WorldWideScience

Sample records for multi-path transportation futures

  1. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  2. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Vehicle Characterization and Scenario Analyses: Main Text and Appendices A, B, C, D, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Singh, Margaret [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patterson, Phil [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ward, Jake [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Wood, Frances [OnLocation Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Kydes, Niko [OnLocation Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Holte, John [OnLocation Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Moore, Jim [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Miller, Grant [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greene, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-07-22

    This report provides details for Phase 2 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2009, examined the full range of pathways of interest to EERE, with multiple scenarios aimed at revealing the issues and impacts associated with a national effort to reduce U.S. dependence on oil use in transportation. Phase 2 expanded the scope of the analysis by examining the interactive effects of multiple pathways on each other and on oil and feedstock prices, focusing far more on costs; and substantially increasing the number of metrics used to compare pathways and scenarios.

  3. ITS Multi-path Communications Access Decision Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svitek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS require widely spread and guarantied quality communications services. Method of ITS decomposition to set of subsystems and quantification of communications subsystems parameters is introduced. Due to typical complexity of the IST solution and mobility as the typical system elements property idea of communications systems with multipath multivendor structures is adopted. Resolution of seamless switching within a set of available wireless access solutions is presented. CALM based system or specifically designed and configured L3/L2 switching can be relevant solution for multi-path access communication system. These systems meet requirements of the seamless secure communications functionality within even extensive cluster of moving objects. Competent decision processes based on precisely quantified system requirements and each performance indicator tolerance range must be implemented to keep service up and running with no influence of continuously changing conditions in time and served space. Method of different paths service quality evaluation and selection of the best possible active communications access path is introduced. Proposed approach is based on Kalman filtering, which separates reasonable part of noise and also allows prediction of the individual parameters near future behavior. Presented classification algorithm applied on filtered measured data combined with deterministic parameters is trained using training data, i.e. combination of parameters vectors line and relevant decisions. Quality of classification is dependent on the size and quality of the training sets. This method is studied within projects e-Ident, DOTEK and SRATVU which are elaborating results of project CAMNA.

  4. Performance evaluation of CPPM modulation in multi-path environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasev, Zarko; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2003-01-01

    Chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM) is a novel technique to communicate with chaotic signals based upon pulse trains in which the intervals between two pulses are determined by chaotic dynamics of a pulse generator. Using numerical simulations we show that CPPM offers excellent multi-path performance. We simulated the CPPM radio system, which is designed for a WLAN application and operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band with IEEE 802.11 compliant channel spacing. In this case, the average performance loss due the multi-path for CPPM is less than 5 dB

  5. Performance evaluation of CPPM modulation in multi-path environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasev, Zarko E-mail: ztasev@ucsd.edu; Kocarev, Ljupco E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu

    2003-01-01

    Chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM) is a novel technique to communicate with chaotic signals based upon pulse trains in which the intervals between two pulses are determined by chaotic dynamics of a pulse generator. Using numerical simulations we show that CPPM offers excellent multi-path performance. We simulated the CPPM radio system, which is designed for a WLAN application and operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band with IEEE 802.11 compliant channel spacing. In this case, the average performance loss due the multi-path for CPPM is less than 5 dB.

  6. Transportation fuels of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Society is putting more emphasis on the mobile transportation sector to achieve future goals of sustainability and a cleaner environment. To achieve these goals, does society need to jump to a new combination of fuel and vehicle technology or can we just continue to improve on the current fuels and drive train technology that has powered us the past 70 or more years? Do we need to move to more exotic energy conversion technology (fuel cell vehicles?), or can improving fuel properties further allow us to continue using combustion engines to power our vehicles? What fuel properties can still be improved in gasoline and diesel? Besides removing sulfur, should there be less aromatics in fuels? Should aromatics be eliminated? Is there a role for oxygenates in gasoline and diesel? Do blending oxygenates in fuels help or hinder in achieving the environmental goals? Can we and should we reduce our dependency on crude oil for transportation energy? Why have not the previous government-sponsored Alternative Fuel programs displaced crude oil? The marketplace will determine which fuel and vehicle technology combination will eventually be used in the future. Does the information we know today give us insight to this future? This paper will attempt to address some of the key issues and questions on the role fuels may play in that marketplace decision

  7. Hyperloop: The Future of Transportation

    KAUST Repository

    Ahlborn, Dirk

    2017-01-11

    What is Hyperloop? Hyperloop is a new way to move people or things anywhere in the world quickly, safely, efficiently, on-demand and with minimal impact to the environment. The system, using updated technologies, by Elon Musk, relies on electric propulsion to accelerate a passenger or cargo vehicle through a tube in a low-pressure environment. The autonomous vehicle levitates slightly above the track and glides at faster-than-airline speeds over long distances. We eliminate direct emissions, noise, delay, weather concerns and pilot error. Itメs the next mode of transportation.

  8. Magnetic levitation -The future transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rairan, Danilo

    2000-01-01

    The paper made a recount of the main advantages and disadvantages of the traditional systems of transport with base in electric power and it shows as the systems that use the magnetic levitation they are the future of the transport. Additionally it presents the physical principle of operation of the two main systems developed at the present time

  9. A novel communication mechanism based on node potential multi-path routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Youjun; Zhang, Chuanhao; Jiang, YiMing; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    With the network scales rapidly and new network applications emerge frequently, bandwidth supply for today's Internet could not catch up with the rapid increasing requirements. Unfortunately, irrational using of network sources makes things worse. Actual network deploys single-next-hop optimization paths for data transmission, but such "best effort" model leads to the imbalance use of network resources and usually leads to local congestion. On the other hand Multi-path routing can use the aggregation bandwidth of multi paths efficiently and improve the robustness of network, security, load balancing and quality of service. As a result, multi-path has attracted much attention in the routing and switching research fields and many important ideas and solutions have been proposed. This paper focuses on implementing the parallel transmission of multi next-hop data, balancing the network traffic and reducing the congestion. It aimed at exploring the key technologies of the multi-path communication network, which could provide a feasible academic support for subsequent applications of multi-path communication networking. It proposed a novel multi-path algorithm based on node potential in the network. And the algorithm can fully use of the network link resource and effectively balance network link resource utilization.

  10. The transport of radioactive materials - Future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, set the standards for the packages used in the transport of radioactive materials under both normal and accident conditions. Transport organisations are also required to implement Radiation Protection Programmes to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public. The industry has now operated under this regulatory regime safely and efficiently for nearly 50 years. It is vital that this record be maintained in the future when the demands on the transport industry are increasing. Nuclear power is being called upon more and more to satisfy the world's growing need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity and there will be a corresponding demand for nuclear fuel cycle services. There will also be a growing need for other radioactive materials, notably large sources such as Cobalt 60 sources for a range of important medical and industrial uses, as well as radio-pharmaceuticals. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support all these industry sectors and the challenge will be to ensure that this can be maintained safely and securely in a changing world where public and political concerns are increasing. This paper will discuss the main issues which need to be addressed. The demand for uranium has led to increased exploration and the development of mines in new locations far removed from the demand centres. This inevitably leads to more transport, sometimes from areas potentially lacking in transport infrastructure, service providers, and experience. The demand for sources for medical applications will also increase, particularly from the rapidly developing regions and this will also involve new transport routes and increased traffic. This raises a variety of issues concerning the ability of the transport infrastructure to meet the future challenge, particularly in an environment where there already exists reluctance on

  11. Tourism's impact on future transportation needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This report focuses on the changes evolving in the tourist industry and their impact on future transportation needs. First, the report concentrates on the changing of the demographic guard--from Baby Boomers to Generation Xers, and finally, to the en...

  12. Future transport power sources. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautavirta, M.; Jaaskelainen, S.

    2013-09-15

    On 17 January 2012 Minister of Transport Merja Kyllonen appointed a working group to explore alternative propulsion systems for the transport of the future. The task of the group was to examine .. on the basis of the current modes of transport and their expected renewal rate .. what forms of propulsion would be possible in Finland in the future, to what extent they could be used, and on what timetable they could be adopted. In addition, the working group was to issue recommendations on what measures should be taken. The group's vision is that passenger car traffic, rail transport and boating will be almost entirely independent of oil in 2050. Liquid and gaseous biofuels should cover at least 70 per cent of the fuels used in heavy-goods transport by 2050, and electricity should have an equally large share in bus and delivery transport in urban areas. In aviation, biokerosine would replace 40 per cent of the current fuels and in shipping, the use of sustainable alternative fuels would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50 per cent. Transport in airport and port terminals would be nearly emission-free as early as 2030. To achieve the goal for private motoring, the working group proposes that an interim target be set whereby all new private cars registered in 2030 should be capable of using alternative fuels. In addition, energy-efficiency needs to improve by nearly 50 per cent from the 2013 level. As far as maritime transport is concerned, the LNG Action Plan must be implemented by as early as 2020. On the basis of its study, the working group puts forward recommendations for measures to be implemented by 2020 and indicators for monitoring the implementation. (orig.)

  13. Adaptive Multi-path Telecommunications Solutions for ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services (ITS applications require availability of the wireless seamless secure communications solutions with selectable services quality and wide-area coverage. There are available both public as well as private wireless data services, however, dominantly in case of public services no guaranteed data service quality is offered. Principal improvement of the service quality can be reached by dynamical selection of the best possible alternative from the available portfolio of relevant services. Efficient decision processes must be implemented in the appropriate flexible seamless routing/switching structures. Generally recommended solution has been described in series of documents generated by ISO/CEN known as CALM family of standards. In accordance to our understanding CALM architecture represents very complex attitude, however, it is demanding solution for less ambitious implementations. On the other hand CALM decision processes are limited to approach based on the Policy-based Management (PBM principles with limited functionality and adaptability. Authors present L3 alternative solution with adaptive classifications processes applied instead of PBM ones. Such approach can be efficiently implemented specifically if there is available deep understanding of applied technologies. Requirements on the representative system performance indicators and their tolerance range should be so carefully identified. Paper includes results of authors’ laboratory study of three most widely spread data services which can be understood as basis for the “CALM ideas” based system implementations.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Maglev transport now and for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Maumi

    1987-09-01

    Maglef transport is transport characterized by the use of magnetic force to support and guide vehicles. Vehicles appear to be elevated because they are supported by magnetic force. The magnets used for maglef transport are permanent magnets, superconducting magnets, and electromagnets. The feature of maglef transport are as follows: (1) high speed and ease in selecting routes, (2) low noise, (3) low vibration, (4) little need for maintenance, and (5) energy saving. The development of maglef transport entered the stage of practical use in the 1970s. Since problems concerning development cost are involved, the countries where maglef transport is practically used or is being developed for practical use are only Japan, West Germany, and the United Kingdom. In Japan, the Japan National Railway began to study linear motor driven maglef transport in the 1960s and started tests with the LMU-002, which is a 44-seat practical-size vehicle with a capacity of 70 to 80 passengers, in April, 1987. Study for maglef transport meeting social needs is expected to advance. (16 figs, 2 tabs, 10 refs)

  17. The future of the transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In September, 2000 the IAEA formally began a two year, continuing regulatory review process. To no one's surprise, the initial review process has evolved and corrections and improvements have been implemented with each successive cycle. To the credit of both the agency and the participants from Member States and industry, the first cycles have created a viable and stable review process which is more efficient and far simpler than the previous review process. Unfortunately, problems still exist in the transport community. It is my opinion that these issues have little to do with review process and more to do with program management and the culture of the community. I believe it is time for IAEA transport division (IAEA) and the Transport Safety Series Committee (TRANSSC) to recognize the transport program is more than just a regulatory development program and begin to face the difficult issues in front of them. Toward that end, this paper will identify the five largest issues facing the radioactive material transport industry and recommend how the IAEA, TRANSSC, Member States, industry and the general public can address these issues

  18. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Future Vehicle Technologies : high performance transportation innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, T. [Future Vehicle Technologies Inc., Maple Ridge, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Battery management systems (BMS) were discussed in this presentation, with particular reference to the basic BMS design considerations; safety; undisclosed information about BMS; the essence of BMS; and Future Vehicle Technologies' BMS solution. Basic BMS design considerations that were presented included the balancing methodology; prismatic/cylindrical cells; cell protection; accuracy; PCB design, size and components; communications protocol; cost of manufacture; and expandability. In terms of safety, the presentation addressed lithium fires; high voltage; high voltage ground detection; crash/rollover shutdown; complete pack shutdown capability; and heat shields, casings, and impact protection. BMS bus bar engineering considerations were discussed along with good chip design. It was concluded that FVTs advantage is a unique skillset in automotive technology and the development of speed and cost effectiveness. tabs., figs.

  1. The future of transportation in society: Forces of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Barbara C.

    1996-01-01

    The transportation system is a critical element of the social / political / economic system of the United States. Factors influencing the use of transportation technology include technology push, market pull, and external factors. In order for new transportation technology to be successful, it must meet the needs of the market. These needs are diverse and vary almost by individual. Historical trends show great changes in transportation use by mode and origins and destinations of trips. Other important changes in society affecting transportation use include changes in the composition of society by gender, age, national origin, family composition, land use, income, and residential distribution. Changes of these factors in the future and how technology is deployed to meet the changing needs of society will affect the success of transportation technology implementation over the next twenty years.

  2. Environment issues and the future of the transport industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiller, J W [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    1992-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry must make the necessary investment in products and technology to meet the competitive and environmental challenges of the future. Discussion is presented of: the history of motor vehicles, the relationship of motor vehicles to the environment, the state of climate change knowledge, future economic development and the transport sector, the changing structure of the motor vehicle fleet, traffic congestion, alternative fuels, investments in transport, the European Energy Charter, The US Energy Strategy, the North American free trade agreement, and the economics of the automobile industry in Japan/South East Asia and the developing countries. 61 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Transport and energy policy. Looking to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T [European Commission (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    In the quest of filling human needs, transport and energy do not appear to be the most exciting territories. They come in only later in the vast chain of commodities and services necessary in the smooth operation of a modern market economy. However, current concerns about pollution and the future of our planet have lifted these issues to the top of the agenda. The objective of this paper is to give a glance at the complexity of possible futures facing us. Indeed, one of the main objectives is to show that there are different paths to be taken and we can influence our future. Furthermore, it will be shown that a key element in planning for different futures is the proper choice of energy policy objectives and instruments. An even bigger impact could be expected from the changing paradigms in transport demand patterns. (au)

  4. Impact assessment of the carbon reduction strategy for transport, low carbon transport : a greener future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This is an impact assessment for the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport (DfT, 2009), Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future, which is part of the UK Governments wider UK Low Carbon Transition Plan (DECC, 2009), Britains path to ta...

  5. Transportation in the future : blind side of the oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, L.

    2002-01-01

    The first oil embargo of 1974 and the oil crisis of 1979/1980 demonstrated that of all sectors, the transportation sector is the most threatened by abrupt changes in fuel prices. For that reason, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and member countries have strived to develop a good set of analytical tools for forecasting future energy demand in transportation. This presentation addressed issues regarding oil demand and explained why it may never be the same. Oil demand has been changed by the imposition of fuel economy standards in North America, voluntary agreements to limit fuel consumption in Europe, and the freight related component. Motor vehicle ownership is growing significantly in developing countries. Neither oil problems nor carbon dioxide emissions will slow that growth for a long time to come. Traffic congestion and pollution are major problems in most of the developing world. Therefore, policies to save oil or reduce carbon dioxide emissions should be integrated with strategies to improve transportation and clean the air in developing countries. New incentives may include clean vehicles, fuel efficiency, clean and low carbon fuels, and transportation planning. The paper also described how information technology, such as use of the Internet, is a low energy product that can boost economic activity and which in the future, may have a broader impact on transportation. It was concluded that while transportation energy is driven by economic growth, it can be impacted by higher prices and by energy policies. 16 figs

  6. Modeling the effects of Multi-path propagation and scintillation on GPS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Wilson, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    GPS signals traveling through the earth's ionosphere are affected by charged particles that often disrupt the signal and the information it carries due to "scintillation", which resembles an extra noise source on the signal. These signals are also affected by weather changes, tropospheric scattering, and absorption from objects due to multi-path propagation of the signal. These obstacles cause distortion within information and fading of the signal, which ultimately results in phase locking errors and noise in messages. In this work, we attempted to replicate the distortion that occurs in GPS signals using a signal processing simulation model. We wanted to be able to create and identify scintillated signals so we could better understand the environment that caused it to become scintillated. Then, under controlled conditions, we simulated the receiver's ability to suppress scintillation in a signal. We developed a code in MATLAB that was programmed to: 1. Create a carrier wave and then plant noise (four different frequencies) on the carrier wave, 2. Compute a Fourier transform on the four different frequencies to find the frequency content of a signal, 3. Use a filter and apply it to the Fourier transform of the four frequencies and then compute a Signal-to-noise ratio to evaluate the power (in Decibels) of the filtered signal, and 4.Plot each of these components into graphs. To test the code's validity, we used user input and data from an AM transmitter. We determined that the amplitude modulated signal or AM signal would be the best type of signal to test the accuracy of the MATLAB code due to its simplicity. This code is basic to give students the ability to change and use it to determine the environment and effects of noise on different AM signals and their carrier waves. Overall, we were able to manipulate a scenario of a noisy signal and interpret its behavior and change due to its noisy components: amplitude, frequency, and phase shift.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  8. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    2002-01-01

    The largest share of space missions is going to the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO); they have the highest commercial importance. The paper first shows the historic trend of specific transportation costs to GEO from 1963 to 2002. It started out with more than 500 000 /kg(2002-value) and has come down to 36 000 /kg. This reduction looks impressive, however, the reason is NOT improved technology or new techniques but solely the growth of GEO payloads`unit mass. The first GEO satellite in 1963 did have a mass of 36 kg mass (BoL) . This has grown to a weight of 1600 kg (average of all GEO satellites) in the year 2000. Mass in GEO after injection is used here instead of GTO mass since the GTO mass depends on the launch site latitude. The specific cost reduction is only due to the "law-of-scale", valid in the whole transportation business: the larger the payload, the lower the specific transportation cost. The paper shows the actual prices of launch services to GTO by the major launch vehicles. Finally the potential GEO transportation costs of future launch systems are evaluated. What is the potential reduction of specific transportation costs if reusable elements are introduced in future systems ? Examples show that cost reductions up to 75 % seem achievable - compared to actual costs - but only with launch systems optimized according to modern principles of cost engineering. 1. 53rd International Astronautical Congress, World Space Congress Houston 2. First Submission 3. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future 4. KOELLE, D.E. 5. IAA.1.1 Launch Vehicles' Cost Engineering and Economic Competitiveness 6. D.E. Koelle; A.E. Goldstein 7. One overhead projector and screen 8. Word file attached 9. KOELLE I have approval to attend the Congress. I am not willing to present this paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program.

  9. Marine Transportation in Turkey and A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet BALIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is one of the indicator and determining sectors of state economies. It’s shaped in parallel with the economic structure of the coastal countries in increasing or decreasing volumes. Especially with a significant advantage in international trade, sea transport is increasingly been competitive with other modes of transport. Considering the geographic location of Turkey, evaluating from criticial perspectives and developing meaningful proposals for effective solutions to such issues as strenghtening the alternative routes in seaborne trade and privitazing the ports that are to make further technological investments will enable to take effective and proactive measures concerning the future of this industry. In this study, the existing and likely expansions in the structure of shipping industry both in Turkey and in the world have been examined. In this examination, certain secondary data sets, such as the relevant literature and the recent statistical data, have been used.

  10. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limanond, Thirayoot; Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj; Srikaew, Artit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: → Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. → The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. → The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  11. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limanond, Thirayoot, E-mail: tlimanond@yahoo.co [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Srikaew, Artit [School of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: {yields} Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. {yields} The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. {yields} The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  12. A multidimensonal Examination of Prefomences of the Future advanced Transport Systems: The ETT (Evacuated Tube Transport) TRM (Transrapid MAGLEV) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional examination of performances of the future advanced ETT Evacuated Tube Transport) system operated by TRM (TransRapidMaglev); assessment of the ETT TRM system contribution to sustainability of the future transport sector through its completion with APT (Air Passenger Transport) system

  13. Extending helicopter operations to meet future integrated transportation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn

    2016-03-01

    Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Future transportation: Lifetime considerations and framework for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeting, Walter J.; Winfield, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    Modern society cannot exist without mobility. It is now essential to maintain access to everyday necessities, as well as being a vital part of most economies. However, our current transportation system is placing unsustainable demands on finite resources of fossil fuels, minerals and materials; change is therefore essential. Identifying rational choices is difficult because a future transport option must not only abate these demands over the entire lifetime, but do so at an affordable cost whilst maintaining acceptable levels of utility. This paper offers a framework to evaluate powertrains for whole life criteria, in order to help validate current and future developments. It supports integrated comparisons of both fuel and vehicle technology combinations for cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions throughout a vehicles lifetime. Case studies illustrate the use of this framework. All powertrains were found to require considerable amounts of energy and emit some emissions over their whole lifetime. Significant benefits over incumbent vehicles were found to be potentially attainable through the use of alternative powertrains. However, the majority of these benefits were currently found to increase user costs, worsen the vehicle production impacts and be heavily reliant on the source of the vehicles in-use energy. - Highlight: ► Cost, energy and GHG emissions throughout a vehicle’s lifetime are evaluated. ► This paper offers a structure to evaluate powertrains for whole life criteria. ► Substantial amounts of energy and emissions were evident for all options. ► Significant environmental benefits over incumbent vehicles were found. ► In-use benefits were shown to shift impacts to other phases of a vehicle’s lifetime.

  15. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  16. Multi-path mapping for alignment strategies in emerging science and technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, D.K.R.; Propp, T.; Propp, Tilo

    2008-01-01

    Roadmapping serves both short and long term (strategic) alignment in science and technology (S&T). Forecasts of the likely future development of S&T are generated; then research and development (R&D) efforts necessary to realize various goals are backcast. But for new and emerging S&T this trusted

  17. A framework for the exergy analysis of future transport pathways: Application for the United Kingdom transport system 2010–2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, Edward A.; Gasparatos, Alexandros; Serrenho, André C.

    2015-01-01

    Exergy analysis has been used to quantify the historical resource use efficiency and environmental impact of transport systems. However, few exergy studies have explored future transport pathways. This study aims to, (a) develop a conceptual framework for the exergy analysis of multiple future transport and electricity pathways, (b) apply this framework to quantify future resource consumption and service delivery patterns, (c) discuss the policy-relevant results that exergy studies of future transport systems can offer. Multiple transport and electricity pathways developed by the UK Government are used to explore changes in energy use, useful work delivery and greenhouse gas emissions. In passenger transport, ambitious electrification results in a 20% increase of useful work delivery, whilst reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption by 65%. For freight, international shipping and aviation, smaller exergy efficiency improvements make useful work delivery and greenhouse gas emissions highly dependent on transport demand. Passenger transport electrification brings a step-change in useful work delivery, which if accompanied by low-carbon electricity, significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The efficiency of low-carbon electricity systems is significant for useful work delivery, but not dominant across the scenarios explored. High penetration of renewables and electrified transport is the most resource-efficient combination in this context. - Highlights: • Develop an exergy analysis framework of future transport pathways and apply it to UK. • Electrification of personal transport brings step change in useful work delivery. • Efficiency of electricity supply becomes significant once transport is electrified. • High electrification increases useful work (+20%) and reduces emissions (−65%). • High penetration of renewables and electrified transport is most resource efficient

  18. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  19. Development of a multi-path ultrasonic flow meter for the application to feedwater flow measurement in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, J. C.; Ha, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Jang, W. H.; Park, K. S.; Park, M. S.; Park, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we propose a method to measure the feedwater flow using multi-path ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Since the UFM measures a path velocity at which the ultrasonic wave is propagated, the flow profile may be important to convey the path velocity to the velocity averaged over the entire cross section of the flowing medium. The conventional UFM has used the smooth-wall circular pipe model presented by Nikurades. However, this model covers a lower range which is less than 3.2 million while the Reynolds number of the feedwater flow in operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) is about 20 million. Therefore, we feedwater flow in operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) is about 20 million. Therefore, we proposed the non-linear correlation model that combines the ratio between the DP output and proposed the non-linear correlation model that combines the ratio between the DP output and UFM output. Experiments were performed using both computer simulation and newly constructed NPPs' test data. The uncertainty analysis result shows that the proposed method has reasonably lower uncertainty than conventional UFM

  20. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  1. Texas transportation planning for future renewable energy projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    There will be a significant increase in the number of renewable energy production facilities in Texas. The : construction of wind farms requires the transport of wind turbine components that create increased loads on : rural roads and bridges. These ...

  2. Present and future energy consumption for passenger transportation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, M.; Wolffram, U.

    1981-01-01

    Passenger transportation in Germany was investigated in order to determine real energy consumption. For typical passengers, energy consumption for overland travel and charter flights was studied. The energy needed for air traffic was compared with that for transportation overland (railway, car, bus), taking into account transportation to the airport or railway station. Transportation makes up about 17% of German primary energy consumption, i.e., road traffic 14%, railway traffic 1.6%, and air traffic 1%. Specific energy consumption (overland travel) of intercity trains, airplanes and cars is in the proportion 1.0 to 3.7 to 4.0 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 2.4 to 3.1 by the year 2000. For holiday trips, specific energy consumption for bus, train, car and airplane travel is in the proportion 1.0 to 1.4 to 3.6 to 3.4 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 1.4 to 2.5 to 2.9 by 2000. (ESA)

  3. Transportation: Design, Build, and Manage the Future for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A safe, efficient, and effective transportation system is critical to the growth and stability of the U.S. economy, America's ability as a nation to compete in increasingly competitive global markets, and as a commuter network that provides access to jobs and recreational facilities that are important to quality of life for all Americans. The…

  4. Road transportation impact on Ghana's future energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faah, George

    2008-11-07

    This research work explored the environmental and socio-economic benefits derived, if some proportion of daily passenger trips made using private cars in Ghana could be shifted to the use of public transport. The research applied the computer software COPERT III in estimating road transport Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption in Ghana for the base year 2005 and forecast years 2010 and 2020. The research reveals that if no major change occur in policies or economic determinants in meeting road transport and energy in Ghana, then the 2005 total emissions value is expected to rise by 36% in 2010 and over double in 2020 i.e. from 4.6 to 6.25 in 2010 and to 9.77 Mt CO{sub 2}e in 2020. However, if just 10% of daily passenger trips using private cars can be shifted towards the use of public transport, then the end results in reduction in emissions could earn Ghana about USD 6.6million/year under the Kyoto Protocol CDM initiative. The research also demonstrated that with a further 10% daily passenger trip shift, the outcome could be more promising, increasing to USD 13million/year. (orig.)

  5. Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.

    2016-01-01

    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.

  6. Beyond Traffic 2045 Reimagining Transportation: Technology, Disruptive Innovation, and the Future of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes key findings from the Beyond Traffic 2045 Reimagining Transportation thought leadership speaker series held at Volpe, the National Transportation Systems Center, in the fall and winter of 2015.

  7. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  8. Future car transport, Evaluating optimal solutions for future transport in the Netherlands focussing on the electric and hydrogen car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The modern world we are living in today, consumes fasts amounts of fossil fuels in many sectors. One of these sectors is transport which is almost completely dependent on oil derivatives. This heavy dependency on oil and other types of fossil fuel makes i

  9. Future changes in large-scale transport and stratosphere-troposphere exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, M.; Randel, W. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Future changes in large-scale transport are investigated in long-term (1955-2099) simulations of the Community Earth System Model - Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM-WACCM) under an RCP6.0 climate change scenario. We examine artificial passive tracers in order to isolate transport changes from future changes in emissions and chemical processes. The model suggests enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange in both directions (STE), with decreasing tropospheric and increasing stratospheric tracer concentrations in the troposphere. Changes in the different transport processes are evaluated using the Transformed Eulerian Mean continuity equation, including parameterized convective transport. Dynamical changes associated with the rise of the tropopause height are shown to play a crucial role on future transport trends.

  10. Future travel demand and its implications for transportation infrastructure investments in the Texas Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This study takes a megaregion approach to project future travel demand and choice of transport : modes in the Texas Triangle, which is encompassed by four major metropolitan areas, Dallas-Fort : Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Austin. The model was ...

  11. Technical Assessments of Future European Space Transportation Options

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; van Foreest, Arnold; Dutheil, Jean-Philippe; Philip, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes some of the most recent activities in Germany in the technical assessment of future European launcher architecture. In focus is a joint effort of DLR-SART with German launcher industry in the definition of a next generation upper-medium class expendable TSTO with an initial operational capability after 2020. Involved companies are EADS astrium and MT Aerospace. This DLR-agency funded study WOTAN investigates fully cryogenic launchers as well as those with a com...

  12. Modelling of radionuclide transport in forests: Review and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.; Schell, W.; Linkov, I.

    1997-01-01

    Ecological modeling is a powerful tool which can be used to synthesize information on the dynamic processes which occur in ecosystems. Models of radionuclide transport in forests were first constructed in the mid-1960's, when the consequences of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests and waste disposal in the environment were of great concern. Such models were developed based on site-specific experimental data and were designed to address local needs. These models had a limited applicability in evaluating distinct ecosystems and deposition scenarios. Given the scarcity of information, the same experimental data sets were often used both for model calibration and validation, an approach which clearly constitutes a methodological error. Even though the carry modeling attempts were far from being faultless, they established a useful conceptual approach in that they tried to capture general processes in ecosystems and thus had a holistic nature. Later, radioecological modeling attempted to reveal ecosystem properties by separating the component parts from the whole system, as an approach to simplification. This method worked well for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems, in which the biogeochemistry of radionuclide cycling is relatively well understood and can be influenced by fertilization. Several models have been successfully developed and applied to human dose evaluation and emergency response to contaminating events in agricultural lands

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  16. Future space transportation systems systems analysis study, phase 1 technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The requirements of projected space programs (1985-1995) for transportation vehicles more advanced than the space shuttle are discussed. Several future program options are described and their transportation needs are analyzed. Alternative systems approaches to meeting these needs are presented.

