long-term kept batumin has shown two identical by molecular mass peaks according to the chromato-mass spectrometric analysis. Taking into account of batumin molecule structure the conclusion has been made that the most probable isomerization type is keto-enolic tautomerism. At the same time batumin is diastereoisomer of kalimantacin A which has the same chemical structure. The optic rotation angle is [α]d25 = +56.3° for kalimantacin and [α]d25 = –13.5° for batumin. The simultaneous P. batumici growth and antibiotic biosynthesis and the ability of this molecule to optical isomerisation and keto-enolic forms formation allow us to suppose that batumin plays a certain role in metabolism of the producing strain.

  9. Plant Sterols: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and Physiological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitova, J N; Sulkarnayeva, A G; Minibayeva, F V

    2016-08-01

    Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development. Furthermore, sterols participate in transmembrane signal transduction by forming lipid microdomains. The predominant sterols in plants are β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. These sterols differ in the presence of a methyl or an ethyl group in the side chain at the 24th carbon atom and are named methylsterols or ethylsterols, respectively. The balance between 24-methylsterols and 24-ethylsterols is specific for individual plant species. The present review focuses on the key stages of plant sterol biosynthesis that determine the ratios between the different types of sterols, and the crosstalk between the sterol and sphingolipid pathways. The main enzymes involved in plant sterol biosynthesis are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, C24-sterol methyltransferase, and C22-sterol desaturase. These enzymes are responsible for maintaining the optimal balance between sterols. Regulation of the ratios between the different types of sterols and sterols/sphingolipids can be of crucial importance in the responses of plants to stresses.

  10. Molecular regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chater, Keith F; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2013-03-01

    Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes.

  11. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microbes- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkoti, Nasreen I; Taranath, T C

    2014-09-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganism is a green and eco-friendly technology. This review focuses on the use of consortium of diverse microorganisms belonging to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles viz. silver, gold, platinum, zirconium, palladium, iron, cadmium and metal oxides such as titanium oxide, zinc oxide, etc. These microorganisms include bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and algae. The synthesis of nanoparticles may be intracellular or extracellular. The several workers have reported that NADH dependent nitrate reductase enzyme plays a vital role in the conversion of metallic ions to nanoparticles. The FTIR study reveals that diverse biomolecules viz. carboxyl group, primary and secondary amines, amide I, II, and III bands etc serve as a tool for bioreduction and capping agents there by offering stability to particles by preventing agglomeration and growth. The size and shape of the nanoparticles vary with the organism employed and conditions employed during the synthesis which included pH, temperature and substrate concentration. The microorganisms provide diverse environment for biosynthesis of nanoparticles. These particles are safe and eco-friendly with a lot of applications in medicine, agriculture, cosmetic industry, drug delivery and biochemical sensors. The challenges for redressal include optimal production and minimal time to obtain desired size and shape, to enhance the stability of nanoparticles and optimization of specific microorganisms for specific application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis of ethylene glycol in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaiwei; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Nisola, Grace M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important platform chemical with steadily expanding global demand. Its commercial production is currently limited to fossil resources; no biosynthesis route has been delineated. Herein, a biosynthesis route for EG production from D-xylose is reported. This route consists of four steps: D-xylose → D-xylonate → 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate → glycoaldehyde → EG. Respective enzymes, D-xylose dehydrogenase, D-xylonate dehydratase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase, and glycoaldehyde reductase, were assembled. The route was implemented in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, in which the D-xylose → D-xylulose reaction was prevented by disrupting the D-xylose isomerase gene. The most efficient construct produced 11.7 g L(-1) of EG from 40.0 g L(-1) of D-xylose. Glycolate is a carbon-competing by-product during EG production in E. coli; blockage of glycoaldehyde → glycolate reaction was also performed by disrupting the gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase, but from this approach, EG productivity was not improved but rather led to D-xylonate accumulation. To channel more carbon flux towards EG than the glycolate pathway, further systematic metabolic engineering and fermentation optimization studies are still required to improve EG productivity.

  13. Biosynthesis of 2-methylisoborneol in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, S; Chou, W K W; Ikeda, H; Cane, D E; Monis, P T

    2011-02-01

    The production of odiferous metabolites, such as 2-methlyisoborneol (MIB), is a major concern for water utilities worldwide. Although MIB has no known biological function, the presence of the earthy/musty taste and odor attributed to this compound result in the reporting of numerous complaints by consumers, which undermines water utility performance and the safe and adequate provision of potable waters. Cyanobacteria are the major producers of MIB in natural waters, by mechanisms that have heretofore remained largely unstudied. To investigate the fundamental biological mechanism of MIB biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, the genome of a MIB-producing Pseudanabaena limnetica was sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing, and the recombinant proteins derived from the putative MIB biosynthetic genes were biochemically characterized. We demonstrate that the biosynthesis of MIB in cyanobacteria is a result of 2 key reactions: 1) a S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to 2-methyl-GPP catalyzed by geranyl diphosphate 2-methyltransferase (GPPMT) and 2) further cyclization of 2-methyl-GPP to MIB catalyzed by MIB synthase (MIBS) as part of a MIB operon. Based on a comparison of the component MIB biosynthetic genes in actinomycetes and cyanobacterial organisms, we hypothesize that there have been multiple rearrangements of the genes in this operon.

  14. Biosynthesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Li, Weiqing; Ruvkun, Gary; Clardy, Jon; Mak, Ho Yi

    2009-02-10

    To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant is the only known mutant defective in dauer pheromone production. Here, we show that daf-22 encodes a homolog of human sterol carrier protein SCPx, which catalyzes the final step in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. We also show that dhs-28, which encodes a homolog of the human d-bifunctional protein that acts just upstream of SCPx, is also required for pheromone production. Long-term daf-22 and dhs-28 cultures develop dauer-inducing activity by accumulating less active, long-chain fatty acid ascaroside derivatives. Thus, daf-22 and dhs-28 are required for the biosynthesis of the short-chain fatty acid-derived side chains of the dauer pheromone and link dauer pheromone production to metabolic state.

  15. Unique biosynthesis of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To the best of my knowledge, only 19 cyclic and 8 linear C35 terpenes have been identified to date, and no family name was assigned to this terpene class until recently. In 2011, it was proposed that these C35 terpenes should be called sesquarterpenes. This review highlights the biosynthesis of two kinds of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) that are produced via cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid in Bacillus and Mycobacterium species. In Bacillus species, a new type of terpene cyclase that has no sequence homology with any known terpene synthases, as well as a bifunctional terpene cyclase that biosynthesizes two classes of cyclic terpenes with different numbers of carbons as natural products, have been identified. On the other hand, in Mycobacterium species, the first bifunctional Z-prenyltransferase has been found, but a novel terpene cyclase and a unique polyprenyl reductase remain unidentified. The identification of novel enzyme types should lead to the discovery of many homologous enzymes and their products including novel natural compounds. On the other hand, many enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products have low substrate specificities in vitro. Therefore, to find novel natural products present in organisms, the multifunctionality of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of natural products should be analyzed.

  16. Essences in Metabolic Engineering of Lignan Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo Satake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignans are structurally and functionally diverse phytochemicals biosynthesized in diverse plant species and have received wide attentions as leading compounds of novel drugs for tumor treatment and healthy diets to reduce of the risks of lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases. However, the lineage-specific distribution and the low-amount of production in natural plants, some of which are endangered species, hinder the efficient and stable production of beneficial lignans. Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest. Recent marked advances in the molecular and functional characterization of lignan biosynthetic enzymes and endogenous and exogenous factors for lignan biosynthesis have suggested new methods for the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis cascades leading to the efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production in plants, including plant cell/organ cultures. Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted. This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

  17. BIOSYNTHESIS AND ACTION OF JASMONATES IN PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1997-06-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives can modulate aspects of fruit ripening, production of viable pollen, root growth, tendril coiling, and plant resistance to insects and pathogens. Jasmonate activates genes involved in pathogen and insect resistance, and genes encoding vegetative storage proteins, but represses genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis. Jasmonic acid is derived from linolenic acid, and most of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway have been extensively characterized. Modulation of lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase gene expression in transgenic plants raises new questions about the compartmentation of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The activation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis by cell wall elicitors, the peptide systemin, and other compounds will be related to the function of jasmonates in plants. Jasmonate modulates gene expression at the level of translation, RNA processing, and transcription. Promoter elements that mediate responses to jasmonate have been isolated. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of how jasmonate biosynthesis is regulated and relates this information to knowledge of jasmonate modulated gene expression.

  18. Phytochrome-mediated Carotenoids Biosynthesis in Ripening Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R L; Jen, J J

    1975-09-01

    Red light induced and far red light inhibited carotenoid biosynthesis in ripening tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) when compared to controls kept in the dark. Red illumination following far red illumination reversed the inhibitory action of far red light on carotenoid biosynthesis, suggesting a phytochrome-mediated process. Quantitation of individual carotenoids favored the hypothesis of two separate carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in tomatoes.

  19. Cytokinin biosynthesis promotes cortical cell responses during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Dugald Elgin; Nadzieja, Marcin; Novák, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    identified redundancy in several biosynthesis families, we found that mutation of LjIpt4 limits nodule numbers. Overexpression of LjIpt3 or LjLog4 alone was insufficient to produce robust formation of spontaneous nodules. In contrast, overexpressing a complete cytokinin biosynthesis pathway leads to large...

