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Sample records for multi-pass optical cell

  1. Multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Stehle, Jean-Louis; Samartzis, Peter C.; Stamataki, Katerina; Piel, Jean-Philippe; Katsoprinakis, George E.; Papadakis, Vassilis; Schimowski, Xavier; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Loppinet, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is an established technique, particularly useful for thickness measurements of thin films. It measures polarization rotation after a single reflection of a beam of light on the measured substrate at a given incidence angle. In this paper, we report the development of multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry where the light beam reflects multiple times on the sample. We have investigated both theoretically and experimentally the effect of sample reflectivity, number of reflections (passes), angles of incidence and detector dynamic range on ellipsometric observables tanΨ and cosΔ. The multiple pass approach provides increased sensitivity to small changes in Ψ and Δ, opening the way for single measurement determination of optical thickness T, refractive index n and absorption coefficient k of thin films, a significant improvement over the existing techniques. Based on our results, we discuss the strengths, the weaknesses and possible applications of this technique. - Highlights: • We present multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry (MPSE), a multi-pass approach to ellipsometry. • Different detectors, samples, angles of incidence and number of passes were tested. • N passes improve polarization ratio sensitivity to the power of N. • N reflections improve phase shift sensitivity by a factor of N. • MPSE can significantly improve thickness measurements in thin films

  2. Regenerative beam breakup in multi-pass electron accelerators

    Vetter, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Important electron coincidence experiments in the 1 to 2 GeV range require electron beams of high intensity and high duty factor. To provide such beams, multi-pass electron accelerator systems are being developed at many laboratories. The beam current in multi-pass electron machines is limited by bean breakup which arises from interaction of the electron beam with deflection modes of the accelerator structure. Achieving high beam intensity (50 to 100 μA) will require detailed understanding and careful control of beam breakup phenomena, and is the subject of this thesis. The TM 11 -like traveling wave theory is applied to obtain a physical understanding of beam-mode interactions and the principles of focussing in simple two-pass systems, and is used as a basis for general studies of the dependence of starting current on accelerator parameters in systems of many passes. The concepts developed are applied in analyzing beam breakup in the superconducting recyclotron at Stanford. Measurements of beam interactions with selected breakup modes are incorporated in a simple model in order to estimate relative strengths of breakup modes and to predict starting currents in five-pass operation. The improvement over these predicted currents required in order to obtain 50 to 100 μA beams is shown to be achievable with a combination of increased breakup mode loading and improved beam optics

  3. SCALAR MULTI-PASS ATOMIC MAGNETOMETER

    2017-08-01

    photolithographic method or a small droplet of UV (Ultra-Violet) curing glue that can be dissolved after the application of the HR coating. However...fabricated using d) photolithography or e) removal of a UV curing glue drop applied before HR coating. A physical hole with a 200µm diameter (f) drilled...outside magnetic shields on a non-magnetic optical table. The pump and probe beams enter through tubes visible on either side of the oven. Center panel

  4. Geometrical influences on multi-pass laser forming

    Edwardson, S P; Abed, E; Bartkowiak, K; Dearden, G; Watkins, K G

    2006-01-01

    Laser forming (LF) offers the industrial promise of controlled shaping of metallic and non-metallic components for prototyping, the correction of design shape or distortion and precision adjustment applications. The potential process advantages include precise incremental adjustment, flexibility of application and no mechanical 'spring-back' effect. To date there has been a considerable amount of work carried out on two-dimensional LF, using multi-pass straight line scan strategies to produce a reasonably controlled bend angle in a number of materials, including aerospace alloys. A key area, however, where there is a limited understanding, is the variation in bend angle per pass during multi-pass LF along a single irradiation track; in particular, the decrease in bend angle per pass after many irradiations for a given set of process parameters. Understanding this is essential if the process is to be fully controlled in a manufacturing environment. The research presented in this paper highlights the current theories as to why this occurs and proposes a further reason based on the geometrical effects of the component deformation, which in turn influences the process parameters per pass. This theory is confirmed through empirical analysis of the 2D LF process

  5. Three dimensional multi-pass repair weld simulations

    Elcoate, C.D.; Dennis, R.J.; Bouchard, P.J.; Smith, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full 3-dimensional (3-D) simulation of multi-pass weld repairs is now feasible and practical given the development of improved analysis tools and significantly greater computer power. This paper presents residual stress results from 3-D finite element (FE) analyses simulating a long (arc length of 62 deg. ) and a short (arc length of 20 deg. ) repair to a girth weld in a 19.6 mm thick, 432 mm outer diameter cylindrical test component. Sensitivity studies are used to illustrate the importance of weld bead inter-pass temperature assumptions and to show where model symmetry can be used to reduce the analysis size. The predicted residual stress results are compared with measured axial, hoop and radial through-wall profiles in the heat affected zone of the test component repairs. A good overall agreement is achieved between neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling measurements and the prediction at the mid-length position of the short repair. These results demonstrate that a coarse 3-D FE model, using a 'block-dumped' weld bead deposition approach (rather than progressively depositing weld metal), can accurately capture the important components of a short repair weld residual stress field. However, comparisons of measured with predicted residual stress at mid-length and stop-end positions in the long repair are less satisfactory implying some shortcomings in the FE modelling approach that warrant further investigation

  6. Multi-Pass Malware Sandbox Analysis with Controlled Internet Connection

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

    Malware sandbox analysis, in which a malware sample is actually executed in a testing environment (i.e. sandbox) to observe its behavior, is one of the promising approaches to tackling the emerging threats of exploding malware. As a lot of recent malware actively communicates with remote hosts over the Internet, sandboxes should also support an Internet connection, otherwise important malware behavior may not be observed. In this paper, we propose a multi-pass sandbox analysis with a controlled Internet connection. In the proposed method, we start our analysis with an isolated sandbox and an emulated Internet that consists of a set of dummy servers and hosts that run vulnerable services, called Honeypots in the Sandbox (HitS). All outbound connections from the victim host are closely inspected to see if they could be connected to the real Internet. We iterate the above process until no new behaviors are observed. We implemented the proposed method in a completely automated fashion and evaluated it with malware samples recently captured in the wild. Using a simple containment policy that authorizes only certain application protocols, namely, HTTP, IRC, and DNS, we were able to observe a greater variety of behaviors compared with the completely isolated sandbox. Meanwhile, we confirmed that a noticeable number of IP scans, vulnerability exploitations, and DoS attacks are successfully contained in the sandbox. Additionally, a brief comparison with two existing sandbox analysis systems, Norman Sandbox and CWSandbox, are shown.

  7. Compact Aberration-Free Relay-Imaging Multi-Pass Layouts for High-Energy Laser Amplifiers

    Jörg Körner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results from a theoretical investigation of laser beam propagation in relay imaging multi-pass layouts, which recently found application in high-energy laser amplifiers. Using a method based on the well-known ABCD-matrix formalism and proven by ray tracing, it was possible to derive a categorization of such systems. Furthermore, basic rules for the setup of such systems and the compensation for low order aberrations are derived. Due to the introduced generalization and parametrization, the presented results can immediately be applied to any system of the investigated kinds for a wide range of parameters, such as number of round-trips, focal lengths and optics sizes. It is shown that appropriate setups allow a close-to-perfect compensation of defocus caused by a thermal lens and astigmatism caused by non-normal incidence on the imaging optics, as well. Both are important to avoid intensity spikes leading to damages of optics in multi-pass laser amplifiers.

  8. Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems

    Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C

    2014-04-01

    A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.

  9. Effects of multi-pass arc welding on mechanical properties of carbon steel C25 plate

    Adedayo, S.M.; Babatunde, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of multi-pass welding on mechanical properties of C25 carbon steel plate were examined. Mild steel plate workpieces of 90 x 55 mm 2 area and 10 mm thickness with a 30 degrees vee weld-grooves were subjected to single and multi-pass welding. Toughness, hardness and tensile tests of single and multi-pass welds were conducted. Toughness values of the welds under double pass welds were higher than both single pass and unwelded alloy, at respective maximum values of 2464, 2342 and 2170 kN/m. Hardness values were reduced under double pass relative to single pass welding with both being lower than the value for unwelded alloy; the values were 40.5, 43.2 and 48.5 Rs respectively at 12 mm from the weld line. The tensile strength of 347 N/mm 2 under multi-pass weld was higher than single pass weld with value of 314 N/mm 2 . Therefore, the temperature distribution and apparent pre-heating during multi-pass welding increased the toughness and tensile strength of the weldments, but reduced the hardness. (au)

  10. Experimental evidence for multi-pass extraction with a bent crystal

    Dehning, Bernd; Fidecaro, Giuseppe; Gyr, Marcel; Herr, Werner; Klem, J T; Scandale, Walter; Vuagnin, G; Weisse, E; Weisz, S; Møller, S P; Uggerhøj, Erik; Freund, A; Hustache, R; Carboni, G; Bussa, M P; Tosello, F

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of extracting particles from the halo of a circulating proton beam using a bent silicon crystal has been demonstrated experimentally at the SPS for a beam energy of 120 GeV. Presently studies are conducted to understand the extraction mechanisms and the measured efficiencies. In particular the contribution of multi-pass extraction, where the particles can pass through the crystal many times before being channelled and extracted, is investigated. In a recent experiment, using a crystal especially fabricated with a finite amorphous layer on its surface, it has been proven that multi-pass extraction plays an important role. The experiment is described and the implication for further studies are discussed.

  11. JEMMRLA - Electron Model of a Muon RLA with Multi-pass Arcs

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Roblin, Yves R.

    2013-06-01

    We propose a demonstration experiment for a new concept of a 'dogbone' RLA with multi-pass return arcs -- JEMMRLA (Jlab Electron Model of Muon RLA). Such an RLA with linear-field multi-pass arcs was introduced for rapid acceleration of muons for the next generation of Muon Facilities. It allows for efficient use of expensive RF while the multi-pass arc design based on linear combined-function magnets exhibits a number of advantages over separate-arc or pulsed-arc designs. Here we describe a test of this concept by scaling a GeV scale muon design for electrons. Scaling muon momenta by the muon-to-electron mass ratio leads to a scheme, in which a 4.5 MeV electron beam is injected in the middle of a 3 MeV/pass linac with two double-pass return arcs and is accelerated to 18 MeV in 4.5 passes. All spatial dimensions including the orbit distortion are scaled by a factor of 7.5, which arises from scaling the 200 MHz muon RF to a readily available 1.5 GHz. The hardware requirements are not very demanding making it straightforward to implement. Such an RLA may have applications going beyond muon acceleration: in medical isotope production, radiation cancer therapy and homeland security.

  12. Numerical modelling of multi-pass solar dryer filled with granite pebbles for thermal storage enhancement

    Kareem, M W; Habib, K; Ruslan, M H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical modelling of a cheap solar thermal dryer for small and medium scale farmers with multi-pass approach has been investigated. Comsol Multiphysics modelling tool was employed using numerical technique. The rock particles were used to enhance the thermal storage of the drying system. The local weather data were used during the simulation while parameters and coefficients were sourced from literature. An improvement on efficiency of up to 7% was recorded with error of 10 -5 when compared with the reported double pass solar collector. A fair distribution of hot air within the cabinets was also achieved. Though the modelling tool used was robust but the characterization of the system materials need to be done to improve the system accuracy and better prediction. (paper)

  13. Numerical and experimental study on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips

    Fetene, Besufekad N.; Kumar, Vikash; Dixit, Uday S.; Echempati, Raghu

    2018-02-01

    Laser bending is a process of bending of plates, small sized sheets, strips and tubes, in which a moving or stationary laser beam heats the workpiece to achieve the desired curvature due to thermal stresses. Researchers studied the effects of different process parameters related to the laser source, material and workpiece geometry on laser bending of metal sheets. The studies are focused on large sized sheets. The workpiece geometry parameters like sheet thickness, length and width also affect the bend angle considerably. In this work, the effects of width and thickness on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips were studied experimentally and numerically. Finite element model using ABAQUS® was developed to investigate the size effect on the prediction of the bend angle. Microhardness and flexure tests showed an increase in the flexural strength as well as microhardness in the scanned zone. The microstructures of the bent strips also supported the physical observations.

  14. A Parametric Study on Welding Process Simulation for Multi-pass welds in a Plate

    Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    EPRI (MRP-316, 317) (1,2) and USNRC (NUREG-2162)(3) have performed related studies for FEA models to predict the weld residual stress distribution. In this work, a systematic parametric study was performed to find out how major assumptions and conditions used in the simulation could affect the weld residual stress distribution. 2- dimensional simulation was conducted by using commercial FEA software, ABAQUS(4) , for multi-pass Alloy 82 welds performed in a stainless steel plate (EPRI MRP-316, P-4, phase 1). From the previous results, we could make the following conclusions. 1. The method of applying power density is more realistic than predefined temperature. 2. It seems that annealing effect reduces the transverse direction weld residual stress (S33). However more detailed analyses for annealing effect are needed.

  15. Multi-pass 1.9 um Tm:YLF slab laser pump source

    Strauss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Strauss1_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4116 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Strauss1_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Multi-Pass 1.9 ?m Tm...:YLF Slab Laser Pump Source H.J. Strauss1, S.C. Burd2, W. Koen1, M.J.D. Esser1, C. Jacobs1, O.J.P. Collett1, K. Nyangaza1, D. Preussler1 and C. Bollig1 1 Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South...

  16. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  17. Coreference analysis in clinical notes: a multi-pass sieve with alternate anaphora resolution modules.

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy; Li, Dingcheng; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wu, Stephen Tze-Inn; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the coreference resolution system submitted by Mayo Clinic for the 2011 i2b2/VA/Cincinnati shared task Track 1C. The goal of the task was to construct a system that links the markables corresponding to the same entity. The task organizers provided progress notes and discharge summaries that were annotated with the markables of treatment, problem, test, person, and pronoun. We used a multi-pass sieve algorithm that applies deterministic rules in the order of preciseness and simultaneously gathers information about the entities in the documents. Our system, MedCoref, also uses a state-of-the-art machine learning framework as an alternative to the final, rule-based pronoun resolution sieve. The best system that uses a multi-pass sieve has an overall score of 0.836 (average of B(3), MUC, Blanc, and CEAF F score) for the training set and 0.843 for the test set. A supervised machine learning system that typically uses a single function to find coreferents cannot accommodate irregularities encountered in data especially given the insufficient number of examples. On the other hand, a completely deterministic system could lead to a decrease in recall (sensitivity) when the rules are not exhaustive. The sieve-based framework allows one to combine reliable machine learning components with rules designed by experts. Using relatively simple rules, part-of-speech information, and semantic type properties, an effective coreference resolution system could be designed. The source code of the system described is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/ohnlp/files/MedCoref.

  18. A study of estimating cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using atomic force microscopy

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Hsu, Ying-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies two models for estimating cutting depth of multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. One estimates cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using regression equations of nanoscale contact pressure factor (NCP factor) while the other uses equation of specific down force energy (SDFE). This paper proposes taking a diamond-coated probe of AFM as the cutting tool to carry out multi-pass nanoscale cutting experiments on the surface of sapphire substrate. In the process of experimentation, different down forces are set, and the probe shape of AFM is known, then using each down force to multi-pass cutting the sapphire substrate. From the measured experimental data of a central cutting depth of the machining groove by AFM, this paper calculates the specific down force energy of each down force. The experiment results reveal that the specific down force energy of each case of multi-pass nanoscale cutting for different down forces under a probe of AFM is close to a constant value. This paper also compares the nanoscale cutting results from estimating cutting depths for each pass of multi-pass among the experimental results and the calculating results obtained by the two theories models. It is found that the model of specific down force energy can calculate cutting depths for each nanoscale cutting pass by one equation. It is easier to use than the multi-regression equations of the nanoscale contact pressure factor. Besides, the estimations of cutting depth results obtained by the model of specific down force energy are closer to that of the experiment results. It shows that the proposed specific down force energy model in this paper is an acceptable model.

  19. Effect of intermetallic precipitation on the properties of multi passed duplex stainless steel weldment

    Bae, Seong Han [Technology research institute, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hae Woo [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effect of the aging time of weldment of 24Cr-3.5Mo duplex stainless steel on the microstructure and corrosion behavior. After performing FCAW, we carried out heat treatments at varying times at 850 ℃ and performed observation of microstructure, potentio dynamic test, SEM-EDS analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis. As the aging time increased, the fraction of δ-ferrite decreased sharply, but the fraction of γ slightly increased. The σ phase was generated at a non-metallic inclusion along the grain boundaries of δ-ferrite and γ, while the χ phase was generated in the structure of δ-ferrite. As the intermetallic compounds increased, the critical pitting potential fell sharply, and PREN of the surrounding structure decreased by 5 due to precipitation of the σ phase in 3.5% NaCl at 60 ℃. Pitting occurred intensively under a multi-pass line which relatively had more intermetallic compounds, and the precipitation of the σ phase caused the formation of Cr carbide.

  20. Heat accumulation between scans during multi-pass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    Kononenko, T. V.; Freitag, C.; Komlenok, M. S.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.; Konov, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    Matrix evaporation caused by heat accumulation between scans (HAS) was studied in the case of multi-pass scanning of a laser beam over the surface of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). The experiments were performed in two regimes, namely, in the process of CFRP cutting and in the regime of low-fluence irradiation avoiding ablation of carbon fibers. The feature of the ablation-free regime is that all absorbed energy remains in the material as heat, while in the cutting regime the fraction of residual heat is unknown. An analytical model based on two-dimensional (2D) heat flow was applied to predict the critical number of scans, after which the HAS effect causes a distinct growth of the matrix evaporation zone (MEZ). According to the model, the critical number of scans decreases exponentially with increasing laser power, while no dependence on the feed rate is expected. It was found that the model fits well to the experimental data obtained in the ablation-free regime where the heat input is well defined and known. In the cutting regime the measured significant reduction of the critical number of scans observed in deep grooves may be attributed to transformation of the heat flow geometry and to an expected increase of the residual heat fraction.

  1. Effect of intermetallic precipitation on the properties of multi passed duplex stainless steel weldment

    Bae, Seong Han; Lee, Hae Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the aging time of weldment of 24Cr-3.5Mo duplex stainless steel on the microstructure and corrosion behavior. After performing FCAW, we carried out heat treatments at varying times at 850 ℃ and performed observation of microstructure, potentio dynamic test, SEM-EDS analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis. As the aging time increased, the fraction of δ-ferrite decreased sharply, but the fraction of γ slightly increased. The σ phase was generated at a non-metallic inclusion along the grain boundaries of δ-ferrite and γ, while the χ phase was generated in the structure of δ-ferrite. As the intermetallic compounds increased, the critical pitting potential fell sharply, and PREN of the surrounding structure decreased by 5 due to precipitation of the σ phase in 3.5% NaCl at 60 ℃. Pitting occurred intensively under a multi-pass line which relatively had more intermetallic compounds, and the precipitation of the σ phase caused the formation of Cr carbide.

  2. A fully computerized multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer for Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments

    Bohidar, H.; Berland, T.; Boger, F.; Joessang, T.; Feder, J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a Multipass Fabry-Perot interforometer assembly for use in Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments is reported. The optical alignment and the scattered signal data acquisition have been completely computerized. Digital scanning and alignment strategies of the Fabry-Perot resonator have been incorporated, which makes this instrument quite unique in this respect. The high contrast (∼10 10 ) and finesse (∼50) offered by this instrument makes it possible to detect Brillouin peaks from samples that have a small Brillouin scattering cross-section. As part of this system a compatible and precision sample chamber has been constructed, which has been designed to operate in the pressure and temperature ranges of 1-1000B and 20-150 o C, respectively. The cell has been constructed to be small and compact, but it still has a large heat capacity (∼250J/K) which ensures easy and stable temperature control of the liquid sample volume which has a size of 40 mm 3 . The achievable temperature stability is +-1mK and +-2mK for operating temperatures below and above 100 o C, respectively. The pressure stability is in the range of +-0.05B of the set pressure for pressures below 100B and it is +-0.05% for higher pressures up to 1000B. Both pressure and temperature are remotely monitored and controlled by a ND/100 computer. Special care has been taken in designing the optics of the pressure cell to ensure that both the primary and secondary reflections from the entrance window, as well as the main beam, go out of the scattering region in order to achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio in actual experiments

  3. Quantitative consideration for the tempering effect during multi-pass thermal cycle in HAZ of low-alloy steel

    Yu, Lina; Nakabayashi, Yuma; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Kameyama, Masashi; Hirano, Shinro; Chigusa, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    A new Thermal Cycle Tempering Parameter (TCTP) to deal with the tempering effect during multi-pass thermal cycles has been proposed by extending Larson-Miller parameter (LMP). Experimental result revealed that the hardness in synthetic HAZ of the low alloy steel subjected to multi tempering thermal cycles has a good linear relationship with TCTP. By using this relationship, the hardness of the low-alloy steel reheated with tempering thermal cycles can be predicted when the original hardness is known. (author)

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 tubes fabricated by Multi-pass Parallel Tubular Channel Angular Pressing

    Hooman Abdolvand; Ghader Faraji; Javad Shahbazi Karami

    2017-01-01

    Parallel Tubular Channel Angular Pressing (PTCAP) process is a novel recently developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) method for producing ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanograined (NG) tubular specimens with excellent mechanical and physical properties. This process has several advantageous compared to its TCAP counterparts. In this paper, a fine grained AZ91 tube was fabricated via multi pass parallel tubular channel angular pressing (PTCAP) process. Tubes were processed up to three passes...

  5. Dense pattern optical multipass cell

    Silver, Joel A [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-01-13

    A multiple pass optical cell and method comprising providing a pair of opposed cylindrical mirrors having curved axes with substantially equal focal lengths, positioning an entrance hole for introducing light into the cell and an exit hole for extracting light from the cell, wherein the entrance hole and exit hole are coextensive or non-coextensive, introducing light into the cell through the entrance hole, and extracting light from the cell through the exit hole.

  6. Bidirectional optical rotation of cells

    Jiyi Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise and controlled rotation manipulation of cells is extremely important in biological applications and biomedical studies. Particularly, bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells is a challenge for cell tomography and analysis. In this paper, we report an optical method that is capable of bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells. By launching a laser beam at 980 nm into dual-beam tapered fibers, a single or multiple cells in solutions can be trapped and rotated bidirectionally under the action of optical forces. Moreover, the rotational behavior can be controlled by altering the relative distance between the two fibers and the input optical power. Experimental results were interpreted by numerical simulations.

  7. Investigation of precipitation and hardening response of maraging stainless steels 17-4 and 13-8+Mo during multi-pass welding

    Hamlin, Robert J.

    Martensitic precipitation strengthened stainless steels 17-4 and 13-8+Mo are candidate alloys for high strength military applications. These applications will require joining by fusion welding processes thus, it is necessary to develop an understanding of microstructural and mechanical property changes that occur during welding. Previous investigations on these materials have demonstrated that significant softening occurs in the heat affected zone (HAZ) during welding, due to dissolution of the strengthen precipitates. It was also observed that post weld heat treatments (PWHT's) were required to restore the properties. However, PWHT's are expensive and cannot be applied when welding on a large scale or making a repair in the field. Thus, the purpose of the current work is to gain a fundamental understanding of the precipitation kinetics in these systems so that optimized welding procedures can be developed that do not require a PWHT. Multi-pass welding provides an opportunity to restore the strengthening precipitates that dissolve during primary weld passes using the heat from secondary weld passes. Thus, a preliminary investigation was performed to determine whether the times and temperatures associated with welding thermal cycles were sufficient to restore the strength in these systems. A Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator was used to perform multi-pass welding simulations on samples of each material using a 1000 J/mm and 2000 J/mm heat input. Additionally, base metal and weld metal samples were used as starting conditions to evaluate the difference in precipitation response between each. Hardness measurements were used to estimate the extent of precipitate dissolution and growth. Microstructures were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). It was determined that precipitate dissolution occurred during primary welding thermal cycles and that significant hardening could be

  8. A simulation study on the multi-pass rolling bond of 316L/Q345R stainless clad plate

    Qin Qin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an investigation into interface bonding research of 316L/Q345R stainless clad plate. A three-dimensional thermal–elastic–plastic model has been established using finite element analysis to model the multi-pass hot rolling process. Results of the model have been compared with those obtained from a rolling experiment of stainless clad plate. The comparisons of temperature and profile of the rolled stainless clad plate have indicated a satisfactory accuracy of finite element analysis simulation. Effects on interface bonding by different parameters including pre-heating temperature, multi-pass thickness reduction rules, rolling speed, covering rate, and different assemble patterns were analyzed systematically. The results show that higher temperature and larger thickness reduction are beneficial to achieve the bonding in vacuum hot rolling process. The critical reduction in the bond at the temperature of 1200 °C is 28%, and the critical thickness reduction reduces by about 2% when the temperature increases by 50 °C during the range from 1000 °C to 1250 °C. And the relationship between the minimum pass number and thickness reduction has been suggested. The results also indicate that large covering rate in the assemble pattern of outer soft and inner hard is beneficial to achieve the bond of stainless clad plate.

  9. Short term hydroelectric power system scheduling with wind turbine generators using the multi-pass iteration particle swarm optimization approach

    Lee, T.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multi-pass iteration particle swarm optimization (MIPSO) to solve short term hydroelectric generation scheduling of a power system with wind turbine generators. MIPSO is a new algorithm for solving nonlinear optimal scheduling problems. A new index called iteration best (IB) is incorporated into particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve solution quality. The concept of multi-pass dynamic programming is applied to modify PSO further and improve computation efficiency. The feasible operational regions of the hydro units and pumped storage plants over the whole scheduling time range must be determined before applying MIPSO to the problem. Wind turbine power generation then shaves the power system load curves. Next, MIPSO calculates hydroelectric generation scheduling. It begins with a coarse time stage and searching space and refines the time interval between two time stages and the search spacing pass by pass (iteration). With the cooperation of agents called particles, the near optimal solution of the scheduling problem can be effectively reached. The effects of wind speed uncertainty were also considered in this paper. The feasibility of the new algorithm is demonstrated by a numerical example, and MIPSO solution quality and computation efficiency are compared to those of other algorithms

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of China low activation martensitic steel joint by TIG multi-pass welding with a new filler wire

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junyu; Wu, Qingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Tungsten Inner Gas (TIG) welding is employed for joining of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel. A new filler wire was proposed, and the investigation on welding with various heat input and welding passes were conducted to lower the tendency towards the residual of δ ferrite in the joint. With the optimized welding parameters, a butt joint by multi-pass welding with the new filler wire was prepared to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure of the joint was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile tests of the joint were implemented at room temperature (25 °C). The results revealed that almost full martensite free from ferrite in the joints were obtained by multipass welding with the heat input of 2.26 kJ/mm. A certain degree of softening occurred at the heat affected zone of the joint according to the results of tensile and hardness tests. The as welded joints showed brittle fracture in the impact tests. However, the joints showed toughness fracture after tempering and relatively better comprehensive performance were achieved when the joints were tempered at 740 °C for 2 h.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of China low activation martensitic steel joint by TIG multi-pass welding with a new filler wire

    Huang, Bo [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Tungsten Inner Gas (TIG) welding is employed for joining of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel. A new filler wire was proposed, and the investigation on welding with various heat input and welding passes were conducted to lower the tendency towards the residual of δ ferrite in the joint. With the optimized welding parameters, a butt joint by multi-pass welding with the new filler wire was prepared to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure of the joint was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile tests of the joint were implemented at room temperature (25 °C). The results revealed that almost full martensite free from ferrite in the joints were obtained by multipass welding with the heat input of 2.26 kJ/mm. A certain degree of softening occurred at the heat affected zone of the joint according to the results of tensile and hardness tests. The as welded joints showed brittle fracture in the impact tests. However, the joints showed toughness fracture after tempering and relatively better comprehensive performance were achieved when the joints were tempered at 740 °C for 2 h. - Highlights: •A new filler material was proposed to control ferrite content in CLAM weld metal. •Heat input affected ferrite content through influencing cooling rate during welding. •Multipass welding was a promising way to eliminate the ferrite in the weld.

  12. Effects of filler metal composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties for ER NiCrFe-7 multi-pass weldments

    Mo, Wenlin; Lu, Shanping, E-mail: shplu@imr.ac.cn; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2013-10-10

    The effects of the minor elements Ti and Nb on the microstructure and mechanical properties for multi-pass weldments from the alloy ER NiCrFe-7 were studied using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), as well as tensile and bend tests. The results show that grain size does not change significantly by increasing the Ti content from 0.28 wt% to 0.87 wt% in the weld metal (WM), whereas the grain boundaries become tortuous. The intragranular precipitate in the WM with Ti are AlO and Ti(C, N), whereas the intragranular precipitate in the WM with Nb are AlO and MX (M=Nb, Ti, X=C, N). As the Ti and Nb content increased in the WM, more MX was produced. Furthermore, the majority of C was fixed in the grain, not segregated to the grain boundaries; and less M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M=Cr, Fe) formed at the grain boundaries. Fewer ductility-dip-cracking (DDC) was observed for WM with higher levels of Ti and Nb. The tensile strength and elongation simultaneously increased with an increase in Ti and Nb in WM. The number and length of the cracks in the bend specimens decreased upon adding Ti and Nb.

  13. Characterization of weld strength and impact toughness in the multi-pass welding of super-duplex stainless steel UNS 32750

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K.; Thiruvengatam, G.; Sudharsan, S.P.; Mishra, Debidutta; Arivazhagan, N.; Sridhar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of filler metals on the weldability of super-duplex stainless steel plates. • Contemplative explanations on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the weldments. • Enhanced mechanical properties of the welds at ambient room temperature. - Abstract: This paper investigates the weldability, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the UNS 32750 super-duplex stainless steels joints by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) employing ER2553 and ERNiCrMo-4 filler metals. Impact and tensile studies envisaged that the weldments employing ER2553 exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to ERNiCrMo-4 weldments. Microstructure studies performed using optical and SEM analysis clearly exhibited the different forms of austenite including widmanstatten austenite on the weld zone employing ER2553 filler. Also the presented results clearly reported the effect of filler metals on strength and toughness during the multi-pass welding. This research article addressed the improvement of tensile and impact strength using appropriate filler wire without obtaining any deleterious phases

  14. Feasibility study of multi-pass respiratory-gated helical tomotherapy of a moving target via binary MLC closure

    Kim, Bryan; Chen, Jeff; Kron, Tomas; Battista, Jerry

    2010-11-01

    Gated radiotherapy of lung lesions is particularly complex for helical tomotherapy, due to the simultaneous motions of its three subsystems (gantry, couch and collimator). We propose a new way to implement gating for helical tomotherapy, namely multi-pass respiratory gating. In this method, gating is achieved by delivering only the beam projections that occur within a respiratory gating window, while blocking the rest of the beam projections by fully closing all collimator leaves. Due to the continuous couch motion, the planned beam projections must be delivered over multiple passes of radiation deliveries. After each pass, the patient couch is reset to its starting position, and the treatment recommences at a different phase of tumour motion to 'fill in' the previously blocked beam projections. The gating process may be repeated until the plan dose is delivered (full gating), or halted after a certain number of passes, with the entire remaining dose delivered in a final pass without gating (partial gating). The feasibility of the full gating approach was first tested for sinusoidal target motion, through experimental measurements with film and computer simulation. The optimal gating parameters for full and partial gating methods were then determined for various fractionation schemes through computer simulation, using a patient respiratory waveform. For sinusoidal motion, the PTV dose deviations of -29 to 5% observed without gating were reduced to range from -1 to 3% for a single fraction, with a 4 pass full gating. For a patient waveform, partial gating required fewer passes than full gating for all fractionation schemes. For a single fraction, the maximum allowed residual motion was only 4 mm, requiring large numbers of passes for both full (12) and partial (7 + 1) gating methods. The number of required passes decreased significantly for 3 and 30 fractions, allowing residual motion up to 7 mm. Overall, the multi-pass gating technique was shown to be a promising

  15. Feasibility study of multi-pass respiratory-gated helical tomotherapy of a moving target via binary MLC closure

    Kim, Bryan; Chen, Jeff; Battista, Jerry [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (Canada); Kron, Tomas, E-mail: bryan.kim@lhsc.on.c [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-11-21

    Gated radiotherapy of lung lesions is particularly complex for helical tomotherapy, due to the simultaneous motions of its three subsystems (gantry, couch and collimator). We propose a new way to implement gating for helical tomotherapy, namely multi-pass respiratory gating. In this method, gating is achieved by delivering only the beam projections that occur within a respiratory gating window, while blocking the rest of the beam projections by fully closing all collimator leaves. Due to the continuous couch motion, the planned beam projections must be delivered over multiple passes of radiation deliveries. After each pass, the patient couch is reset to its starting position, and the treatment recommences at a different phase of tumour motion to 'fill in' the previously blocked beam projections. The gating process may be repeated until the plan dose is delivered (full gating), or halted after a certain number of passes, with the entire remaining dose delivered in a final pass without gating (partial gating). The feasibility of the full gating approach was first tested for sinusoidal target motion, through experimental measurements with film and computer simulation. The optimal gating parameters for full and partial gating methods were then determined for various fractionation schemes through computer simulation, using a patient respiratory waveform. For sinusoidal motion, the PTV dose deviations of -29 to 5% observed without gating were reduced to range from -1 to 3% for a single fraction, with a 4 pass full gating. For a patient waveform, partial gating required fewer passes than full gating for all fractionation schemes. For a single fraction, the maximum allowed residual motion was only 4 mm, requiring large numbers of passes for both full (12) and partial (7 + 1) gating methods. The number of required passes decreased significantly for 3 and 30 fractions, allowing residual motion up to 7 mm. Overall, the multi-pass gating technique was shown to be a

  16. Rapid, high-fluence multi-pass q-switched laser treatment of tattoos with a transparent perfluorodecalin-infused patch: A pilot study.

    Biesman, Brian S; O'Neil, Michael P; Costner, Cara

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorodecalin (PFD) has previously been shown to rapidly dissipate the opaque, white micro-bubble layer formed after exposure of tattoos to Q-switched lasers [1]. The current pilot study was conducted to qualitatively determine if the use of a transparent PFD-infused silicone patch would result in more rapid clearance of tattoos than conventional through-air techniques. Black or dark blue tattoos were divided into two halves in a single-site IRB-approved study with 17 subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III. One half of each tattoo served as its own control and was treated with one pass of a standard Q-switched Alexandrite laser (755 nm). The other half of the tattoo was treated directly through a transparent perfluorodecalin (PFD) infused patch (ON Light Sciences, Dublin, CA). The rapid whitening reduction effect of the Patch routinely allowed three to four laser passes in a total of approximately 5 minutes. Both sides were treated at highest tolerated fluence, but the optical clearing, index-matching, and epidermal protection properties of the PFD Patch allowed significantly higher fluence compared to the control side. Standard photographs were taken at baseline, immediately prior to treatment with the PFD Patch in place, and finally before and after each treatment session. Treatments were administered at 4- to 6-week intervals. In a majority of subjects (11 of 17), tattoos treated through a transparent PFD-infused patch showed more rapid tattoo clearance with higher patient and clinician satisfaction than conventional treatment. In no case did the control side fade faster than the PFD Patch side. No unanticipated adverse events were observed. Rapid multi-pass treatment of tattoos with highest tolerated fluence facilitated by a transparent PFD-infused patch clears tattoos more rapidly than conventional methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Microstructural development in multi-pass TIG welded F82H steels under dual-ion irradiation

    Ogiwara, H.; Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kishimoto, H.; Tomohiro, M.; Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are the first candidate materials for blanket structural component. On fabricating blanket components, various joining technologies will be required, and it could be anticipated that some parts of the weldments will suffer from high-dose 14 MeV neutron irradiation. For example, the current Japanese water cooled test blanket module design has the weldment of the first wall and side wall at 25 mm from the surface. This will not be the case for TIER-TBM, but could be the critical issue if the same design is applied for DEMO blanket system. In this study, the effects of displacement damage and helium production on mechanical properties and microstructures of the multi-pass tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated. The welded joint used in this study is a multi-pass TIG weldment on 15-mm thick plates of F82H-IEA. The post weld heat treatment was carried out at 720 deg. C for 1 h. To obtain systematic and accurate information of the microstructural response under fusion environment, dual-ion irradiation was performed. 15 mm x 20 mm pieces which cover the whole TIG weldment were irradiated at 470 deg. C up to 20 dpa using 6.4 MeV Fe{sup +3} and/or energy-degraded 1.0 MeV He{sup +}. The damage rate was 1.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s, and the helium injection rate was 15 x 10{sup -3} appm He/s. After the irradiations, thin film samples were made from various regions of the weldment by focused ion beam (FIB) processor, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and hardness tests were performed. Microstructure and Vickers hardness profiles across base metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ) were examined before irradiation experiments. The hardness measurements revealed that the maximum hardness was observed at the last pass region of FZ, and the softest region was in the middle of the FZ and HAZ region near the transformation line. In the microstructure study

  18. Optical biosensors for cell adhesion.

    Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Planar optical waveguides offer an ideal substratum for cells on which to reside. The materials from which the waveguides are made--high refractive index transparent dielectrics--correspond to the coatings of medical implants (e.g., the oxides of niobium, tantalum, and titanium) or the high molecular weight polymers used for culture flasks (e.g., polystyrene). The waveguides can furthermore be modified both chemically and morphologically while retaining their full capability for generating an evanescent optical field that has its greatest strength at the interface between the solid substratum and the liquid phase with which it is invariably in contact (i.e., the culture medium bathing the cells), decaying exponentially perpendicular to the interface at a rate controllable by varying the material parameters of the waveguide. Analysis of the perturbation of the evanescent field by the presence of living cells within it enables their size, number density, shape, refractive index (linked to their constitution) and so forth to be determined, the number of parameters depending on the number of waveguide lightmodes analyzed. No labeling of any kind is necessary, and convenient measurement setups are fully compatible with maintaining the cells in their usual environment. If the temporal evolution of the perturbation is analyzed, even more information can be obtained, such as the amount of material (microexudate) secreted by the cell while residing on the surface. Separation of parallel effects simultaneously contributing to the perturbation of the evanescent field can be accomplished by analysis of coupling peak shape when a grating coupler is used to measure the propagation constants of the waveguide lightmodes.

  19. Microstructure Evolution and Selective Corrosion Resistance in Underwater Multi-pass 2101 Duplex Stainless Steel Welding Joints

    Hu, Yu; Shi, Yonghua; Shen, Xiaoqin; Wang, Zhongmin

    2018-05-01

    A recently developed promising material, 2101 lean duplex stainless steel, represents an alternative to 304 austenite stainless steel. In this work, multi-pass 2101 weld joints were fabricated using the flux-cored arc welding method in a hyperbaric chamber. The pressure varied from 0 to 0.75 MPa. The evolution of the welding process and microstructure was investigated. γ 2 formation in the reheated zones of the WM and HAZ was not uniform. The closer the reheated zone is to the subsequent heat source, the greater the γ 2 formation in the reheated zone. Sufficient primary austenite transformation inhibited Cr2N precipitation and the subsequent intragranular γ 2 formation in the reheated weld passes of the 0.45 MPa weld metal. The localized corrosion resistance of each zone of the 0.45 MPa DSS joint was measured using non-destructive double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. The localized corrosion was induced by γ 2 and Cr2N. The root region of the 0.45 MPa weld metal underwent two subsequent welding thermal cycles, which induced increased γ 2 formation and lower resistance to corrosion because of the decreased pitting resistance value of γ 2. The correlation between microstructure evolution and the distribution of selective corrosion was determined.

  20. A Weld Position Recognition Method Based on Directional and Structured Light Information Fusion in Multi-Layer/Multi-Pass Welding

    Jinle Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-layer/multi-pass welding (MLMPW technology is widely used in the energy industry to join thick components. During automatic welding using robots or other actuators, it is very important to recognize the actual weld pass position using visual methods, which can then be used not only to perform reasonable path planning for actuators, but also to correct any deviations between the welding torch and the weld pass position in real time. However, due to the small geometrical differences between adjacent weld passes, existing weld position recognition technologies such as structured light methods are not suitable for weld position detection in MLMPW. This paper proposes a novel method for weld position detection, which fuses various kinds of information in MLMPW. First, a synchronous acquisition method is developed to obtain various kinds of visual information when directional light and structured light sources are on, respectively. Then, interferences are eliminated by fusing adjacent images. Finally, the information from directional and structured light images is fused to obtain the 3D positions of the weld passes. Experiment results show that each process can be done in 30 ms and the deviation is less than 0.6 mm. The proposed method can be used for automatic path planning and seam tracking in the robotic MLMPW process as well as electron beam freeform fabrication process.

  1. Effects of Heat Input and Bead Generation Methods on Finite Element Analysis of Multi-Pass Welding Process

    Park, Won Dong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Bahn, Chi Bum [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Welding residual stresses are determined by various factors such as heat input, initial temperature of molten bead, heating time, cooling time, cooling conditions, and boundary conditions. In this study, a sensitivity analysis was performed to find the major factors and reasonable assumptions for simulation. Two-dimensional axisymmetric simulation was conducted by using commercial finite element analysis program ABAQUS, for multi-pass Alloy 82 welds in a 304 Stainless Steel and SA-105 Carbon Steel. The major object is to evaluate effects of the heat input methods and weld bead generation methods on the welding residual stress distribution. Totally four kinds of methods were compared. From the previous results, we could make the following conclusions. 1. Although there are non-negligible differences in HAZ depending on heat input method, welding residual stress distributions have roughly similar trends. However, it is needed to perform the more exact analysis to apply heat energy more carefully into the individual bead. 2. Residual stress distribution were similar for the two weld bead generation technique. However, overlapping was happened when element birth technique was applied. Effects of overlapping could not ignore as deformation increases. However, overlapping problem was avoided when quiet element technique was used. 3. Since existence of inactive bead elements, inaccurate weld residual stresses could be occurred in boundaries of previous and next weld elements in case of quiet element technique.

  2. A Weld Position Recognition Method Based on Directional and Structured Light Information Fusion in Multi-Layer/Multi-Pass Welding.

    Zeng, Jinle; Chang, Baohua; Du, Dong; Wang, Li; Chang, Shuhe; Peng, Guodong; Wang, Wenzhu

    2018-01-05

    Multi-layer/multi-pass welding (MLMPW) technology is widely used in the energy industry to join thick components. During automatic welding using robots or other actuators, it is very important to recognize the actual weld pass position using visual methods, which can then be used not only to perform reasonable path planning for actuators, but also to correct any deviations between the welding torch and the weld pass position in real time. However, due to the small geometrical differences between adjacent weld passes, existing weld position recognition technologies such as structured light methods are not suitable for weld position detection in MLMPW. This paper proposes a novel method for weld position detection, which fuses various kinds of information in MLMPW. First, a synchronous acquisition method is developed to obtain various kinds of visual information when directional light and structured light sources are on, respectively. Then, interferences are eliminated by fusing adjacent images. Finally, the information from directional and structured light images is fused to obtain the 3D positions of the weld passes. Experiment results show that each process can be done in 30 ms and the deviation is less than 0.6 mm. The proposed method can be used for automatic path planning and seam tracking in the robotic MLMPW process as well as electron beam freeform fabrication process.

  3. Welding Residual Stress Analysis and Fatigue Strength Assessment at Elevated Temperature for Multi-pass Dissimilar Material Weld Between Alloy 617 and P92 Steel

    Lee, Juhwa; Hwang, Jeongho; Bae, Dongho

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, welding residual stress analysis and fatigue strength assessment were performed at elevated temperature for multi-pass dissimilar material weld between Alloy 617 and P92 steel, which are used in thermal power plant. Multi-pass welding between Alloy 617 and P92 steel was performed under optimized welding condition determined from repeated pre-test welding. In particular, for improving dissimilar material weld-ability, the buttering welding technique was applied on the P92 steel side before multi-pass welding. Welding residual stress distribution at the dissimilar material weld joint was numerically analyzed by using the finite element method, and compared with experimental results which were obtained by the hole-drilling method. Additionally, fatigue strength of dissimilar material weld joint was assessed at the room temperature (R.T), 300, 500, and 700 °C. In finite element analysis results, numerical peak values; longitudinal (410 MPa), transverse (345 MPa) were higher than those of experiments; longitudinal (298 MPa), transverse (245 MPa). There are quantitatively big differences between numerical and experimental results, due to some assumption about the thermal conductivity, specific heat, effects of enforced convection of the molten pool, dilution, and volume change during phase transformation caused by actual shield gas. The low fatigue limit at R.T, 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C was assessed to be 368, 276, 173 and 137 MPa respectively.

  4. Welding Residual Stress Analysis and Fatigue Strength Assessment at Elevated Temperature for Multi-pass Dissimilar Material Weld Between Alloy 617 and P92 Steel

    Lee, Juhwa; Hwang, Jeongho; Bae, Dongho

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, welding residual stress analysis and fatigue strength assessment were performed at elevated temperature for multi-pass dissimilar material weld between Alloy 617 and P92 steel, which are used in thermal power plant. Multi-pass welding between Alloy 617 and P92 steel was performed under optimized welding condition determined from repeated pre-test welding. In particular, for improving dissimilar material weld-ability, the buttering welding technique was applied on the P92 steel side before multi-pass welding. Welding residual stress distribution at the dissimilar material weld joint was numerically analyzed by using the finite element method, and compared with experimental results which were obtained by the hole-drilling method. Additionally, fatigue strength of dissimilar material weld joint was assessed at the room temperature (R.T), 300, 500, and 700 °C. In finite element analysis results, numerical peak values; longitudinal (410 MPa), transverse (345 MPa) were higher than those of experiments; longitudinal (298 MPa), transverse (245 MPa). There are quantitatively big differences between numerical and experimental results, due to some assumption about the thermal conductivity, specific heat, effects of enforced convection of the molten pool, dilution, and volume change during phase transformation caused by actual shield gas. The low fatigue limit at R.T, 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C was assessed to be 368, 276, 173 and 137 MPa respectively.