  17. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed

  18. Efficient Mobility Summit: Transportation and the Future of Dynamic Mobility Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    On October 27, 2015, The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) brought together local and national thought leaders to discuss the convergence of connectivity, vehicle automation, and transportation infrastructure investments at the Future Energy Efficient Mobility Workshop. The half-day workshop was held in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications. Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications.

  19. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnoczi, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  20. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  1. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  2. Involving Freight Transport Actors in Production of Knowledge - Experience with Future Workshop Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2005-01-01

    the experience and knowledge of actors in the freight transport sector are included directly in a scientific process in order to develop future and strategic studies. Future research is often produced as desktop research and presented as the results of scientists’ forecasting and scenario building...... in the format of a future workshop included freight transport stakeholders in the research process in order to produce knowledge meeting scientific quality criteria and at the same time in a form suitable for improving the problem solving capabilities of the participants....

  3. The future of public transport in light of solutions for sustainable transport development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz LEJDA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights possible directions in the development of sustainable public transport solutions. When appropriately identified and implemented, such solutions can contribute to improved quality of urban life by reducing the adverse effects of transport on human health and the natural environment. The paper also raises questions about implementing pedestrian traffic zones, expanding the level of cycling, and introducing a workable parking policy, congestion charges, electromobility and intelligent systems for road traffic management in conurbations.

  4. Impact of Wireless Power Transfer in Transportation: Future Transportation Enabler, or Near Term Distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While the total liquid fuels consumed in the U.S. for transportation of goods and people is expected to hold steady, or decline slightly over the next few decades, the world wide consumption is projected to increase of over 30% according to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 [1]. The balance of energy consumption for transportation between petroleum fuels and electric energy, and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced consuming either, is of particular interest to government administrations, vehicle OEMs, and energy suppliers. The market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) appears to be inhibited by many factors relating to the energy storage system (ESS) and charging infrastructure. Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies have been identified as a key enabling technology to increase the acceptance of EVs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in many research areas related to understanding the impacts, opportunities, challenges and costs related to various deployments of WPT technology for transportation use. Though the initial outlook for WPT deployment looks promising, many other emerging technologies have met unfavorable market launches due to unforeseen technology limitations, sometimes due to the complex system in which the new technology was placed. This paper will summarize research and development (R&D) performed at ORNL in the area of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). ORNL s advanced transportation technology R&D activities provide a unique set of experienced researchers to assist in the creation of a transportation system level view. These activities range from fundamental technology development at the component level to subsystem controls and interactions to applicable system level analysis of impending market and industry responses and beyond.

  5. Statistical multi-path exposure method for assessing the whole-body SAR in a heterogeneous human body model in a realistic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the whole-body absorption in a human in a realistic environment requires a statistical approach covering all possible exposure situations. This article describes the development of a statistical multi-path exposure method for heterogeneous realistic human body models. The method is applied for the 6-year-old Virtual Family boy (VFB) exposed to the GSM downlink at 950 MHz. It is shown that the whole-body SAR does not differ significantly over the different environments at an operating frequency of 950 MHz. Furthermore, the whole-body SAR in the VFB for multi-path exposure exceeds the whole-body SAR for worst-case single-incident plane wave exposure by 3.6%. Moreover, the ICNIRP reference levels are not conservative with the basic restrictions in 0.3% of the exposure samples for the VFB at the GSM downlink of 950 MHz. The homogeneous spheroid with the dielectric properties of the head suggested by the IEC underestimates the absorption compared to realistic human body models. Moreover, the variation in the whole-body SAR for realistic human body models is larger than for homogeneous spheroid models. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the tissues and the irregular shape of the realistic human body model compared to homogeneous spheroid human body models. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: FUTURE CHALLENGES OF LIEPAJA` S TRAM (LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diāna Līduma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport has always had an important role in the lifestyle of population and development of economy, but the public transport performs mainly the social function – it works for the benefit of the society. Development and quality of services must be provided also for the public transport companies, however, we meet different problems related to infrastructure and traffic for this to happen. To successfully manage and develop a public transport company, it is essential to change the thinking of people in favour of the public transport, not for the personal transport. It is necessary to ensure the sustainability as the main value, which means selection of the right public transport system. The authors relied on the experience of formation of a unified transport system in the world and Latvia’s largest cities’ strategic vision for public transport development. Taking into account the fact that Liepaja is one the three cities in Latvia where the public transport service is provided by a tram, an empiric research was made. Its aim was to clarify the opinion of the inhabitants of Liepaja, regarding the services provided by Liepaja trams, regarding the possible improvements and necessity for development. 200 inhabitants of Liepaja were questioned within the framework of the research. The results of the research revealed that although the tram provides daily the inhabitants of Liepaja with the movement possibilities, unfortunately inhabitants are not ready yet to replace their personal transport with the public transport – tram to settle their daily problems. The results of the research allowed to conclude that future development possibilities and perspectives of the tram in Liepaja City can be related mainly with the creation of a new route, purchase of new carriages and unified public transport system in Liepaja City.

  7. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 7: Study recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Research and analysis tasks to alleviate negative impacts, to augment positive impacts, or to better understand the impacts produced by the potential introduction of the alternate transportation technologies are identified. The project team's recommendations on research and analysis efforts which have resulted from the technology assessment are provided. Many of the recommendations apply to the future supply of intercity passenger transportation services, categorized by mode. Other recommendations pertain to broad issues in intercity transportation--e.g., finance, regulation, traveler values--that will affect all modes.

  8. Safe and Secure Transportation of Radioactive Materials in Pakistan and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Muhammad; Ejaz, Asad

    2016-01-01

    PNRA is the sole organization in the country responsible to regulate all matters pertaining to ionizing radiations. For the safety of transport of radioactive material in the country, PNRA has adopted IAEA TS-R-1 as a national regulation. To cover the security aspects and emergency situations, if any, during the transportation of radioactive material, PNRA has issued the regulatory guide on ‘Transportation of Radioactive Material by Road in Pakistan’. In Pakistan, low to medium activity radioactive sources are transported from one place to another by road for the purpose of industrial radiography, well logging, medical application, etc. According to national policy, sealed radioactive sources of half life greater than 1 year and with initial activity of 100 GBq or more imported in the country are required to be returned to country of origin (exported) after its use. Although the activities related to transport of radioactive material remained safe and secure and no major accident/incident has been reported so far, however, the improvement/enhancement in the regulatory infrastructure is a continuous process. In future, more challenges are expected to be faced in the safety of transport packages. This paper will describe the steps taken by PNRA for the safety and security of transport of radioactive material in the country and future challenges. (author)

  9. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A C; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J H; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    use are largely lost in the current fossil fuel dominated energy systems. Sustainable transport development requires solutions from an overall renewable energy system in which integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energy needs assistance. Technologies of alternative vehicle fuels...... in transport may play a role in furthering such integration. The objective of this research is to make a contribution to the development of methodologies to identify and develop future sustainable transport systems as well as to apply such methodologies to the case of China. In particular, the methodological...... development focuses on 1) identifying suitable transport technologies and strategies based on renewable energy and 2) evaluating such technologies from the perspective of overall renewable energy system integration. For this purpose, a methodological framework involving the research fields of both...

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Status and future aspects of nuclear fuel cycle transports in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, M.; Keese, H.

    1977-01-01

    The transport practices in the Federal Republic of Germany for materials of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Particularly containers and modes of transport for UF 6 , fresh and spent fuel elements, plutonium and radwaste are described, with main emphasis on transport to reprocessing and waste storage facilities. In most cases nuclear materials have to be shipped across the borders because at present neither an enrichment nor an industrial reprocessing plant exists in the Federal Republic of Germany. Transports are therefore carried out according to international standards, such as the IAEA recommendations laid down in legal traffic regulations. Control and physical protection are being exercised on the basis of national regulations. The paper summarizes the experience gained in performing quite a number of various shipments and deals with the application of the relevant transport regulations. It also gives a brief outlook on future aspects, such as the increasing transport volume, and transport problems related to decommissioning and the operation of a nuclear fuel cycle center

  16. Radioactive materials transport: worldwide excellence in safety, past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywood, J.D.; Blenkin, J.J.; Wilkinson, H.L.; Murray, M.

    1997-01-01

    The safety record of the transport of radioactive material (RAM) is excellent. This level of safety has been achieved on a global scale principally through the adoption into national legislation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Transport Regulations by all countries which participate in the movement of RAM. The engineered and operational controls address containment of the RAM, radiation emitted from the package, dissipation of heat and prevention of criticality. The nuclear industry and its regulators have constantly sought to improve the safety of RAM transport operations, and also to measure the degree of safety compared with other industries and with generic safety criteria. Because of the extremely low incident rate and the consequent absence of direct historical data, probabilistic methods have been applied to provide a conservative assessment of the risks associated with specific transport operations. This paper illustrates the effectiveness of the IAEA Regulations in ensuring safety by reference to UK and worldwide experience, the results of quantified risk assessments and the mechanisms in place for continued review and improvement of the Regulations. The following topics are explored: (1) The controls controls embodied in the IAEA Regulations and how they minimise the consequences of accidents. (2) A review of quantified risk assessments carried out in this country and abroad. (3) A summary of the RAM transport incident record and a brief review of the results of surveys of RAM transport operations in the UK and worldwide. (4) Discussion of the risks associated with RAM transport compared with other industries. The paper concludes that the IAEA Regulations provide a robust and effective framework for the safe transport of RAM, ensuring that risks are kept at very low levels compared to relevant accepted criteria and other dangerous goods transport operations. The provisions for review and revision of the IAEA Regulations ensure that they

  17. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  18. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  19. Predicting Nitrate Transport under Future Climate Scenarios beneath the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Gomez Peña, C. A.; Bartlet-Hunt, S.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of future climate change on soil hydrological processes and solute transport is crucial to develop appropriate strategies to minimize adverse impacts of agricultural activities on groundwater quality. The goal of this work is to evaluate the direct effects of climate change on the fate and transport of nitrate beneath a center-pivot irrigated corn field in Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site. Future groundwater recharge rate and actual evapotranspiration rate were predicted based on an inverse modeling approach using climate data generated by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model under the RCP 8.5 scenario, which was downscaled from global CCSM4 model to a resolution of 24 by 24 km2. A groundwater flow model was first calibrated based on historical groundwater table measurement and was then applied to predict future groundwater table in the period 2057-2060. Finally, predicted future groundwater recharge rate, actual evapotranspiration rate, and groundwater level, together with future precipitation data from WRF, were used in a three-dimensional (3D) model, which was validated based on rich historic data set collected from 1993-1996, to predict nitrate concentration in soil and groundwater from the year 2057 to 2060. Future groundwater recharge was found to be decreasing in the study area compared to average groundwater recharge data from the literature. Correspondingly, groundwater elevation was predicted to decrease (1 to 2 ft) over the five years of simulation. Predicted higher transpiration data from climate model resulted in lower infiltration of nitrate concentration in subsurface within the root zone.

  20. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklay, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. An assessment of advanced displays and controls technology applicable to future space transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Villarreal, Diana

    1990-01-01

    The topic of advanced display and control technology is addressed along with the major objectives of this technology, the current state of the art, major accomplishments, research programs and facilities, future trends, technology issues, space transportation systems applications and projected technology readiness for those applications. The holes that may exist between the technology needs of the transportation systems versus the research that is currently under way are addressed, and cultural changes that might facilitate the incorporation of these advanced technologies into future space transportation systems are recommended. Some of the objectives are to reduce life cycle costs, improve reliability and fault tolerance, use of standards for the incorporation of advancing technology, and reduction of weight, volume and power. Pilot workload can be reduced and the pilot's situational awareness can be improved, which would result in improved flight safety and operating efficiency. This could be accomplished through the use of integrated, electronic pictorial displays, consolidated controls, artificial intelligence, and human centered automation tools. The Orbiter Glass Cockpit Display is an example examined.

  2. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemented H2 in the atmospheric transport and chemistry model LOTOS-EUROS. We simulated the present and future (2020) air quality, using emission scenarios with different proportions of H2 vehicles and different H2 leakage rates. The reference future scenario does not include H2 vehicles, and assumes that all present and planned European regulations for emissions are fully implemented. We find that, in general, the air quality in 2020 is significantly improved compared to the current situation in all scenarios, with and without H2 cars. In the future scenario without H2 cars, the pollution is reduced due to the strict European regulations: annually averaged CO, NOx and PM2.5 over the model domain decrease by 15%, 30% and 20% respectively. The additional improvement brought by replacing 50% or 100% of traditionally-fueled vehicles by H2 vehicles is smaller in absolute terms. If 50% of vehicles are using H2, the CO, NOx and PM2.5 decrease by 1%, 10% and 1% respectively, compared to the future scenario without H2 cars. When all vehicles run on H2, then additional decreases in CO, NOx and PM2.5 are 5%, 40%, and 5% relative to the no-H2 cars future scenario. Our study shows that H2 vehicles may be an effective pathway to fulfill the strict future EU air quality regulations. O3 has a more complicated behavior - its annual average decreases in background areas, but increases in the high-NOx area in western Europe, with the decrease in NOx. A more detailed analysis shows that the population exposure to high O3 levels decreases nevertheless. In all future scenarios, traffic emissions account for only a small proportion of the total anthropogenic emissions, thus it becomes more important

  3. The challenges of transportation/traffic statistics in Japan and directions for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kawasaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to respond to new challenges in transportation and traffic problems, it is essential to enhance statistics in this field that provides the basis for policy researches. Many of the statistics in this field in Japan consist of “official statistics” created by the government. This paper gives a review of the current status of transportation and traffic statistics (hereinafter called “transportation statistics” in short in Japan. Furthermore, the paper discusses challenges in such statistics in the new environment and the direction that statistics that should take in the future. For Japan’s transportation statistics to play vital roles in more sophisticated analyses, it is necessary to improve the environment that facilitates the use of microdata for analysis. It is also necessary to establish an environment where big data can be more easily used for compilation of official statistics and performing policy researches. To achieve this end, close cooperation among the government, academia, and businesses will be essential.

  4. Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikstroem, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran [DHI Water and Environment AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The Forsmark area consists of a number of natural wetlands. As a part of the evaluation of wetlands in the safety assessment for the area, possible future wetlands are being studied with respect to hydrology and transport mechanisms. A sensitivity analyses is performed to point out the governing parameters for the wetland hydraulics. The analysis of future wetlands is carried out using the hydrological model system Mike SHE. Mike SHE has been used to describe the near-surface hydrology for a regional model area in Forsmark. Three types of areas have been chosen. Today's lake Bolundfjaerden is because of its shallow depth likely to develop into a mire in the future. As it is situated in the downstream part of the regional model area, the runoff to the lake from upstream surface water system is significant. Lake Eckarfjaerden is situated in the upstream part of the catchment at a higher altitude and with a smaller inflow. Lake Puttan is situated above a planned layout of the repository and has a potential to receive discharges from a repository. It also lies in the downstream part of a large discharge area. The topography of the future mires is assumed to be flat, up to today's mean water level in each lake. To transport the surface runoff through the wetland, streams or water courses are assumed to form within the peat. The analyses of future wetlands in the Forsmark area show that the hydraulic conditions that exists today will somewhat alter as the peat is formed. For Bolundsfjaerden, where there during present conditions are weak discharge areas, a recharge area has formed during the summer. This can be explained by the amount of surface water that forms on the surface which increases the head elevation in the upper soil layers. The same holds for Eckarfjaerden, while Puttan after the peat has developed still is a discharge area due to its naturally strong discharge position close to the sea. Different vegetation and development stages for the peat have

  5. Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikstroem, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2006-03-01

    The Forsmark area consists of a number of natural wetlands. As a part of the evaluation of wetlands in the safety assessment for the area, possible future wetlands are being studied with respect to hydrology and transport mechanisms. A sensitivity analyses is performed to point out the governing parameters for the wetland hydraulics. The analysis of future wetlands is carried out using the hydrological model system Mike SHE. Mike SHE has been used to describe the near-surface hydrology for a regional model area in Forsmark. Three types of areas have been chosen. Today's lake Bolundfjaerden is because of its shallow depth likely to develop into a mire in the future. As it is situated in the downstream part of the regional model area, the runoff to the lake from upstream surface water system is significant. Lake Eckarfjaerden is situated in the upstream part of the catchment at a higher altitude and with a smaller inflow. Lake Puttan is situated above a planned layout of the repository and has a potential to receive discharges from a repository. It also lies in the downstream part of a large discharge area. The topography of the future mires is assumed to be flat, up to today's mean water level in each lake. To transport the surface runoff through the wetland, streams or water courses are assumed to form within the peat. The analyses of future wetlands in the Forsmark area show that the hydraulic conditions that exists today will somewhat alter as the peat is formed. For Bolundsfjaerden, where there during present conditions are weak discharge areas, a recharge area has formed during the summer. This can be explained by the amount of surface water that forms on the surface which increases the head elevation in the upper soil layers. The same holds for Eckarfjaerden, while Puttan after the peat has developed still is a discharge area due to its naturally strong discharge position close to the sea. Different vegetation and development stages for the peat have been

  6. Grid-connected vehicles as the core of future land-based transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Richard; Perl, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Grid-connected vehicles (GCVs)-e.g., electric trains, metros, trams, and trolley buses-are propelled by electric motors directly connected to remote power sources. Their low at-vehicle energy consumption and ability to use a wide range of renewable energy sources make them strong contenders for urban and interurban transport systems in an era of energy constraints that favours use of renewable fuels, which may lie ahead. Needs for autonomous motorised mobility could be acceptably met in large measure by deployment of personal GCVs, also known as personal rapid transit (PRT). Alternatives, including fuel-cell vehicles and dual-drive vehicles fuelled with ethanol, will be less feasible. The 'car of the future' may not be an automobile so much as a PRT element of a comprehensive GCV-based system that offers at least as much utility and convenience as today's transport systems

  7. Stormwater quality management in rail transportation--past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong Tram; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhou, John L; Listowski, Andrzej; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Bui, Xuan Thanh

    2015-04-15

    Railways currently play an important role in sustainable transportation systems, owing to their substantial carrying capacity, environmental friendliness and land-saving advantages. Although total pollutant emissions from railway systems are far less than that of automobile vehicles, the pollution from railway operations should not be underestimated. To date, both scientific and practical papers dealing with stormwater management for rail tracks have solely focused on its drainage function. Unlike roadway transport, the potential of stormwater pollution from railway operations is currently mishandled. There have been very few studies into the impact of its operations on water quality. Hence, upon the realisation on the significance of nonpoint source pollution, stormwater management priorities should have been re-evaluated. This paper provides an examination of past and current practices of stormwater management in the railway industry, potential sources of stormwater pollution, obstacles faced in stormwater management and concludes with strategies for future management directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Well-To-Wheel Analysis of Solar Produced Hydrogen for Future Transportation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remo Felder; Anton Meier

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production, transport, and usage in future passenger car transportation systems is compared for selected solar and conventional hydrogen production technologies using a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Solar scenarios show distinctly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than fossil-based scenarios. For example, using solar produced hydrogen in fuel cell cars reduces life cycle GHG emissions by 75% compared to advanced gasoline vehicles and by more than 90% if car and road infrastructure are not considered. Utilization of solar produced hydrogen has the potential of reducing fossil energy requirements by a factor of up to 10 compared to conventional technologies. Environmental impacts are associated with the construction of the steel-intensive infrastructure for concentrating solar power plants due to mineral and fossil resource consumption as well as discharge of pollutants related to today's non-sustainable steel production technology. (authors)

  9. Well-To-Wheel Analysis of Solar Produced Hydrogen for Future Transportation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remo Felder; Anton Meier [Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen production, transport, and usage in future passenger car transportation systems is compared for selected solar and conventional hydrogen production technologies using a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Solar scenarios show distinctly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than fossil-based scenarios. For example, using solar produced hydrogen in fuel cell cars reduces life cycle GHG emissions by 75% compared to advanced gasoline vehicles and by more than 90% if car and road infrastructure are not considered. Utilization of solar produced hydrogen has the potential of reducing fossil energy requirements by a factor of up to 10 compared to conventional technologies. Environmental impacts are associated with the construction of the steel-intensive infrastructure for concentrating solar power plants due to mineral and fossil resource consumption as well as discharge of pollutants related to today's non-sustainable steel production technology. (authors)

  10. Current and future energy and exergy efficiencies in the Iran’s transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarifi, F.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Motasemi, F.; Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the sector were calculated. • The overall efficiencies were compared to other countries. • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies have been predicted by scenario approach. • A summary of recommendations to improve the sector is provided. - Abstract: Transportation is the second largest energy consumer sector in Iran which accounts for 24% of total energy consumption in 2009. This large percentage (almost a quarter) of energy consumption necessitates the determination of energy and exergy flows and their respective losses, which will enable the reduction of both energy growth and its consequent environmental impacts in the near future. This paper attempts to analyze and investigate the energy and exergy utilization of the transportation sector in Iran for the period of 1998–2009. Additionally, the total energy consumption in each subsector and the overall energy and exergy efficiencies are predicted via scenario approach. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Iran with six other countries is also presented. The results show that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of transportation sector in Iran is higher than China and Norway, while it is lower than Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Turkey, and Malaysia for the year 2000. Road appears to be the most efficient subsector. The overall energy efficiency is determined to be in the range of 22.02% in 1998, to 21.49% in 2009, while the overall exergy efficiency is determine to be in the range of 21.47% in 1998, to 21.19% in 2009. The energy consumption in each subsector is predicted from 2010 to 2035. It was discovered that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies possesses an upward trend during this time period. Finally, some recommendations vis-à-vis the improvement of the energy and exergy efficiencies in Iranian transportation sector in the future was provided and duly discussed

  11. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  12. Future of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of Finnish road freight transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, H.

    2013-05-15

    The targets to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate climate change are as much applicable to the road freight transport sector as they are to all other sectors of society. The aim of this research is to support the initiatives of the Finnish government for improving the energy efficiency and reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions of road freight transport. This is done by forecasting the future development and giving the policy makers guidance on effective measures for promoting road freight energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} reduction. In the study a new method was introduced for connecting the fuel consumption data and goods transport data gathered from the official Finnish road statistics. This method enabled a detailed analysis of the interrelations between the economy, road freight transport, energy consumption and emissions. This analysis was conducted for the years 1995-2010 and the results were used as background information in the Delphi panel of experts. The experts estimated the development of the Finnish road freight sector to the year 2030. Furthermore, a web-based survey was conducted among Finnish road freight hauliers and shippers in order to explore the attitudes and measures related to the energy efficiency. Expert panel workshops were also organised to identify obstacles for the development of the energy efficiency of road freight transport as well as a wide selection of measures to overcome them. The results indicate that the economic development of different branches has a great effect on the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions of road freight transport. Reaching the carbon emission target for the year 2030 is possible in the light of the scenarios which were formed based on expert forecasts. However, the target can be achieved with very different development paths, e.g. the structure of the national economy and the volume of transport seem to vary widely in the different scenarios. In the proposed recommendations on the measures

  13. Driving it home: choosing the right path for fueling North America's transportation future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann Bordetsky; Susan Casey-Lefkowitz; Deron Lovaas; Elizabeth Martin-Perera; Melanie Nakagawa; Bob Randall; Dan Woynillowicz

    2007-06-15

    North America faces an energy crossroads. With the world fast approaching the end of cheap, plentiful conventional oil, we must choose between developing ever-dirtier sources of fossil fuels -- at great cost to our health and environment -- or setting a course for a more sustainable energy future of clean, renewable fuels. This report explores the full scale of the damage done by attempts to extract oil from liquid coal, oil shale, and tar sands; examines the risks for investors of gambling on these dirty fuel sources; and lays out solutions for guiding us toward a cleaner fuel future. Table of contents: Executive Summary; Chapter 1: Transportation Fuel at a Crossroads; Chapter 2: Canadian Tar Sands: Scraping the Bottom of the Barrel in Endangered Forests; Chapter 3: Oil Shale Extraction: Drilling Through the American West; Chapter 4: Liquid Coal: A 'Clean Fuel' Mirage; Chapter 5: The Investment Landscape: Dirty Fuels Are Risky Business; Chapter 6: The Clean Path for Transportation and Conclusion.

  14. Present and future problems of radiation shielding for maritime transport of nuclear spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, K.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, A.

    2000-01-01

    The transport of spent fuels with casks began in September 1999 by the exclusive spent fuel transport vessel the 'Rokuei Maru'. The casks have been transported to the reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-village in Aomori Prefecture. The 'Rokuei Maru' is approximately 100 m-length, 16.5 m-width and 3,000 gross-tons. The 20 NFT casks can be loaded into 5 holds. At the present time, the NFT casks can carry spent fuels of up to 44,000 MWD/MTU. Serpentine concrete is employed as a neutron shields in the hatch covers, the bulkheads, and the house front of the accommodations except the wheelhouse. Polyethylene covers the side walls in each hold. The neutron shielding ability of serpentine concrete and polyethylene was investigated by a shielding experiment using a 252 Cf-neutron source. The shielding experiment was analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. In the near future, on-board experiment will be carried out to measure the dose-equivalent rate distributions in the 'Rokuei Maru' and the measured data and the Monte Carlo analysis of it will establish the radiation safety of the ship. (author)

  15. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Benefits of flexibility from smart electrified transportation and heating in the future UK electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Fei; Aunedi, Marko; Strbac, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The economic and environmental benefits of smart EVs/HPs are quantified. • This paper implements an advanced stochastic analytical framework. • Operating patterns and potential flexibility of EVs/HPs are sourced from UK trials. • A comprehensive set of case studies across UK future scenarios are carried out. - Abstract: This paper presents an advanced stochastic analytical framework to quantify the benefits of smart electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) on the carbon emission and the integration cost of renewable energy sources (RES) in the future UK electricity system. The typical operating patterns of EVs/HPs as well as the potential flexibility to perform demand shifting and frequency response are sourced from recent UK trials. A comprehensive range of case studies across several future UK scenarios suggest that smart EVs/HPs could deliver measurable carbon reductions by enabling a more efficient operation of the electricity system, while at the same time making the integration of electrified transport and heating demand significantly less carbon intensive. The second set of case studies establish that smart EVs/HPs have significant potential to support cost-efficient RES integration by reducing: (a) RES balancing cost, (b) cost of required back-up generation capacity, and (c) cost of additional low-carbon capacity required to offset lower fuel efficiency and curtailed RES output while achieving the same emission target. Frequency response provision from EVs/HPs could significantly enhance both the carbon benefit and the RES integration benefit of smart EVs/HPs.

  19. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguo Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster prevention and early warning. As a result, it has become a vital task to evaluate the overall stability of slopes across the vast area of Three Gorges using wide-coverage InSAR datasets. In this study, we explored the approach of carrying out joint analysis of multi-path InSAR data stacks for wide-area landslide deformation mapping. As an example, three ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data stacks of neighboring ascending paths covering the area along the Yangtze River from Fengjie to Zigui were analyzed. A key problem to be solved is the separation of the tropospheric signal from the interferometric phase, for which we employed a hybrid description model of the atmospheric phase screen (APS to improve APS estimation from time series interferograms. The estimated atmospheric phase was largely correlated with the seasonal rainfall in the temporal dimension. The experimental results show that about 30 slopes covering total areas of 48 km2 were identified to be landslides in active deformation and should be kept under routine surveillance. Analyses of time series displacement measurements revealed that most landslides in the mountainous area far away from Yangtze River suffered from linear deformation, whereas landslides located on the river bank were destabilized predominantly by the influences of reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.

  20. Electrical transport and electromigration studies on nickel encapsulated carbon nanotubes: possible future interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshrestha, Neha; Misra, D S; Misra, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    We nominate the nickel filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as potential candidates to cope with challenges in persistent scaling for future interconnect technology. The insights into electrical transport through nickel filled carbon nanotubes provide an effective solution for major performance and reliability issues such as the increasing resistivity of metals at reduced scales, electromigration at high current densities and the problem of diffusion and corrosion faced by the existing copper interconnect technology. Furthermore, the nickel filled MWNTs outperform their hollow counterparts, the unfilled MWNTs, carrying at least one order higher current density, with increased time to failure. The results suggest that metal filled carbon nanotubes can provide a twofold benefit: (1) the metal filling provides an increased density of states for the system leading to a higher current density compared to hollow MWNTs, (2) metal out-diffusion and corrosion is prevented by the surrounding graphitic walls. (paper)

  1. Software to support planning for future waste treatment, storage, transport, and disposal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Shay, M.R.; Stiles, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    Planning for adequate and appropriate treatment, storage, transport and disposal of wastes to be generated or received in the future is a complex but critical task that can be significantly enhanced by the development and use of appropriate software. This paper describes a software system that has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to aid in such planning. The basic needs for such a system are outlined, and the approach adopted in developing the software is described. The individual components of the system, and their integration into a unified system, are discussed. Typical analytical applications of this type of software are summarized. Conclusions concerning the development of such software systems and the necessary supporting data are then presented. 2 figs

  2. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences. What are the implications for future transport? (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    , and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when growing old. In order to understand how the aging boomers may impact the future travel demand, their travel behaviour and expectations were analysed based on 1772 standardized telephone interviews. Baby boomers reported in general being......The demographic grand challenge of population ageing will be reflected on most of the areas of society, and to a great extent also on the area of transportation. The large post-II world war cohorts, the so called baby boomers, will comprise a large share of tomorrows older population...... to those observed in the older cohorts. In addition, using cluster analysis, three segments of baby boomers could be differentiated. The segments showed significant differences in current travel behaviour and living circumstances and some similarities to former segmentations of older road users. Results...