  20. An Interactive Fuzzy Programming Approach for Designing a Multi-Echelon, Multi-Product, Multi-Period Supply Chain Network Under Uncertainty Considering Cost and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amirkhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain network design has attracted the attention of many researchers during recent years. This paper presents a new bi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP model to integrate procurement, production and distribution planning under uncertainty. This model is set up for the network of a multi-echelon, multi-product, multi-channel, multi-period supply chain with regard to two conflicting objectives, which minimize the costs and minimize the sum of backorders and surpluses of products in all periods using “activity-based costing and the total cost of ownership” and “JIT” concepts, respectively. To solve the presented model, an interactive fuzzy approach is used. The associated results show the amount of purchasing of each supplier, the quantity of producing, the inventory of raw materials and products, backorder or surplus delivery of goods, the mode of transportation, the amount of goods transported between facilities and suppliers used in each period. In addition, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the presented model and exhibit the efficiency of the proposed interactive fuzzy approach. Finally, the results and conclusion are provided.

  1. Solving multi-product inventory ship routing with a heterogeneous fleet model using a hybrid cross entropy-genetic algorithm: a case study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model and an algorithm for an inventory ship routing problem (ISRP. It consists of two main parts: a model development of the ship routing problem in a multi-product inventory with a heterogeneous fleet and an algorithm development to solve the problem. The problem is referred to as ISRP. ISRP considers several parameters including the deadweight tonnage (DWT, product compatibility, port setup, and compartment washing costs. Considering these parameters, the objective function is to minimize the total cost, which consists of traveling, port setup, ship charter, and compartment washing costs. From the resulting model, there are two major steps used to solve the problem. The first is to select the ships in order to satisfy the constraint that restricts the mooring rule. The second is to find the best route, product allocation, and shipped quantity. ISRP is an Non Polynomial-hard problem. Finding the solution of such problem needs a high computation time. A new hybrid metaheuristics, namely the cross entropy-genetic algorithm (CEGA, was proposed to solve ISRP. The results were then compared with those resulted from a hybrid Tabu Search to measure the hybrid CEGA performance. The results showed that CEGA provided better solutions than those produced by the hybrid Tabu Search.

  2. 基于SPS成品油管道仿真培训系统研究%Multi-product Pipeline Simulation Training System based on SPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆春; 任泽

    2015-01-01

    根据SPS作为后台计算程序,力控作为前台界面开发成品油管道的仿真培训系统,讨论其数据交互的模式.SPS开放了API和OPC等接口,力控同时也开放了API、OPC和DDE等接口,当需要实现数据交互时可以适当的选择进行对接,讲解了API-API、API-DDE、API-OPC和OPC-OPC四种对接模式,同时也对4种模式的具体实现操作和优劣对比进行了叙述.%This paper discusses a data interactive mode by taking SPS as background process and force control as a multi-product pipeline simulation training system. The SPS opens API and OPC interfaces, and the force control opens the API, OPC and DDE interfaces. The system can be appropriately selected for docking when it needs to implement the data interaction. The paper introduces such 4 docking mode as API-API, API-DDE, API-OPC and OPC-OPC, and describes the typical implement operation and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages of these four modes.

  3. Neurologic abnormalities in workers of a 1-bromopropane factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Gaku; Li, Weihua; Shibata, Eiji; Ding, Xuncheng; Wang, Hailan; Liang, Yideng; Peng, Simeng; Itohara, Seiichiro; Kamijima, Michihiro; Fan, Qiyuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhong, Enhong; Wu, Xiaoyun; Valentine, William M; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2004-09-01

    We reported recently that 1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propylbromide, CAS Registry no. 106-94-5), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is neurotoxic and exhibits reproductive toxicity in rats. The four most recent case reports suggested possible neurotoxicity of 1-BP in workers. The aim of the present study was to establish the neurologic effects of 1-BP in workers and examine the relationship with exposure levels. We surveyed 27 female workers in a 1-BP production factory and compared 23 of them with 23 age-matched workers in a beer factory as controls. The workers were interviewed and examined by neurologic, electrophysiologic, hematologic, biochemical, neurobehavioral, and postural sway tests. 1-BP exposure levels were estimated with passive samplers. Tests with a tuning fork showed diminished vibration sensation of the foot in 15 workers exposed to 1-BP but in none of the controls. 1-BP factory workers showed significantly longer distal latency in the tibial nerve than did the controls but no significant changes in motor nerve conduction velocity. Workers also displayed lower values in sensory nerve conduction velocity in the sural nerve, backward recalled digits, Benton visual memory test scores, pursuit aiming test scores, and five items of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test (tension, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and confusion) compared with controls matched for age and education. Workers hired after May 1999, who were exposed to 1-BP only (workers hired before 1999 could have also been exposed to 2-BP), showed similar changes in vibration sense, distal latency, Benton test scores, and depression and fatigue in the POMS test. Time-weighted average exposure levels in the workers were 0.34-49.19 ppm. Exposure to 1-BP could adversely affect peripheral nerves or/and the central nervous system.

  4. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise.

  5. New and Efficient Neutrino Factory Front-End Design

    CERN Document Server

    Gallardo, Juan C; Kirk, Harold G; Neuffer, David V; Palmer, Robert; Paul, Kevin; Scott Berg, J

    2005-01-01

    As part of the APS Joint Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics* we have carried out detailed studies of the Neutrino Factory front-end. A major goal of the new study was to achieve equal performance to our earlier feasibility studies** at reduced cost. The optimal channel design is described in this paper. New innovations included an adiabatic buncher for phase rotation and a simplified cooling channel with LiH absorbers. The linear channel is 295 m long and produces 0.17 muons per proton on target into the assumed accelerator transverse acceptance of 30 mm and longitudinal acceptance of 150 mm.

  6. Neurologic Abnormalities in Workers of a 1-Bromopropane Factory

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We reported recently that 1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propylbromide, CAS Registry no. 106-94-5), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is neurotoxic and exhibits reproductive toxicity in rats. The four most recent case reports suggested possible neurotoxicity of 1-BP in workers. The aim of the present study was to establish the neurologic effects of 1-BP in workers and examine the relationship with exposure levels. We surveyed 27 female workers in a 1-BP production factory and compared 23 o...

  7. Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: Realtime Image Subtraction Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M

    2016-01-01

    A fast-turnaround pipeline for realtime data reduction plays an essential role in discovering and permitting follow-up observations to young supernovae and fast-evolving transients in modern time-domain surveys. In this paper, we present the realtime image subtraction pipeline in the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. By using high-performance computing, efficient database, and machine learning algorithms, this pipeline manages to reliably deliver transient candidates within ten minutes of images being taken. Our experience in using high performance computing resources to process big data in astronomy serves as a trailblazer to dealing with data from large-scale time-domain facilities in near future.

  8. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-08-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed.

  9. Corrections to the fluxes of a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Broncano, A

    2003-01-01

    In view of their physics goals, future neutrino factories from muon decay aim at an overall flux precision of ${\\cal O}(1%)$ or better. We analytically study the QED radiative corrections to the differential distributions of muon decay. The ${\\cal O}(1%)$ corrections to the energy and angular distributions for electrons are obtained in the ``leading log'' approximation, while the exact corrections are considered for neutrinos. Kinematic uncertainties due to the divergence of the muon beam are considered as well. The resulting corrections to the neutrino flux turn out to be of order ${\\cal O}(0.1%)$, safely below the required precision.

  10. A factorial analysis experimentation of inappropriate waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Oke, K. O. Awofeso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical approach to estimating the effects of psychological factors on humans due to inappropriate waste disposal in the environment. Factorial experimental analysis is combined with the concepts of transition matrix and steady state conditions. An adequate understanding into the statistical quantification of the waste disposal concept would aid policy makers in effective decision making and the proper control of environment. The feasibility of developing statistical parameters for assessing the waste disposal concept is confirmed. The work shows the novelty of the approach.

  11. THE ROLE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS IN NEUTRINO FACTORIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GALLARDO,J.C.; SESSLER,A.M.; WURTELE,J.

    2000-12-06

    A compilation is made of the various ways in which quantum phenomena enter into the design and operation of a neutrino factory. They include production of pions, decay of pions into muons, ionization energy loss of muons in material, scattering and energy straggling of muons in material, polarization of muons, and the decay of muons into neutrinos, and the radiation effect of neutrinos. For each process formulas are presented which cover the basic mechanism. A discussion is presented of the areas of uncertainty and of the experiments, underway and proposed, which will reduce the uncertainty to an acceptable level.

  12. Green Project System Design of Machine Process Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As the specialty of the product and the dim conscio us ness of environmental protection, the status of dirty, chaos and difference is l ong-term existed in the machine process factory. It seriously affects workers' work and living environment, and restricts the total level of the environment p rotection in our country. The project is the fatal scientific research task of H enan province in 2001. As the members' endeavor of task group, we have finished the total plan of green project system and some other ...

  13. Asymptotic Behavior of Gaps Between Roots of Weighted Factorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-20

    where an = n √ n!Fn, an = n √ n!Ln, an = n √ n!!Fn, and an = n √ n!!Ln, where Fn, respectively, Ln are the Fibonacci , respectively, Lucas sequences ... sequence as in the previous theorem with n √ xn = α, and an = n √ n!xn. Then, lim n→∞ (unan+1 − vnan) = α(β + γ) e . MONTH YEAR 5 THE FIBONACCI QUARTERLY...for computing the limit of differences of con- secutive terms of n-th roots of weighted factorials by a sequence xn (under some technical condition). As

  14. The Euler Function of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers and Factorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the Fibonacci sequence given by F0 = 0, F1 = 1 and Fn+2 = Fn+1+Fn for all n ≥ 0. Let (Ln)n≥0 be the companion Lucas sequence satisfying the same...Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest., Sect. Comp. 40 (2013) nn–nnn THE EULER FUNCTION OF FIBONACCI AND LUCAS NUMBERS AND FACTORIALS Florian Luca (Morelia...Communicated by Bui Minh Phong (Received December 22, 2012; accepted July 18, 2013) Abstract. Here, we look at the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers whose Euler

  15. Establishing new microbial cell factories for sustainable bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Liu, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    and developed. Systems biology approaches can be applied with these well studied strains, where considerable physiological data has been obtained, genome sequences are known and genetic tools have been developed. With the necessity of considering a wider array of substrates and the need for new types...... of products, it may be interesting to look to less domesticated strains and towards more non-conventional hosts in the development of new bioprocesses. This approach demands thorough physiological characterization as well as establishment of tools for genetic engineering if new cell factories...