  5. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  6. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  7. Development of SiC Nanoparticles and Second Phases Synergistically Reinforced Mg-Based Composites Processed by Multi-Pass Forging with Varying Temperatures

    Kaibo Nie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, SiC nanoparticles were added into matrix alloy through a combination of semisolid stirring and ultrasonic vibration while dynamic precipitation of second phases was obtained through multi-pass forging with varying temperatures. During single-pass forging of the present composite, as the deformation temperature increased, the extent of recrystallization increased, and grains were refined due to the inhibition effect of the increasing amount of dispersed SiC nanoparticles. A small amount of twins within the SiC nanoparticle dense zone could be found while the precipitated phases of Mg17Al12 in long strips and deformation bands with high density dislocations were formed in the particle sparse zone after single-pass forging at 350 °C. This indicated that the particle sparse zone was mainly deformed by dislocation slip while the nanoparticle dense zone may have been deformed by twinning. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the composites were gradually enhanced through increasing the single-pass forging temperature from 300 °C to 400 °C, which demonstrated that initial high forging temperature contributed to the improvement of the mechanical properties. During multi-pass forging with varying temperatures, the grain size of the composite was gradually decreased while the grain size distribution tended to be uniform with reducing the deformation temperature and extending the forging passes. In addition, the amount of precipitated second phases was significantly increased compared with that after multi-pass forging under a constant temperature. The improvement in the yield strength of the developed composite was related to grain refinement strengthening and Orowan strengthening resulting from synergistical effect of the externally applied SiC nanoparticles and internally precipitated second phases.

  8. The effect of the multi-pass non-circular drawing sequence on mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of low-carbon steel

    Lee, Jung Wan; Baek, Hyun Moo; Hwang, Sun Kwang; Son, Il-Heon; Bae, Chul Min; Im, Yong-Taek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-pass non-circular drawing sequence is proposed to make high-strength wires. • The sequence was designed and applied for a low-carbon steel wire up to the 10th pass. • Many LAGBs and small grain size of the wire produced by the sequence were obtained. • High plastic deformation was imposed on the wire, resulting in grain refinement. • The sequence made fine-grained wires with improved UTS, ductility and fatigue life. - Abstract: In this study, the multi-pass non-circular drawing sequence was investigated for manufacturing high-strength wires with better ductility in a simple continuous way without adding additional alloys and heat treatment considering the effect of microstructure evolution and die geometry of the sequence on the mechanical properties of low-carbon steel during the process. For this purpose, the non-circular drawing sequence was designed and applied up to the 10th pass at room temperature. Mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of the specimen processed by the sequence were investigated by tension, Vickers micro-hardness, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), and fatigue tests compared with those for the conventional wire-drawing process. From the EBSD results, the higher low angle grain boundaries length per unit area and smaller average grain size of the specimen processed by the non-circular drawing sequence were obtained than those of the specimen processed by the wire-drawing process for the 8th pass. These results indicated that more plastic deformation was imposed in the material by the non-circular drawing sequence, resulting in grain refinement of the deformed specimen compared to the wire-drawing process. It is demonstrated that the multi-pass non-circular drawing sequence could be beneficial in producing fine-grained wires with improved ultimate tensile strength, ductility, and fatigue property by simply changing drawing dies geometry of the conventional wire-drawing process

  9. Analysis of a multi pass weld of a thick walled tube made of austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNiNb 18 10

    Scholtes, B.; Zinn, W.; Ilg, U.; Backfisch, W.; Gibmeier, J.; Kirch, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, microstructure and residual stresses of a multi pass welding of a thick-walled tube made of austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNiNb 18 10 (1.4550) are systematically characterized and assessed. Results of microstructural and phase analyses, residual stress and hardness measurements as well as of a tensile test using micro specimen and SEM analyses are presented. Using these data, plastic deformations occurring during the welding process in the vicinity of the weld seam are evaluated. Finally, consequences of an additional heat treatment at 400 C/24 h are studied. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  10. Correlation Between Microstructure and Low-Temperature Impact Toughness of Simulated Reheated Zones in the Multi-pass Weld Metal of High-Strength Steel

    Kang, Yongjoon; Park, Gitae; Jeong, Seonghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2018-01-01

    A large fraction of reheated weld metal is formed during multi-pass welding, which significantly affects the mechanical properties (especially toughness) of welded structures. In this study, the low-temperature toughness of the simulated reheated zone in multi-pass weld metal was evaluated and compared to that of the as-deposited zone using microstructural analyses. Two kinds of high-strength steel welds with different hardenabilities were produced by single-pass, bead-in-groove welding, and both welds were thermally cycled to peak temperatures above Ac3 using a Gleeble simulator. When the weld metals were reheated, their toughness deteriorated in response to the increase in the fraction of detrimental microstructural components, i.e., grain boundary ferrite and coalesced bainite in the weld metals with low and high hardenabilities, respectively. In addition, toughness deterioration occurred in conjunction with an increase in the effective grain size, which was attributed to the decrease in nucleation probability of acicular ferrite; the main cause for this decrease changed depending on the hardenability of the weld metal.

  11. Influence of Surface-profile and Movement-path of Roller on Thickness Thinning during Multi-pass Deep Drawing Spinning

    Xia Qinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over thinning is a serious defect influencing the forming quality of spun workpiece during multi-pass deep drawing spinning. Surface-profile and movement-path of roller are the key factors influencing the thinning ratio of wall thickness of spun workpiece. The influence of surface-profile and movement-path of roller on thickness thinning were studied based on numerical simulation and experimental research, four groups of forming experiments were carried out under the combination of the different surface-profile of roller (R12 and R25-12 and movement-path of roller (spinning from the bottom of the blank and spinning from the middle of the blank. The results show that both the surface-profile and movement-path of roller have great influence on wall thickness thinning during multi-pass deep drawing spinning; and compared with the movement-path of roller, the influence of surface-profile of roller is more significant. The experimental results conform well to the simulation ones. It indicates that the FEA model established is reasonable and reliable.

  12. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  13. Application of multi-pass high pressure homogenization under variable temperature regimes to induce autolysis of wine yeasts.

    Comuzzo, Piergiorgio; Calligaris, Sonia; Iacumin, Lucilla; Ginaldi, Federica; Voce, Sabrina; Zironi, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The effects of the number of passes and processing temperature management (controlled vs. uncontrolled) were investigated during high pressure homogenization-induced autolysis of Saccharomyces bayanus wine yeasts, treated at 150MPa. Both variables were able to affect cell viability, and the release of soluble molecules (free amino acids, proteins and glucidic colloids), but the effect of temperature was more important. S. bayanus cells were completely inactivated in 10 passes without temperature control (corresponding to a processing temperature of 75°C). The two processing variables also affected the volatile composition of the autolysates produced: higher temperatures led to a lower concentration of volatile compounds. The management of the operating conditions may allow the compositional characteristics of the products to be modulated, making them suitable for different winemaking applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the sulfide corrosion fatigue strength for a multi-pass welded A106 Gr B steel pipe below the low SSCC limit

    Lee, Gyu Young; Bae, Dong Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the area of heavy construction, welding processes are vital in the production and maintenance of pipelines and power plants. Welding processes happen to produce residual stresses and change the metal structure as a result of the large nonlinear thermal loading that is created by a moving heat source. The fusion welding process generates formidable welding residual stresses and metallurgical change, which increase the crack driving force and reduce the resistance to the brittle fracture as well as the environmental fracture. This is a serious problem with many alloys as well as the A106 Gr B steel pipe. This pipe that is used in petrochemical and heavy chemical plants either degrades due to corrosive environments, e.g., chlorides and sulfides, and/or become damaged during service due to the various corrosion damage mechanisms. Thus, in this study, after numerically and experimentally analyzing the welding residual stress of a multi-pass welded A106 Gr B steel pipe, the sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) characteristics were assessed in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution that was saturated with H 2 S gas at room temperature on the basis of NACE TM 0177-90. The specimens used are of two kinds: un-notched and notched. Then, the sulfide corrosion fatigue (SCF) strength for the un-notched specimen was assessed below the low SSCC limit that was previously obtained from the SSCC tests for the notched specimen. From the results, in terms of the SSCC and SCF, all the specimens failed at the heat-affected zone, where a high welding residual stress is distributed. It was found that the low SSCC limit of un-notched specimens (σSSCCun-notched) was 46% (230 MPa) of the ultimate tensile strength (σU=502 MPa) of a multi-pass welded A106 Gr B steel pipe, and the notched specimens (σSSCCnotched) had 40% (200 MPa) of the ultimate tensile strength. Thus, it was determined that σSSCCun-notched was 13% lower than σSSCCnotched. Further, the sulfide corrosion fatigue limit (

  15. Assessment of the crack growth characteristics at the low fatigue limit of a multi-pass welded Ni-based alloy 617

    Park, Young Soo; Bae, Dong Ho [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    It has become known that the most effective methodology for green power plant systems is to increase the generating efficiency of steam power plants. Among the materials developed to improve the performance, it is known that the most practical and applicable materials are Ni-based Alloys. However, it is necessary to first guarantee mechanical reliability of the weld for applying these Ni-based Alloys. In this study, firstly, the fatigue strength of multi-pass welded Ni-based Alloy 617 in as-welded and post weld heat-treated conditions were assessed. And then the crack growth characteristics at the low fatigue limit of them were assessed. From the results, fatigue strength of the welds those were post weld heat treated did not show large difference compare to not heat-treated ones. These results mean that the weld of Ni-based Alloy 617 is not influenced remarkably by post weld heat treatment in the metallurgical and mechanical changes. However, it was found that the fatigue crack grew at the low fatigue limit, which was about 48.4% (327 MPa) of the static tensile strength(675.1 MPa) of the weld, and 43.1% of the base material (759.4 MPa).

  16. Microstructure, Texture Evolution and Mechanical Properties of VT3-1 Titanium Alloy Processed by Multi-Pass Drawing and Subsequent Isothermal Annealing

    Xiaofei Lei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure, texture evolution, and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–1.5Cr–2.5Mo–0.5Fe–0.3Si (VT3-1 titanium alloy processed by multi-pass drawing and subsequent isothermal annealing were systematically investigated. A fiber-like microstructure is formed after warm drawing at 760 °C with 60% area reduction. After isothermal annealing, the samples deformed to different amounts of area reduction show a similar volume fraction (80% of α phase, while the sample deformed to 60% exhibits a homogeneous microstructure with a larger grain size (5.8 μm. The major texture component of α phase developed during warm drawing is centered at a position of {φ1 = 10°, φ = 65°, φ2 = 0°}. The textures for annealed samples are almost along the orientation of original deformation textures and show significant increases in orientation density and volume fraction compared with their deformed states. In addition, for the drawn samples, the ultimate tensile strength increases but the ductility decreases with increasing drawing deformation. A negative slope of yield strength of annealed samples versus grain size (d−1/2 is found due to the difference between texture softening for as-rolled + annealed state and texture hardening for drawn + annealed state. The mechanical properties of annealed samples are found to be strongly dependent on grain size and texture, resulting in the balance of the strength and ductility.

  17. Effects of Heat Input and Bead Generation Methods on Finite Element Analysis of Cylindrical Multi-Pass Welding Process of Metals

    Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a finite element analysis of a cylindrical multi-pass weldment for dissimilar metals was performed. The effects of the heat input method and weld bead generation method were considered. We compared two heat input methods: the heat flux method and the temperature method. We also compared two weld bead generation methods: the element birth method and the quiet element method. Although the results of the thermal analysis show deviations between the two heat input methods, the welding residual stresses were similar. Because the areas exposed to high temperature were similar and the strength of the material was very low in high temperature (above the 1000 ℃), the effects of the weld bead temperature were insignificant. The distributions of the welding residual stress were similar to each other. However, gaps and overlaps occurred on the welding boundary surfaces when the element birth method was applied. The quiet element method is more suitable for a large deformation model in order to simulate a more accurate weld shape.

  18. Effects of Heat Input and Bead Generation Methods on Finite Element Analysis of Cylindrical Multi-Pass Welding Process of Metals

    Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hoon [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a finite element analysis of a cylindrical multi-pass weldment for dissimilar metals was performed. The effects of the heat input method and weld bead generation method were considered. We compared two heat input methods: the heat flux method and the temperature method. We also compared two weld bead generation methods: the element birth method and the quiet element method. Although the results of the thermal analysis show deviations between the two heat input methods, the welding residual stresses were similar. Because the areas exposed to high temperature were similar and the strength of the material was very low in high temperature (above the 1000 ℃), the effects of the weld bead temperature were insignificant. The distributions of the welding residual stress were similar to each other. However, gaps and overlaps occurred on the welding boundary surfaces when the element birth method was applied. The quiet element method is more suitable for a large deformation model in order to simulate a more accurate weld shape.

  19. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    Butler, Corey; Fardad, Shima; Sincore, Alex; Vangheluwe, Marie; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique for controlling and studying fundamental behavior of single cells with their environment without having "many-body" interference. The development of such an instrument for optical diagnostics (including Raman and fluorescence for molecular diagnostics) via laser spectroscopy with either the "trapping" beam or secondary beams is still in progress. This paper shows the development of modular multi-spectral imaging optical tweezers combining Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells.

  20. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  1. A numerical study of the supercritical CO2 plate heat exchanger subject to U-type, Z-type, and multi-pass arrangements

    Zhu, Chen-Xi; Wang, Chi-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a numerical model for plate heat exchanger that is capable of handling supercritical CO2 fluid. The plate heat exchangers under investigation include Z-type (1-pass), U-type (1-pass), and 1-2 pass configurations. The plate spacing is 2.9 mm with a plate thickness of 0.8 mm, and the size of the plate is 600 mm wide and 218 mm in height with 60 degrees chevron angle. The proposed model takes into account the influence of gigantic change of CO2 properties. The simulation is first compared with some existing data for water-to-water plate heat exchangers with good agreements. The flow distribution, pressure drop, and heat transfer performance subject to the supercritical CO2 in plate heat exchangers are then investigated. It is found that the flow velocity increases consecutively from the entrance plate toward the last plate for the Z-type arrangement, and this is applicable for either water side or CO2 side. However, the flow distribution of the U-type arrangement in the water side shows opposite trend. Conversely, the flow distribution for U-type arrangement of CO2 depends on the specific flow ratio (C*). A lower C* like 0.1 may reverse the distribution, i.e. the flow velocity increases moderately alongside the plate channel like Z-type while a large C* of 1 would resemble the typical distribution in water channel. The flow distribution of CO2 side at the first and last plate shows a pronounced drop/surge phenomenon while the channels in water side does not reveal this kind of behavior. The performance of 2-pass plate heat exchanger, in terms of heat transfer rate, is better than that of 1-pass design only when C* is comparatively small (C* < 0.5). Multi-pass design is more effective when the dominant thermal resistance falls in the CO2 side.

  2. Hollow optical fiber induced solar cells with optical energy storage and conversion.

    Ding, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-11-09

    Hollow optical fiber induced dye-sensitized solar cells are made by twisting Ti wire/N719-TiO 2 nanotube photoanodes and Ti wire/Pt (CoSe, Pt 3 Ni) counter electrodes, yielding a maximized efficiency of 0.7% and good stability. Arising from optical energy storage ability, the solar cells can generate electricity without laser illumination.

  3. Optical trapping of a spherically symmetric sphere in the ray-optics regime: a model for optical tweezers upon cells

    Chang Yiren; Hsu Long; Chi Sien

    2006-01-01

    Since their invention in 1986, optical tweezers have become a popular manipulation and force measurement tool in cellular and molecular biology. However, until recently there has not been a sophisticated model for optical tweezers on trapping cells in the ray-optics regime. We present a model for optical tweezers to calculate the optical force upon a spherically symmetric multilayer sphere representing a common biological cell. A numerical simulation of this model shows that not only is the magnitude of the optical force upon a Chinese hamster ovary cell significantly three times smaller than that upon a polystyrene bead of the same size, but the distribution of the optical force upon a cell is also much different from that upon a uniform particle, and there is a 30% difference in the optical trapping stiffness of these two cases. Furthermore, under a small variant condition for the refractive indices of any adjacent layers of the sphere, this model provides a simple approximation to calculate the optical force and the stiffness of an optical tweezers system

  4. The effect of initial stress induced during the steel manufacturing process on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt welding

    Jeong-ung Park

    2018-03-01

    MPa, while in case of thickness at 70 mm, it was 200 MPa. The increase in compressive residual stress is almost the same as the initial stress. However, if initial stress was tensile, there was no significant change in the maximum compression residual stress. Keywords: Initial stress, Thermal elastic plastic FE analysis, Welding residual stress, Manufacturing steel process, Multi-pass butt welding

  5. Fiber optic gas detection system for health monitoring of oil-filled transformer

    Ho, H. L.; Ju, J.; Jin, W.

    2009-10-01

    This paper reports the development of a fiber-optic gas detection system capable of detecting three types of dissolved fault gases in oil-filled power transformers or equipment. The system is based on absorption spectroscopy and the target gases include acetylene (C2H2), methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). Low-cost multi-pass sensor heads using fiber coupled micro-optic cells are employed for which the interaction length is up to 4m. Also, reference gas cells made of photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber are implemented. The minimum detectable gas concentrations for methane, acetylene and ethylene are 5ppm, 2ppm and 50ppm respectively.

  6. A Miniaturized Optical Sensor with Integrated Gas Cell

    Ayerden, N.P.; Ghaderi, M.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a highly integrated optical gas sensor is presented. The gas cell takes up most of the space in a microspectrometer and is the only component that has so far not been miniaturized. Using the tapered resonator cavity of a linear variable optical filter

  7. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Stanislav Jurecka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  8. Herriott Cell Augmentation of a Quadrature Heterodyne Interferometer

    Antonsen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A quadrature heterodyne interferometer is augmented with a Herriott Cell multi-pass reflector to increase instrument resolution and enable a separation of the phase shift due to neutral density from room vibrations...

  9. Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape

    Paterson, L.; Milne, G.; Garcés-Chávez, V.; Tatarkova, S. A.; Sibbett, W.; Dholakia, K.; Papagiakoumou, E.; Gunn-Moore, F. J.; Bryant, P. E.; Riches, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate passive optical sorting of cell populations in the absence of any externally driven fluid flow. Specifically, we report the movement of erythrocytes and lymphocytes in an optical landscape, consisting of a circularly symmetric light pattern created by a Bessel light beam. These distinct cell populations move, spontaneously and differentially, across the underlying periodic optical landscape. Thus, we were able to separate lymphocytes from a mixed population of cells containing erythrocytes and then collect the lymphocytes in a microcapillary reservoir. We also demonstrate an enhanced form of this separation that exploits the polarizability of silica microspheres by attaching spheres coated with antibodies to cell surface markers to a subpopulation of lymphocytes. These techniques may be applied using standard laboratory apparatus.

  10. Optical properties of cells with melanin

    Rohde, Barukh; Coats, Israel; Krueger, James; Gareau, Dan

    2014-02-01

    The optical properties of pigmented lesions have been studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in a noninvasive configuration on optically thick samples such as skin in vivo. However, it is difficult to un-mix the effects of absorption and scattering with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques due to the complex anatomical distributions of absorbing and scattering biomolecules. We present a device and technique that enables absorption and scattering measurements of tissue volumes much smaller than the optical mean-free path. Because these measurements are taken on fresh-frozen sections, they are direct measurements of the optical properties of tissue, albeit in a different hydration state than in vivo tissue. Our results on lesions from 20 patients including melanomas and nevi show the absorption spectrum of melanin in melanocytes and basal keratinocytes. Our samples consisted of fresh frozen sections that were unstained. Fitting the spectrum as an exponential decay between 500 and 1100 nm [mua = A*exp(-B*(lambda-C)) + D], we report on the fit parameters of and their variation due to biological heterogeneity as A = 4.20e4 +/- 1.57e5 [1/cm], B = 4.57e-3 +/- 1.62e-3 [1/nm], C = 210 +/- 510 [nm] , D = 613 +/- 534 [1/cm]. The variability in these results is likely due to highly heterogeneous distributions of eumelanin and pheomelanin.

  11. Absorbed Dose Distribution in a Pulse Radiolysis Optical Cell

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    When a liquid solution in an optical cell is irradiated by an intense pulsed electron beam, it may be important in the chemical analysis of the solution to know the distribution of energy deposited throughout the cell. For the present work, absorbed dose distributions were measured by thin...... radiochromic dye film dosimeters placed at various depths in a quartz glass pulse radiolysis cell. The cell was irradiated with 30 ns pulses from a field-emission electron accelerator having a broad spectrum with a maximum energy of ≈MeV. The measured three-dimensional dose distributions showed sharp gradients...... in dose at the largest penetration depths in the cell and at the extreme lateral edges of the cell interior near the optical windows. This method of measurement was convenient because of the high spatial resolution capability of the detector and the linearity and absence of dose-rate dependence of its...

  12. Optical cell cleaning with NIR femtosecond laser pulses

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Femtosecond laser microscopes have been used as both micro and nanosurgery tools. The optical knock-out of undesired cells in multiplex cell clusters shall be further reported on in this study. Femtosecond laser-induced cell death is beneficial due to the reduced collateral side effects and therefore can be used to selectively destroy target cells within monolayers, as well as within 3D tissues, all the while preserving cells of interest. This is an important characteristic for the application in stem cell research and cancer treatment. Non-precise damage compromises the viability of neighboring cells by inducing side effects such as stress to the cells surrounding the target due to the changes in the microenvironment, resulting from both the laser and laser-exposed cells. In this study, optimum laser parameters for optical cleaning by isolating single cells and cell colonies are exploited through the use of automated software control. Physiological equilibrium and cellular responses to the laser induced damages are also investigated. Cell death dependence on laser focus, determination and selectivity of intensity/dosage, controllable damage and cell recovery mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells with embedded optical spacers

    Hadipour, Afshin; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell in which the two photoactive single cells are separated by an optical spacer. The use of an optical spacer allows for an independent optimization of both the electronic and optical properties of the tandem cell. The optical transmission

  14. Studies on optical pumping cells (OPC) to polarize 3He

    Hutanu, V.; Rupp, A.

    2004-01-01

    The technique applied at HMI to obtain nuclear-spin-polarized 3 He, used in neutron spin filters (NSFs), is metastability-exchange optical pumping. To prepare efficient NSF, one must highly polarize 3 He nuclei in the optical pumping volume (OPV) and reduce the polarization losses during the compression phase. Great progress has been achieved in reducing of depolarization due to the recent development of both, large polarization preserving piston compressors and long relaxation time filter cells. It is even more important to significantly enhance the 3 He polarization rate during optical pumping in order to increase NSF efficiency. Different cells materials were tested, such as Duran and quartz glass. In order to use the laser light more efficiently and to decrease the risk of 3 He depolarization due to unfavorable reflections, antireflection (AR) coatings were used on cell windows made of quartz glass. They were compared with the ones without coating, made of quartz, Duran and BK7 glass. The comparison of various techniques to mount the windows such as blowing, gluing or molecular diffusion was also conducted. It indicated that the molecular diffusion is the most suitable technique because of a better purity of the gas in the cell and the preservation of the optical flatness of the windows. Cells, for practical reasons each entirely made from the same material (Duran, Quartz glass) with windows mounted using this method, showed the best polarization performance

  15. Optical force on diseased blood cells: Towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2015-05-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously

  17. Hot gas flow cell for optical measurements on reactive gases

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    2013-01-01

    A new design is presented for a gas flow cell for reactive gases at high temperatures. The design features three heated sections that are separated by flow windows. This design avoids the contact of reactive gases with the material of the exchangeable optical windows. A gas cell with this design ......-resolution measurements are presented for the absorption cross-section of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the UV range up to 773 K (500 degrees C)...

  18. Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available review the application of optical forces for cellmanipulation and sorting, highlighting some of the key experiments over the last twenty years.We then introduce a new technique for enhancing the dielectric contrast of mammalian cells, which is a result...

  19. Optical Investigations of Endothelial Cell Motility

    Rossen, Ninna Struck

    A monolayer of endothelial cells lines the entire circulatory system and create a barrier between the circulatory system and the tissues. To create and maintain an intact barrier, the individual cells have to connect tightly with their neighbors, which causes a highly correlated motion between...... are fascinating from a biophysical point of view. The vasculature also plays a signi cant role in many pathologies. In diabetic blindness or ischemic diseases the ow of blood is insucient to sustain certain tissues or whole limbs. The creation of new blood vessels can relieve or treat such diseases. In other...... pathologies, such as the growth of cancerous tumors and metastasis, the creation of new blood vessels to these tumors worsen the condition and an inhibition of blood vessel creation will relieve the pathology. The thesis is divided into three parts; Part 1 provides some general background knowledge...

  20. Local probing and stimulation of neuronal cells by optical manipulation

    Cojoc, Dan

    2014-09-01

    During development and in the adult brain, neurons continuously explore the environment searching for guidance cues, leading to the appropriate connections. Elucidating these mechanisms represents a gold goal in neurobiology. Here, I discuss our recent achievements developing new approaches to locally probe the growth cones and stimulate neuronal cell compartments with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical tweezers force spectroscopy applied in conjunction with metabolic inhibitors reveals new properties of the cytoskeleton dynamics. On the other hand, using optically manipulated microvectors as functionalized beads or filled liposomes, we demonstrate focal stimulation of neurons by small number of signaling molecules.

  1. Investigation of HIV-1 infected and uninfected cells using the optical trapping technique

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical trapping has emerged as an essential tool for manipulating single biological material and performing sophisticated spectroscopy analysis on individual cell. The optical trapping technique has been used to grab and immobilize cells from a...

  2. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1–4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  3. Cell manipulation tool with combined microwell array and optical tweezers for cell isolation and deposition

    Wang, Xiaolin; Gou, Xue; Chen, Shuxun; Yan, Xiao; Sun, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Isolation from rare cells and deposition of sorted cells with high accuracy for further study are critical to a wide range of biomedical applications. In the current paper, we report an automated cell manipulation tool with combined optical tweezers and a uniquely designed microwell array, which functions for recognition, isolation, assembly, transportation and deposition of the interesting cells. The microwell array allows the passive hydrodynamic docking of cells, while offering the opportunity to inspect the interesting cell phenotypes with high spatio-temporal resolution based on the flexible image processing technique. In addition, dynamic and parallel cell manipulation in three dimensions can realize the target cell levitation from microwell and pattern assembly with multiple optical traps. Integrated with the programmed motorized stage, the optically levitated and assembled cells can be transported and deposited to the predefined microenvironment, so the tool can facilitate the integration of other on-chip functionalities for further study without removing these isolated cells from the chip. Experiments on human embryonic stem cells and yeast cells are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cell manipulation tool. Besides the application to cell isolation and deposition, three other biological applications with this tool are also presented. (paper)

  4. Ultrafast imaging of cell elasticity with optical microelastography.

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Zorgani, Ali; Nakagawa, Shoma; Bernard, Simon; Paim, Lia Gomes; Fitzharris, Greg; Catheline, Stefan; Cloutier, Guy

    2018-01-30

    Elasticity is a fundamental cellular property that is related to the anatomy, functionality, and pathological state of cells and tissues. However, current techniques based on cell deformation, atomic force microscopy, or Brillouin scattering are rather slow and do not always accurately represent cell elasticity. Here, we have developed an alternative technique by applying shear wave elastography to the micrometer scale. Elastic waves were mechanically induced in live mammalian oocytes using a vibrating micropipette. These audible frequency waves were observed optically at 200,000 frames per second and tracked with an optical flow algorithm. Whole-cell elasticity was then mapped using an elastography method inspired by the seismology field. Using this approach we show that the elasticity of mouse oocytes is decreased when the oocyte cytoskeleton is disrupted with cytochalasin B. The technique is fast (less than 1 ms for data acquisition), precise (spatial resolution of a few micrometers), able to map internal cell structures, and robust and thus represents a tractable option for interrogating biomechanical properties of diverse cell types. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Substrate-dependent cell elasticity measured by optical tweezers indentation

    Yousafzai, Muhammad S.; Ndoye, Fatou; Coceano, Giovanna; Niemela, Joseph; Bonin, Serena; Scoles, Giacinto; Cojoc, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, cell elasticity has been widely investigated as a potential label free indicator for cellular alteration in different diseases, cancer included. Cell elasticity can be locally measured by pulling membrane tethers, stretching or indenting the cell using optical tweezers. In this paper, we propose a simple approach to perform cell indentation at pN forces by axially moving the cell against a trapped microbead. The elastic modulus is calculated using the Hertz-model. Besides the axial component, the setup also allows us to examine the lateral cell-bead interaction. This technique has been applied to measure the local elasticity of HBL-100 cells, an immortalized human cell line, originally derived from the milk of a woman with no evidence of breast cancer lesions. In addition, we have studied the influence of substrate stiffness on cell elasticity by performing experiments on cells cultured on two substrates, bare and collagen-coated, having different stiffness. The mean value of the cell elastic modulus measured during indentation was 26±9 Pa for the bare substrate, while for the collagen-coated substrate it diminished to 19±7 Pa. The same trend was obtained for the elastic modulus measured during the retraction of the cell: 23±10 Pa and 13±7 Pa, respectively. These results show the cells adapt their stiffness to that of the substrate and demonstrate the potential of this setup for low-force probing of modifications to cell mechanics induced by the surrounding environment (e.g. extracellular matrix or other cells).

  6. Effect of cell thickness on the electrical and optical properties of thin film silicon solar cell

    Zaki, A. A.; El-Amin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work Electrical and optical properties of silicon thin films with different thickness were measured. The thickness of the Si films varied from 100 to 800 μm. The optical properties of the cell were studied at different thickness. A maximum achievable current density (MACD) generated by a planar solar cell, was measured for different values of the cell thickness which was performed by using photovoltaic (PV) optics method. It was found that reducing the values of the cell thickness improves the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cell. The optical properties were measured for thin film Si (TF-Si) at different thickness by using the double beam UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-2000 nm. Some of optical parameters such as refractive index with dispersion relation, the dispersion energy, the oscillator energy, optical band gap energy were calculated by using the spectra for the TF-Si with different thickness.

  7. Optical detection of singlet oxygen from single cells

    Snyder, John; Skovsen, Esben; Lambert, John D. C.

    2006-01-01

    The lowest excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, singlet molecular oxygen, O2(a 1g), is a reactive species involved in many chemical and biological processes. To better understand the roles played by singlet oxygen in biological systems, particularly at the sub-cellular level, optical tools...... including across the cell membrane into the extracellular environment. On one hand, these results demonstrate that the behavior of singlet oxygen in an intact cell can be significantly different from that inferred from model bulk studies. More generally, these results provide a new perspective...

  8. Optical absorption enhancement by inserting ZnO optical spacer in plasmonic organic solar cells

    N'Konou, Kekeli; Torchio, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Optical absorption enhancement (AE) using coupled optical spacer and plasmonic effects in standard and inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) are demonstrated using the finite-difference time-domain numerical method. The influence of an added zinc oxide (ZnO) optical spacer layer inserted below the active layer in standard architecture is first theoretically investigated while the influence of varying the ZnO cathodic buffer layer thickness in inverted design is studied on AE. Then, the embedding of a square periodic array of core-shell silver-silica nanospheres (Ag@SiO2 NSs) at different positions in standard and inverted OSCs is performed while AE and short-circuit current density (Jsc) are calculated. As a result of previous combined effects, the optimized standard plasmonic OSCs present 15% and 79.45% enhancement in J over the reference with and without ZnO optical spacer layer, respectively, and a 16% increase of AE when Ag@SiO2 NSs are placed on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Compared to the inverted OSC reference, the plasmonic OSCs present 26% and 27% enhancement in J and AE, respectively, when the Ag@SiO2 NSs are located on top of the ZnO layer. Furthermore, the spatial position of these NSs in such OSCs is a key parameter for increasing light absorption via enhanced electromagnetic field distribution.

  9. Optical separation and controllable delivery of cells from particle and cell mixture

    Li Yuchao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell separation and delivery have recently gained significant attention in biological and biochemical studies. In thiswork, an optical method for separation and controllable delivery of cells by using an abruptly tapered fiber probe is reported. By launching a laser beam at the wavelength of 980 nm into the fiber, a mixture of cells with sizes of ~5 and ~3 μm and poly(methyl methacrylate particles with size of 5 μm are separated into three chains along the direction of propagation of light. The cell and particle chains are delivered in three dimensions over 600 μm distance. Experimental results are interpreted by numerical simulations. Optical forces and forward migration velocities of different particles and cells are calculated and discussed.

  10. Microstructure of Multi-Pass Friction-Stir-Processed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys Reinforced by Nano-Sized TiB2 Particles and the Effect of T6 Heat Treatment

    Xiaofei Ju

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a fine-grained structure with a uniform distribution of TiB2 particles and precipitates was achieved in TiB2 particle-reinforced (PR Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys by friction stir processing (FSP. The effects of multi-pass FSP on the microstructure, and TiB2 particle distribution, as well as the microstructural evolution in the following T6 treatment, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and associated electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed that the distribution of TiB2 particles and alloy precipitates was further improved with an increase in the FSP passes. Moreover, compared with alloy segregation in the as-cast PR alloys during T6 treatment, a complete solution of the precipitates was achieved in the FSP-treated PR alloys. The fine-grained structure of the FSP-treated PR alloys was thermally stable without any abnormal growth at the high temperature of T6 treatment due to the pinning effect of dispersed TiB2 particles. The strength and ductility of the PR alloys were simultaneously improved by the combination of FSP and T6 treatment.

  11. Distinguishing ischaemic optic neuropathy from optic neuritis by ganglion cell analysis.

    Erlich-Malona, Natalie; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos E; Hedges, Thomas R; Patel, Nimesh; Monaco, Caitlin; Cole, Emily

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether a pattern of altitudinal ganglion cell loss, as detected and measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used to distinguish non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from optic neuritis (ON) during the acute phase, and whether the rate or severity of ganglion cell loss differs between the two diseases. We performed a retrospective, case-control study of 44 patients (50 eyes) with ON or NAION and 44 age-matched controls. Non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy and ON patients had OCT at presentation and four consecutive follow-up visits. Controls had OCT at one point in time. The ganglion cell complex (GCC) was evaluated in the macula, and the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) was evaluated in the peripapillary region. Ganglion cell complex thickness, RNFL thickness and GCC mean superior and inferior hemispheric difference were compared between NAION and ON patients at each time-point using unpaired t-tests and between disease and control subjects at first measurement using paired t-tests. Mean time from onset of symptoms to initial presentation was 10.7 ± 6.6 days in NAION and 11.7 ± 8.6 days in ON (p = 0.67). There was a significantly greater vertical hemispheric difference in GCC thickness in NAION patients than ON patients at all time-points (5.5-10.7 μm versus 3.1-3.6 μm, p = 0.01-0.049). Mean GCC thickness was significantly decreased at less than 2 weeks after onset in NAION compared to age-matched controls (72.1 μm versus 82.1 μm, p < 0.001), as well as in ON compared to age-matched controls (74.3 μm versus 84.5 μm, p < 0.001). Progression and severity of GCC and RNFL loss did not differ significantly between NAION and ON. A quantitative comparison of mean superior and inferior hemispheric GCC thickness with OCT may be used to distinguish NAION from ON. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A comprehensive strategy for the analysis of acoustic compressibility and optical deformability on single cells

    Yang, Tie; Bragheri, Francesca; Nava, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We realized an integrated microfluidic chip that allows measuring both optical deformability and acoustic compressibility on single cells, by optical stretching and acoustophoresis experiments respectively. Additionally, we propose a measurement protocol that allows evaluating the experimental ap...

  13. In-cell overlay metrology by using optical metrology tool

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, DongYoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Park, Hyowon; Liang, Waley; Choi, DongSub; Kim, Nakyoon; Lee, Jeongpyo; Pandev, Stilian; Jeon, Sanghuck; Robinson, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Overlay is one of the most critical process control steps of semiconductor manufacturing technology. A typical advanced scheme includes an overlay feedback loop based on after litho optical imaging overlay metrology on scribeline targets. The after litho control loop typically involves high frequency sampling: every lot or nearly every lot. An after etch overlay metrology step is often included, at a lower sampling frequency, in order to characterize and compensate for bias. The after etch metrology step often involves CD-SEM metrology, in this case in-cell and ondevice. This work explores an alternative approach using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) metrology and a machine learning analysis technique. Advanced 1x nm DRAM wafers were prepared, including both nominal (POR) wafers with mean overlay offsets, as well as DOE wafers with intentional across wafer overlay modulation. After litho metrology was measured using optical imaging metrology, as well as after etch metrology using both SE and CD-SEM for comparison. We investigate 2 types of machine learning techniques with SE data: model-less and model-based, showing excellent performance for after etch in-cell on-device overlay metrology.

  14. Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticle probes in live cells

    Wang, Gufeng; Stender, Anthony S.; Sun, Wei; and Fang, Ning

    2009-12-17

    Precise imaging of cellular and subcellular structures and dynamic processes in live cells is crucial for fundamental research in life sciences and in medical applications. Non-fluorescent nanoparticles are an important type of optical probe used in live-cell imaging due to their photostability, large optical cross-sections, and low toxicity. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in the optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticle probes in live cells.

  15. Electro-optical modeling of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Pieters, Bart E.; Taretto, Kurt; Rau, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    We introduce a model for charge separation in bulk heterojunction solar cells that combines exciton transport to the interface between donor and acceptor phases with the dissociation of the bound electron/hole pair. We implement this model into a standard semiconductor device simulator, thereby creating a convenient method to simulate the optical and electrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction solar cell with a commercially available program. By taking into account different collection probabilities for the excitons in the polymer and the fullerene, we are able to reproduce absorptance, internal and external quantum efficiency, as well as current/voltage curves of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We further investigate the influence of mobilities of the free excitons as well as the mobilities of the free charge carriers on the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We find that, in general, the highest efficiencies are achieved with the highest mobilities. However, an optimum finite mobility of free charge carriers can result from a large recombination velocity at the contacts. In contrast, Langevin-type of recombination cannot lead to finite optimum mobilities even though this mechanism has a strong dependence on the free carrier mobilities.

  16. All-optical clocked flip-flops and random access memory cells using the nonlinear polarization rotation effect of low-polarization-dependent semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xinyu; Tian, Qinghua; Wang, Lina; Xin, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    Basic configurations of various all-optical clocked flip-flops (FFs) and optical random access memory (RAM) based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect of low-polarization-dependent semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) are proposed. As the constituent elements, all-optical logic gates and all-optical SR latches are constructed by taking advantage of the SOA's NPR switch. Different all-optical FFs (AOFFs), including SR-, D-, T-, and JK-types as well as an optical RAM cell were obtained by the combination of the proposed all-optical SR latches and logic gates. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes were verified by simulation results and demonstrated by a D-FF and 1-bit RAM cell experimental system. The proposed all-optical clocked FFs and RAM cell are significant to all-optical signal processing.

  17. Optical enhancement effects of plasmonic nanostructures on organic photovoltaic cells

    Park, Hui Joon

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Hui Joon Park and L. Jay Guo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. In this article, the optical enhancement effects of plasmonic nanostructures on OPV cells were reviewed as an effective way to resolve the mismatch problems between the short exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors (around 10 nm) and the large thickness required to fully absorb sunlight (e.g. hundreds of nanometers). Especially, the performances of OPVs with plasmonic nanoparticles in photoactive and buffer layers and with periodic nanostructures were investigated. Furthermore, nanoimprint lithography-based nanofabrication processes that can easily control the dimension and uniformity of structures for large-area and uniform plasmonic nanostructures were demonstrated.

  18. Three-Dimensional Optical Trapping for Cell Isolation Using Tapered Fiber Probe by Dynamic Chemical Etching

    Taguchi, K; Okada, J; Nomura, Y; Tamura, K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, chemically etched fiber probe was proposed for laser trapping and manipulation of cells. We fabricated tapered fiber probe by dynamic chemical etching technique. Three-Dimensional optical trap of a yeast cell dispersed in water solution could be formed by the fiber tip with 17deg tip. Optical forces were sufficient to move the yeast cell for trapping and manipulation. From these experimental results, it was found that our proposed tapered fiber tip was a promising tool for cell isolation.

  19. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity μ by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  20. Design of all-optical memory cell using EIT and lasing without inversion phenomena in optical micro ring resonators

    Pasyar, N.; Yadipour, R.; Baghban, H.

    2017-07-01

    The proposed design of the optical memory unit cell contains dual micro ring resonators in which the effect of lasing without inversion (LWI) in three-level nano particles doped over the optical resonators or integrators as the gain segment is used for loss compensation. Also, an on/off phase shifter based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level quantum dots (QDs) has been used for data reading at requested time. Device minimizing for integrated purposes and high speed data storage are the main advantages of the optical integrator based memory.

  1. Patterns of cell proliferation and cell death in the developing retina and optic tectum of the brown trout.

    Candal, E.; Anadon, R.; Grip, W.J. de; Rodriguez-Moldes, I.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the patterns of cell proliferation and cell death in the retina and optic tectum of the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) throughout embryonic and postembryonic stages. Cell proliferation was detected by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear

  2. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and ...

  3. Raman spectroscopic studies of optically trapped red blood cells

    Dasgupta, R.; Gupta, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies were performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) collected from healthy volunteers and patients suffering from malaria (Plasmodium vivax infection) using near infrared (785 nm) laser source. The results show significant alteration in the spectra averaged over ∼ 50 non-parasitized RBCs per sample. As compared to RBCs from healthy donors, in cells collected from malaria patients, a significant decrease in the intensity of the low spin (oxygenated-haemoglobin) marker Raman band at 1223 cm -1 (υ 13 or υ 42 ) along with a concomitant increase in the high spin (deoxygenated-haemoglobin) marker bands at 1210 cm -1 (υ 5 + υ 18 ) and 1546 cm -1 (υ 11 ) was observed. The changes primarily suggest a reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity for the non-parasitized red cells in malaria patients. The possible causes include up regulation of intra-erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and/or ineffective erythropoiesis resulted from the disease. During the above study we also observed that significant photo-damage may results to the intracellular haemoglobin (Hb) if higher laser power is used. For a laser power above ∼ 5 mW the observed increase in intensity of the Raman bands at 975 cm -1 (υ 46 ), 1244 cm -1 (υ 42 ) and 1366 cm -1 (υ 4 ) with increasing exposure time suggests photo-denaturation of Hb and the concomitant decrease in intensity of the Raman band at 1544 cm -1 (υ 11 ) suggests photo induced methaemoglobin formation. The photo damage of intracellular haemoglobin by the above processes was also observed to result in intracellular heme aggregation. (author)

  4. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  5. A simple optical fiber device for quantitative fluorescence microscopy of single living cells

    van Graft, M.; van Graft, Marja; Oosterhuis, B.; Oosterhuis, Bernard; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    simple and relatively inexpensive system is described for obtaining quantitative fluorescence measurements on single living cells loaded with a fluorescent probe to study cell physiological processes. The light emitted from the fluorescent cells is captured by and transported through an optical fiber. After passage through appropriate filters the light is measured using a photomultiplier tube. The optical fiber is mounted in one of the microscope outlets. Signals derived from the photomultipl...

  6. Optical silencing of C. elegans cells with arch proton pump.

    Ayako Okazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optogenetic techniques using light-driven ion channels or ion pumps for controlling excitable cells have greatly facilitated the investigation of nervous systems in vivo. A model organism, C. elegans, with its small transparent body and well-characterized neural circuits, is especially suitable for optogenetic analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the application of archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch, a recently reported optical neuronal silencer, to C. elegans. Arch::GFP expressed either in all neurons or body wall muscles of the entire body by means of transgenes were localized, at least partially, to the cell membrane without adverse effects, and caused locomotory paralysis of worms when illuminated by green light (550 nm. Pan-neuronal expression of Arch endowed worms with quick and sustained responsiveness to such light. Worms reliably responded to repeated periods of illumination and non-illumination, and remained paralyzed under continuous illumination for 30 seconds. Worms expressing Arch in different subsets of motor neurons exhibited distinct defects in the locomotory behavior under green light: selective silencing of A-type motor neurons affected backward movement while silencing of B-type motor neurons affected forward movement more severely. Our experiments using a heat-shock-mediated induction system also indicate that Arch becomes fully functional only 12 hours after induction and remains functional for more than 24 hour. CONCLUSIONS/SGNIFICANCE: Arch can be used for silencing neurons and muscles, and may be a useful alternative to currently widely used halorhodopsin (NpHR in optogenetic studies of C. elegans.

  7. Imaging Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Hans Christian Ring

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the presentation of a patch-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: A patient with a patch caused by CTCL was photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied. A normal skin area adjacent to the patch was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT image and the histological image were compared. Results: The OCT images illustrated a thickened and hyperreflective stratum corneum. OCT also demonstrated several elongated hyporeflective structures in the dermis. The largest structure was measured to have a width of 0.13 mm. A good immediate correlation was found between histology and OCT imaging of the sample. Conclusion: The aetiology of the elongated structures is thought to be lymphomatous infiltrates. Similar findings have been described in ocular lymphoma and may therefore be an important characteristic of cutaneous lymphoma. It may further be speculated that the differences in OCT images may reflect the biological behaviour of the infiltrate. This observation therefore suggests that OCT imaging may be a relevant tool for the in vivo investigation of mycosis fungoides and other CTCLs, but in order to verify these observed patterns in OCT imaging, further investigations will be required.

  8. Optics

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  9. Development of an ultrasound microscope combined with optical microscope for multiparametric characterization of a single cell.

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Shikama, Joe; Yoshida, Koki; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanics of the cell has been gathering much attention because it affects the pathological status in atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, an ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope for characterization of a single cell with multiple ultrasound parameters was developed. The central frequency of the transducer was 375 MHz and the scan area was 80 × 80 μm with up to 200 × 200 sampling points. An inverted optical microscope was incorporated in the design of the system, allowing for simultaneous optical observations of cultured cells. Two-dimensional mapping of multiple ultrasound parameters, such as sound speed, attenuation, and acoustic impedance, as well as the thickness, density, and bulk modulus of specimen/cell under investigation, etc., was realized by the system. Sound speed and thickness of a 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell were successfully obtained by the system. The ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope further enhances our understanding of cellular biomechanics.