  3. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences: What are the implications for future transport (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja

    , the so-called “baby boomers”, will comprise a large share of tomorrow’s older population, and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when they grow old. In order to better understand how the ageing baby boomers may affect future travel demand, the travel behaviour...... and expectations of Danish baby boomers were analysed based on 1772 standardised telephone interviews. In general, the baby boomers reported being healthy, independent and highly (auto)mobile. They were also optimistic regarding their level of mobility, capability to use a variety of travel modes and ability...... consumers of the transport system also as they age, but that the group is also heterogeneous. Thus, overly optimistic scenarios about independent baby boomers who differ from the previous generations and whose need for external support in old age will be minimal may be unrealistic....

  4. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences: What are the implications for future transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    , the so-called “baby boomers”, will comprise a large share of tomorrow’s older population, and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when they grow old. In order to better understand how the ageing baby boomers may affect future travel demand, the travel behaviour...... and expectations of Danish baby boomers were analysed based on 1772 standardised telephone interviews. In general, the baby boomers reported being healthy, independent and highly (auto)mobile. They were also optimistic regarding their level of mobility, capability to use a variety of travel modes and ability...... consumers of the transport system also as they age, but that the group is also heterogeneous. Thus, overly optimistic scenarios about independent baby boomers who differ from the previous generations and whose need for external support in old age will be minimal may be unrealistic....

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Autonomous vehicles:challenges, opportunities, and future implications for transportation policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee; Madjid Tavana; Mohsen Asadi; Tracey Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges and opportunities pertaining to transportation policies that may arise as a result of emerging autonomous vehicle (AV) technologies. AV technologies can decrease the trans-portation cost and increase accessibility to low-income households and persons with mobility issues. This emerg-ing technology also has far-reaching applications and implications beyond all current expectations. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and explores a broad spectrum of issues from safety to machine ethics. An indispensable part of a prospective AV development is communication over cars and infrastructure (connected vehicles). A major knowledge gap exists in AV technology with respect to routing behaviors. Connected-vehicle technology provides a great opportunity to imple-ment an efficient and intelligent routing system. To this end, we propose a conceptual navigation model based on a fleet of AVs that are centrally dispatched over a network seeking system optimization. This study contributes to the literature on two fronts: (i) it attempts to shed light on future opportunities as well as possible hurdles associated with AV technology;and (ii) it conceptualizes a navigation model for the AV which leads to highly efficient traffic circulations.

  8. Sodium glucose CoTransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, Tushar; Akhtar, Mohd; Najmi, Abul Kalam

    2016-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide and its prevalence is estimated to rise in the future. Billions of dollars are spent each year around the world in health expenditure related to diabetes. There are several anti-diabetic drugs in the market for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this article, we will be talking about a relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs called sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. This class of drugs has a unique mechanism of action focusing on inhibition of glucose reabsorption that separates it from other classes. This article covers the mechanism of glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, several SGLT2 inhibitors currently available in the market as well as those in various phases of development, their individual pharmacokinetics as well as the discussion about the future role of SGLT2 inhibitors, not only for the treatment of diabetes, but also for various other diseases like obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A transport layer protocol for the future high speed grid computing: SCTP versus fast tcp multihoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Mian, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is designed for reliable data transfer on the global Internet today. One of its strong points is its use of flow control algorithm that allows TCP to adjust its congestion window if network congestion is occurred. A number of studies and investigations have confirmed that traditional TCP is not suitable for each and every type of application, for example, bulk data transfer over high speed long distance networks. TCP sustained the time of low-capacity and short-delay networks, however, for numerous factors it cannot be capable to efficiently deal with today's growing technologies (such as wide area Grid computing and optical-fiber networks). This research work surveys the congestion control mechanism of transport protocols, and addresses the different issues involved for transferring the huge data over the future high speed Grid computing and optical-fiber networks. This work also presents the simulations to compare the performance of FAST TCP multihoming with SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) multihoming in high speed networks. These simulation results show that FAST TCP multihoming achieves bandwidth aggregation efficiently and outperforms SCTP multihoming under a similar network conditions. The survey and simulation results presented in this work reveal that multihoming support into FAST TCP does provide a lot of benefits like redundancy, load-sharing and policy-based routing, which largely improves the whole performance of a network and can meet the increasing demand of the future high-speed network infrastructures (such as in Grid computing). (author)

  10. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy efficient roadmap to successfully propel the entire future transportation sector.

  11. Transportation infrastructure resiliency : a review of transportation infrastructure resiliency in light of future impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    The threat of global climate change and its impact on our worlds infrastructure is a rapidly growing reality. Particularly, as seen in recent storm events such as Hurricane Katrina and Sandy in the United States, transportation infrastructure is o...

  12. A challenge in future transportation research and planning: paper presented at the Conference "Energy Technologies for a Sustainable Future", Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, 24.11.2000

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter

    2000-01-01

    To understand the future challenge for transportation research and planning, we must make a clear distinction between “mobility” and “transportation”. Mobility is understood to be the ca- pability or possibility of changing position within a specific system (space, society, economy, etc.). On the other hand “transportation” is “spatial mobility”, that is the capability or possibility of changing position within a spatial system (change of location, overcoming of space by peo- ple, goods, ener...

  13. Economic challenges for the future relevance of biofuels in transport in EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, A.; Haas, R.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion on the promotion of biofuels is ambiguous: on the one hand benefits like reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and increase of energy supply security are expected, on the other hand low effectiveness with respect to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and high costs are being criticized. The core objective of this paper is to investigate the market prospects of biofuels for transport in the EU in a dynamic framework till 2030. The major results of this analysis are: (i) Under current policy conditions - mainly exemption of excise taxes - the economic prospects of 1st generation biofuels in Europe are rather promising; the major problems of 1st generation biofuels are lack of available land for feedstocks and the modest ecological performance; (ii) Large expectations are currently put into advanced 2nd generation biofuels production from lignocellulosic materials. With respect to the future costs development of 2nd generation biofuels, currently it can only be stated that in a favourable case by 2030 they will be close to the costs of 1st generation biofuels. However, because of the increasing prices for fossil gasoline and diesel in all international scenarios - given remaining tax exemptions - biofuels will become competitive already in the next few years. (author)

  14. Future energy and emissions policy scenarios in Ireland for private car transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a technological model of Ireland's future car stock to simulate the impact of a range of policy measures on the baseline trend in energy demand in the period to 2030. The policies and measures modelled comprise meeting deployment targets for electric vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles, an EU regulation for the improvement of vehicle efficiency, implementation of a national biofuel obligation, as well as several behavioural measures (encouraging modal shifting and reduced travel demand). The impact of the different measures simulated is measured in terms of their contribution to meeting Ireland's ambitious targets for energy savings, for renewable energy penetration and for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The results point to a possible improvement of 32% in car stock efficiency, the achievement of 7.8% renewable energy share of road and rail transport and a 22% reduction in non-ETS private car CO 2 emissions relative to 2009 levels. A scenario analysis on meeting the EV penetration target shows a significant range of CO 2 emissions reductions depending on the cars (and mileage) displaced and on the electricity generation portfolio. - Highlights: ► Private car policy scenarios for Ireland modelled. ► Impact of vehicle efficiency, fuel switching and behavioural measures evaluated. ► Highlights distance to EU non-ETS emissions and renewable energy targets. ► Analysis of EV target shows that GHG mitigation potential is very sensitive.

  15. Identification of high-level functional/system requirements for future civil transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to accommodate the rapid growth in commercial aviation throughout the remainder of this century, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is faced with a formidable challenge to upgrade and/or modernize the National Airspace System (NAS) without compromising safety or efficiency. A recurring theme in both the Aviation System Capital Investment Plan (CIP), which has replaced the NAS Plan, and the new FAA Plan for Research, Engineering, and Development (RE&D) rely on the application of new technologies and a greater use of automation. Identifying the high-level functional and system impacts of such modernization efforts on future civil transport operational requirements, particularly in terms of cockpit functionality and information transfer, was the primary objective of this project. The FAA planning documents for the NAS of the 2005 era and beyond were surveyed; major aircraft functional capabilities and system components required for such an operating environment were identified. A hierarchical structured analysis of the information processing and flows emanating from such functional/system components were conducted and the results documented in graphical form depicting the relationships between functions and systems.

  16. Freight transport in 2010 : An exploration of future prices and quality of freight transport in three scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Kuipers, Bart; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Melody, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Background Central to this report is the question what effects government policy can have on rates, transit times, and the reliability of freight transport. In this context, two policy scenarios were examined: one scenario where all social costs that are currently ‘external’, are passed on to

  17. The impacts of changing transport and precipitation on pollutant distributions in a future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Held, Isaac; Chen, Gang; Vecchi, Gabriel; Levy, Hiram

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution (ozone and particulate matter in surface air) is strongly linked to synoptic weather and thus is likely sensitive to climate change. In order to isolate the responses of air pollutant transport and wet removal to a warming climate, we examine a simple carbon monoxide-like (CO) tracer (COt) and a soluble version (SAt), both with the 2001 CO emissions, in simulations with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (AM3) for present (1981-2000) and future (2081-2100) climates. In 2081-2100, projected reductions in lower-tropospheric ventilation and wet deposition exacerbate surface air pollution as evidenced by higher surface COt and SAt concentrations. However, the average horizontal general circulation patterns in 2081-2100 are similar to 1981-2000, so the spatial distribution of COt changes little. Precipitation is an important factor controlling soluble pollutant wet removal, but the total global precipitation change alone does not necessarily indicate the sign of the soluble pollutant response to climate change. Over certain latitudinal bands, however, the annual wet deposition change can be explained mainly by the simulated changes in large-scale (LS) precipitation. In regions such as North America, differences in the seasonality of LS precipitation and tracer burdens contribute to an apparent inconsistency of changes in annual wet deposition versus annual precipitation. As a step toward an ultimate goal of developing a simple index that can be applied to infer changes in soluble pollutants directly from changes in precipitation fields as projected by physical climate models, we explore here a "Diagnosed Precipitation Impact" (DPI) index. This index captures the sign and magnitude (within 50%) of the relative annual mean changes in the global wet deposition of the soluble pollutant. DPI can only be usefully applied in climate models in which LS precipitation dominates wet deposition and horizontal transport patterns change

  18. Fuel cells for future transportation: The Department of Energy OTT/OUT partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.G.; Milliken, J.; Gronich, S.; Rossmeissl, N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies; Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems

    1997-12-31

    The DOE Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is currently engaged in the development and integration R and D activities which will make it possible to reduce oil imports, and move toward a sustainable transportation future. Within OTT, the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies is supporting development of highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems as an alternative to internal combustion engines. The objectives of the program are: By 2000, develop and validate fuel cell stack system technologies that are greater than 51% energy efficient at 40 kW (maximum net power); more than 100 times cleaner than EPA Tier II emissions; and capable of operating on gasoline, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and hydrogen gas or liquid. By 2004, develop and validate fuel cell power system technologies that meet vehicle requirements in terms of: cost--competitive with internal combustion engines; and performance, range, safety and reliability. The research, development, and validation of fuel cell technology is integrally linked to the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) and other major US policy objectives, such as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Established in 1993, PNGV is a research and development initiative involving seven Federal agencies and the three US automobile manufacturers to strengthen US competitiveness. The PNGV will develop technologies for vehicles with a fuel efficiency of 80 miles per gallon, while maintaining such attributes as size, performance, safety, and cost. To help address the critical issue of fuel and fuel infrastructure development for advanced vehicles, the DOE Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) has directed the Hydrogen Program to provide national leadership in the research, development, and validation of advanced technologies to produce, store, and use hydrogen. An objective of the Program is to work in partnership with industry to advance hydrogen systems to the point where they are cost effective and

  19. Transport and distribution of foods: today's situation and future trends; Transport et distribution de produits alimentaires: situation actuelle et tendances futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panozzo, G; Minotto, G; Barizza, A [ITEF-CNR, Padova (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    International regulations formerly focused on consumer safety. Now, attention is shifted towards the preservation of the global quality of goods. New control methods (HACCP) can increase the quality of the whole chain. A correct approach to weight losses is a primary goal in the cold chain. Direct fuel consumption (with respect to each mass unit transported) is reduced when the transported weight per vehicle is increased; indirect consumption is optimised when the efficiency of the refrigerating unit is increased and when the overall heat transfer coefficient of the insulated body is minimised. Ageing of the vehicles must be minimised. A voluntary energy labelling program of vehicles provides an excellent opportunity to reduce energy consumption. New insulating products can theoretically worsen the energy budget. Every effort should be made to improve the basic thermal characteristics of new insulating materials and new vehicle design should be studied. Energy and environmental benefits can be obtained by the optimisation of the logistic chain. Multi-temperature vehicles and mini-containers can solve certain specific problems. (author)

  20. Transport and distribution of foods: today's situation and future trends; Transport et distribution de produits alimentaires: situation actuelle et tendances futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panozzo, G.; Minotto, G.; Barizza, A. [ITEF-CNR, Padova (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    International regulations formerly focused on consumer safety. Now, attention is shifted towards the preservation of the global quality of goods. New control methods (HACCP) can increase the quality of the whole chain. A correct approach to weight losses is a primary goal in the cold chain. Direct fuel consumption (with respect to each mass unit transported) is reduced when the transported weight per vehicle is increased; indirect consumption is optimised when the efficiency of the refrigerating unit is increased and when the overall heat transfer coefficient of the insulated body is minimised. Ageing of the vehicles must be minimised. A voluntary energy labelling program of vehicles provides an excellent opportunity to reduce energy consumption. New insulating products can theoretically worsen the energy budget. Every effort should be made to improve the basic thermal characteristics of new insulating materials and new vehicle design should be studied. Energy and environmental benefits can be obtained by the optimisation of the logistic chain. Multi-temperature vehicles and mini-containers can solve certain specific problems. (author)

  1. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  2. Subscale Winged Rocket Development and Application to Future Reusable Space Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi YONEMOTO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kyushu Institute of Technology has been studying unmanned suborbital winged rocket called WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket and its research subjects concerning aerodynamics, NGC (Navigation, Guidance and Control, cryogenic composite tanks etc., and conducting flight demonstration of small winged rocket since 2005. WIRES employs the original aerodynamic shape of HIMES (HIghly Maneuverable Experimental Sounding rocket studied by ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 1980s. This paper presents the preliminary design of subscale non-winged and winged rockets called WIRES#013 and WIRES#015, respectively, that are developed in collaboration with JAXA, USC (University of Southern California, UTEP (University of Texas at El Paso and Japanese industries. WIRES#013 is a conventional pre-test rocket propelled by two IPA-LOX (Isopropyl Alcohol and Liquid Oxygen engines under development by USC. It has the total length of 4.6m, and the weight of 1000kg to reach the altitude of about 6km. The flight objective is validation of the telemetry and ground communication system, recovery parachute system, and launch operation of liquid engine. WIRES#015, which has the same length of WIRES#013 and the weight of 1000kg, is a NGC technology demonstrator propelled by a fully expander-cycle LOX-Methane engine designed and developed by JAXA to reach the altitude more than 6km. The flight tests of both WIRES#013 and WIRES#015 will be conducted at the launch facility of FAR (Friends of Amateur Rocketry, Inc., which is located at Mojave Desert of California in United States of America, in May 2018 and March 2019 respectively. After completion of WIRES#015 flight tests, the suborbital demonstrator called WIRES-X will be developed and its first flight test well be performed in 2020. Its application to future fully reusable space transportation systems, such as suborbital space tour vehicles and two

  3. Current status and future considerations for a transportation system for spent fuel and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Darr, D.G.; Godfrey, W.L.; Keely, R.B.; Lusk, E.C.; Peterson, R.W.; Ridihalgh, J.L.; Shallo, F.A.; Young, M.

    1978-02-01

    This report is part of the OWI Transportation/Logistics systems analysis of problems associated with shipping these wastes to waste terminal storage facilities. It covers governmental regulations and functional responsibilities, highway and rail transportation status and economic considerations, assessment of present industry capabilities and business-related considerations, important receiving facility considerations, necessary engineering and licensing-related aspects of packaging systems, and essential elements of reprocessing plant waste activities including packaging and transportation

  4. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  5. The role of the railways in the future of air transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Banister, D.

    2007-01-01

    The role of the railways in the air transport industry is usually limited to provision of access to airports. However, the development of high-speed rail networks and the congestion and environmental problems faced by the air transport industry suggest the railways could have a greater role in

  6. Transport and public health in China: the road to a healthy future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoguo; Liang, Song; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Cong, Haozhe; Levy, Morgan; Cheng, Qu; Wang, Tianbing; Remais, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Transportation-related risk factors are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China, where expansion of road networks and surges in personal vehicle ownership are having profound effects on public health. Road traffic injuries and fatalities have increased alongside motorized transport in China, and accident injury risk is aggravated by inadequate emergency response systems and trauma care. National air quality standards and emission control technologies are having a positive effect, yet persistent air pollution is increasingly attributable to a growing and outdated vehicle fleet, and famously congested roads. Urban design favors motorized transport, and physical activity and its associated health benefits are hindered by poor urban infrastructure. Transport emissions of greenhouse gases contribute substantially to regional and global climate change, which compound public health risks from multiple factors. Despite these complex challenges, technological advances and innovations in planning and policy stand to make China a leader in sustainable, healthy transportation. PMID:29047445

  7. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosson, Emma; Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  8. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stocholm (Sweden)); Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  9. Transport sensitivity studies for SITE-94: Time-dependent site-scale modelling of future glacial impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Clayton, L.; Smith, Paul

    1996-10-01

    The report details the methodology and preliminary results from the modelling of radionuclide transport from a hypothetical repository based at the Aespoe site in Sweden. The work complements and utilizes the results from regional-scale, variable density flow modelling by Provost, in which the groundwater flow field is time dependent, reflecting the impact of climate evolution over the next 130,000 years. The climate evolution include development of permafrost conditions and ice sheet advance and retreat. The results indicate that temporal changes in flow conditions owing to future climate changes have a significant effect on the transport of radionuclides from a repository. In all cases modelled with time-dependent boundary conditions, the greatest radionuclide fluxes occur towards the end of the main glacial periods, and correspond to periods of high groundwater discharge at the margin of the modelled ice sheets. Fluxes to the biosphere may, for limited periods (2000 years or less), be three times higher than those from the near field. The study provides a quantitative way of illustrating the possible effects of future glaciations on radionuclide transport from the repository. Such effects are likely to be significant in any potential siting area predicted to be affected by future periods of ice cover. 8 refs, 22 tabs, 119 figs

  10. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  11. The UK transport carbon model: An integrated life cycle approach to explore low carbon futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Christian; Tran, Martino; Anable, Jillian

    2012-01-01

    Current debate focuses on the need for the transport sector to contribute to more ambitious carbon emission reduction targets. In the UK, various macro-economic and energy system wide, top-down models are used to explore the potential for energy demand and carbon emissions reduction in the transport sector. These models can lack the bottom-up, sectoral detail needed to simulate the effects of integrated demand and supply-side policy strategies to reduce emissions. Bridging the gap between short-term forecasting and long-term scenario “models”, this paper introduces a newly developed strategic transport, energy, emissions and environmental impacts model, the UK Transport Carbon Model (UKTCM). The UKTCM covers the range of transport–energy–environment issues from socio-economic and policy influences on energy demand reduction through to life cycle carbon emissions and external costs. The model is demonstrated in this paper by presenting the results of three single policies and one policy package scenario. Limitations of the model are also discussed. Developed under the auspices of the UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) the UKTCM can be used to develop transport policy scenarios that explore the full range of technological, fiscal, regulatory and behavioural change policy interventions to meet UK climate change and energy security goals. - Research highlights: ►New strategic transport, energy, emissions and environmental impacts model. ►Tool to develop and analyse full consequences of multiple scenarios of transport policy packages. ►Novel approach to modelling demand for new vehicles by market and technology. ►Model available for use by research community via http://www.ukerc.ac.uk/support/tiki-index.php?page=UK+Transport+Carbon+Model.

  12. PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE: A LAND-USE AND TRANSPORT INTERACTION MODEL FOR SWITZERLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Balz R. Bodenmann; Breogan Sanchez; Alexandra Zeiler; Milan Kuliowsky; Peter Furtak; Georgios Sarlas

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and transport planners, authorities, real estate developers, investors, re-locating residents and businesses have different questions related to space and transport. These questions may concern specific land parcels, or cover a much larger area such as a city, a region, or even a whole nation. Amongst others, these questions include: - How will our society respond to influences of global economy and political decisions (e.g. regarding demographics and firmographics)? - Which strategie...

  13. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  14. The IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material; new strategies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.; Brittinger, M.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historic review of 30 years experience with the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material as the basis for regulatory control of those materials worldwide. It is demonstrated that the underlying principles and fundamental philosophy have proven their validity and have been the main reason for the excellent safety record of transport operations. The IAEA Regulations are currently halfway a comprehensive revision process aiming at the publication of a new edition by 1996. Although the main principles are likely to be maintained in the next edition of the Regulations, some developments in this area will undoubtedly have an effect on their structure. The main new developments are: the air transport of large quantities of radioactive material, requiring that a risk basis be established which is comparable with other modes of transport, transport of uranium hexafluoride requiring provisions which include the associated chemical hazards, the transport of large volumes of radioactive waste originating from decommissioning of nuclear power stations, and the influence of the new risk estimates for exposure to ionizing radiation and consequently the lower dose limits as recommended by ICRP. This paper will make an attempt to identify the problems associated with those developments, to outline its programme of activities intended to address the problems and to suggest possible solutions as recommended by the IAEA senior advisory group in this subject area. (J.P.N.)

  15. Specific transport and storage solutions: Waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Helene; Gagner, Laurent; Gendreau, Francoise; Presta, Anne

    2006-01-01

    development process; - Current solutions proposed by COGEMA LOGISTICS; - Transport of Low Level and Very Low Level waste (LLW and VLLW); - Shipment of large volumes; - Non-reusable transport packaging; - Packaging transport permit the storage in final disposal area; - A steep increase of transport flows in the next 10 years; - Future challenges, waste from dismantling operations; - Transport packaging of IP 2 type and IP 2 package; - Some examples of standardized packages; - DV78 Package; - CC102 over pack; - A solution for liquid waste from NPPs, TNTMCIEL; - Transport of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and High Level Waste (HLW); - Alpha waste (or TRU waste); - TNTMGEMINI; - RD 26 package; - Bituminized waste (ILW): the TNTM833; - Technological waste in CBFC'2 (ILW): the TNTM837; - Universal Canisters for Vitrified waste (HLW) and Compacted waste (ILW); - Vitrified waste (HLW); - Transport solutions for CSD-V canisters: the TNTM28 VT; - Dual purpose solutions for CSD-V canisters, the TS 28; - CSD-V programme of return; - Compacted waste (ILW): the TNTM843; - Some future stakes and new developments. The following conclusions completes the paper. COGEMA LOGISTICS experience in designing packages and transporting nuclear materials is part of the COGEMA / AREVA waste management policy, which aims to waste volume reduction through waste sorting and packaging in universal canisters or standard waste containers. For the design and manufacture of special shipping casks, as for nuclear transportation and storage, COGEMA LOGISTICS tailors its solutions to its international customers' requirements. Personnel safety, transportation safety and environmental protection are put first. These reasons have lead COGEMA LOGISTICS to become the world's leading designer of nuclear fuel packages, with unique expertise in designing packages for back-end transportation and storage of nuclear materials. Beyond being a transport company and packaging designer, COGEMA LOGISTICS is a partner implementing

  16. Distributed Cognition on the road: Using EAST to explore future road transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A; Burnett, Gary; Hermawati, Setia

    2018-04-01

    Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV) are set to revolutionise the way in which we use our transportation system. However, we do not fully understand how the integration of wireless and autonomous technology into the road transportation network affects overall network dynamism. This paper uses the theoretical principles underlying Distributed Cognition to explore the dependencies and interdependencies that exist between system agents located within the road environment, traffic management centres and other external agencies in both non-connected and connected transportation systems. This represents a significant step forward in modelling complex sociotechnical systems as it shows that the principles underlying Distributed Cognition can be applied to macro-level systems using the visual representations afforded by the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems for transportation engineering: Current practice and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil N. Barmpounakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring and processing video streams from static cameras has been proposed as one of the most efficient tools for visualizing and gathering traffic information. With the latest advances in technology and visual media, combined with the increased needs in dealing with congestion more effectively and directly, the use of Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems (UAS has emerged in the field of traffic engineering. In this paper, we review studies and applications that incorporate UAS in transportation research and practice with the aim to set the grounds from the proper understanding and implementation of UAS related surveillance systems in transportation and traffic engineering. The studies reviewed are categorized in different transportation engineering areas. Additional significant applications from other research fields are also referenced to identify other promising applications. Finally, issues and emerging challenges in both a conceptual and methodological level are revealed and discussed.

  18. Synthetic fuels for transportation : background paper #1 : the future potential of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    This report presents a comprehensive review of the future of electric and hybrid : vehicles through the year 2010 in the United States. It was prepared for the : Office of Technology Assessment as background information for its study, : "Synthetic Fu...

  19. Road transportation impact on Ghana's future energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faah, George

    2008-11-07

    This research work explored the environmental and socio-economic benefits derived, if some proportion of daily passenger trips made using private cars in Ghana could be shifted to the use of public transport. The research applied the computer software COPERT III in estimating road transport Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption in Ghana for the base year 2005 and forecast years 2010 and 2020. The research reveals that if no major change occur in policies or economic determinants in meeting road transport and energy in Ghana, then the 2005 total emissions value is expected to rise by 36% in 2010 and over double in 2020 i.e. from 4.6 to 6.25 in 2010 and to 9.77 Mt CO{sub 2}e in 2020. However, if just 10% of daily passenger trips using private cars can be shifted towards the use of public transport, then the end results in reduction in emissions could earn Ghana about USD 6.6million/year under the Kyoto Protocol CDM initiative. The research also demonstrated that with a further 10% daily passenger trip shift, the outcome could be more promising, increasing to USD 13million/year. (orig.)

  20. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    Energy demand of a transport sector has constantly been increasing in the recent years, consuming one third of the total final energy demand in the European Union (EU) over the last decade. A transition of this sector towards sustainable one is facing many challenges in terms of suitable technolo...

  1. Border-wide assessment of intelligent transportation system (ITS) technology : current and future concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this effort was to conduct a border-wide assessment of the use of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies and operational concepts at and near land border crossings between the U.S. and Mexico. The work focused on tolling...

  2. Decomposing passenger transport futures : Comparing results of global integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; McCollum, D. L.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Daly, H.; Fujimori, S.; Kitous, A.; Kyle, P.; Ó Broin, E.; Karkatsoulis, P.; Sano, F.

    The transport sector is growing fast in terms of energy use and accompanying greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used widely to analyze energy system transitions over a decadal time frame to help inform and evaluating international climate policy. As part of this, IAMs

  3. The Potential of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI in Future Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Attard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As transport systems are pushed to the limits in many cities, governments have tried to resolve problems of traffic and congestion by increasing capacity. Miller (2013 contends the need to identify new capabilities (instead of capacity of the transport infrastructure in order to increase efficiency without extending the physical infrastructure. Kenyon and Lyons (2003 identified integrated traveller information as a facilitator for better transport decisions. Today, with further developments in the use of geographic information systems (GIS and a greater disposition by the public to provide volunteered geographic information (VGI, the potential of information is not only integrated across modes but also user-generated, real-time and available on smartphones anywhere. This geographic information plays today an important role in sectors such as politics, businesses and entertainment, and presumably this would extend to transport in revealing people’s preferences for mobility and therefore be useful for decision-making. The widespread availability of networks and smartphones offer new opportunities supported by apps and crowdsourcing through social media such as the successful traffic and navigation app Waze, car sharing programmes such as Zipcar, and ride sharing systems such as Uber. This study aims to develop insights into the potential of governments to use voluntary (crowdsourced geographic information effectively to achieve sustainable mobility. A review of the literature and existing technology informs this article. Further research into this area is identified and presented at the end of the paper.

  4. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-31

    The main contribution of this report is to characterize the underlying residential and transport sector end use energy consumption in India. Each sector was analyzed in detail. End-use sector-level information regarding adoption of particular technologies was used as a key input in a bottom-up modeling approach. The report looks at energy used over the period 1990 to 2005 and develops a baseline scenario to 2020. Moreover, the intent of this report is also to highlight available sources of data in India for the residential and transport sectors. The analysis as performed in this way reveals several interesting features of energy use in India. In the residential sector, an analysis of patterns of energy use and particular end uses shows that biomass (wood), which has traditionally been the main source of primary energy used in households, will stabilize in absolute terms. Meanwhile, due to the forces of urbanization and increased use of commercial fuels, the relative significance of biomass will be greatly diminished by 2020. At the same time, per household residential electricity consumption will likely quadruple in the 20 years between 2000 and 2020. In fact, primary electricity use will increase more rapidly than any other major fuel -- even more than oil, in spite of the fact that transport is the most rapidly growing sector. The growth in electricity demand implies that chronic outages are to be expected unless drastic improvements are made both to the efficiency of the power infrastructure and to electric end uses and industrial processes. In the transport sector, the rapid growth in personal vehicle sales indicates strong energy growth in that area. Energy use by cars is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 11percent, increasing demand for oil considerably. In addition, oil consumption used for freight transport will also continue to increase .