  16. Optimising the Target and Capture Sections of the Neutrino Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Ole Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is designed to produce an intense high energy neutrino beam from stored muons. The majority of the muons are obtained from the decay of pions, produced by a proton beam impinging on a free-flowing mercury-jet target and captured by a high magnetic field. It is important to capture a large fraction of the produced pions to maximize the intensity of the neutrino beam. Various optimisation studies have been performed with the aim of maximising the muon influx to the accel...

  17. Study on soot purifying of molding shop in coking factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Duo-song; ZHANG Hui; BAI Xiang-yu

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust gas in molding shop was complicated in component and characteristic in Iow thickness asphalt smoke, mass steam-gas and dust. It was difficult to purify the soot with common purifier. So we must consider them roundly and develop new multifunction purifier. PFP multifunction soot purifier was made on the base of design optimization and was installed at Shenhuo Coking Factory in 2004. The combined effects of multi- mechanism in purifier make purifying ratio keep in high level. The remove ratio of smut reaches at 92.8%, and asphalt smoke at 83.7%.

  18. Biosynthesis and function of plant lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, W.W.; Mudd, J.B.; Gibbs, M. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Symposium in Botany and Plant Physiology was held January 13-15, 1983, at the University of California, Riverside. This volume comprises the papers that were presented. Subjects discussed at the symposium covered a wide range in the field of plant lipids. Biosynthesis of lipids occupied an important fraction of the presentations at the symposium. Subjects included detailed studies of the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, several discussions of the incorporation of fatty acids into glycerolipids and the further modification of the fatty acids, and the synthesis of glycerolipids and desaturation of fatty acids in both maturing oilseeds and chloroplasts. The physicochemical studies of glycerolipids and sterols in artificial membranes have led to distinct conclusions about their behaviour which must be relevant in the biological membrane. Results on the functional consequences of modifying the galactolipid composition in the chloroplast were an encouraging sign of progress in the attempts to relate membrane lipid composition to physiological function.

  19. BIOSYNTHESIS OF SURFACTANTS ON INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature and own experimental data on the synthesis of microbial surfactants of different chemical nature (rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, manozylerythritollipids, lipopeptides at various waste (vegetable oil and fat, sugar, dairy industry, agriculture, forestry, biodiesel, as well as waste — fried vegetable oils are presented. Most suitable substrates for the synthesis of microbial surfactants are oil containing waste that, unlike, for example, lignocellulose, whey, technical glycerol do not require pre-treatment and purification. Replacing traditional substrates for the biosynthesis of surfactant with industrial waste will help to reduce the cost of technology by several times, dispose of unwanted waste, solve the problem of storage or disposal of large amounts of waste from the food industry, agricultural sector and companies that produce biodiesel, which spent large amount of energy and money for such needs

  20. Biosynthesis of Nitrogenase FeMoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2011-05-01

    Biosynthesis of nitrogenase FeMoco is a highly complex process that requires, minimally, the participation of nifS, nifU, nifB, nifE, nifN, nifV, nifH, nifD and nifK gene products. Previous genetic analyses have identified the essential factors for the assembly of FeMoco; however, the exact functions of these factors and the precise sequence of events during the assembly process had remained unclear until recently, when a number of the biosynthetic intermediates of FeMoco were identified and characterized by combined biochemical, spectroscopic and structural analyses. This review gives a brief account of the recent progress toward understanding the assembly process of FeMoco, which has identified some important missing pieces of this biosynthetic puzzle.

  1. Terpenoids and Their Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagmi Pattanaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids.

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Rezazaeh Hamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine sponge extract Haliclona was carried out. Marine sponges' extracts are responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate solution. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using fresh and dry marine sponge. Experimental factors including, time duration, pH, temperature were optimized. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The sizes of synthesis silver nanoparticles were 27-46 nm and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD crystallography indicated the silver nanoparticles crystalline nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was revealed the functional groups of extract of Haliclona, which are capable of reduction of silver nanoparticles. This method is a cost-effective, eco-friendly and nontoxic procedure..

  3. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. Płaza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance.

  4. Industry 4.0 learning factory didactic design parameters for industrial engineering education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sackey, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To manage the impact of Industry 4.0 on industrial engineering (IE education curriculum requirements, realistic teaching and learning infrastructure such as a learning factory are required. This paper scans the literature to determine Industry 4.0’s principles and interactions with IE and a learning factory, surveys relevant universities by questionnaire to determine its current status and practices, and formulates didactic design parameters for an Industry 4.0 learning factory to support IE education in South Africa, making use of existing models of cyber-physical systems and learning factory morphology. In other results, the technical universities are discovered to be more positively disposed, in general terms, to developing an Industry 4.0 learning factory than are the traditional programmes which, with one exception, prefer computational facilities. Of ten universities that offer IE, only one — a traditional programme — has made significant progress towards creating an Industry 4.0 learning factory.

  5. Neurotoxic effects of rubber factory environment. An auditory evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Tandon, O P

    1997-01-01

    The effects of rubber factory environment on functional integrity of auditory pathway have been studied in forty rubber factory workers using Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) technique to detect early subclinical impairments. Results indicate that 47 percent of the workers showed abnormalities in prolongations of either peak latencies or interpeak latencies when compared with age and sex matched control subjects not exposed to rubber factory environment. The percent distribution of abnormalities (ears affected) were in the order of extrusion and calendering (75%) > vulcanising (41.66%) > mixing (28.57%) > loading and dispatch (23.07%) > tubing (18.75%) sections of the factory. This incidence of abnormalities may be attributed to solvents being used in these units of rubber factory. These findings suggest that rubber factory environment does affect auditory pathway in the brainstem.

  6. Approaching the socialist factory and its workforce: considerations from fieldwork in (former) Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Rory; Musić, Goran

    2017-01-01

    The socialist factory, as the 'incubator' of the new socialist (wo)man, is a productive entry point for the study of socialist modernization and its contradictions. By outlining some theoretical and methodological insights gathered through field-research in factories in former Yugoslavia, we seek to connect the state of labour history in the Balkans to recent breakthroughs made by labour historians of other socialist countries. The first part of this article sketches some of the specificities of the Yugoslav self-managed factory and its heterogeneous workforce. It presents the ambiguous relationship between workers and the factory and demonstrates the variety of life trajectories for workers in Yugoslav state-socialism (from model communists to alienated workers). The second part engages with the available sources for conducting research inside and outside the factory advocating an approach which combines factory and local archives, print media and oral history.

  7. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Kandasamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM and glucose (0.2% w/v. The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  8. A Stationary Target for the CERN-Neutrino-Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sievers, P

    2001-01-01

    As production target for Neutron Factories, free mercury jets with high axial velocity of about 20 m/s are being studied. For the CERN-Neutrino-Factory proposal with a 4 MW beam power, but with a relatively large beam size at 2.2 GeV/c and pulsed at 75 Hz, maximum energy deposition densities of below 20 J/g and average power densities of about 1 kW/g are expected. Therefore a study has been made which discusses the feasibility and limits of a confined, stationary target cooled by a liquid. It is proposed to use solid spheres of high density material with diameters in the millimeter range. These spheres are confined inside a Titanium container and cooled by an efficient water circuit. Alternatively, low density liquid metal cooling could be used. Dynamic response, as pressure pulses and vibrations are greatly reduced by the small size of the target granules in combination with a relatively long beam pulse with a duration of 3.3 ms. The open issue of the lifetime of such as structure and its fatigue limit at...

  9. Investigation of Burnout in Employees Working in a Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Aslan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the burnout levels of employees working in a factory and the factors affecting it. METHOD: This is a cross–sectional study. The study population and sample consisted of 247 employees working in the workshops of a factory located in the a big city center. Data collection was performed using a Personal Information Form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. RESULTS: The mean burnout scores increased (p<0.05 with decreasing age and work years of the employees. The mean Emotional Exhaustion score of the employees who were university graduates were higher than those who were primary school or high school graduates (p<0.05. Mean Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scores of employees with no children were higher than those with children (p<0.05. Mean Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scores of the employees stating that their incomes were much lower/lower than their expenditures were higher compared to those stating that their incomes were equal to their expenditures and those stating that their incomes were higher/much higher than their expenditures (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study indicate that factors such as age, education level, status of having children, economic status, and working years were effective on the burnout levels of the employees while the risk area where the workshop was located did not affect the burnout level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 453-462

  10. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  11. [Cohort mortality study of workers in an automobile foundry factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Yu; Liu, Fu-Ying; Zhang, Min; Lu, Rui; Yao, Hui-Lin; Yang, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Wei-Hong

    2008-10-01

    To understand the major causes of death in automobile foundry workers and investigate casting manipulations hazards to health. A cohort study of 3529 foundry workers registered in one big automobile factory in Shiyan city of China was performed. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the main causes of death by using Chinese national mortality rates as reference. The cohort mortality was traced from 1980 to the end of 2005 with an accumulation of 84 999 person-years, revealed 265 deaths. The results of this study showed that the standardized mortality ratio for all subjects was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85 approximately 1.08), which was very close to that expected on the basis of the China national mortality rates. The SMR increased with age, the SMR became greater than 1 in all groups of age 50 and higher. The results showed that malignant neoplasm (3.43%), accidents (1.16%), cerebro-vascular diseases (1.08%), cardio-vascular diseases (0.79%) were the first four illnesses that threatened workers' life span. Statistically significant mortality of malignant neoplasm (SMR = 7.87), accidents (SMR = 2.70), cardio-vascular diseases (SMR = 2.68) and digestive diseases (SMR = 2.79) were found in the foundry workers. The relative risk of malignant neoplasm for first line workers to assistant workers was 1.99 (P < 0.05). The occupational hazards in foundry factory have harmful impact on the workers' health and life span.