  10. Mechanical and electrical properties of red blood cells using optical tweezers

    Fontes, A; Castro, M L Barjas; Brandão, M M; Fernandes, H P; Huruta, R R; Costa, F F; Saad, S T O; Thomaz, A A; Pozzo, L Y; Barbosa, L C; Cesar, C L

    2011-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a very sensitive tool, based on photon momentum transfer, for individual, cell by cell, manipulation and measurements, which can be applied to obtain important properties of erythrocytes for clinical and research purposes. Mechanical and electrical properties of erythrocytes are critical parameters for stored cells in transfusion centers, immunohematological tests performed in transfusional routines and in blood diseases. In this work, we showed methods, based on optical tweezers, to study red blood cells and applied them to measure apparent overall elasticity, apparent membrane viscosity, zeta potential, thickness of the double layer of electrical charges and adhesion in red blood cells

  11. Optics

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  12. Optical Evaluation of the Rear Contacts of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Coupled Electromagnetic and Statistical Ray-Optics Modeling

    Dabirian, Ali

    2017-02-15

    High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional layers—offer opportunities to enhance the infrared response of the solar cells. Here, we propose an accurate and simple modeling procedure to evaluate the infrared performance of rear contacts in c-Si solar cells. Our method combines full-wave electromagnetic modeling of the rear contact with a statistical ray optics model to obtain the fraction of optical energy dissipated from the rear contact relative to that absorbed by the Si wafer. Using this technique, we study the impact of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the rear-passivating layer and establish basic design rules. In addition, we evaluate novel optical structures, including stratified thin films, nanoparticle composites, and conductive nanowires embedded in a low-index dielectric matrix, for integration into advanced rear contacts in c-Si photovoltaic devices. From an optical perspective, nanowire structures preserving low contact resistance appear to be the most effective approach to mitigating dissipation losses from the rear contact.

  13. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C{sub 60}. While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  14. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C 60 . While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  15. A simple optical fiber device for quantitative fluorescence microscopy of single living cells

    van Graft, M.; van Graft, Marja; Oosterhuis, B.; Oosterhuis, Bernard; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    simple and relatively inexpensive system is described for obtaining quantitative fluorescence measurements on single living cells loaded with a fluorescent probe to study cell physiological processes. The light emitted from the fluorescent cells is captured by and transported through an optical

  16. Cell swelling and ion redistribution assessed with intrinsic optical signals

    WITTE OTTO W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell volume changes are associated with alterations of intrinsic optical signals (IOS. In submerged brain slices in vitro, afferent stimulation induces an increase in light transmission. As assessed by measurement of the largely membrane impermeant ion tetramethylammonium (TMA in the extracellular space, these IOS correlate with the extent and time course of the change of the extracellular space size. They have a high signal to noise ratio and allow measurements of IOS changes in the order of a few percent. Under conditions of reduced net KCl uptake (low Cl solution a directed spatial buffer mechanism (K syphoning can be demonstrated in the neocortex with widening of the extracellular space in superficial layers associated with a reduced light transmission and an increase of extracellular K concentration. The nature of the IOS under pathophysiological conditions is less clear. Spreading depressions first cause an increase of light transmission, then a decrease. Such a decrease has also been observed following application of NMDA where it was associated with structural damage. Pharmacological analyses suggest that under physiological conditions changes of extracellular space size are mainly caused by astrocytic volume changes while with strong stimuli and under pathophysiological conditions also neuronal swelling occurs. With reflected light usually signals opposite to those observed with transmitted light are seen. Recording of IOS from interface slices gives very complex signals since under these conditions an increase of light transmission has been reported to be superimposed by a decrease of the signal due to mechanical lensing effects of the slice surface. Depending on the method of measurement and the exact conditions, several mechanisms may contribute to IOS. Under well defined conditions IOS are a useful supplementary tool to monitor changes of extracellular volume both in space and time.

  17. The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells.

    Wehbe, Katia; Filik, Jacob; Frogley, Mark D; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2013-02-01

    The study of individual cells with infrared (IR) microspectroscopy often requires living cells to be cultured directly onto a suitable substrate. The surface effect of the specific substrates on the cell growth-viability and associated biochemistry-as well as on the IR analysis-spectral interference and optical artifacts-is all too often ignored. Using the IR beamline, MIRIAM (Diamond Light Source, UK), we show the importance of the substrate used for IR absorption spectroscopy by analyzing two different cell lines cultured on a range of seven optical substrates in both transmission and reflection modes. First, cell viability measurements are made to determine the preferable substrates for normal cell growth. Successively, synchrotron radiation IR microspectroscopy is performed on the two cell lines to determine any genuine biochemically induced changes or optical effect in the spectra due to the different substrates. Multivariate analysis of spectral data is applied on each cell line to visualize the spectral changes. The results confirm the advantage of transmission measurements over reflection due to the absence of a strong optical standing wave artifact which amplifies the absorbance spectrum in the high wavenumber regions with respect to low wavenumbers in the mid-IR range. The transmission spectra reveal interference from a more subtle but significant optical artifact related to the reflection losses of the different substrate materials. This means that, for comparative studies of cell biochemistry by IR microspectroscopy, it is crucial that all samples are measured on the same substrate type.

  18. Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers

    Sraj, Ihab; Francois, Joshua; Marr, David W M; Eggleton, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution

  19. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are resistant to neurodegeneration in mitochondrial optic neuropathies

    La Morgia, C; Ross-Cisneros, F.N.; Sadun, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial optic neuropathies, that is, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy, selectively affect retinal ganglion cells, causing visual loss with relatively preserved pupillary light reflex. The mammalian eye contains a light detection system based on a subset of retinal...... ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin. These cells give origin to the retinohypothalamic tract and support the non-image-forming visual functions of the eye, which include the photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion and pupillary light reflex...... subjects as in controls, indicating that the retinohypothalamic tract is sufficiently preserved to drive light information detected by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. We then investigated the histology of post-mortem eyes from two patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and one case...

  20. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    Boone, M A L M; Norrenberg, S; Jemec, G B E

    2012-01-01

    With the continued development of noninvasive therapies for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) such as photodynamic therapy and immune therapies, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring become increasingly relevant. High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging tool, wit......, with micrometre resolution in both transversal and axial directions, enabling visualization of individual cells up to a depth of around 570 μm, and filling the imaging gap between conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)....

  1. Optical force on diseased blood cells: Towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    Gongora, J. S. Totero; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium falciparum on red blood

  2. The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells : theoretical and experimental study

    Gilot, J.; Barbu, I.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    For org. solar cells, insertion of an optical spacer between the active layer and the reflective electrode results in a redistribution of the optical elec. field. In this paper, theor. calcns. using optical modeling are compared with exptl. results for devices with ZnO as optical spacer. An

  3. Investigation of microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells

    Budker, D.; Hollberg, L.; Kimball, D.F.; Kitching, J.; Pustclny, S.; Robinson, H.G.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between the components of the ground-state hyperfine structure for 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, which may be useful for atomic clocks and magnetometers

  4. Investigation of microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells

    Budker, Dmitry; Hollberg, Leo; Kimball, Derek F.; Kitching, J.; Pustelny, Szymon; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2004-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between ground-state hyperfine components of 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, an important property for atomic clocks and magnetometers

  5. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Park, Doo-Jae; Jeong, Mun-Seok; Choi, Geun-Chang; Lee, Seung-Gol; Byeon, Clare-Chisu; Choi, Soo-Bong

    2014-01-01

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  6. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    Park, Kyoung-Duck [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Doo-Jae; Jeong, Mun-Seok [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Geun-Chang [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Gol [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Clare-Chisu [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo-Bong [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  7. Optics

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  8. Towards automated segmentation of cells and cell nuclei in nonlinear optical microscopy.

    Medyukhina, Anna; Meyer, Tobias; Schmitt, Michael; Romeike, Bernd F M; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging techniques based e.g. on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) show great potential for biomedical imaging. In order to facilitate the diagnostic process based on NLO imaging, there is need for an automated calculation of quantitative values such as cell density, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, average nuclear size. Extraction of these parameters is helpful for the histological assessment in general and specifically e.g. for the determination of tumor grades. This requires an accurate image segmentation and detection of locations and boundaries of cells and nuclei. Here we present an image processing approach for the detection of nuclei and cells in co-registered TPEF and CARS images. The algorithm developed utilizes the gray-scale information for the detection of the nuclei locations and the gradient information for the delineation of the nuclear and cellular boundaries. The approach reported is capable for an automated segmentation of cells and nuclei in multimodal TPEF-CARS images of human brain tumor samples. The results are important for the development of NLO microscopy into a clinically relevant diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Microscopic optical path length difference and polarization measurement system for cell analysis

    Satake, H.; Ikeda, K.; Kowa, H.; Hoshiba, T.; Watanabe, E.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, noninvasive, nonstaining, and nondestructive quantitative cell measurement techniques have become increasingly important in the medical field. These cell measurement techniques enable the quantitative analysis of living cells, and are therefore applied to various cell identification processes, such as those determining the passage number limit during cell culturing in regenerative medicine. To enable cell measurement, we developed a quantitative microscopic phase imaging system based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that measures the optical path length difference distribution without phase unwrapping using optical phase locking. The applicability of our phase imaging system was demonstrated by successful identification of breast cancer cells amongst normal cells. However, the cell identification method using this phase imaging system exhibited a false identification rate of approximately 7%. In this study, we implemented a polarimetric imaging system by introducing a polarimetric module to one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer of our conventional phase imaging system. This module was comprised of a quarter wave plate and a rotational polarizer on the illumination side of the sample, and a linear polarizer on the optical detector side. In addition, we developed correction methods for the measurement errors of the optical path length and birefringence phase differences that arose through the influence of elements other than cells, such as the Petri dish. As the Petri dish holding the fluid specimens was transparent, it did not affect the amplitude information; however, the optical path length and birefringence phase differences were affected. Therefore, we proposed correction of the optical path length and birefringence phase for the influence of elements other than cells, as a prerequisite for obtaining highly precise phase and polarimetric images.

  10. The in vivo activation of persistent nanophosphors for optical imaging of vascularization, tumours and grafted cells

    Maldiney, Thomas; Bessière, Aurélie; Seguin, Johanne; Teston, Eliott; Sharma, Suchinder K.; Viana, Bruno; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bessodes, Michel; Gourier, Didier; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille

    2014-04-01

    Optical imaging for biological applications requires more sensitive tools. Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles enable highly sensitive in vivo optical detection and complete avoidance of tissue autofluorescence. However, the actual generation of persistent luminescence nanoparticles necessitates ex vivo activation before systemic administration, which prevents long-term imaging in living animals. Here, we introduce a new generation of optical nanoprobes, based on chromium-doped zinc gallate, whose persistent luminescence can be activated in vivo through living tissues using highly penetrating low-energy red photons. Surface functionalization of this photonic probe can be adjusted to favour multiple biomedical applications such as tumour targeting. Notably, we show that cells can endocytose these nanoparticles in vitro and that, after intravenous injection, we can track labelled cells in vivo and follow their biodistribution by a simple whole animal optical detection, opening new perspectives for cell therapy research and for a variety of diagnosis applications.

  11. Nanoscale cell membrane organization : a near-field optical view

    Koopman, Marjolein

    2006-01-01

    The cell plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is a lipid bi-layer that separates the cell cytosol from the extracellular environment. The composition and organization of proteins and lipids within this bi-layer have a direct impact on many cellular processes, since they form the senses of the cell.

  12. Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers

    Sraj, Ihab

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution induced by optical stretchers on a cell encapsulating a nucleus of different optical properties. These optical forces are shape dependent and can deform real non-rigid objects; thus resulting in dynamically changing distributions with cell and nucleus deformation. A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is a common biological cell that is of interest to the biomedical community because of its use in recombinant protein therapeutics and is an example of a nucleated cell. To this end, we model CHO cells as two concentric three-dimensional elastic capsules immersed in a fluid where the hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the immersed boundary method. We vary the inner capsule size to simulate different nucleus sizes. Our results show that the presence of a nucleus has a major effect on the force distribution on the cell surface and consequently on its net deformation. Scattering and gradient forces are reported for different nucleus sizes and the effect of nucleus size on the cell deformation is discussed quantitatively. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Optical micromanipulation of active cells with minimal perturbations: direct and indirect pushing.

    Wang, Chenlu; Chowdhury, Sagar; Gupta, Satyandra K; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The challenge to wide application of optical tweezers in biological micromanipulation is the photodamage caused by high-intensity laser exposure to the manipulated living systems. While direct exposure to infrared lasers is less likely to kill cells, it can affect cell behavior and signaling. Pushing cells with optically trapped objects has been introduced as a less invasive alternative, but the technique includes some exposure of the biological object to parts of the optical tweezer beam. To keep the cells farther away from the laser, we introduce an indirect pushing-based technique for noninvasive manipulation of sensitive cells. We compare how cells respond to three manipulation approaches: direct manipulation, pushing, and indirect pushing. We find that indirect manipulation techniques lessen the impact of manipulation on cell behavior. Cell survival increases, as does the ability of cells to maintain shape and wiggle. Our experiments also demonstrate that indirect pushing allows cell-cell contacts to be formed in a controllable way, while retaining the ability of cells to change shape and move.

  14. Regulation of spindle orientation and neural stem cell fate in the Drosophila optic lobe

    Brand Andrea H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of a stem cell to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically has profound consequences for development and disease. Unregulated symmetric division promotes tumor formation, whereas inappropriate asymmetric division affects organ morphogenesis. Despite its importance, little is known about how spindle positioning is regulated. In some tissues cell fate appears to dictate the type of cell division, whereas in other tissues it is thought that stochastic variation in spindle position dictates subsequent sibling cell fate. Results Here we investigate the relationship between neural progenitor identity and spindle positioning in the Drosophila optic lobe. We use molecular markers and live imaging to show that there are two populations of progenitors in the optic lobe: symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells and asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts. We use genetically marked single cell clones to show that neuroepithelial cells give rise to neuroblasts. To determine if a change in spindle orientation can trigger a neuroepithelial to neuroblast transition, we force neuroepithelial cells to divide along their apical/basal axis by misexpressing Inscuteable. We find that this does not induce neuroblasts, nor does it promote premature neuronal differentiation. Conclusion We show that symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells give rise to asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts in the optic lobe, and that regulation of spindle orientation and division symmetry is a consequence of cell type specification, rather than a mechanism for generating cell type diversity.

  15. Photosensitized production of singlet oxygen: spatially-resolved optical studies in single cells

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Kuimova, Marina; Gbur, Peter

    2009-01-01

    be monitored using viability assays. Time- and spatially-resolved optical measurements of both singlet oxygen and its precursor, the excited state sensitizer, reflect the complex and dynamic morphology of the cell. These experiments help elucidate photoinduced, oxygen-dependent events that compromise cell...

  16. Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates

    Krc, J.; Zeman, M.; Smole, F.; Topic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Optical modelling is used to investigate effects of light scattering in amorphous silicon and microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The role of enhanced haze parameter and different angular distribution function of scattered light is analyzed. Results of optical simulation show that enhanced haze parameter compared to that of Asahi U-type SnO 2 :F does not improve external quantum efficiency and short-circuit current density of amorphous silicon solar cell significantly, whereas for microcrystalline silicon solar cell the improvement is larger. Angular distribution function affects the external quantum efficiency and the short-circuit current density significantly

  17. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  18. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  19. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    Shcheglova, L S; Maryakhina, V S [Orenburg State University, Orenburg (Russian Federation); Abramova, L L [Orenburg State Agrarian University, Orenburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 – 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions. (optical methods in biology and medicine)

  20. Optical characteristics of thin CIGS cells on TCO back contact

    Deelen, J. van; Kniknie, B.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Wuerz, R.; Kessler, F.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of CIGS layer thickness could translate in significant cost reduction. CIGS was made on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) to allow for optical characterization. This data was compared with external quantum efficiency (EQE) data. The results suggest that changes in surface morphology are

  1. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized.

  2. Hybrid optical pumping of K and Rb atoms in a paraffin coated vapor cell

    Li, Wenhao; Peng, Xiang; Budker, Dmitry; Wickenbrock, Arne; Pang, Bo; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic hybrid optical pumping effects with a radio-frequency-field-driven nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (RF NMOR) scheme are studied in a dual-species paraffin coated vapor cell. By pumping K atoms and probing $^{87}$Rb atoms, we achieve an intrinsic magnetic resonance linewidth of 3 Hz and the observed resonance is immune to power broadening and light-shift effects. Such operation scheme shows favorable prospects for atomic magnetometry applications.

  3. Optical and hydrodynamic stretching of single cells from blood

    Thirstrup, Henrik; Rungling, Tony B.; Khalil Al-Hamdani, Mustafa Zyad

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical properties, like deformability or elasticity, of cells can in some cases be indicative of the health of the organism they originate from. In this work, we explore the potential of deformability and other mechanical parameters of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from humans as a marker...... but does so far not allow for subsequent investigations of single "interesting" cells. The paper is a progress report with preliminary results based on the different strategies, we have pursued....

  4. Spectral resolution control of acousto-optical cells operating with collimated and divergent beams

    Voloshinov, Vitaly B.; Mishin, Dimitry D.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is devoted to theoretical and experimental investigations of acousto-optical interactions in crystals which may be used for spectral filtration of light in tunable acousto- optical filters. Attention is paid to spectral resolution control during operation with divergent or collimated noncoherent optical beams. In all examined cases spectral bands of anisotropic Bragg diffraction were regulated by means of novel electronical methods. Resolution control was achieved in paratellurite cells with non-collinear and quasi-collinear regimes of the diffraction. Filtration spectral bandwidths for visible light were electronically changed by a factor of 10 divided by 20 by drive electrical signals switching and drive electrical power regulations.

  5. Electro-optical characteristics of a liquid crystal cell with graphene electrodes

    Nune H. Hakobyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In liquid crystal devices (LCDs the indium tin oxide (ITO films are traditionally used as transparent and conductive electrodes. However, today, due to the development of multichannel optical communication, the need for flexible LCDs and multilayer structures has grown. For this application ITO films cannot be used in principle. For this problem, graphene (an ultrathin material with unique properties, e.g., high optical transparency, chemical inertness, excellent conductivity is an excellent candidate. In this work, the electro-optical and dynamic characteristics of a liquid crystal (LC cell with graphene and ITO transparent conducting layers are investigated. To insure uniform thickness of the LC layer, as well as the same orientation boundary conditions, a hybrid LC cell containing graphene and ITO conductive layers has been prepared. The characteristics of LC cells with both types of conducting layers were found to be similar, indicating that graphene can be successfully used as a transparent conductive layer in LC devices.

  6. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  7. Optical sorting and photo-transfection of mammalian cells

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available and that the scattering force can enable sorting through axial guiding onto laminin coated glass coverslips upon which the selected cells adhere. Following this, I report on transient photo-transfection of mammalian cells including neuroblastomas (rat/mouse and human...

  8. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  9. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot...

  10. Optical modeling and optimization of multilayer organic photovoltaic cells

    Filippov, V.V.; Shulitskij, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the spectral position of the maxima in the exciton generation rate G in a photovoltaic cell, taking into account the spectral energy distribution in the AM1,5G solar spectrum, is determined by the absorption bands of its donor and acceptor materials. It varies slightly as the thicknesses of the layers in the cell change. Interference of light affects only the magnitude of these maxima. For a cell based on a CuPc (copper phthalocyanine)-C 60 (fullerene) heterojunction, the G maxima are located at 640 nm, 720 nm (absorption in CuPc) and close to 495 nm (absorption in C 60 ). The photovoltaic cell can be optimized using the ratio of the magnitudes of these maxima and their variations as layer thicknesses are varied and the exciton diffusion length is taken into account.(authors)

  11. Graphene substrates enhance optical transfection efficiency in pluripotent stem cells

    Khanyile, T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies directed at investigating the role of nanomaterial substrates with varying properties in tissue engineering research are essential. In this research arena, pluripotent stem cells are popular for their self renewing ability and are widely...

  12. Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with Resolution Exceeding the Limit Set by the Optical Path Difference

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Maslowski, Piotr; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin; Fermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) based on optical frequency combs (OFC) allow detection of broadband molecular spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios within acquisition times orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIRs based on thermal sources. Due to the pulsed nature of OFCs the interferogram consists of a series of bursts rather than a single burst at zero optical path difference (OPD). The comb mode structure can be resolved by acquiring multiple bursts, in both mechanical FTS systems and dual-comb spectroscopy. However, in all existing demonstrations the resolution was ultimately limited either by the maximum available OPD between the interferometer arms or by the total acquisition time enabled by the storage memory. We present a method that provides spectral resolution exceeding the limit set by the maximum OPD using an interferogram containing only a single burst. The method allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the OPD-limited resolution without any influence of the instrumental lineshape function. We demonstrate this by measuring undistorted CO2 and CO absorption lines with linewidth narrower than the OPD-limited resolution using OFC-based mechanical FTS in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. The near-infrared system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a high finesse cavity, while the mid-infrared system is based on a Tm:fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator coupled to a multi-pass cell. We show that the method allows acquisition of high-resolution molecular spectra with interferometer length orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIR. Mandon, J., G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Phot., 2009. 3(2): p. 99-102. Zeitouny, M., et al., Ann. Phys., 2013. 525(6): p. 437-442. Zolot, A.M., et al., Opt. Lett., 2012. 37(4): p. 638-640.

  13. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.; Shea, H.

    2014-01-01

    Miniature ( 3 ) vapor-cell based devices using optical pumping of alkali atoms, such as atomic clocks and magnetometers, today mostly employ vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as pump light sources. Here, we report on the demonstration of optical pumping in a microfabricated alkali vapor resonance cell using (1) a microfabricated Rb discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40 mm 3 as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (∼2 cm 3 volume) test setup based on the M z magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors

  14. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G., E-mail: gaetano.mileti@unine.ch [Laboratoire Temps-Fréquence, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel 2000 (Switzerland); Shea, H. [Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchâtel 2002 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-03

    Miniature (cell based devices using optical pumping of alkali atoms, such as atomic clocks and magnetometers, today mostly employ vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as pump light sources. Here, we report on the demonstration of optical pumping in a microfabricated alkali vapor resonance cell using (1) a microfabricated Rb discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40 mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (∼2 cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

  15. Toward Highly Efficient Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Concurrent Electrical and Optical Design

    Wang, Hsin-Ping

    2017-07-11

    Recent technological advances in conventional planar and microstructured solar cell architectures have significantly boosted the efficiencies of these devices near the corresponding theoretical values. Nanomaterials and nanostructures have promising potential to push the theoretical limits of solar cell efficiency even higher using the intrinsic advantages associated with these materials, including efficient photon management, rapid charge transfer, and short charge collection distances. However, at present the efficiency of nanostructured solar cells remains lower than that of conventional solar devices due to the accompanying losses associated with the employment of nanomaterials. The concurrent design of both optical and electrical components will presumably be an imperative route toward breaking the present-day limit of nanostructured solar cells. This review summarizes the losses in traditional solar cells, and then discusses recent advances in applications of nanotechnology to solar devices from both optical and electrical perspectives. Finally, a rule for nanostructured solar cells by concurrently engineering the optical and electrical design is devised. Following these guidelines should allow for exceeding the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency soon.

  16. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles

    Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu.; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours. PMID:27626408

  17. SiNx layers on nanostructured Si solar cells: Effective for optical absorption and carrier collection

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2015-01-01

    We compared nanopatterned Si solar cells with and without SiN x layers. The SiN x layer coating significantly improved the internal quantum efficiency of the nanopatterned cells at long wavelengths as well as short wavelengths, whereas the surface passivation helped carrier collection of flat cells mainly at short wavelengths. The surface nanostructured array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range. Resulting high density of the photo-excited carriers near the surface could lead to significant recombination loss and the SiN x layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured solar cells

  18. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Adjacent-cell Preconditioners for solving optically thick neutron transport problems

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We develop, analyze, and test a new acceleration scheme for neutron transport methods, the Adjacent-cell Preconditioner (AP) that is particularly suited for solving optically thick problems. Our method goes beyond Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) methods in that it's spectral radius vanishes with increasing cell thickness. In particular, for the ID case the AP method converges immediately, i.e. in one iteration, to 10 -4 pointwise relative criterion in problems with dominant cell size of 10 mfp or thicker. Also the AP has a simple formalism and is cell-centered hence, multidimensional and high order extensions are easier to develop, and more efficient to implement

  20. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants can influence the outcome of yield and quality of crops through its important role in seed germination and the defence process against pathogens. The main scope of the project is to apply microfluidic cell culture for the measurement of electrochemically......, since it is known that reactive oxygen species, which are affected by changes in the redox activity of the cells3, are involved in PCD in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCD is only poorly understood in plant cells4. Recently, it has been shown, using optical detection...

  1. Compressed-tube pressure cell for optical studies at ocean pressures: Application to glucose mutarotation kinetics.

    Lamelas, F J

    2016-12-01

    A self-contained compressed-tube pressure cell is tested to 25 MPa. The cell is very simple to construct and offers stable pressure control with optical access to fluid samples. The physical path length of light through the cell is large enough to measure optical activity. The entire system is relatively small and portable, and it is vibration-free, since a compressor is not used. Operation of the cell is demonstrated by measuring the mutarotation rate of aqueous glucose solutions at 25 °C. A logarithmic plot of the rate constant vs. pressure yields an activation volume for mutarotation of -22 cm 3 /mol, approximately twice the value measured previously at higher pressures.

  2. Determination and interpretation of the optical constants for solar cell materials

    Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Shohei; Tamakoshi, Masato; Kato, Masato; Kadowaki, Hideyuki; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Tampo, Hitoshi; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Shibata, Hajime

    2017-11-01

    Solar cell materials in thin film form often exhibit quite rough surface, which makes the accurate determination of the optical constants using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) quite difficult. In this study, we investigate the effect of the rough surface on the SE analysis and establish an analysis procedure, which is quite helpful for the correction of the underestimated roughness contribution. As examples, the roughness analyses for CuInSe2 and CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid-perovskite thin films are presented. Moreover, to interpret the dielectric functions of emerging solar cell materials, such as CH3NH3PbI3 and Cu2ZnSnSe4, the optical transition analyses are performed based on density functional theory (DFT). The excellent agreement observed between the experimental and DFT results allows the detailed assignment of the transition peaks, confirming the importance of DFT for revealing fundamental optical characteristics.

  3. Diffraction-unlimited optical imaging of unstained living cells in liquid by electron beam scanning of luminescent environmental cells.

    Miyazaki, Hideki T; Kasaya, Takeshi; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-11-18

    An environmental cell with a 50-nm-thick cathodoluminescent window was attached to a scanning electron microscope, and diffraction-unlimited near-field optical imaging of unstained living human lung epithelial cells in liquid was demonstrated. Electrons with energies as low as 0.8 - 1.2 kV are sufficiently blocked by the window without damaging the specimens, and form a sub-wavelength-sized illumination light source. A super-resolved optical image of the specimen adhered to the opposite window surface was acquired by a photomultiplier tube placed below. The cells after the observation were proved to stay alive. The image was formed by enhanced dipole radiation or energy transfer, and features as small as 62 nm were resolved.

  4. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers

    Honing, van der H.S.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm.

  5. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...

  6. Single molecule detection on the cell membrane with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    de Bakker, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    In this research we have developed a dedicated near- field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) for molecular biology and applied it to study the spatial organization of (fluorescently labeled) proteins at the cell surface. For the first time, protein clusters and individual molecules are resolved at

  7. An Inexpensive High Pressure Optical Absorption Cell for IR-VIS-UV Studies.

    Rodgers, V. E.; Angell, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an optical cell, suitable for high-pressure studies between at least -130 and +150 degrees Celsius, which may be assembled for about $50. Discusses experimental demonstration of principles involved when using the apparatus, including effects of pressure on coordination of ions in solution and on reaction rates in solution. (JN)

  8. The Optical Fractionator Technique to Estimate Cell Numbers in a Rat Model of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Needham, Esther Kjær; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2017-01-01

    present the optical fractionator in conjunction with BrdU immunohistochemistry to estimate the production and survival of newly-formed neurons in the granule cell layer (including the sub-granular zone) of the rat hippocampus following electroconvulsive stimulation, which is among the most potent...

  9. Microfluidic devices for analysis and active optical sorting of individual cells

    Ježek, Jan; Pilát, Zdeněk; Šerý, Mojmír; Kaňka, Jan; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2013), s. 55-59 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : microfluidic * cell sorting * optical tweezers * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  10. Optically transparent diamond-PDMS microfluidic system for electronic monitoring of cells

    Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander; Conde, J.P.; Chu, V.; Schmiedinger, T.; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 12 (2014), s. 2593-2598 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cells culturing * diamond sensor * electrical characterization * microfluidic system * optical monitoring * surface conductivity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  11. Mitosis and cell death in the optic lobes of workers, queens and ...

    Prakash

    of white, pink, brown and black eyes, and the beginning of tegument ... Our purpose was to investigate cell division and death in the optic lobes (OL) of workers, queens and males during ... new ones in each caste and sex. Nevertheless, most ...

  12. Surface transport and stable trapping of particles and cells by an optical waveguide loop.

    Hellesø, Olav Gaute; Løvhaugen, Pål; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Wilkinson, James S; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2012-09-21

    Waveguide trapping has emerged as a useful technique for parallel and planar transport of particles and biological cells and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip applications. However, particles trapped on waveguides are continuously propelled forward along the surface of the waveguide. This limits the practical usability of the waveguide trapping technique with other functions (e.g. analysis, imaging) that require particles to be stationary during diagnosis. In this paper, an optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the centre is proposed to hold propelled particles and cells. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to transport and deliver the particles/cells towards the gap. At the gap, the diverging light fields hold the particles at a fixed position. The proposed waveguide design is numerically studied and experimentally implemented. The optical forces on the particle at the gap are calculated using the finite element method. Experimentally, the method is used to transport and trap micro-particles and red blood cells at the gap with varying separations. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip, e.g. microfluidics or optical detection, to make an on-chip system for single cell analysis and to study the interaction between cells.

  13. Miniaturized Integrated Platform for Electrical and Optical Monitoring of Cell Cultures

    Costin Brasoveanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The following paper describes the design and functions of a miniaturized integrated platform for optical and electrical monitoring of cell cultures and the necessary steps in the fabrication and testing of a silicon microchip Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS-based technology for cell data recording, monitoring and stimulation. The silicon microchip consists of a MEMS machined device containing a shank of 240 μm width, 3 mm long and 50 μm thick and an enlarged area of 5 mm × 5 mm hosting the pads for electrical connections. Ten platinum electrodes and five sensors are placed on the shank and are connected with the external electronics through the pads. The sensors aim to monitor the pH, the temperature and the impedance of the cell culture. The electrodes are bidirectional and can be used both for electrical potential recording and stimulation of cells. The fabrication steps are presented, along with the electrical and optical characterization of the system. The target of the research is to develop a new and reconfigurable platform according to the particular applications needs, as a tool for the biologist, chemists and medical doctors working is the field of cell culture monitoring in terms of growth, maintenance conditions, reaction to electrical or chemical stimulation (drugs, toxicants, etc.. HaCaT (Immortalised Human Keratinocyte cell culture has been used for demonstration purposes in order to provide information on the platform electrical and optical functions.

  14. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-κB protects from optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis

    Brambilla Roberta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optic neuritis is an acute, demyelinating neuropathy of the optic nerve often representing the first appreciable symptom of multiple sclerosis. Wallerian degeneration of irreversibly damaged optic nerve axons leads to death of retinal ganglion cells, which is the cause of permanent visual impairment. Although the specific mechanisms responsible for triggering these events are unknown, it has been suggested that a key pathological factor is the activation of immune-inflammatory processes secondary to leukocyte infiltration. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence to support such a causal role for infiltrating peripheral immune cells in the etiopathology of optic neuritis. Methods To dissect the contribution of the peripheral immune-inflammatory response versus the CNS-specific inflammatory response in the development of optic neuritis, we analyzed optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells pathology in wild-type and GFAP-IκBα-dn transgenic mice, where NF-κB is selectively inactivated in astrocytes, following induction of EAE. Results We found that, in wild-type mice, axonal demyelination in the optic nerve occurred as early as 8 days post induction of EAE, prior to the earliest signs of leukocyte infiltration (20 days post induction. On the contrary, GFAP-IκBα-dn mice were significantly protected and showed a nearly complete prevention of axonal demyelination, as well as a drastic attenuation in retinal ganglion cell death. This correlated with a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, as well as a prevention of NAD(PH oxidase subunit upregulation. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that astrocytes, not infiltrating immune cells, play a key role in the development of optic neuritis and that astrocyte-mediated neurotoxicity is dependent on activation of a transcriptional program regulated by NF-κB. Hence, interventions targeting the NF-κB transcription

  15. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  16. Refractometry of melanocyte cell nuclei using optical scatter images recorded by digital Fourier microscopy.

    Seet, Katrina Y T; Nieminen, Timo A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    The cell nucleus is the dominant optical scatterer in the cell. Neoplastic cells are characterized by cell nucleus polymorphism and polychromism-i.e., the nuclei exhibits an increase in the distribution of both size and refractive index. The relative size parameter, and its distribution, is proportional to the product of the nucleus size and its relative refractive index and is a useful discriminant between normal and abnormal (cancerous) cells. We demonstrate a recently introduced holographic technique, digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), to provide a sensitive measure of this relative size parameter. Fourier holograms were recorded and optical scatter of individual scatterers were extracted and modeled with Mie theory to determine the relative size parameter. The relative size parameter of individual melanocyte cell nuclei were found to be 16.5+/-0.2, which gives a cell nucleus refractive index of 1.38+/-0.01 and is in good agreement with previously reported data. The relative size parameters of individual malignant melanocyte cell nuclei are expected to be greater than 16.5.

  17. BOA, Beam Optics Analyzer A Particle-In-Cell Code

    Bui, Thuc

    2007-01-01

    The program was tasked with implementing time dependent analysis of charges particles into an existing finite element code with adaptive meshing, called Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA). BOA was initially funded by a DOE Phase II program to use the finite element method with adaptive meshing to track particles in unstructured meshes. It uses modern programming techniques, state-of-the-art data structures, so that new methods, features and capabilities are easily added and maintained. This Phase II program was funded to implement plasma simulations in BOA and extend its capabilities to model thermal electrons, secondary emissions, self magnetic field and implement a more comprehensive post-processing and feature-rich GUI. The program was successful in implementing thermal electrons, secondary emissions, and self magnetic field calculations. The BOA GUI was also upgraded significantly, and CCR is receiving interest from the microwave tube and semiconductor equipment industry for the code. Implementation of PIC analysis was partially successful. Computational resource requirements for modeling more than 2000 particles begin to exceed the capability of most readily available computers. Modern plasma analysis typically requires modeling of approximately 2 million particles or more. The problem is that tracking many particles in an unstructured mesh that is adapting becomes inefficient. In particular memory requirements become excessive. This probably makes particle tracking in unstructured meshes currently unfeasible with commonly available computer resources. Consequently, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. is exploring hybrid codes where the electromagnetic fields are solved on the unstructured, adaptive mesh while particles are tracked on a fixed mesh. Efficient interpolation routines should be able to transfer information between nodes of the two meshes. If successfully developed, this could provide high accuracy and reasonable computational efficiency.

  18. Thermally induced changes of optical and vital parameters in human cancer cells

    Dressler, C.; Schwandt, D.; Beuthan, J.; Mildaziene, V.; Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2010-11-01

    Minimally invasive laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) presents an alternative method to conventional tumor therapeutically interventions, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or nuclear medicine. Optical tissue characteristics of tumor cells and their heat-induced changes are essential issues for controlling LITT progressions. Therefore, it is indispensable to exactly know the absorption coefficient μa, the scattering coefficient μs and the anisotropy factor g as well as their changes under rising temperatures in order to simulate the treatment parameters successfully. Optical parameters of two different cancer model tissues - breast cancer cells species MX1 and colon cancer cells species CX1 - were measured in the spectral range 400 - 1100 nm as well as in the temperature range 37 - 60°C. The absorption coefficient of both cell species was low throughout the spectral range analyzed, while μs of both species rose with increasing temperatures. The anisotropy factor g however dropped for both tissues with increasing temperatures. Light scatterings inside tissues proceeded continuously forward for all species tested. It was demonstrated that optical tissue properties undergo significant changes along with the vital status of the cells when the temperature increases.

  19. Optical Pumping Spin Exchange 3He Gas Cells for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Kim, W.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Kim, A.; Jung, Y.; Woo, S.; Yurov, M.; Jang, J.

    2009-08-01

    We present a device for spin-exchange optical pumping system to produce large quantities of polarized noble gases for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A method and design of apparatus for pumping the polarization of noble gases is described. The method and apparatus enable production, storage and usage of hyperpolarized noble gases for different purposes, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging of human and animal subjects. Magnetic imaging agents breathed into lungs can be observed by the radio waves of the MRI scanner and report back physical and functional information about lung's health and desease. The technique known as spin exchange optical pumping is used. Nuclear magnetic resonance is implemented to measure the polarization of hyperpolarized gas. The cells prepared and sealed under high vacuum after handling Alkali metals into the cell and filling with the 3He-N2 mixture. The cells could be refilled. The 3He reaches around 50% polarization in 5-15 hours.

  20. The effect of the optical system on the electrical performance of III–V concentrator triple junction solar cells

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: S206029578@nmmu.ac.za; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    High Concentrated Photovoltaic (H-CPV) technologies utilize relatively inexpensive reflective and refractive optical components for concentration to achieve high energy yield. The electrical performance of H-CPV systems is, however, dependent on the properties and configuration of the optical components. The focus of this paper is to summarize the effect of the properties of the optical system on the electrical performance of a Concentrator Triple Junction (CTJ) InGaP/InGaAs/Ge cell. Utilizing carefully designed experiments that include spectral measurements and intensity profiles in the optical plane of the CTJ cell, the influence of photon absorption, Fresnel lens properties and chromatic aberration created by the optical system on the electrical performance of a CTJ cell is shown. From the results obtained, it is concluded that good characterization and understanding of the optical system’s properties may add to improved design of future multi-junction devices.

  1. Optical imaging the redox status change during cell apoptosis

    Su, Ting; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Juqiang; Luo, Qingming

    2007-02-01

    Many cellular events involve the alteration in redox equilibrium, globally or locally. In many cases, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is the underlying cause. Several green fluoresecence protein based indicators are constructed to measure redox status in cells, e.g, rxYFP and roGFPs, which allow real time detection. reduction and oxidization-sensitive GFP (RoGFPs) are more useful due to ratiometric variation by excitation, making the measurement more accurate. Utilizing one of those roGFPs called roGFP1, we establish a mitochondrial redox state probing platform in HeLa cells with laser scan confocal microscopy (LSCM) as detection system. Control experiments confirmed that our platform could produce stable ratiometric values, which made the data more accurately reflect the real environmental changes of redox status that roGFP1 probed. Using exogenous H IIO II and DTT, we evaluated the reactivity and reversibility of roGFP1. The minimal hydrogen peroxide concentration that roGFP1 could show detectable ratiometric changes in our system was about 200μM. Preliminarily applying our platform to exploring the redox status during apoptosis, we observed an increase in ratiometric, suggesting an excessive ROS production.

  2. Tocilizumab for giant cell arteritis with corticosteroid-resistant progressive anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Vionnet, Julien; Buss, Guillaume; Mayer, Cédric; Sokolov, Arseny A; Borruat, François-Xavier; Spertini, François

    2017-10-01

    Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory disorder of the medium- and large-size arteries. Permanent visual loss related to arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is among the most serious complications of this disease and initial treatment usually consists of high dose corticosteroids. There is no consensus in the literature concerning the optimal therapeutic approach in giant cell arteritis patients with corticosteroid-resistant arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A 73-year-old Caucasian female with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis developed an acute visual loss of the right eye due to arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Despite 5 daily methylprednisolone pulses, systemic symptoms persisted and rapid involvement of the controlateral eye was documented. Therefore, tocilizumab (humanised monoclonal antibody binding the human interleukin-6 receptor) was introduced as a potential salvage therapy with a swift consecutive resolution of the systemic symptoms and stabilization of the ophthalmic lesions. Although a late effect of steroids pulses cannot be formally ruled out in this dramatic situation, tocilizumab likely offered a decisive effect in preventing bilateral blindness and may have contributed to steroid tapering. Tocilizumab may represent a new early effective second-line treatment option in corticosteroid-resistant anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. More data are needed to confirm this observation and to evaluate the safety profile of this treatment. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer

    Lee, Jung-Yong

    2010-04-29

    We analyze the enhancement in optical absorption of an absorbing medium when spherical metal nanoparticles are embedded in it. Our analysis uses generalized Mie theory to calculate the absorbed optical power as a function of the distance from the metal nanoparticle. This analysis is used to evaluate the potential of enhancing optical absorption in thin-film solar cells by embedding spherical metal nanoparticles. We consider the trade-off between maximizing overall optical absorption and ensuring that a large fraction of the incident optical power is dissipated in the absorbing host medium rather than in the metal nanoparticle. We show that enhanced optical absorption results from strong scattering by the metal nanoparticle which locally enhances the optical electric fields. We also discuss the effect of a thin dielectric encapsulation of the metal nanoparticles. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

  4. The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer

    Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the enhancement in optical absorption of an absorbing medium when spherical metal nanoparticles are embedded in it. Our analysis uses generalized Mie theory to calculate the absorbed optical power as a function of the distance from the metal nanoparticle. This analysis is used to evaluate the potential of enhancing optical absorption in thin-film solar cells by embedding spherical metal nanoparticles. We consider the trade-off between maximizing overall optical absorption and ensuring that a large fraction of the incident optical power is dissipated in the absorbing host medium rather than in the metal nanoparticle. We show that enhanced optical absorption results from strong scattering by the metal nanoparticle which locally enhances the optical electric fields. We also discuss the effect of a thin dielectric encapsulation of the metal nanoparticles. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

  5. Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations.

    Schanila Nawaz

    Full Text Available The measurement of the elastic properties of cells is widely used as an indicator for cellular changes during differentiation, upon drug treatment, or resulting from the interaction with the supporting matrix. Elasticity is routinely quantified by indenting the cell with a probe of an AFM while applying nano-Newton forces. Because the resulting deformations are in the micrometer range, the measurements will be affected by the finite thickness of the cell, viscous effects and even cell damage induced by the experiment itself. Here, we have analyzed the response of single 3T3 fibroblasts that were indented with a micrometer-sized bead attached to an AFM cantilever at forces from 30-600 pN, resulting in indentations ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 micrometer. To investigate the cellular response at lower forces up to 10 pN, we developed an optical trap to indent the cell in vertical direction, normal to the plane of the coverslip. Deformations of up to two hundred nanometers achieved at forces of up to 30 pN showed a reversible, thus truly elastic response that was independent on the rate of deformation. We found that at such small deformations, the elastic modulus of 100 Pa is largely determined by the presence of the actin cortex. At higher indentations, viscous effects led to an increase of the apparent elastic modulus. This viscous contribution that followed a weak power law, increased at larger cell indentations. Both AFM and optical trapping indentation experiments give consistent results for the cell elasticity. Optical trapping has the benefit of a lower force noise, which allows a more accurate determination of the absolute indentation. The combination of both techniques allows the investigation of single cells at small and large indentations and enables the separation of their viscous and elastic components.

  6. Delivery of Optical Contrast Agents using Triton-X100, Part 1: Reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular labeling

    van de Ven, Anne L; Adler-Storthz, Karen; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Effective delivery of optical contrast agents into live cells remains a significant challenge. We sought to determine whether Triton-X100, a detergent commonly used for membrane isolation and protein purification, could be used to effectively and reversibly permeabilize live cells for delivery of targeted optical contrast agents. Although Triton-X100 is widely recognized as a good cell permeabilization agent, no systematic study has evaluated the efficiency, reproducibility, and reversibility...

  7. Maximizing the short circuit current of organic solar cells by partial decoupling of electrical and optical properties

    Qarony, Wayesh; Hossain, Mohammad I.; Jovanov, Vladislav; Knipp, Dietmar; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2018-03-01

    The partial decoupling of electronic and optical properties of organic solar cells allows for realizing solar cells with increased short circuit current and energy conversion efficiency. The proposed device consists of an organic solar cell conformally prepared on the surface of an array of single and double textured pyramids. The device geometry allows for increasing the optical thickness of the organic solar cell, while the electrical thickness is equal to the nominal thickness of the solar cell. By increasing the optical thickness of the solar cell, the short circuit current is distinctly increased. The quantum efficiency and short circuit current are determined using finite-difference time-domain simulations of the 3D solar cell structure. The influence of different solar cell designs on the quantum efficiency and short circuit current is discussed and optimal device dimensions are proposed.

  8. Investigating the effect of cell substrate on cancer cell stiffness by optical tweezers.

    Yousafzai, Muhammad Sulaiman; Coceano, Giovanna; Bonin, Serena; Niemela, Joseph; Scoles, Giacinto; Cojoc, Dan

    2017-07-26

    The mechanical properties of cells are influenced by their microenvironment. Here we report cell stiffness alteration by changing the cell substrate stiffness for isolated cells and cells in contact with other cells. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used to prepare soft substrates with three different stiffness values (173, 88 and 17kPa respectively). Breast cancer cells lines, namely HBL-100, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with different level of aggressiveness are cultured on these substrates and their local elasticity is investigated by vertical indentation of the cell membrane. Our preliminary results show an unforeseen behavior of the MDA-MB-231 cells. When cultured on glass substrate as isolated cells, they are less stiff than the other two types of cells, in agreement with the general statement that more aggressive and metastatic cells are softer. However, when connected to other cells the stiffness of MDA-MB-231 cells becomes similar to the other two cell lines. Moreover, the stiffness of MDA-MB-231 cells cultured on soft PDMS substrates is significantly higher than the stiffness of the other cell types, demonstrating thus the strong influence of the environmental conditions on the mechanical properties of the cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. REDUCED GANGLION CELL VOLUME ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY.

    Ramkumar, Hema L; Nguyen, Brian; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Saunders, Luke J; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; You, Qisheng; Freeman, William R

    2017-11-07

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is the sequelae of macular degeneration. Automated inner retinal analysis using optical coherence tomography is flawed because segmentation software is calibrated for normal eyes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ganglion cell layer (GCL) volume is reduced in GA using manual analysis. Nineteen eyes with subfoveal GA and 22 controls were selected for morphometric analyses. Heidelberg scanning laser ophthalmoscope optical coherence tomography images of the optic nerve and macula were obtained, and the Viewing Module was used to manually calibrate retinal layer segmentation. Retinal layer volumes in the central 3-mm and surrounding 6-mm diameter were measured. Linear mixed models were used for statistics. The GCL volume in the central 3 mm of the macula is less (P = 0.003), and the retinal nerve fiber layer volume is more (P = 0.02) in patients with GA when compared with controls. Ganglion cell layer volume positively correlated with outer nuclear layer volume (P = 0.020). The patients with geographic atrophy have a small significant loss of the GCL. Ganglion cell death may precede axonal loss, and increased macular retinal nerve fiber layer volumes are not indicative of GCL volume. Residual ganglion cell stimulation by interneurons may enable vision in patients with GA.