  5. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  6. Which energy source for road transport in the future? A comparison of battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.; Lataire, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen era is foreseen following the European research programme in a time horizon of 2020-2040. But there will be clearly a choice to be made between an electron economy (direct use of the produced electricity) and the so called 'hydrogen economy' which leads to the introduction of an intermediate hydrogen production, transport and distribution process before the final use in an electrical process. This paper considers only passenger car and delivery vans applications. In this field a big time gap is to be filled between the situation today, the occurrence of oil shortage in a quite short future and this time horizon 2020-2040. Today's intermediate solutions are clearly based on hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The performances of these solutions are putting a lot of questions on the necessity of a hydrogen economy for future transportation. The paper discusses performances of hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles in comparison of the future hydrogen fuel cell based systems which are now in R and D phase and a very beginning of field demonstration

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  8. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  9. Potential future exposure of European land transport infrastructure to rainfall-induced landslides throughout the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Matthias; Matulla, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    In the face of climate change, the assessment of land transport infrastructure exposure towards adverse climate events is of major importance for Europe's economic prosperity and social wellbeing. In this study, a climate index estimating rainfall patterns which trigger landslides in central Europe is analysed until the end of this century and compared to present-day conditions. The analysis of the potential future development of landslide risk is based on an ensemble of dynamically downscaled climate projections which are driven by the SRES A1B socio-economic scenario. Resulting regional-scale climate change projections across central Europe are concatenated with Europe's road and railway network. Results indicate overall increases of landslide occurrence. While flat terrain at low altitudes exhibits an increase of about 1 more potentially landslide-inducing rainfall period per year until the end of this century, higher elevated regions are more affected and show increases of up to 14 additional periods. This general spatial distribution emerges in the near future (2021-2050) but becomes more pronounced in the remote future (2071-2100). Since largest increases are to be found in Alsace, potential impacts of an increasing amount of landslides are discussed using the example of a case study covering the Black Forest mountain range in Baden-Württemberg by further enriching the climate information with additional geodata. The findings derived are suitable to support political decision makers and European authorities in transport, freight and logistics by offering detailed information on which parts of Europe's ground transport network are at particularly high risk concerning landslide activity.

  10. On the use of controls for subsonic transport performance improvement: Overview and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyard, Glenn; Espana, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Increasing competition among airline manufacturers and operators has highlighted the issue of aircraft efficiency. Fewer aircraft orders have led to an all-out efficiency improvement effort among the manufacturers to maintain if not increase their share of the shrinking number of aircraft sales. Aircraft efficiency is important in airline profitability and is key if fuel prices increase from their current low. In a continuing effort to improve aircraft efficiency and develop an optimal performance technology base, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed and flight tested an adaptive performance seeking control system to optimize the quasi-steady-state performance of the F-15 aircraft. The demonstrated technology is equally applicable to transport aircraft although with less improvement. NASA Dryden, in transitioning this technology to transport aircraft, is specifically exploring the feasibility of applying adaptive optimal control techniques to performance optimization of redundant control effectors. A simulation evaluation of a preliminary control law optimizes wing-aileron camber for minimum net aircraft drag. Two submodes are evaluated: one to minimize fuel and the other to maximize velocity. This paper covers the status of performance optimization of the current fleet of subsonic transports. Available integrated controls technologies are reviewed to define approaches using active controls. A candidate control law for adaptive performance optimization is presented along with examples of algorithm operation.

  11. Compactly packaged monolithic four-wavelength VCSEL array with 100-GHz wavelength spacing for future-proof mobile fronthaul transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Gu; Mun, Sil-Gu; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Jyung Chan; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-12

    We report a cost-effective transmitter optical sub-assembly using a monolithic four-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array with 100-GHz wavelength spacing for future-proof mobile fronthaul transport using the data rate of common public radio interface option 6. The wavelength spacing is achieved using selectively etched cavity control layers and fine current adjustment. The differences in operating current and output power for maintaining the wavelength spacing of four VCSELs are fiber without any dispersion-compensation techniques.

  12. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  13. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-01-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current 'metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  14. The critical temperature gradient model of plasma transport: applications to Jet and future tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.; Lallia, P.P.; Watkins, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The diversity and complexity of behaviour in tokamak plasmas place strong constraints on any model attempting a description in terms of a single underlying phenomenon. Assuming that turbulence in the magnetic topology is the underlying phenomenon, specific expressions for electron and ion heat flux are derived from heuristic and dimensional arguments. When used in plasma transport codes, rather satisfactory simulations of experimental results are achieved in different sized tokamaks in various regimes of operation. Predictions are given for the expected performance of JET at full planned power and implications for next step tokamaks are indicated

  15. Integration of a Folding Electric two-wheeler vehicle for a future commuting transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Bjami Freyr; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    The paper issues the development, building and testing of a Folding Electric Motorbike, a lightweight, low cost and all-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure. The technology offers drivers to combine transportation methods, lowering cost, and greenhouse......-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure is very prospective. The alpha-prototype was successfully constructed and is considered to be ready for further laboratory testing and test driving before continuations on a fully designed beta-prototype....

  16. Radionuclide Transport Modelling: Current Status and Future Needs. Synthesis, Work Group Reports and Extended Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The workshop identified a set of critical issues for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to address in preparing for future reviews of license applications, which have subsequently been considered in preparing this synthesis. Structure for organising expert participation: A structure for organising expert participation in future reviews is proposed based on clearinghouses for (1) regulatory application and context, (2) engineered barrier systems, (3) geosphere, (4) biosphere, and (5) performance assessment integration and calculations. As part of their work, these clearinghouses could identify key issues that need to be resolved prior to future reviews. Performance assessment strategy and review context: Future reviews will be conducted in the context of regulations based on risk criteria; this leads to a need to review the methods used in probabilistic risk assessment, as well as the underlying process models. A plan is needed for accomplishing both aims. Despite the probabilistic framework, a need is anticipated for targeted, deterministic calculations to check particular assumptions. Priorities and ambition level for reviews: SKI's and SSI's resources can be more efficiently utilised by an early review of SKB's safety case, so that if necessary the authorities can make an early start on evaluating topics that are of primary significance to the safety case. As a guide to planning for allocation of effort in future reviews, this workshop produced a preliminary ranking of technical issues, on a scale from 'non-controversial' to 'requiring independent modelling,' Analysis of repository system and scenarios: Systems analysis tools including features/events/processes encyclopaedias, process-influence diagrams, and assessment-model flowcharts should be used as review tools, to check the processes and influences considered in SKB's analyses, and to evaluate the comprehensiveness of the scenarios that are

  17. Radionuclide Transport Modelling: Current Status and Future Needs. Synthesis, Work Group Reports and Extended Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The workshop identified a set of critical issues for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to address in preparing for future reviews of license applications, which have subsequently been considered in preparing this synthesis. Structure for organising expert participation: A structure for organising expert participation in future reviews is proposed based on clearinghouses for (1) regulatory application and context, (2) engineered barrier systems, (3) geosphere, (4) biosphere, and (5) performance assessment integration and calculations. As part of their work, these clearinghouses could identify key issues that need to be resolved prior to future reviews. Performance assessment strategy and review context: Future reviews will be conducted in the context of regulations based on risk criteria; this leads to a need to review the methods used in probabilistic risk assessment, as well as the underlying process models. A plan is needed for accomplishing both aims. Despite the probabilistic framework, a need is anticipated for targeted, deterministic calculations to check particular assumptions. Priorities and ambition level for reviews: SKI's and SSI's resources can be more efficiently utilised by an early review of SKB's safety case, so that if necessary the authorities can make an early start on evaluating topics that are of primary significance to the safety case. As a guide to planning for allocation of effort in future reviews, this workshop produced a preliminary ranking of technical issues, on a scale from 'non-controversial' to 'requiring independent modelling,' Analysis of repository system and scenarios: Systems analysis tools including features/events/processes encyclopaedias, process-influence diagrams, and assessment-model flowcharts should be used as review tools, to check the processes and influences considered in SKB's analyses, and to evaluate the comprehensiveness of the scenarios that are

  18. Support of future lighthouse projects and beyond. Managing the transition to hydrogen for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, M.E.; Jeeninga, H.; Godfroij, P.

    2007-06-01

    Large scale demonstration projects as the 'Lighthouse projects' are an important step towards commercialisation. However, costs for disruptive technologies such as hydrogen, are high in the first phase of market introduction. Therefore, policy support is needed to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen. But, how can the government support and stimulate (early) market introduction and use of hydrogen in the transportation sector? What kind of policy instruments are needed in what phase of the introduction trajectory? And what are the current instruments in the EU and US? Can these affect the introduction of hydrogen in transport? Generally, the hydrogen chain can be stimulated by providing an investment subsidy, production subsidy, tax exemptions and a (production or sales) obligation. Technology specific configurations of these support mechanisms for the diverse technologies in the hydrogen chain have to be taken into account. Besides that the support measures have to act upon each other for every technology development stage. A comparison of the EU and US policies shows differences in the approach of bringing the hydrogen vehicles to the market. The amount of support differs. The US funds RD and D 50% and stimulates the market by obligating sales (ZEV obligation) and procurement, while the EU funds R and D 50%, demonstration 35% and is now looking into large scale demonstration projects, after which the commercial market introduction of hydrogen vehicles is envisaged

  19. Support of future lighthouse projects and beyond. Managing the transition to hydrogen for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, M.E.; Jeeninga, H.; Godfroij, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    Large scale demonstration projects as the 'Lighthouse projects' are an important step towards commercialisation. However, costs for disruptive technologies such as hydrogen, are high in the first phase of market introduction. Therefore, policy support is needed to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen. But, how can the government support and stimulate (early) market introduction and use of hydrogen in the transportation sector? What kind of policy instruments are needed in what phase of the introduction trajectory? And what are the current instruments in the EU and US? Can these affect the introduction of hydrogen in transport? Generally, the hydrogen chain can be stimulated by providing an investment subsidy, production subsidy, tax exemptions and a (production or sales) obligation. Technology specific configurations of these support mechanisms for the diverse technologies in the hydrogen chain have to be taken into account. Besides that the support measures have to act upon each other for every technology development stage. A comparison of the EU and US policies shows differences in the approach of bringing the hydrogen vehicles to the market. The amount of support differs. The US funds RD and D 50% and stimulates the market by obligating sales (ZEV obligation) and procurement, while the EU funds R and D 50%, demonstration 35% and is now looking into large scale demonstration projects, after which the commercial market introduction of hydrogen vehicles is envisaged.

  20. RTE - Electricity transport network operator. Energy is our future: let's save it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Managing and developing the French electricity transport network is essential to provide quality electricity on a continuous basis to all consumers. Since it was founded in 2000, and since it was made into a public service company (2005), RTE has proven its ability to fulfil its public interest mission in complete security. In an open European electricity market, RTE is recognised for offering all of its customers fair access to its network, which is the first condition for healthy competition. Based on this and thanks to its investments and operating quality, RTE is constantly improving its performances to meet its customers', public authorities' and the Energy Regulation Committee's requirements. This public service action is focused on four strategic priorities: performance of industrial facilities; a human and managerial policy focused on skills and efficiency; sustainable development; professionalism and innovation. This brochure presents RTE's missions, company overview and European cooperation

  1. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  2. Transport energy demand in Andorra. Assessing private car futures through sensitivity and scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Gallachóir, Brian P.Ó.; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model which estimates current car fleet energy consumption in Andorra and forecasts such consumption as a reference scenario. The base-year model is built through a bottom-up methodology using vehicle registration and technical inspection data. The model forecasts energy consumption up to 2050, taking into account the fleet structure, the car survival profile, trends in activity of the various car categories, and the fuel price and income elasticities that affect car stock and total fleet activity. It provides an initial estimate of private car energy demand in Andorra and charts a baseline scenario that describes a hypothetical future based on historical trends. A local sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most sensitive input parameters and study the effect of its variability. In addition, the scenario analysis explores the most uncertain future aspects which can cause important variability in the results with respect to the Reference scenario and provides a broad estimate of potential energy savings related to different policy strategies. - Highlights: •A private car energy model is built using aggregated available data. •Andorra's current car fleet energy consumption is estimated and forecasted to 2050. •Potential energy savings have been estimated using sensitivity and scenario analysis.

  3. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  4. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Ralph [Sentech, Inc., Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Consulting, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  5. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  8. THE FUTURE OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT – VERY LARGE AIRCRAFT AND OUT KEY HUMAN FACTORS AFFECTING THE OPERATION AND SAFETY OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Skolilova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines some human factors affecting the operation and safety of passenger air transport given the massive increase in the use of the VLA. Decrease of the impact of the CO2 world emissions is one of the key goals for the new aircraft design. The main wave is going to reduce the burned fuel. Therefore, the eco-efficiency engines combined with reasonable economic operation of the aircraft are very important from an aviation perspective. The prediction for the year 2030 says that about 90% of people, which will use long-haul flights to fly between big cities. So, the A380 was designed exactly for this time period, with a focus on the right capacity, right operating cost and right fuel burn per seat. There is no aircraft today with better fuel burn combined with eco-efficiency per seat, than the A380. The very large aircrafts (VLAs are the future of the commercial passenger aviation. Operating cost versus safety or CO2 emissions versus increasing automation inside the new generation aircraft. Almost 80% of the world aircraft accidents are caused by human error based on wrong action, reaction or final decision of pilots, the catastrophic failures of aircraft systems, or air traffic control errors are not so frequent. So, we are at the beginning of a new age in passenger aviation and the role of the human factor is more important than ever.

  9. Comparing atmospheric transport models for future regional inversions over Europe - Part 1: mapping the atmospheric CO2 signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geels, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Frohn, L.M.; Gloor, M.; Ciais, P.; Bousquet, P.; Peylin, P.; Dargaville, R.; Ramonet, M.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Aalto, T.; Haszpra, L.; Karstens, U.; Rodenbeck, C.; Carboni, G.; Santaguida, R.

    2007-01-01

    generally under-predicted. This is a reflection of the different mixing regimes during day and night combined with different vertical resolution between models. In line with this finding, the agreement among models is increased when sampling in the afternoon hours only and when sampling the mixed portion of the PBL, which amounts to sampling at a few hundred meters above ground. The main recommendations resulting from the study for constraining land carbon sources and sinks using high-resolution concentration data and state-of-the art transport models through inverse methods are given in the following: 1) Low altitude stations are presently preferable in inverse studies. If high altitude stations are used then the model level that represents the specific sites should be applied, 2) at low altitude sites only the afternoon values of concentrations can be represented sufficiently well by current models and therefore afternoon values are more appropriate for constraining large-scale sources and sinks in combination with transport models, 3) even when using only afternoon values it is clear that data sampled several hundred meters above ground can be represented substantially more robustly in models than surface station records, which emphasize the use of tower data in inverse studies and finally 4) traditional large scale transport models seem not sufficient to resolve fine-scale features associated with fossil fuel emissions, as well as larger-scale features like the concentration distribution above the south-western Europe. It is therefore recommended to use higher resolution models for interpretation of continental data in future studies. (authors)

  10. Comparing atmospheric transport models for future regional inversions over Europe - Part 1: mapping the atmospheric CO{sub 2} signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geels, C.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Frohn, L.M. [Univ Aarhus, Natl Environm Res Inst, DK-4000 Roskilde, (Denmark); Gloor, M. [Univ Leeds, Leeds, W Yorkshire, (United Kingdom); Ciais, P.; Bousquet, P.; Peylin, P.; Dargaville, R.; Ramonet, M. [CEA, CNRS, UMR 1572, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Vermeulen, A.T. [ECN, NL-1755 ZG Petten, (Netherlands); Aalto, T. [Finnish Meteorol Inst Air Qual Res, Helsinki 00810, (Finland); Haszpra, L. [Hungarian Meteorol Serv, H-1675 Budapest, (Hungary); Karstens, U.; Rodenbeck, C. [Max Planck Inst Biogeochem, D-07701 Jena, (Germany); Carboni, G. [CESI ApA, I-20134 Milan, (Italy); Santaguida, R. [Italian AF Meteorol Serv, I-41029 Sestola, MO, (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    well predicted, nighttime values are generally under-predicted. This is a reflection of the different mixing regimes during day and night combined with different vertical resolution between models. In line with this finding, the agreement among models is increased when sampling in the afternoon hours only and when sampling the mixed portion of the PBL, which amounts to sampling at a few hundred meters above ground. The main recommendations resulting from the study for constraining land carbon sources and sinks using high-resolution concentration data and state-of-the art transport models through inverse methods are given in the following: 1) Low altitude stations are presently preferable in inverse studies. If high altitude stations are used then the model level that represents the specific sites should be applied, 2) at low altitude sites only the afternoon values of concentrations can be represented sufficiently well by current models and therefore afternoon values are more appropriate for constraining large-scale sources and sinks in combination with transport models, 3) even when using only afternoon values it is clear that data sampled several hundred meters above ground can be represented substantially more robustly in models than surface station records, which emphasize the use of tower data in inverse studies and finally 4) traditional large scale transport models seem not sufficient to resolve fine-scale features associated with fossil fuel emissions, as well as larger-scale features like the concentration distribution above the south-western Europe. It is therefore recommended to use higher resolution models for interpretation of continental data in future studies. (authors)

  11. Comparing atmospheric transport models for future regional inversions over Europe ─ Part 1: mapping the atmospheric CO2 signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramonet

    2007-07-01

    generally underpredicted. This is a reflection of the different mixing regimes during day and night combined with different vertical resolution between models. In line with this finding, the agreement among models is increased when sampling in the afternoon hours only and when sampling the mixed portion of the PBL, which amounts to sampling at a few hundred meters above ground. The main recommendations resulting from the study for constraining land carbon sources and sinks using high-resolution concentration data and state-of-the art transport models through inverse methods are given in the following: 1 Low altitude stations are presently preferable in inverse studies. If high altitude stations are used then the model level that represents the specific sites should be applied, 2 at low altitude sites only the afternoon values of concentrations can be represented sufficiently well by current models and therefore afternoon values are more appropriate for constraining large-scale sources and sinks in combination with transport models, 3 even when using only afternoon values it is clear that data sampled several hundred meters above ground can be represented substantially more robustly in models than surface station records, which emphasize the use of tower data in inverse studies and finally 4 traditional large scale transport models seem not sufficient to resolve fine-scale features associated with fossil fuel emissions, as well as larger-scale features like the concentration distribution above the south-western Europe. It is therefore recommended to use higher resolution models for interpretation of continental data in future studies.

  12. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...

  13. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  14. Early life thermal stress: Impact on future thermotolerance, stress response, behavior, and intestinal morphology in piglets exposed to a heat stress challenge during simulated transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to evaluate the impact of early life thermal stress (ELTS) on thermoregulation, stress, and intestinal health of piglets subjected to a future heat stress (HS) challenge during simulated transport. Approximately 7 d after farrowing, 12 first parity gilts and their litters were ...

  15. The use of radiocarbon to constrain current and future soil organic matter turnover and transport in a temperate forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Beer, C.; Schrumpf, M.; Ahrens, B.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.; Reichstein, M.; Ekici, A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the merits of radiocarbon measurements for estimating soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and vertical transport for a temperate deciduous forest in Germany. Eleven parameters, defining decomposition and transport in the soil carbon model SOMPROF, were estimated using a Bayesian

  16. How Can Autonomous and Connected Vehicles, Electromobility, BRT, Hyperloop, Shared Use Mobility and Mobility-As-A-Service Shape Transport Futures for the Context of Smart Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Nikitas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A smarter transport system that caters for social, economic and environmental sustainability is arguably one of the most critical prerequisites for creating pathways to more livable urban futures. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art analysis of a selection of mobility initiatives that may dictate the future of urban transportation and make cities smarter. These are mechanisms either recently introduced with encouraging uptake so far and much greater potential to contribute in a shift to a better transport paradigm or still in an embryonic stage of their development and yet to be embraced as powerful mechanisms that could change travel behaviour norms. Autonomous and connected vehicles are set to revolutionise the urban landscape by allowing machines to take over driving that for over a century has been exclusively a human activity, while electrical vehicles are already helping decarbonising the transport sector. Bus rapid transit has been steadily reinventing and rebranding conventional bus services revitalising the use of the humblest form of public transport, while hyperloop is an entirely new, disruptive, and somewhat provocative, travel mode proposition based on the use of sealed tube systems through which pods could travel free of air resistance with speeds exceeding 1000 km/h. Shared use mobility mechanisms like car-sharing, ride-sharing, ride-sourcing and public bicycles can help establishing a culture for using mobility resources on an as-needed basis, while mobility-as-a-service will take this sharing culture a step further, offering tailored mobility and trip planning packages that could entirely replace the need for privately owned modes of transport.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  18. Performance analysis of visible light communication using the STBC-OFDM technique for intelligent transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changping; Yi, Ying; Lee, Kyujin; Lee, Kyesan

    2014-08-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) applied in an intelligent transportation system (ITS) has attracted growing attentions, but it also faces challenges, for example deep path loss and optical multi-path dispersion. In this work, we modelled an actual outdoor optical channel as a Rician channel and further proposed space-time block coding (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) technology to reduce the influence of severe optical multi-path dispersion associated with such a mock channel for achieving the effective BER of 10-6 even at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this case, the optical signals transmission distance can be extended as long as possible. Through the simulation results of STBC-OFDM and single-input-single-output (SISO) counterparts in bit error rate (BER) performance comparison, we can distinctly observe that the VLC-ITS system using STBC-OFDM technique can obtain a strongly improved BER performance due to multi-path dispersion alleviation.

  19. Conference delegate package of the oilfield transportation conference and trade show: steering the industry into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The transportation component of the petroleum service industry was the focus of this conference. The human factors that play a role in oilfield trucking accidents were discussed. The industry has set standards and has taken the initiative to establish training programs in which basic criteria for transporting dangerous goods will be met. The principal themes addressed by the conference included an overall approach to industry compliance, new technologies, minimum safety requirements, forming partnerships with the Workers' Compensation Board, drug and alcohol policies and testing, oilfield driver training program, and risk management of human capital

  20. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The prospective future adoption of hydrogen to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question whether the adoption would have adverse effects on stratospheric ozone. The possibility of these undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART chemical transport model. Since future growth is highly uncertain we evaluate the impact for two world evolution scenarios, one based on a high emitting scenario (IPCC A1FI) and the other on a low emitting scenario (IPCC B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario the world evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the same world evolution scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall between the above two bounding scenarios. However, the magnitude of these changes is

  1. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2 has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuels in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here, we evaluate the impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem. Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector; however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that the adoption of H2 fuel cells would decrease tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%, CO (14%, NOx (16%, soot (17%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12% in the A1FI scenario, and would decrease those of ozone (5%, CO (4%, NOx (11%, soot (7%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9% in the B1 scenario

  2. City transport of the future - the high speed pedestrian conveyor. Part 2: ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A C

    1975-03-01

    This is the second part of an article on an unusual form of passenger transport, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds up to 16 km/h. Part 1, "Ergonomic considerations of acceleration, deceleration and transfer sections," was published in the December, 1974, issue.

  3. Modeling fate and transport of fecally-derived microorganisms at the watershed scale: state of the science and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waters provide habitats for various groups of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and pathogenic microorganisms originating from animal manures and animal waste. A number of watershed modeling works have been carried out to have a better understanding to the fate and transport of fecal indicato...

  4. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  5. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport. Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology. (author)

  6. Effects of emissions change, climate change and long-range transport on regional modeling of future U.S. particulate matter pollution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the future U.S. PM2.5 pollution under multiple emissions scenarios, climate states, and long-range transport (LRT) effects using the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model integrated with a regional climate model. CMAQ with fixed chemical lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) successfully reproduces the present-day PM2.5 pollution and its major species in rural and suburban areas, but has some discrepancies in urban areas such as the Los Angeles Basin, where detailed emissions and meteorology conditions cannot be resolved by the 30 km grid. Its performance is slightly worsened when using dynamic chemical LBCs from global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, which provide cleaner conditions into the CMAQ lateral boundaries. Under future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios, CMAQ projects large PM2.5 reductions (∼40% for A1B and ∼20% for A1Fi scenario) in the eastern United States, but slight to moderate increases (∼5% for A1B and ∼10% for A1Fi) in the western United States. The projected increases are particularly large (up to 30%) near the Mexico-U.S. border, suggesting that Mexico is a major source for future U.S. PM2.5 pollution. The effect from climate change alone is estimated to increase PM2.5 levels ubiquitously (∼5% for both A1B and A1Fi) over the United States, except for a small decrease in the Houston, Texas area, where anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions dominate. This climate penalty, however, is substantially smaller than effects of emissions change, especially in the eastern United States. Future PM2.5 pollution is affected substantially (up to -20%) by changes in SO2 emissions and moderately (3-5%) by changes in NOx and NH3 emissions. The long-range transport (LRT) effects, which are estimated by comparing CMAQ simulations with fixed and dynamic LBCs, are regional dependent, causing up to 10-20% decrease over the western United

  7. Reliability of iris recognition as a means of identity verification and future impact on transportation worker identification credential

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security is deploying the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) to U.S. ports to help ensure only authorized individuals having undergone background checks have access to secure areas. Congress mandated the TWIC have a biometric authenticator; DHS chose fingerprints. This thesis argues iris scanning is a better choice because of the nature of the maritime environment and because iris scanning is a more accurate biometric. This thesis also argues th...

  8. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future role of biofuels for transport in the European Union (EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels is strongly supported all over the world as a renewable energy source for reducing dependence on the unstable oil market. Bioethanol, the main biofuel produced in the world, is widely used to power vehicles in both the USA and Brazil, but concerns exist in both places regarding its sustainability. In Brazil, it is produced from a by-product of the sugar cane industry, while in the USA it is manufactured from food crops. The production of biogas and biodiesel is growing rapidly, but neither has outpaced the production of bioethanol. The European Union (EU is greatly interested in this issue, and in 2011 adopted an extensive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to transport by 60% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this result, the current European transportation system must be transformed. This ambitious goal will require the implementation of complex measures including the reduction of fossil fuels in favor of renewable fuels. This program has various options regarding the development of biofuels (e. g., biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel and their related technologies, which are still on trial (mainly regarding the bioethanol production, and must also analyze their sustainability from a social and economic standpoint. The paper discusses the use of biofuels for transport in the European setting, and shows that their sustainability may result in relevant negative social effects due mainly to the use of land for energy crops (e.g., change of food price and world food shortage.

  9. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2) to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers) model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) high-emitting scenario (A1FI) and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall

  10. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2 to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change high-emitting scenario (A1FI and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1, as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two

  11. Transweb - real time transportation threat assessment analysis tool: look what the future may bring for energy related infrastructure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, F.; Ballard, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Transweb is envisioned as a transportation threat assessment program and this real time GIS based web assessment too (a.k.a., GTA for GIS threat assessment) can be used to plan railroad or highway shipments of hazardous waste (e.g., toxic industrial chemicals - TIC's) and high-level nuclear waste materials (e.g., like those destined for Yucca Mountain - HLW) that may be used in energy production facilities. Transweb will become a vulnerability mapping and analysis tool that can be used by transportation planners, emergency response personnel, security/safety managers, and law enforcement to route such shipments, make contingency plans in the event of altered road or rail conditions, and/or to assist in the response to an accident or human initiated event like terrorism. The initial phase of the project will seek to establish the protocol on highway shipments and follow up phases will focus on rail GTA's. This paper will report on the initial development of this analytical technique, define the problems associated with such analysis, and offer examples of its analytical possibilities for threat assessment relative to energy related facilities like nuclear power generation stations. (author)

  12. Possible use of dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future storage of spent nuclear fuel from IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, L.; Baltiyski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the present paper is related to one of the priority goals stipulated in Bulgarian Governmental Decision No.332 from May 17, 1999 - removal of SNF from IRT-Sofia site and its exporting for reprocessing and/or for temporary storage at Kozloduy NPP site. The variant of using dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future temporary storage of SNF from IRT-Sofia aims to find out a reasonable alternative of the existing till now variant for temporary SNF storage under water in the existing Kozloduy NPP Spent Fuel Storage Facility until its export for reprocessing. Results: Based on the given data for the condition of 73 Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies (SNFA) stored in the storage pool and technical data as well as data for available equipment and IRT-Sofia layout the following framework are specified: draft technical features of dual purpose dry storage casks and their overall dimensions; the suitability of the available equipment for safety and reliable performance of transportation and handling operations of assemblies from storage pool to dual purpose dry storage casks; the necessity of new equipment for performance of the above mentioned operations; Assemblies' transportation and handling operations are described; requirements to and conditions for future safety and reliable storage of SNFA loaded casks are determined. When selecting the technical solutions for safety assurance during performance of site handling operations of IRT-Sofia and for description of the exemplary casks the Effective Bulgarian Regulations are considered. The experience of other countries in performance of transfer and transportation of SNFA from such types of research reactors is taken into account. Also, Kozloduy NPP experience in SNF handling operations is taken into account. Conclusions: The Decision of Council of Minister for refurbishment of research reactor into a low power one and its future utilization for experimental and training

  13. Challenges related to the management of energy and transportation infrastructures within the context of future eco cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Culver, Keith; Gaudin, Etienne; Sun, David

    2010-09-15

    The 100 years from 1950 to 2050 will be remembered for the greatest social, cultural, economic and environmental transformation in history - the urbanization of humanity. With half of us now occupying urban space, the future of the human species is tied to the city - Anna Tibaijuka, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director UN-HABITAT, in remarks at the third session of the World Urban Forum in Vancouver, Canada, in 2006. The urbanization of humanity is both a fact and a challenge. 3.5 billion people live in cities now, and 6 billion people will live in cities by 2050.