  12. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  13. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Yang Jiantao; Pan Hua; Su Qingfa; Liu Yamin [Institute of Industrial Ecology and Environment, Zhejiang University (Yuquan Campus) Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shi Yao, E-mail: shiyao@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Ecology and Environment, Zhejiang University (Yuquan Campus) Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m{sup 3} reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O{sub 3} and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML + dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20 mg/kJ.

  14. The Gamma Factory — new research opportunities for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I shall discuss the recent initiative of broadening the present CERN research programme by including a new component exploiting a novel concept of the light source. The proposed, partially stripped ion beam driven, light source is the backbone of the Gamma Factory initiative. It could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the already existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 0.1 — 400 MeV. The partially stripped ion beams, the unprecedented-intensity energy-tuned gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutrinos, neutrons and radioactive ions constitute the basic research tools of the Gamma Factory. A broad spectrum of new research opportunities, in a vast domain of uncharted fundamental and applied physics territories...

  15. CrossRef Neutrino factory proton driver and target design

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, Roland; Thomason, John; Davenne, Tristan; Caretta, Ottone; Back, John J

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos are very elusive particles belonging to the lepton family. They exist in different types corresponding to the different charged leptons, namely electrons, muons and taus. Contrary to electrons, neutrinos hardly interact with matter which makes them very difficult to detect and study. To the best of today’s knowledge, neutrinos have hardly any mass and they can change from one type to another (so-called “neutrino oscillation”). Most physicists think that this oscillation occurs because neutrinos have mass. A Neutrino Factory [1] is a special facility producing a large amount of neutrinos every year (typically 10$^{21}$ neutrinos/year). Its main purpose is to study the change of type of neutrinos between the place where they are generated and a remote location. In a Neutrino Factory, neutrinos result from the decay of muons, unstable particles with a mean lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s in their rest frame. Sharp beams of high energy neutrinos are obtained at the end of the long straight sections of a mu...

  16. Performance Evaluation of Wastewater Treated Plant for Ninava Drug Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the characteristics of raw and treated wastewater from Ninava drug factory were evaluated. The results revealed that the strength of raw wastewater can be classified as medium concentrated wastewater with respect to its BOD5 since the average value is 231.7 mg/l. In addition a strong correlations were found between many characteristics of raw waste. The characteristics of produced effluent from waste water treatment plant of the factory were within the Iraqi specification for the disposed wastewater constraints in 1997, where the average is 7.8 for pH, 40mg/l for SS, 2.8 mg/l for PO4-3, 45 mg/l for BOD5 and 104.3 mg/l for COD. The heavy metals concentrations for both raw and treated wastewater is to be less than those of the related literatures for Tigris river, municipal wastewater and water supply in Mosul city, the average heavy metal concentrations of raw and treated wastewater were 0.5 mg/l for Iron, 0.2 mg/l for zinc and 0.005 mg/l for copper, and there is no significant difference between raw and treated heavy metal concentrations.

  17. An artificial reality environment for remote factory control and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    Work has begun on the merger of two well known systems, VEOS (HITLab) and CLIPS (NASA). In the recent past, the University of Massachusetts Lowell developed a parallel version of NASA CLIPS, called P-CLIPS. This modification allows users to create smaller expert systems which are able to communicate with each other to jointly solve problems. With the merger of a VEOS message system, PCLIPS-V can now act as a group of entities working within VEOS. To display the 3D virtual world we have been using a graphics package called HOOPS, from Ithaca Software. The artificial reality environment we have set up contains actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. The environment allows us to view and control the objects within the virtual world. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS. A graphical renderer generates camera views on X-Windows devices; Head Mounted Devices are not required. This allows more people to make use of this technology. We are experimenting with different types of virtual vehicles to give the user a sense that he or she is actually moving around inside the factory looking ahead through windows and virtual monitors.

  18. Silanization of glass chips—A factorial approach for optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistas, Cláudia R.; Águas, Ana C. P.; Ferreira, Guilherme N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Silanization of glass chips with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) was investigated and optimized to generate a high-quality layer with well-oriented thiol groups. A full factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of silane concentration and reaction time. The stabilization of the silane monolayer by thermal curing was also investigated, and a disulfide reduction step was included to fully regenerate the thiol-modified surface function. Fluorescence analysis and water contact angle measurements were used to quantitatively assess the chemical modifications, wettability and quality of modified chip surfaces throughout the silanization, curing and reduction steps. The factorial design enables a systematic approach for the optimization of glass chips silanization process. The optimal conditions for the silanization were incubation of the chips in a 2.5% MPTS solution for 2 h, followed by a curing process at 110 °C for 2 h and a reduction step with 10 mM dithiothreitol for 30 min at 37 °C. For these conditions the surface density of functional thiol groups was 4.9 × 1013 molecules/cm2, which is similar to the expected maximum coverage obtained from the theoretical estimations based on projected molecular area (∼5 × 1013 molecules/cm2).

  19. Effects of the Factory Reset on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riqui Schwamm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices usually provide a “factory-reset” tool to erase user-specific data from the main secondary storage. 9 Apple iPhones, 10 Android devices, and 2 BlackBerry devices were tested in the first systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of factory resets. Tests used the Cellebrite UME-36 Pro with the UFED Physical Analyzer, the Bulk Extractor open-source tool, and our own programs for extracting metadata, classifying file paths, and comparing them between images. Two phones were subjected to more detailed analysis. Results showed that many kinds of data were removed by the resets, but much user-specific configuration data was left. Android devices did poorly at removing user documents and media, and occasional surprising user data was left on all devices including photo images, audio, documents, phone numbers, email addresses, geolocation data, configuration data, and keys. A conclusion is that reset devices can still provide some useful information to a forensic investigation.

  20. Circular Higgs Factories & Possible Long-Term Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 two LHC experiments have discovered a new particle with a mass around 125 GeV, which appears to be the scalar Higgs boson of the Standard Model. To further examine this remarkable particle it could be produced in large numbers for precision studies by an e+e− collider operating near the ZH threshold at beam energies of 120 GeV, or, in the s-channel by a gamma-gamma collider with primary electron beam energies of 80 GeV, or by a high-energy electron-proton collider. In this talk I will discuss tentative design parameters, novel concepts and accelerator-physics challenges (1) for a high-luminosity lepton-hadron collider, bringing into collision a 60-GeV electron beam from an energy-recovery electron linac with one of the LHC hadron beams – LHeC –, (2) for a gamma-gamma Higgs-factory collider based on the reconfigured recirculating SC electron linac – SAPPHiRE – and (3) for a circular e+e− Higgs-factory collider in a new tunnel with a circumference of 80-100 km – TLEP. I will also discuss f...

  1. A Stationary Target for the CERN-Neutrino-Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sievers, P

    2001-01-01

    As production target for Neutrino Factories,free mercury jets with high axial velocity of about 20 m /s are being studied.For the CERN-Neutrino- Factory proposal with a 4 MW beam power,but with a relatively large beam size at 2 .2 GeV /c and pulsed at 50 Hz ,maximum energy deposition densities of below 20 J /g and average power densities of about 1 kW /g are expected in the target.Therefore a study has been made which discusses the feasibility and limits of a stationary target.It is proposed to use densely packed solid spheres of heavy material and with diameters in the millimeter range.These spheres are con fined inside a Titanium container and cooled by an e fficient water circuit or possibly by He-gas.Dynamic response,as pressure pulses and vibrations are greatly reduced in the small target granules due to relatively long beam bursts,each with a duration of 3.3 s .The encouraging results achieved in this assessment justify to pursue further experimental tests,in particular of the cooling...

  2. Optimization of minoxidil microemulsions using fractional factorial design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply fractional factorial and multi-response optimization designs using desirability function approach for developing topical microemulsions. Minoxidil (MX) was used as a model drug. Limonene was used as an oil phase. Based on solubility, Tween 20 and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides were selected as surfactants, propylene glycol and ethanol were selected as co-solvent in aqueous phase. Experiments were performed according to a two-level fractional factorial design to evaluate the effects of independent variables: Tween 20 concentration in surfactant system (X1), surfactant concentration (X2), ethanol concentration in co-solvent system (X3), limonene concentration (X4) on MX solubility (Y1), permeation flux (Y2), lag time (Y3), deposition (Y4) of MX microemulsions. It was found that Y1 increased with increasing X3 and decreasing X2, X4; whereas Y2 increased with decreasing X1, X2 and increasing X3. While Y3 was not affected by these variables, Y4 increased with decreasing X1, X2. Three regression equations were obtained and calculated for predicted values of responses Y1, Y2 and Y4. The predicted values matched experimental values reasonably well with high determination coefficient. By using optimal desirability function, optimized microemulsion demonstrating the highest MX solubility, permeation flux and skin deposition was confirmed as low level of X1, X2 and X4 but high level of X3.

  3. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Cardoso Fontes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST and emulsification index (EI. The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v and glycerol (2% w/v, which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process.