  10. Design and application of optical nanosensors for pH imaging in cell compartments

    Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki; Almdal, Kristoffer

    the last two decades. However, even though these sensor systems have proven themselves as superior to conventional methods, there are still questions about the use of these sensors that need to be addressed, especially regarding sensor design and calibration. We have developed a new triple-labelled p......Measurements of pH in acidic cellular compartments of mammalian cells is important for our understanding of cell metabolism, and organelle acidification is an essential event in living cells especially in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway where pH is critical for cellular sorting of internalized...... material. Intracellular pH can be measured by the use of fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM), however, available methods for pH measurements in living cells are not optimal. Nanoparticle based optical sensor technology for quantification of metabolites in living cells has been developed over...

  11. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 x 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V x ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V x , the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90 degree. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 x 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches

  12. Femtosecond optical injection of intact plant cells using a reconfigurable platform

    Mitchell, Claire A.; Kalies, Stefan; Cizmar, Tomas; Bellini, Nicola; Kubasik-Thayil, Anisha; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Torrance, Lesley; Roberts, Alison G.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-03-01

    The use of ultrashort-pulsed lasers for molecule delivery and transfection has proved to be a non-invasive and highly efficient technique for a wide range of mammalian cells. This present study investigates the effectiveness of femtosecond photoporation in plant cells, a hard-to-manipulate yet agriculturally relevant cell type, specifically suspension tobacco BY-2 cells. Both spatial and temporal shaping of the light field is employed to optimise the delivery of membrane impermeable molecules into plant cells using a reconfigurable optical system designed to be able to switch easily between different spatial modes and pulse durations. The use of a propagation invariant Bessel beam was found to increase the number of cells that could be viably optoinjected, when compared to the use of a Gaussian beam. Photoporation with a laser producing sub-12 fs pulses, coupled with a dispersion compensation system to retain the pulse duration at focus, reduced the power required for efficient optical injection by 1.5-1.8 times when compared to a photoporation with a 140 fs laser output.

  13. Ground-state magneto-optical resonances in cesium vapor confined in an extremely thin cell

    Andreeva, C.; Cartaleva, S.; Petrov, L.; Slavov, D.; Atvars, A.; Auzinsh, M.; Blush, K.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are presented related to the ground-state magneto-optical resonance observed in cesium vapor confined in an extremely thin cell (ETC), with thickness equal to the wavelength of the irradiating light. It is shown that utilization of the ETC allows one to examine the formation of a magneto-optical resonance on the individual hyperfine transitions, thus distinguishing processes resulting in dark (reduced absorption) or bright (enhanced absorption) resonance formation. We report experimental evidence of bright magneto-optical resonance sign reversal in Cs atoms confined in an ETC. A theoretical model is proposed based on the optical Bloch equations that involves the elastic interaction processes of atoms in the ETC with its walls, resulting in depolarization of the Cs excited state, which is polarized by the exciting radiation. This depolarization leads to the sign reversal of the bright resonance. Using the proposed model, the magneto-optical resonance amplitude and width as a function of laser power are calculated and compared with the experimental ones. The numerical results are in good agreement with those of experiment

  14. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

  15. Quantitative measurement of damage caused by 1064-nm wavelength optical trapping of Escherichia coli cells using on-chip single cell cultivation system

    Ayano, Satoru; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinobu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We quantitatively examined the possible damage to the growth and cell division ability of Escherichia coli caused by 1064-nm optical trapping. Using the synchronous behavior of two sister E. coli cells, the growth and interdivision times between those two cells, one of which was trapped by optical tweezers, the other was not irradiated, were compared using an on-chip single cell cultivation system. Cell growth stopped during the optical trapping period, even with the smallest irradiated power on the trapped cells. Moreover, the damage to the cell's growth and interdivision period was proportional to the total irradiated energy (work) on the cell, i.e., irradiation time multiplied by irradiation power. The division ability was more easily affected by a smaller energy, 0.36 J, which was 30% smaller than the energy that adversely affected growth, 0.54 J. The results indicate that the damage caused by optical trapping can be estimated from the total energy applied to cells, and furthermore, that the use of optical trapping for manipulating cells might cause damage to cell division and growth mechanisms, even at wavelengths under 1064 nm, if the total irradiation energy is excessive

  16. Dynamic focus optical coherence tomography: feasibility for improved basal cell carcinoma investigation

    Nasiri-Avanaki, M. R.; Aber, Ahmed; Hojjatoleslami, S. A.; Sira, Mano; Schofield, John B.; Jones, Carole; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2012-03-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer. To improve the diagnostic accuracy, additional non-invasive methods of making a preliminary diagnosis have been sought. We have implemented an En-Face optical coherence tomography (OCT) for this study in which the dynamic focus was integrated into it. With the dynamic focus scheme, the coherence gate moves synchronously with the peak of confocal gate determined by the confocal interface optics. The transversal resolution is then conserved throughout the depth range and an enhanced signal is returned from all depths. The Basal Cell Carcinoma specimens were obtained from the eyelid a patient. The specimens under went analysis by DF-OCT imaging. We searched for remarkable features that were visualized by OCT and compared these findings with features presented in the histology slices.

  17. Dual-axis vapor cell for simultaneous laser frequency stabilization on disparate optical transitions

    Jayakumar, Anupriya; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Jamison, Alan O.; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a dual-axis ytterbium (Yb) vapor cell and used it to simultaneously address the two laser cooling transitions in Yb at wavelengths 399 nm and 556 nm, featuring the disparate linewidths of 2π × 29 MHz and 2π × 182 KHz, respectively. By utilizing different optical paths for the two wavelengths, we simultaneously obtain comparable optical densities suitable for saturated absorption spectroscopy for both the transitions and keep both the lasers frequency stabilized over several hours. We demonstrate that by appropriate control of the cell temperature profile, two atomic transitions differing in relative strength across a large range of over three orders of magnitude can be simultaneously addressed, making the device adaptable to a variety of spectroscopic needs. We also show that our observations can be understood with a simple theoretical model of the Yb vapor.

  18. Dual-axis vapor cell for simultaneous laser frequency stabilization on disparate optical transitions

    Jayakumar, Anupriya, E-mail: anupriya@uw.edu; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Jamison, Alan O.; Gupta, Subhadeep [Department of Physics, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351560, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We have developed a dual-axis ytterbium (Yb) vapor cell and used it to simultaneously address the two laser cooling transitions in Yb at wavelengths 399 nm and 556 nm, featuring the disparate linewidths of 2π × 29 MHz and 2π × 182 KHz, respectively. By utilizing different optical paths for the two wavelengths, we simultaneously obtain comparable optical densities suitable for saturated absorption spectroscopy for both the transitions and keep both the lasers frequency stabilized over several hours. We demonstrate that by appropriate control of the cell temperature profile, two atomic transitions differing in relative strength across a large range of over three orders of magnitude can be simultaneously addressed, making the device adaptable to a variety of spectroscopic needs. We also show that our observations can be understood with a simple theoretical model of the Yb vapor.

  19. Generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Huai-En Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease caused by homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. In this report, we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs line, TVGH-iPSC-010-09, from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a female patient with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON by using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The resulting iPSCs retained the disease-causing mitochondrial DNA mutation, expressed pluripotent markers and could differentiate into the three germ layers. We believe LHON patient-specific iPSCs provide a powerful in vitro model for evaluating the pathological phenotypes of the disease.

  20. Electroluminescence analysis for spatial characterization of parasitic optical losses in silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Ahmed, Nuha; Zhang, Lei; Sriramagiri, Gowri; Das, Ujjwal; Hegedus, Steven

    2018-04-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) coupled with reflection measurements are used to spatially quantify optical losses in silicon heterojunction solar cells due to plasmonic absorption in the metal back contacts. The effect of indium tin oxide back reflector in decreasing this plasmonic absorption is found to increase the reflection from the back nickel (Ni)-aluminum (Al) and Al metals by ˜12% and ˜41%, respectively, in both bifacial and front junction silicon solar cells. Losses due to back reflection are calculated by comparison between the EL emission signals in high and low back reflection samples and are shown to be in agreement with standard reflection measurements. We conclude that the optical properties of the back contact can significantly influence the EL intensity which complicates the interpretation of EL as being primarily due to recombination especially when comparing two different devices with spatially varying back surface structures.

  1. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  2. Sodium channels in axons and glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa.

    Tang, C M; Strichartz, G R; Orkand, R K

    1979-11-01

    Experiments investigating both the binding of radioactively labelled saxitoxin (STX) and the electrophysiological response to drugs that increase the sodium permeability of excitable membranes were conducted in an effort to detect sodium channels in glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa, the mudpuppy. Glial cells in nerves from chronically enucleated animals, which lack optic nerve axons, show no saturable uptake of STX whereas a saturable uptake is clearly present in normal optic nerves. The normal nerve is depolarized by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine (10(-6)-10(-5) M), whereas the all-glial preparation is only depolarized by veratridine and at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M. Unlike the depolarization caused by veratridine in normal nerves, the response in the all-glial tissue is not blocked by tetrodotoxin nor enhanced by scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus). In glial cells of the normal nerve, where axons are also present, the addition of 10(-5) M veratridine does lead to a transient depolarization; however, it is much briefer than the axonal response to veratridine in this same tissue. This glial response to veratridine could be caused by the efflux of K+ from the drug-depolarized axons, and is similar to the glial response to extracellular K+ accumulation resulting from action potentials in the axon.

  3. Temperature Sensitivity of an Atomic Vapor Cell-Based Dispersion-Enhanced Optical Cavity

    Myneni, K.; Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.; Luckay, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the response of an optical cavity to a change in optical path length, through the use of an intracavity fast-light medium, has previously been demonstrated experimentally and described theoretically for an atomic vapor cell as the intracavity resonant absorber. This phenomenon may be used to enhance both the scale factor and sensitivity of an optical cavity mode to the change in path length, e.g. in gyroscopic applications. We study the temperature sensitivity of the on-resonant scale factor enhancement, S(sub o), due to the thermal sensitivity of the lower-level atom density in an atomic vapor cell, specifically for the case of the Rb-87 D(sub 2) transition. A semi-empirical model of the temperature-dependence of the absorption profile, characterized by two parameters, a(sub o)(T) and gamma(sub a)(T) allows the temperature-dependence of the cavity response, S(sub o)(T) and dS(sub o)/dT to be predicted over a range of temperature. We compare the predictions to experiment. Our model will be useful in determining the useful range for S(sub o), given the practical constraints on temperature stability for an atomic vapor cell.

  4. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Tuchin, V V; Wang, R K; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  5. Nanospectrofluorometry inside single living cell by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Lei, F. H.; Shang, G. Y.; Troyon, M.; Spajer, M.; Morjani, H.; Angiboust, J. F.; Manfait, M.

    2001-10-01

    Near-field fluorescence spectra with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution have been taken in the proximity of mitochondrial membrane inside breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) treated with the fluorescent dye (JC-1) by using a scanning near-field optical microscope coupled with a confocal laser microspectrofluorometer. The probe-sample distance control is based on a piezoelectric bimorph shear force sensor having a static spring constant k=5 μN/nm and a quality factor Q=40 in a physiological medium of viscosity η=1.0 cp. The sensitivity of the force sensor has been tested by imaging a MCF7 cell surface.

  6. How histological features of basal cell carcinomas influence image quality in optical coherence tomography

    Mogensen, Mette; Nürnberg, Birgit M.; Thrane, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to diagnose and measure the depth of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in skin, but some lesions appear blurred in OCT images. The aim of this study is to identify histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) that correlate with good...... quality OCT images of the same lesions. A total of 34 patients with BCC were OCT scanned. The influence of histology parameters (e.g. inflammation, sun damage of skin, carcinoma cell size) on OCT image quality was studied by comparing 15 BCC lesions easily identified compared to 19 BCC lesions...

  7. A simple formalism for diffusion coefficient calculations in cells having a small optical thickness

    Benoist, Pierre.

    1980-04-01

    A very simple formalism, using directionnal first flight collision probabilities, is established; it is assigned to the calculation of the diffusion coefficients in cells having a small optical thickness. This formalism can be used, at least as a first approximation, in lattices of sodium-cooled fast reactors or of light water reactors. However, due to the two assumptions -cylindricalization of the cell and restriction to the zeroth order term in B 2 (k)- this formalissm cannot be used for sodium-voided or gas-cooled fast reactor lattices [fr

  8. A portable cell-based optical detection device for rapid detection of Listeria and Bacillus toxins

    Banerjee, Pratik; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Rickus, Jenna L.; Morgan, Mark T.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-11-01

    A mammalian cell-based optical biosensor was built to detect pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species. This sensor measures the ability of the pathogens to infect and induce cytotoxicity on hybrid lymphocyte cell line (Ped-2E9) resulting in the release of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that can be detected optically using a portable spectrophotometer. The Ped-2E9 cells were encapsulated in collagen gel matrices and grown in 48-well plates or in specially designed filtration tube units. Toxin preparations or bacterial cells were introduced and ALP release was assayed after 3-5 h. Pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains or the listeriolysin toxins preparation showed cytotoxicity ranging from 55% - 92%. Toxin preparations (~20 μg/ml) from B. cereus strains showed 24 - 98% cytotoxicity. In contrast, a non-pathogenic L. innocua (F4247) and a B. substilis induced only 2% and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. This cell-based detection device demonstrates its ability to detect the presence of pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species and can potentially be used onsite for food safety or in biosecurity application.

  9. Planar Optical Nanoantennas Resolve Cholesterol-Dependent Nanoscale Heterogeneities in the Plasma Membrane of Living Cells

    Regmi, Raju; Winkler, Pamina M.; Flauraud, Valentin; Borgman, Kyra J. E.; Manzo, Carlo; Brugger, Jürgen; Rigneault, Hervé; Wenger, Jérôme; García-Parajo, María F.

    2017-10-01

    Optical nanoantennas can efficiently confine light into nanoscopic hotspots, enabling single-molecule detection sensitivity at biological relevant conditions. This innovative approach to breach the diffraction limit offers a versatile platform to investigate the dynamics of individual biomolecules in living cell membranes and their partitioning into cholesterol-dependent lipid nanodomains. Here, we present optical nanoantenna arrays with accessible surface hotspots to study the characteristic diffusion dynamics of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SM) in the plasma membrane of living cells at the nanoscale. Fluorescence burst analysis and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy performed on nanoantennas of different gap sizes show that, unlike PE, SM is transiently trapped in cholesterol-enriched nanodomains of 10 nm diameter with short characteristic times around 100 {\\mu}s. The removal of cholesterol led to the free diffusion of SM, consistent with the dispersion of nanodomains. Our results are consistent with the existence of highly transient and fluctuating nanoscale assemblies enriched by cholesterol and sphingolipids in living cell membranes, also known as lipid rafts. Quantitative data on sphingolipids partitioning into lipid rafts is crucial to understand the spatiotemporal heterogeneous organization of transient molecular complexes on the membrane of living cells at the nanoscale. The proposed technique is fully biocompatible and thus provides various opportunities for biophysics and live cell research to reveal details that remain hidden in confocal diffraction-limited measurements.

  10. The self-orientation of mammalian cells in optical tweezers—the importance of the nucleus

    Perney, Nicolas M B; Horak, Peter; Melvin, Tracy; Hanley, Neil A

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the first evidence showing that eukaryotic cells can be stably trapped in a single focused Gaussian beam with an orientation that is defined by the nucleus. A mammalian eukaryotic cell (in suspension) is trapped and is re-oriented in the focus of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam with a waist of dimension smaller than the radius of the nucleus. The cell reaches a position relative to the focus that is dictated by the nucleus and nuclear components. Our studies illustrate that the force exerted by the optical tweezers at locations within the cell can be predicted theoretically; the data obtained in this way is consistent with the experimental observations. (communication)

  11. Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells

    Goris, L.; Poruba, A.; Hod'akova, L.; Vanecek, M.; Haenen, K.; Nesladek, M.; Wagner, P.; Vanderzande, D.; Schepper, L. de; Manca, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    This letter reports on highly sensitive optical absorption measurements on organic donor-acceptor solar cells, using Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy (FTPS). The spectra cover an unprecedented dynamic range of eight to nine orders of magnitude making it possible to detect defect and disorder related sub-band gap transitions. Direct measurements on fully encapsulated solar cells with an active layer of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3 ' ,7 ' -dimethyl-octyloxy)]-p-phenylene-vinylene: (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid (1:4 weight ratio) enabled a study of the intrinsic defect generation due to UV illumination. Solar cell temperature annealing effects in poly(3-hexylthiophene):PCBM (1:2 weight ratio) cells and the induced morphological changes are related to the changes in the absorption spectrum, as determined with FTPS

  12. Optical Design of Textured Thin-Film CIGS Solar Cells with Nearly-Invisible Nanowire Assisted Front Contacts

    Deelen, J. van; Omar, A.; Barink, M.

    2017-01-01

    The conductivity of transparent front contacts can be improved by patterned metallic nanowires, albeit at the cost of optical loss. The associated optical penalty can be strongly reduced by texturization of the cell stack. Remarkably, the nanowires themselves are not textured and not covered in our

  13. Monitoring embryonic stem cell transplantation into rat corpus cavernosum using optical imaging system

    Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Le, Uyenchi N.; Park, Kwang Sung; Lee, Hyun Suk; Song, Ho Cheon; Bom, Hee Seung; Han, Ha Jae

    2005-01-01

    The conventional method for the analysis of stem cell transplantation depends on postmortem histology. Here, we have sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a longitudinal monitoring of transplanted cell survival in living animals, by employing optical imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ES-E14TG2a). Mouse ES cells were cultured in the DMEM (Gibco-BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) supplemented with 3.7 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 1 % penicillin and streptomycin, 1.7 mM L-glutamine, 0.1mM β-mercaptoethanol 5 ng/mL mouse leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with or without a feeder layer and cultured for five days in standard medium plus LIF. ESCs were then transfected (MOI=100) overnight with Ad-CMV-Fluc. Our experimental Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7) were given with different numbers of ESCs 6) expressing Fluc into corpus cavernosum. In cell cultures, firefly luciferase activity correlated linearly with cell numbers from 10 5 to 5x10 6 (r2=0.95). In living animal imaging, imaging signal activity correlated linearly with cell numbers injected from 10 5 to 5x10 6 at each time point (r2=0.62 ∼ 0.98), In all three groups of rats, imaging signal was detected in rat genital area from the 2nd day to the 47th day after cellular injection. Adenovirus mediated transient expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene in ESCs was feasible to monitor cell survival over a month after transplantation. The locations, magnitude, and survival duration of the ESCs were noninvasively monitored with a bioluminescence optical imaging system

  14. Quantitative determination of optical trapping strength and viscoelastic moduli inside living cells

    Mas, Josep; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Richardson, Andrew C; Reihani, S Nader S; Oddershede, Lene B

    2013-01-01

    With the success of in vitro single-molecule force measurements obtained in recent years, the next step is to perform quantitative force measurements inside a living cell. Optical traps have proven excellent tools for manipulation, also in vivo, where they can be essentially non-invasive under correct wavelength and exposure conditions. It is a pre-requisite for in vivo quantitative force measurements that a precise and reliable force calibration of the tweezers is performed. There are well-established calibration protocols in purely viscous environments; however, as the cellular cytoplasm is viscoelastic, it would be incorrect to use a calibration procedure relying on a viscous environment. Here we demonstrate a method to perform a correct force calibration inside a living cell. This method (theoretically proposed in Fischer and Berg-Sørensen (2007 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 S239)) takes into account the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm and relies on a combination of active and passive recordings of the motion of the cytoplasmic object of interest. The calibration procedure allows us to extract absolute values for the viscoelastic moduli of the living cell cytoplasm as well as the force constant describing the optical trap, thus paving the way for quantitative force measurements inside the living cell. Here, we determine both the spring constant of the optical trap and the elastic contribution from the cytoplasm, influencing the motion of naturally occurring tracer particles. The viscoelastic moduli that we find are of the same order of magnitude as moduli found in other cell types by alternative methods. (paper)

  15. Label-Free Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spore Uptake in Macrophage Cells Using Analytical Optical Force Measurements.

    Hebert, Colin G; Hart, Sean; Leski, Tomasz A; Terray, Alex; Lu, Qin

    2017-10-03

    Understanding the interaction between macrophage cells and Bacillus anthracis spores is of significant importance with respect to both anthrax disease progression, spore detection for biodefense, as well as understanding cell clearance in general. While most detection systems rely on specific molecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins and fluorescent labels to identify the target(s) of interest, label-free methods probe changes in intrinsic properties, such as size, refractive index, and morphology, for correlation with a particular biological event. Optical chromatography is a label free technique that uses the balance between optical and fluidic drag forces within a microfluidic channel to determine the optical force on cells or particles. Here we show an increase in the optical force experienced by RAW264.7 macrophage cells upon the uptake of both microparticles and B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 spores. In the case of spores, the exposure was detected in as little as 1 h without the use of antibodies or fluorescent labels of any kind. An increase in the optical force was also seen in macrophage cells treated with cytochalasin D, both with and without a subsequent exposure to spores, indicating that a portion of the increase in the optical force arises independent of phagocytosis. These results demonstrate the capability of optical chromatography to detect subtle biological differences in a rapid and sensitive manner and suggest future potential in a range of applications, including the detection of biological threat agents for biodefense and pathogens for the prevention of sepsis and other diseases.

  16. Biodistribution study of carbogenic dots in cells and in vivo for optical imaging

    Li Nan; Liang Xiaofei; Wang Lili; Li Zonghai; Li Peiyong; Zhu Yihua; Song Jing

    2012-01-01

    Blue fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity and also for their optical imaging performance. The results showed that the C-dots could enter into the Hela cells in 15 min incubation and the uptake increased rapidly from 15 min to 2 h. In cytotoxicity study, C-dots were biocompatible and nontoxic to three human cells including two cancer cells (Hela and SMCC-7721) and one normal cell (HEK 293) in concentrations up to 500 μg/mL. Since the endocytic interference factors, including NaN 3 , MβCD, sucrose, and low temperature, could not play an inhibitory effect on C-dots entering into cells, the direct nonendocytic pathway for C-dots was speculated. The C-dots showed encouraging cell-imaging applications in vitro and in vivo. They entered into cells without any further functionalization, and the fluorescence property of these particles can be used for fluorescence-based cell-imaging applications.

  17. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  18. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Lena Simone Fohrmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  19. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  20. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  1. Nonlinear optical microscopy reveals invading endothelial cells anisotropically alter three-dimensional collagen matrices

    Lee, P.-F.; Yeh, Alvin T.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are fundamental in mediating various steps of angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration and sprout formation. Here, we used a noninvasive and non-destructive nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technique to optically image endothelial sprouting morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. We simultaneously captured signals from collagen fibers and endothelial cells using second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), respectively. Dynamic 3D imaging revealed EC interactions with collagen fibers along with quantifiable alterations in collagen matrix density elicited by EC movement through and morphogenesis within the matrix. Specifically, we observed increased collagen density in the area between bifurcation points of sprouting structures and anisotropic increases in collagen density around the perimeter of lumenal structures, but not advancing sprout tips. Proteinase inhibition studies revealed membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase were utilized for sprout advancement and lumen expansion. Rho-associated kinase (p160ROCK) inhibition demonstrated that the generation of cell tension increased collagen matrix alterations. This study followed sprouting ECs within a 3D matrix and revealed that the advancing structures recognize and significantly alter their extracellular environment at the periphery of lumens as they progress

  2. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of strain-free quantum ring solar cells

    2013-01-01

    Strain-free GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum rings are fabricated by droplet epitaxy. Both photoresponse and photoluminescence spectra confirm optical transitions in quantum rings, suggesting that droplet epitaxial nanomaterials are applicable to intermediate band solar cells. The effects of post-growth annealing on the quantum ring solar cells are investigated, and the optical properties of the solar cells with and without thermal treatment are characterized by photoluminescence technique. Rapid thermal annealing treatment has resulted in the significant improvement of material quality, which can be served as a standard process for quantum structure solar cells grown by droplet epitaxy. PMID:23281811

  3. Annealed silver-islands for enhanced optical absorption in organic solar cell

    Otieno, Francis, E-mail: frankotienoo@gmail.com [Material Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050Johannesburg (South Africa); Materials for Energy Research Group, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Airo, Mildred [School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Ranganathan, Kamalakannan [School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); DST-NRF Centre of Strong Materials and the Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, 2193 Johannesburg (South Africa); Wamwangi, Daniel [Material Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050Johannesburg (South Africa); Materials for Energy Research Group, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    Silver nano-islands are explored for enhancing optical absorption and photo-conversion efficiency in organic solar cells (OSCs) based on the surface plasmon resonance effect under diverse annealing conditions. Ag nano-islands have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at 15 W for 10 s and subsequently annealed between 100 °C–250 °C in air and Argon ambient. The optical properties of the reconstructed Ag islands demonstrate an increase and a blue shift in the absorption bands with increasing annealing temperature. This is the localized surface plasmon effect due to the Ag islands of diverse sizes, shapes and coverages. The increase in optical absorption with temperature is attributed to changes in island shape and density as collaborated by atomic force microscopy and TEM. As a proof of concept, an organic solar cell was characterized for current–voltage (I–V) measurements under dark and under solar simulated white light. Incorporation of annealed Ag islands has yielded an efficiency increment of between 4–24%. - Highlights: • RF Sputtering can be used to produce Ag NPs at low power. • Annealing enhances size, shape reconstruction as well as inter-particle separation. • Annealing in Argon ambient is more suitable than in air. • Ag NPs annealed at 250 °C enhances device absorption and PCE by up to 24%.

  4. Investigation into local cell mechanics by atomic force microscopy mapping and optical tweezer vertical indentation.

    Coceano, G; Yousafzai, M S; Ma, W; Ndoye, F; Venturelli, L; Hussain, I; Bonin, S; Niemela, J; Scoles, G; Cojoc, D; Ferrari, E

    2016-02-12

    Investigating the mechanical properties of cells could reveal a potential source of label-free markers of cancer progression, based on measurable viscoelastic parameters. The Young's modulus has proved to be the most thoroughly studied so far, however, even for the same cell type, the elastic modulus reported in different studies spans a wide range of values, mainly due to the application of different experimental conditions. This complicates the reliable use of elasticity for the mechanical phenotyping of cells. Here we combine two complementary techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical tweezer microscopy (OTM), providing a comprehensive mechanical comparison of three human breast cell lines: normal myoepithelial (HBL-100), luminal breast cancer (MCF-7) and basal breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. The elastic modulus was measured locally by AFM and OTM on single cells, using similar indentation approaches but different measurement parameters. Peak force tapping AFM was employed at nanonewton forces and high loading rates to draw a viscoelastic map of each cell and the results indicated that the region on top of the nucleus provided the most meaningful results. OTM was employed at those locations at piconewton forces and low loading rates, to measure the elastic modulus in a real elastic regime and rule out the contribution of viscous forces typical of AFM. When measured by either AFM or OTM, the cell lines' elasticity trend was similar for the aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells, which were found to be significantly softer than the other two cell types in both measurements. However, when comparing HBL-100 and MCF-7 cells, we found significant differences only when using OTM.

  5. [Progression of nerve fiber layer defects in retrobulbar optic neuritis by the macular ganglion cell complex].

    Hong, D; Bosc, C; Chiambaretta, F

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies with SD OCT had shown early axonal damage to the macular ganglion cell complex (which consists of the three innermost layers of the retina: Inner Plexiform Layer [IPL], Ganglion Cell Layer [GCL], Retinal Nerve Fibre layer [RNFL]) in optic nerve pathology. Retrobulbar optic neuritis (RBON), occurring frequently in demyelinating diseases, leads to atrophy of the optic nerve fibers at the level of the ganglion cell axons, previously described in the literature. The goal of this study is to evaluate the progression of optic nerve fiber defects and macular ganglion cell complex defects with the SPECTRALIS OCT via a reproducible method by calculating a mean thickness in each quadrant after an episode of retrobulbar optic neuritis. This is a prospective monocentric observational study including 8 patients at the Clermont-Ferrand university medical center. All patients underwent ocular examination with macular and disc OCT analysis and a Goldmann visual field at the time of inclusion (onset or recurrence of RBON), at 3 months and at 6 months. Patients were 40-years-old on average at the time of inclusion. After 6 months of follow-up, there was progression of the atrophy of the macular ganglion cell complex in the affected eye on (11.5% or 11μm) predominantly inferonasally (13.9% or 16μm) and superonasally (12.9% or 14μm) while the other eye remained stable. The decrease in thickness occurred mainly in the most internal 3 layers of the retina. On average, the loss in thickness of the peripapillary RNFL was predominantly inferotemporal (24.9% or 39μm) and superotemporal (21.8% or 28μm). In 3 months of progression, the loss of optic nerve fibers is already seen on macular and disc OCT after an episode of RBON, especially in inferior quadrants in spite of the improvement in the Goldmann visual field and visual acuity. Segmentation by quadrant was used here to compare the progression of the defect by region compared to the fovea in a global and reproducible

  6. Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer: a 3-D optical study

    Rezaei, N.; Isabella, O.; Vroon, Z.; Zeman, M.

    2018-01-01

    A 3-D optical modelling was calibrated to calculate the light absorption and the total reflection of fabricated CIGS solar cells. Absorption losses at molybdenum (Mo) / CIGS interface were explained in terms of plasmonic waves. To quench these losses, we assumed the insertion of a lossless

  7. Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer : A 3-D optical study

    Rezaei, N.; Isabella, O.; Vroon, Zeger; Zeman, M.

    2018-01-01

    A 3-D optical modelling was calibrated to calculate the light absorption and the total reflection of fabricated CIGS solar cells. Absorption losses at molybdenum (Mo) / CIGS interface were explained in terms of plasmonic waves. To quench these losses, we assumed the insertion of a lossless

  8. The micro-optic photovoltaic behavior of solar cell along with microlens curved glass substrate

    Xie, Jin; Wu, Keke; Cheng, Jian; Li, Ping; Zheng, Jiahua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microlens array may be micro-ground on curved photovoltaic glass substrate. • Its micro-optical structure absorbs and scatters the inclined light to solar cell. • It increases conversion efficiency and fill factor in weak and inclined lights. • It improves electricity generation by about 4 times in scattered cloudy daylight. • It produces stronger electricity generation in cloudy day than in sunny day. - Abstract: A hybrid of microlens structure and curved surface may produce high value-added micro-optic performance. Hence, the microlens array is proposed on macro curved glass substrate of thin film solar cell. The objective is to understand how the micro-optic behavior of microlens curved array influences indoor power conversion efficiency and outdoor electricity generation. First, the absorptivities of visible light and infrared light were analyzed in connection with the curved microlens sizes; then the microlens curved glass substrate was fabricated by a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) micro-grinding with micro diamond wheel V-tip; finally, its photovoltaic properties and electricity generation were measured, respectively. It is shown that the microlens curved surface may strongly absorb and scatter light to solar cell. It increases the absorptivity of visible light against plane surface, but it decreases the one of infrared light against microlens surface. When it is applied to solar cell, it enhances the power conversion efficiency by 3.4–10.6% under oblique illumination. When it is applied to solar device, it increases the electricity generation of daylight by 119–106% against microlens surface and by 260–419% against traditional plane surface, respectively. The surprising finding is that it produces much larger electricity generation during cloudy day than during sunny day, but traditional plane surface does not so

  9. Improved Optics in Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with a Nanocrystalline Silicon Recombination Junction

    Sahli, Florent

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells are increasingly recognized as promi­sing candidates for next-generation photovoltaics with performance beyond the single-junction limit at potentially low production costs. Current designs for monolithic tandems rely on transparent conductive oxides as an intermediate recombination layer, which lead to optical losses and reduced shunt resistance. An improved recombination junction based on nanocrystalline silicon layers to mitigate these losses is demonstrated. When employed in monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem cells with a planar front side, this junction is found to increase the bottom cell photocurrent by more than 1 mA cm−2. In combination with a cesium-based perovskite top cell, this leads to tandem cell power-conversion efficiencies of up to 22.7% obtained from J–V measurements and steady-state efficiencies of up to 22.0% during maximum power point tracking. Thanks to its low lateral conductivity, the nanocrystalline silicon recombination junction enables upscaling of monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem cells, resulting in a 12.96 cm2 monolithic tandem cell with a steady-state efficiency of 18%.

  10. Improved Optics in Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with a Nanocrystalline Silicon Recombination Junction

    Sahli, Florent; Kamino, Brett A.; Werner, Jé ré mie; Brä uninger, Matthias; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Barraud, Loris; Monnard, Raphaë l; Seif, Johannes Peter; Tomasi, Andrea; Jeangros, Quentin; Hessler-Wyser, Aï cha; De Wolf, Stefaan; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells are increasingly recognized as promi­sing candidates for next-generation photovoltaics with performance beyond the single-junction limit at potentially low production costs. Current designs for monolithic tandems rely on transparent conductive oxides as an intermediate recombination layer, which lead to optical losses and reduced shunt resistance. An improved recombination junction based on nanocrystalline silicon layers to mitigate these losses is demonstrated. When employed in monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem cells with a planar front side, this junction is found to increase the bottom cell photocurrent by more than 1 mA cm−2. In combination with a cesium-based perovskite top cell, this leads to tandem cell power-conversion efficiencies of up to 22.7% obtained from J–V measurements and steady-state efficiencies of up to 22.0% during maximum power point tracking. Thanks to its low lateral conductivity, the nanocrystalline silicon recombination junction enables upscaling of monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem cells, resulting in a 12.96 cm2 monolithic tandem cell with a steady-state efficiency of 18%.

  11. Role of JAK/STAT signaling in neuroepithelial stem cell maintenance and proliferation in the Drosophila optic lobe

    Wang, Wei; Li, Yonggang; Zhou, Liya; Yue, Haitao [School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Hong, E-mail: luohong@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} JAK/STAT activity is graded in the Drosophila optic lobe neuroepithelium. {yields} Inactivation of JAK signaling causes disintegration of the optic lobe neuroepithelium and depletion of the neuroepithelial stem cells. {yields} JAK pathway overactivation promotes neuroepithelial overgrowth. {yields} Notch signaling acts downstream of JAK/STAT to promote neuroepithelial growth and expansion. -- Abstract: During Drosophila optic lobe development, proliferation and differentiation must be tightly modulated to reach its normal size for proper functioning. The JAK/STAT pathway plays pleiotropic roles in Drosophila development and in the larval brain, has been shown to inhibit medulla neuroblast formation. In this study, we find that JAK/STAT activity is required for the maintenance and proliferation of the neuroepithelial stem cells in the optic lobe. In loss-of-function JAK/STAT mutant brains, the neuroepithelial cells lose epithelial cell characters and differentiate prematurely while ectopic activation of this pathway is sufficient to induce neuroepithelial overgrowth in the optic lobe. We further show that Notch signaling acts downstream of JAK/STAT to control the maintenance and growth of the optic lobe neuroepithelium. Thus, in addition to its role in suppression of neuroblast formation, the JAK/STAT pathway is necessary and sufficient for optic lobe neuroepithelial growth.

  12. Stretching of red blood cells using an electro-optics trap.

    Haque, Md Mozzammel; Moisescu, Mihaela G; Valkai, Sándor; Dér, András; Savopol, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    The stretching stiffness of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) was investigated using a combination of an AC dielectrophoretic apparatus and a single-beam optical tweezer. The experiments were performed at 10 MHz, a frequency high enough to avoid conductivity losses, but below the second turnover point between positive and negative dielectrophoresis. By measuring the geometrical parameters of single healthy human RBCs as a function of the applied voltage, the elastic modulus of RBCs was determined (µ = 1.80 ± 0.5 µN/m) and compared with similar values of the literature got by other techniques. The method is expected to be an easy-to-use, alternative tool to determine the mechano-elastic properties of living cells, and, on this basis, to distinguish healthy and diseased cells.

  13. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    such as redox activity, O2 and H2O2 concentration, pH, cell viability and release of target enzymes such as α-amylase. We have optimised an intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay[3] that detects changes in redox activity in barley aleurone layer during PCD. The assay uses a double mediator......This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage......-system to electrochemically measure redox activity via changes in the NADP:NADPH ratio. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We have also successfully detected PCD induced by phytohormones in barley aleurone layer using...

  14. Optical silencing of C. elegans cells with light-driven proton pumps.

    Okazaki, Ayako; Takahashi, Megumi; Toyoda, Naoya; Takagi, Shin

    2014-08-01

    Recent development of optogenetic techniques, which utilize light-driven ion channels or ion pumps for controlling the activity of excitable cells, has greatly facilitated the investigation of nervous systems in vivo. A new generation of optical silencers includes outward-directed proton pumps, such as Arch, which have several advantages over currently widely used halorhodopsin (NpHR). These advantages include the resistance to inactivation during prolonged illumination and the ability to generate a larger optical current from low intensity light. C. elegans, with its small transparent body and well-characterized neural circuits, is especially suitable for optogenetic analyses. In this article, we will outline the practical aspects of using of Arch and other proton pumps as optogenetic tools in C. elegans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces

    Gross, Benjamin J.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2015-01-01

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions

  16. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces.

    Gross, Benjamin J; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2015-06-01

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions.

  17. A combined electrochemical and optical trapping platform for measuring single cell respiration rates at electrode interfaces

    Gross, Benjamin J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, 920 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); El-Naggar, Mohamed Y., E-mail: mnaggar@usc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, 920 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Molecular and Computational Biology Section, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Metal-reducing bacteria gain energy by extracellular electron transfer to external solids, such as naturally abundant minerals, which substitute for oxygen or the other common soluble electron acceptors of respiration. This process is one of the earliest forms of respiration on earth and has significant environmental and technological implications. By performing electron transfer to electrodes instead of minerals, these microbes can be used as biocatalysts for conversion of diverse chemical fuels to electricity. Understanding such a complex biotic-abiotic interaction necessitates the development of tools capable of probing extracellular electron transfer down to the level of single cells. Here, we describe an experimental platform for single cell respiration measurements. The design integrates an infrared optical trap, perfusion chamber, and lithographically fabricated electrochemical chips containing potentiostatically controlled transparent indium tin oxide microelectrodes. Individual bacteria are manipulated using the optical trap and placed on the microelectrodes, which are biased at a suitable oxidizing potential in the absence of any chemical electron acceptor. The potentiostat is used to detect the respiration current correlated with cell-electrode contact. We demonstrate the system with single cell measurements of the dissimilatory-metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which resulted in respiration currents ranging from 15 fA to 100 fA per cell under our measurement conditions. Mutants lacking the outer-membrane cytochromes necessary for extracellular respiration did not result in any measurable current output upon contact. In addition to the application for extracellular electron transfer studies, the ability to electronically measure cell-specific respiration rates may provide answers for a variety of fundamental microbial physiology questions.

  18. Non-invasive optical detection of glucose in cell culture nutrient medium

    Cote, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin the development of a non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration in the output medium of cell cultures grown in a unique NASA bioreactor referred to as an integrated rotating-wall vessel (IRWV). The input, a bovine serum based nutrient media, has a known glucose concentration. The cells within the bioreactor digest a portion of the glucose. Thus, the non-invasive optical sensor is needed to monitor the decrease in glucose due to cellular consumption since the critical parameters for sustained cellular productivity are glucose and pH. Previous glucose sensing techniques have used chemical reactions to quantify the glucose concentration. Chemical reactions, however, cannot provide for continuous, real time, non-invasive measurement as is required in this application. Our effort while in the fellowship program was focused on the design, optical setup, and testing of one bench top prototype non-invasive optical sensor using a mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy technique. Glucose has a fundamental vibrational absorption peak in the mid-infrared wavelength range at 9.6 micron. Preliminary absorption data using a CO2 laser were collected at this wavelength for water based glucose solutions at different concentrations and one bovine serum based nutrient medium (GTSF) with added glucose. The results showed near linear absorption responses for the glucose-in-water data with resolutions as high at 108 mg/dl and as low as 10 mg/dl. The nutrient medium had a resolution of 291 mg/dl. The variability of the results was due mainly to thermal and polarization drifts of the laser while the decrease in sensitivity to glucose in the nutrient medium was expected due to the increase in the number of confounders present in the nutrient medium. A multispectral approach needs to be used to compensate for these confounders. The CO2 laser used for these studies was wavelength tunable (9.2 to 10.8 micrometers), however

  19. Ecdysone-dependent and ecdysone-independent programmed cell death in the developing optic lobe of Drosophila.

    Hara, Yusuke; Hirai, Keiichiro; Togane, Yu; Akagawa, Hiromi; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2013-02-01

    The adult optic lobe of Drosophila develops from the primordium during metamorphosis from mid-3rd larval stage to adult. Many cells die during development of the optic lobe with a peak of the number of dying cells at 24 h after puparium formation (h APF). Dying cells were observed in spatio-temporal specific clusters. Here, we analyzed the function of a component of the insect steroid hormone receptor, EcR, in this cell death. We examined expression patterns of two EcR isoforms, EcR-A and EcR-B1, in the optic lobe. Expression of each isoform altered during development in isoform-specific manner. EcR-B1 was not expressed in optic lobe neurons from 0 to 6h APF, but was expressed between 9 and 48 h APF and then disappeared by 60 h APF. In each cortex, its expression was stronger in older glia-ensheathed neurons than in younger ones. EcR-B1 was also expressed in some types of glia. EcR-A was expressed in optic lobe neurons and many types of glia from 0 to 60 h APF in a different pattern from EcR-B1. Then, we genetically analyzed EcR function in the optic lobe cell death. At 0 h APF, the optic lobe cell death was independent of any EcR isoforms. In contrast, EcR-B1 was required for most optic lobe cell death after 24 h APF. It was suggested that cell death cell-autonomously required EcR-B1 expressed after puparium formation. βFTZ-F1 was also involved in cell death in many dying-cell clusters, but not in some of them at 24 h APF. Altogether, the optic lobe cell death occurred in ecdysone-independent manner at prepupal stage and ecdysone-dependent manner after 24 h APF. The acquisition of ecdysone-dependence was not directly correlated with the initiation or increase of EcR-B1 expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-pass TIG welding process: simulating thermal SS304

    Harinadh, Vemanaboina; Akella, S.; Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Edision, G.

    2015-01-01

    Welding is basic requirement in the construction of nuclear reactors, power plants and structural components development. A basic studies on various aspects of the welding is essential to ensure the stability and structural requirement conditions. The present study explored the thermo-mechanical analysis of the multipass welds of austenitic stainless steels which are widely used in fusion and fission reactor components development. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model is developed to investigate thermally induced stress field during TIG welding process for SS304 material. The transient thermal analysis is performed to obtain the temperature history, which then is applied to the mechanical (stress) analysis. The present thermal analysis is conducted using element type DC3D8. This element type has a three dimensional thermal conduction capability and eight nodes. The 6 mm thick plated is welded with six numbers of passes. The geometry and meshed model with tetrahedral shape with volume sweep. The analysis is on TIG welding process using 3D-weld interface plug-in on ABAQUS-6.14. The results are reported in the present paper

  1. An experimental evaluation of multi-pass solar air heaters

    Satcunanathan, S.; Persad, P.

    1980-12-01

    Three collectors of identical dimensions but operating in the single-pass, two-pass and three-pass modes were tested simultaneously under ambient conditions. It was found that the two-pass air heater was consistently better than the single-pass air heater over the day for the range of mass flow rates considered. It was also found that at a mass flow rate of 0.0095 kg s/sup -1/ m/sup -2/, the thermal performances of the two-pass and three-pass collectors were identical, but at higher flow rates the two-pass collector was superior to the three-pass collector, the superiority decreasing with increasing mass flow rate.

  2. Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer: a 3-D optical study.

    Rezaei, Nasim; Isabella, Olindo; Vroon, Zeger; Zeman, Miro

    2018-01-22

    A 3-D optical modelling was calibrated to calculate the light absorption and the total reflection of fabricated CIGS solar cells. Absorption losses at molybdenum (Mo) / CIGS interface were explained in terms of plasmonic waves. To quench these losses, we assumed the insertion of a lossless dielectric spacer between Mo and CIGS, whose optical properties were varied. We show that such a spacer with low refractive index and proper thickness can significantly reduce absorption in Mo in the long wavelength regime and improve the device's rear reflectance, thus leading to enhanced light absorption in the CIGS layer. Therefore, we optimized a realistic two-layer MgF 2 / Al 2 O 3 dielectric spacer to exploit (i) the passivation properties of ultra-thin Al 2 O 3 on the CIGS side for potential high open-circuit voltage and (ii) the low refractive index of MgF 2 on the Mo side to reduce its optical losses. Combining our realistic spacer with optically-optimized point contacts increases the implied photocurrent density of a 750 nm-thick CIGS layer by 10% for the wavelengths between 700 and 1150 nm with respect to the reference cell. The elimination of plasmonic resonances in the new structure leads to a higher electric field magnitude at the bottom of CIGS layer and justifies the improved optical performance.