  14. City transport of the future - the high speed pedestrian conveyor. Part 1: ergonomic considerations of accelerators, decelerators and transfer sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A C

    1974-12-01

    In this article, an uncommon form of passenger transport is considered, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds of up to 16 km/h. There are very little relevant ergonomic data for such devices and some specific laboratory experiments have been carried out using 1000 subjects to represent the general public. It is concluded that whilst high speed pedestrian conveyors are quite feasible, stations along them are likely to be large. The most attractive type is a set of parallel surfaces moving at different speeds and with handholds provided in the form of poles. This type could be extremely convenient for certain locations but will probably have to be restricted in its use to fairly fit adults carrying little luggage, and would find applications in situations where a large number of people need to travel in the same direction. Part 2, Ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems, will follow.

  15. E-COURSE BASED ON THE PLATFORM MOODLE IN TEACHING PHYSICS TO FUTURE SPECIALISTS OF RIVER AND SEA TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherniavskyі V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers that the fastest way to include Ukraine into the global educational system is to create conditions for widespread use of the Internet for training purposes, which is considered the most perfect model of communication in the global information society. It is stated that one of the most common and most convenient forms of distance learning for marine institutions of higher education is electronic courses. Their main advantage over traditional forms of education is to provide the conditions for productive individual work of the students. It is shown that the problem of individual work is particularly relevant for marine education, due to the specific schedule of the educational process, including the presence of long-term shipboard training. It is defined the peculiarities of usage of e-learning courses in Physics for training of the specialists of river and sea transport. It is proposed the interpretation of the term "e-learning course in Physics" as an information model of a specific topic or section of "Physics", which displays the oriented basis of cognitive activity of the student, it provides organic and natural formation, regulates mental and emotional processes, predicts the opportunities for educational tasks solving by offered means for stimulating the development of personal cognitive capabilities. The requirements for e-learning courses in Physics are determined and their advantages over other innovative teaching methods towards the realization of methodological features of the educational process are highlighted. The structure of e-learning courses in Physics is proposed and the experience of e-courses using in Physics for bachelors of specialty "River and Sea transport" is described.

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of future groundwater flow conditions and contaminant plume transport in the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1996 and 1997 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.R.; Wurstner, S.K.; Williams, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow and transport, based on the Coupled Fluid Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) code, was developed for the Hanford Site to support the Hanford Groundwater Project (HGWP), managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The model was developed to increase the understanding and better forecast the migration of several contaminant plumes being monitored by the HGWP, and to support the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200-Area Plateau. Recent modeling efforts have focused on continued refinement of an initial version of the three-dimensional model developed in 1995 and its application to simulate future transport of selected contaminant plumes in the aquifer system. This version of the model was updated using a more current version of the CFEST code called CFEST96. Prior to conducting simulations of contaminant transport with the three-dimensional model, a previous steady-state, two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer system was recalibrated to 1979 water-table conditions with a statistical inverse method implemented in the CFEST-INV computer code. The results of the recalibration were used to refine the three-dimensional conceptual model and to calibrate it with a conceptualization that preserves the two-dimensional hydraulic properties and knowledge of the aquifer`s three-dimensional properties for the same 1979 water-table conditions. The transient behavior of the three-dimensional flow model was also calibrated by adjusting model storage properties (specific yield) until transient water-table predictions approximated observed water-table elevations between 1979 and 1996.

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of future groundwater flow conditions and contaminant plume transport in the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1996 and 1997 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Wurstner, S.K.; Williams, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow and transport, based on the Coupled Fluid Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) code, was developed for the Hanford Site to support the Hanford Groundwater Project (HGWP), managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The model was developed to increase the understanding and better forecast the migration of several contaminant plumes being monitored by the HGWP, and to support the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200-Area Plateau. Recent modeling efforts have focused on continued refinement of an initial version of the three-dimensional model developed in 1995 and its application to simulate future transport of selected contaminant plumes in the aquifer system. This version of the model was updated using a more current version of the CFEST code called CFEST96. Prior to conducting simulations of contaminant transport with the three-dimensional model, a previous steady-state, two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer system was recalibrated to 1979 water-table conditions with a statistical inverse method implemented in the CFEST-INV computer code. The results of the recalibration were used to refine the three-dimensional conceptual model and to calibrate it with a conceptualization that preserves the two-dimensional hydraulic properties and knowledge of the aquifer's three-dimensional properties for the same 1979 water-table conditions. The transient behavior of the three-dimensional flow model was also calibrated by adjusting model storage properties (specific yield) until transient water-table predictions approximated observed water-table elevations between 1979 and 1996

  18. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  19. The role of cholesterol metabolism and cholesterol transport in carcinogenesis; A review of scientific findings, relevant to future cancer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While the unique metabolic activities of malignant tissues as potential targets for cancer therapeutics has been the subject of several recent reviews, the role of cholesterol metabolism in this context is yet to be fully explored. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes as well as a precursor of bile acids and steroid hormones. The hypothesis that cancer cells need excess cholesterol and intermediates of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway to maintain a high level of proliferation is well accepted, however the mechanisms by which malignant cells and tissues reprogram cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux are yet to be fully elucidated as potential therapeutic targets. High and low density plasma lipoproteins, area the likely major suppliers of cholesterol to cancer cells and tumors, potentially via receptor mediated mechanisms. This review is primarily focused on the role(s of lipoproteins in carcinogenesis, and their future roles as drug delivery vehicles for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  20. The future of the reservoirs in the Siret River Basin considering the sediment transport of rivers (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru OLARIU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Siret River Basin is characterized by an important use of hydro potential, resulted in the number of reservoirs constructed and operational. The cascade power stage of the reservoirs on Bistrita and Siret rivers indicate the anthropic interventions with different purposes (hydro energy, water supply, irrigation etc. in the Siret River Basin. In terms of the capacity in the Siret River Basin there is a dominance of the small capacity reservoirs, which is given by the less than 20 mil m³ volumes. Only two lakes have capacities over 200 mil m³: Izvoru Muntelui on Bistrita River and Siriu on Buzau River. Based on the monitoring of the alluvial flow at the hydrometric stations, from the Siret River Basin, there have been analysed the sediment yield formation and the solid transit dimensions in order to obtain typical values for the geographical areas of this territory. The silting of these reservoirs was monitored by successive topobatimetric measurements performed by the Bureau of Prognosis, Hydrology and Hydrogeology and a compartment within Hidroelectrica S.A. Piatra Neamt Subsidiary. The quantities of the deposited sediments are very impressive. The annual rates range betwee3 000 – 2 000 000 t/year, depending on the size of the hydrographical basin, the capacity of the reservoirs, the liquid flow and many other factors which may influence the upstream transport of sediments. These rates of sedimentation lead to a high degree of silting in the reservoirs. Many of them are silted over 50% of the initial capacity and the others even more. The effects of the silting have an important impact when analysing the effective exploitation of the reservoirs. 

  1. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offer, G.J.; Howey, D.; Contestabile, M.; Clague, R.; Brandon, N.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000 mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed and compared to a conventional gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engine (ICE) powertrain. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis shows that in 2030 FCEVs could achieve lifecycle cost parity with conventional gasoline vehicles. However, both the BEV and FCHEV have significantly lower lifecycle costs. In the 2030 scenario, powertrain lifecycle costs of FCEVs range from $7360 to $22,580, whereas those for BEVs range from $6460 to $11,420 and FCHEVs, from $4310 to $12,540. All vehicle platforms exhibit significant cost sensitivity to powertrain capital cost. The BEV and FCHEV are relatively insensitive to electricity costs but the FCHEV and FCV are sensitive to hydrogen cost. The BEV and FCHEV are reasonably similar in lifecycle cost and one may offer an advantage over the other depending on driving patterns. A key conclusion is that the best path for future development of FCEVs is the FCHEV.

  2. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offer, G.J.; Brandon, N.P. [Department Earth Science Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Howey, D. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Contestabile, M. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Clague, R. [Energy Futures Lab, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000 mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed and compared to a conventional gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engine (ICE) powertrain. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis shows that in 2030 FCEVs could achieve lifecycle cost parity with conventional gasoline vehicles. However, both the BEV and FCHEV have significantly lower lifecycle costs. In the 2030 scenario, powertrain lifecycle costs of FCEVs range from $7360 to $22,580, whereas those for BEVs range from $6460 to $11,420 and FCHEVs, from $4310 to $12,540. All vehicle platforms exhibit significant cost sensitivity to powertrain capital cost. The BEV and FCHEV are relatively insensitive to electricity costs but the FCHEV and FCV are sensitive to hydrogen cost. The BEV and FCHEV are reasonably similar in lifecycle cost and one may offer an advantage over the other depending on driving patterns. A key conclusion is that the best path for future development of FCEVs is the FCHEV. (author)

  3. Future prospect of remote Cat-CVD on the basis of the production, transportation and detection of H atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, Hironobu; Matsumura, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The future prospect of remote Cat-CVD, in which the decomposition and the deposition chambers are separated, is discussed on the basis of the absolute density measurements of H atoms. It is now well recognized that uniform deposition is possible on a large area without plasma damages by Cat-CVD. However, we may not overlook the demerits in Cat-CVD. One of the demerits is the poisoning of the catalyzer surfaces by the material gases, both temporary and permanent. One technique to overcome this problem is remote Cat-CVD. The question is how to separate the decomposition and deposition areas. If the separation is not enough, there should be back diffusion of the material gases, which will poison the catalyzers. If the separation is too tight, radicals may not effuse out from the decomposition chamber. These problems are discussed and it is shown that SiO 2 coating to reduce the radical recombination rates on walls is promising. The possibility of the polytetrafluoroethene coating by Cat-CVD is also discussed

  4. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  5. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  6. Trans-oceanic transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Ka-Ming, E-mail: bhkmwai@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yu, Peter K.N. [Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of {sup 137}Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0–500 m) {sup 137}Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m{sup −3} near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (∼ 1 mBq m{sup −3}) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km{sup 2} in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled {sup 137}Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature. - Highlights: • A Lagrangian model was used to predict the dispersion of {sup 137}Cs from plant accident. • Observed and modeled {sup 137}Cs concentrations were comparable for the Fukushima accident. • The maximum surface concentrations could reach 10 Bq m{sup −3} for the hypothetical case. • The hypothetical radiative plumes could impact E/SE Asia and N. America.

  7. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  8. Future methane emissions from the heavy-duty natural gas transportation sector for stasis, high, medium, and low scenarios in 2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; Johnson, Derek R; McKain, David L; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Rudek, Joseph; Mongold, Ronald A; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Hailer, John T

    2017-12-01

    Today's heavy-duty natural gas-fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than 2% of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50%. Although fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas-fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas-fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet-wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions. However, predicted growth could result in a significant quantity of methane emissions. To evaluate this potential and identify effective options for minimizing emissions, future growth scenarios of heavy-duty natural gas-fueled vehicles, and compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas fueling stations that serve them, have been developed for 2035, when the populations could be significant. The scenarios rely on the most recent measurement campaign of the latest manufactured technology, equipment, and vehicles reported in a companion paper as well as projections of technology and practice advances. These "pump-to-wheels"(PTW) projections do not include methane emissions outside of the bounds of the vehicles and fuel stations themselves and should not be confused with a complete wells-to-wheels analysis. Stasis, high, medium, and low scenario PTW emissions projections for 2035 were 1.32%, 0.67%, 0.33%, and 0.15% of the fuel used. The scenarios highlight that a large emissions reductions could be realized with closed crankcase operation, improved best practices, and implementation of vent mitigation technologies. Recognition of the potential pathways for emissions reductions could further enhance the heavy-duty transportation sectors ability to reduce carbon emissions. Newly collected pump-to-wheels methane emissions data for current natural gas technologies

  9. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Kirchner, Thomas B.; Breshears, David D.; Field, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    succession and environmental disturbance. Aeolian, or wind-driven, sediment transport drives soil erosion, affects biogeochemical cycles, and can lead to the transport of contaminants. Rates of aeolian sediment transport depend in large part on the type, amount, and spatial pattern of vegetation. In particular, the amount of cover from trees and shrubs, which act as roughness elements, alters rates of aeolian sediment transport. The degree to which the understory is disturbed and the associated spacing of bare soil gaps further influence sediment transport rates. Changes in vegetation structure and patterns over periods of years to centuries may have profound impacts on rates of wind-driven transport. For recently disturbed areas, succession is likely to occur through a series of vegetation communities. Area G currently exhibits a mosaic of vegetation cover, with patches of grass and forbs over closed disposal units, and bare ground in heavily used portions of the site. These areas are surrounded by less disturbed regions of shrubland and pinon-juniper woodland; some ponderosa pine forest is also visible in the canyon along the road. The successional trajectory for the disturbed portions of Area G is expected to proceed from grasses and forbs (which would be established during site closure), to shrubs such as chamisa, to a climax community of pinon-juniper woodland. Although unlikely under current conditions, a ponderosa pine forest could develop over the site if the future climate is wetter. In many ecosystems, substantial and often periodic disturbances such as fire or severe drought can rapidly alter vegetation patterns. Such disturbances are likely to increase in the southwestern US where projections call for a warmer and drier climate. With respect to Area G, the 3 most likely disturbance types are surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced tree mortality. Each type of disturbance has a different frequency or likelihood of occurrence, but all 3 tend to reset the

  10. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirchner, Thomas B. [New Mexico State University; Breshears, David D. [University of Arizona; Field, Jason P. [University of Arizona

    2012-03-27

    succession and environmental disturbance. Aeolian, or wind-driven, sediment transport drives soil erosion, affects biogeochemical cycles, and can lead to the transport of contaminants. Rates of aeolian sediment transport depend in large part on the type, amount, and spatial pattern of vegetation. In particular, the amount of cover from trees and shrubs, which act as roughness elements, alters rates of aeolian sediment transport. The degree to which the understory is disturbed and the associated spacing of bare soil gaps further influence sediment transport rates. Changes in vegetation structure and patterns over periods of years to centuries may have profound impacts on rates of wind-driven transport. For recently disturbed areas, succession is likely to occur through a series of vegetation communities. Area G currently exhibits a mosaic of vegetation cover, with patches of grass and forbs over closed disposal units, and bare ground in heavily used portions of the site. These areas are surrounded by less disturbed regions of shrubland and pinon-juniper woodland; some ponderosa pine forest is also visible in the canyon along the road. The successional trajectory for the disturbed portions of Area G is expected to proceed from grasses and forbs (which would be established during site closure), to shrubs such as chamisa, to a climax community of pinon-juniper woodland. Although unlikely under current conditions, a ponderosa pine forest could develop over the site if the future climate is wetter. In many ecosystems, substantial and often periodic disturbances such as fire or severe drought can rapidly alter vegetation patterns. Such disturbances are likely to increase in the southwestern US where projections call for a warmer and drier climate. With respect to Area G, the 3 most likely disturbance types are surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced tree mortality. Each type of disturbance has a different frequency or likelihood of occurrence, but all 3 tend to reset the

  11. Hyperloop: The Future of Transportation

    KAUST Repository

    Ahlborn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    propulsion to accelerate a passenger or cargo vehicle through a tube in a low-pressure environment. The autonomous vehicle levitates slightly above the track and glides at faster-than-airline speeds over long distances. We eliminate direct emissions, noise

  12. 15th Annual Freight and Logistics Symposium : the future is front and center : the impacts of economic change on freight transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. transportation system stands at the center of virtually all economic : activity in the country today. Effects of a lengthy global recession are radically and : rapidly reshaping transportation priorities and needs. Now more than ever, freigh...

  13. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  14. A transport and fate model of C-14 in a bay of the Baltic Sea at SFR. Today and in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.

    2001-06-01

    The environmental transport and fate of a hypothetical release of radioactive carbon-14 from SFR-1 (the final repository for radioactive operational waste) was investigated using an ecosystem modelling approach. The approach involved identification, quantification and dynamic modelling of the main flows and storages of carbon both in the physical environment and in the food web. Carbon-14 was in the model introduced into the food web via photosynthesising organisms. Contamination of the aquatic ecosystem above SFR-1 was then assessed assuming a release of 5.13 x 10 7 Bq/year for 1,000 years. Modelling results were used to estimate steady-state C-14 concentrations in biota, exposure (Gy) of biota and dose (Sv) to humans consuming contaminated organisms both if the discharge occurred today (2000 AD)and if it occurred in the future (4000 AD). Since the modelled area is characterised by a fast water exchange, most of the discharged C-14 was flushed out of the system more or less immediately (99.8% and 98.4% at 2000 AD and 4000 AD, respectively). However, a small fraction of the discharge was assimilated by primary producers (0.18% and 2.11%), which enabled subsequent transfer of C-14 to organisms at higher trophic levels (e.g. fish, seals and humans). The exported C-14 from the area was diluted to very low concentrations in the large recipient outside. Estimated exposures were very low, and differed significantly among the studied biota (17.2 x 10 -12 to 2.3 x 10 -6 Gy). In general the highest exposures were observed in benthic plants and benthic grazers followed by fish and benthos. Humans consuming large quantities of locally produced food (e.g.fish, mussels and algae) will receive an exposure in case of C-14 contamination. Estimated doses to humans were approximately 10-100 nSv per year, which is significantly lower than restrictions by the authorities. The developed model was also used to evaluate implications of various assumptions concerning the route of C-14

  15. Hazard Monitoring in a Spectrum-Challenged Future: US Department of Transportation Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment of Interference on High-Precision GNSS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.

    2016-12-01

    In 2012 the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reversed its decision to allow communications company LightSquared to use GPS-adjacent spectrum for a ground based network after testing demonstrated harmful interference to GPS receivers. Now rebranded as Ligado, they have submitted modified application to use a smaller portion of the L-band spectrum at much lower power. Many GPS community stakeholders, including the hazard monitoring and EEW communities remain concerned that Ligado's proposed use could still cause harmful interference, causing signal degradation, real-time positioning errors, and total failure of GNSS hardware in widespread use in hazard monitoring networks. The Department of Transportation (DoT) has conducted hardware tests to determine adjacent-band transmitter power limit criteria that would prevent harmful interference from Ligado's operations. We present preliminary results produced from the data collected by the three UNAVCO receiver types tested: Trimble NetRS, Trimble NetR9, and Septentrio PolaRx5. In the first round of testing, simulated GNSS signals were broadcast in an anechoic chamber (pictured below) while interfering signals are broadcast simultaneously with varying amplitude and frequency. The older GPS-only NetRS receiver showed smaller reductions in SNR at frequencies adjacent to GPS L1 as compared to the other receivers, suggesting narrower L1 filter bandwidth in the RF frontend. The NetR9 showed greater decreases in observed SNR in the 1615 to 1625 MHz range when compared to the other two receivers. This suggests that the NetR9's L1 filter bandwidth has been increased to accommodate GNSS signals. Linearity tests were conducted to better relate SNR measurements between receiver types. The PolaRx5 receiver showed less SNR variation between tracking channels than both Trimble receivers. Our results show the power levels at which adjacent-band interference begins degrading receiver performance and eventually disables tracking. As

  16. A transport and fate model of C-14 in a bay of the Baltic Sea at SFR. Today and in future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2001-06-01

    The environmental transport and fate of a hypothetical release of radioactive carbon-14 from SFR-1 (the final repository for radioactive operational waste) was investigated using an ecosystem modelling approach. The approach involved identification, quantification and dynamic modelling of the main flows and storages of carbon both in the physical environment and in the food web. Carbon-14 was in the model introduced into the food web via photosynthesising organisms. Contamination of the aquatic ecosystem above SFR-1 was then assessed assuming a release of 5.13 x 10{sup 7} Bq/year for 1,000 years. Modelling results were used to estimate steady-state C-14 concentrations in biota, exposure (Gy) of biota and dose (Sv) to humans consuming contaminated organisms both if the discharge occurred today (2000 AD)and if it occurred in the future (4000 AD). Since the modelled area is characterised by a fast water exchange, most of the discharged C-14 was flushed out of the system more or less immediately (99.8% and 98.4% at 2000 AD and 4000 AD, respectively). However, a small fraction of the discharge was assimilated by primary producers (0.18% and 2.11%), which enabled subsequent transfer of C-14 to organisms at higher trophic levels (e.g. fish, seals and humans). The exported C-14 from the area was diluted to very low concentrations in the large recipient outside. Estimated exposures were very low, and differed significantly among the studied biota (17.2 x 10{sup -12} to 2.3 x 10{sup -6} Gy). In general the highest exposures were observed in benthic plants and benthic grazers followed by fish and benthos. Humans consuming large quantities of locally produced food (e.g.fish, mussels and algae) will receive an exposure in case of C-14 contamination. Estimated doses to humans were approximately 10-100 nSv per year, which is significantly lower than restrictions by the authorities. The developed model was also used to evaluate implications of various assumptions concerning the

  17. The PolicyRelevance of WearEmissions fromRoad Transport,Nowand in the Future-An InternationalWorkshop Report and Consensus Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Gehrig, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Janssen, N.; Harrison, R.M.; Hulskotte, J.; Johansson, C.; Jozwicka, M.; Keuken, M.; Krijgsheld, K.; Ntziachristos, L.; Riediker, M.; Cassee, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust

  18. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  19. Multi-path interferometric Josephson directional amplifier for qubit readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Bronn, Nicholas T.; Jinka, Oblesh; Olivadese, Salvatore; Brink, Markus; Chow, Jerry M.

    2018-04-01

    We realize and characterize a quantum-limited, directional Josephson amplifier suitable for qubit readout. The device consists of two nondegenerate, three-wave-mixing amplifiers that are coupled together in an interferometric scheme, embedded in a printed circuit board. Nonreciprocity is generated by applying a phase gradient between the same-frequency pumps feeding the device, which plays the role of the magnetic field in a Faraday medium. Directional amplification and reflection-gain elimination are induced via wave interference between multiple paths in the system. We measure and discuss the main figures of merit of the device and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with theory. An improved version of this directional amplifier is expected to eliminate the need for bulky, off-chip isolation stages that generally separate quantum systems and preamplifiers in high-fidelity, quantum-nondemolition measurement setups.

  20. Evaluation of New Chemical Entities as Substrates of Liver Transporters in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Response to Regulatory Requirements and Future Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of drug candidates as hepatic transporter substrates. Recently, research on the applications of hepatic transporters in the pharmaceutical industry has improved to meet the requirements of the regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of drug interactions. To identify the risk of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions at an early stage of drug development, we used a strategy of reviewing the in vivo animal pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution data obtained in the discovery stage together with the in vitro data obtained for regulatory submission. In the context of nonclinical evaluation of new chemical entities as medicines, we believe that transporter studies are emerging as a key strategy to predict their pharmacological and toxicological effects. In combination with the recent progress in systems approaches, the estimation of effective concentrations in the target tissues, by using mathematical models to describe the transporter-mediated distribution and elimination, has enabled us to identify promising compounds for clinical development at the discovery stage. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  2. Investigating and Managing the Characteristics of Travel Behavior and Travel Patterns for the University of Kufa and Suggestion a Future Transportation Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Al-Jameel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions are one of the main trip generators and distributors in the cities around the world. The main campus of the University of Kufa has more than 10 faculties with more than 12,000 people (staff and students. This makes the university is one of the high attracting area of trips in the city. These attracted trips use different modes of transportation such as taxi, private car, min-bus and even walking mode. This study aims to investigate the travel behavior and travel patterns for the current trips and put the suitable suggestions for shifting the travel characteristics using efficient modern modes of transportation. More than 4000 samples have been investigated using interviews asking about the origin, the purpose of trips and the mode of trips. The results of this analysis indicate the urgent need for improving the current transportation system by encouraging public transport such as bus and tram. Moreover, there is a need for improving the design and traffic management for the gates of the university.

  3. Perspectives on the terrestrial organic matter transport and burial along the land-deep sea continuum: Caveats in our understanding of biogeochemical processes and future needs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kandasamy, S.; Nath, B.N.

    ; Selvaraj et al., 2015). Interestingly, the Taiwanese rivers are characterized by hyperpycnal mode of transport and storm-hyperpycnal delivery may contribute up to 40% of annul sediment supply, but just within∼1% of time (Kao andMilliman, 2008) and therefore...

  4. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 20, No. 1, Summer 2016 - Tackling Transportation: Clean Cities and NPS Team Up to Steer National Parks Toward a Sustainable Future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  5. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  6. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  7. Transporting spent fuel - considerations for safety. From the United States, a review of why the past promotes high standards for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information that might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives about the transport of radioactive materials is presented. The safety of transporting spent fuel is addressed from a technical standpoint without the emotional content frequently a part of this argument. Three approaches are adopted. (1) Past history is examined and safety is evaluated on the basis of experience. (2) The subject is approached analytically by combining the various elements of risk involved and assessing them in light of consequences attached to each risk level. (3) Available safety research is reviewed to determine if it might reveal information that would either augment or alter the experience or analysis

  8. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, personal rapid transit (PRT) has been viewed as one of the most promising ways to provide sustainable, economical, and convenient transportation while reducing reliance on personal automobiles. However, despite concerted efforts around the world, the promise of PRT has yet...... to be realized. This work demonstrates that different physical means, such as the Korean taxi system, can be used to perform the same highest-level functional requirement, satisfy the same constraints, and provide many of the benefits that are expected of a city-scale personal rapid transit system. Thus, Korean...... taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...

  9. Development of fabrication technology for future fuel - Study on the defect structure and transport properties of doped U O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Han Il; Hong, Kug Sun; Lee, Jong Ho; Kang, Sun Ho; Lee, Jung Gun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project is the study on the defect structure and transport properties on nuclear material to secure the nuclear energy as the substitute source of power. Through this study, we can analyse the effect of dopant in nuclear material thoroughly and further we can establish the basis for the proper processing. And also we can verify the coulometric titration method as a very useful method to characterise the nuclear material. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs. (author)

  10. Impacts of transportation sector emissions on future U.S. air quality in a changing climate. Part I: Projected emissions, simulation design, and model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Fang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David

    2018-07-01

    Emissions from the transportation sector are rapidly changing worldwide; however, the interplay of such emission changes in the face of climate change are not as well understood. This two-part study examines the impact of projected emissions from the U.S. transportation sector (Part I) on ambient air quality in the face of climate change (Part II). In Part I of this study, we describe the methodology and results of a novel Technology Driver Model (see graphical abstract) that includes 1) transportation emission projections (including on-road vehicles, non-road engines, aircraft, rail, and ship) derived from a dynamic technology model that accounts for various technology and policy options under an IPCC emission scenario, and 2) the configuration/evaluation of a dynamically downscaled Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. By 2046-2050, the annual domain-average transportation emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) are projected to decrease over the continental U.S. The decreases in gaseous emissions are mainly due to reduced emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines, which exhibit spatial and seasonal variations across the U.S. Although particulate matter (PM) emissions widely decrease, some areas in the U.S. experience relatively large increases due to increases in ship emissions. The on-road vehicle emissions dominate the emission changes for CO, NO x , VOC, and NH 3 , while emissions from both the on-road and non-road modes have strong contributions to PM and SO 2 emission changes. The evaluation of the baseline 2005 WRF simulation indicates that annual biases are close to or within the acceptable criteria for meteorological performance in the literature, and there is an overall good agreement in the 2005 CMAQ simulations of chemical variables against both surface and satellite observations. Copyright © 2018

  11. Future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.; Hetherington, C.

    1997-01-01

    Issues regarding future development by oil and gas companies in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were discussed. It was suggested in the Berger report that Northern development should be under the control of the people whose lives and economy are being changed. Aboriginal people are now much more sophisticated politically, and have a better understanding of what is involved. Most of them would like the financial benefits from development, but the development would have to be on their terms. Most people involved with Arctic oil exploration feel that there is enough oil in the Arctic to warrant production. (Reserves in the Beaufort Sea are estimated at two billion barrels of good quality oil). If development were to continue, there exist two methods of transportation to move the oil to market. Gulf, Imperial Oil and Panarctic favour the use of pipelines, whereas Dome Petroleum Ltd. favours the use of ice-breaking tankers. In each case the favored option seems to depend upon the location of the company's leases, the capital and operating costs, and the potential environmental impacts. Undoubtedly, any future development will be guided by the scientific information and technical expertise of oil industry pioneers of the 1960s and the 1970s, and the wisdom gained from the experiences of the many participants whose views and insights are recorded in this book

  12. Impacts of transportation sector emissions on future U.S. air quality in a changing climate. Part II: Air quality projections and the interplay between emissions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Fang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David

    2018-07-01

    In Part II of this work we present the results of the downscaled offline Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) model, included in the "Technology Driver Model" (TDM) approach to future U.S. air quality projections (2046-2050) compared to a current-year period (2001-2005), and the interplay between future emission and climate changes. By 2046-2050, there are widespread decreases in future concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x  = NO + NO 2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) due mainly to decreasing on-road vehicle (ORV) emissions near urban centers as well as decreases in other transportation modes that include non-road engines (NRE). However, there are widespread increases in daily maximum 8-hr ozone (O 3 ) across the U.S., which are due to enhanced greenhouse gases (GHG) including methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B scenario, and isolated areas of larger reduction in transportation emissions of NO x compared to that of VOCs over regions with VOC-limited O 3 chemistry. Other notable future changes are reduced haze and improved visibility, increased primary organic to elemental carbon ratio, decreases in PM 2.5 and its species, decreases and increases in dry deposition of SO 2 and O 3 , respectively, and decreases in total nitrogen (TN) deposition. There is a tendency for transportation emission and CH 4 changes to dominate the increases in O 3 , while climate change may either enhance or mitigate these increases in the west or east U.S., respectively. Climate change also decreases PM 2.5 in the future. Other variable changes exhibit stronger susceptibility to either emission (e.g., CO, NO x , and TN deposition) or climate changes (e.g., VOC, NH 3 , SO 2 , and total sulfate deposition), which also have a strong

  13. A parametric analysis of future ethanol use in the light-duty transportation sector: Can the US meet its Renewable Fuel Standard goals without an enforcement mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Barter, Garrett E.; Manley, Dawn K.; West, Todd H.