  4. The intense neutron generator and future factory type ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.B

    1968-07-01

    A neutron factory is likely to sell its product in the form of isotopes. To ay neutron factories are nuclear reactors. Ion accelerators may also produce isotopes by direct interaction and, at high enough energies, mesons and hyperons. The challenge of the electrical production of neutrons goes far beyond the isotope market. It challenges the two popular concepts for long term large scale energy, the fast breeder reactor and controlled thermonuclear fusion. For this use about 4% of nuclear generated power would be applied in a feedback loop generating extra neutrons. Competition rests on operating and processing costs. The Intense Neutron Generator proposal now cancelled would have been full scale for such a use, but much further advance in accelerator engineering is required and anticipated. Perhaps most promising is the application of the ion drag principle in which rings of fast electrons are accelerated along their axis dragging ions with them by electrostatic attraction. Due to the much larger mass of the ions they can acquire much higher energy than the electrons and the process could be efficient. Such accelerators have not yet been made but experimental and theoretical studies are promising. (author)

  5. Positivity of Toeplitz determinants formed by rising factorial series and properties of related polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    In this note we prove positivity of Maclaurin coefficients of polynomials written in terms of rising factorials and arbitrary log-concave sequences. These polynomials arise naturally when studying log-concavity of rising factorial series. We propose several conjectures concerning zeros and coefficients of a generalized form of those polynomials. We also consider polynomials whose generating functions are higher order Toeplitz determinants formed by rising factorial series. We make three conje...

  6. Positivity of Toeplitz determinants formed by rising factorial series and properties of related polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    In this note we prove positivity of Maclaurin coefficients of polynomials written in terms of rising factorials and arbitrary log-concave sequences. These polynomials arise naturally when studying log-concavity of rising factorial series. We propose several conjectures concerning zeros and coefficients of a generalized form of those polynomials. We also consider polynomials whose generating functions are higher order Toeplitz determinants formed by rising factorial series. We make three conjectures about these polynomials. All proposed conjectures are supported by numerical evidence.

  7. Symbiote 5 @ the Rag Factory Gallery London: a gallery guide in 8 postcards

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Made as part of the project Symbiote 5 @ The Rag Factory London (2011) Artist book: A set of 8 printed postcards, 147 x 105mm A6, numbered 1-8?Colour and black&white. Double sided print.? Edition of 50 ex. All images are based on videos of actual exhibitions/events at the Rag Factory, downloaded from youtube. (cc)BY-NC-SA 2011 Walter van Rijn?. See also: http://www.symbiotext.net/category/symbiote5/ Exhibited: ?Symbiote 5 @ The Rag Factory, 6-10 July 2011. The Rag Factory, 16 Hene...

  8. 在线多产品混合捆绑动态定价研究%Online Dynamic Pricing of Multi-product Based on Mixed Bundling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀花; 陈淮莉

    2014-01-01

    从零售商的视角提出了一个交互式的,在线多产品混合捆绑销售的非线性动态定价模型。该模型考虑了产品之间的关联程度,并建立多项式Logit模型,将消费者网上选择行为量化,得出了最优订货批量,以及最优的利润折扣。算例表明,该策略不仅刺激产品的销售量,吸引更多的新客户购买捆绑产品,也明显增加电子零售商的利润,同时为顾客节约了资金。分析影响定价和利润的因素,为在线销售多种互补性产品的零售商提供理论依据。%The paper presents interactive ,online multi-product and nonlinear dynamic pricing models based on mixed bundling from a retailer's perspective .The model takes into account the degree of asso-ciation between the products ,usimg random utility theory through the establishment of multinomial logit model to description the online consumer choice behavior .And we ultimately gains the optimal order quantity and optimal profit discount .The example shows that this strategy is not only to stimu-late product sales and attract more new customers to buy bundled products ,but also significantly in-crease electronic retailer's profits ,w hile saving money for customers .Finally ,a theoretical basis is pro-vided for online retailers w ho sell a variety of complementary products by analysising affecting product pricing and retailers profit .

  9. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J;

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis...

  10. Reinvigorating natural product combinatorial biosynthesis with synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Moore, Bradley S; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2015-09-01

    Natural products continue to play a pivotal role in drug-discovery efforts and in the understanding if human health. The ability to extend nature's chemistry through combinatorial biosynthesis--altering functional groups, regiochemistry and scaffold backbones through the manipulation of biosynthetic enzymes--offers unique opportunities to create natural product analogs. Incorporating emerging synthetic biology techniques has the potential to further accelerate the refinement of combinatorial biosynthesis as a robust platform for the diversification of natural chemical drug leads. Two decades after the field originated, we discuss the current limitations, the realities and the state of the art of combinatorial biosynthesis, including the engineering of substrate specificity of biosynthetic enzymes and the development of heterologous expression systems for biosynthetic pathways. We also propose a new perspective for the combinatorial biosynthesis of natural products that could reinvigorate drug discovery by using synthetic biology in combination with synthetic chemistry.

  11. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and their characterization using UV, XRD, TEM and EDX. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Plant extracts are very cost effective and eco-friendly, thus, can be an economic and ...

  12. Fine-tuning regulation of strigolactone biosynthesis under phosphate starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Raez, J.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Strigolactones are signalling molecules playing a double role in the rhizosphere as host detection signals for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root parasitic plants. They are biosynthetically originating from carotenoids. The biosynthesis of these signalling compounds is tightly regulated by

  13. Biosynthesis and molecular genetics of polyketides in marine dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, Ralf; Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J S; Svendsen, Helene M; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2010-03-31

    Marine dinoflagellates are the single most important group of algae that produce toxins, which have a global impact on human activities. The toxins are chemically diverse, and include macrolides, cyclic polyethers, spirolides and purine alkaloids. Whereas there is a multitude of studies describing the pharmacology of these toxins, there is limited or no knowledge regarding the biochemistry and molecular genetics involved in their biosynthesis. Recently, however, exciting advances have been made. Expressed sequence tag sequencing studies have revealed important insights into the transcriptomes of dinoflagellates, whereas other studies have implicated polyketide synthase genes in the biosynthesis of cyclic polyether toxins, and the molecular genetic basis for the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins has been elucidated in cyanobacteria. This review summarises the recent progress that has been made regarding the unusual genomes of dinoflagellates, the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of dinoflagellate toxins. In addition, the evolution of these metabolic pathways will be discussed, and an outlook for future research and possible applications is provided.

  14. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Adihou, Hélène; Grün, Peter; Pöschel, Laura; Richter, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald; Bode, Helge B

    2015-10-19

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis was elucidated to involve a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The occurrence of these biosynthesis gene clusters in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates an important biological function in bacteria.

  15. Histidine biosynthesis, its regulation and biotechnological application in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Kulis-Horn, Robert K; Persicke, Marcus; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    l-Histidine biosynthesis is an ancient metabolic pathway present in bacteria, archaea, lower eukaryotes, and plants. For decades l-histidine biosynthesis has been studied mainly in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, revealing fundamental regulatory processes in bacteria. Furthermore, in the last 15 years this pathway has been also investigated intensively in the industrial amino acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, revealing similarities to E. coli and S. typhimurium...

  16. Initiation of the flexirubin biosynthesis in Chitinophaga pinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Schöner, Tim A.; Fuchs, Sebastian W.; Schönau, Christian; Helge B Bode

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum are known producers of the chemotaxonomic relevant flexirubins. These orange pigments comprise a non-isoprenoid aryl-polyene carboxylic acid esterified with a dialkylresorcinol. Herein, we report a gene cluster from C hitinophaga pinensis encoding the biosynthesis of the polyene moiety and the biochemical characterization of a tyrosine ammonia-lyase and a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase responsible for the initiation of the polyene biosynthesis. Additionally, the...

  17. Engineered biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yanran; Tang, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are important therapeutic compounds including front line antibiotics and anticancer drugs. It is one of the last remaining major classes of natural products of which the biosynthesis has not been reconstituted in the genetically superior host Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate the engineered biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in E. coli by using a dissected and reassembled fungal polyketide synthase (PKS). The minimal PKS of the megasynthase PKS4...

  18. New players in the regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Insect ecdysone steroid hormone regulates major developmental transitions, such as molting and metamorphosis. The production of ecdysone correlates well with the timing of these transitions. Finding out how the ecdysone biosynthesis is regulated is crucial to fully understand these sophisticated developmental switches. Here we summarized recent findings in the regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis from the aspects of cell signaling, key biosynthetic enzymes and substrate cholesterol trafficking.

  19. Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keimei Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz, the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM, a pyrimidine-type fungicide, exhibits potent inhibitory activity against BR biosynthesis. FM induces dwarfism and the open cotyledon phenotype of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark. The IC50 value for FM to inhibit stem elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark was approximately 1.8 ± 0.2 μM. FM-induced dwarfism of Arabidopsis seedlings could be restored by brassinolide (BL but not by gibberellin (GA. Assessment of the target site of FM in BR biosynthesis by feeding BR biosynthesis intermediates indicated that FM interferes with the side chain hydroxylation of BR biosynthesis from campestanol to teasterone. Determination of the binding affinity of FM to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that FM induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression level of the BR responsive gene in Arabidopsis seedlings indicated that FM induces the BR deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  20. The evaluation of microfungal contamination of dust created during woodworking in furniture factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rogoziński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microscopic fungi are the biological agent of occupational risk in the woodworking environment. Microbiological and chemical methods were used for determination of their concentration and species composition in dust. Material and Methods: Dust was sampled in 3 factories producing furniture using different materials. The 1st factory (A processes solid wood, the 2nd (B – chipboards and the 3rd factory (C uses both wood and wood composites. The samples were collected in 12 different workstations and locations in each factory. The quantitative content of fungal biomass was determined basing on analysis of ergosterol (ERG. The species composition of fungi was analyzed using the microbiological method basing on culture morphology. Results: The concentration of ergosterol was relatively low and ranged from 0.012 mg/kg to 3.36 mg/kg. The average value of ERG amounted to 1.25 mg/kg in factories A and C and 1.15 mg/kg in factory B. The most frequently isolated fungi in factory A and B were Penicillum and Aspergillus. However, in the factory C, only Trichoderma was isolated. The maximum concentration of fungi in dust collected in factory B was 2377 cfu/g and it is 3 times more than in the dust from factories A and C. Conclusions: Workers of furniture factories may be exposed to airborne fungi associated with the wood dust posing health hazard. The content of these fungi is relatively small (ERG – max: 3.36 mg/kg but the species, especially genera Penicillum and Aspergillus, found in the dust which were reported as having allergic and toxic properties. Med Pr 2014;65(6:705–713