  3. Single Molecule Detection in Living Biological Cells using Carbon Nanotube Optical Probes

    Strano, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nanoscale sensing elements offer promise for single molecule analyte detection in physically or biologically constrained environments. Molecular adsorption can be amplified via modulation of sharp singularities in the electronic density of states that arise from 1D quantum confinement [1]. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), as single molecule optical sensors [2-3], offer unique advantages such as photostable near-infrared (n-IR) emission for prolonged detection through biological media, single-molecule sensitivity and, nearly orthogonal optical modes for signal transduction that can be used to identify distinct classes of analytes. Selective binding to the SWNT surface is difficult to engineer [4]. In this lecture, we will briefly review the immerging field of fluorescent diagnostics using band gap emission from SWNT. In recent work, we demonstrate that even a single pair of SWNT provides at least four optical modes that can be modulated to uniquely fingerprint chemical agents by the degree to which they alter either the emission band intensity or wavelength. We validate this identification method in vitro by demonstrating detection and identification of six genotoxic analytes, including chemotherapeutic drugs and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are spectroscopically differentiated into four distinct classes. We also demonstrate single-molecule sensitivity in detecting hydrogen peroxide, one of the most common genotoxins and an important cellular signal. Finally, we employ our sensing and fingerprinting method of these analytes in real time within live 3T3 cells, demonstrating the first multiplexed optical detection from a nanoscale biosensor and the first label-free tool to optically discriminate between genotoxins. We will also discuss our recent efforts to fabricate biomedical sensors for real time detection of glucose and other important physiologically relevant analytes in-vivo. The response of embedded SWNT in a swellable hydrogel construct to

  4. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  5. A study of red blood cell deformability in diabetic retinopathy using optical tweezers

    Smart, Thomas J.; Richards, Christopher J.; Bhatnagar, Rhythm; Pavesio, Carlos; Agrawal, Rupesh; Jones, Philip H.

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) in which high blood sugar levels cause swelling, leaking and occlusions in the blood vessels of the retina, often resulting in a loss of sight. The microvascular system requires red blood cells (RBCs) to undergo significant cellular deformation in order to pass through vessels whose diameters are significantly smaller than their own. There is evidence to suggest that DM impairs the deformability of RBCs, and this loss of deformability has been associated with diabetic kidney disease (or nephropathy) - another microvascular complication of DM. However, it remains unclear whether reduced deformability of RBCs correlates with the presence of DR. Here we present an investigation into the deformability of RBCs in patients with diabetic retinopathy using optical tweezers. To extract a value for the deformability of RBCs we use a dual-trap optical tweezers set-up to stretch individual RBCs. RBCs are trapped directly (i.e. without micro-bead handles), so rotate to assume a `side-on' orientation. Video microscopy is used to record the deformation events, and shape analysis software is used to determine parameters such as initial and maximum RBC length, allowing us to calculate the deformability for each RBC. A small decrease in deformability of diabetes cells subject to this stretching protocol is observed when compared to control cells. We also report on initial results on three dimensional imaging of individual RBCs using defocussing microscopy.

  6. Imaging arterial cells, atherosclerosis, and restenosis by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Matthew J.; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-02-01

    By integrating sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope platform, multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of arteries and atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated. CARS signals arising from CH II-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a carotid artery. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are rich in CH II bonds in their cross-linking residues. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. The system is capable of identifying different atherosclerotic lesion stages with sub-cellular resolution. The stages of atherosclerosis, such as macrophage infiltration, lipid-laden foam cell accumulation, extracellular lipid distribution, fibrous tissue deposition, plaque establishment, and formation of other complicated lesions could be viewed by our multimodal CARS microscope. Collagen percentages in the region adjacent to coronary artery stents were resolved. High correlation between NLO and histology imaging evidenced the validity of the NLO imaging. The capability of imaging significant components of an arterial wall and distinctive stages of atherosclerosis in a label-free manner suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor the onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  7. Analysis of single-cell differences by use of an on-chip microculture system and optical trapping.

    Wakamoto, Y; Inoue, I; Moriguchi, H; Yasuda, K

    2001-09-01

    A method is described for continuous observation of isolated single cells that enables genetically identical cells to be compared; it uses an on-chip microculture system and optical tweezers. Photolithography is used to construct microchambers with 5-microm-high walls made of thick photoresist (SU-8) on the surface of a glass slide. These microchambers are connected by a channel through which cells are transported, by means of optical tweezers, from a cultivation microchamber to an analysis microchamber, or from the analysis microchamber to a waste microchamber. The microchambers are covered with a semi-permeable membrane to separate them from nutrient medium circulating through a "cover chamber" above. Differential analysis of isolated direct descendants of single cells showed that this system could be used to compare genetically identical cells under contamination-free conditions. It should thus help in the clarification of heterogeneous phenomena, for example unequal cell division and cell differentiation.

  8. Light propagation and transmission in hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal cells: Geometrical optics calculations

    Mendoza, Carlos I.; Reyes, J. Adrian

    2006-08-01

    The authors present a geometrical approach to calculate the transmission of light in a hybrid-aligned nematic cell under the influence of an applied electric field. Using the framework of geometrical optics they present results for the ray tracing as well as the transmission of light as a function of the applied low frequency voltage. Dispersion effects are included through a wavelength dependent dielectric function. Their results for the transmittance as a function of the applied voltage show oscillations that are in good qualitative agreement with previously obtained experimental measurements.

  9. Motion analysis of optically trapped particles and cells using 2D Fourier analysis

    Kristensen, Martin Verner; Ahrendt, Peter; Lindballe, Thue Bjerring

    2012-01-01

    Motion analysis of optically trapped objects is demonstrated using a simple 2D Fourier transform technique. The displacements of trapped objects are determined directly from the phase shift between the Fourier transform of subsequent images. Using end-and side-view imaging, the stiffness...... of the trap is determined in three dimensions. The Fourier transform method is simple to implement and applicable in cases where the trapped object changes shape or where the lighting conditions change. This is illustrated by tracking a fluorescent particle and a myoblast cell, with subsequent determination...

  10. Continuous nucleus extraction by optically-induced cell lysis on a batch-type microfluidic platform.

    Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Hung, Lien-Yu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-21

    The extraction of a cell's nucleus is an essential technique required for a number of procedures, such as disease diagnosis, genetic replication, and animal cloning. However, existing nucleus extraction techniques are relatively inefficient and labor-intensive. Therefore, this study presents an innovative, microfluidics-based approach featuring optically-induced cell lysis (OICL) for nucleus extraction and collection in an automatic format. In comparison to previous micro-devices designed for nucleus extraction, the new OICL device designed herein is superior in terms of flexibility, selectivity, and efficiency. To facilitate this OICL module for continuous nucleus extraction, we further integrated an optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) module with the OICL device within the microfluidic chip. This on-chip integration circumvents the need for highly trained personnel and expensive, cumbersome equipment. Specifically, this microfluidic system automates four steps by 1) automatically focusing and transporting cells, 2) releasing the nuclei on the OICL module, 3) isolating the nuclei on the ODEP module, and 4) collecting the nuclei in the outlet chamber. The efficiency of cell membrane lysis and the ODEP nucleus separation was measured to be 78.04 ± 5.70% and 80.90 ± 5.98%, respectively, leading to an overall nucleus extraction efficiency of 58.21 ± 2.21%. These results demonstrate that this microfluidics-based system can successfully perform nucleus extraction, and the integrated platform is therefore promising in cell fusion technology with the goal of achieving genetic replication, or even animal cloning, in the near future.

  11. Use of an optical trap for study of host-pathogen interactions for dynamic live cell imaging.

    Tam, Jenny M; Castro, Carlos E; Heath, Robert J W; Mansour, Michael K; Cardenas, Michael L; Xavier, Ramnik J; Lang, Matthew J; Vyas, Jatin M

    2011-07-28

    Dynamic live cell imaging allows direct visualization of real-time interactions between cells of the immune system(1, 2); however, the lack of spatial and temporal control between the phagocytic cell and microbe has rendered focused observations into the initial interactions of host response to pathogens difficult. Historically, intercellular contact events such as phagocytosis(3) have been imaged by mixing two cell types, and then continuously scanning the field-of-view to find serendipitous intercellular contacts at the appropriate stage of interaction. The stochastic nature of these events renders this process tedious, and it is difficult to observe early or fleeting events in cell-cell contact by this approach. This method requires finding cell pairs that are on the verge of contact, and observing them until they consummate their contact, or do not. To address these limitations, we use optical trapping as a non-invasive, non-destructive, but fast and effective method to position cells in culture. Optical traps, or optical tweezers, are increasingly utilized in biological research to capture and physically manipulate cells and other micron-sized particles in three dimensions(4). Radiation pressure was first observed and applied to optical tweezer systems in 1970(5, 6), and was first used to control biological specimens in 1987(7). Since then, optical tweezers have matured into a technology to probe a variety of biological phenomena(8-13). We describe a method(14) that advances live cell imaging by integrating an optical trap with spinning disk confocal microscopy with temperature and humidity control to provide exquisite spatial and temporal control of pathogenic organisms in a physiological environment to facilitate interactions with host cells, as determined by the operator. Live, pathogenic organisms like Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, which can cause potentially lethal, invasive infections in immunocompromised individuals(15, 16) (e.g. AIDS

  12. Developing new optical imaging techniques for single particle and molecule tracking in live cells

    Sun, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a far-field as well as wide-field optical imaging technique. Since it is non-invasive and requires no sample staining, DIC microscopy is suitable for tracking the motion of target molecules in live cells without interfering their functions. In addition, high numerical aperture objectives and condensers can be used in DIC microscopy. The depth of focus of DIC is shallow, which gives DIC much better optical sectioning ability than those of phase contrast and dark field microscopies. In this work, DIC was utilized to study dynamic biological processes including endocytosis and intracellular transport in live cells. The suitability of DIC microscopy for single particle tracking in live cells was first demonstrated by using DIC to monitor the entire endocytosis process of one mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) into a live mammalian cell. By taking advantage of the optical sectioning ability of DIC, we recorded the depth profile of the MSN during the endocytosis process. The shape change around the nanoparticle due to the formation of a vesicle was also captured. DIC microscopy was further modified that the sample can be illuminated and imaged at two wavelengths simultaneously. By using the new technique, noble metal nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were selectively imaged. Among all the examined metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles in rod shapes were found to be especially useful. Due to their anisotropic optical properties, gold nanorods showed as diffraction-limited spots with disproportionate bright and dark parts that are strongly dependent on their orientation in the 3D space. Gold nanorods were developed as orientation nanoprobes and were successfully used to report the self-rotation of gliding microtubules on kinesin coated substrates. Gold nanorods were further used to study the rotational motions of cargoes during the endocytosis and intracellular transport processes in live mammalian

  13. Raman spectroscopy of individual monocytes reveals that single-beam optical trapping of mononuclear cells occurs by their nucleus

    Fore, Samantha; Chan, James; Taylor, Douglas; Huser, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We show that laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of eukaryotic cells with a significantly larger diameter than the tight focus of a single-beam laser trap leads to optical trapping of the cell by its optically densest part, i.e. typically the cell's nucleus. Raman spectra of individual optically trapped monocytes are compared with location-specific Raman spectra of monocytes adhered to a substrate. When the cell's nucleus is stained with a fluorescent live cell stain, the Raman spectrum of the DNA-specific stain is observed only in the nucleus of individual monocytes. Optically trapped monocytes display the same behavior. We also show that the Raman spectra of individual monocytes exhibit the characteristic Raman signature of cells that have not yet fully differentiated and that individual primary monocytes can be distinguished from transformed monocytes based on their Raman spectra. This work provides further evidence that laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of individual cells provides meaningful biochemical information in an entirely non-destructive fashion that permits discerning differences between cell types and cellular activity

  14. Electrical-optical characterization of multijunction solar cells under 2000X concentration

    Bonsignore, Gaetano; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Candia, Roberto; Cannas, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Dentici, Ignazio; Gelardi, Franco Mario; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Montagnino, Fabio Maria; Paredes, Filippo; Sciortino, Luisa

    2014-09-01

    In the framework of the FAE "Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza" ("High Efficiency Photovoltaic") Research Project (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1), we have performed electrical and optical characterizations of commercial InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells (1 cm2) mounted on a prototype HCPV module, installed in Palermo (Italy). This system uses a reflective optics based on rectangular off-axis parabolic mirror with aperture 45×45 cm2 leading to a geometrical concentration ratio of 2025. In this study, we report the I-V curve measured under incident power of about 700 W/m2 resulting in an electrical power at maximum point (PMP) of 41.4 W. We also investigated the optical properties by the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the top (InGaP) and middle (InGaAs) subcells. From the analysis of the experimental data we extracted the bandgap energies of these III-V semiconductors in the range 305÷385 K.

  15. Optical waveguide loop for planar trapping of blood cells and microspheres

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Hellesø, Olav G.

    2013-09-01

    The evanescent field from a waveguide can be used to trap and propel a particle. An optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the center is used for planar transport and stable trapping of particles. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to trap and deliver spheres towards the gap. At the gap, the counter-diverging light fields hold the sphere at a fixed position. Numerical simulation based on the finite element method was performed in three dimensions using a computer cluster. The field distribution and optical forces for rib and strip waveguide designs are compared and discussed. The optical force on a single particle was computed for various positions of the particle in the gap. Simulation predicted stable trapping of particles in the gap. Depending on the gap separation (2-50 μm) a single or multiple spheres and red blood cells were trapped at the gap. Waveguides were made of tantalum pentaoxide material. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip.

  16. Quantifying Force and Viscoelasticity Inside Living Cells Using an Active–Passive Calibrated Optical Trap

    Ritter, Christine M.; Maes, Josep; Oddershede, Lene

    2017-01-01

    As described in the previous chapters, optical tweezers have become a tool of precision for in vitro single-molecule investigations, where the single molecule of interest most often is studied in purified form in an experimental assay with a well-controlled fluidic environment. A well-controlled ...... is that the size and refractive properties of the trapped object and the viscoelastic properties of its environment need not be known. We explain the protocol and demonstrate its use with experiments of trapped granules inside live S.pombe cells.......As described in the previous chapters, optical tweezers have become a tool of precision for in vitro single-molecule investigations, where the single molecule of interest most often is studied in purified form in an experimental assay with a well-controlled fluidic environment. A well......-controlled fluidic environment implies that the physical properties of the liquid, most notably the viscosity, are known and the fluidic environment can, for calibrational purposes, be treated as a simple liquid. In vivo, however, optical tweezers have primarily been used as a tool of manipulation and not so often...

  17. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles as Optical Labels for Imaging Cell Surface Proteins

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.

    Assaying the expression of cell surface proteins has widespread application for characterizing cell type, developmental stage, and monitoring disease transformation. Immunophenotyping is conducted by treating cells with labelled targeting moieties that have high affinity for relevant surface protein(s). The sensitivity and specificity of immunophenotyping is defined by the choice of contrast agent and therefore, the number of resolvable signals that can be used to simultaneously label cells. Narrow band width surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles are proposed as optical labels for multiplexed immunophenotying. Two types of surface coatings were investigated to passivate the gold nanoparticles, incorporate SERS functionality, and to facilitate attachment of targeting antibodies. Thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) forms dative bonds with the gold surface and is compatible with multiple physisorbed Raman-active reporter molecules. Ternary lipid bilayers are used to encapsulate the gold nanoparticles particles, and incorporate three different classes of Raman reporters. TEM, UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy, DLS, and electrophoretic light scattering were used characterize the particle coating. Colourimetric protein assay, and secondary antibody labelling were used to quantify the antibody conjugation. Three different in vitromodels were used to investigate the binding efficacy and specificity of SERS labels for their biomarker targets. Primary human CLL cells, LY10 B lymphoma, and A549 adenocarcinoma lines were targeted. Dark field imaging was used to visualize the colocalization of SERS labels with cells, and evidence of receptor clustering was obtained based on colour shifts of the particles' Rayleigh scattering. Widefield, and spatially-resolved Raman spectra were used to detect labels singly, and in combination from labelled cells. Fluorescence flow cytometry was used to test the particles' binding specificity, and SERS from labelled cells was also

  18. Optical tweezers for measuring the interaction of the two single red blood cells in flow condition

    Lee, Kisung; Muravyov, Alexei; Semenov, Alexei; Wagner, Christian; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) is an intrinsic property of blood, which has direct effect on the blood viscosity and therefore affects overall the blood circulation throughout the body. It is attracting interest for the research in both fundamental science and clinical application. Despite of the intensive research, the aggregation mechanism is remaining not fully clear. Recent advances in methods allowed measuring the interaction between single RBCs in a well-defined configuration leading the better understanding of the mechanism of the process. However the most of the studies were made on the static cells. Thus, the measurements in flow mimicking conditions are missing. In this work, we aim to study the interaction of two RBCs in the flow conditions. We demonstrate the characterization of the cells interaction strength (or flow tolerance) by measuring the flow velocity to be applied to separate two aggregated cells trapped by double channel optical tweezers in a desired configuration. The age-separated cells were used for this study. The obtained values for the minimum flow velocities needed to separate the two cells were found to be 78.9 +/- 6.1 μm/s and 110 +/- 13 μm/s for old and young cells respectively. The data obtained is in agreement with the observations reported by other authors. The significance of our results is in ability for obtaining a comprehensible and absolute physical value characterizing the cells interaction in flow conditions (not like the Aggregation Index measured in whole blood suspensions by other techniques, which is some abstract parameter)

  19. Improved Imaging of Magnetically Labeled Cells Using Rotational Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography

    Peter Cimalla

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a reliable and robust method for magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MM-OCT imaging of single cells labeled with iron oxide particles. This method employs modulated longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields to evoke alignment and rotation of anisotropic magnetic structures in the sample volume. Experimental evidence suggests that magnetic particles assemble themselves in elongated chains when exposed to a permanent magnetic field. Magnetomotion in the intracellular space was detected and visualized by means of 3D OCT as well as laser speckle reflectometry as a 2D reference imaging method. Our experiments on mesenchymal stem cells embedded in agar scaffolds show that the magnetomotive signal in rotational MM-OCT is significantly increased by a factor of ~3 compared to previous pulsed MM-OCT, although the solenoid’s power consumption was 16 times lower. Finally, we use our novel method to image ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line. Our results permit magnetomotive imaging with higher sensitivity and the use of low power magnetic fields or larger working distances for future three-dimensional cell tracking in target tissues and organs.

  20. The nanotoxicity investigation of optical nanoparticles to cultured cells in vitro.

    Zeng, Qinghui; Shao, Dan; Ji, Wenyu; Li, Jing; Chen, Li; Song, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Optical nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to provide new tools for diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, however, their nanotoxicity and biological characteristics are still unclear. Here, we prepared a series of typical NPs (including gold nanospheres, gold nanorods, silver nanopheres, silver triangular nanoplates and quantum dots) with different material and surface chemical modification for nanotoxicity test. Cell proliferation was investigated by SRB assay where the NPs were co-cultured with cancer cells. It was found that NPs' toxicity was highly correlated to different factors-material selection, physical size/surface area, shape, and surface chemical property, etc. This work has the potential to provide a uniform and systematic information when they are applied as probes in biological and medical fields.

  1. Process control of high rate microcrystalline silicon based solar cell deposition by optical emission spectroscopy

    Kilper, T.; Donker, M.N. van den; Carius, R.; Rech, B.; Braeuer, G.; Repmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon thin-film solar cells based on microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) were prepared in a 30 x 30 cm 2 plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using 13.56 or 40.68 MHz plasma excitation frequency. Plasma emission was recorded by optical emission spectroscopy during μc-Si:H absorber layer deposition at deposition rates between 0.5 and 2.5 nm/s. The time course of SiH * and H β emission indicated strong drifts in the process conditions particularly at low total gas flows. By actively controlling the SiH 4 gas flow, the observed process drifts were successfully suppressed resulting in a more homogeneous i-layer crystallinity along the growth direction. In a deposition regime with efficient usage of the process gas, the μc-Si:H solar cell efficiency was enhanced from 7.9 % up to 8.8 % by applying process control

  2. A combined optical and atomic force microscope for live cell investigations

    Madl, Josef [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Rhode, Sebastian [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Stangl, Herbert [Institute for Medical Chemistry, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstr. 10, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Stockinger, Hannes [Department of Molecular Immunology, Center for Biomolecular Medicine and Pharmacology, Medical University Vienna, Lazarettgasse 19, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hinterdorfer, Peter [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Schuetz, Gerhard J. [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Kada, Gerald [Scientec, Mitterbauerweg 4, 4020 Linz (Austria)]. E-mail: gerald_kada@agilent.com

    2006-06-15

    We present an easy-to-use combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an epi-fluorescence microscope, which allows live cell imaging under physiological conditions. High-resolution AFM images were acquired while simultaneously monitoring either the fluorescence image of labeled membrane components, or a high-contrast optical image (DIC, differential interference contrast). By applying two complementary techniques at the same time, additional information and correlations between structure and function of living organisms were obtained. The synergy effects between fluorescence imaging and AFM were further demonstrated by probing fluorescence-labeled receptor clusters in the cell membrane via force spectroscopy using antibody-functionalized tips. The binding probability on receptor-containing areas identified with fluorescence microscopy ('receptor-positive sites') was significantly higher than that on sites lacking receptors.

  3. A combined optical and atomic force microscope for live cell investigations

    Madl, Josef; Rhode, Sebastian; Stangl, Herbert; Stockinger, Hannes; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Schuetz, Gerhard J.; Kada, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an epi-fluorescence microscope, which allows live cell imaging under physiological conditions. High-resolution AFM images were acquired while simultaneously monitoring either the fluorescence image of labeled membrane components, or a high-contrast optical image (DIC, differential interference contrast). By applying two complementary techniques at the same time, additional information and correlations between structure and function of living organisms were obtained. The synergy effects between fluorescence imaging and AFM were further demonstrated by probing fluorescence-labeled receptor clusters in the cell membrane via force spectroscopy using antibody-functionalized tips. The binding probability on receptor-containing areas identified with fluorescence microscopy ('receptor-positive sites') was significantly higher than that on sites lacking receptors

  4. Which histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas influence the quality of optical coherence tomography imaging?

    Mogensen, M.; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    We explore how histopathology parameters influence OCT imaging of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and address whether such parameters correlate with the quality of the recorded OCT images. Our results indicate that inflammation impairs OCT imaging and that sun-damaged skin can sometimes provide more ...... clear-cut images of skin cancer lesions using OCT imaging when compared to skin cancer surrounded by skin without sun-damage. ©2009 COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.......We explore how histopathology parameters influence OCT imaging of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and address whether such parameters correlate with the quality of the recorded OCT images. Our results indicate that inflammation impairs OCT imaging and that sun-damaged skin can sometimes provide more...

  5. Buffer layer between a planar optical concentrator and a solar cell

    Solano, Manuel E. [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática and CI" 2 MA, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Casilla 160-C (Chile); Barber, Greg D. [Penn State Institute of Energy and the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Faryad, Muhammad [Department of Physics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792 (Pakistan); Monk, Peter B. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mallouk, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of inserting a buffer layer between a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material acting as a planar optical concentrator and a photovoltaic solar cell was theoretically investigated. The substitution of the photovoltaic material by a cheaper dielectric material in a large area of the structure could reduce the fabrication costs without significantly reducing the efficiency of the solar cell. Both crystalline silicon (c-Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) were considered as the photovoltaic material. We found that the buffer layer can act as an antireflection coating at the interface of the PMLID and the photovoltaic materials, and the structure increases the spectrally averaged electron-hole pair density by 36% for c-Si and 38% for GaAs compared to the structure without buffer layer. Numerical evidence indicates that the optimal structure is robust with respect to small changes in the grating profile.

  6. Quantitative determination of optical trapping strength and viscoelastic moduli inside living cells

    Mas, Josep; Richardson, Andrew Callum; Reihani, S. Nader S.

    2013-01-01

    is viscoelastic, it would be incorrect to use a calibration procedure relying on a viscous environment. Here we demonstrate a method to perform a correct force calibration inside a living cell. This method (theoretically proposed in Fischer and Berg-Sørensen (2007 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 S239)) takes......With the success of in vitro single-molecule force measurements obtained in recent years, the next step is to perform quantitative force measurements inside a living cell. Optical traps have proven excellent tools for manipulation, also in vivo, where they can be essentially non-invasive under...... correct wavelength and exposure conditions. It is a pre-requisite for in vivo quantitative force measurements that a precise and reliable force calibration of the tweezers is performed. There are well-established calibration protocols in purely viscous environments; however, as the cellular cytoplasm...

  7. Electron microscopy of primary cell cultures in solution and correlative optical microscopy using ASEM

    Hirano, Kazumi; Kinoshita, Takaaki; Uemura, Takeshi; Motohashi, Hozumi; Watanabe, Yohei; Ebihara, Tatsuhiko; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Sato, Mari; Suga, Mitsuo; Maruyama, Yuusuke; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nishihara, Shoko; Sato, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light-electron microscopy of cells in a natural environment of aqueous liquid facilitates high-throughput observation of protein complex formation. ASEM allows the inverted SEM to observe the wet sample from below, while an optical microscope observes it from above quasi-simultaneously. The disposable ASEM dish with a silicon nitride (SiN) film window can be coated variously to realize the primary-culture of substrate-sensitive cells in a few milliliters of culture medium in a stable incubator environment. Neuron differentiation, neural networking, proplatelet-formation and phagocytosis were captured by optical or fluorescence microscopy, and imaged at high resolution by gold-labeled immuno-ASEM with/without metal staining. Fas expression on the cell surface was visualized, correlated to the spatial distribution of F-actin. Axonal partitioning was studied using primary-culture neurons, and presynaptic induction by GluRδ2-N-terminus-linked fluorescent magnetic beads was correlated to the presynaptic-marker Bassoon. Further, megakaryocytes secreting proplatelets were captured, and P-selectins with adherence activity were localized to some of the granules present by immuno-ASEM. The phagocytosis of lactic acid bacteria by dendritic cells was also imaged. Based on these studies, ASEM correlative microscopy promises to allow the study of various mesoscopic-scale dynamics in the near future. - Highlights: • In situ correlative light electron microscopy of samples in open solution by ASEM. • Primary cultures for in-solution CLEM by developing SiN-film coating methods • First visualization of fluorescent magnetic beads in aqueous solution by CLEM. • Presynaptic induction of neurons by GluRδ2-N-terminus-coated beads studied by CLEM. • Axonal partitioning, bacterial phagocytosis, platelet formation imaged by CLEM

  8. Beam coupling in hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric liquid crystal cells: Impact of optical rotation

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Sluckin, T. J.; Cook, G.; Evans, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric cell. A cholesteric layer is placed between two inorganic substrates. One of the substrates is photorefractive (Ce:SBN). Weak and strong light beams are incident on the hybrid cell. The interfering light beams induce a periodic space-charge field in the photorefractive window. This penetrates into the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC), inducing a diffraction grating written on the LC director. In the theory, the flexoelectric mechanism for electric field-director coupling is more important than the LC static dielectric anisotropy coupling. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. Each beam induces two circular polarized waves propagating in the cholesteric cell with different velocities. The model thus includes optical rotation in the cholesteric LC. The incident light beam wavelength can fall above, below, or inside the cholesteric gap. The theory calculates the energy gain of the weak beam, as a result of its interaction with the pump beam within the diffraction grating. Theoretical results for exponential gain coefficients are compared with experimental results for hybrid cells filled with cholesteric mixture BL038/CB15 at different concentrations of chiral agent CB15. Reconciliation between theory and experiment requires the inclusion of a phenomenological multiplier in the magnitude of the director grating. This multiplier is cubic in the space-charge field, and we provide a justification of the q-dependence of the multiplier. Within this paradigm, we are able to fit theory to experimental data for cholesteric mixtures with different spectral position of cholesteric gap relative to the wavelength of incident beams, subject to the use of some fitting parameters

  9. Electron microscopy of primary cell cultures in solution and correlative optical microscopy using ASEM

    Hirano, Kazumi; Kinoshita, Takaaki [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Uemura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Motohashi, Hozumi [Department of Gene Expression Regulation, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Watanabe, Yohei; Ebihara, Tatsuhiko [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino 3-chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Mari [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino 3-chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke; Tsuji, Noriko M. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masayuki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nishihara, Shoko, E-mail: shoko@soka.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Correlative light-electron microscopy of cells in a natural environment of aqueous liquid facilitates high-throughput observation of protein complex formation. ASEM allows the inverted SEM to observe the wet sample from below, while an optical microscope observes it from above quasi-simultaneously. The disposable ASEM dish with a silicon nitride (SiN) film window can be coated variously to realize the primary-culture of substrate-sensitive cells in a few milliliters of culture medium in a stable incubator environment. Neuron differentiation, neural networking, proplatelet-formation and phagocytosis were captured by optical or fluorescence microscopy, and imaged at high resolution by gold-labeled immuno-ASEM with/without metal staining. Fas expression on the cell surface was visualized, correlated to the spatial distribution of F-actin. Axonal partitioning was studied using primary-culture neurons, and presynaptic induction by GluRδ2-N-terminus-linked fluorescent magnetic beads was correlated to the presynaptic-marker Bassoon. Further, megakaryocytes secreting proplatelets were captured, and P-selectins with adherence activity were localized to some of the granules present by immuno-ASEM. The phagocytosis of lactic acid bacteria by dendritic cells was also imaged. Based on these studies, ASEM correlative microscopy promises to allow the study of various mesoscopic-scale dynamics in the near future. - Highlights: • In situ correlative light electron microscopy of samples in open solution by ASEM. • Primary cultures for in-solution CLEM by developing SiN-film coating methods • First visualization of fluorescent magnetic beads in aqueous solution by CLEM. • Presynaptic induction of neurons by GluRδ2-N-terminus-coated beads studied by CLEM. • Axonal partitioning, bacterial phagocytosis, platelet formation imaged by CLEM.

  10. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Enhancing cell and gene therapy manufacture through the application of advanced fluorescent optical sensors (Review).

    Harrison, Richard P; Chauhan, Veeren M

    2017-12-15

    Cell and gene therapies (CGTs) are examples of future therapeutics that can be used to cure or alleviate the symptoms of disease, by repairing damaged tissue or reprogramming defective genetic information. However, despite the recent advancements in clinical trial outcomes, the path to wide-scale adoption of CGTs remains challenging, such that the emergence of a "blockbuster" therapy has so far proved elusive. Manufacturing solutions for these therapies require the application of scalable and replicable cell manufacturing techniques, which differ markedly from the existing pharmaceutical incumbent. Attempts to adopt this pharmaceutical model for CGT manufacture have largely proved unsuccessful. The most significant challenges facing CGT manufacturing are process analytical testing and quality control. These procedures would greatly benefit from improved sensory technologies that allow direct measurement of critical quality attributes, such as pH, oxygen, lactate and glucose. In turn, this would make manufacturing more robust, replicable and standardized. In this review, the present-day state and prospects of CGT manufacturing are discussed. In particular, the authors highlight the role of fluorescent optical sensors, focusing on their strengths and weaknesses, for CGT manufacture. The review concludes by discussing how the integration of CGT manufacture and fluorescent optical sensors could augment future bioprocessing approaches.

  12. Optical Design of Textured Thin-Film CIGS Solar Cells with Nearly-Invisible Nanowire Assisted Front Contacts

    Joop van Deelen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity of transparent front contacts can be improved by patterned metallic nanowires, albeit at the cost of optical loss. The associated optical penalty can be strongly reduced by texturization of the cell stack. Remarkably, the nanowires themselves are not textured and not covered in our design. This was shown by optical modeling where the width of the nanowire, the texture height and the texture period were varied in order to obtain a good insight into the general trends. The optical performance can be improved dramatically as the reflection, which is the largest optical loss, can be reduced by 95% of the original value. The spectra reveal absorption in the Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS layer of 95% and reflection below 2% over a large part of the spectrum. In essence, a virtually black CIGS cell stack can be achieved for textured cells with a metal nanogrid. Moreover, it turned out that the ratio between the width of the nanowire and the height of the texture is a critical parameter for optical losses.

  13. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Xue-man Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  14. Kinerja Sistem Komunikasi FSO (Free Space Optics Menggunakan Cell-site Diversity di Daerah Tropis

    Octiana Widyarena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan masyarakat akan adanya layanan komunikasi multimedia seperti video conference, high speed internet, video streaming, dan lain sebagainya, saat ini terus meningkat. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut, perlu adanya suatu sistem komunikasi nirkabel dengan kecepatan tinggi. Salah satunya yaitu dengan menggunakan FSO (Free Space Optics. FSO merupakan sistem komunikasi yang memungkinkan memiliki koneksi layaknya serat optik, namun media transmisi yang digunakan yaitu melalui atmosfer. Penggunaan FSO di daerah tropis memiliki kendala yang cukup serius yaitu tingginya intensitas curah hujan yang dapat mempengaruhi kinerja dari FSO. Semakin tinggi intensitas curah hujan, maka nilai redaman hujan juga semakin besar. Untuk mengatasi dampak redaman hujan tersebut, maka digunakan teknik cell-site diversity dengan selection combining. Penerapan teknik cell-site diversity pada sistem komunikasi FSO menggunakan variasi panjang lintasan 0,5 km, 1 km, 1,5 km, dan 2 km serta variasi sudut antar link sebesar 45°, 90°, 135°, dan 180°. Hasil dari penerapan teknik cell-site diversity menunjukkan bahwa adanya peningkatan kualitas sinyal FSO, dalam hal ini yaitu nilai SNR. Peningkatan nilai SNR terbesar didapatkan pada panjang lintasan 2 km dengan sudut antar link 180° serta pada link availability 99,9 %. Untuk konfigurasi cell-site diversity terbaik didapatkan pada sudut antar link sebesar 90° dan 180°.

  15. A tensile machine with a novel optical load cell for soft biological tissues application.

    Faturechi, Rahim; Hashemi, Ata; Abolfathi, Nabiollah

    2014-11-01

    The uniaxial tensile testing machine is the most common device used to measure the mechanical properties of industrial and biological materials. The need for a low-cost uniaxial tension testing device for small research centers has always been the subject of research. To address this need, a novel uniaxial tensile testing machine was designed and fabricated to measure the mechanical properties of soft biological tissues. The device is equipped with a new low-cost load cell which works based on the linear displacement/force relationship of beams. The deflection of the beam load cell is measured optically by a digital microscope with an accuracy of 1 µm. The stiffness of the designed load cell was experimentally and theoretically determined at 100 N mm(-1). The stiffness of the load cell can be easily adjusted according to the tissue's strength. The force-time behaviour of soft tissue specimens was obtained by an in-house image processing program. To demonstrate the efficiency of the fabricated device, the mechanical properties of amnion tissue was measured and compared with available data. The obtained results indicate a strong agreement with that of previous studies.

  16. [CHROMATIN ORGANIZATION IN CELL CYCLE OF AMOEBA PROTEUS ACCORDING TO OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY DATA].

    Demin, S Yu; Berdieva, M A; Podlipaeva, Yu I; Yudin, A L; Goodkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the nuclear cycle of large freshwater amoeba Amoeba proteus was studied by the method of optical tomography. The nuclei were fixed in situ in the cells of synchronized culture, stained by DAPI and examined by confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D-images of intranuclear chromatin were studied in details at different stages of nuclear cycle. The obtained data, together with literary ones allow represent the dynamics of structural organization of the nucleus in Amoeba proteus cell cycle in a new fashion. It was concluded that in this species the two-stage interphase takes place, as well as mitosis of peculiar type which does not correspond to any known type of mitosis according to classification existing now. It is presumed that in the course of nuclear cycle the chromosomes and/or their fragments are amplified, this presumption being in a good correspondence with the data about nuclear DNA hyperreplication in the cell cycle of A. proteus. As a result of chromosomes amplification their number may vary at different stages of cell cycle, and it allows to explain the contradictory data concerning the exact number of chromosomes in this species. The elimination of extra-DNA occurs mainly at the stage between prophase and prometaphase. We presume the majority of chromosomes, or may be even all of them to be referred to cholocentric type according to their behaviour during the mitosis.

  17. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy detects early markers for osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells

    Hofemeier, Arne D.; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Schürmann, Matthias; Greiner, Johannes F. W.; Nolte, Lena; Sudhoff, Holger; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Huser, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy were used to detect and image osteogenic differentiation of human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs). Combined CARS and SHG microscopy was able to detect markers of osteogenesis within 14 days after osteogenic induction. This process increased during continued differentiation. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy showed significant increases of the PO43- symmetric stretch vibrations at 959 cm-1 assigned to calcium hydroxyapatite between days 14 and 21. Additionally, CARS microscopy was able to image calcium hydroxyapatite deposits within 14 days following osteogenic induction, which was confirmed by Alizarin Red-Staining and RT- PCR. Taken together, the multimodal label-free analysis methods Raman spectroscopy, CARS and SHG microscopy can monitor osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells into osteoblasts with high sensitivity and spatial resolution in three dimensions. Our findings suggest a great potential of these optical detection methods for clinical applications including in vivo observation of bone tissue-implant-interfaces or disease diagnosis.

  18. Three-dimensional nanometry of vesicle transport in living cells using dual-focus imaging optics

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Sato, Takashi; Gonda, Kohsuke; Higuchi, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Dual-focus imaging optics for three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots has been developed to study the molecular mechanisms of motor proteins in cells. The new system has a high spatial and temporal precision, 2 nm in the x-y sample plane and 5 nm along the z-axis at a frame time of 2 ms. Three-dimensional positions of the vesicles labeled with quantum dots were detected in living cells. Vesicles were transported on the microtubules using 8-nm steps towards the nucleus. The steps had fluctuation of ∼20 nm which were perpendicular to the axis of the microtubule but with the constant distance from the microtubule. The most of perpendicular movement was not synchronized with the 8-nm steps, indicating that dynein moved on microtubules without changing the protofilaments. When the vesicles changed their direction of movement toward the cell membrane, they moved perpendicular with the constant distance from the microtubule. The present method is powerful tool to investigate three dimensional movement of molecules in cells with nanometer and millisecond accuracy

  19. Near-infrared emitting fluorescent nanocrystals-labeled natural killer cells as a platform technology for the optical imaging of immunotherapeutic cells-based cancer therapy

    Lim, Yong Taik; Cho, Mi Young; Noh, Young-Woock; Chung, Bong Hyun; Chung, Jin Woong

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the development of near-infrared optical imaging technology for the monitoring of immunotherapeutic cell-based cancer therapy using natural killer (NK) cells labeled with fluorescent nanocrystals. Although NK cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies have drawn interest as potent preclinical or clinical methods of cancer therapy, there are few reports documenting the molecular imaging of NK cell-based cancer therapy, primarily due to the difficulty of labeling of NK cells with imaging probes. Human natural killer cells (NK92MI) were labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated quantum dots (QD705) for fluorescence imaging. FACS analysis showed that the NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 have no effect on the cell viability. The effect of anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 labeling on the NK92MI cell function was investigated by measuring interferon gamma (IFN- γ) production and cytolytic activity. Finally, the NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 showed a therapeutic effect similar to that of unlabeled NK92MI cells. Images of intratumorally injected NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated could be acquired using near-infrared optical imaging both in vivo and in vitro. This result demonstrates that the immunotherapeutic cells labeled with fluorescent nanocrystals can be a versatile platform for the effective tracking of injected therapeutic cells using optical imaging technology, which is very important in cell-based cancer therapies.

  20. Online quantitative monitoring of live cell engineered cartilage growth using diffuse fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy.

    Bergholt, Mads S; Albro, Michael B; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-09-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has the potential to improve the outcome for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The successful clinical translation of this technique as part of a therapy requires the ability to measure extracellular matrix (ECM) production of engineered tissues in vitro, in order to ensure quality control and improve the likelihood of tissue survival upon implantation. Conventional techniques for assessing the ECM content of engineered cartilage, such as biochemical assays and histological staining are inherently destructive. Raman spectroscopy, on the other hand, represents a non-invasive technique for in situ biochemical characterization. Here, we outline current roadblocks in translational Raman spectroscopy in TE and introduce a comprehensive workflow designed to non-destructively monitor and quantify ECM biomolecules in large (>3 mm), live cell TE constructs online. Diffuse near-infrared fiber-optic Raman spectra were measured from live cell cartilaginous TE constructs over a 56-day culturing period. We developed a multivariate curve resolution model that enabled quantitative biochemical analysis of the TE constructs. Raman spectroscopy was able to non-invasively quantify the ECM components and showed an excellent correlation with biochemical assays for measurement of collagen (R 2  = 0.84) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (R 2  = 0.86). We further demonstrated the robustness of this technique for online prospective analysis of live cell TE constructs. The fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy strategy developed in this work offers the ability to non-destructively monitor construct growth online and can be adapted to a broad range of TE applications in regenerative medicine toward controlled clinical translation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Automated Photoreceptor Cell Identification on Nonconfocal Adaptive Optics Images Using Multiscale Circular Voting.

    Liu, Jianfei; Jung, HaeWon; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) has enabled quantification of the photoreceptor mosaic in the living human eye using metrics such as cell density and average spacing. These rely on the identification of individual cells. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach for computer-aided identification of cone photoreceptors on nonconfocal split detection AOSLO images. Algorithms for identification of cone photoreceptors were developed, based on multiscale circular voting (MSCV) in combination with a priori knowledge that split detection images resemble Nomarski differential interference contrast images, in which dark and bright regions are present on the two sides of each cell. The proposed algorithm locates dark and bright region pairs, iteratively refining the identification across multiple scales. Identification accuracy was assessed in data from 10 subjects by comparing automated identifications with manual labeling, followed by computation of density and spacing metrics for comparison to histology and published data. There was good agreement between manual and automated cone identifications with overall recall, precision, and F1 score of 92.9%, 90.8%, and 91.8%, respectively. On average, computed density and spacing values using automated identification were within 10.7% and 11.2% of the expected histology values across eccentricities ranging from 0.5 to 6.2 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between MSCV-based and histology-based density measurements (P = 0.96, Kolmogorov-Smirnov 2-sample test). MSCV can accurately detect cone photoreceptors on split detection images across a range of eccentricities, enabling quick, objective estimation of photoreceptor mosaic metrics, which will be important for future clinical trials utilizing adaptive optics.

  2. Determination of Thermal Equilibrium in a Sealed Cell Based on Optical Depth

    Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Xi-yuan [Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Shan, Guang-cun; Quan, Wei [Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    An effective method based on optical depth (OD) is presented to measure thermal equilibrium in a cell. First, the principle of determining the temperature distribution in the cell by using the OD is demonstrated. Subsequently, relevant experiments are carried out. Original experimental results showed that some gradients of OD distributions in the cell at different wavelengths and variations of the OD increased slowly along the direction of motion of the beam at a fixed wavelength. At a wavelength of 766.6839 nm, which is about 7 GHz blue shifted with respect to the potassium resonance, the average value of the OD was about 0.764 and the maximal and the minimum inhomogeneity biases among all location points were about 6.07% and 0.56%, respectively. As for the corresponding wavelengths of 766.67785 nm and 766.73004 nm, some deviations from previous results, which were caused by different absorptions of the alkali-metal atoms at different frequencies of the laser beam, were observed. The nonuniform OD values along the direction of motion of the beam reflected an inhomogeneous distribution of the temperature in the cell, which may have been caused by layout of the oven. When the layout of the oven was modified, comparative experiments comparable to these with the previous layout of the oven demonstrated that the uniformity of the temperature distribution in the cell was improved and that thermal equilibrium time was shorter by about 10 minutes. This method played an important role in determining the thermal equilibrium time in the cell.

  3. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor for optic nerve injury: a biomechanical evaluation

    Zhong-jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for optic nerve injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells has gained progress, but analysis by biomechanical indicators is rare. Rabbit models of optic nerve injury were established by a clamp. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body received a one-time injection of 50 μg brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10 6 human umbilical cord blood stem cells. After 30 days, the maximum load, maximum stress, maximum strain, elastic limit load, elastic limit stress, and elastic limit strain had clearly improved in rabbit models of optical nerve injury after treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor or human umbilical cord blood stem cells. The damage to the ultrastructure of the optic nerve had also been reduced. These findings suggest that human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor effectively repair the injured optical nerve, improve biomechanical properties, and contribute to the recovery after injury.

  4. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  5. CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations.

    Filipič, Miha; Löper, Philipp; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Krč, Janez; Ballif, Christophe; Topič, Marko

    2015-04-06

    In this study we analyze and discuss the optical properties of various tandem architectures: mechanically stacked (four-terminal) and monolithically integrated (two-terminal) tandem devices, consisting of a methyl ammonium lead triiodide (CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)) perovskite top solar cell and a crystalline silicon bottom solar cell. We provide layer thickness optimization guidelines and give estimates of the maximum tandem efficiencies based on state-of-the-art sub cells. We use experimental complex refractive index spectra for all involved materials as input data for an in-house developed optical simulator CROWM. Our characterization based simulations forecast that with optimized layer thicknesses the four-terminal configuration enables efficiencies over 30%, well above the current single-junction crystalline silicon cell record of 25.6%. Efficiencies over 30% can also be achieved with a two-terminal monolithic integration of the sub-cells, combined with proper selection of layer thicknesses.

  6. A review of novel optical imaging strategies of the stroke pathology and stem cell therapy in stroke

    Markus eAswendt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transplanted stem cells can induce and enhance functional recovery in experimental stroke. Invasive analysis has been extensively used to provide detailed cellular and molecular characterization of the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells. But post mortem analysis is not appropriate to reveal the time scale of the dynamic interplay between the cell graft, the ischemic lesion and the endogenous repair mechanisms. This review describes non-invasive imaging techniques which have been developed to provide complementary in vivo information. Recent advances were made in analyzing simultaneously different aspects of the cell graft (e.g. number of cells, viability state and cell fate, the ischemic lesion (e.g. blood brain barrier consistency, hypoxic and necrotic areas and the neuronal and vascular network. We focus on optical methods, which permit simple animal preparation, repetitive experimental conditions, relatively medium-cost instrumentation and are performed under mild anesthesia, thus nearly under physiological conditions. A selection of recent examples of optical intrinsic imaging, fluorescence imaging (FLI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI to characterize the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells are discussed. Special attention is paid to novel optimal reporter genes/probes for genetic labeling and tracking of stem cells and appropriate transgenic animal models. Requirements, advantages and limitations of these imaging platforms are critically discussed and placed into the context of other non-invasive techniques, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET, which can be joined with optical imaging in multimodal approaches.

  7. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a case report of improvement in relapsing auto-immune optic neuropathy.

    Weiss, Jeffrey N; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C

    2015-09-01

    We present the results from a patient with relapsing optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and has become the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date (www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) for treatment of retinal and optic nerve diseases. Pre-treatment and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams of a 54 year old female patient were performed both at the Florida Study Center, USA and at The Eye Center of Columbus, USA. As a consequence of a relapsing optic neuritis, the patient's previously normal visual acuity decreased to between 20/350 and 20/400 in the right eye and to 20/70 in the left eye. Significant visual field loss developed bilaterally. The patient underwent a right eye vitrectomy with injection of BMSCs into the optic nerve of the right eyeand retrobulbar, subtenon and intravitreal injection of BMSCs in the left eye. At 15 months after SCOTS treatment, the patient's visual acuity had improved to 20/150 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Bilateral visual fields improved markedly. Both macular thickness and fast retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were maximally improved at 3 and 6 months after SCOTS treatment. The patient also reduced her mycophenylate dose from 1,500 mg per day to 500 mg per day and required no steroid pulse therapy during the 15-month follow up.