    2014-01-01

    The modified Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) prescribes a volume of biofuels to be used in the United States transportation sector each year through 2022. As the dominant component of the transportation sector, we consider the feasibility of the light-duty vehicle (LDV) parc to provide enough demand for biofuels to satisfy RFS2. Sensitivity studies show that the fuel price differential between gasoline and ethanol blendstocks, such as E85, is the principal factor in LDV biofuel consumption. The numbers of flex fuel vehicles and biofuel refueling stations will grow given a favorable price differential. However, unless the feedstock price differential becomes extreme (biomass prices below $100 per dry ton and oil prices above $215 per barrel), which deviates from historical price trends, LDV parc biofuel consumption will fall short of the RFS2 mandate without an enforcement mechanism. Additionally, such commodity prices might increase biofuel consumption in the short-term, but discourage use of biofuels in the long-term as other technologies that do not rely on any gasoline blendstock may be preferable. Finally, the RFS2 program goals of reducing fossil fuel consumption and transportation greenhouse gas emissions could be achieved through other pathways, such as notable improvements in conventional vehicle efficiency. - Author-Highlights: • At current commodity prices, the LDV fleet will not use enough biofuel to meet RFS2. • RFS2 can be met through the promotion of flex-fuel vehicles and their use of E85 fuel. • The gasoline-E85 price premium is the key factor in encouraging biofuel consumption. • RFS2 is satisfied at extreme oil prices (at least $215/barrel). • This oil price encourages biofuel use in the RFS2 timeframe, but not in the long run

  14. Large scale groundwater flow and hexavalent chromium transport modeling under current and future climatic conditions: the case of Asopos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokou, Zoi; Karagiorgi, Vasiliki; Karatzas, George P; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), have been observed in the groundwater system of the Asopos River Basin, raising public concern regarding the quality of drinking and irrigation water. The work described herein focuses on the development of a groundwater flow and Cr(VI) transport model using hydrologic, geologic, and water quality data collected from various sources. An important dataset for this goal comprised an extensive time series of Cr(VI) concentrations at various locations that provided an indication of areas of high concentration and also served as model calibration locations. Two main sources of Cr(VI) contamination were considered in the area: anthropogenic contamination originating from Cr-rich industrial wastes buried or injected into the aquifer and geogenic contamination from the leaching process of ophiolitic rocks. The aquifer's response under climatic change scenario A2 was also investigated for the next two decades. Under this scenario, it is expected that rainfall, and thus infiltration, will decrease by 7.7 % during the winter and 15 % during the summer periods. The results for two sub-scenarios (linear and variable precipitation reduction) that were implemented based on A2 show that the impact on the study aquifer is moderate, resulting in a mean level decrease less than 1 m in both cases. The drier climatic conditions resulted in higher Cr(VI) concentrations, especially around the industrial areas.

  15. The Future of Telecommuting

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, Susan; Mokhtarian, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Interest in telecommuting is growing among workers, employers, transportation planners, communities, the telecommunications industry, and others. But actual levels of telecommuting appear to be increasing slowly, although there is little reliable data on trends. The future of telecommuting depends on whether employers provide the opportunity to telecommute and whether workers take advantage of this opportunity; government policies can encourage both. This article addresses that future by outl...

  16. Logistic control in automated transportation networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Increasing congestion problems lead to a search for alternative transportation systems. Automated transportation networks, possibly underground, are an option. Logistic control systems are essential for future implementations of such automated transportation networks. This book contributes to the

  17. Final report : UAB transportation workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Transportation engineering supports safe and efficient movement of people and goods through : planning, design, operation and management of transportation systems. As needs for : transportation continue to grow, the future needs for qualified transpo...

  18. Lost opportunities and future avenues to reconcile hydropower and sediment transport in the Mekong Basin through optimal sequencing of dam portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Bizzi, S.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Dams are essential to meet growing water and energy demands. While dams cumulatively impact downstream rivers on network-scales, dam development is mostly based on ad-hoc economic and environmental assessments of single dams. Here, we provide evidence that replacing this ad-hoc approach with early strategic planning of entire dam portfolios can greatly reduce conflicts between economic and environmental objectives of dams. In the Mekong Basin (800,000km2), 123 major dam sites (status-quo: 56 built and under construction) could generate 280,000 GWh/yr of hydropower. Cumulatively, dams risk interrupting the basin's sediment dynamics with severe impacts on livelihoods and eco-systems. To evaluate cumulative impacts and benefits of the ad-hoc planned status-quo portfolio, we combine the CASCADE sediment connectivity model with data on hydropower production and sediment trapping at each dam site. We couple CASCADE to a multi-objective genetic algorithm (BORG) identifying a) portfolios resulting in an optimal trade-off between cumulative sediment trapping and hydropower production and b) an optimal development sequence for each portfolio. We perform this analysis first for the pristine basin (i.e., without pre-existing dams) and then starting from the status-quo portfolio, deriving policy recommendations for which dams should be prioritized in the near future. The status-quo portfolio creates a sub-optimal trade-off between hydropower and sediment trapping, exploiting 50 % of the basin's hydro-electric potential and trapping 60 % of the sediment load. Alternative optimal portfolios could have produced equivalent hydropower for 30 % sediment trapping. Imminent development of mega-dams in the lower basin will increase hydropower production by 20 % but increase sediment trapping to >90 %. In contrast, following an optimal development sequence can still increase hydropower by 30 % with limited additional sediment trapping by prioritizing dams in upper parts of the basin. Our

  19. Distribution and transport of radionuclides in a boreal mire – assessing past, present and future accumulation of uranium, thorium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Ramebäck, Henrik; Bengtsson, Åsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of 238 U, 226 Ra, 40 K and the daughters of 232 Th, 228 Ra and 228 Th, were measured in a small mire in northern Sweden. High activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th (up to 41 Bq 238 U kg −1 ) were observed in parts of the mire with a historical or current inflow of groundwater from the surrounding till soils, but the activities declined rapidly further out in the mire. Near the outlet and in the central parts of the mire the activity concentrations were low, indicating that uranium and thorium are immobilized rapidly upon their entering the peat. The 226 Ra was found to be more mobile with high activity concentrations further out into the mire (up to 24 Bq kg −1 ), although the central parts and the area near the outlet of the mire still had low activity concentrations. Based on the fluxes to and from the mire, it was estimated that approximately 60–70% of the uranium and thorium entering the mire currently is retained within it. The current accumulation rates were found to be consistent with the historical accumulation, but possibly lower. Since much of the accumulation still is concentrated to the edges of the mire and the activities are low compared to other measurements of these radionuclides in peat, there are no indications that the mire will be saturated with respect to radionuclides like uranium, thorium and radium in the foreseen future. On the contrary, normal peat growth rates for the region suggest that the average activity concentrations of the peat currently may be decreasing, since peat growth may be faster than the accumulation of radionuclides. In order to assess the total potential for accumulation of radionuclides more thoroughly it would, however, be necessary to also investigate the behaviour of other organophilic elements like aluminium, which are likely to compete for binding sites on the organic material. Measurements of the redox potential and other redox indicators demonstrate that uranium possibly could

  20. Energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides fifteen of the futures industry's leading authorities with broader background in both theory and practice of energy futures trading in this updated text. The authors review the history of the futures market and the fundamentals of trading, hedging, and technical analysis; then they update you with the newest trends in energy futures trading - natural gas futures, options, regulations, and new information services. The appendices outline examples of possible contracts and their construction

  1. Futuring for Future Ready Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Miguel A.

    2018-01-01

    Futurists and foresight professionals offer several guiding principles for thinking about the future. These principles can help people to think about the future and become more powerful players in shaping the preferred futures they want for themselves and their communities. The principles also fit in well as strategies to support the Future Ready…

  2. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  3. Transport of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keese, H.

    1976-01-01

    A transport system for spent fuel elements and radioactive waste is reported on. The construction of appropriate transport containers, safety regulations, as well as future developments in transport systems and transport containers are discussed in detail. The volume of the spent fuel elements to be moved and the number of transport containers needed is gone into, too. (HR/LN) [de

  4. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  5. Low carbon transport : a greener future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This strategy is intended to enable the UK to meet the requirements of the carbon budgets set under the Climate Change Act 2008. Implementation of the strategy will be taken forward in a way that recognises and respects the policy responsibilities an...

  6. Vehicle Modeling for Future Generation Transportation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-10

    Recent development of inter-vehicular wireless communication technologies have motivated many innovative applications aiming at significantly increasing traffic throughput and improving highway safety. Powerful traffic simulation is an indispensable ...

  7. IPCS implications for future supersonic transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, L. O.; Kniat, J.; Schmidt, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Integrated Propulsion Control System (IPCS) demonstrates control of an entire supersonic propulsion module - inlet, engine afterburner, and nozzle - with an HDC 601 digital computer. The program encompasses the design, build, qualification, and flight testing of control modes, software, and hardware. The flight test vehicle is an F-111E airplane. The L.H. inlet and engine will be operated under control of a digital computer mounted in the weapons bay. A general description and the current status of the IPCS program are given.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) Data and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    |cash|flow|sales?|fcv|fuel cell|vehicles?|no policy|case|scenario)$ ^(lithium|li|ion|capital|costs |populations?|households?|entropy index)$ ^(water costs?|sewer costs?|water|sewer|new dwelling units?|dwellings |residential|infrastructure|costs?|infrastructure costs?|density|groups?|raw|infill|reuse|dwelling units per

  9. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Project | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, and infrastructure. More information reports. Light-Duty Vehicles Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

  11. The experience of the FERMI@Elettra photon beam transport and diagnostics system (PADReS) during three years of continuous support of machine and user experiments: achievements, lessons learned, and future upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Marco; Fava, Claudio; Gerusina, Simone; Gobessi, Riccardo; Mahne, Nicola; Mazzucco, Eric; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rumiz, Luca; Svetina, Cristian

    2014-09-01

    The FERMI FEL facility has begun delivering photons in 2011, becoming in late 2012 the first seeded facility open to external users worldwide. Since then, several tens of experiments have been carried out on the three operative endstations LDM, DiProI, and EIS-TIMEX. Starting from the commissioning phase, the transport and diagnostics system (PADReS) has been continuously developed and upgraded, becoming the indispensable interface between the machine and the experimental chambers. Moreover, PADReS itself has served as an active player for several machine studies as well as for various state-of-the-art experiments. In particular, some elements of PADReS have become key features to perform cutting edge experiments: the online energy spectrometer, the active optics refocusing systems, the split and delay line, and so on. For each of them the peculiar advantages will be described showing the actual implementation in the experiments. The experience gathered so far in fulfilling the needs of both machine and experimental physicists will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the solutions adopted in different scenarios. Recurrent requests and major difficulties will be reported so to give a glimpse about the standard tasks to be solved when preparing new and demanding experiments. Finally, some ideas and near-future improvements will be presented and discussed.

  12. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  13. Future Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  14. Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I or other vehicles (C2C progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

  15. Futures Brokerages Face uncertain Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2005 was a quiet year for China's futures market.After four new trading products, including cotton, fuel oil and corn, were launched on the market in 2004, the development of the market seemed to stagnate. The trade value of the futures market totaled 13.4 trillion yuan (US$ 1.67 trillion) in 2005, down 8.5 percent year-on-year. Although the decrease is quite small and the trade value was still the second highest in the market's history, the majority of futures brokerage firms were running in the red. In some areas, up to 80 percent of futures companies made losses.

  16. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  17. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  18. Growing the Idaho economy : moving into the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    A report on transportation and the possible future economy of the State of Idaho from 2010 to 2030, including : current assets to leverage, driving forces shaping the future, long-range economic opportunities for Idaho including : four future scenari...

  19. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  20. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    significant attention to these shifts in societies’ discursive patterns and structures. For making up powerful and strong visions and policies for sustainable cities, ‘collaborative storytelling’ plays a key role. The theoretical outset for the research project ‘Mobilities, Futures & the City’, which grounds......The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...

  1. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  2. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  3. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  4. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  5. Electron transport in wurtzite InN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    InN transport; mobility; energy and momentum relaxation; impurity scattering. ... future generation solar cell because the nitride alloys can cover the whole ... We apply the ensemble Monte Carlo method to investigate the electron transport in.

  6. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  7. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  8. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  9. Future Savvy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Adam

    There's no shortage of predictions available to organizations looking to anticipate and profit from future events or trends. Apparently helpful forecasts are ubiquitous in everyday communications such as newspapers and business magazines, and in specialized sources such as government and think......-tank forecasts, consultant reports, and stock-market guides. These resources are crucial, but they are also of very mixed quality. How can decision-makers know which predictions to take seriously, which to be wary of, and which to throw out entirely? Future Savvy provides analytical filters to judging predictive...... systematic "forecast filtering" to reveal strengths and weakness in the predictions they face. Future Savvy empowers both business and policy/government decision-makers to use forecasts wisely and so improve their judgment in anticipating opportunities, avoiding threats, and managing uncertainty....

  10. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  11. Safety : the challenge of today for transportation safety in the future. General report on theme -V "Safety" at the 14th International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Strasbourg, September 7-10, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transportation (un)safety is the result of a complex process in the transportation system. A large number of variables (characteristics of the system elements) with many interactions, produce a complex network of relationships expressed in "system behaviour". In this network of relationships, man as

  12. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  13. Bitcoin futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Søren Bundgaard

    2018-01-01

    Med introduktionen af et futures-marked er Bitcoin-eksponering blevet tilgængelig for en bredere gruppe af investorer, som hidtil ikke har kunnet eller villet tilgå det underliggende marked for Bitcoin. Artiklen finder, at kontrakterne umiddelbart favoriserer spekulanter på bekostning af hedgers og...

  14. Future Climate Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambell, C. G.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this report provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the following reports: ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]), ''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504]), ''Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170012]), and ''Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170013]). Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one available forecasting method for establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The selection of different methods is directly dependent on the available evidence used to build a forecasting argument. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. While alternative analyses are possible for the case presented for Yucca Mountain, the evidence (data) used would be the same and the conclusions would not be expected to drastically change. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Other alternative

  15. Future Climate Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. G. Cambell

    2004-09-03

    This report documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this report provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the following reports: ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]), ''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504]), ''Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170012]), and ''Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170013]). Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one available forecasting method for establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The selection of different methods is directly dependent on the available evidence used to build a forecasting argument. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. While alternative analyses are possible for the case presented for Yucca Mountain, the evidence (data) used would be the same and the conclusions would not be expected to drastically change. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past

  16. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...

  17. Future Climate Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Houseworth

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure 1), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Revision 00 of this AMR was prepared in accordance with the ''Work Direction and Planning Document for Future Climate Analysis'' (Peterman 1999) under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The planning document for the technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department''. (BSC 2001b, Addendum B

  18. The transport forecast - an important stage of transport management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Vasile; Dinu, Oana; Oprea, Cristina; Alina Roman, Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    The transport system is a powerful system with varying loads in operation coming from changes in freight and passenger traffic in different time periods. The variations are due to the specific conditions of organization and development of socio-economic activities. The causes of varying loads can be included in three groups: economic, technical and organizational. The assessing of transport demand variability leads to proper forecast and development of the transport system, knowing that the market price is determined on equilibrium between supply and demand. The reduction of transport demand variability through different technical solutions, organizational, administrative, legislative leads to an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of transport. The paper presents a new way of assessing the future needs of transport through dynamic series. Both researchers and practitioners in transport planning can benefit from the research results. This paper aims to analyze in an original approach how a good transport forecast can lead to a better management in transport, with significant effects on transport demand full meeting in quality terms. The case study shows how dynamic series of statistics can be used to identify the size of future demand addressed to the transport system.

  19. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  20. Future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Topics presented concerning the future developments in risk analysis are: safety goals, US severe accident policy, code developments, research programs, analyses and operation action, linking with the deterministic analyses. Principle consideration in risk is defined as protection of both general population, and nearby residents. The principal goal should be consistent with risk of other man-caused activities, the cost benefit after minimum safety levels are achieved, and proportional to benefits to be gained

  1. EnerFuture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    EnerFuture offers short term energy demand forecasts for oil, gas, electricity and coal, in the 52 major energy countries in the world. Also included are the historical data series since 1997, extracted from the international ENERDATA Information System. It contents electricity consumption per sector: industry, residential, services, agriculture; oil consumption per sector: industry, transport, residential, services, agriculture, electricity from oil; gas consumption per sector: industry, residential, services, agriculture, electricity from gas; coal consumption per sector: industry, residential, services, agriculture, electricity from coal. (A.L.B.)

  2. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  3. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  4. FUTURES with Jaime Escalante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy awarded the Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education (FASE) $826,000 as support to produce the second set of FUTURES segments consisting of 12, 15-minute programs. The programs provide motivation for students to study math by connecting math to the work place and real-life problem scenarios. The programs are broadcast in 50 states through PBS Elementary and Secondary Service (E/SS). The grant term ended on December 16, 1993 and this final report documents program and financial activity results. The 12 episodes are titled: Animal Care, Meteorology, Mass Communication, Advanced Energy, Oceanography, Graphic Design, Future Habitats, Environmental Science & Technology, Fitness & Physical Performance, Interpersonal Communications, Advanced Transportation and Product Design. Each program addresses as many as ten careers or job types within the broader field named. Minority and gender-balanced role models appear throughout the programs.

  5. Analysis of Proton Transport Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-05

    which can inhibit transport, may grow . The abrupt loss of transport at higher currents in the small channel suggests this possibility. Future experiments... Unicorn Park Drive Woburn, MA 01801 Attn: H. Linnerud 1 copy Lawrence Livermore Laboratory P. 0. Box 808 Livermore, CA 94550 Attn: R. J. Briggs 1 copy R

  6. TRANSPORT OUT OF THE GREENHOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Transport emissions are growing, while climate targets are getting stricter: the gap is closing. We are rapidly approaching a future where transport could occupy or even exceed all of the ‘allowed’ CO2 emissions, if measures are not taken. Many potential climate policies and strategies for transp...

  7. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    , Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts to...... contribution to the discussions within the Eusponsored BEST Thematic Network (Benchmarking European Sustainable Transport) which ran from 2000 to 2003....

  8. Impact of a future H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.E.; Segers, A.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Krol, M.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality

  9. Impact of a future H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.E.; Segers, A.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Krol, M.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we

  10. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  11. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  12. Future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Croce, A.

    1991-01-01

    According to George Woodwell, founder of the Woods Hole Research Center, due the combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and accelerated respiration, the net annual increase of carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, to the 750 billion tonnes already present in the earth's atmosphere, is in the order of 3 to 5 billion tonnes. Around the world, scientists, investigating the probable effects of this increase on the earth's future climate, are now formulating coupled air and ocean current models which take account of water temperature and salinity dependent carbon dioxide exchange mechanisms acting between the atmosphere and deep layers of ocean waters

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  14. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  15. Real-Time Transportation Mode Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Enhanced with Mode Availability Layers: A Case Study in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ji Byon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, departments of transportation (DOTs have dispatched probe vehicles with dedicated vehicles and drivers for monitoring traffic conditions. Emerging assisted GPS (AGPS and accelerometer-equipped smartphones offer new sources of raw data that arise from voluntarily-traveling smartphone users provided that their modes of transportation can correctly be identified. By introducing additional raster map layers that indicate the availability of each mode, it is possible to enhance the accuracy of mode detection results. Even in its simplest form, an artificial neural network (ANN excels at pattern recognition with a relatively short processing timeframe once it is properly trained, which is suitable for real-time mode identification purposes. Dubai is one of the major cities in the Middle East and offers unique environments, such as a high density of extremely high-rise buildings that may introduce multi-path errors with GPS signals. This paper develops real-time mode identification ANNs enhanced with proposed mode availability geographic information system (GIS layers, firstly for a universal mode detection and, secondly for an auto mode detection for the particular intelligent transportation system (ITS application of traffic monitoring, and compares the results with existing approaches. It is found that ANN-based real-time mode identification, enhanced by mode availability GIS layers, significantly outperforms the existing methods.

  16. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of

  17. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  18. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  19. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  20. Our future energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-15

    The Danish Government's plan ''Our Future Energy'' seeks to create green growth and help the country convert to 100 percent renewable energy use by 2050. The Danish Government in November 2011 presented its plan for how the country can secure its energy future. Titled ''Our Future Energy'', the strategy presents specific measures for fulfilling the Government's goal of stimulating green growth. The plan is based on the previous government's Energy Strategy 2050, but raises the bar higher. The long-term goal of the plan is to implement an energy and transport network that relies solely on renewable energy sources. By 2020, the initiatives will lead to extensive reductions in energy consumption, making it possible for half of the country's electricity consumption to be covered by wind power. Coal is to be phased out of Danish power plants by 2030. And by 2035, all electricity and heating will be generated using renewable sources. (Author)

  1. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  2. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  3. Future Climate Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Houseworth

    2001-10-12

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure 1), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Revision 00 of this AMR was prepared in accordance with the ''Work Direction and Planning Document for Future Climate Analysis'' (Peterman 1999) under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The planning document for the technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical

  4. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  5. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  6. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  7. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  8. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  9. Technology for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen research centres in the Federal German Republic are associated in the ''Working Pool of Research Centres'' (AGF). As national research centres these institutions engage in scientific-technical and biological-medical research and development based on interdisciplinary cooperation and intensive deployment of personnel, capital, and technical equipment. They make substantial contributions to state-promoted programmes in the following areas: energy research and technology; basic nuclear research; transport and traffic systems; aerospace research and polar research; data processing and applied computer science; environment protection and health; biology and medicine; and marine engineering and geosciences. The authors of this new volume of AGF topics deal with so-called key technologies, i.e., developments determining the direction of future activities. Topics relevant to energy are solar research and fusion research. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  11. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  12. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  13. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  14. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  15. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  16. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  17. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  18. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  19. User's manual for sustainable transportation performance measures calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Sustainable transportation can be viewed as the provision of safe, effective, and efficient : access and mobility into the future while considering economic, social, and environmental : needs. For the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to ass...

  20. Results of focus group assessments of transportation financing options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Wisconsin Commission on Transportation Finance and Policy was created in the 2011-2013 biennial state budget to : identify and evaluate transportation finance options to address needs into the future. As part of its scope, the Commission : needed...

  1. Hybrid waveguide-bulk multi-path interferometer with switchable amplitude and phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Keil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We design and realise a hybrid interferometer consisting of three paths based on integrated as well as on bulk optical components. This hybrid construction offers a good compromise between stability and footprint on one side and means of intervention on the other. As experimentally verified by the absence of higher-order interferences, amplitude and phase can be manipulated in all paths independently. In conjunction with single photons, the setup can, therefore, be applied for fundamental investigations on quantum mechanics.

  2. MultiPaths Revisited - A novel approach using OpenFlow-enabled devices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shabibi, Ali; Martin, Brian

    2011-06-11

    This thesis presents novel approaches enhancing the performance of computer networks using multipaths. Our enhancements take the form of congestion-aware routing protocols. We present three protocols called MultiRoute, Step-Route, and finally PathRoute. Each of these protocols leverage both local and remote congestion statistics and build different representations (or views) of the network congestion by using an innovative representation of congestion for router-router links. These congestion statistics are then distributed via an aggregation protocol to other routers in the network. For many years, multipath routing protocols have only been used in simple situations, such as Link Aggregation and/or networks where paths of equal cost (and therefore equal delay) exist. But, paths of unequal costs are often discarded to the benefit of shortest path only routing because it is known that paths of unequal length present different delays and therefore cause out of order packets which cause catastrophic network per...

  3. SAR Image Simulation of Ship Targets Based on Multi-Path Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Wang, H.; Ma, H.; Li, K.; Xia, Z.; Hao, Y.; Guo, H.; Shi, H.; Liao, X.; Yue, H.

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) plays an important role in the classification and recognition of ship targets because of its all-weather working ability and fine resolution. In SAR images, besides the sea clutter, the influence of the sea surface on the radar echo is also known as the so-called multipath effect. These multipath effects will generate some extra "pseudo images", which may cause the distortion of the target image and affect the estimation of the characteristic parameters. In this paper,the multipath effect of rough sea surface and its influence on the estimation of ship characteristic parameters are studied. The imaging of the first and the secondary reflection of sea surface is presented . The artifacts not only overlap with the image of the target itself, but may also appear in the sea near the target area. It is difficult to distinguish them, and this artifact has an effect on the length and width of the ship.

  4. Direct Ranging in Multi-path Channels Using OFDM Pilot Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Lishuai; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2014-01-01

    OFDM ranging is becoming important for positioning using terrestrial wireless networks. Conventional ranging methods rely on a two-step approach: range related parameters, such as the time of arrival (TOA), the bias induced by non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagations etc., are first estimated, based...

  5. From ground state to fission fragments: A complex, multi-dimensional multi-path problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to 264 Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus 258 Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 235 MeV whereas 256 Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes have been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric-fission products close to 132 Sn. Here we present a quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fusion occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. We base our study on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. We use the three-quadratic-surface parameterization to generate the shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. Since these shapes are thought to correspond to the scission shapes for the high-kinetic-energy events it is of crucial importance that a continuous sequence of shapes leading from the nuclear ground state to these configurations can be studied within the framework of the model. We present the results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. They clearly show the appearance of a second fission valley, which leads to scission configurations close to tow touching spheres, for fissioning systems in the vicinity of 264 Fm

  6. Multi-Path OD-Matrix Estimation (MPME) based on Stochastic User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker

    1997-01-01

    Most conventional methods for estimating trip matrices from traffic counts assume either that the counts are error-free, determin-istic variables or they use a simplified traffic assignment model. Without these assumptions, the methods often demand prohibitive calculation times. The paper present...

  7. UMDR: Multi-Path Routing Protocol for Underwater Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Songzuo; Liu, Qipei; Qiao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new routing scheme for underwater ad hoc networks based on directional antennas. Ad hoc networks with directional antennas have become a hot research topic because of space reuse may increase networks capacity. At present, researchers have applied traditional self-organizing routing protocols (such as DSR, AODV) [1] [2] on this type of networks, and the routing scheme is based on the shortest path metric. However, such routing schemes often suffer from long transmission delays and frequent link fragmentation along the intermediate nodes of the selected route. This is caused by a unique feature of directional transmission, often called as “deafness”. In this paper, we take a different approach to explore the advantages of space reuse through multipath routing. This paper introduces the validity of the conventional routing scheme in underwater ad hoc networks with directional antennas, and presents a special design of multipath routing algorithm for directional transmission. The experimental results show a significant performance improvement in throughput and latency.

  8. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  9. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by

  10. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  11. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  12. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  13. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  14. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  15. Hydrogen, energy of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleau, Th.

    2007-01-01

    A cheap, non-polluting energy with no greenhouse gas emissions and unlimited resources? This is towards this fantastic future that this book brings us, analyzing the complex but promising question of hydrogen. The scientific and technical aspects of production, transport, storage and distribution raised by hydrogen are thoroughly reviewed. Content: I) Energy, which solutions?: 1 - hydrogen, a future; 2 - hydrogen, a foreseeable solution?; II) Hydrogen, an energy vector: 3 - characteristics of hydrogen (physical data, quality and drawbacks); 4 - hydrogen production (from fossil fuels, from water, from biomass, bio-hydrogen generation); 5 - transport, storage and distribution of hydrogen; 6 - hydrogen cost (production, storage, transport and distribution costs); III) Fuel cells and ITER, utopias?: 7 - molecular hydrogen uses (thermal engines and fuel cells); 8 - hydrogen and fusion (hydrogen isotopes, thermonuclear reaction, ITER project, fusion and wastes); IV) Hydrogen acceptability: 9 - risk acceptability; 10 - standards and regulations; 11 - national, European and international policies about hydrogen; 12 - big demonstration projects in France and in the rest of the world; conclusion. (J.S.)

  16. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  17. The Energy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John; Bonino, Christopher A; Trainham, James A

    2018-06-07

    The foreseeable energy future will be driven by economics of known technologies and the desire to reduce CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Renewable energy options are compared with each other and with the use of fossil fuels with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Economic analysis is used to determine the best of several alternatives. One can disagree on the detailed costs, including externalities such as climate change and air and water pollution. But the differences in capital and operating costs between known technologies are so significant that one can draw clear conclusions. Results show that renewable energy cannot compete with fossil fuels on a cost basis alone because energy is intrinsic to the molecule, except for hydroelectricity. However, fossil fuels are implicated in climate change. Using renewable energy exclusively, including transportation and electricity needs, could reduce the standard of living in the United States by 43% to 62%, which would correspond to the level in about 1970. If capture and sequester of CO 2 are implemented, the cost of using fossil fuels will increase, but they beat renewable energy handily as an economic way to produce clean energy.

  18. Comparison of the transportation risks for the spent fuel in Korea for different transportation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Cho, D.K.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. At the start of the operation of the final repository (FR), by the year 2065, transport will then take place between the CISF and the FR. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios for a maritime transportation by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for the spent fuels in Korea. And, we estimated and compared the transportation risks for these four transportation scenarios. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks resulting from accidents during the transportation of PWR and PHWR spent fuels by road trailers from the CISF and the FR. From the results of this study, we found that risks resulting from accidents during the transportation of the spent fuels have a very low radiological risk activity with a manageable safety and health consequences. The results of this study can be used as basic data for the development of safe and economical logistics for a transportation of the spent fuels in Korea by considering the transportation costs for the four scenarios which will be needed in the near future.

  19. Green Transportation for a Green Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation is one of the biggest contributors to the destruction of the environment. Results from environmental research and pursuant governmental regulations are changing the way companies do business and how transportation systems address the future. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been at the forefront in leading environmental…

  20. A Mercury Model of Atmospheric Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Alex B. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chodash, Perry A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Procassini, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    Using the particle transport code Mercury, accurate models were built of the two sources used in Operation BREN, a series of radiation experiments performed by the United States during the 1960s. In the future, these models will be used to validate Mercury’s ability to simulate atmospheric transport.