  1. Daily changes of peak expiratory flow and respiratory symptom occurrence around a soy processing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heederik, Dick; Doekes, Gert; van Strien, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate sensitization and acute respiratory health effects in inhabitants living in the vicinity of a factory producing soy oil. Two panels of potential responders were created on the basis of a response to a short screening questionnaire sent to random samples of 1,000 exposed and 1,000 non-exposed individuals living around the factory and a control area. Individuals responding to the questionnaire were invited for a medical evaluation, including a respiratory symptom questionnaire and skin prick testing, for a panel of common allergens and a soy allergen extract. This resulted in 53 atopic and/or asthmatic inhabitants from the area surrounding the factory and 30 comparable control subjects. In these subjects, morning and evening Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF), respiratory symptoms and medication use were recorded daily during a 10-week period in the autumn. At the same time, soy allergen and endotoxin concentrations were determined in airborne dust in the exposed and the control area. The wind direction relative to the location of a subjects' house and the factory was used to determine whether an individual was exposed on a particular day. Only few of the atopic subjects were sensitized to soy. PEF showed a decrease, respiratory symptoms and bronchodilator use, an increase among soy sensitized subjects after having been downwind from the factory. Airborne soy allergen was found more frequently in the area surrounding the factory and levels were higher than in the control area. Highest levels were found on the factory premises. Only a weak association was found with wind direction. Airborne endotoxin concentrations did not show a consistent pattern with distance, but levels were clearly higher on the factory premises. Sensitization to soy allergen was not increased among the population sample living in the vicinity of the factory. Soy sensitized individuals living in the surroundings of the factory reported more respiratory symptoms, used bronchodilators more

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was achieved using extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides as a reducer and coating agent at room temperature (25°C. Two molar solutions of AgNO3 (1 mM and 10 mM and five extract volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mL were used to assess quantity, shape, and size of the particles. The UV-Vis spectra gave surface plasmon resonance at 434–436 nm of the NPs synthesized with AgNO3 10 mM and all extract volumes tested, showing a direct relationship between extract volumes and quantity of particles formed. In contrast, the concentration of silver ions was related negatively to particle size. The smallest (4.9 ± 3.4 nm particles were obtained with 1 mL of extract in AgNO3 10 mM and the larger amount of particles were obtained with 2 mL and 5 mL of extract. TEM study indicated that the particles were polycrystalline and randomly oriented with a silver structure face centered cubic (fcc and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR indicated that disappearance of the –OH group band after bioreduction evidences its role in reducing silver ions.

  3. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters.

  4. Plant cuticles: physicochemical characteristics and biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, P.J. [Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Bristol, AFRC Inst. of Arable Crops Research (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Cuticles are the thin continuous layers of predominantly lipid material deposited on the outer walls of epidermal cells and, thus, the interface between higher plants and their aerial environment. The main function of this extracellular, non-living layer, commonly referred to as a membrane, is to protect and waterproof the plant surface. Although not structurally or chemically homogeneous, cuticles are usually characterised by two specific classes of lipid substances. The insoluble high molecular weight polyester cutins constitute the framework of the membrane, the monomeric units of which are biosynthesised in the epidermal cells from C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acid precursors. The soluble long-chain wax constituents are also synthesised by these cells and are eventually deposited not only on the cuticular surface but also within the cutin matrix. Epicuticular waxes have a considerable influence on the wettability of a plant surface whereas the presence of intracuticular waxes governs cuticular permeability. The cuticles of some species also contain variable amounts of another aliphatic biopolymer, cutin, which is non-saponifiable and, consequently, extremely resistant to biodegradation. Because the cuticle is an integral part of the epidermal cell wall, polysaccharides and probably, phenolic compounds are also involved in its construction. The current status of our fundamental knowledge about the structure, chemical composition, and biosynthesis of plant cuticles will be reviewed in order to highlight the nature of potential sites for interaction with air pollutants. (orig.)

  5. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C[sub 18] monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l[Delta][sup 6cis]). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis[Delta][sup 6] double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acid can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.

  6. Tyramine and phenylethylamine biosynthesis by food bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcobal, Angela; De las Rivas, Blanca; Landete, José María; Tabera, Laura; Muñoz, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Tyramine poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing high levels of tyramine, a biogenic amine. Any foods containing free tyrosine are subject to tyramine formation if poor sanitation and low quality foods are used or if the food is subject to temperature abuse or extended storage time. Tyramine is generated by decarboxylation of the tyrosine through tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) enzymes derived from the bacteria present in the food. Bacterial TDC have been only unequivocally identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in lactic acid bacteria. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent TDC encoding genes (tyrDC) appeared flanked by a similar genetic organization in several species of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting a common origin by a single mobile genetic element. Bacterial TDC are also able to decarboxylate phenylalanine to produce phenylethylamine (PEA), another biogenic amine. The molecular knowledge of the genes involved in tyramine production has led to the development of molecular methods for the detection of bacteria able to produce tyramine and PEA. These rapid and simple methods could be used for the analysis of the ability to form tyramine by bacteria in order to evaluate the potential risk of tyramine biosynthesis in food products.

  7. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  8. A Biotin Biosynthesis Gene Restricted to Helicobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Jia, Jia; Cronan, John E

    2016-02-12

    In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections.

  9. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  10. Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal S. Sandhu; Gursharn S. Randhawa; Kanwarpal S. Dhugga

    2009-01-01

    The wall of an expanding plant cell consists primarily of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of hemi-cellulosic and pectic polysaccharides along with small amounts of structural and enzymatic proteins. Matrix polysacchar-ides are synthesized in the Golgi and exported to the cell wall by exocytosis, where they intercalate among cellulose microfibrUs, which are made at the plasma membrane and directly deposited into the cell wall. Involvement of Golgi glucan synthesis in auxin-induced cell expansion has long been recognized; however, only recently have the genes corresponding to glucan synthases been identified. Biochemical purification was unsuccessful because of the labile nature and very low abundance of these enzymes. Mutational genetics also proved fruitless. Expression of candidate genes identified through gene expression profiling or comparative genomics in heterologous systems followed by functional characterization has been relatively successful. Several genes from the cellulose synthase-like (Cs/) family have been found to be involved in the synthesis of various hemicellulosic glycans. The usefulness of this approach, however, is limited to those enzymes that probably do not form complexes consisting of unrelated proteins. Nonconventional approaches will continue to incre-mentally unravel the mechanisms of Golgi polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  11. The regulation and biosynthesis of antimycins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F. Seipke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimycins (>40 members were discovered nearly 65 years ago but the discovery of the gene cluster encoding antimycin biosynthesis in 2011 has facilitated rapid progress in understanding the unusual biosynthetic pathway. Antimycin A is widely used as a piscicide in the catfish farming industry and also has potent killing activity against insects, nematodes and fungi. The mode of action of antimycins is to inhibit cytochrome c reductase in the electron transport chain and halt respiration. However, more recently, antimycin A has attracted attention as a potent and selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Remarkably, this inhibition is independent of the main mode of action of antimycins such that an artificial derivative named 2-methoxyantimycin A inhibits Bcl-xL but does not inhibit respiration. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL family of proteins are over-produced in cancer cells that are resistant to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy agents, so antimycins have great potential as anticancer drugs used in combination with existing chemotherapeutics. Here we review what is known about antimycins, the regulation of the ant gene cluster and the unusual biosynthetic pathway.

  12. Aspects of tobacco diterpene biosynthesis and accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    Lamina, midveins, stalks and flowers of most Nicotiana species are covered with trichomes. The exudate which accumulates around glandular trichome heads has been suggested to be responsible for the characteristics flavor and aroma associated with different tobaccos. Many classes of compounds have been identified in cuticular surface washes and exudates of tobacco, in particular diterpenes such as the labdanes and duvanes. It has been assumed that most of the components present in the cuticular surface washes and trichome exudates are synthesized by the trichomes. However, there is little definitive evidence to support this assumption. Utilizing radiolabeled precursors, studies were undertaken to determine the site or sites of 1S- and 1R-4.8, 13-duvatriene-1,3-diol (1S- and 1R-diol) biosynthesis. Experiments using midvein sections of Tobacco Introduction 1068 treated with (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid indicated that radioactivity was incorporated into surface components, including 1S- and 1R-diol. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that all of the labeled duvatrienediols found were associated with the exudate and surface extracts. Experiments using incubated detached glandular trichome heads unequivocally demonstrated that the glandular heads have the biosynthetic capacity to incorporate (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid into 1S- and 1R-diol. The influence of nitrogen fertilization, water stress, time of topping and curing conditions on the accumulated levels of 1S- and 1R-diol in field grown Ky 14 was also examined.

  13. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  14. USING THE FACTORIAL CORRESPONDENCES FOR ANALYZING TOURIST FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamer Ainur M. AIVAZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the distribution of each flow of non-residents tourists, coming from 33 countries, on the six main categories of touristic destinations in Romania, in 2015, and assumes that there are differences or similarities between the tourists origin country and the touristic destinations that they chose. The performances recorded in Romania regarding the attraction of foreign tourists were relatively modest during the past three decades, from various reasons, starting with a poor access infrastructure and finishing with a deficient and, sometimes inadequate activity of tourism promotion. The statistical method used is the factorial correspondences analysis. The data processing, the indicators significance testing and the graph representations were performed using SPSS statistical software. We consider that the usage of this method allows the indirect knowledge of the tourist preferences and the results may be useful in developing a strategy for tourism promotion, customized for each country that sends tourists.