  8. Characterization of deep wet etching of fused silica glass for single cell and optical sensor deposition

    Zhu, Haixin; Holl, Mark; Ray, Tathagata; Bhushan, Shivani; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2009-01-01

    The development of a high-throughput single-cell metabolic rate monitoring system relies on the use of transparent substrate material for a single cell-trapping platform. The high optical transparency, high chemical resistance, improved surface quality and compatibility with the silicon micromachining process of fused silica make it very attractive and desirable for this application. In this paper, we report the results from the development and characterization of a hydrofluoric acid (HF) based deep wet-etch process on fused silica. The pin holes and notching defects of various single-coated masking layers during the etching are characterized and the most suitable masking materials are identified for different etch depths. The dependence of the average etch rate and surface roughness on the etch depth, impurity concentration and HF composition are also examined. The resulting undercut from the deep HF etch using various masking materials is also investigated. The developed and characterized process techniques have been successfully implemented in the fabrication of micro-well arrays for single cell trapping and sensor deposition. Up to 60 µm deep micro-wells have been etched in a fused silica substrate with over 90% process yield and repeatability. To our knowledge, such etch depth has never been achieved in a fused silica substrate by using a non-diluted HF etchant and a single-coated masking layer at room temperature

  9. Improving optical performance of concentrator cells by means of a deposited nanopattern layer

    García-Linares, Pablo; Besson, Pierre; Weick, Clément; Baudrit, Mathieu; Dominguez, César; Dellea, Olivier; Kämpfe, Thomas; Jourlin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells (MJSC) use anti-reflective coatings (ARC) to minimize Fresnel reflection losses for a family of light incidence angles. These coatings adapt the refractive index of the cell to that of the surrounding medium. Patterns with sizes in the range of the light wavelength can be used to further reduce reflections through diffraction. Transparent nanopatterns with a gradual profile, called moth-eye nanostructures, can adapt the refractive index of the optical interfaces (often with n∼1.5) used to encapsulate concentrator solar cells to that of the air (n air ∼1). Here we show the effect of a nanometric moth-eye ARC with a round motif deposited on commercial MJSC that achieves short-circuit current (I SC ) gains greater than 2% at normal incidence and even higher in the case of tilted illumination. In this work, MJSC with different moth-eye ARC are characterized under quantum efficiency (QE) as well as under concentrated illumination I-V in order to assess their potential. Simulations based on coupled wave analysis (RCWA) are used to fit the experimental results with successful results

  10. Functional topography of single cortical cells: an intracellular approach combined with optical imaging.

    Buzás, P; Eysel, U T; Kisvárday, Z F

    1998-11-01

    Pyramidal cells mediating long-range corticocortical connections have been assumed to play an important role in visual perceptual mechanisms [C.D. Gilbert, Horizontal integration and cortical dynamics, Neuron 9 (1992) 1-13]. However, no information is available as yet on the specificity of individual pyramidal cells with respect to functional maps, e.g., orientation map. Here, we show a combination of techniques with which the functional topography of single pyramidal neurons can be explored in utmost detail. To this end, we used optical imaging of intrinsic signals followed by intracellular recording and staining with biocytin in vivo. The axonal and dendritic trees of the labelled neurons were reconstructed in three dimensions and aligned with corresponding functional orientation maps. The results indicate that, contrary to the sharp orientation tuning of neurons shown by the recorded spike activity, the efferent connections (axon terminal distribution) of the same pyramidal cells were found to terminate at a much broader range of orientations. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Improving optical performance of concentrator cells by means of a deposited nanopattern layer

    García-Linares, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia-linares@cea.fr; Besson, Pierre; Weick, Clément; Baudrit, Mathieu [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque à Concentration, INES, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Dominguez, César [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque à Concentration, INES, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dellea, Olivier [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Surfaces Nanostructurées, Grenoble (France); Kämpfe, Thomas; Jourlin, Yves [Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR CNRS, Université de Lyon, St. Etienne (France)

    2015-09-28

    Multijunction solar cells (MJSC) use anti-reflective coatings (ARC) to minimize Fresnel reflection losses for a family of light incidence angles. These coatings adapt the refractive index of the cell to that of the surrounding medium. Patterns with sizes in the range of the light wavelength can be used to further reduce reflections through diffraction. Transparent nanopatterns with a gradual profile, called moth-eye nanostructures, can adapt the refractive index of the optical interfaces (often with n∼1.5) used to encapsulate concentrator solar cells to that of the air (n{sub air}∼1). Here we show the effect of a nanometric moth-eye ARC with a round motif deposited on commercial MJSC that achieves short-circuit current (I{sub SC}) gains greater than 2% at normal incidence and even higher in the case of tilted illumination. In this work, MJSC with different moth-eye ARC are characterized under quantum efficiency (QE) as well as under concentrated illumination I-V in order to assess their potential. Simulations based on coupled wave analysis (RCWA) are used to fit the experimental results with successful results.

  12. Label-free detection of HIV-1 infected cells via integration of optical tweezers and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Lugongolo, Masixole Yvonne; Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin; Noto, Luyanda Lunga; Maaza, Malik; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2018-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is currently detected using conventional qualitative and quantitative tests to determine the presence or absence of HIV in blood samples. However, the approach of these tests detects the presence of either viral antibodies or viral RNA that require labelling which may be costly, sophisticated and time consuming. A label-free approach of detecting the presence of HIV is therefore desirable. Of note optical tweezers can be coupled with other technologies including spectroscopy, which also investigates light-matter interactions. For example, coupling of optical tweezers with luminescence spectroscopy techniques has emerged as a powerful tool in biology for micro-manipulation, detection and analysis of individual cells. Integration of optical techniques has enabled studying biological particles in a label-free manner, whilst detecting functional groups and other essential molecules within mixed populations of cells. In the current study, an optical trapping system coupled to luminescence spectroscopy was utilised to detect the presence of HIV infection in TZM-bl cells in vitro. This was performed by infecting TZM-bl cells with the ZM53 HIV-1 pseudovirus, and incubating them for 48 hours prior analysis. The differences between infected and uninfected cells were thereafter displayed as shown by the spectrographs obtained. Combination of these two techniques has a potential in the field of infectious disease diagnostics.

  13. Research on disk amplifiers as polarizer of electro-optical switch

    Zheng Kui Xing; Feng Bin; Zheng Jian; Dong Yun; Peng Zhi Tao; Lu Jing Ping; Jing Feng; Wei Xiao Feng

    2002-01-01

    It benefits to decrease the engineering cost and to debase the technical crisis by the polarizer composed of amplifier Nd sup 3 sup + : glass slabs located with the Brewster angle in large scale multi-passes laser facility. The relationships of the isolation efficiency with the numbers of slab, the growth of the amplifier and the switch efficiency of Pockels cell are calculated theoretically. The experimental results indicated that the output energy ratio of this Pockels cell-amplifier isolation system is 1 : 8 while Pockels cell is on and off

  14. Optical Simulation of Light Management in CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Finite Element Method

    Nikola Bednar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an optical simulation of light management in Cu(In,GaSe2 thin-film solar cells with reduced absorber layer thickness, with the goal of absorption enhancement in the absorber layer. The light management was achieved by texturing of the substrate layer, and the conformal growth of all the following layers was assumed. Two texturing shapes have been explored: triangular and convex, with different periods and height aspect ratios. The simulations have shown that significant enhancement of absorption within the absorber layer can be achieved using the proposed geometry. The results showed that the triangular textures with small periods (100–200 nm and high aspect ratios have the most prominent effect on the enhancement of absorption within the absorber layer, although they are difficult to achieve experimentally.

  15. Capillary red blood cell velocimetry by phase-resolved optical coherence tomography.

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A

    2017-10-01

    We present a phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) method to extend Doppler OCT for the accurate measurement of the red blood cell (RBC) velocity in cerebral capillaries. OCT data were acquired with an M-mode scanning strategy (repeated A-scans) to account for the single-file passage of RBCs in a capillary, which were then high-pass filtered to remove the stationary component of the signal to ensure an accurate measurement of phase shift of flowing RBCs. The angular frequency of the signal from flowing RBCs was then quantified from the dynamic component of the signal and used to calculate the axial speed of flowing RBCs in capillaries. We validated our measurement by RBC passage velocimetry using the signal magnitude of the same OCT time series data.

  16. Fusion of Selected Cells and Vesicles Mediated by Optically Trapped Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    Bahadori, Azra

    . In this work, we introduce a novel and extremely flexible physical method which can trigger membrane fusion in a highly selective manner not only between synthetic GUVs of different compositions, but also between live cells which remain viable after fusion. Optical tweezers’ laser (1064 nm) is used to position....... The concept of cellular delivery is also known as targeted drug delivery and is quite a hot research topic internationally. Therefore, there have been efforts to develop various chemical molecules, proteins/peptides and physical approaches to trigger membrane fusion between synthetic giant unilamellar...... and merging of the two membranes results in merging the two membranes thereby completes the fusion. Complete fusion is associated with lipid mixing and lumen mixing which are both imaged by a high resolution confocal microscope. The confocal imaging enables quantification of the associated lipid mixing...

  17. Post-proliferative immature radial glial cells female-specifically express aromatase in the medaka optic tectum.

    Akio Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Aromatase, the key enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis, is present in the brain of all vertebrates. Much evidence has accumulated that aromatase is highly and exclusively expressed in proliferating mature radial glial cells in the brain of teleost fish even in adulthood, unlike in other vertebrates. However, the physiological significance of this expression remains unknown. We recently found that aromatase is female-specifically expressed in the optic tectum of adult medaka fish. In the present study, we demonstrated that, contrary to the accepted view of the teleost brain, female-specific aromatase-expressing cells in the medaka optic tectum represent a transient subset of post-proliferative immature radial glial cells in the neural stem cell lineage. This finding led us to hypothesize that female-specific aromatase expression and consequent estrogen production causes some sex difference in the life cycle of tectal cells. As expected, the female tectum exhibited higher expression of genes indicative of cell proliferation and radial glial maturation and lower expression of an anti-apoptotic gene than did the male tectum, suggesting a female-biased acceleration of the cell life cycle. Complicating the interpretation of this result, however, is the additional observation that estrogen administration masculinized the expression of these genes in the optic tectum, while simultaneously stimulating aromatase expression. Taken together, these results provide evidence that a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells female-specifically express aromatase in the optic tectum and suggest that this aromatase expression and resultant estrogen synthesis have an impact on the life cycle of tectal cells, whether stimulatory or inhibitory.

  18. Photothermal optical coherence tomography for depth-resolved imaging of mesenchymal stem cells via single wall carbon nanotubes

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Connolly, Emma; Murphy, Mary; Barron, Valerie; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The progress in stem cell research over the past decade holds promise and potential to address many unmet clinical therapeutic needs. Tracking stem cell with modern imaging modalities are critically needed for optimizing stem cell therapy, which offers insight into various underlying biological processes such as cell migration, engraftment, homing, differentiation, and functions etc. In this study we report the feasibility of photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT) to image human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) labeled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for in vitro cell tracking in three dimensional scaffolds. PT-OCT is a functional extension of conventional OCT with extended capability of localized detection of absorbing targets from scattering background to provide depth-resolved molecular contrast imaging. A 91 kHz line rate, spectral domain PT-OCT system at 1310nm was developed to detect the photothermal signal generated by 800nm excitation laser. In general, MSCs do not have obvious optical absorption properties and cannot be directly visualized using PT-OCT imaging. However, the optical absorption properties of hMSCs can me modified by labeling with SWNTs. Using this approach, MSC were labeled with SWNT and the cell distribution imaged in a 3D polymer scaffold using PT-OCT.

  19. Single-cell adhesion probed in-situ using optical tweezers: A case study with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Castelain, Mickaël; Rouxhet, Paul G.; Pignon, Frédéric; Magnin, Albert; Piau, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-01

    A facile method of using optical trapping to measure cell adhesion forces is presented and applied to the adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glass, in contact with solutions of different compositions. Trapping yeast cells with optical tweezers (OT) is not perturbed by cell wall deformation or cell deviation from a spherical shape. The trapping force calibration requires correction not only for the hydrodynamic effect of the neighboring wall but also for spherical aberrations affecting the focal volume and the trap stiffness. Yeast cells trapped for up to 5 h were still able to undergo budding but showed an increase of doubling time. The proportion of adhering cells showed the expected variation according to the solution composition. The detachment force varied in the same way. This observation and the fact that the detachment stress was exerted parallel to the substrate surface point to the role of interactions involving solvated macromolecules. Both the proportion of adhering cells and the removal force showed a distribution which, in our experimental conditions, must be attributed to a heterogeneity of surface properties at the cell level or at the subcellular scale. As compared with magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and more conventional ways of studying cell adhesion (shear-flow cells), OT present several advantages that are emphasized in this paper.

  20. Single-molecule optical genome mapping of a human HapMap and a colorectal cancer cell line.

    Teo, Audrey S M; Verzotto, Davide; Yao, Fei; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Hillmer, Axel M

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have changed our understanding of the variability of the human genome. However, the identification of genome structural variations based on NGS approaches with read lengths of 35-300 bases remains a challenge. Single-molecule optical mapping technologies allow the analysis of DNA molecules of up to 2 Mb and as such are suitable for the identification of large-scale genome structural variations, and for de novo genome assemblies when combined with short-read NGS data. Here we present optical mapping data for two human genomes: the HapMap cell line GM12878 and the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. High molecular weight DNA was obtained by embedding GM12878 and HCT116 cells, respectively, in agarose plugs, followed by DNA extraction under mild conditions. Genomic DNA was digested with KpnI and 310,000 and 296,000 DNA molecules (≥ 150 kb and 10 restriction fragments), respectively, were analyzed per cell line using the Argus optical mapping system. Maps were aligned to the human reference by OPTIMA, a new glocal alignment method. Genome coverage of 6.8× and 5.7× was obtained, respectively; 2.9× and 1.7× more than the coverage obtained with previously available software. Optical mapping allows the resolution of large-scale structural variations of the genome, and the scaffold extension of NGS-based de novo assemblies. OPTIMA is an efficient new alignment method; our optical mapping data provide a resource for genome structure analyses of the human HapMap reference cell line GM12878, and the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116.

  1. Optical analysis of a III-V-nanowire-array-on-Si dual junction solar cell.

    Chen, Yang; Höhn, Oliver; Tucher, Nico; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Anttu, Nicklas

    2017-08-07

    A tandem solar cell consisting of a III-V nanowire subcell on top of a planar Si subcell is a promising candidate for next generation photovoltaics due to the potential for high efficiency. However, for success with such applications, the geometry of the system must be optimized for absorption of sunlight. Here, we consider this absorption through optics modeling. Similarly, as for a bulk dual-junction tandem system on a silicon bottom cell, a bandgap of approximately 1.7 eV is optimum for the nanowire top cell. First, we consider a simplified system of bare, uncoated III-V nanowires on the silicon substrate and optimize the absorption in the nanowires. We find that an optimum absorption in 2000 nm long nanowires is reached for a dense array of approximately 15 nanowires per square micrometer. However, when we coat such an array with a conformal indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact layer, a substantial absorption loss occurs in the ITO. This ITO could absorb 37% of the low energy photons intended for the silicon subcell. By moving to a design with a 50 nm thick, planarized ITO top layer, we can reduce this ITO absorption to 5%. However, such a planarized design introduces additional reflection losses. We show that these reflection losses can be reduced with a 100 nm thick SiO 2 anti-reflection coating on top of the ITO layer. When we at the same time include a Si 3 N 4 layer with a thickness of 90 nm on the silicon surface between the nanowires, we can reduce the average reflection loss of the silicon cell from 17% to 4%. Finally, we show that different approximate models for the absorption in the silicon substrate can lead to a 15% variation in the estimated photocurrent density in the silicon subcell.

  2. Quantitative optical measurement of mitochondrial superoxide dynamics in pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    Zahra Ghanian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a vital role in cell signaling and redox regulation, but when present in excess, lead to numerous pathologies. Detailed quantitative characterization of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2•− production in fetal pulmonary artery endothelia cells (PAECs has never been reported. The aim of this study is to assess mitochondrial O2•− production in cultured PAECs over time using a novel quantitative optical approach. The rate, the sources, and the dynamics of O2•− production were assessed using targeted metabolic modulators of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC complexes, specifically an uncoupler and inhibitors of the various ETC complexes, and inhibitors of extra-mitochondrial sources of O2•−. After stabilization, the cells were loaded with nanomolar mitochondrial-targeted hydroethidine (Mito-HE, MitoSOX online during the experiment without washout of the residual dye. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor the dynamic changes in O2•− fluorescence intensity over time in PAECs. The transient behaviors of the fluorescence time course showed exponential increases in the rate of O2•− production in the presence of the ETC uncoupler or inhibitors. The most dramatic and the fastest increase in O2•− production was observed when the cells were treated with the uncoupling agent, PCP. We also showed that only the complex IV inhibitor, KCN, attenuated the marked surge in O2•− production induced by PCP. The results showed that mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, III and IV are sources of O2•− production in PAECs, and a new observation that ROS production during uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration is mediated in part via complex IV. This novel method can be applied in other studies that examine ROS production under stress condition and during ROS-mediated injuries in vitro.

  3. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-02-01

    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  4. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

    James D Lindsey

    Full Text Available Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440 protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO. These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  5. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

    Lindsey, James D; Duong-Polk, Karen X; Dai, Yi; Nguyen, Duy H; Leung, Christopher K; Weinreb, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440) protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice) was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO). These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  6. Hybrid Optical Devices: The Case of the Unification of the Electrochromic Device and the Organic Solar Cell

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Hybrid Optical Devices, using some flexible optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the organic electronic industry, when manufacturing new technological products. The Hybrid Optical Device is constituted by the union of the electrochromic device and the organic solar cell. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, in this hybrid optical device, have been the Poly base (3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, all being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. In addition, the thin film, obtained by the deposition of PANI, and prepared in perchloric acid solution, has been identified through PANI-X1. In the flexible electrochromic device, the Poly base (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, has been prepared in Propylene Carbonate, PC, being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. Also, both devices have been united by an electrolyte solution prepared with Vanadium Pentoxide, V2O5, Lithium Perchlorate, LiClO4, and Polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA. This device has been characterized through Electrical Measurements, such as UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thus, the result obtained through electrical measurements has demonstrated that the flexible organic photovoltaic solar cell presented the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Accordingly, the results obtained with optical and electrical characterization have revealed that the electrochromic device demonstrated some change in optical absorption, when subjected to some voltage difference. Moreover, the inclusion of the V2O5/PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation that this hybrid organic device caused, that is, solar irradiation. Studies on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM have found out that the surface of V2O5/PANI-X1 layers can be strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the

  7. Effect of atomic noise on optical squeezing via polarization self-rotation in a thermal vapor cell

    Hsu, M.T.L.; Hetet, G.; Peng, A.

    2006-01-01

    The traversal of an elliptically polarized optical field through a thermal vapor cell can give rise to a rotation of its polarization axis. This process, known as polarization self-rotation (PSR), has been suggested as a mechanism for producing squeezed light at atomic transition wavelengths. We ...

  8. In vivo microvascular imaging of cutaneous actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma using dynamic optical coherence tomography

    Themstrup, L; Pellacani, G; Welzel, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A clear distinction between actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cannot reliably be made by clinical and dermoscopic evaluation alone. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is a novel angiographic variant of OCT that allows for non...

  9. Optical diagnostics of diesel spray injections and combustion in a high-pressure high-temperature cell

    Bougie, H.J.T.; Tulej, M.; Dreier, T.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Gerber, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report on spatially and temporally resolved optical diagnostic measurements of propagation and combustion of diesel sprays introduced through a single-hole fuel injector into a constant volume, high-temperature, high-pressure cell. From shadowgraphy images in non-reacting environments of pure

  10. Optically induced dielectropheresis sorting with automated medium exchange in an integrated optofluidic device resulting in higher cell viability.

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wu, Huan-Chun; Yang, Po-Fu; Mai, John D

    2014-08-07

    We demonstrated the integration of a microfluidic device with an optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) device such that the critical medium replacement process was performed automatically and the cells could be subsequently manipulated by using digitally projected optical images. ODEP has been demonstrated to generate sufficient forces for manipulating particles/cells by projecting a light pattern onto photoconductive materials which creates virtual electrodes. The production of the ODEP force usually requires a medium that has a suitable electrical conductivity and an appropriate dielectric constant. Therefore, a 0.2 M sucrose solution is commonly used. However, this requires a complicated medium replacement process before one is able to manipulate cells. Furthermore, the 0.2 M sucrose solution is not suitable for the long-term viability of cells. In comparison to conventional manual processes, our automated medium replacement process only took 25 minutes. Experimental data showed that there was up to a 96.2% recovery rate for the manipulated cells. More importantly, the survival rate of the cells was greatly enhanced due to this faster automated process. This newly developed microfluidic chip provided a promising platform for the rapid replacement of the cell medium and this was also the first time that an ODEP device was integrated with other active flow control components in a microfluidic device. By improving cell viability after cell manipulation, this design may contribute to the practical integration of ODEP modules into other lab-on-a-chip devices and biomedical applications in the future.

  11. Magnetic and optical effects in TiO2 based dye sensitized solar cells

    Kannan U., M.; Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana

    2018-04-01

    We report on the magnetic effects on the solar cell efficiency of TiO2 based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The strong spin orbit coupling of rare earth Ho3+ ions introduced by the addition of Ho2O3 into the photoanode resulted in a 28% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency of DSSC. Such an enhancement in the efficiency may be attributed to the improved lifetime of photo generated excitons as a result of the accelerated intersystem crossing phenomenon. This observation is supported by our photoluminescence (PL) measurements where we could observe a decrease in the photo emission intensity with the addition of Ho2O3. In addition, we have used a low magnetic field of 100 Oe to further enhance the overall efficiency to 5.6%, which in turn proves that the Lorentz force plays a significant role in magnetic field controlled charge transport in DSSC. Finally, we have carried out a transfer matrix model based theoretical simulation for studying the optical properties of the multilayer device stack.

  12. Linking optical and electrical small amplitude perturbation techniques for dynamic performance characterization of dye solar cells.

    Halme, Janne

    2011-07-21

    This paper unifies the analytical models used widely but thus far mostly separately for electrical and optical small amplitude perturbation measurements of nanostructured electrochemical dye solar cells (DSC): electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS). The models are linked by expressing the kinetic boundary condition used for solving the time-dependent continuity equation of electrons in IMPS and IMVS analysis in terms of the series and parallel impedance components found in the complete equivalent circuit impedance model of DSC. As a result, analytical expressions are derived for potentiostatic IMPS and galvanostatic IMVS transfer functions of complete DSCs that are applicable at any operating point along the solar cell current-voltage (IV) curve. In agreement with the theory, impedance spectrum calculated as a ratio of IMVS and IMPS transfer functions measured near the maximum power point matches exactly with the impedance spectrum measured directly with EIS. Consequently, both IMPS-IMVS and EIS yield equal estimates for the electron diffusion length. The role of the chemical capacitance of the nanostructured semiconductor photoelectrode in the interpretation of the so-called RC attenuation of the IMPS response is clarified, as well as the capacitive frequency dispersion in IMPS and IMVS. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  13. Optical phase nanoscopy in red blood cells using low-coherence spectroscopy.

    Shock, Itay; Barbul, Alexander; Girshovitz, Pinhas; Nevo, Uri; Korenstein, Rafi; Shaked, Natan T

    2012-10-01

    We propose a low-coherence spectral-domain phase microscopy (SDPM) system for accurate quantitative phase measurements in red blood cells (RBCs) for the prognosis and monitoring of disease conditions that affect the visco-elastic properties of RBCs. Using the system, we performed time-recordings of cell membrane fluctuations, and compared the nano-scale fluctuation dynamics of healthy and glutaraldehyde-treated RBCs. Glutaraldehyde-treated RBCs possess lower amplitudes of fluctuations, reflecting an increased membrane stiffness. To demonstrate the ability of our system to measure fluctuations of lower amplitudes than those measured by the commonly used holographic phase microscopy techniques, we also constructed wide-field digital interferometry (WFDI) system and compared the performances of both systems. Due to its common-path geometry, the optical-path-delay stability of SDPM was found to be less than 0.3 nm in liquid environment, at least three times better than WFDI under the same conditions. In addition, due to the compactness of SDPM and its inexpensive and robust design, the system possesses a high potential for clinical applications.

  14. Preliminary study for non – invasive optical detection of squamous and basal cell carcinomas

    Ali Ahmed Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early detection of skin cancer may highly increase the chances of its healing. One of the non-invasive methods of such detection based on the Oblique- Incidence Diffuse Reflectance (OIDR measurements of the reflected diode laser light from the skin. In this research we designed and implemented the OIDR reflectometry measuring system with a 650 nm diode laser source to aid physicians in diagnosing both squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and basal cell carcinomas(BCC. Method The laser is delivered obliquely to the skin surface by an optical fiber fitted through a tube holder of CCD camera. The diffused reflected laser light from the skin is captured by the CCD camera and sent to a computer, which is supplied by a specially prepared Matlab program to analyze these images in order to decide in a time whether the lesion is malignant or benign. Fifty cases were diagnosed under supervision of the consultant section of The Governmental Specialized Marjan Teaching Hospital – MOH – Iraq. Result The fifty diagnosed cases by this technique, the results were 90% accurate. Conclusion The method of laser oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIDR combined with using the developed algorithms that have high classification rates may prove useful in the clinic as the process is fast, noninvasive and accurate.

  15. Evaluation of Corneal Neovascularization Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients With Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    Oie, Yoshinori; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-11-01

    Detection of the exact area of corneal neovascularization using slit-lamp photography is often difficult. Thus, we evaluated corneal neovascularization in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Five patients with 5 eyes showing partial or total limbal stem cell deficiency were enrolled. Three eyes had severe corneal scarring. Five 6- × 6-mm images (frontal, upper, lower, nasal, and temporal) were obtained by OCTA. Slit-lamp photography was performed for all patients on the same day. OCTA has 2 advantages over slit-lamp photography for clear demonstration of corneal neovascularization. First, OCTA can show neovascularization in cases with severe corneal opacification. Second, OCTA can detect not only large vessels but also small vessels that cannot be seen by slit-lamp photography. OCTA is a powerful tool for objective evaluation of vascularization in the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. We have demonstrated that OCTA can visualize corneal neovascularization in patients with corneal diseases more clearly than slit-lamp photography.

  16. Using optical tweezers for measuring the interaction forces between human bone cells and implant surfaces: System design and force calibration

    Andersson, Martin; Madgavkar, Ashwin; Stjerndahl, Maria; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Duran, Randy; Niehren, Stefan; Mustafa, Kamal; Arvidson, Kristina; Wennerberg, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to study the interaction and attachment of human bone cells to various types of medical implant materials. Ideally, the implant should facilitate cell attachment and promote migration of the progenitor cells in order to decrease the healing time. It is therefore of interest, in a controlled manner, to be able to monitor the cell adhesion process. Results from such studies would help foresee the clinical outcome of integrating medical implants. The interactions between two primary cell culture models, human gingival fibroblasts and bone forming human osteoblast cells, and three different implant materials, glass, titanium, and hydroxyapatite, were studied. A novel type of optical tweezers, which has a newly designed quadrant detector and a powerful 3 W laser was constructed and force calibrated using two different methods: one method in which the stiffness of the optical trap was obtained by monitoring the phase lag between the trap and the moved object when imposing a forced oscillation on the trapped object and another method in which the maximum trapping force was derived from the critical velocity at which the object escapes the trap. Polystyrene beads as well as cells were utilized for the calibrations. This is the first time that cells have been used directly for these types of force calibrations and, hence, direct measurements of forces exerted on cells can be performed, thus avoiding the difficulties often encountered when translating the results obtained from cell measurements to the calibrations obtained with reference materials. This more straightforward approach represents an advantage in comparison to established methods

  17. Management of light absorption in extraordinary optical transmission based ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Although ultra-thin-film solar cells can be attractive in reducing the cost, they suffer from low absorption as the thickness of the active layer is usually much smaller than the wavelength of incident light. Different nano-photonic techniques, including plasmonic structures, are being explored to increase the light absorption in ultra-thin-film solar cells. More than one layer of active materials with different energy bandgaps can be used in tandem to increase the light absorption as well. However, due to different amount of light absorption in different active layers, photo-generated currents in different active layers will not be the same. The current mismatch between the tandem layers makes them ineffective in increasing the efficiency. In this work, we investigate the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with two ultra-thin active layers working as two subcells and a metal layer with periodically perforated holes in-between the two subcells. While the metal layer helps to overcome the current mismatch, the periodic holes increase the absorption of incident light by helping extraordinary optical transmission of the incident light from the top to the bottom subcell, and by coupling the incident light to plasmonic and photonic modes within ultra-thin active layers. We extensively study the effects of the geometry of holes in the intermediate metal layer on the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with ultra-thin active layers. We also study how different metals in the intermediate layer affect the light absorption; how the geometry of holes in the intermediate layer affects the absorption when the active layer materials are changed; and how the intermediate metal layer affects the collection of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the terminals. We find that in a solar cell with 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester top subcell and copper indium gallium selenide bottom subcell, if the periodic holes in the metal layer are square or

  18. Management of light absorption in extraordinary optical transmission based ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman, E-mail: anis@eee.buet.ac.bd [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-21

    Although ultra-thin-film solar cells can be attractive in reducing the cost, they suffer from low absorption as the thickness of the active layer is usually much smaller than the wavelength of incident light. Different nano-photonic techniques, including plasmonic structures, are being explored to increase the light absorption in ultra-thin-film solar cells. More than one layer of active materials with different energy bandgaps can be used in tandem to increase the light absorption as well. However, due to different amount of light absorption in different active layers, photo-generated currents in different active layers will not be the same. The current mismatch between the tandem layers makes them ineffective in increasing the efficiency. In this work, we investigate the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with two ultra-thin active layers working as two subcells and a metal layer with periodically perforated holes in-between the two subcells. While the metal layer helps to overcome the current mismatch, the periodic holes increase the absorption of incident light by helping extraordinary optical transmission of the incident light from the top to the bottom subcell, and by coupling the incident light to plasmonic and photonic modes within ultra-thin active layers. We extensively study the effects of the geometry of holes in the intermediate metal layer on the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with ultra-thin active layers. We also study how different metals in the intermediate layer affect the light absorption; how the geometry of holes in the intermediate layer affects the absorption when the active layer materials are changed; and how the intermediate metal layer affects the collection of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the terminals. We find that in a solar cell with 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester top subcell and copper indium gallium selenide bottom subcell, if the periodic holes in the metal layer are square or

  19. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Rate of Cancer Cell Rotation in an Optically-Induced Electrokinetics Chip Using an Optical Flow Algorithm

    Yuliang Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our group has reported that Melan-A cells and lymphocytes undergo self-rotation in a homogeneous AC electric field, and found that the rotation velocity of these cells is a key indicator to characterize their physical properties. However, the determination of the rotation properties of a cell by human eyes is both gruesome and time consuming, and not always accurate. In this paper, a method is presented to more accurately determine the 3D cell rotation velocity and axis from a 2D image sequence captured by a single camera. Using the optical flow method, we obtained the 2D motion field data from the image sequence and back-project it onto a 3D sphere model, and then the rotation axis and velocity of the cell were calculated. After testing the algorithm on animated image sequences, experiments were also performed on image sequences of real rotating cells. All of these results indicate that this method is accurate, practical, and useful. Furthermore, the method presented there can also be used to determine the 3D rotation velocity of other types of spherical objects that are commonly used in microfluidic applications, such as beads and microparticles.

  20. Cell death in neural precursor cells and neurons before neurite formation prevents the emergence of abnormal neural structures in the Drosophila optic lobe.

    Hara, Yusuke; Sudo, Tatsuya; Togane, Yu; Akagawa, Hiromi; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2018-04-01

    Programmed cell death is a conserved strategy for neural development both in vertebrates and invertebrates and is recognized at various developmental stages in the brain from neurogenesis to adulthood. To understand the development of the central nervous system, it is essential to reveal not only molecular mechanisms but also the role of neural cell death (Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016). To understand the role of cell death in neural development, we investigated the effect of inhibition of cell death on optic lobe development. Our data demonstrate that, in the optic lobe of Drosophila, cell death occurs in neural precursor cells and neurons before neurite formation and functions to prevent various developmental abnormalities. When neuronal cell death was inhibited by an effector caspase inhibitor, p35, multiple abnormal neuropil structures arose during optic lobe development-e.g., enlarged or fused neuropils, misrouted neurons and abnormal neurite lumps. Inhibition of cell death also induced morphogenetic defects in the lamina and medulla development-e.g., failures in the separation of the lamina and medulla cortices and the medulla rotation. These defects were reproduced in the mutant of an initiator caspase, dronc. If cell death was a mechanism for removing the abnormal neuropil structures, we would also expect to observe them in mutants defective for corpse clearance. However, they were not observed in these mutants. When dead cell-membranes were visualized with Apoliner, they were observed only in cortices and not in neuropils. These results suggest that the cell death occurs before mature neurite formation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of cell death induced ectopic neuroepithelial cells, neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in late pupal stages, at sites where the outer and inner proliferation centers were located at earlier developmental stages. Caspase-3 activation was observed in the neuroepithelial cells and neuroblasts in the proliferation centers

  1. Study on high gain broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Zhang, S.K.; Fujita, M.; Yamanaka, C.; Yoshida, H.; Kodama, R.; Fujita, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Izawa, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has apparent advantages over the current schemes for high energy ultrashort pulse amplification. High gain in a single pass amplification, small B-integral, low heat deposition, high contrast ratio and, especially the extremely broad gain bandwidth with large-size crystals available bring people new hope for over multi-PW level at which the existing Nd:glass systems suffered difficulties. In this paper we present simulation and experimental studies for a high gain optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system which may be used as a preamplifier to replace the current complicated regenerative system or multi-pass Ti:sapphire amplifiers. Investigations on the amplification bandwidth and gain with BBO are performed. Analysis and discussions are also given. (author)

  2. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  3. Whole Cell Biosensor Using Anabaena torulosa with Optical Transduction for Environmental Toxicity Evaluation

    Ling Shing Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole cell-based biosensor using Anabaena torulosa for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Cd, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D, and chlorpyrifos was constructed. The cyanobacteria were entrapped on a cellulose membrane through filtration. Then, the membrane was dried and fixed into a cylindrical well, which was designed to be attached to an optical probe. The probe was connected to fluorescence spectrometer with optical fibre. The presence of the toxicants was indicated by the change of fluorescence emission, before and after the exposure. The linear detection ranges for Cu, Pb, and Cd were 2.5–10.0 µg/L, 0.5–5.0 µg/L, and 0.5–10.0 µg/L, respectively, while 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos shared similar linear ranges of 0.05–0.75 µg/L. The biosensor showed good sensitivity with the lowest limits of detection (LLD for Cu, Pb, Cd, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos determined at 1.195 µg/L, 0.100 µg/L, 0.027 µg/L, 0.025 µg/L, and 0.025 µg/L, respectively. The overall reproducibility of the biosensor (n=3 was <±6.35%. The biosensor had been tested with different combinations of toxicants, with the results showing predominantly antagonistic responses. The results confirmed that the biosensor constructed in this report is suitable to be used in quantitative and qualitative detections of heavy metals and pesticides.

  4. Optical Evaluation of the Rear Contacts of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Coupled Electromagnetic and Statistical Ray-Optics Modeling

    Dabirian, Ali; Morales-Masis, Monica; Haug, Franz-Josef; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional

  5. Design of an optical thermal sensor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell temperature measurement using phosphor thermometry

    Inman, Kristopher; Wang, Xia; Sangeorzan, Brian

    Internal temperatures in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell govern the ionic conductivities of the polymer electrolyte, influence the reaction rate at the electrodes, and control the water vapor pressure inside the cell. It is vital to fully understand thermal behavior in a PEM fuel cell if performance and durability are to be optimized. The objective of this research was to design, construct, and implement thermal sensors based on the principles of the lifetime-decay method of phosphor thermometry to measure temperatures inside a PEM fuel cell. Five sensors were designed and calibrated with a maximum uncertainty of ±0.6 °C. Using these sensors, surface temperatures were measured on the cathode gas diffusion layer of a 25 cm 2 PEM fuel cell. The test results demonstrate the utility of the optical temperature sensor design and provide insight into the thermal behavior found in a PEM fuel cell.

  6. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy-optical coherence tomography for delineation of basal cell carcinoma margins: an ex vivo study

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Peterson, Gary; Chang, Ernest W.; Maguluri, Gopi; Fox, William; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach, integrated within a single optical layout, for diagnosis of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and delineation of margins. While RCM imaging detects BCC presence (diagnoses) and its lateral spreading (margins) with measured resolution of ˜1 μm, OCT imaging delineates BCC depth spreading (margins) with resolution of ˜7 μm. When delineating margins in 20 specimens of superficial and nodular BCCs, depth could be reliably determined down to ˜600 μm, and agreement with histology was within about ±50 μm.

  7. The Central Bright Spot Sign: A Potential New MR Imaging Sign for the Early Diagnosis of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy due to Giant Cell Arteritis.

    Remond, P; Attyé, A; Lecler, A; Lamalle, L; Boudiaf, N; Aptel, F; Krainik, A; Chiquet, C

    2017-07-01

    A rapid identification of the etiology of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is crucial because it determines therapeutic management. Our aim was to assess MR imaging to study the optic nerve head in patients referred with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, due to either giant cell arteritis or the nonarteritic form of the disease, compared with healthy subjects. Fifteen patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and 15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy from 2 medical centers were prospectively included in our study between August 2015 and May 2016. Fifteen healthy subjects and patients had undergone contrast-enhanced, flow-compensated, 3D T1-weighted MR imaging. The bright spot sign was defined as optic nerve head enhancement with a 3-grade ranking system. Two radiologists and 1 ophthalmologist independently performed blinded evaluations of MR imaging sequences with this scale. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement. MR imaging scores were significantly higher in patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy than in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .05). All patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (15/15) and 7/15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy presented with the bright spot sign. No healthy subjects exhibited enhancement of the anterior part of the optic nerve. There was a significant relationship between the side of the bright spot and the side of the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .001). Interreader agreement was good for observers (κ = 0.815). Here, we provide evidence of a new MR imaging sign that identifies the acute stage of giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; patients without this central bright spot sign always had a nonarteritic pathophysiology and therefore did not require emergency corticosteroid

  8. Influence of radiation on photo-electric characteristics of silicon photo cells with optical coverings

    Madatov, R.S.; Safarov, N.A.; Gasymova, V.G.; Abdurragimov, A.A.; Allahverdiev, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the given work results of measurements volt-ampere and spectral characteristics of silicon photo cells with optical coverings ZnS+Nd 2 O 3 irradiated accelerated electrons with energy 4.5 MeV are carried out. Elements have been made by diffusion of phosphorus in p-silicon with specific resistance 2 Ω·cm. Under condition of illumination from source AMI the photocurrent of short circuit made 40 mA/cm 2 , and a photo voltage of idling 0.52 V, efficiency made 15 %. To receive low reflection in wide area of spectral sensitivity and by that as much as possible to increase efficiency of elements with the help of two-layer coverings. The irradiation of samples was made on linear accelerator EL4-6 at room temperature. It is received, that with increase in a dose of an irradiation the Photocurrent and photo voltage decreases, and speed reduction of a photo-current is stronger, than photo voltage. The critical integrated stream for these elements makes 4·10 12 el/cm 2 . In all researched samples radiating reduction of a voltage of idling in an interval of 10 10 -10 14 el/cm 2 makes 8-10 %. The analysis of spectral characteristics of the irradiated samples show, that reduction of a photocurrent in long-wave areas of a spectrum is connected by creation of radiating defects in a base part of an element. The increase in a critical stream in silicon solar elements with optical a covering in comparison with elements without a covering is connected with low concentration of defects in the base, created with electron. Thus, on the basis of complex research of influence on radiating stability silicon solar elements us it is established, that two-layer coverings not only increases efficiency of photo cells, but also considerably raise value of an integrated stream electrons, that is equivalent to increase in service life of the elements working in conditions of radiation

  9. Effects of optical interference and annealing on the performance of poly (3-hexylthiophene): fullerene based solar cells

    Hai-Long, You; Chun-Fu, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of optical interference and annealing on the performance of P3HT:PCBM based organic solar cells are studied in detail. Due to the optical interference effect, short circuit current density (J SC ) shows obvious oscillatory behaviour with the variation of active layer thickness. With the help of the simulated results, the devices are optimized around the first two optical interference peaks. It is found that the optimized thicknesses are 80 and 208 nm. The study on the effect of annealing on the performance indicates that post-annealing is more favourable than pre-annealing. Based on post-annealing, different annealing temperatures are tested. The optimized annealing condition is 160° C for 10 min in a nitrogen atmosphere. The device shows that the open circuit voltage V OC achieves about 0.65V and the power conversion efficiency is as high as 4.0 % around the second interference peak

  10. Optical biosensor optimized for continuous in-line glucose monitoring in animal cell culture.

    Tric, Mircea; Lederle, Mario; Neuner, Lisa; Dolgowjasow, Igor; Wiedemann, Philipp; Wölfl, Stefan; Werner, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Biosensors for continuous glucose monitoring in bioreactors could provide a valuable tool for optimizing culture conditions in biotechnological applications. We have developed an optical biosensor for long-term continuous glucose monitoring and demonstrated a tight glucose level control during cell culture in disposable bioreactors. The in-line sensor is based on a commercially available oxygen sensor that is coated with cross-linked glucose oxidase (GOD). The dynamic range of the sensor was tuned by a hydrophilic perforated diffusion membrane with an optimized permeability for glucose and oxygen. The biosensor was thoroughly characterized by experimental data and numerical simulations, which enabled insights into the internal concentration profile of the deactivating by-product hydrogen peroxide. The simulations were carried out with a one-dimensional biosensor model and revealed that, in addition to the internal hydrogen peroxide concentration, the turnover rate of the enzyme GOD plays a crucial role for biosensor stability. In the light of this finding, the glucose sensor was optimized to reach a long functional stability (>52 days) under continuous glucose monitoring conditions with a dynamic range of 0-20 mM and a response time of t 90  ≤ 10 min. In addition, we demonstrated that the sensor was sterilizable with beta and UV irradiation and only subjected to minor cross sensitivity to oxygen, when an oxygen reference sensor was applied. Graphical abstract Measuring setup of a glucose biosensor in a shake flask for continuous glucose monitoring in mammalian cell culture.

  11. Radiosensitivity of glial progenitor cells of the perinatal and adult rat optic nerve studied by an in vitro clonogenic assay

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kleiboer, B.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    The cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS), is poorly understood. Glial cells responsible for myelination in the CNS might be the target cells of this type of damage. Glial cells with stem cell properties derived from the perinatal and adult rat CNS can be cultured in vitro. These cells are able to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes (O-2A) depending on the culture conditions. Growth factors produced by monolayers of type-1 astrocytes inhibit premature differentiation of O-2A progenitor cells and allow colony formation. A method which employs these monolayers of type-1 astrocytes to culture O-2A progenitor cells has been adapted to allow the analysis of colonies of surviving cells after X-irradiation. In vitro survival curves were obtained for glial progenitor cells derived from perinatal and adult optic nerves. The intrinsic radiosensitivity of perinatal and adult O-2A progenitor cells showed a large difference. Perinatal O-2A progenitor cells are quite radiosensitive, in contrast to adult O-2A progenitor cells. For both cell types an inverse relationship was found between the dose and the size of colonies derived from surviving cells. Surviving O-2A progenitor cells maintain their ability to differentiate into oligo-dendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes. This system to assess radiation-induced damage to glial progenitor cells in vitro systems to have a great potential in unraveling the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelinating syndromes of the CNS. (author). 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Use of TCO as splitter in the optical splitting system for solar cells combination: a simulation study

    Ayala-Mató, F.; Seuret-Jiménez, D.; Vigil-Galán, O.; Escobedo Alatorre, J. J.

    2017-10-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are evaluated as optical splitters in combined single thin film solar cells by using theoretical considerations. The optical properties of TCOs (transmittance and reflectance) are calculated using the Drude theory for free carriers. To improve the overall efficiency of the combined solar cells, the optical properties of the TCOs are studied as a function of the electron concentration and thickness, to obtain the best fit with the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the solar cells in each case. The optimum values of the above parameters are obtained by applying a modified version of the Hooke-Jeeves method. To validate the proposal of the use of a TCO as the splitter, the short circuit current is calculated for several combined solar cell systems and the results are compared with those obtained using more sophisticated and expensive splitters, reported in the literature. The experimental results using a commercial TCO are presented, to verify the validity and feasibility of the novel concept.

  13. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications. PMID:26525841

  14. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope.

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-11-03

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications.

  15. Intraoperative optical assessment of photodynamic therapy response of superficial oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Rigual, Nestor; Arshad, Hassan; Tracy, Erin C.; Cooper, Michelle T.; Shafirstein, Gal; Wilding, Gregory; Merzianu, Mihai; Baumann, Heinz; Henderson, Barbara W.; Sunar, Ulas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) measurements could assess clinical response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, the correlation between parameters measured with DOS and the crosslinking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular marker for PDT-induced photoreaction, was investigated. Thirteen patients with early stage HNSCC received the photosensitizer 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) and DOS measurements were performed before and after PDT in the operating room (OR). In addition, biopsies were acquired after PDT to assess the STAT3 crosslinking. Parameters measured with DOS, including blood volume fraction, blood oxygen saturation (StO2), HPPH concentration (cHPPH), HPPH fluorescence, and blood flow index (BFI), were compared to the pathologic response and the STAT3 crosslinking. The best individual predictor of pathological response was a change in cHPPH (sensitivity=60%, specificity=100%), while discrimination analysis using a two-parameter classifier (change in cHPPH and change in StO2) classified pathological response with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. BFI showed the best correlation with the crosslinking of STAT3. These results indicate that DOS-derived parameters can assess the clinical response in the OR, allowing for earlier reintervention if needed.