  1. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  2. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    Plutonium has already been transported within the UK over a period of 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 60's. Experience is recounted with regard to the forms of plutonium transported, regulations, insurance, container design, mode of transport, volume of traffic, physical protection, safety analysis and costs. It is concluded that this traffic could be expanded in the future without danger to the community or the environment

  3. Conceptual designs of radioactive canister transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This report covers conceptual designs of transporters for the vertical, horizontal, and inclined installation of canisters containing spent-fuel elements, high-level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate-level waste (low-level waste is not discussed). Included in the discussion are cask concepts; transporter vehicle designs; concepts for mechanisms for handling and manipulating casks, canisters, and concrete plugs; transporter and repository operating cycles; shielding calculations; operator radiation dosages; radiation-resistant materials; and criteria for future design efforts

  4. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  5. The future of petroleum fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laredo, J.

    1997-01-01

    The world relies greatly on hydrocarbons for its energy. The three main problems associated with this dependence on fossil fuels are that (1) most consuming countries depend on oil supplied from high-risk producing countries, (2) oil reserves will eventually deplete, and (3) the burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gases that are harmful to the environment and human health. In response to some of these concerns, governments have set emissions standards and have encouraged the development of alternative energy sources. This trend will have a significant impact on the transportation sector, oil companies and car manufacturers. This monograph attempts to evaluate qualitatively the potential of various alternative technologies, especially on the transportation sector. Alternative technology research in the United States and Europe by the automobile and electrical industries was examined. Preparation by the oil companies for the changes that they will have to confront in the not-too-distant future were also reviewed. 82 refs., 7 tabs., 20 figs

  6. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  7. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  8. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  9. Future outlook of hydrogen market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozmen, S.; Leprince, P.

    1976-01-01

    Up to now, hydrogen has been produced from hydrocarbons for chemical uses. In the future, it will have to find a new market for itself which will depend on the development of nuclear power plants. Through the use of electric or thermal energy available during off-peak hours, water decomposition by electrolytic or thermal methods (redox cycle) could produce hydrogen, a storable and transportable gas. In addition to hydrogen consumption for chemical uses (methanol and ammonia manufacturing, petroleum fraction processing, metallurgy, etc.) plans are being drawn up to use hydrogen as a vehicle for energy [fr

  10. Crafting our energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Schagen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    unquestionably part of our future energy mix, trying to implement them on a large scale without a regulatory framework that puts a value on carbon emissions will be costly and the costs will fall on both industry and the community. We must, nevertheless, continue to pursue their development and introduction over the medium term. Clean coal offers a number of attractions. Apart from being cost-competitive with other forms of energy, it can also help solve a far larger problem for Australia: our growing dependence on imported transport fuels and the greenhouse emissions of our transport sector. Because it is a chemical - not a combustion - process, IGCC is capable of producing a range of products from coal: syngas, clean diesel fuel, hydrogen (the cleanest fuel of all), fertiliser and other industrial materials. In other words, coal-IGCC can provide motive power for the new ultra-efficient diesel engines, for hybrid cars or for vehicles powered by fuel cells. This is a big advantage over technologies that only produce electricity. The transport sector contributes 14 per cent of Australia's greenhouse emissions. If we are to overcome the greenhouse problem, we need to cut emissions from transport as well as from electricity generation. Clean coal can help achieve this. Also, Australians are already world leaders at mining, handling, analysing, processing, burning and exporting coal. We will need to grow those skills to pursue the clean coal route, but we already have a head-start in our skills base. The new Asia-Pacific greenhouse partnership between Australia, the US, Japan, China, India and South Korea offers us an opportunity to be among the world leaders in the clean energy game. We can be an exporter of clean energy, of energy-rich products (like aluminium or magnesium) and of clean technology and know-how. In other words, we can use our brains as well as our resources. This will not only sustain our own future but will also help our trading partners to maintain growth and to

  11. The future of energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.; O' Keefe, P.; Snape, C.

    1994-12-15

    An analysis of the use of different forms of energy and its environmental and social impacts. Giving an overview of the development of different forms of energy provision and patterns of supply and demand, this book shows how enduse applies to energy industries, how the environment and social costs of energy use have to be introduced into energy planning and accounting and the crucial role of efficiency. Case studies will include the transport and building sectors of industrial economies, the use of stoves and woodfuel and agroforestry planning in developing countries. It will then examine the different forms of energy - conventional, nuclear and renewable - concluding by setting out different energy futures and the policy requirements for sustainable futures. (author)

  12. Drivers of sustainable future mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna

    This PhD thesis presents three complementary studies that aimed to enhance knowledge of young people’s longitudinal mobility trends and the factors influencing adolescents’ future mobility intentions. First study was an analysis of Danish national travel survey data (TU) from 1995 to 2012....... The sample consisted of young people divided into four age groups: 15-19 year old, 20-24 year old, 25-29 year old and 30-34 year old. The analysis explores the development of gender gaps for rural and urban living location. The mobility indicators analysed were; driving licence status, travel mode, distance...... is still an important subject in transportation research and future development for young people should be monitored closely. The second study was an internet based survey with the aim to explore a range of mediating factors influencing 15 year old adolescents’ intentions to commute by means of car...

  13. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  14. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  16. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignon, H.; Brachet, Y.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G.; Robine, F.; Plantet, F.; Pestel Lefevre, O.; Hennenhofer, G.; Bonnemains, J.

    1997-01-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  17. Manpower analysis in transportation safety. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.S.; Bowden, H.M.; Colford, C.A.; DeFilipps, P.J.; Dennis, J.D.; Ehlert, A.K.; Popkin, H.A.; Schrader, G.F.; Smith, Q.N.

    1977-05-01

    The project described provides a manpower review of national, state and local needs for safety skills, and projects future manning levels for transportation safety personnel in both the public and private sectors. Survey information revealed that there are currently approximately 121,000 persons employed directly in transportation safety occupations within the air carrier, highway and traffic safety, motor carrier, pipeline, rail carrier, and marine carrier transportation industry groups. The projected need for 1980 is over 145,000 of which over 80 percent will be in highway safety. An analysis of transportation tasks is included, and shows ten general categories about which the majority of safety activities are focused. A skills analysis shows a generally high level of educational background and several years of experience are required for most transportation safety jobs. An overall review of safety programs in the transportation industry is included, together with chapters on the individual transportation modes.

  18. Globalization, transportation and Kyoto; Globalisatie, transport en Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenburg, C.A.; Ubbels, B. [Afdeling Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, P. [Economische Faculteit, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-12-08

    Globalization of the economy will probably coincide with more transport, as a result of which the environmental burden will increase. Thus, the Kyoto standards will be difficult to realize. Based on four economic scenarios with different levels of globalization insight is gained into the possible consequences of future developments (economic development, investment, consumption, (regional) specializations, and trade up to 2020) in the transportation sector, focusing on the Netherlands. Those developments have been made concrete by means of the Worldscan model, developed by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB). 8 refs.

  19. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  20. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  1. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  2. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  3. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  4. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  5. Electricity: an indigenous transport fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, D J

    1978-12-25

    Potential reserves of hydro and geothermal power are adequate to power all road-transport vehicles should these be converted to electric drives in the future. Conversion of petrol vehicles to electric drives results in a significant increase in energy-utilization efficiency coupled with a decrease in costs, both to the country in overseas funds and to the driver in operating costs. As yet, however, New Zealand has no plan to use these resources in a transport role and is supporting no feasibility research.

  6. Overview of nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grella, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of transportation as it relates to one specific type of material, low specific activity (LSA) material. It is the predominant type of material that fits into the low-level waste category. An attempt is made to discuss how LSA is regulated, setting forth the requirements. First the general scheme of regulations are reviewed. In addition future changes in the regulations which will affect transportation of LSA materials and, which quite likely, will have an impact on R and D needs in this area are presented

  7. Electron heat transport analysis of low-collisionality plasmas in the neoclassical-transport-optimized configuration of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Arimitsu

    2002-01-01

    Electron heat transport in low-collisionality LHD plasma is investigated in order to study the neoclassical transport optimization effect on thermal plasma transport with an optimization level typical of so-called ''advanced stellarators''. In the central region, a higher electron temperature is obtained in the optimized configuration, and transport analysis suggests the considerable effect of neoclassical transport on the electron heat transport assuming the ion-root level of radial electric field. The obtained experimental results support future reactor design in which the neoclassical and/or anomalous transports are reduced by magnetic field optimization in a non-axisymmetric configuration. (author)

  8. Transport on prescription: How can GPs contribute to the promotion of active transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistoll, Chance; Furler, John

    2017-10-01

    Active transport (ie walking, cycling, using public transport) can play a part in reducing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Very little is known about how general practitioners (GPs) can contribute to promoting active transport. We explored GPs' ideas around active transport, and potential barriers and facilitators to its promotion in the clinical setting. Using a maximal variation sample, we conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The socioecological model informed data collection and analysis. The idea of active transport resonated with GPs. Limited awareness around active transport and safety concerns regarding commuter cycling were barriers to clinical promotion. GPs believed patients' health, cultural norms, socioeconomic position and access to supportive environments could facilitate participation. Future efforts should prioritise awareness of active transport among GPs. The perspectives of GPs would be valuable to policymakers, particularly in designing programs to mitigate inequalities around active transport access and use.

  9. The Future Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2015-01-01

    /value – The original contribution is in demonstrating how plural futures and the singular future co-exist in practice. Thus, an eclipse of the future by futures can only ever be partial. For “futures” to be conceptually potent, “the future” must be at least provisionally believable and occasionally useful. Otherwise......, if “the future” were so preposterous an idea, then “futures” would cease to be a critical alternative to it. Futures needs the future; they are relationally bound together in a multiplicity. This paper considers what such a logical reality implies for a field that distances itself from the future and self......). Multiplicity, as a post-ANT sensibility, helps one make sense of the empirical materials. This paper examines the possibility that rather than being alternatives to one another, plural futures and the singular future might co-exist in practice, and, thus, constitute a multiplicity. Design...

  10. Spatial Patterns and Design Policies for Future American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Ashok K.; Costa, Frank J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plans for future urban development which take into account energy needs, mass transportation, technological innovations, high density settlement along the rapid transit spine, and rational decision making. (Author/DB)

  11. Harmonizing carbon footprint calculation for freight transport chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, A.; Ehrler, V.; Auvinen, H.; Maurer, H.; Davydenko, I.; Burmeister, A.; Seidel, S.; Lischke, A.; Kiel, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission has set as a target a reduction of 60% in transport greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 [EC 11]. This includes freight transport emissions, which present a particular challenge due to the forecast increase in goods transport linked to future economic growth, the current trend of

  12. Making the Future Palpable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Kristensen, Margit; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiences from a Future Laboratory. Future laboratories allow users to experiment with prototypes of future technologies in as realistic as possible conditions. We have devised this method because, to realize the potential of advanced ubiquitous computing technologies...... it is essential to anticipate and design for future practices, but for prospective users it is often difficult to imagine and articulate future practices and provide design specifications. They readily invent new ways of working in engagement with new technologies, through and, by facilitating as realistic...... as possible use of prototype future technologies in Future Laboratories designers and users can define and study both opportunities and constraints for design. We present 11 scenes from a Major Incidents Future Laboratory held in September 2005. In relation to each scene we point out key results. Many raise...

  13. Future accelerators: physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1977-11-01

    High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references

  14. Money market futures

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoli Kuprianov

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all financial innovation in the U.S. money market during the past 20 years has centered on interest rate derivatives, including futures and swaps. Furthermore, money market futures--especially futures contracts on Eurodollar time deposits--have been at the vanguard of the recent explosion of trading activity in interest rate derivatives. While futures markets traditionally have been viewed as markets for the transfer of price risk, recent research shows that they may serve other imp...

  15. Personal Aircraft Point to the Future of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs, as well as a number of Agency innovations, have helped Duluth, Minnesota-based Cirrus Design Corporation become one of the world's leading manufacturers of general aviation aircraft. SBIRs with Langley Research Center provided the company with cost-effective composite airframe manufacturing methods, while crashworthiness testing at the Center increased the safety of its airplanes. Other NASA-derived technologies on Cirrus SR20 and SR22 aircraft include synthetic vision systems that help pilots navigate and full-plane parachutes that have saved the lives of more than 30 Cirrus pilots and passengers to date. Today, the SR22 is the world's top-selling Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-certified single-engine airplane.

  16. Future earth orbit transportation systems/technology implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. Z.; Decker, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming Space Shuttle technology to be state-of-the-art, projected technological advances to improve the capabilities of single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) derivatives are examined. An increase of about 30% in payload performance can be expected from upgrading the present Shuttle system through weight and drag reductions and improvements in the propellants and engines. The ODINEX (Optimal Design Integration Executive Computer Program) program has been used to explore design options. An advanced technology SSTO baseline system derived from ODINEX analysis has a conventional wing-body configuration using LOX/LH engines, three with two-position nozzles with expansion ratios of 40 and 200 and four with fixed nozzles with an expansion ratio of 40. Two assisted-takeoff approaches are under consideration in addition to a concept in which the orbital vehicle takes off empty using airbreathing propulsion and carries out a rendezvous with two large cryogenic tankers carrying propellant at an altitude of 6100 m. Further approaches under examination for propulsion, aerothermodynamic design, and design integration are described.

  17. Growing population segments and their impact on future transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    compared the mode choice of single parents and people in single person households (both in “family age” and after retirement) with the choice of people in more traditional household forms. Additionally, we looked into differences within these groups related to gender and urban from. The relevance...... of these variables for car use as driver, as passenger, and in total was estimated in linear regression analyses. Persons living alone showed the lowest car use; living with a partner and having kids increased driving. While gender differences in older people’s car use could partly be explained with women’s lower...... car availability and driving licence rates, this was not the case for younger people. Thus, gender roles and different travel preferences are expected to play a role here. Living in a large urban area significantly decreased car use of younger people, whereas it increased older people’s car use...

  18. Panorama 2016 - Distribution of electrification in transportation: future prospects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2015-11-01

    The automobile industry continues to transition toward a cleaner, more diversified range of vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have become a reality on our roads, and sales of electrical vehicles are on the rise. What are the realities of this growth? How can it be accelerated, and what may be the impacts of such a development? (author)

  19. Conflict Detection and Resolution for Future Air Transportation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krozel, Jimmy; Peters, Mark E.; Hunter, George

    1997-01-01

    With a Free Flight policy, the emphasis for air traffic control is shifting from active control to passive air traffic management with a policy of intervention by exception. Aircraft will be allowed to fly user preferred routes, as long as safety Alert Zones are not violated. If there is a potential conflict, two (or more) aircraft must be able to arrive at a solution for conflict resolution without controller intervention. Thus, decision aid tools are needed in Free Flight to detect and resolve conflicts, and several problems must be solved to develop such tools. In this report, we analyze and solve problems of proximity management, conflict detection, and conflict resolution under a Free Flight policy. For proximity management, we establish a system based on Delaunay Triangulations of aircraft at constant flight levels. Such a system provides a means for analyzing the neighbor relationships between aircraft and the nearby free space around air traffic which can be utilized later in conflict resolution. For conflict detection, we perform both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analyses based on the penetration of the Protected Airspace Zone. Both deterministic and non-deterministic analyses are performed. We investigate several types of conflict warnings including tactical warnings prior to penetrating the Protected Airspace Zone, methods based on the reachability overlap of both aircraft, and conflict probability maps to establish strategic Alert Zones around aircraft.

  20. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  1. Denmark`s energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The stated aim of the document published by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Danish Energy Agency is that it should form the basis for a broad public debate on the country`s future energy policy. The report has four main objectives: 1. To describe, with emphasis on the environment and the market, challenges that the energy sector will have to face in the future. 2. To illustrate the potentials for saving energy and for utilising energy sources and supply systems. 3. To present two scenarios of extreme developmental positions; the first where maximum effort is expended on increasing energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energy and the second where no new initiative is taken and change occurs only when progress in available technology is exploited and 4. To raise a number of questions about our future way of living. Following the extensive summary, detailed information is given under the headings of: Challenges of the energy sector, Energy consumption and conservation, Energy consumption in the transport sector, Energy resources, Energy supply and production, Development scenario, and Elements of Strategy. The text is illustrated with maps, graphs and coloured photographs etc. (AB)

  2. Myanmar Transport Sector Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is preparing sector assessments to help align future ADB support with the needs and strategies of developing member countries and other development partners. The assessment is a working document that helps inform the development of country partnership strategies. This transport sector assessment highlights development issues, needs, and strategic assistance priorities of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and ADB, with a focus on rail, road...

  3. Future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, John

    2005-01-01

    the Australian governments, industry and people ready to accept the energy/greenhouse challenge? In a presentation to an Australian Institute of Energy forum in August 2005, Brad Page, CEO of the Energy Supply Association of Australia, called for a long-term focus on GHG emissions with a 'single, national greenhouse gas emission target for 2050 that applies to the whole economy.... that enables the economic impact and tate of change to be manageable'. Industry is now concentrating on the threat that unabated GHG emissions pose to the Australian economy and looking for ways to reduce that risk by application of cost-effective low-emission approaches. The Government has responded by setting up competitive low-emission technology fund sources in the order of $1 billion through the White Paper Securing Australia's Energy Future. While we still do not have a price on carbon, the push for technology solutions is a way forward. For average Australians, prompted by reports of severe weather events, there is growing awareness of climate change and its potential detrimental effects. There will be increasing public calls for action at all levels of the economy. There are certain essential routes in the energy roadmap. Restricting the view to 2050, we see continuing strong growth in energy demand, the vast majority of which will be supplied by fossil fuels, and a strong growth in wind, photovoltaic and biomass energy off a relatively small base, resulting in continuing strong growth in GHG emissions from the stationary energy and transport sectors, under business as usual. Our oil self-sufficiency will decline from 78 per cent now to 49 per cent in 2030. The response to this set of circumstances is that Australia will actively seek technological solutions to GHG mitigation from fossil fuels by carbon dioxide capture and geological storage as a primary response. The nuclear option will also be re-examined as a large-scale mitigation response. Processes to boost the rate of growth

  4. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  5. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  6. Nanoscale thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid-solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The

  7. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  8. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  9. Coal transportation research and information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, R.W. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown); Hui, C.Y.

    1978-09-01

    This paper examines some of the existing and emerging issues of interest to engineers and planners dealing with coal transportation. One conclusion is that any research or data collection efforts in this field must be of a multidisciplinary nature. Not only must transportation planners, highway engineers, maintenance engineers, and soils engineers work together but, in addition, engineers will need to work with geologists, economists, and marketing specialists for effective planning, design, and operation of the coal transportation system. Earlier sections of this paper may have given the erroneous impression that all future research should concentrate on problems of transporting coal by truck. Although the West Virginia coal conversion study documented information deficiencies relative to the highway transportation of coal, research efforts involving railroads and waterways should continue. There is a serious need for research and information relative to the interactions between modes. For example, in order to predict the impact of local coal conversions on rail and barge systems that serve retailers, it is necessary to have a knowledge of the typical volumes that would be required by retail facilities, frequency of delivery to retail yards, and transportation distances involved mine and retailer. This paper deals with relatively short-term planning, however, information is required on the long-range future of the coal industry. Decision makers involved with providing an adequate coal transportation system must have information on the future role that coal will play in United States energy policy. (MCW)

  10. Future planning - utopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1978-01-01

    Our life develops as the anticipation of future. Everything we wish, hope, plan and carry out and think is or should be related to future and will have its effects in future. The certainty may spread that it is a necessary obligation to learn to find out our actual being more clearly to be able to develop a thinking and acting that is directed to future that has also a total of responsability as its essence. We will later atone for the failed outlooks into future or for only moderate or uncompleted starts of planning. For this reason we should consider that future does not come for its own, not without our demands, not without our acting. Only if our reflection and aspiration, thinking and acting is done with moderate and circumspect sense in the right way it will be a good fundamental for the future. (orig.) [de

  11. Transport theory of dissipative heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norenberg, W.

    1979-01-01

    The lectures present the formulation of a transport theory, the derivation of a practicable transport equation (Fokker-Planck equation) and the evaluation of transport coefficients for dissipative (or deeply inelastic) heavy-ion collisions. The applicability of the theoretical concept is tested with remarkable success in the analyses of various experimental information (mass transfer, angular-momentum dissipation and energy loss). Some critical remarks on the present situation of transport theories are added. Future developments are outlined. (author)

  12. Transport theory of dissipative heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.

    1979-03-01

    The lectures present the formulation of a transport theory, the derivation of a practicable transport equation (Fokker-Planck equation) and the evaluation of transport coefficients for dissipative (or deeply inelastic) heavyion collisions. The applicability of the theoretical concept is tested with remarkable success in the analyses of various experimental informations (mass transfer, angular-momentum dissipation and energy loss). Some critical remarks on the present situation of transport theories are added. Future developments are outlined. (orig.) [de

  13. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  14. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  15. Biofuels for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of strong government policies, the IEA projects that the worldwide use of oil in transport will nearly double between 2000 and 2030, leading to a similar increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels, such as ethanol, bio-diesel, and other liquid and gaseous fuels, could offer an important alternative to petroleum over this time frame and help reduce atmospheric pollution. This book looks at recent trends in biofuel production and considers what the future might hold if such alternatives were to displace petroleum in transport. The report takes a global perspective on the nascent biofuels industry, assessing regional similarities and differences as well as the cost and benefits of the various initiatives being undertaken around the world. In the short term, conventional biofuel production processes in IEA countries could help reduce oil use and thence greenhouse gas emissions, although the costs may be high. In the longer term, possibly within the next decade, advances in biofuel production and the use of new feedstocks could lead to greater, more cost-effective reductions. Countries such as Brazil are already producing relatively low-cost biofuels with substantial reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. This book explores the range of options on offer and asks whether a global trade in biofuels should be more rigorously pursued

  16. Capital District Transportation Committee Albany, New York : planning the congestion management process in the context of metropolitan transportation planning goals and objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Capital District Transportation Committee (CDTC) uses a broad and integrated approach for transportation planning in the Albany-Schenectady-Troy (New York) metropolitan area. This approach encompasses issues critical to the future of the Capital ...

  17. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  18. Steam Generator for PFBR and Future FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athmalingam, S.

    2011-01-01

    Challenges of 30m tube SG (3SG/Loop): Transportation needs to be verified for 33m long SG. (A dummy will be attached in PFBR SG to check transportation); Redesign of thermal expansion bend (Option of Double bend or reduction in DT with “Flow limiter” may be considered); Seismic qualification (Provision of additional guide supports if required); Travel of eddy current probe during ISI to be demonstrated; Design basis leak to be verified. Improved overall economy and enhanced safety of the plant overweighs the challenges, hence SG with 30m long tubes is chosen for future FBRs

  19. 40 CFR 93.106 - Content of transportation plans and timeframe of conformity determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation analysis in use by the MPO. Transit facilities, equipment, and services envisioned for the future... plans which meet those requirements. Otherwise, the transportation system envisioned for the future must... determination; (iv) The last year of the transportation plan's forecast period must be a horizon year; and (v...

  20. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  1. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  2. The FORATOM Transport Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    35% of the electricity in western Europe is taking on growing importance at a time when it is becoming clear that nuclear power has definite advantages in terms of economics, security of supply and environment protection. The prospect of new countries joining the European Union in the foreseeable future is also enhancing these concerns. Transport is an essential link in the nuclear industry and safe transport of radioactive material is a major issue because any disruption of transport has serious consequences for the management of the power generation. The challenges are double, on the one hand to maintain the economic and safe operation of nuclear transport, on the other to ensure that the community and its leaders fully appreciate the contribution of the industry in this field. Both are part of the tasks of the FORATOM Transport Working Group. (author)

  3. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  4. Enabling technologies for demand management: Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Roderick A.

    2008-01-01

    Rising transport demand is likely to be the biggest hurdle to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions. Globally and nationally, transport is consuming an ever increasing share of our total energy use. Furthermore, the bulk of energy used in transport comes from the burning of petroleum products. This brief paper summarises options arising from the two routes to reduce energy demand in transport: improved and more efficient use of existing and possible new transport modes, and the reduction of transport demand. In both areas, the prospects in the immediate and longer-term future are hedged with difficulties. Automobiles and aircraft have improved considerably in recent decades, but future improvements are likely to be incremental. The introduction of hydrogen as a fuel is appealing, but there are technical problems to be solved. Active reduction of demand for transport will require a decoupling of the link between demand and growth in gross domestic product. Globally, this will be very difficult to achieve. Various modes of public transport exist that are efficient in terms of their energy use per passenger kilometre. But they need large investments to make them more attractive than the automobile. However, population concentration in mega-cities, allied with congestion, will make such innovation essential. Policy measures can be assisted in their implementation by new technology, but will remain politically problematic

  5. Correlates of walking for transportation and use of public transportation among adults in St Louis, Missouri, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Hipp, James A; Corseuil, Marui W; Dodson, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-03

    Attributes of the built environment can influence active transportation, including use of public transportation. However, the relationship between perceptions of the built environment and use of public transportation deserves further attention. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess the relationship between personal characteristics and public transportation use with meeting national recommendations for moderate physical activity through walking for transportation and 2) to examine associations between personal and perceived environmental factors and frequency of public transportation use. In 2012, we administered a mail-based survey to 772 adults in St Louis, Missouri, to assess perceptions of the built environment, physical activity, and transportation behaviors. The abbreviated International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess walking for transportation and use of public transportation. The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale was used to examine perceptions of the built environment. Associations were assessed by using multinomial logistic regression. People who used public transportation at least once in the previous week were more likely to meet moderate physical activity recommendations by walking for transportation. Age and employment were significantly associated with public transportation use. Perceptions of high traffic speed and high crime were negatively associated with public transportation use. Our results were consistent with previous research suggesting that public transportation use is related to walking for transportation. More importantly, our study suggests that perceptions of traffic speed and crime are related to frequency of public transportation use. Future interventions to encourage public transportation use should consider policy and planning decisions that reduce traffic speed and improve safety.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    part of this project, instrumentation was developed to monitor cuttings beds and characterize foams in the flow loop. An ultrasonic-based monitoring system was developed to measure cuttings bed thickness in the flow loop. Data acquisition software controls the system and processes the data. Two foam generating devices were designed and developed to produce foams with specified quality and texture. The devices are equipped with a bubble recognition system and an in-line viscometer to measure bubble size distribution and foam rheology, respectively. The 5-year project is completed. Future research activities will be under the umbrella of Tulsa University Drilling Research Projects. Currently the flow loop is being used for testing cuttings transport capacity of aqueous and polymer-based foams under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. Subsequently, the effect of viscous sweeps on cuttings transport under elevated pressure and temperature conditions will be investigated using the flow loop. Other projects will follow now that the ''steady state'' phase of the project has been achieved.

  7. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    a different future for both parents and children. Thus, the approach to PMTO as a technology of the future indicates its expected prevalence in the future and its attempt to reach in to the future becoming of the child. The technology’s involvement of the relatives and its orientation towards shaping......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  8. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  9. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Nuclear power has a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    2000-01-01

    Consensus is possible. This is the message of the President of the Deutsches Atomforum, Dr. Otto Majewski, at the opening of the Forum's Winter Meeting in Berlin. Majewski emphasized that the operators of nuclear power plants urgently needed security in planning, given the rapid change in the European electricity market. It was time to get away from the onesided discussion about running times and opt-out, and focus again on the entire spectrum of a long term, calculable, reliable energy policy. Besides a sustainable clarification of the transport issue, the retroactive taxation of the reserves accumulated for waste management constituted an unacceptable burden on operators. Companies would take legal action against these measures, should it turn out to be necessary. Dr. Majewski expressed himself unequivocally in favour of the EPR as a reactor line for the future. (orig.) [de

  11. The future of energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.; O`Keefe, P.; Snape, C. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Photovoltaics Application Centre

    1995-12-31

    The book gives a comprehensive analysis of the history and use of different forms of energy, their environmental and social impacts and, in particular, their economic costs and the future of their supply. It examines all the major forms of energy - conventional fuels such as oil and coal, nuclear power and alternative and renewable sources - and includes case studies on the transport and building sectors in the North and agroforestry and fuelwood problems in the South. The authors discuss the development of energy provision and patterns of supply and demand, and examine the use of end-use analyses. They look at the ways in which social and environmental costs should be introduced into energy planning and accounting, and emphasise the crucial role of efficiency to limit over-consumption. 91 refs., 100 figs., 62 tabs.

  12. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  13. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  14. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  15. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  16. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  17. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  18. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  19. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...

  20. Heavy-ion fusion: Future promise and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudziak, D.J.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The previous several papers in this heavy-ion fusion special session have described work that has taken place as part of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) project. Key technical issues in the design and costing of targets, accelerator systems, beam transport, reactor and balance-of-plant, and systems integration have been identified and described. The HIFSA systems model was used to measure the relative value of improvements in physics understanding and technology developments in many different areas. The result of this study has been to, within the limits of our 1986 imagination and creativity, define the ''most attractive'' future heavy-ion fusion (HIF) power plant at some time in the future (beyond the year 2020 in this case). The project has specifically avoided narrowing the focus to a point facility design; thus, the generic systems modeling capability developed in the process allows for a relative comparison among design options. The authors describe what are thought to be achievable breakthroughs and what the relative significance of the breakthroughs will be, although the specific mechanism for achieving some breakthroughs may not be clear at this point

  1. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  2. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  3. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  4. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  5. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  6. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    be considered which fuels such technologies can utilise and how these fuels can be distributed. Natural gas is not an option in future renewable energy systems and the de‐ mand for gaseous fuels, such as biogas or syngas, will increase significantly. Hence, fuel cell CHP plants represent a more fuel...... of transport, battery electric vehicles are more suitable than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in future energy system. Battery electric ve‐ hicles may, for a part of the transport demand, have limitations in their range. Hybrid tech‐ nologies may provide a good option, which can combine the high fuel efficiency......Efficient fuel cells and electrolysers are still at the development stage. In this dissertation, future developed fuel cells and electrolysers are analysed in future renewable energy sys‐ tems. Today, most electricity, heat and transport demands are met by combustion tech‐ nologies. Compared...