  15. Lightweight bonded acrylic facing at the Vitra VSL Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic glass is omnipresent in the industrialised world; but as a building material most architects, facade planners and engineers are still unfamiliar with this material. In most cases it is applied as a substitute for glass which leads to inappropriate joints and fixtures. During the years of the path toward the digital era, the authors were in the fortunate position to be involved in several unconventional glass and acrylic glass projects.On the basis of their most recent project, the  facade of the Vitra VSL Factory by SANAA Architekten, they describe the development of a facade for which they chose acrylic glass not as a substitute for glass but rather as a conscious material choice. Since the entire facade is it was possible to apply the manufacturing technology of deep-drawing, allowing for very thin wall thicknesses.

  16. [Streptococcus suis meningitis in a meat factory employee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceuster, Laura M E; van Dillen, Jeroen J; Wever, Peter C; Rozemeijer, Wouter; Louwerse, Elisabeth S

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Streptococcus suis is a rare cause of meningitis. Over the past few years, the number of reported cases worldwide has increased. The bacterium is mainly isolated in pigs, but humans can also become infected. At the Emergency Department, a 60-year-old man presented with headache, confusion, fever and nuchal rigidity. He worked at a meat factory. Laboratory testing showed abnormalities linked to bacterial meningitis. S. suis was cultured from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with dexamethasone, ceftriaxone and later benzylpenicillin intravenously. He recovered well, but had bilateral perceptive hearing loss as a sequela. Particularly people who are in close contact with pigs have an increased risk of S. suis infection. S. suis meningitis can be very severe and lead to serious complications and even death. Rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment are critical. Permanent hearing loss is the most frequent sequela.

  17. Reconstruction and modernization of factory "Hartija Kocani", Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krgović Milorad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the reconstruction and modernization of Factory HARTIJA Kocani, for production of high quality graphic paper. Part one analyses the goal of modernization and the approach to its realization. Part two describes the pre-reconstruction state and points to the trouble spots and technical shortcomings of the paper machine. Part three shows the state of technology after the modernization. Here, the companies that took part in realization of project are presented and the quality of their engagement is graded. The final part gives the evaluation of usefulness of the reconstruction and modernization. The evaluation is given for reaching projected capacity and quality, as well as for financial efficiency of the investment, i.e. the price of the execution of the project assignment.

  18. Fame Factory: Performing Gender and Sexuality in Talent Reality Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillevi Ganetz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how gender and sexuality are performed in a highly feminised cultural symbolic context. The object of study is a reality show where the contestants compete in mainstream popular music. Fame Factory is a Swedish talent-hunt television series with many similarities to Pop Idol. The audience may follow the struggle of the young artists off stage in the ‘Fame School’ in addition to seeing and voting on their feats on stage. In the Fame School they learn to sing, perform and dance, but also to perform masculinity, femininity and sexuality, even if this is not explicit. Through an analysis of some key episodes of this reality show, the article discusses how gender and sexuality are produced and reproduced within this music television context. It is shown how the performances rest on highly traditional conceptions of these categories, but there are also certain transgressions, especially concerning sexuality, which undermine hegemonic structures.

  19. Optimization of MCM-48 synthesis using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A.R. do; Medeiros, R.L.B. de A.; Melo, M. A. de F.; Melo, D.M. de A. [Universitdade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil); Souza, M.J.B. de, E-mail: ale3ufs@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    MCM-48 mesoporous materials were hydrothermally synthesized according to the 2{sup 2} factorial design by varying the crystallization time and temperature of the synthesis gel, and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and adsorption of N{sub 2} . In the crystallization temperature and time conditions used, specific areas between 924 to 1102 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}, pore volumes between 0.015 to 0.087 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} and pore diameters between 3.2 to 4.0 nm were obtained. It was observed that for the syntheses performed at high temperature, the crystallization time should be reduced so that the material structure is formed. (author)

  20. RIKEN RI Beam Factory - Recent Results and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, T. [RIKEN Nisina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    The new facility of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) is dedicated to provide beams of unstable nuclei very far from the stability valley. It started operation at the end of 2006 after 10 years construction. Three newly-built cyclotrons boost the energy up to 345 MeV/nucleon for various heavy-ion beams accelerated by pre-existed accelerators, a linac (RILAC) and a ring cyclotron (RRC), which have been operated in 20 years. The first experiment in the year 2007, production of new neutron-rich palladium isotopes, was followed by the first experiment of secondary reactions at the end of 2008. The capability in producing nuclei far from the stability is exceeding the one of any other facilities in the world, and will reach the level where about 1000 unknown isotopes can be created. Several new experimental installations are planned or being constructed.

  1. Linear Quadrupole Cooling Channel for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, Carol; Makino, Kyoko

    2005-01-01

    The staging and optimization in the design of a Neutrino Factory are critically dependent on the choice and format of accelerator. Possibly the simplest, lowest-cost scenario is a nonscaling FFAG machine coupled to a linear (no bending) transverse cooling channel constructed from the simplest quadrupole lens system, a FODO cell. In such a scenario, transverse cooling demands are reduced by a factor of 4 and no longitudinal cooling is required relative to acceleration using a Recirculating Linac (RLA). Detailed simulations further show that a quadrupole-based channel cools efficiently and over a momentum range which is well-matched to FFAG acceleration. Details and cooling performance for a quadrupole channel are summarized in this work.

  2. A Generic Information Factory for a National Public Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Faur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania a public institution have to cope with gathering, analyzing and use of large amounts of data. For this issue, having in mind that almost all institutions subordinated to the government handle the data in the same way, we will try to define a generic information factory at a higher level of abstraction in a manner in which it could be applied to a large number of national public institutions. For accomplish this task we have studied the structure of a national public institution, namely Labor Inspection. The case study reveals the actual informational chaos and a way to put some order in gathering, analyzing and use of data and information by management level competencies.

  3. Lightweight bonded acrylic facing at the Vitra VSL Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Matthias Michel, E-mail: michel@imagine-structure.eu Acrylic glass is omnipresent in the industrialised world; but as a building material most architects, facade planners and engineers are still unfamiliar with this material. In most cases it is applied as a substitute for glass which leads to inappropriate joints and fixtures. During the years of the path toward the digital era, the authors were in the fortunate position to be involved in several unconventional glass and acrylic glass projects. On the basis of their most recent project, the facade of the Vitra VSL Factory by SANAA Architekten, they describe the development of a facade for which they chose acrylic glass not as a substitute for glass but rather as a conscious material choice. Since the entire facade is it was possible to apply the manufacturing technology of deep-drawing, allowing for very thin wall thicknesses.

  4. Membranous Replication Factories Induced by Plus-Strand RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Romero-Brey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the membranous replication factories of members of plus-strand (+ RNA viruses. We discuss primarily the architecture of these complex membrane rearrangements, because this topic emerged in the last few years as electron tomography has become more widely available. A general denominator is that two “morphotypes” of membrane alterations can be found that are exemplified by flaviviruses and hepaciviruses: membrane invaginations towards the lumen of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER and double membrane vesicles, representing extrusions also originating from the ER, respectively. We hypothesize that either morphotype might reflect common pathways and principles that are used by these viruses to form their membranous replication compartments.

  5. FACTORIAL CORRESPONDENCES ANALYSIS – A TOOL IN TOURISM MOTIVATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Danut I. JUGANARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the distribution of tourist flows in 2014, from 25 European countries, on three main categories of trip purposes, and assumes that there are differences or similarities between the tourists’ countries of residence and their trip purposes. "Purpose'' is a multidimensional concept used in marketing research, most often for understanding consumer behavior, and for identifying market segments or customer target groups, reunited in terms of similar characteristics. Being aware that the decision of choice/ purchase is based on purposes, their knowledge proves useful in designing strategies to increase the satisfaction level provided to the customer. The statistical method used in this paper is the factorial correspondences analysis. In our opinion, the identification, by this method, of the existence of differences or similarities between the tourists’ countries of residence and their trip purposes can represent a useful step in studying the tourism market and the choice/ reformulation of strategies.

  6. Lattice Commissioning Stretgy Simulation for the B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.; Whittum, D.; Yan, Y.; Cai, Y.; Shoaee, H.; /SLAC

    2011-08-26

    To prepare for the PEP-II turn on, we have studied one commissioning strategy with simulated lattice errors. Features such as difference and absolute orbit analysis and correction are discussed. To prepare for the commissioning of the PEP-II injection line and high energy ring (HER), we have developed a system for on-line orbit analysis by merging two existing codes: LEGO and RESOLVE. With the LEGO-RESOLVE system, we can study the problem of finding quadrupole alignment and beam position (BPM) offset errors with simulated data. We have increased the speed and versatility of the orbit analysis process by using a command file written in a script language designed specifically for RESOLVE. In addition, we have interfaced the LEGO-RESOLVE system to the control system of the B-Factory. In this paper, we describe online analysis features of the LEGO-RESOLVE system and present examples of practical applications.

  7. Designing High Performance Factory Automation Applications on Top of DDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Calvo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DDS is a recent specification aimed at providing high‐performance publisher/subscriber middleware solutions. Despite being a very powerful flexible technology, it may prove complex to use, especially for the inexperienced. This work provides some guidelines for connecting software components that represent a new generation of automation devices (such as PLCs, IPCs and robots using Data Distribution Service (DDS as a virtual software bus. More specifically, it presents the design of a DDS‐based component, the so‐called Automation Component, and discusses how to map different traffic patterns using DDS entities exploiting the wealth of QoS management mechanisms provided by the DDS specification. A case study demonstrates the creation of factory automation applications out of software components that encapsulate independent stations.