  16. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF ITO CELLS FROM RAT LIVER USING THE OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR - A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Ricardo Marcos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, much light has been shed on hepatic fibrosis, and the activation / proliferation of Ito cells (IC emerged to play a central role. Therefore, it is essential to have solid quantitative data in nonpathological statuses; yet, this data is scarce and confined to "number per area" or semiquantitative information. Moreover, the supposed heterogeneous distribution of IC in the hepatic lobule was never analysed with design-based (unbiased stereology. In the present study, the total number (N of IC in rat liver was estimated for the first time, by combining immunocytochemistry with the optical fractionator. Quantification was extended to the hepatocytes, to disclose the IC index, an often-used ratio in hepatology. Systematic uniform random liver sections were obtained from male Wistar rats (n = 3, and immunostained against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a known specific marker for hepatic IC. For the first time, these were marked against GFAP in thick (30 μm paraffin sections. The estimated N of IC was 224E06; with a coefficient of error of 0.04 or 0.06, depending on the particular equation used (based on the so-called "quadratic approximation". The IC index was 91 IC/1000 hepatocytes. Concerning the lobular heterogeneity, it was proved the liver harbours a larger total number of periportal IC and hepatocytes.

  17. Electrical and optical characterizations of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells

    Han, Im Sik; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jong Su; Noh, Sam Kyu; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Honggyun; Kim, Deok-Kee; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-03-01

    The electrical and optical characterizations of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) were investigated by frequency dependent capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements and photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The C- V results confirmed that the frequency dependent junction capacitance ( C j) of QDSC is sensitive to the carrier exhaustion process through trapping and recapturing in the strain-induced defects and QD states caused by the interface strain between InAs and GaAs materials. As a result, at a low frequency (≤ 200 kHz), the C j of the QDSCs decreased with increasing InAs deposition thickness ( θ), leading to the decrease in carrier concentration ( N d) of the n-GaAs absorber layer due to the carrier losses processes caused by the trapping and re-capturing in the defects and the relatively large QDs. At θ ≤ 2.0 ML, the p-n junction electric field strength ( F pn) of the QDSCs which was evaluated by PR spectra decreased with increasing excitation photon intensity ( I ex) due to the typical field screening effect in the SC structure. On the other hand, the F pn of QDSCs with θ ≥ 2.5 ML approached a constant value with a relatively high I ex, which suggests that the decrease in photo-generated carriers in the QDSC was caused by the re-capturing and trapping process.

  18. Variations of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness according to the torsion direction of optic disc.

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Chan Yun; Kim, Na Rae

    2014-02-20

    To examine the relationship between the optic disc torsion and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness through a comparison with the macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer complex (GCIPL) thickness measured by Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects with optic disc torsion and 114 eyes of 114 subjects without optic disc torsion were enrolled prospectively. The participants underwent fundus photography and OCT imaging in peripapillary RNFL mode and macular GCIPL mode. The participants were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of optic disc torsion. The eyes with optic disc torsion were further divided into supranasal torsion and inferotemporal torsion groups according to the direction of optic disc torsion. The mean RNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for the quadrants and subsectors were compared. The superior and inferior peak locations of the RNFL were also measured according to the torsion direction. The temporal RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in inferotemporal torsion, whereas the GCIPL thickness at all segments was unaffected. The inferotemporal optic torsion had more temporally positioned superior peak locations of the RNFL than the nontorsion and supranasal-torted optic disc. Thickening of the temporal RNFL with a temporal shift in the superior peak within the eyes with inferotemporal optic disc torsion can lead to interpretation errors. The ganglion cell analysis algorithm can assist in differentiating eyes with optic disc torsion.

  19. A new front-face optical cell for measuring weak fluorescent emissions with time resolution in the picosecond time scale.

    Gryczynski, Z; Bucci, E

    1993-11-01

    Recent developments of ultrafast fluorimeters allow measuring time-resolved fluorescence on the picosecond time scale. This implies one is able to monitor lifetimes and anisotropy decays of highly quenched systems and of systems that contain fluorophores having lifetimes in the subnanosecond range; both systems that emit weak signals. The combination of weak signals and very short lifetimes makes the measurements prone to distortions which are negligible in standard fluorescence experiments. To cope with these difficulties, we have designed a new optical cell for front-face optics which offers to the excitation beam a horizontal free liquid surface in the absence of interactions with optical windows. The new cell has been tested with probes of known lifetimes and anisotropies. It proved very useful in detecting tryptophan fluorescence in hemoglobin. If only diluted samples are available, which cannot be used in front-face optics, regular square geometry can still be utilized by inserting light absorbers into a cuvette of 1 cm path length.

  20. E-beam deposited Ag-nanoparticles plasmonic organic solar cell and its absorption enhancement analysis using FDTD-based cylindrical nano-particle optical model.

    Kim, Richard S; Zhu, Jinfeng; Park, Jeung Hun; Li, Lu; Yu, Zhibin; Shen, Huajun; Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L; Park, Gyechoon; Anderson, Timothy J; Pei, Qibing

    2012-06-04

    We report the plasmon-assisted photocurrent enhancement in Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells, and systematically investigate the causes of the improved optical absorption based on a cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model which is simulated with a 3-Dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model is able to explain the optical absorption enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. A significant increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the plasmonic solar cell was experimentally observed and compared with that of the solar cells without Ag-NPs. Finally, our conclusion was made after briefly discussing the electrical effects of the fabricated plasmonic organic solar cells.

  1. Computational adaptive optics for broadband interferometric tomography of tissues and cells

    Adie, Steven G.; Mulligan, Jeffrey A.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) can shape aberrated optical wavefronts to physically restore the constructive interference needed for high-resolution imaging. With access to the complex optical field, however, many functions of optical hardware can be achieved computationally, including focusing and the compensation of optical aberrations to restore the constructive interference required for diffraction-limited imaging performance. Holography, which employs interferometric detection of the complex optical field, was developed based on this connection between hardware and computational image formation, although this link has only recently been exploited for 3D tomographic imaging in scattering biological tissues. This talk will present the underlying imaging science behind computational image formation with optical coherence tomography (OCT) -- a beam-scanned version of broadband digital holography. Analogous to hardware AO (HAO), we demonstrate computational adaptive optics (CAO) and optimization of the computed pupil correction in 'sensorless mode' (Zernike polynomial corrections with feedback from image metrics) or with the use of 'guide-stars' in the sample. We discuss the concept of an 'isotomic volume' as the volumetric extension of the 'isoplanatic patch' introduced in astronomical AO. Recent CAO results and ongoing work is highlighted to point to the potential biomedical impact of computed broadband interferometric tomography. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HAO vs. CAO for the effective shaping of optical wavefronts, and highlight opportunities for hybrid approaches that synergistically combine the unique advantages of hardware and computational methods for rapid volumetric tomography with cellular resolution.

  2. Impact of effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific subtropical cell: a CGCM study

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Ishizaki, H.; Nakano, H.; Hirabara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The choice of ocean radiant scheme is important for modeling the upper ocean. According to the ocean-only simulation (Yamanaka et al., 2012), introduction of the chlorophyll-a dependent ocean radiant scheme results in the decreased mixed layer depth (MLD), the enhanced subtropical cell (STC), and the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST). They also found that the enhanced STC results from the velocity profile change associated with the decreased Ekman boundary layer. However, the impact is not well understood when the air-sea feedback process is at work. This study examines the impact of the effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific mean fields, especially focusing on the STC, using a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The CGCM we employed is the Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model (MRI-ESM1). The atmospheric model is TL159L48, and the ocean model has a horizontal resolution of 1 x 0.5 deg. with 51 levels in vertical. Experimental design basically follows the CMIP5 protocol. Two experiments (CTL and SLR runs) are performed to investigate the impact of the effective ocean optical properties. In the CTL run, a conventional ocean radiant heating scheme (Paul and Simpson, 1977) is used, whereas a new ocean radiant heating scheme is used in the SLR run, where the satellite-derived chlorophyll-a distribution is taken into consideration based on Morel and Antoine (1994) as well as the effect of the varying solar angle (Ishizaki and Yamanaka, 2010). Each experiment is integrated during the period from 1985 to 2005. It is found that introduction of the new ocean radiant scheme (SLR run) changes the long-term mean wind pattern in the Pacific: easterly winds are strengthened in the equatorial Pacific, but weakened in the off-equatorial region. In the tropical Pacific, the enhanced equatorial upwelling cools the equatorial SST and the MLD becomes shallower. This is similar to the ocean-only simulation, but is more

  3. All-optical loadable and erasable memory cell design based on inversionless lasing and electromagnetically induced transparency effects

    Gholipour Verki, N; HajiBadali, A; Abbasian, K; Rostami, A

    2011-01-01

    A loadable and erasable all-optical memory cell is designed by using two coupled micro-ring resonators with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and lasing without inversion (LWI). To read out stored data, an additional phase is introduced in the upper ring resonator due to EIT. To compensate the fibre loss, use is made of LWI. The EIT is induced by inserting Λ-type three level quantum dots in the right-hand half of the upper ring and LWI is implemented by inserted Y-type four level quantum dots in the left-hand half of both rings. This optical memory cell can operate at a low light power level corresponding to several photons.

  4. The Effects of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor Activation on Patch-Clamped Cells in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    Yu, C.-J.; Debski, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 μM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in sponta...

  5. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  6. Optical and structural characterization od titanium dioxide films used for construction of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Ivanovska, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cells are the most serious concept that could replace the silicon solar cells. These are low-cost photovoltaic, and represent a technology which could seriously decrease the cost of the electrical energy they produce. The dye-sensitized solar cells are composed of several layers of materials that belong to the group of inorganic semiconductors. For the efficiency improvement of these cells, there are two basic concepts of research regarding the construction materials. On one side, investigation of new materials that will, as a result of their physical and electrochemical characteristics, increase the cell efficiency, and on the other side, use of materials that will contribute to the long term stability of the cell in atmospheric conditions. As a part of this Master thesis, compact and meso porous Ti(>2 films for dye- sensitized solar cells have been prepared. The compact Ti0 2 films were deposited with the technique of spray pyrolysis, and the preparation of the meso porous films was made with a blade casting technique. The optical and structural analysis and characterization of the films was done with optical spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region (UV- Vis), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystal structure of the films, surface uniformity, thickness and grain size dependence on the deposition parameters was investigated, this led to calculation of the optical constants for the compact films, as well as the determination of the electron transitions and the determination of the bang gap energy. Also regarding the structure and porosity of the meso porous films, characterization of the quality of the film depending on the chemical composition of the paste used for deposition was made. As a result of the preformed investigations, through defining the structural and optical parameters of quality compact and meso porous TiC>2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells, the optimal parameters for film

  7. Optical reprogramming of human somatic cells using ultrashort Bessel-shaped near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2015-11-01

    We report a virus-free optical approach to human cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells with low-power nanoporation using ultrashort Bessel-shaped laser pulses. Picojoule near-infrared sub-20 fs laser pulses at a high 85 MHz repetition frequency are employed to generate transient nanopores in the membrane of dermal fibroblasts for the introduction of four transcription factors to induce the reprogramming process. In contrast to conventional approaches which utilize retro- or lentiviruses to deliver genes or transcription factors into the host genome, the laser method is virus-free; hence, the risk of virus-induced cancer generation limiting clinical application is avoided.

  8. Measurement of elastic light scattering from two optically trapped microspheres and red blood cells in a transparent medium.

    Kinnunen, Matti; Kauppila, Antti; Karmenyan, Artashes; Myllylä, Risto

    2011-09-15

    Optical tweezers can be used to manipulate small objects and cells. A trap can be used to fix the position of a particle during light scattering measurements. The places of two separately trapped particles can also be changed. In this Letter we present elastic light scattering measurements as a function of scattering angle when two trapped spheres are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. This setup is suitable for trapping noncharged homogeneous spheres. We also demonstrate measurement of light scattering patterns from two separately trapped red blood cells. Two different illumination schemes are used for both samples.

  9. The optics of the low energy FFAG cell of the eRHIC collider, using realistic field maps

    Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jain, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mahler, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severance, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-02

    The proposed electron accelerator of the eRHIC complex [1] will use a 1.32 GeV Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) to accelerate the e-bunches to a top energy of 21.2 GeV before they collide with the hadron bunches. The e-bunches attain the 21.2 GeV energy after passing through the ERL 16 times as they recirculate in two rings which are placed alongside the RHIC hadron accelerator. The two rings [1] are made of periodic cells and each cell is made of one focusing and one defocusing permanent magnet qudrupole. In this paper we present the electromagnetic calculations of the 2D and 3D models of a cell which is comprised of two modified Halbach quadrupoles [4], and the optical properties of the cell.

  10. Full field optical coherence tomography can identify spermatogenesis in a rodent sertoli-cell only model.

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Sterling, Joshua; Manzoor, Maryem; Salamoon, Bekheit; Jain, Manu; Fisher, Erik; Li, Phillip S; Schlegel, Peter N; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2012-01-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) has replaced conventional testis biopsies as a method of choice for obtaining sperm for in vitro fertilization for men with nonobstructive azoospermia. A technical challenge of micro-TESE is that the low magnification inspection of the tubules with a surgical microscope is insufficient to definitively identify sperm-containing tubules, necessitating tissue removal and cytologic assessment. Full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) uses white light interference microscopy to generate quick high-resolution tomographic images of fresh (unprocessed and unstained) tissue. Furthermore, by using a nonlaser safe light source (150 W halogen lamp) for tissue illumination, it ensures that the sperm extracted for in vitro fertilization are not photo-damaged or mutagenized. A focal Sertoli-cell only rodent model was created with busulfan injection in adult rats. Ex vivo testicular tissues from both normal and busulfan-treated rats were imaged with a commercial modified FFOCT system, Light-CT™, and the images were correlated with gold standard hematoxylin and eosin staining. Light-CT™ identified spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules in freshly excised testicular tissue, without the use of exogenous contrast or fixation. Normal adult rats exhibited tubules with uniform size and shape (diameter 328 ±11 μm). The busulfan-treated animals showed marked heterogeneity in tubular size and shape (diameter 178 ± 35 μm) and only 10% contained sperm within the lumen. FFOCT has the potential to facilitate real-time visualization of spermatogenesis in humans, and aid in micro-TESE for men with infertility.

  11. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO 2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO 2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO 2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively. (paper)

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

    Olsen, J; Themstrup, L; De Carvalho, N; Mogensen, M; Pellacani, G; Jemec, G B E

    2016-12-01

    Early diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is potentially possible using optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides non-invasive, real-time images of skin with micrometre resolution and an imaging depth of up to 2mm. OCT technology for skin imaging has undergone significant developments, improving image quality substantially. The diagnostic accuracy of any method is influenced by continuous technological development making it necessary to regularly re-evaluate methods. The objective of this study is to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK) as well as differentiating these lesions from normal skin. A study set consisting of 142 OCT images meeting selection criterea for image quality and diagnosis of AK, BCC and normal skin was presented uniformly to two groups of blinded observers: 5 dermatologists experienced in OCT-image interpretation and 5 dermatologists with no experience in OCT. During the presentation of the study set the observers filled out a standardized questionnaire regarding the OCT diagnosis. Images were captured using a commercially available OCT machine (Vivosight ® , Michelson Diagnostics, UK). Skilled OCT observers were able to diagnose BCC lesions with a sensitivity of 86% to 95% and a specificity of 81% to 98%. Skilled observers with at least one year of OCT-experience showed an overall higher diagnostic accuracy compared to inexperienced observers. The study shows an improved diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating AK and BCC from healthy skin using state-of-the-art technology compared to earlier OCT technology, especially concerning BCC diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Retinal ganglion cell complex changes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in diabetic patients without retinopathy

    Ahmed I. Hegazy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness in diabetic eyes without retinopathy. METHODS: Two groups included 45 diabetic eyes without retinopathy and 21 non diabetic eyes. All subjects underwent full medical and ophthalmological history, full ophthalmological examination, measuring GCC thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT using the RTVue® spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, and HbA1C level. RESULTS: GCC focal loss volume (FLV% was significantly more in diabetic eyes (22.2% below normal than normal eyes (P=0.024. No statistically significant difference was found between the diabetic group and the control group regarding GCC global loss volume (GLV% (P=0.160. CFT was positively correlated to the average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.001 respectively and negatively correlated to GLV% and FLV% (P=0.002 and 0.031 respectively in diabetic eyes. C/D ratio in diabetic eyes was negatively correlated to average, superior and inferior GCC (P=0.015, 0.007 and 0.017 respectively. The FLV% was negatively correlated to the refraction and level of HbA1c (P=0.019 and 0.013 respectively and positively correlated to the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA in logMAR in diabetic group (P=0.004. CONCLUSION: Significant GCC thinning in diabetes predates retinal vasculopathy, which is mainly focal rather than diffuse. It has no preference to either the superior or inferior halves of the macula. Increase of myopic error is significantly accompanied with increased focal GCC loss. GCC loss is accompanied with increased C/D ratio in diabetic eyes.

  14. New ways of looking at very small holes - using optical nanoscopy to visualize liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrations

    Øie, Cristina I.; Mönkemöller, Viola; Hübner, Wolfgang; Schüttpelz, Mark; Mao, Hong; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Huser, Thomas R.; McCourt, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, also known as nanoscopy, has provided us with a glimpse of future impacts on cell biology. Far-field optical nanoscopy allows, for the first time, the study of sub-cellular nanoscale biological structures in living cells, which in the past was limited to electron microscopy (EM) (in fixed/dehydrated) cells or tissues. Nanoscopy has particular utility in the study of "fenestrations" - phospholipid transmembrane nanopores of 50-150 nm in diameter through liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that facilitate the passage of plasma, but (usually) not blood cells, to and from the surrounding hepatocytes. Previously, these fenestrations were only discernible with EM, but now they can be visualized in fixed and living cells using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and in fixed cells using single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) techniques such as direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Importantly, both methods use wet samples, avoiding dehydration artifacts. The use of nanoscopy can be extended to the in vitro study of fenestration dynamics, to address questions such as the following: are they actually dynamic structures, and how do they respond to endogenous and exogenous agents? A logical further extension of these methodologies to liver research (including the liver endothelium) will be their application to liver tissue sections from animal models with different pathological manifestations and ultimately to patient biopsies. This review will cover the current state of the art of the use of nanoscopy in the study of liver endothelium and the liver in general. Potential future applications in cell biology and the clinical implications will be discussed.

  15. Unified Mie and fractal scattering by cells and experimental study on application in optical characterization of cellular and subcellular structures.

    Xu, Min; Wu, Tao T; Qu, Jianan Y

    2008-01-01

    A unified Mie and fractal model for light scattering by biological cells is presented. This model is shown to provide an excellent global agreement with the angular dependent elastic light scattering spectroscopy of cells over the whole visible range (400 to 700 nm) and at all scattering angles (1.1 to 165 deg) investigated. Mie scattering from the bare cell and the nucleus is found to dominate light scattering in the forward directions, whereas the random fluctuation of the background refractive index within the cell, behaving as a fractal random continuous medium, is found to dominate light scattering at other angles. Angularly dependent elastic light scattering spectroscopy aided by the unified Mie and fractal model is demonstrated to be an effective noninvasive approach to characterize biological cells and their internal structures. The acetowhitening effect induced by applying acetic acid on epithelial cells is investigated as an example. The changes in morphology and refractive index of epithelial cells, nuclei, and subcellular structures after the application of acetic acid are successfully probed and quantified using the proposed approach. The unified Mie and fractal model may serve as the foundation for optical detection of precancerous and cancerous changes in biological cells and tissues based on light scattering techniques.

  16. Human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitors and transplantation in a rat model of optic chiasm demyelination.

    Alireza Pouya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs into oligodendrocyte precursors and assess their recovery potential in a demyelinated optic chiasm model in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a cell population of oligodendrocyte progenitors from hiPSCs by using embryoid body formation in a defined medium supplemented with a combination of factors, positive selection and mechanical enrichment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses showed that stage-specific markers, Olig2, Sox10, NG2, PDGFRα, O4, A2B5, GalC, and MBP were expressed following the differentiation procedure, and enrichment of the oligodendrocyte lineage. These results are comparable with the expression of stage-specific markers in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Transplantation of hiPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into the lysolecithin-induced demyelinated optic chiasm of the rat model resulted in recovery from symptoms, and integration and differentiation into oligodendrocytes were detected by immunohistofluorescence staining against PLP and MBP, and measurements of the visual evoked potentials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results showed that oligodendrocyte progenitors generated efficiently from hiPSCs can be used in future biomedical studies once safety issues have been overcome.

  17. [The neuroprotective effect of erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush injury].

    Jiang, Bing; Jiang, You-qin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate whether a Chinese herbal medicine, erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz (EBHM), can protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) damaged by calibrated optic nerve crush injury. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Calibrated optic nerve crush injury model was induced in the right eyes by a special designed optic nerve clip. The left eyes served as a control. All 42 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of the rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury and group B consisted of rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury treated with EBHM. In group B, EBHM solution was given once after the crush injury. According to the time interval between the optic nerve crush and the sacrifice, both groups A and B were further divided into three subgroups (day 4, day 14 and day 21). Therefore, there were 7 rats in each subgroup. Three days before sacrifice, 3% fast blue was injected into superior colliculi bilaterally. The eyes were enucleated after the rat was sacrificed, and flat mounts of the retina from both eyes were prepared on a slide and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Four photos with 400 x magnification were taken from each of the four quadrants of the retina 1 mm away from the optic disc. The labeled RGC were counted by a computerized image analyzer. The labeled RGC rate was used for statistical analysis (the labeled RGC rate = number of RGC in injured eye/control eye x 100%). In group A, the labeled RGC rate was (77.79 +/- 7.11)%, (63.76 +/- 3.79)% and (54.66 +/- 4.75)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, the labeled RGC rate was (80.13 +/- 12.03)%, (78.17 +/- 9.19)% and (83.59 +/- 12.61)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, which was treated with EBHM after injury, the labeled RGC rate was significantly higher than that of group A on day 14 and day 21. In the experimental optic nerve crush model in rats, EBHM therapy can increase the survival rate of

  18. Investigation of shape memory of red blood cells using optical tweezers and quantitative phase microscopy

    Cardenas, Nelson; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2012-03-01

    RBC has been shown to possess shape memory subsequent to shear-induced shape transformation. However, this property of RBC may not be generalized to all kinds of stresses. Here, we report our observation on the action of radiation pressure forces on RBC's shape memory using optical manipulation and quantitative phase microscopy (OMQPM). QPM, based on Mach-Zehnder interferrometry, allowed measurement of dynamic changes of shape of RBC in optical tweezers at different trapping laser powers. In high power near-infrared optical tweezers (>200mW), the RBC was found to deform significantly due to optical forces. Upon removal of the tweezers, hysteresis in recovering its original resting shape was observed. In very high power tweezers or long-term stretching events, shape memory was almost erased. This irreversibility of the deformation may be due to temperature rise or stress-induced phase transformation of lipids in RBC membrane.

  19. Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells

    Liu, Rongrong; Spicer, Graham; Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Hao F.; Yi, Ji; Backman, Vadim

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen saturation (sO2) of red blood cells (RBCs) in capillaries can indirectly assess local tissue oxygenation and metabolic function. For example, the altered retinal oxygenation in diabetic retinopathy and local hypoxia during tumor development in cancer are reflected by abnormal sO2 of local capillary networks. However, it is far from clear whether accurate label-free optical oximetry (i.e., measuring hemoglobin sO2) is feasible from dispersed RBCs at the single capillary level. The sO2-dependent hemoglobin absorption contrast present in optical scattering signal is complicated by geometry-dependent scattering from RBCs. We present a numerical study of backscattering spectra from single RBCs based on the first-order Born approximation, considering practical factors: RBC orientations, size variation, and deformations. We show that the oscillatory spectral behavior of RBC geometries is smoothed by variations in cell size and orientation, resulting in clear sO2-dependent spectral contrast. In addition, this spectral contrast persists with different mean cellular hemoglobin content and different deformations of RBCs. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of, and provides a theoretical model for, label-free optical oximetry at the single capillary level using backscattering-based imaging modalities, challenging the popular view that such measurements are impossible at the single capillary level.

  20. Cell tracking with gadophrin-2: a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, optical imaging, and fluorescence microscopy

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Rudelius, Martina; Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen; Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pichler, Bernd; Heinzmann, Ulrich; Oostendorp, Robert A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of use of gadophrin-2 to trace intravenously injected human hematopoietic cells in athymic mice, employing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, optical imaging (OI), and fluorescence microscopy. Mononuclear peripheral blood cells from GCSF-primed patients were labeled with gadophrin-2 (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), a paramagnetic and fluorescent metalloporphyrin, using established transfection techniques with cationic liposomes. The labeled cells were evaluated in vitro with electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Then, 1 x 10 6 -3 x 10 8 labeled cells were injected into 14 nude Balb/c mice and the in vivo cell distribution was evaluated with MR imaging and OI before and 4, 24, and 48 h after intravenous injection (p.i.). Five additional mice served as controls: three mice were untreated controls and two mice were investigated after injection of unlabeled cells. The contrast agent effect was determined quantitatively for MR imaging by calculating signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) data. After completion of in vivo imaging studies, fluorescence microscopy of excised organs was performed. Intracellular cytoplasmatic uptake of gadophrin-2 was confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectrometry determined an uptake of 31.56 nmol Gd per 10 6 cells. After intravenous injection, the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells in nude mice could be visualized by MR, OI, and fluorescence microscopy. At 4 h p.i., the transplanted cells mainly distributed to lung, liver, and spleen, and 24 h p.i. they also distributed to the bone marrow. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells to these target organs. Gadophrin-2 is suited as a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, OI, and fluorescence microscopy and may be used to combine the advantages of each individual imaging modality for in vivo tracking of intravenously injected hematopoietic cells. (orig.)

  1. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited culnSe2 thin films for photovoltaic solar cells

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.; Galiano, F.

    1990-01-01

    Optical an structural properties of electrodeposited copper indium diselenide, CulnSe2, thin films were studied for its application in photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that thin films were grown in chalcopyrite phase after suitable treatments. Values of Eg for the CulnSe2 thin films showed a dependence on the deposition potential as determined by optical measurements. (Author) 47 refs

  2. Noninvasive near infrared autofluorescence imaging of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the human retina using adaptive optics.

    Liu, Tao; Jung, HaeWon; Liu, Jianfei; Droettboom, Michael; Tam, Johnny

    2017-10-01

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contain intrinsic fluorophores that can be visualized using infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). Although IRAF is routinely utilized in the clinic for visualizing retinal health and disease, currently, it is not possible to discern cellular details using IRAF due to limits in resolution. We demonstrate that the combination of adaptive optics (AO) with IRAF (AO-IRAF) enables higher-resolution imaging of the IRAF signal, revealing the RPE mosaic in the living human eye. Quantitative analysis of visualized RPE cells in 10 healthy subjects across various eccentricities demonstrates the possibility for in vivo density measurements of RPE cells, which range from 6505 to 5388 cells/mm 2 for the areas measured (peaking at the fovea). We also identified cone photoreceptors in relation to underlying RPE cells, and found that RPE cells support on average up to 18.74 cone photoreceptors in the fovea down to an average of 1.03 cone photoreceptors per RPE cell at an eccentricity of 6 mm. Clinical application of AO-IRAF to a patient with retinitis pigmentosa illustrates the potential for AO-IRAF imaging to become a valuable complementary approach to the current landscape of high resolution imaging modalities.

  3. Relationship between macular ganglion cell complex thickness and macular outer retinal thickness: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study.

    Kita, Yoshiyuki; Kita, Ritsuko; Takeyama, Asuka; Anraku, Ayako; Tomita, Goji; Goldberg, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thicknesses. Case-control study. Forty-two normal eyes and 91 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100) was used to measure the macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thickness. Ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio was also calculated. The relationships between the ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses and between the ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio and outer retinal thickness were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses in the normal group and the glaucoma group (r = 0.53, P variation in the outer retinal thickness. Therefore, when determining the ganglion cell complex, it seems necessary to consider the outer retinal thickness as well. We propose the ratio as a suitable parameter to account for individual variations in outer retinal thickness. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering.

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  5. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    Tsai, Meng Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Tang, Libin; Chang, Hung Chih; Tai, Shih Hsiang; Yang, Po Kang; Lau, Shu Ping; Chen, Lih Juann; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  6. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    Tsai, Meng Lin

    2015-12-18

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  7. Reversal of retinal and optic disc ischemia in a patient with sickle cell trait and glaucoma secondary to traumatic hyphema.

    Wax, M B; Ridley, M E; Magargal, L E

    1982-07-01

    A 14-year-old black boy with sickle cell trait, who sustained a traumatic hyphema, developed moderately elevated intraocular pressure that failed to respond to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic agents. On the tenth postinjury day, a sudden increased cupping of the optic disc and partial central retinal artery obstruction caused painless loss of vision. Reversal of the cupping, the retinal ischemia, and the intraocular pressure was documented following anterior chamber paracentesis, and visual acuity returned to 6/6. Pathophysiology of the posterior ischemia is discussed. This case documents the potentially debilitating course of traumatic hyphema in "benign" sickle cell trait and its avoidance with proper management. The authors endorse recent suggestions for careful observation of any sickle cell patient with traumatic hyphema, and recommend anterior chamber paracentesis, supplemental oxygen, and avoidance of osmotic agents, if secondary glaucoma develops following the initial trauma.

  8. Near-field scanning optical microscopy cross-sectional measurements of crystalline GaAs solar cells

    Herndon, M. K.; Bradford, W. C.; Collins, R. T.; Hawkins, B. E.; Kuech, T. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) was used to study cleaved edges of GaAs solar cell devices. Using visible light for excitation, the NSOM acquired spatially resolved traces of the photocurrent response across the various layers in the device. For excitation energies well above the band gap, carrier recombination at the cleaved surface had a strong influence on the photocurrent signal. Decreasing the excitation energy, which increased the optical penetration depth, allowed the effects of surface recombination to be separated from collection by the pn junction. Using this approach, the NSOM measurements directly observed the effects of a buried minority carrier reflector/passivation layer. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Quantitative assessment of rat corneal thickness and morphology during stem cell therapy by high-speed optical coherence tomography

    Lal, Cerine; McGrath, James; Subhash, Hrebesh; Rani, Sweta; Ritter, Thomas; Leahy, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive 3 dimensional optical imaging modality that enables high resolution cross sectional imaging in biological tissues and materials. Its high axial and lateral resolution combined with high sensitivity, imaging depth and wide field of view makes it suitable for wide variety of high resolution medical imaging applications at clinically relevant speed. With the advent of swept source lasers, the imaging speed of OCT has increased considerably in recent years. OCT has been used in ophthalmology to study dynamic changes occurring in the cornea and iris, thereby providing physiological and pathological changes that occur within the anterior segment structures such as in glaucoma, during refractive surgery, lamellar keratoplasty and corneal diseases. In this study, we assess the changes in corneal thickness in the anterior segment of the eye during wound healing process in a rat corneal burn model following stem cell therapy using high speed swept source OCT.

  10. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  11. Non-Invasive Cell-Based Therapy for Traumatic Optic Neuropathy

    2013-10-01

    2004. 18(11): p. 1122-5. 4. Castillo, B., Jr., et al., Retinal ganglion cell survival is promoted by genetically modified astrocytes designed to...growth factors such as peripheral nerve ensheathing cells (Schwann cells) or cells genetically modified to release growth factors and (iv) cells with...Book: Retinal Degenerations, editors: Tombran-Tink and Barnstable. 620-2; Humana Press; Chapter 17: 317-342. Gamm DM, Wang S, Lu B, Girman S, Holmes T

  12. Optical and electrical properties of electron-irradiated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Hirose, Y.; Warasawa, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Takakura, K. [Department of Information, Communication and Electrical Engineering, Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Kimura, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Chichibu, S.F. [CANTech, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ohyama, H. [Department of Information, Communication and Electrical Engineering, Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Sugiyama, M., E-mail: mutsumi@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan)

    2011-08-31

    The optical and electrical properties of electron-irradiated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells and the thin films that composed the CIGS solar cell structure were investigated. The transmittance of indium tin oxide (ITO), ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ga, undoped ZnO, and CdS thin films did not change for a fluence of up to 1.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. However, the resistivity of ZnO:Al and ZnO:Ga, which are generally used as window layers for CIGS solar cells, increased with increasing irradiation fluence. For CIGS thin films, the photoluminescence peak intensity due to Cu-related point defects, which do not significantly affect solar cell performance, increased with increasing electron irradiation. In CIGS solar cells, decreasing J{sub SC} and increasing R{sub s} reflected the influence of irradiated ZnO:Al, and decreasing V{sub OC} and increasing R{sub sh} mainly tended to reflect the pn-interface properties. These results may indicate that the surface ZnO:Al thin film and several heterojunctions tend to degrade easily by electron irradiation as compared with the bulk of semiconductor-composed solar cells.

  13. Optical Path Length Calibration: A Standard Approach for Use in Absorption Cell-Based IR-Spectrometric Gas Analysis

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed a comparison method to determine the optical path length of gas cells which can be used in spectroscopic setup based on laser absorption spectroscopy or FTIR. The method is based on absorption spectroscopy itself. A reference gas cell, whose length is a priori known and desirably traceable to the international system of units (SI, and a gas mixture are used to calibrate the path length of a cell under test. By comparing spectra derived from pressure-dependent measurements on the two cells, the path length of the gas cell under test is determined. The method relies neither on the knowledge of the gas concentration nor on the line strength parameter of the probed transition which is very rarely traceable to the SI and of which the uncertainty is often relatively large. The method is flexible such that any infrared light source and infrared active molecule with isolated lines can be used. We elaborate on the method, substantiate the method by reporting results of this calibration procedure applied to multipass and single pass gas cells of lengths from 0.38 m to 21 m, and compare this to other methods. The relative combined uncertainty of the path length results determined using the comparison method was found to be in the ±0.4% range.

  14. Investigation of remote sensing scale up for hot cell waste tank applications. CPAC optical moisture monitoring

    Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using non-contact optical absorption to remotely sense the surface moisture content of salt cake materials. Optical measurements were made in a dimensionally scaled setup to investigate this technique for in-situ waste tank applications. Moisture measurements were obtained from BY-104 simulant samples with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% moisture content using the back-scattered light from a pulsed infrared optical parametric converter (OPC) laser source operating from 1.51 to 2.12 micron. An InGaAs detector, with 0.038 steradian solid angle (hemisphere = 6.28 steradians) collection angle was used to detect the back-scattered light. This work indicated that there was sufficient back-scatter from the BY-104 material to provide an indication of the surface moisture content

  15. Optical biosensors.

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Optical band gap tuning and electrical properties of polyaniline and its nanocomposites for hybrid solar cell application

    Singh, R.; Choudhary, R. B.; Kandulna, R.

    2018-05-01

    Hcl doped conducting polyaniline-CdS nanocomposite has been prepared via In-situ polymerization in which cadmium nitrate was used as a source for cadmium. The structural morphology was investigated using FESEM and the presence of fibrous polyaniline and CdS nanoparticles. The synthesis of CdS and polyaniline was confirmed using the XRD analysis. I-V characteristic was used to explore the electrical behavior of PANI and its nanocoposites. Optical properties were studied and minimum band gap with highest band absorbance was found for synergistic concentration PANI-CdS (10%) for solar cells application.

  17. Development of a dual joystick-controlled laser trapping and cutting system for optical micromanipulation of chromosomes inside living cells.

    Harsono, Marcellinus S; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z; Duquette, Michelle; Berns, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    A multi-joystick robotic laser microscope system used to control two optical traps (tweezers) and one laser scissors has been developed for subcellular organelle manipulation. The use of joysticks has provided a "user-friendly" method for both trapping and cutting of organelles such as chromosomes in live cells. This innovative design has enabled the clean severing of chromosome arms using the laser scissors as well as the ability to easily hold and pull the severed arm using the laser tweezers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Smart window using a thermally and optically switchable liquid crystal cell

    Oh, Seung-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyeok; Baek, Jong-Min; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Light shutter technologies that can control optical transparency have been studied extensively for developing curtain-free smart windows. We introduce thermally and optically switchable light shutters using LCs doped with push-pull azobenzene, which is known to speed up thermal relaxation. The liquid crystal light shutter can be switched between translucent and transparent states or transparent and opaque states by phase transition through changing temperature or photo-isomerization of doped azobenzene. The liquid crystal light shutter can be used for privacy windows with an initial translucent state or energy-saving windows with an initial transparent state.

  19. BioPhotonics workstation: A versatile setup for simultaneous optical manipulation, heat stress, and intracellular pH measurements of a live yeast cell

    Aabo, Thomas; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    for fast temperature variations while trapping. Using this modified BWS setup, we investigated the internal pH (pHi) response and membrane integrity of an optically trapped Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell at 5 mW subject to increasing temperatures. The pHi of the cell is obtained from the emission of 5-(and...

  20. Optical imaging of three dimensional cell constructs grown in microgravity and in immunodeficient mice, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rolling wall vessels (RWV) utilizing both single cell lines and co-cultures with two or more cell types are contributing significantly to our understanding of tumor...

  1. Optically tunable spin-exchange energy at donor:acceptor interfaces in organic solar cells

    Li, Mingxing; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Zang, Huidong; Xu, Hengxing; Hu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Spin-exchange energy is a critical parameter in controlling spin-dependent optic, electronic, and magnetic properties in organic materials. This article reports optically tunable spin-exchange energy by studying the line-shape characteristics in magnetic field effect of photocurrent developed from intermolecular charge-transfer states based on donor:acceptor (P3HT:PCBM) system. Specifically, we divide magnetic field effect of photocurrent into hyperfine (at low field   10 mT) regimes. We observe that increasing photoexcitation intensity can lead to a significant line-shape narrowing in magnetic field effect of photocurrent occurring at the spin-exchange regime. We analyze that the line-shape characteristics is essentially determined by the changing rate of magnetic field-dependent singlet/triplet ratio when a magnetic field perturbs the singlet-triplet transition through spin mixing. Based on our analysis, the line-shape narrowing results indicate that the spin-exchange energy at D:A interfaces can be optically changed by changing photoexcitation intensity through the interactions between intermolecular charge-transfer states. Therefore, our experimental results demonstrate an optical approach to change the spin-exchange energy through the interactions between intermolecular charge-transfer states at donor:acceptor interface in organic materials.

  2. Influence of the optical window on the performance of TCO/CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Gordillo, G [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica; Grizalez, M [Univ. de la Amazonia, Florencia (Colombia); Moreno, L C [Dept. de Quimica, Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Landazabal, F [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de Cundinamarca, Fusagasuga (Colombia)

    2000-07-01

    Thin film solar cells, with structure TCO/CdS/CdTe/Cu, were fabricated using the transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) SnO{sub 2}:F, deposited by spray pyrolysis, and ZnO, deposited by reactive evaporation, as transparent electrodes. The TCO/CdS system with the CdS layer deposited by CBD (chemical bath deposition) method acts in the cell as an optical window and the CdTe deposited by CSS (close space sublimation) method acts as absorber layer, being the unique active layer of the cell. Details of the technological aspects of the solar cells fabrication as well as a discussion to explain the effect of the TCO layer on the solar cell performance will be given. The best results obtained in this work were: open circuit voltage of 0.57 V, short circuit current of 13 mA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 0.63 and conversion efficiency of 5.8%. (orig.)

  3. Using Optical Markers of Non-dysplastic Rectal Epithelial Cells to Identify Patients With Ulcerative Colitis (UC) - Associated Neoplasia

    Bista, Rajan K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Bronner, Mary P.; Langmead, Christopher J.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current surveillance guidelines for patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC) recommend repeated colonoscopy with random biopsies, which is time-consuming, discomforting and expensive. A less invasive strategy is to identify neoplasia by analyzing biomarkers from the more accessible rectum to predict the need for a full colonoscopy. The goal of this pilot study is to evaluate whether optical markers of rectal mucosa derived from a novel optical technique – partial-wave spectroscopic microscopy (PWS) could identify UC patients with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer (CA) present anywhere in their colon. METHODS Banked frozen non-dysplastic mucosal rectal biopsies were used from 28 UC patients (15 without dysplasia and 13 with concurrent HGD or CA). The specimen slides were made using a touch prep method and underwent PWS analysis. We divided the patients into two groups: 13 as a training set and an independent 15 as a validation set. RESULTS We identified six optical markers, ranked by measuring the information gain with respect to the outcome of cancer. The most effective markers were selected by maximizing the cross validated training accuracy of a Naive Bayes classifier. The optimal classifier was applied to the validation data yielding 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that the PWS-derived optical markers can accurately predict UC patients with HGD/CA through assessment of rectal epithelial cells. By aiming for a high sensitivity, our approach could potentially simplify the surveillance of UC patients and improve overall resource utilization by identifying patients with HGD/CA who should proceed with colonoscopy. PMID:21351200

  4. Using optical markers of nondysplastic rectal epithelial cells to identify patients with ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasia.

    Bista, Rajan K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Bronner, Mary P; Langmead, Christopher J; Brand, Randall E; Liu, Yang

    2011-12-01

    Current surveillance guidelines for patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC) recommend repeated colonoscopy with random biopsies, which is time-consuming, discomforting, and expensive. A less invasive strategy is to identify neoplasia by analyzing biomarkers from the more accessible rectum to predict the need for a full colonoscopy. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether optical markers of rectal mucosa derived from a novel optical technique, partial-wave spectroscopic microscopy (PWS), could identify UC patients with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer (CA) present anywhere in their colon. Banked frozen nondysplastic mucosal rectal biopsies were used from 28 UC patients (15 without dysplasia and 13 with concurrent HGD or CA). The specimen slides were made using a touch prep method and underwent PWS analysis. We divided the patients into two groups: 13 as a training set and an independent 15 as a validation set. We identified six optical markers, ranked by measuring the information gain with respect to the outcome of cancer. The most effective markers were selected by maximizing the cross-validated training accuracy of a Naive Bayes classifier. The optimal classifier was applied to the validation data yielding 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. Our results indicate that the PWS-derived optical markers can accurately predict UC patients with HGD/CA through assessment of rectal epithelial cells. By aiming for high sensitivity, our approach could potentially simplify the surveillance of UC patients and improve overall resource utilization by identifying patients with HGD/CA who should proceed with colonoscopy. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  5. Motion tracking to enable pre-surgical margin mapping in basal cell carcinoma using optical imaging modalities: initial feasibility study using optical coherence tomography

    Duffy, M.; Richardson, T. J.; Craythorne, E.; Mallipeddi, R.; Coleman, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    A system has been developed to assess the feasibility of using motion tracking to enable pre-surgical margin mapping of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the clinic using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system consists of a commercial OCT imaging system (the VivoSight 1500, MDL Ltd., Orpington, UK), which has been adapted to incorporate a webcam and a single-sensor electromagnetic positional tracking module (the Flock of Birds, Ascension Technology Corp, Vermont, USA). A supporting software interface has also been developed which allows positional data to be captured and projected onto a 2D dermoscopic image in real-time. Initial results using a stationary test phantom are encouraging, with maximum errors in the projected map in the order of 1-2mm. Initial clinical results were poor due to motion artefact, despite attempts to stabilise the patient. However, the authors present several suggested modifications that are expected to reduce the effects of motion artefact and improve the overall accuracy and clinical usability of the system.

  6. Cell-to-module optical loss/gain analysis for various photovoltaic module materials through systematic characterization

    Hsian Saw, Min; Khoo, Yong Sheng; Singh, Jai Prakash; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Reducing levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is important for solar photovoltaics to compete against other energy sources. Thus, the focus should not only be on improving the solar cell efficiency, but also on continuously reducing the losses (or achieving gain) in the cell-to-module process. This can be achieved by choosing the appropriate module material and design. This paper presents a detailed and systematic characterization of various photovoltaic (PV) module materials (encapsulants, tabbing ribbons, and backsheets) and an evaluation of their impact on the output power of silicon wafer-based PV modules. Various characterization tools/techniques, such as UV-vis (reflectance) measurement, external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement and EQE line-scan are used. Based on the characterization results, we use module materials with the best-evaluated optical performance to build “optimized modules”. Compared to the standard mini-module, an optical gain of more than 5% is achievable for the “optimized module” with selected module materials.

  7. Single-resonance optical pumping spectroscopy and application in dressed-state measurement with atomic vapor cell at room temperature.

    Liang, Qiangbing; Yang, Baodong; Zhang, Tiancai; Wang, Junmin

    2010-06-21

    By monitoring the transmission of probe laser beam (also served as coupling laser beam) which is locked to a cycling hyperfine transition of cesium D(2) line, while pumping laser is scanned across cesium D(1) or D(2) lines, the single-resonance optical pumping (SROP) spectra are obtained with atomic vapor cell. The SROP spectra indicate the variation of the zero-velocity atoms population of one hyperfine fold of ground state, which is optically pumped into another hyperfine fold of ground state by pumping laser. With the virtue of Doppler-free linewidth, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), flat background and elimination of crossover resonance lines (CRLs), the SROP spectra with atomic vapor cell around room temperature can be employed to measure dressed-state splitting of ground state, which is normally detected with laser-cooled atomic sample only, even if the dressed-state splitting is much smaller than the Doppler-broaden linewidth at room temperature.

  8. Non-destructive Identification of Individual Leukemia Cells by Optical Trapping Raman Spectroscopy

    Chan, J W; Taylor, D S; Lane, S; Zwerdling, T; Tuscano, J; Huser, T

    2007-03-05

    Currently, a combination of technologies is typically required to assess the malignancy of cancer cells. These methods often lack the specificity and sensitivity necessary for early, accurate diagnosis. Here we demonstrate using clinical samples the application of laser trapping Raman spectroscopy as a novel approach that provides intrinsic biochemical markers for the noninvasive detection of individual cancer cells. The Raman spectra of live, hematopoietic cells provide reliable molecular fingerprints that reflect their biochemical composition and biology. Populations of normal T and B lymphocytes from four healthy individuals, and cells from three leukemia patients were analyzed, and multiple intrinsic Raman markers associated with DNA and protein vibrational modes have been identified that exhibit excellent discriminating power for cancer cell identification. A combination of two multivariate statistical methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), was used to confirm the significance of these markers for identifying cancer cells and classifying the data. The results indicate that, on average, 95% of the normal cells and 90% of the patient cells were accurately classified into their respective cell types. We also provide evidence that these markers are unique to cancer cells and not purely a function of differences in their cellular activation.