  7. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  8. European initiatives for modeling emissions from transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Hickman, A. John; Samaras, Zissis

    1998-01-01

    In Europe there have been many cooperative studies into transport emission inventories since the late 80s. These cover the scope of CORINAIR program involving experts from seven European Community laboratories addressing only road transport emissions at national level. These also include the latest...... covered are the composition of the vehicle fleets, emission factors, driving statistics and the modeling approach. Many of the European initiatives aim also at promoting further cooperation between national laboratories and at defining future research needs. An assessment of these future needs...... is presented from a European point of view....

  9. Urban Transportation: Issue and Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryati Shafii

    2011-10-01

    Correlation test is P =0.362 and significant to level = 0.000. This study also identifies the impact of mode of transportation to community. However impact due to traffic jam is very critical (88.8% in three areas which between > 10-15 minutes and >40-45 minutes This research also indicated some psychologies effect. The psychological effects of people with the mode of transportation in urban areas are tiredness, headache and stress. The study concludes with some suggestion on future transportation development towards higher consideration for community in urban areas which can contribute to a higher quality of life.

  10. Considering a healthy future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Jannette

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs between current and future consequences are characteristic for the domain of health behavior. Therefore, both eating and exercising behavior could be determined by time orientation, which refers to an individual’s general orientation toward the present or the future. The main aim of

  11. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  12. The Future as Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lane

    Because good future studies and good fiction have a great deal in common, futurists need to recognize and apply the skills of word artists from all genres, particularly novelists and short-story writers. One form of science fiction that futurists could use is the scenario, which is an exploration of an alternative future. A good scenario should be…

  13. Framework for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning is to provide a "strategic framework" for the future. In this article, the author considers the key components that will make up the framework. These are: (1) a statement of vision and values; (2) a stock-take of the current position; (3) an "investment…

  14. (Some) Computer Futures: Mainframes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Earl C.

    Possible futures for the world of mainframe computers can be forecast through studies identifying forces of change and their impact on current trends. Some new prospects for the future have been generated by advances in information technology; for example, recent United States successes in applied artificial intelligence (AI) have created new…

  15. Summaries and future projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelstaff, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the author gives a brief summary of this meeting. He discusses the status at the current neutron sources and future sources. The current problems with targets, moderators, performance of storage rings and shields are briefly mentioned. Finally, he speculates on the prospects of neutron sources for the future and gives his version of the ultimate source

  16. Transportation and quantitative analysis of socio-economic development of relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Transportation has a close relationship with socio-economic. This article selects the indicators which can measure the development of transportation and socio-economic, using the method of correlation analysis, regression analysis, intensity of transportation analysis and transport elastic analysis, to analyze the relationship between them quantitatively, so that it has the fact guiding sense in the national development planning for the future.

  17. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  18. Cooperative Business Structures for Green Transport Corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In its White Paper on “A Sustainable Future of Transport”, the European Commission promoted the idea of green transport corridors (GTCs by establishing trans-shipment routes with concentration of freight traffic between major hubs. GTCs reduce environmental and climate impact of the traffic on these relatively long distances of transport while increasing safety and efficiency with the application of sustainable logistics solutions. The Baltic Sea Region (BSR enjoys a vanguard position in the development and realisation of green transport concepts within Europe.

  19. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity

  20. Pipelines, inexpensive and safe mode of transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, D D

    1979-01-01

    Pipelines are the leading bulk commodity transporter and should play an even more important role in the future of energy transportation and distribution. As fossil fuel and low-cost uranium resources become depleted, it will be economical to produce hydrogen by electrolysis and transport it through underground pipelines to points of consumption. The cost would be only two to three times that of transporting natural gas per unit of heat energy and substantially less than the cost of transporting electric energy in overhead, extra-high-voltage transmission lines. Pipeline design, including economic pipe diameter; pipe material; operation by remote control and automation; cathodic protection; pipeline construction; and pipeline maintenance, particularly as regards the 1157 km long Oil India Pipeline, are discussed.

  1. Transport of compounds from mother to foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Garnett, E.S.; Perrier, D.G.; Prestwich, W.

    1992-06-01

    This study reviews the literature and investigates the transport of selected radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus and the distribution of these radiopharmaceuticals in both animals and man. This search emphasizes the placental transport of the drugs from the mother to the foetus and the development of pharmacokinetic models that could describe this transport. An outline of the distribution and/or transport of several radio-pharmaceuticals is presented followed by a description of the factors that regulate the transport of the radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus. Pharmacokinetic models were designed on the available information in the open literature. The limitation of the literature is discussed and suggestions for future experimental investigation are made

  2. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B transporters modulate hydroxyurea pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Aisha L; Lancaster, Cynthia S; Finkelstein, David; Ware, Russell E; Sparreboom, Alex

    2013-12-15

    Hydroxyurea is currently the only FDA-approved drug that ameliorates the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia. Unfortunately, substantial interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydroxyurea may result in variation of the drug's efficacy. However, little is known about mechanisms that modulate hydroxyurea PK. Recent in vitro studies identifying hydroxyurea as a substrate for organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B) transporters prompted the current investigation assessing the role of OATP1B transporters in modulating hydroxyurea PK. Using wild-type and Oatp1b knockout (Oatp1b(-/-)) mice, hydroxyurea PK was analyzed in vivo by measuring [(14)C]hydroxyurea distribution in plasma, kidney, liver, urine, or the exhaled (14)CO2 metabolite. Plasma levels were significantly reduced by 20% in Oatp1b(-/-) mice compared with wild-type (area under the curve of 38.64 or 48.45 μg·h(-1)·ml(-1), respectively) after oral administration, whereas no difference was observed between groups following intravenous administration. Accumulation in the kidney was significantly decreased by twofold in Oatp1b(-/-) mice (356.9 vs. 748.1 pmol/g), which correlated with a significant decrease in urinary excretion. Hydroxyurea accumulation in the liver was also decreased (136.6 vs. 107.3 pmol/g in wild-type or Oatp1b(-/-) mice, respectively) correlating with a decrease in exhaled (14)CO2. These findings illustrate that deficiency of Oatp1b transporters alters the absorption, distribution, and elimination of hydroxyurea thus providing the first in vivo evidence that cell membrane transporters may play a significant role in modulating hydroxyurea PK. Future studies to investigate other transporters and their role in hydroxyurea disposition are warranted for understanding the sources of variation in hydroxyurea's PK.

  3. Simulating the Interactions Among Land Use, Transportation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most transportation studies, computer models that forecast travel behavior statistics for a future year use static projections of the spatial distribution of future population and employment growth as inputs. As a result, they are unable to account for the temporally dynamic and non-linear interactions among transportation, land use, and socioeconomic systems. System dynamics (SD) provides a common framework for modeling the complex interactions among transportation and other related systems. This study uses a SD model to simulate the cascading impacts of a proposed light rail transit (LRT) system in central North Carolina, USA. The Durham-Orange Light Rail Project (D-O LRP) SD model incorporates relationships among the land use, transportation, and economy sectors to simulate the complex feedbacks that give rise to the travel behavior changes forecasted by the region’s transportation model. This paper demonstrates the sensitivity of changes in travel behavior to the proposed LRT system and the assumptions that went into the transportation modeling, and compares those results to the impacts of an alternative fare-free transit system. SD models such as the D-O LRP SD model can complement transportation studies by providing valuable insight into the interdependent community systems that collectively contribute to travel behavior changes. Presented at the 35th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society in Cambridge, MA, July 18th, 2017

  4. OIL AND GAS FUTURES AND OPTIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Nosić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy mineral resources markets are represented by complex supply and demand ratios which are depending on different factors such as technical (transport and geopolitical. The main specific of energy markets is represented by an uneven geographic distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and exploration on one hand and energy consumption on the other. World oil markets, although geographically localized, because of specific market trade, represent unique global market with decreasing price difference. Price differences are result of development of a transport possibilities of oil supply. Development of transport routes of natural gas and increasing number of liquefied natural gas terminals in the world give pressure to natural gas market and its integration into global gas market. Integration of regional gas markets into a common European gas market is main energy policy of EU concerning natural gas. On the other hand, there are still significant price differences on some markets (e.g. United States of America - South East Asia. Development of global energy markets is enabled by development of a futures and options contracts of an energy trade which have replaced bilateral contract deals between producers and consumers. Futures contracts are standardized contracts traded on exchanges. Buyer agrees to buy certain quantity of stock for an agreed upon price and with some future delivery date. Option is a contract which gives a buyer the option of the right to buy (or sell, depending on the option an asset at predetermined price and at a later date. Stocks price risk can be managed with the purchase and selling futures and options contracts. This paper deals with futures and options energy markets and their market strategies.

  5. Environmentally sustainable transport in the CEI countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, R.; Wiederkehr, P.

    2004-01-01

    Moving people and freight in an environmentally sustainable manner that reduces environmental pollution and health hazards is a key challenge for transport and environment policies in Europe. Present mobility patterns of passenger and freight transport in Central and Eastern Europe do not correspond to the objectives of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a transport futures study for the CEI region as a whole using backcasting methodology with long-term sustainability criteria to be met by 2030. Achieving environmentally sustainable transport (EST) doesn't mean less transport and mobility than we have today, but it means primarily maintaining a balanced modal split that results in less environmental and health impacts than it would be under projected future trends. Rail, trams, busses and new forms of flexible inter-modal public transport mobility would have to take a large share and rail transport for passenger and freight as well as inland shipping would have to be nearly doubled by 2030 while road freight could still increase if it is based on alternative fuels reducing its impacts. Technological advancements for passenger cars and lorries, fuels and infrastructure will play an important part to achieve EST, but also ''smart'' mobility management (e.g. transport avoidance, increasing load factors and modal shift), innovative mobility services and freight logistics would be critical. The implementation of these policies and strategies will require coherent and comprehensive packages of instruments and measures, including: economic instruments, regulatory instruments, changes in infrastructure investment, mobility management, information and education programmes as well as better integration of land use, transport and environment policies. Realising EST will provide new opportunities for businesses to develop and invest in innovative solutions for passenger and freight transport. Overall, achieving EST would constitute a net benefit for

  6. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  7. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  8. Focus on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanner, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment is made of what was learned from Halley and recommendations are made for future directions for infrared studies of comets and supporting lab investigations. The following issues are addressed: (1) What steps can be taken to achieve consistent interpretation of Halley infrared data; (2) How successful has the Halley Watch been for infrared studies; (3) What supporting lab research is needed; (4) What are the key infrared observations needed for future comets; and (5) How do current and future NASA programs relate to comet studies

  9. Back to the futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, F.

    1991-01-01

    A futures contract simply is this: an agreement to buy or sell a certain amount of a certain item for an agreed-upon price at some time in the future - for instance, an agreement to buy 10,000 million British thermal units (MMBtu) of natural gas six months from now at $2.00 per MMBtu. Futures contracts are used for commodities that experience a great deal of price volatility. The gas industry, like the wheat farmer, also has concerns about price volatility

  10. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  11. Defining sustainable transport in rural tourism: experiences from the New Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Janet E.; Smith, A.; Robbins, Derek K.

    2017-01-01

    Transport policy agendas have long sought to bring about more sustainable transport at tourism destinations. While there are examples of successes, it remains unclear what inroads have been made towards creating a sustainable transport future. Policy directions have evolved over a number of years and in many tourism destination contexts it is far from clear what a desirable transport future looks like. When translated to implementation, the aims of initiatives can be unclear and baseline meas...

  12. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  13. The Transforming Mobility Ecosystem: Enabling in Energy-Efficient Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-31

    Over the next decade, the transportation sector is poised for rapid change, propelled toward a new mobility future by strong technology currents and the confluence of prevailing megatrends. These major forces hold the promise of shaping a new mobility future – one that unlocks tremendous economic value, provides unprecedented gains in safety, offers affordable and equal accessibility, and enables the transition to energy-efficient transport of people and goods. They come, however, with cautionary viewpoints on energy consumption of the entire sector, necessitating the need to carefully guide the emergent future. This report examines four possible mobility futures that could exist in 2050 and the positive and negative impacts of these futures on energy consumption and the broader economy.

  14. Planning for the future : the role of mobility in residential and lifestyle choices of baby boomers and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the extent to which Baby Boomers and older adults take mobility and : transportation issues into consideration as they make individual residential and lifestyle plans for : their future older years. While transportation and urban ...

  15. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  16. Counseling For Future Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  17. Future neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2001-01-01

    Future experiments to search for neutrino oscillations using neutrinos from the Sun, from reactors and accelerators are reviewed. Possible long-term developments based on neutrino factories are also described. (29 refs).

  18. Queering Aging Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn J. Sandberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential for cultural gerontology to extend its ideas of diversity in aging experiences by opening space to rethink conceptions of successful aging futures. We propose a ‘queering’ of aging futures that disrupts the ways that expectations of a good later life and happy aging are seen to adhere to some bodies and subjectivities over others. Drawing on feminist, queer, and crip theories, we build on existing critiques of ‘successful aging’ to interrogate the assumptions of heteronormativity, able-bodiedness and able-mindedness that shape the dividing lines between success and failure in aging, and which inform attempts to ‘repair’ damaged futures. Conclusions suggest that recognizing diversity in successful aging futures is important in shaping responses to the challenges of aging societies, and presents an opportunity for critical cultural gerontology to join with its theoretical allies in imagining more inclusive alternatives.

  19. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  20. Future Integrated Fire Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Bonnie W

    2005-01-01

    Future advances in fire control for air and missile defense depend largely on a network-enabled foundation that enables the collaborative use of distributed warfare assets for time-critical operations...

  1. Back to the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    Collins, Graham

    2004-01-01

    "Predictions are hard to make, especially about the future" said Nobel physicist Niels Bohr, many years ago. But two months ago, 150 leading physicists gathered at the University of California to engage in just that daunting task (1 page)

  2. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  3. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    (HEV) has two different power sources: an electric motor and a small combustion engine to extend the operating range. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) add the ability to charge the battery from the mains. Many experts see PHEVs as a necessary transition to future EVs. The challenge for transport researchers and professionals will be to achieve dramatic efficiency improvements in modes of transport based on fossil fuels. At the same time it is necessary to promote research and demonstration of new power train technologies which can be used beyond 2050. (LN)

  5. Backup to the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmus, Handberg; Conrad, Anders S.; Svendsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    What if something horrible happens in the future? Great Scott! Do we have a backup? Is a backup even enough? At the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) we have a goal that all data and information from Kepler and KASC is preserved for the future. The benchmark is that the data ...... should be useful for, at least, the next 50 years. But how do we ensure that hundreds of terabytes of data are understandable or even readable in half a century?...

  6. Exoplanet Biosignatures: Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Sara I.; Bains, William; Cronin, Leroy; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Danielache, Sebastian; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kacar, Betul; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Lenardic, Adrian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Moore, William; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Smith, Harrison B.

    2017-01-01

    Exoplanet science promises a continued rapid accumulation of new observations in the near future, energizing a drive to understand and interpret the forthcoming wealth of data to identify signs of life beyond our Solar System. The large statistics of exoplanet samples, combined with the ambiguity of our understanding of universal properties of life and its signatures, necessitate a quantitative framework for biosignature assessment Here, we introduce a Bayesian framework for guiding future di...

  7. Demystifying Managed Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst,, Brian; Hua Ooi, Yao; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We show that the returns of Managed Futures funds and CTAs can be explained by time series momentum strategies and we discuss the economic intuition behind these strategies. Time series momentum strategies produce large correlations and high R-squares with Managed Futures indices and individual m...... of implementation issues relevant to time series momentum strategies, including risk management, risk allocation across asset classes and trend horizons, portfolio rebalancing frequency, transaction costs, and fees....

  8. Transportation technology quick reference file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, E.W. (ed.)

    1981-05-01

    This publication is a collection of items written by different authors on subjects relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of the document is to meet the continuing need for information on specific subjects for dissemination to the public at their request. The subjects included were selected on the basis of the questions most often asked about radioactive materials and their transportation. Additional subjects are being considered and will be included in the future. The loose-leaf notebook format is used to facilitate the updating of this material. The data used in many of the papers represent the best available at time of publication and will be updated as more current information becomes available.

  9. Transportation technology quick reference file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, E.W.

    1981-05-01

    This publication is a collection of items written by different authors on subjects relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of the document is to meet the continuing need for information on specific subjects for dissemination to the public at their request. The subjects included were selected on the basis of the questions most often asked about radioactive materials and their transportation. Additional subjects are being considered and will be included in the future. The loose-leaf notebook format is used to facilitate the updating of this material. The data used in many of the papers represent the best available at time of publication and will be updated as more current information becomes available

  10. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  11. FUTURE CLIMATE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.M. Forester

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure l), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog

  12. FUTURE CLIMATE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.M. Forester

    2000-03-14

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure l), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog.

  13. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  14. Personalized Infrastructure: Leveraging Behavioral Strategies for Future Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvall, Andrew L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-23

    For decades, the transportation system has been built to position the personal automobile at the pinnacle of mobility options. This prominence is strongly reflected in individual and population behaviors, and supported by coevolved transportation policy, social norms, funding, and physical structures. Such has been the status quo for the living memory of the U.S. population. However, with the advent of emergent, technologically driven mobility options, the transportation system is in an era of rapid and disruptive change. No longer is transportation infrastructure an externality predominantly composed of physical elements; it is also now a personalized interface carried in the pockets of the majority of the population. Perceptions of personal mobility are evolving, in large part because of the proliferation of smartphone technology and the related Internet of Things (IoT), which will become increasingly essential within future transportation systems. With the emergence of personalized mobility infrastructure, many intervention approaches to influence transportation behavior do not adequately acknowledge the complexity of the social/digital environment within which transportation decisions are made. Transportation decisions are influenced by multiple facets, including costs and benefits in time and money, but also by sociocultural elements shaped by social norms and diffusion of ideas. Understanding of factors that lead to transportation behaviors can help to identify incentives and leverage points whereby alternative choices may be most accepted by individuals, and which, if well coordinated, may lead to improved transportation energy outcomes. How can change be initiated to shift away from the transportation status quo? Is it possible to use technologically delivered incentives to produce meaningful changes in transportation behavior? What types of incentives and at what perceived value is necessary to induce changes in behavior? As transportation agencies look

  15. Intestinal cholesterol transport: Measuring cholesterol absorption and its reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal cholesterol transport might serve as an attractive future target for cardiovascular disease reduction, provided that underlying molecular mechanisms are more extensively elucidated, combined with improved techniques to measure changes in cholesterol fluxes and their possible

  16. Innovative educational modules for the next generation of transportation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Basic science and mathematics competence, including awareness of engineering careers, gained in grades K12 forms the foundation of an educated, capable, and technical future transportation workforce. This project developed a series of educational ...

  17. Impacts, trends and strategies in urban transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the urban mobility evolution from 1985 to 1995 and the possible future assets for transportation demand. For some scenarios are quantized the environmental impacts and energetic impacts [it

  18. Go girl! Facilitating exploration of transportation careers for girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The transportation engineering profession, like every other profession that relies heavily on the engineering, technology and science fields, faces a challenging future. A recent study by the National Science Board reported a troubling decline in the...

  19. Energy and transport policy for the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasises the role of financing research for the rational usage of energy. Independence of the industry from imports and nuclear power programme to cover the envisaged needs are considered before tackling the subject of financial aid to the railways. The future policy of transport development is also outlined. (I.G.)

  20. 78 FR 69173 - University Transportation Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... October 1, 2012. In the near future, the Department, via the Research and Innovative Technology..., technology and education resources, leadership, multi-modal research capability, and commitment to... education, research, and technology transfer activities; to provide for a critical transportation knowledge...

  1. Recent trends in air transport sustainibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Alonso, G.

    2016-07-01

    The target of this paper is to analyse the main elements of Air Transport sustainability, studying their evolution during the last years and establishing the future prevalent trends, which might be modified by the application of the adequate policies. Air Transport sustainability is considered as integrated by five basic characteristics: physical accessibility, economic affordability, safety, security and environmental impact. Each one of them has its own influence on the development of this transportation mode and all of them are required in order to achieve a sustainable development. After defining the structural elements of the five characteristics and the corresponding quantitative indicators, the paper studies the recent evolution of such indicators and extrapolates the most likely future trends, having taken into account the most relevant limitations presently existent or potentially appearing in the near future. The most important policies being presently studied (future aircraft designs, infrastructure developments, potential safety and security new rules and tentative environmental action programs) are evaluated, considering the potential repercussions on sustainability progress. Some combinations of them are suggested as the most efficient alternatives for preserving the sustainable development of XXI century air transport. (Author)

  2. Climate impact of transportation A model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Grahn, M.; Kitous, A.; Kim, S.H.; Kyle, P.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global

  3. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer YILMAZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat trucks. The emergency response models and network design problems for hazmat transportation were also studied by some researchers. The transportation of hazmats can also be classified according to the mode of transport. Mainly roads are used for hazmat transportation but some shipments are intermodal. There has been a great amount of effort spent to find convenient ways for hazmat transportation. In this study, a literature survey for the articles about hazmat transportation is prepared. After pointing out the importance of hazmat transportation by the example of US hazmat transportation data, the studies on hazmat transportation since 2005 have been examined. Totally 88 articles are classified as risk, routing, routing and scheduling, emergency response, network design and accident analysis. What can be studied in future researches is pointed out.Keywords: Hazardous materials, Network design, Transportation, Routing, Risk assessment

  4. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  5. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  6. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  7. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  8. Fit between Future Thinking and Future Orientation on Creative Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Fa-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of future thinking, and the fit between future thinking and future orientation on creative thinking. In Study 1, 83 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three groups: 50-year future thinking, 5-year future thinking, and the present-day thinking. First, the priming tasks, in which…

  9. Future trends in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper about future trends in reprocessing essentially reflects French experience and points of view as an example of countries which, like England and Japan, consider that reprocessing is the best solution for the back end of the fuel cycle. In order to know what the future will be, it is necessary to look back at the past and try to find what have been the main reasons for evolution in that period. For reprocessing, it appears that these motivations have been 'safety and economics'. They will remain the motivations for the future. In addition, new motivations for development are starting to appear which are still imprecise but can be expressed as follows: 'which guarantees will public opinion require in order to be convinced that solutions for waste management, proposed by specialists shall ensure that a healthy environment is preserved for the use of future generations'. Consequently the paper examines successively the evolution of reprocessing in the recent past, what the immediate future could be and finally what should be necessary in the long term. (Author)

  10. White paper on future technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book describes the role of technology and challenge of future like why we focus on future technologies and future, human being and technology, methodology on development for future technologies such as global monitoring system for investigation on environmental change, investigation of research front for paper and patent and COMPAS, and domestic and foreign organization for discover on future technologies. It also introduces KISTI selection future technologies 500 : healthy society, smart society, safety society, and future technologies 500.

  11. Products - transport - storage; Produits - transports - stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-15

    9 articles are gathered in this data-sheet; they deal with LPG products, transport and storage. Blackmer offers a full line of LPG equipment for the transfer of propane, butane and anhydrous ammonia. Clesse Industries and Gas Equipment Company equip luxury hotels in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Since 1975 the company FAS Flussiggas-Anlagen Gmbh, Salzgitter - Germany is one of the leading manufacturers of LPG equipment and components for mobile and stationary bulk plants in Europe. The main products are dispensers, pumps, Auto-gas filling stations, vaporizers, loading arms, electronic cylinder filling scales, flanged valves and safety equipment. FAS is certified with 2 process orientated management systems according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 and to PED - Module H1 - Category IV. The company supplies all products and services according to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC with CE-mark as well according to regulations ATEX, OIML, TUV, PTB... ECII Engineered Controls International/Rego USA is well known as a worldwide leader and designer/manufacturer of LPG and anhydrous ammonia equipment. The 10. of January Per Sture Jenssen retired from Ragasco A.S. Managing Director after 6 years in the company. Oyvind Hamre who has taken over from Mr. Jenssen, is 39 years of age and he has been 10 years with Ragasco, most recently as R and D Manager. Per Sture Jenssen will still be present in the company until summer 2005 to support during the transition. Corken has put in the market two new products: a new valve and a new pump. Impco Technologies announces completion of BRC acquisition. VOC reduction is a common discussion issue in almost all sectors of the oil business and beyond. Each industry sector has a different strategy towards this issue according to its perceived impact on the business. Although largely motivated by the need to satisfy national and international emission standards, the move towards reduction has encouraged equipment manufacturers to develop advanced

  12. Big data's implications for transportation operations : an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this white paper is to expand the understanding of big data for transportation operations, the value it could provide, and the implications for the : future direction of the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Connected Vehicle R...

  13. Overview of transportation in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-05-01

    This document presents a review of current transportation regulations, a description of transportation systems currently in use, a discussion of systems that are anticipated to be developed in the future and a projection of shipments and shipping distances through the year 2000

  14. Theme 10: greenhouse effect transport policies and urban organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This document describes the reference framework of the theme 10 ''greenhouse effect, transport policies and urban organization'' which is a part of the urban transports interface. It presents the specific actions realized by the theme 10 for a future integration in theme 1, 5 and 8. (A.L.B.)

  15. Discussion record of the workshop on nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Stroth, U.; Iwasaki, T.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1997-06-01

    The discussion on the problem of the transient response and nonlocal transport is reported. Problem of the transient response is surveyed, and several approaches are reviewed. The formulation based on the nonlocal transport is discussed. Example of the analysis is presented. Future study is identified. (author)

  16. 30 years of experience in safe transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    2004-01-01

    In April 2003, Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd. (NFT) marked the 30 th anniversary of its founding. NFT was established in 1973 and in 1978, commenced SF transport to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura. And then, after making preparations to transport nuclear materials to the various facilities at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Center in Rokkasho-mura, NFT successfully started transportation of LLW (low level waste) to Rokksho-mura's LLW disposal center in 1992, domestic land transportation of HLW returned from overseas to the HLW storage center in 1995, domestic land transportation of natural hexafluoride delivered from overseas to the uranium enrichment plant in 1996, and transportation of SF to the reprocessing plant in 2000. NFT has realized an annual SF transportation capacity of 300 MTU and is currently making great company wide efforts to meet the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant's future SF annual reprocessing capacity of 800MTU. At the end of FY2003, NFT had successfully transported 560 casks (about 1,730 MTU) of SF in more than 200 voyages in total, about 160,000 drums of LLW in around 100 voyages in total. This paper introduces the record of safe transport and its experience over the past 30 years and prospect for future transport business

  17. 30 years of experience in safe transportation of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, K. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2003, Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd. (NFT) marked the 30{sup th} anniversary of its founding. NFT was established in 1973 and in 1978, commenced SF transport to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura. And then, after making preparations to transport nuclear materials to the various facilities at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Center in Rokkasho-mura, NFT successfully started transportation of LLW (low level waste) to Rokksho-mura's LLW disposal center in 1992, domestic land transportation of HLW returned from overseas to the HLW storage center in 1995, domestic land transportation of natural hexafluoride delivered from overseas to the uranium enrichment plant in 1996, and transportation of SF to the reprocessing plant in 2000. NFT has realized an annual SF transportation capacity of 300 MTU and is currently making great company wide efforts to meet the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant's future SF annual reprocessing capacity of 800MTU. At the end of FY2003, NFT had successfully transported 560 casks (about 1,730 MTU) of SF in more than 200 voyages in total, about 160,000 drums of LLW in around 100 voyages in total. This paper introduces the record of safe transport and its experience over the past 30 years and prospect for future transport business.

  18. Physics at Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.

    1999-01-01

    After a brief review of the Big Issues in particle physics, we discuss the contributions to resolving that could be made by various planned and proposed future colliders. These include future runs of LEP and the Fermilab Tevatron collider, B factories, RHIC, the LHC, a linear electron-positron collider, an electron-proton collider in the LEP/LHC tunnel, a muon collider and a future larger hadron collider (FLHC). The Higgs boson and supersymmetry are used as benchmarks for assessing their capabilities. The LHC has great capacities for precision measurements as well as exploration, but also shortcomings where the complementary strengths of a linear electron-positron collider would be invaluable. It is not too soon to study seriously possible subsequent colliders.

  19. Prospects for future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The different climates of the past and model simulations of future climates convincingly indicate that the continuing emissions of greenhouse gases will lead to significant global warming and to changes in precipitation and other climatic variables. The projected changes in atmospheric composition and, consequently, in climatic conditions will be unique and more rapid than at any time in the past. The developing understanding of the chemical cycles controlling atmospheric composition and of the processes and behavior controlling the climate system can provide significant guidance about how the future climate will change. This chapter first summarizes the many scientific advances described in the preceding chapters that can help one better understand and describe the climate system and the resulting agricultural and hydrological impacts of these changes in climate. The chapter then draws from this understanding to outline the prospects for future climate

  20. The Future of Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Lombardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the current state and future of auditing. Expert consensus is used as a basis to examine the current state of auditing and generate modifications both needed and likely to occur in the audit profession. This study contributes to the literature by using the Delphi method to develop predictions as to the direction of the audit industry and discuss the implications associated with these predictions. If auditors can better understand where the profession stands and where it is headed, then they can better prepare for the future. Some predictions emerging from this study relative to future audit practices include increasing automation of audit procedures, more predictive financial statements, continuous auditing of financial statements and transactions, and an increasingly global perspective regarding audit activities.