  8. Bronchodilators for treatment of mild bronchiolitis: a factorial randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E E; Milner, R; Allen, U; Maj, H

    1992-01-01

    A randomised double blind trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of inhaled bronchodilators, salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, compared with placebo in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Patients, who were 2 months to 2 years of age and without underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease, received drug 1 (salbutamol or saline placebo) followed one hour later by drug 2 (ipratropium bromide or placebo). Both agents were administered every four hours. The patients were allocated to one of four groups according to a factorial design. The four groups were similar in demographic characteristics, initial oxygenation, and clinical score. The change in oxygen saturation of recipients of both agents was significantly better than that of recipients of salbutamol alone or ipratropium bromide alone. This change, however, was not statistically different from that of the control group. No difference was observed in the clinical score or hospital duration. Inhaled bronchodilators did not improve the condition of hospitalised mild bronchiolitis. PMID:1533504

  9. Penerapan Perencanaan Pajak Penghasilan pada Fa Trico Paint Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanus Ariyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important parts of government income comes from taxes, especially income taxes. The different point of view arises between government and tax payer. While the government try to increase the tax income, the taxpayers always intend to minimize their tax burden by implementing tax management/plannning. This paper is a case study in FA Trico Paint Factory (FA TPF that try to reperforming company’s income tax return preparation with the main purpose to minimize company tax burden, while it is still comply with tax regulations in Indonesia. This approach could be an alternative for the company to restate it’s annual income tax return, to avoic fines and charges for not comply with the regulations, and minimize it’s income tax expense by approximately 10% per year. 

  10. Transcription factories and nuclear organization of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskiw, C H; Cope, N F; Clay, I; Schoenfelder, S; Nagano, T; Fraser, P

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic compartmental organization of the transcriptional machinery in mammalian nuclei places particular constraints on the spatial organization of the genome. The clustering of active RNA polymerase I transcription units from several chromosomes at nucleoli is probably the best-characterized and universally accepted example. RNA polymerase II localization in mammalian nuclei occurs in distinct concentrated foci that are several-fold fewer in number compared to the number of active genes and transcription units. Individual transcribed genes cluster at these shared transcription factories in a nonrandom manner, preferentially associating with heterologous, coregulated genes. We suggest that the three-dimensional (3D) conformation and relative arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus has a major role in delivering tissue-specific gene-expression programs.

  11. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin; Droser, Mary; Mayer, Lawrence M; Pevear, David; Mrofka, David

    2006-03-10

    An enigmatic stepwise increase in oxygen in the late Precambrian is widely considered a prerequisite for the expansion of animal life. Accumulation of oxygen requires organic matter burial in sediments, which is largely controlled by the sheltering or preservational effects of detrital clay minerals in modern marine continental margin depocenters. Here, we show mineralogical and geochemical evidence for an increase in clay mineral deposition in the Neoproterozoic that immediately predated the first metazoans. Today most clay minerals originate in biologically active soils, so initial expansion of a primitive land biota would greatly enhance production of pedogenic clay minerals (the "clay mineral factory"), leading to increased marine burial of organic carbon via mineral surface preservation.

  12. 313 new asteroid rotation periods from Palomar Transient Factory observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Yang, Ting-Chang [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Waszczak, Adam [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Prince, Thomas A. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason, E-mail: rex@astro.ncu.edu.tw [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    A new asteroid rotation period survey has been carried out by using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Twelve consecutive PTF fields, which covered an area of 87 deg{sup 2} in the ecliptic plane, were observed in the R band with a cadence of ∼20 minutes during 2013 February 15-18. We detected 2500 known asteroids with a diameter range of 0.5 km ≤D ≤ 200 km. Of these, 313 objects had highly reliable rotation periods and exhibited the 'spin barrier' at ∼2 hr. In contrast to the flat spin-rate distribution of the asteroids with 3 km ≤D ≤ 15 km shown by Pravec et al., our results deviated somewhat from a Maxwellian distribution and showed a decrease at the spin rate greater than 5 rev day{sup –1}. One superfast rotator candidate and two possible binary asteroids were also found in this work.

  13. 313 new asteroid rotation periods from Palomar Transient Factory observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Yang, Ting-Chang; Waszczak, Adam; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Prince, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    A new asteroid rotation period survey have been carried out by using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Twelve consecutive PTF fields, which covered an area of 87 deg$^2$ in the ecliptic plane, were observed in $R$ band with a cadence of $\\sim$20 min during February 15--18, 2013. We detected 2500 known asteroids with a diameter range of 0.5 km $\\leq D \\leq$ 200 km. Of these, 313 objects had highly reliable rotation periods and exhibited the "spin barrier" at $\\sim2$ hours. In contrast to the flat spin rate distribution of the asteroids with 3 km $\\leq D \\leq$ 15 km shown by Pravec et al. (2008), our results deviated somewhat from a Maxwellian distribution and showed a decrease at the spin rate greater than 5 rev/day. One super-fast-rotator candidate and two possible binary asteroids were also found in this work.

  14. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, S; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Childress, M; Copin, Y; Gangler, E; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigaudier, G; Ripoche, P; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Wu, C

    2008-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  15. Synthetic yeast based cell factories for vanillin-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas

    chemicals and biofuels, food additives, high-value chemicals and recombinant proteins. Despite the recent achievements in the fields of systems biology and metabolic engineering together with availability of broad genetic engineering toolbox, the full potential of S. cerevisiae as a cell factory is not yet...... of concept, it was demonstrated that using EasyClone system it is possible to simultaneously integrate three DNA fragments carrying genes encoding for either yellow, cyan or red fluorescent proteins. In addition, all genetic markers were successfully removed using Cre-mediated recombination without...... for fast, controlled and efficient gene overexpression in a manner that is based on targeted integration of multiple gene copies into defined loci in the yeast genome. For a proof of concept two genes encoding red and cyan fluorescent proteins were successfully amplified up to ten copies using...

  16. Designing High Performance Factory Automation Applications on Top of DDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Calvo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DDS is a recent specification aimed at providing high-performance publisher/subscriber middleware solutions. Despite being a very powerful flexible technology, it may prove complex to use, especially for the inexperienced. This work provides some guidelines for connecting software components that represent a new generation of automation devices (such as PLCs, IPCs and robots using Data Distribution Service (DDS as a virtual software bus. More specifically, it presents the design of a DDS-based component, the so-called Automation Component, and discusses how to map different traffic patterns using DDS entities exploiting the wealth of QoS management mechanisms provided by the DDS specification. A case study demonstrates the creation of factory automation applications out of software components that encapsulate independent stations.

  17. Rubberwood dust and lung function among Thai furniture factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Demers, Paul A; Thepaksorn, Phayong; Saowakhontha, Sastri; Keifer, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess factors affecting lung function among 685 workers in the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) furniture industry in the Chonburi and Rayung provinces of eastern Thailand. Study data were gathered using questionnaires, by sampling wood dust, and by spirometry. The mean wood dust exposure level in the factories was 4.08 mg/m3 (SD = 1.42, range: 1.15-11.17 mg/m3). The mean overall percent of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC values were 84 % (SD = 13.41), 86 % (SD = 14.40), and 99% (SD = 10.42), respectively. Significant negative correlations were found between mean dust exposure levels and FVC (p = 0.0008), and FEV1/FVC% (p lung function and wood dust levels among wood workers suggests that rubberwood dust exposure negatively affects lung function.

  18. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  19. Factorial Analysis of Mass Media Influence on Academic Sports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benar Noshin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Main objective of this research was factorial analysis of mass media influence on academic sports development. Material: Methodology of the research was descriptive- correlation. Population of the research was composed of all referees, coaches and athletes participating in students' sports Olympiad of Iran Payam e Noor Universities in year 2014. Statistical sample of research was chosen randomly and consisted of 176 persons. Data gathering tool was a researcher made questionnaire; its superficial and content validity was approved by academic professors and media experts; also the stability of research tool was reported to be at an acceptable level. SPSS 23 software was used to analyze research data and also AMOS 24 software was used to analyze structure validity. Results: Findings showed there is a significant difference between current situation and desirable situation in all research dimensions. Also, factorial analysis of all research variables showed improvement of coaches' technical performance (0.86, improvement of referees' technical performance (0.85, and promotion of academic sport managers' awareness (0.83 respectively are mostly influenced by mass media. Conclusion : It should be kept in mind that academic sports development is one of the factors of the entire country sports development. Hence, it is crucial to attend to different dimensions of student sport's aspects such as human, financial, planning and etc., especially in championship area to be able to further macro objectives of country's sports development. Considering current conditions, mass media should have a new perspective on academic sports in order to be able to attend to their responsibilities to further the excellence of country's sports.

  20. Job stress in the staff of a tire factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh torshizi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Occupational stress is a major problem in industrial societies. Its relationship with various diseases is increasing ,but it probably has vast socio-economic consequences manifested in the form of absenteeism, labour turnover, loss of productivity and disability pension costs. The present study aimed at determining stress in the staff of a tyre factory.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 196 members of staff from various sections of a tire factory in 2008 through proportional classification and randomized sampling .Data was collected by means of Coudron two questionnaires "demographic" and "standardized job stress" . The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS software (v: 11.5, chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient (P ≤ 0.05.   Results: It was found that 49.5% of the staff had severe job stress .Severe job stress was 55.8% in the production unit (No. =53, 50% in the administrative unit (No. =16 and 40.6% supporting the backing unit (No=28.   There was a significant relationship between variables income and adequate sleep on one hand and level of job stress on the other (P < 0.001.However, no significant relationship was observed between job stress and age, marital status, education, working record ,and exercise.   Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study, more than half of the employees suffered from job stress. Compared with employees in other industrialized countries, Iranian employees appeared to have much higher prevalence of stress. Therefore, more studies are required in order to reduce the amount of stress and its consequences.