  9. Impact of optical properties of front glass substrates on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells using lift-off process

    Tamura, Akihiro, E-mail: ro005080@ed.ritsumei.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Minemoto, Takashi [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Transmittance of a front glass is one of the important factors in the development of high efficiency superstrate-type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. In this study, we investigated the impact of optical properties of the front glass on the solar cell performance of the CIGS solar cells fabricated using the lift-off process. First, optical properties of quartz substrates and soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates with various thicknesses were investigated. Although optical properties of the SLG substrates depend on the thickness, those of the quartz substrates hardly depend on the thickness. Secondly, the superstrate-type CIGS solar cells were fabricated using 1-mm-thick SLG or 1-mm-thick quartz substrates. As a result, the short-circuit current density of the superstrate-type CIGS solar cell with 1-mm-thick quartz substrate was approximately 7% higher than that with 1-mm-thick SLG substrate, and its conversion efficiency was 7.1%. The external quantum efficiency of the solar cells was also improved using the quartz substrate as a front glass because transmittance and absorptance of the quartz substrate were superior to those of the SLG substrate. We therefore conclude that optical properties of the front glasses play an important role in the improvement of the superstrate-type solar cells. - Highlights: • Superstrate type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells are fabricated by lift-off process. • Various glasses are used as front glass for lift-off. • The impact of optical properties of the glasses on cell performance is investigated. • Quartz front glass gives 7% higher short-circuit current than soda-lime glass. • High transmittance is desired for front glass.

  10. Optical detection and virotherapy of live metastatic tumor cells in body fluids with vaccinia strains.

    Huiqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor cells in body fluids are important targets for treatment, and critical surrogate markers for evaluating cancer prognosis and therapeutic response. Here we report, for the first time, that live metastatic tumor cells in blood samples from mice bearing human tumor xenografts and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cancer were successfully detected using a tumor cell-specific recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV. In contrast to the FDA-approved CellSearch system, VACV detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs in a cancer biomarker-independent manner, thus, free of any bias related to the use of antibodies, and can be potentially a universal system for detection of live CTCs of any tumor type, not limited to CTCs of epithelial origin. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that VACV was effective in preventing and reducing circulating tumor cells in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Importantly, a single intra-peritoneal delivery of VACV resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of tumor cells in the ascitic fluid from a patient with gastric cancer. Taken together, these results suggest VACV to be a useful tool for quantitative detection of live tumor cells in liquid biopsies as well as a potentially effective treatment for reducing or eliminating live tumor cells in body fluids of patients with metastatic disease.

  11. Concurrent improvement in optical and electrical characteristics by using inverted pyramidal array structures toward efficient Si heterojunction solar cells

    Wang, Hsin Ping

    2016-03-02

    The Si heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell is presently the most popular design in the crystalline Si (c-Si) photovoltaics due to the high open-circuit voltages (V). Photon management by surface structuring techniques to control the light entering the devices is critical for boosting cell efficiency although it usually comes with the V loss caused by severe surface recombination. For the first time, the periodic inverted pyramid (IP) structure fabricated by photolithography and anisotropic etching processes was employed for SHJ solar cells, demonstrating concurrent improvement in optical and electrical characteristics (i.e., short-circuit current density (J) and V). Periodic IP structures show superior light-harvesting properties as most of the incident rays bounce three times on the walls of the IPs but only twice between conventional random upright pyramids (UPs). The high minority carrier lifetime of the IP structures after a-Si:H passivation results in an enhanced V by 28 mV, showing improved carrier collection efficiency due to the superior passivation of the IP structure over the random UP structures. The superior antireflective (AR) ability and passivation results demonstrate that the IP structure has the potential to replace conventional UP structures to further boost the efficiency in solar cell applications.

  12. Large field of view quantitative phase imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells and optical pathlength reference materials

    Kwee, Edward; Peterson, Alexander; Stinson, Jeffrey; Halter, Michael; Yu, Liya; Majurski, Michael; Chalfoun, Joe; Bajcsy, Peter; Elliott, John

    2018-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that can have heterogeneous biological potential. Quality assurance metrics of reprogrammed iPSCs will be critical to ensure reliable use in cell therapies and personalized diagnostic tests. We present a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) workflow which includes acquisition, processing, and stitching multiple adjacent image tiles across a large field of view (LFOV) of a culture vessel. Low magnification image tiles (10x) were acquired with a Phasics SID4BIO camera on a Zeiss microscope. iPSC cultures were maintained using a custom stage incubator on an automated stage. We implement an image acquisition strategy that compensates for non-flat illumination wavefronts to enable imaging of an entire well plate, including the meniscus region normally obscured in Zernike phase contrast imaging. Polynomial fitting and background mode correction was implemented to enable comparability and stitching between multiple tiles. LFOV imaging of reference materials indicated that image acquisition and processing strategies did not affect quantitative phase measurements across the LFOV. Analysis of iPSC colony images demonstrated mass doubling time was significantly different than area doubling time. These measurements were benchmarked with prototype microsphere beads and etched-glass gratings with specified spatial dimensions designed to be QPI reference materials with optical pathlength shifts suitable for cell microscopy. This QPI workflow and the use of reference materials can provide non-destructive traceable imaging method for novel iPSC heterogeneity characterization.

  13. Diffractive optics for industrial and commercial applications

    Turunen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Wyrowski, F. [eds.] [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The following topics were dealt with: diffractive optics, diffraction gratings, optical system design with diffractive optics, continuous-relief diffractive lenses and microlens arrays, diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses, diffractive laser resonators, diffractive optics for semiconductor lasers, diffractive elements for optical image processing, photorefractive crystals in optical measurement systems, subwavelenth-structured elements, security applications, diffractive optics for solar cells, holographic microlithography. 999 refs.

  14. Optical-cell model based on the lasing competition of mode structures with different Q-factors in high-power semiconductor lasers

    Podoskin, A. A., E-mail: podoskin@mail.ioffe.ru; Shashkin, I. S.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Tarasov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    A model describing the operation of a completely optical cell, based on the competition of lasing of Fabry-Perot cavity modes and the high-Q closed mode in high-power semiconductor lasers is proposed. Based on rate equations, the conditions of lasing switching between Fabry-Perot modes for ground and excited lasing levels and the closed mode are considered in the case of increasing internal optical loss under conditions of high current pump levels. The optical-cell operation conditions in the mode of a high-power laser radiation switch (reversible mode-structure switching) and in the mode of a memory cell with bistable irreversible lasing switching between mode structures with various Q-factors are considered.

  15. Magneto-optical labeling of fetal neural stem cells for in vivo MRI tracking.

    Flexman, J A; Minoshima, S; Kim, Y; Cross, D J

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cell therapy for neurological pathologies, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, may delay the onset of symptoms, replace damaged neurons and/or support the survival of endogenous cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to track magnetically labeled cells in vivo to observe migration. Prior to transplantation, labeled cells must be characterized to show that they retain their intrinsic properties, such as cell proliferation into neurospheres in a supplemented environment. In vivo images must also be correlated to sensitive, histological markers. In this study, we show that fetus-derived neural stem cells can be co-labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide and PKH26, a fluorescent dye. Labeled cells retain the ability to proliferate into neurospheres in culture, but labeling prevents neurospheres from merging in a non-adherent culture environment. After labeled NSCs were transplantation into the rat brain, their location and subsequent migration along the corpus callosum was detected using MRI. This study demonstrates an imaging paradigm with which to develop an in vivo assay for quantitatively evaluating fetal neural stem cell migration.

  16. Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy.

    Chen, Tao; Lu, Feng; Streets, Aaron M; Fei, Peng; Quan, Junmin; Huang, Yanyi

    2013-06-07

    We directly observe non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in living cells using transient absorption microscopy. This label-free technology provides a novel modality to study the dynamic behavior of nanodiamonds inside the cells with intrinsic three-dimensional imaging capability. We apply this method to capture the cellular uptake of nanodiamonds under various conditions, confirming the endocytosis mechanism.

  17. The effects of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor activation on patch-clamped cells in the optic tectum of Rana pipiens.

    Yu, C-J; Debski, E A

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 microM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) and had both a glutamatergic and GABAergic component as determined by the use of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 microM) and bicuculline (25 microM), respectively. Remaining response types consisted of an inward membrane current (16%) and an increase in sPSCs combined with an inward membrane current (14%). All responses could be elicited in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM). Muscarinic receptor-mediated responses, induced by carbachol (100 microM) application after nicotinic receptor desensitization, produced responses in 70% of tectal cells. In contrast to responses elicited by nicotine, carbachol-induced responses could be evoked multiple times without significant decrement. Responses consisted of either an outward current (57%), a decrease in sPSCs (5%) or an increase in sPSCs, with (almost 6%) or without (almost 3%) an outward current. The response elicited by carbachol was not predicted by the response of the cell to nicotine. Our results suggest that nicotinic receptors are found predominantly at presynaptic locations in the optic tectum while muscarinic receptors are most often present at postsynaptic sites. We conclude that both of these receptor types could substantially modulate visual activity by changing either the input to tectal neurons or the level of their response to that input.

  18. Development of a Microfluidic-Based Optical Sensing Device for Label-Free Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs Through Their Lactic Acid Metabolism

    Tzu-Keng Chiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a microfluidic-based optical sensing device for label-free detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs, a rare cell species in blood circulation. Based on the metabolic features of cancer cells, live CTCs can be quantified indirectly through their lactic acid production. Compared with the conventional schemes for CTC detection, this label-free approach could prevent the biological bias due to the heterogeneity of the surface antigens on cancer cells. In this study, a microfluidic device was proposed to generate uniform water-in-oil cell-encapsulating micro-droplets, followed by the fluorescence-based optical detection of lactic acid produced within the micro-droplets. To test its feasibility to quantify cancer cells, experiments were carried out. Results showed that the detection signals were proportional to the number of cancer cells within the micro-droplets, whereas such signals were insensitive to the existence and number of leukocytes within. To further demonstrate its feasibility for cancer cell detection, the cancer cells with known cell number in a cell suspension was detected based on the method. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the detected number and the real number of cancer cells. As a whole, the proposed method opens up a new route to detect live CTCs in a label-free manner.

  19. Optical Phase Measurements of Disorder Strength Link Microstructure to Cell Stiffness.

    Eldridge, Will J; Steelman, Zachary A; Loomis, Brianna; Wax, Adam

    2017-02-28

    There have been sustained efforts on the part of cell biologists to understand the mechanisms by which cells respond to mechanical stimuli. To this end, many rheological tools have been developed to characterize cellular stiffness. However, measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties has been limited in scope by the nature of most microrheological methods, which require direct mechanical contact, applied at the single-cell level. In this article, we describe, to our knowledge, a new analysis approach for quantitative phase imaging that relates refractive index variance to disorder strength, a parameter that is linked to cell stiffness. Significantly, both disorder strength and cell stiffness are measured with the same phase imaging system, presenting a unique alternative for label-free, noncontact, single-shot imaging of cellular rheologic properties. To demonstrate the potential applicability of the technique, we measure phase disorder strength and shear stiffness across five cellular populations with varying mechanical properties and demonstrate an inverse relationship between these two parameters. The existence of this relationship suggests that predictions of cell mechanical properties can be obtained from examining the disorder strength of cell structure using this, to our knowledge, novel, noncontact technique. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2013-04-21

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

  1. Acousto-optics bandwidth broadening in a Bragg cell based on arbitrary synthesized signal methods.

    Peled, Itay; Kaminsky, Ron; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the advantages of driving a multichannel acousto-optical deflector (AOD) with a digitally synthesized multifrequency RF signal. We demonstrate a significant bandwidth broadening of ∼40% by providing well-tuned phase control of the array transducers. Moreover, using a multifrequency, complex signal, we manage to suppress the harmonic deflections and return most of the spurious energy to the main beam. This method allows us to operate the AOD with more than an octave of bandwidth with negligible spurious energy going to the harmonic beams and a total bandwidth broadening of over 70%.

  2. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A.; Leach, Jennie B.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and ...

  3. Investigation on cytoskeleton dynamics for no-adherent cells subjected to point-like stimuli by digital holographic microscopy and holographic optical trapping

    Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Memmolo, Pasquale; Mugnano, Martina; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo A.; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Guiding, controlling and studying cellular functions are challenging themes in the biomedical field, as they are fundamental prerequisites for new therapeutic strategies from tissue regeneration to controlled drug delivery. In recent years, multidisciplinary studies in nanotechnology offer new tools to investigate important biophysical phenomena in response to the local physical characteristics of the extracellular environment, some examples are the mechanisms of cell adhesion, migration, communication and differentiation. Indeed for reproducing the features of the extracellular matrix in vitro, it is essential to develop active devices that evoke as much as possible the natural cellular environment. Our investigation is in the framework of studying and clarifying the biophysical mechanisms of the interaction between cells and the microenvironment in which they exist. We implement an optical tweezers setup to investigate cell material interaction and we use Digital Holography as non-invasive imaging technique in microscopy. We exploit Holographic Optical Tweezers arrangement in order to trap and manage functionalized micrometric latex beads to induce mechanical deformation in suspended cells. A lot of papers in literature examine the dynamics of the cytoskeleton when cells adhere on substrates and nowadays well established cell models are based on such research activities. Actually, the natural cell environment is made of a complex extracellular matrix and the single cell behavior is due to intricate interactions with the environment and are strongly correlated to the cell-cell interactions. Our investigation is devoted to understand the inner cell mechanism when it is mechanically stressed by point-like stimulus without the substrate influence.

  4. Dual-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for cells with gold nanoparticle bioconjugates in three-dimensional cultures

    Lee, Po-Yi; Liu, Wei-Wen; Chen, Shu-Ching; Li, Pai-Chi

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models bridge the gap between typical two-dimensional cultures and in vivo conditions. However, conventional optical imaging methods such as confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy cannot accurately depict cellular processing in 3D models due to limited penetration of photons. We developed a dualwavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), which provides sufficient penetration depth and spatial resolution, for studying CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) trafficking in an in vitro 3D tumor microenvironment. CTLs play a cardinal role in host defense against tumor. Efficient trafficking of CTLs to the tumor microenvironment is a critical step for cancer immunotherapy. For the proposed system, gold nanospheres and indocyanine green (ICG) have been remarkable choices for contrast agents for photoacoustic signals due to their excellent biocompatibility and high optical absorption. With distinct absorption spectrums, targeted cells with gold nanospheres and ICG respectively can be identified by switching 523-nm and 800-nm laser irradiation. Moreover, we use an x-y galvanometer scanner to obtain high scanning rate. In the developed system, lateral and axial resolutions were designed at 1.6 μm and 5 μm, respectively. We successfully showed that dual-spectral OR-PAM can map either the distribution of CTLs with gold nanospheres at a visible wavelength of 523 nm or the 3D structure of tumor spheres with ICG in an in vitro 3D microenvironment. Our OR-PAM can provide better biological relevant information in cellular interaction and is potential for preclinical screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  5. Toward Highly Efficient Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Concurrent Electrical and Optical Design

    Wang, Hsin-Ping; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    potential to push the theoretical limits of solar cell efficiency even higher using the intrinsic advantages associated with these materials, including efficient photon management, rapid charge transfer, and short charge collection distances. However

  6. Influence of Surface Roughness on Optical Characteristics of Multilayer Solar Cells

    Lubomir Scholtz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing efficiency of solar cells is still a discussed problem. Even if it is well-known that specially formed substrates as Asahi U-type for solar cells are produced, there is still a continuing attention given to the applications of surface roughness to achieve better light trapping and absorptance in solar cells. It was found out the even an exact interface morphology can play an important role in light trapping. In this paper we focused on the issue how final absorptance of a solar cell structure could be affected and possibly increased. The goal of this article is to show which of interfaces has the greatest influence on specular absorptance of the whole structure.

  7. Photo-transfection and selective optical differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Mthunzi, P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their self-renewal and pluripotency characteristics, stem cells possess the potential to dramatically advance current therapies in tissue regeneration and engineering. In this work, we report for the first time that femtosecond laser pulses...

  8. Green tea polyphenol tailors cell adhesivity of RGD displaying surfaces: multicomponent models monitored optically.

    Peter, Beatrix; Farkas, Eniko; Forgacs, Eniko; Saftics, Andras; Kovacs, Boglarka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Szekacs, Inna; Csampai, Antal; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-02-10

    The interaction of the anti-adhesive coating, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) and its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) functionalized form, PLL-g-PEG-RGD, with the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) was in situ monitored. After, the kinetics of cellular adhesion on the EGCg exposed coatings were recorded in real-time. The employed plate-based waveguide biosensor is applicable to monitor small molecule binding and sensitive to sub-nanometer scale changes in cell membrane position and cell mass distribution; while detecting the signals of thousands of adhering cells. The combination of this remarkable sensitivity and throughput opens up new avenues in testing complicated models of cell-surface interactions. The systematic studies revealed that, despite the reported excellent antifouling properties of the coatings, EGCg strongly interacted with them, and affected their cell adhesivity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the differences between the effects of the fresh and oxidized EGCg solutions were first demonstrated. Using a semiempirical quantumchemical method we showed that EGCg binds to the PEG chains of PLL-g-PEG-RGD and effectively blocks the RGD sites by hydrogen bonds. The calculations supported the experimental finding that the binding is stronger for the oxidative products. Our work lead to a new model of polyphenol action on cell adhesion ligand accessibility and matrix rigidity.

  9. Analysis of the Optical Properties of Screen-Printed and Aerosol-Printed and Plated Fingers of Silicon Solar Cells

    R. Woehl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One main efficiency loss in industrial solar cells is the shading of the cell caused by the metal front side contacts. With the aerosol-printing technique plus an additional light-induced plating (LIP step, not only is the geometrical contact width narrowed compared to screen-printed contacts but also the shape of the finger changes. In this work, the effective shading of different finger types is analysed with two different measurement methods. The essential parameter for characterising the finger is the effective width which can be reduced drastically compared to the geometrical width due to total internal reflection at the glass-air layer and the reflection from the roundish edges of the contact fingers into the cell. This parameter was determined with different methods. It could be shown that for aerosol-printed fingers the effective (optical width is only 38% of its geometrical width, while for standard screen-printed fingers it is 47%. The measured values are compared to a theoretical model for an aerosol-printed and plated finger and are in good agreement.

  10. High resolution scanning optical imaging of a frozen planar polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell: an experimental and modelling study

    Faleh AlTal; Jun Gao

    2017-01-01

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) are organic photonic devices based on a mixed electronic and ionic conductor.The active layer of a polymer-based LEC consists of a luminescent polymer,an ion-solvating/transport polymer,and a compatible salt.The LEC p-n or p-i-n junction is ultimately responsible for the LEC performance.The LEC junction,however,is still poorly understood due to the difficulties of characterizing a dynamic-junction LEC.In this paper,we present an experimental and modeling study of the LEC junction using scanning optical imaging techniques.Planar LECs with an interelectrode spacing of 560 μm have been fabricated,activated,frozen and scanned using a focused laser beam.The optical-beam-induced-current (OBIC) and photoluminescence (PL) data have been recorded as a function of beam location.The OBIC profile has been simulated in COMSOL that allowed for the determination of the doping concentration and the depletion width of the LEC junction.

  11. Combined multi-plane phase retrieval and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging for 4D cell microscopy

    Descloux, A.; Grußmayer, K. S.; Bostan, E.; Lukes, T.; Bouwens, A.; Sharipov, A.; Geissbuehler, S.; Mahul-Mellier, A.-L.; Lashuel, H. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Lasser, T.

    2018-03-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy provides unprecedented insight into cellular and subcellular structures. However, going `beyond the diffraction barrier' comes at a price, since most far-field super-resolution imaging techniques trade temporal for spatial super-resolution. We propose the combination of a novel label-free white light quantitative phase imaging with fluorescence to provide high-speed imaging and spatial super-resolution. The non-iterative phase retrieval relies on the acquisition of single images at each z-location and thus enables straightforward 3D phase imaging using a classical microscope. We realized multi-plane imaging using a customized prism for the simultaneous acquisition of eight planes. This allowed us to not only image live cells in 3D at up to 200 Hz, but also to integrate fluorescence super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging within the same optical instrument. The 4D microscope platform unifies the sensitivity and high temporal resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy.

  12. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios; Shervin, Shahab

    2017-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400–600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3–6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude–Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ∼0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor. (paper)

  13. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Shervin, Shahab; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    2017-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400-600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3-6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude-Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ~0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor.

  14. Introduction of optical reporter gene into cancer and immune cells using lentiviral vector

    Min, Jung Joon; Le, Uyenchi N.; Moon, Sung Min; Heo, Young Jun; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2004-01-01

    For some applications such as gene therapy or reporter gene imaging, a gene has to be introduced into the organism of interest. Adenoviral vectors are capable of transducing both replicating and non-dividing cells. The adenoviral vectors do not integrate their DNA into host DNA, but do lead to an immune response. Lentiviruses belong to the retrovirus family and are capable of infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an example of a lentavirus. A disabled HIV virus has been developed and could be used for in vivo gene delivery. A portion of the viral genome which encodes for accessory proteins canbe deleted without affecting production of the vector and efficiency of infection. Lentiviral delivery into various rodent tissues shows sustained expression of the transgene of up to six months. Furthermore, there seems to be little or no immune response with these vectors. These lentiviral vectors hold significant promise for in vivo gene delivery. We constructed lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc) and eGFP. Fluc-eGFP fusion gene was inserted into multiple cloning sites of pLentiM1.3 vector. Reporter gene (Fluc-eGFP) was designed to be driven by murine CMV promoter with enhanced efficacy of transgene expression as compared to human CMV promoter. We transfected pLenti1.3-Fluc into human cervix cancer cell line (HeLa) and murine T lymphocytes. We also constructed adenovirus encoding Fluc and transfected to HeLa and T cells. This LentiM1.3-Fluc was transfected into HeLa cells and murine T lymphocytes in vitro, showing consistent expression of eGFP under the fluorescence microscopy from the 2nd day of transfection. Firefly luciferase reporter gene was not expressed in immune cells when it is mediated by adenovirus. Lentivirus was validated as a useful vector for both immune and cancer cells

  15. Balance of optical, structural, and electrical properties of textured liquid phase crystallized Si solar cells

    Preidel, V., E-mail: veit.preidel@helmholtz-berlin.de; Amkreutz, D.; Haschke, J.; Wollgarten, M.; Rech, B.; Becker, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Division Renewable Energy, Kekuléstr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-14

    Liquid phase crystallized Si thin-film solar cells on nanoimprint textured glass substrates exhibiting two characteristic, but distinct different surface structures are presented. The impact of the substrate texture on light absorption, the structural Si material properties, and the resulting solar cell performance is analyzed. A pronounced periodic substrate texture with a vertical feature size of about 1 μm enables excellent light scattering and light trapping. However, it also gives rise to an enhanced Si crystal defect formation deteriorating the solar cell performance. In contrast, a random pattern with a low surface roughness of 45 nm allows for the growth of Si thin films being comparable to Si layers on planar reference substrates. Amorphous Si/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on the low-roughness texture exhibit a maximum open circuit voltage of 616 mV and internal quantum efficiency peak values exceeding 90%, resulting in an efficiency potential of 13.2%. This demonstrates that high quality crystalline Si thin films can be realized on nanoimprint patterned glass substrates by liquid phase crystallization inspiring the implementation of tailor-made nanophotonic light harvesting concepts into future liquid phase crystallized Si thin film solar cells on glass.

  16. Optical materials

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  17. Pupillometric evaluation of the melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial optic neuropathies

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    of pupillary light reflex is primarily driven by the ipRGCs. Optic neuropathies i.e. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), glaucoma, optic neuritis and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are among...... the diseases, which have been subject to pupillometric studies. The ipRGCs are differentially affected in these various optic neuropathies. In mitochondrial optic neuropathies, the ipRGCs are protected against degeneration, whereas in glaucoma, NAION, optic neuritis and IIH the ipRGCs are damaged. Here, we...... will review the results of pupillometric, histopathological and animal studies evaluating the ipRGCs in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial optic neuropathies....

  18. Nonlinear optical imaging as a diagnostic tool for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Thomas, G.

    2015-01-01

    The global incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in skin has been rising lately due to increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight or indoor tanning salons. If diagnosed late, this can lead to significant patient morbidity and an increased burden to health care. Therefore early

  19. Optically Transparent FTO-Free Cathode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Kavan, Ladislav; Liska, P.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Grätzel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 24 (2014), s. 22343-22350 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Dye sensitized solar cells * electrochemical impendance spectroscopy * tungsten electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.723, year: 2014

  20. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be

  1. Optical visualisation of thermogenesis in stimulated single-cell brown adipocytes.

    Kriszt, Rókus; Arai, Satoshi; Itoh, Hideki; Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Ang, Xiu Min; Cypess, Aaron M; White, Andrew P; Shamsi, Farnaz; Xue, Ruidan; Lee, Jung Yeol; Lee, Sung-Chan; Hou, Yanyan; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Lane, E Birgitte; Chang, Young-Tae; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Suzuki, Madoka; Raghunath, Michael

    2017-05-03

    The identification of brown adipose deposits in adults has led to significant interest in targeting this metabolically active tissue for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Improved methods for the direct measurement of heat production as the signature function of brown adipocytes (BAs), particularly at the single cell level, would be of substantial benefit to these ongoing efforts. Here, we report the first application of a small molecule-type thermosensitive fluorescent dye, ERthermAC, to monitor thermogenesis in BAs derived from murine brown fat precursors and in human brown fat cells differentiated from human neck brown preadipocytes. ERthermAC accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of BAs and displayed a marked change in fluorescence intensity in response to adrenergic stimulation of cells, which corresponded to temperature change. ERthermAC fluorescence intensity profiles were congruent with mitochondrial depolarisation events visualised by the JC-1 probe. Moreover, the averaged fluorescence intensity changes across a population of cells correlated well with dynamic changes such as thermal power, oxygen consumption, and extracellular acidification rates. These findings suggest ERthermAC as a promising new tool for studying thermogenic function in brown adipocytes of both murine and human origins.

  2. Formation of elements of integrated acousto-optic cell based on LiNbO3 films by methods of nanotechnology

    Ageev, O A; Zamburg, E G; Kolomiytsev, A S; Suchkov, D O; Shipulin, I A; Shumov, A V

    2015-01-01

    In the experiments we defined modes, and developed the technology of formation of elements of input-output laser emission and microlens of integrated acousto-optic cell by Pulsed Laser Deposition and Focused Ion Beams by using nanotechnology cluster complex, allowing controlled creation of elements in a single process cycle. (paper)

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of ultrathin Si solar cells via semiconductor nanocrystal sensitization: energy transfer vs. optical coupling effects.

    Hoang, Son; Ashraf, Ahsan; Eisaman, Matthew D; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Nam, Chang-Yong

    2016-03-21

    Excitonic energy transfer (ET) offers exciting opportunities for advances in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. While recent experimental attempts have demonstrated its potential in both organic and inorganic photovoltaics (PVs), what remains to be addressed is quantitative understanding of how different ET modes contribute to PV performance and how ET contribution is differentiated from the classical optical coupling (OC) effects. In this study, we implement an ET scheme using a PV device platform, comprising CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal energy donor and 500 nm-thick ultrathin Si acceptor layers, and present the quantitative mechanistic description of how different ET modes, distinguished from the OC effects, increase the light absorption and PV efficiency. We find that nanocrystal sensitization enhances the short circuit current of ultrathin Si solar cells by up to 35%, of which the efficient ET, primarily driven by a long-range radiative mode, contributes to 38% of the total current enhancement. These results not only confirm the positive impact of ET but also provide a guideline for rationally combining the ET and OC effects for improved light harvesting in PV and other optoelectronic devices.

  4. Tracing the spatiotemporally resolved inactivation of optically arranged bacteria by photofunctional microparticles at the single-cell level (Conference Presentation)

    Barroso Peña, Alvaro; Grüner, Malte; Forbes, Taylor; Denz, Cornelia; Strassert, Cristian A.

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) represents an attractive alternative in the treatment of infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In PDI a photosensitizer (PS) is administered to the site of the biological target in order to generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen which reacts with the biological membrane upon application of harmless visible light. Established methods for testing the photoinduced cytotoxicity of PSs rely on the observation of the whole bacterial ensemble providing only a population-averaged information about the overall produced toxicity. However, for a deeper understanding of the processes that take place in PDI, new methods are required that provide simultaneous regulation of the ROS production, monitoring the subsequent damage induced in the bacteria cells, and full control of the distance between the bacteria and the center of the singlet oxygen production. Herein we present a novel method that enables the quantitative spatio-time-resolved analysis at the single cell level of the photoinduced damage produced by transparent microspheres functionalized with PSs. For this purpose, a methodology was introduced to monitor phototriggered changes with spatiotemporal resolution employing holographic optical tweezers and functional fluorescence microscopy. The defined distance between the photoactive particles and individual bacteria can be fixed under the microscope before the photosensitization process, and the photoinduced damage is monitored by tracing the fluorescence turn-on of a suitable marker. Our methodology constitutes a new tool for the in vitro design and analysis of photosensitizers, as it enables a quantitative response evaluation of living systems towards oxidative stress.

  5. Characterization of Optic Properties ZnO:Al Thin Film on Glass Substrate for Solar Cell Window

    Wiryoadi; Yunanto; Bambang Siswanto; Sri Sulamdari; Sudjatmoko

    2002-01-01

    It has been characterized a ZnO:Al thin film growth using sputtering technique for solar cell window. The aims of this research is to get a ZnO:Al thin film that can be used as a TCO (Transparent Conducting Oxide) on amorphous silicon solar cell. To get an optimum properties, deposition process has been done for various parameters, such as composition/concentration of Al, substrate temperature, gas pressure and deposition time. Based on experiments result, it is found that the optimum result was achieved at temperature 450 o C, gas pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr and time 1.5 hours. From optical properties (transmittance) measurements using UV-vis, it was found that the optimum results was achieved at temperature 450 o C. At this conditions, wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (50 - 82) %, at pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr the transmittance was (50 - 80) % and at deposition time 1.5 hours was (49 - 81) %. For ZnO thin film, was at wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (78 - 80) %. From micro structure analysis using SEM, it was found that the thickness layer of ZnO was 1.5 μm and 1.3 μm for ZnO: Al. While from surface morphology it was found that for ZnO thin layer the grains was distributed homogeneously, while for ZnO: Al the grains was distributed unhomogeneously. (author)

  6. Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells

    Chang, Hong-Wei; Lee, Jonghee; Hofmann, Simone; Hyun Kim, Yong; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Lüssem, Björn; Wu, Chung-Chih; Leo, Karl; Gather, Malte C.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of both organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic solar cells (OSC) depends on efficient coupling between optical far field modes and the emitting/absorbing region of the device. Current approaches towards OLEDs with efficient light-extraction often are limited to single-color emission or require expensive, non-standard substrates or top-down structuring, which reduces compatibility with large-area light sources. Here, we report on integrating solution-processed nano-particle based light-scattering films close to the active region of organic semiconductor devices. In OLEDs, these films efficiently extract light that would otherwise remain trapped in the device. Without additional external outcoupling structures, translucent white OLEDs containing these scattering films achieve luminous efficacies of 46 lm W-1 and external quantum efficiencies of 33% (both at 1000 cd m-2). These are by far the highest numbers ever reported for translucent white OLEDs and the best values in the open literature for any white device on a conventional substrate. By applying additional light-extraction structures, 62 lm W-1 and 46% EQE are reached. Besides universally enhancing light-extraction in various OLED configurations, including flexible, translucent, single-color, and white OLEDs, the nano-particle scattering film boosts the short-circuit current density in translucent organic solar cells by up to 70%.

  7. Study of interface layer effect in organic solar cells by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Taguchi, Dai; Sumiyoshi, Ryota; Chen, Xiangyu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp

    2014-03-03

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the effect of the use of bathocuproine (BCP) interface layer. The EFISHG measurements of indium–zinc–oxide (IZO)/C{sub 60}/Al diodes showed that the BCP layer inserted between C{sub 60} and Al formed an electrostatic field |E{sub i}| = 2.5 × 10{sup 4} V/cm in the C{sub 60} layer, pointing in a direction from the Al to the IZO. Accordingly, in the IZO/pentacene/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al organic solar cells (OSCs), holes (electrons) move to the IZO (Al) electrode, enhancing the short-circuit current. The EFISHG measurement is capable of directly probing internal fields in the layers used for OSCs, and is helpful for studying the contribution of the interface layer in OSCs. - Highlights: • Internal field in organic solar cells (OSCs) were directly probed. • Interface layer formed internal electric field, enhancing the OSC performance. • Maxwell–Wagner effect accounts for the internal electric field formation.

  8. A quantum-chemical perspective into low optical-gap polymers for highly-efficient organic solar cells

    Risko, Chad

    2011-03-15

    The recent and rapid enhancement in power conversion efficiencies of organic-based, bulk heterojunction solar cells has been a consequence of both improved materials design and better understanding of the underlying physical processes involved in photocurrent generation. In this Perspective, we first present an overview of the application of quantum-chemical techniques to study the intrinsic material properties and molecular- and nano-scale processes involved in device operation. In the second part, these quantum-chemical tools are applied to an oligomer-based study on a collection of donor-acceptor copolymers that have been used in the highest-efficiency solar cell devices reported to date. The quantum-chemical results are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data related to the electronic and optical properties. In particular, they provide insight into the natures of the electronic excitations responsible for the near-infrared/visible absorption profiles, as well as into the energetics of the low-lying singlet and triplet states. These results lead to a better understanding of the inherent differences among the materials, and highlight the usefulness of quantum chemistry as an instrument for material design. Importantly, the results also point to the need to continue the development of integrated, multi scale modeling approaches to provide a thorough understanding of the materials properties. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes long-term survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury: comparison with CNTF and BDNF.

    Wong, Wai-Kai; Cheung, Anny Wan-Suen; Yu, Sau-Wai; Sha, Ou; Cho, Eric Yu Pang

    2014-10-01

    Different trophic factors are known to promote retinal ganglion cell survival and regeneration, but each had their own limitations. We report that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) confers distinct advantages in supporting ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration, when compared to two well-established trophic factors ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Ganglion cells in adult hamster were injured by cutting the optic nerve. HGF, CNTF, or BDNF was injected at different dosages intravitreally after injury. Ganglion cell survival was quantified at 7, 14, or 28 days postinjury. Peripheral nerve (PN) grafting to the cut optic nerve of the growth factor-injected eye was performed either immediately after injury or delayed until 7 days post-injury. Expression of heat-shock protein 27 and changes in microglia numbers were quantified in different growth factor groups. The cellular distribution of c-Met in the retina was examined by anti-c-Met immunostaining. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) was equally potent as BDNF in promoting short-term survival (up to 14 days post-injury) and also supported survival at 28 days post-injury when ganglion cells treated by CNTF or BDNF failed to be sustained. When grafting was performed without delay, HGF stimulated twice the number of axons to regenerate compared with control but was less potent than CNTF. However, in PN grafting delayed for 7 days after optic nerve injury, HGF maintained a better propensity of ganglion cells to regenerate than CNTF. Unlike CNTF, HGF application did not increase HSP27 expression in ganglion cells. Microglia proliferation was prolonged in HGF-treated retinas compared with CNTF or BDNF. C-Met was localized to both ganglion cells and Muller cells, suggesting HGF could be neuroprotective via interacting with both neurons and glia. Compared with CNTF or BDNF, HGF is advantageous in sustaining long-term ganglion cell survival and their propensity to respond to

  10. Optically Transparent Cathode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 165-172 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphene * dye sensitized solar cells * electrochemical impendance Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.774, year: 2011

  11. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones

    Pakorn Preechaburana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices.

  12. Detection of intramyocardially injected DiR-labeled mesenchymal stem cells by optical and optoacoustic tomography.

    Berninger, Markus T; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Wildgruber, Moritz; Beziere, Nicolas; Kimm, Melanie A; Ma, Xiaopeng; Haller, Bernhard; Fleming, Megan J; Vogt, Stephan; Anton, Martina; Imhoff, Andreas B; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Meier, Reinhard; Henning, Tobias D

    2017-06-01

    The distribution of intramyocardially injected rabbit MSCs, labeled with the near-infrared dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbo-cyanine-iodide (DiR) using hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography-X-ray Computed Tomography (FMT-XCT) and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) imaging technologies, was investigated. Viability and induction of apoptosis of DiR labeled MSCs were assessed by XTT- and Caspase-3/-7-testing in vitro . 2 × 10 6 , 2 × 10 5 and 2 × 10 4 MSCs labeled with 5 and 10 μg DiR/ml were injected into fresh frozen rabbit hearts. FMT-XCT, MSOT and fluorescence cryosection imaging were performed. Concentrations up to 10 μg DiR/ml did not cause apoptosis in vitro (p > 0.05). FMT and MSOT imaging of labeled MSCs led to a strong signal. The imaging modalities highlighted a difference in cell distribution and concentration correlated to the number of injected cells. Ex-vivo cryosectioning confirmed the molecular fluorescence signal. FMT and MSOT are sensitive imaging techniques offering high-anatomic resolution in terms of detection and distribution of intramyocardially injected stem cells in a rabbit model.

  13. Optics of the CuGaSe{sub 2} solar cell for highly efficient tandem concepts; Optik der CuGaSe{sub 2}-Solarzelle fuer hocheffiziente Tandemkonzepte

    Schmid, Martina

    2010-01-25

    A principle aim of solar cell research lies in optimizing the exploitation of the incident solar light. Yet, for single junction solar cells there exists an efficiency limit as described by Shockley and Queisser. The only concept realized so far to overcome this threshold is - apart from concentration - the multijunction solar cell. However, any kind of multijunction design poses new challenges: The upper wide-gap solar cell (top cell) needs to show efficient light absorption in the short-wavelength region. At the same time sufficient transmission for long-wavelength light is required which then needs to be absorbed effectively by the low-gap bottom cell. In tandem solar cells a proper light management in top and bottom solar cell is of great importance. This work focuses on chalcopyrite-based tandem solar cells. For the wide-bandgap IR-transparent ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F/glass solar cell an optical model has been established. Starting from modeling each of the individual layers building the stack the optical behavior of the complete thin film system of the top cell could be described. Carefully selected layer combinations and comparison of experimental and calculated data allowed for the attribution of transmission losses to the distinct material properties. Defects in the absorber are of crucial importance but also free carrier absorption in the window and in the transparent back contact contribute significantly to optical losses. The quantification of the losses was achieved by calculating the effects of reduced top cell transmission on the photo current of a simplified bottom cell. An extension of the optical model allowed to calculate the effective absorption in the individual layers and to determine reflection losses at the interfaces. From these results an optimized top cell stack was derived which is characterized by A) simulation of the monolithic integration, B) reduced layer thicknesses wherever possible from the electrical point of

  14. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual organ function disturbance in the course of giant cell arteritis coexisting with optic disc drusen – a case repor

    Monika Modrzejewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presented ophthalmologic syndrome connected with visual organ function disorder in giant cell arteritis patient concomitant with optic nerve disc drusen. Diagnostic difficulties were shown in relation to incidence of both similar ophthalmic symptoms as well as interpretation of specialists examinations results (pattern visual evoked potential test, scanning laser polarimetry, and perimetric tests – kinetic and static. Apart from ophthalmic investigations, significant role of radiological examinations was considered, especially color Doppler ultrasonography of retrobulbar circulation – optic artery, central retinal artery, long posterior ciliary arteries. Adequate interpretation of results seems to be crucial to establish scheme and timing of treatment in case of co-occurrence of the abovementioned disorders. In the presented case early implementation of steroid therapy resulted in improvement of blood flow parameters and the regression of ophthalmological complaints. Visual field deficiency in kinetic perimetry, reduced wave amplitude p100 in visual evoked potential test as well as decrease in number of optic nerve fibers in optic nerve disc region in scanning laser polarimetry exam can be diagnostic features in diagnosis of visual impairment in the course of giant cell arteritis and optic nerve disc drusen. Evaluation of blood flow velocity parameters in retrobulbar arteries in color Doppler ultrasonography is the most valuable screening in monitoring ophthalmic dysregulation in presented disorders.

  15. Wide Field-of-View Fluorescence Imaging with Optical-Quality Curved Microfluidic Chamber for Absolute Cell Counting

    Mohiuddin Khan Shourav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide field-of-view (FOV fluorescence imaging method with an unconventional optical-quality curved sample chamber that corrects the field curvature caused by a simple lens. Our optics simulations and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a curved substrate with lens-dependent curvature can reduce greatly the distortion in an image taken with a conventional planar detector. Following the validation study, we designed a curved sample chamber that can contain a known amount of sample volume and fabricated it at reasonable cost using plastic injection molding. At a magnification factor of approximately 0.6, the curved chamber provides a clear view of approximately 119 mm2, which is approximately two times larger than the aberration-free area of a planar chamber. Remarkably, a fluorescence image of microbeads in the curved chamber exhibits almost uniform intensity over the entire field even with a simple lens imaging system, whereas the distorted boundary region has much lower brightness than the central area in the planar chamber. The absolute count of white blood cells stained with a fluorescence dye was in good agreement with that obtained by a commercially available conventional microscopy system. Hence, a wide FOV imaging system with the proposed curved sample chamber would enable us to acquire an undistorted image of a large sample volume without requiring a time-consuming scanning process in point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  16. Elliptical optical solitary waves in a finite nematic liquid crystal cell

    Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Sciberras, Luke W.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2015-05-01

    The addition of orbital angular momentum has been previously shown to stabilise beams of elliptic cross-section. In this article the evolution of such elliptical beams is explored through the use of an approximate methodology based on modulation theory. An approximate method is used as the equations that govern the optical system have no known exact solitary wave solution. This study brings to light two distinct phases in the evolution of a beam carrying orbital angular momentum. The two phases are determined by the shedding of radiation in the form of mass loss and angular momentum loss. The first phase is dominated by the shedding of angular momentum loss through spiral waves. The second phase is dominated by diffractive radiation loss which drives the elliptical solitary wave to a steady state. In addition to modulation theory, the "chirp" variational method is also used to study this evolution. Due to the significant role radiation loss plays in the evolution of an elliptical solitary wave, an attempt is made to couple radiation loss to the chirp variational method. This attempt furthers understanding as to why radiation loss cannot be coupled to the chirp method. The basic reason for this is that there is no consistent manner to match the chirp trial function to the generated radiating waves which is uniformly valid in time. Finally, full numerical solutions of the governing equations are compared with solutions obtained using the various variational approximations, with the best agreement achieved with modulation theory due to its ability to include both mass and angular momentum losses to shed diffractive radiation.

  17. Genetically determined optic neuropathies

    Milea, Dan; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Reynier, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions.......The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions....

  18. High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin

    Boone, Marc; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra-high-resolut......High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra......-high-resolution line-pair phantome with both systems. Secondly, we investigated 21 healthy volunteers of different phototypes with HD-OCT and RCM on volar forearm and compared the generated images. HD-OCT displays also differences depending on the skin phototype and anatomical site. The 3-μm lateral resolution...... of the HD-OCT could be confirmed by the phantom analysis. The identification of cells in the epidermis can be made by both techniques. RCM offers the best lateral resolution, and HD-OCT has the best penetration depth, providing images of individual cells deeper within the dermis. Eccrine ducts and hair...

  19. Optical and electrical effects of plasmonic nanoparticles in high-efficiency hybrid solar cells.

    Fu, Wei-Fei; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Shi, Ye; Shi, Minmin; Li, Han-Ying; Jen, Alex K-Y; Chen, Jun-Wu; Cao, Yong; Chen, Hong-Zheng

    2013-10-28

    Plasmonics have been proven to be an effective way to harness more incident light to achieve high efficiency in photovoltaic devices. Herein, we explore the possibility that plasmonics can be utilized to enhance light trapping and power conversion efficiency (PCE) for polymer-quantum dot (QD) hybrid solar cells (HSCs). Based on a low band-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and a CdSe QD bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) system, gold nanoparticles were doped at different locations of the devices. Successfully, an improved PCE of 3.20 ± 0.22% and 3.16 ± 0.15% was achieved by doping the hole transporting layer and the active layer, respectively, which are among the highest values reported for CdSe QD based HSCs. A detailed study of processing, characterization, microscopy, and device fabrication is conducted to understand the underlying mechanism for the enhanced device performance. The success of this work provides a simple and generally applicable approach to enhance light harnessing of polymer-QD hybrid solar cells.

  20. The Favorable Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment on the Antioxidant Protective Mechanism in the Corneal Epithelium and Renewal of Corneal Optical Properties Changed after Alkali Burns

    Cejka, Cestmir; Holan, Vladimir; Trosan, Peter; Zajicova, Alena; Javorkova, Eliska; Cejkova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or corneal limbal epithelial stem cells (LSCs) influence restoration of an antioxidant protective mechanism in the corneal epithelium and renewal of corneal optical properties changed after alkali burns. The injured rabbit corneas (with 0.25 N NaOH) were untreated or treated with nanofiber scaffolds free of stem cells, with nanofiber scaffolds seeded with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), with adipose tissue MSCs (Ad-MSC...

  1. Optic neuritis

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  2. Optical perception for detection of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma by multi-spectral imaging

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Chen, Shih-Hua; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the spectrum of each picture element of the patient’s skin image was obtained by multi-spectral imaging technology. Spectra of normal or pathological skin were collected from 15 patients. Principal component analysis and principal component scores of skin spectra were employed to distinguish the spectral characteristics with different diseases. Finally, skin regions with suspected cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) lesions were successfully predicted by evaluation and classification of the spectra of pathological skin. The sensitivity and specificity of this technique were 89.65% and 95.18% after the analysis of about 109 patients. The probability of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients misinterpreted as CTCL were 5.56% and 4.54%, respectively. (paper)

  3. Optical Aptamer Probes of Fluorescent Imaging to Rapid Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cell

    Ji Yeon Hwang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence detecting of exogenous EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule or muc1 (mucin1 expression correlated to cancer metastasis using nanoparticles provides pivotal information on CTC (circulating tumor cell occurrence in a noninvasive tool. In this study, we study a new skill to detect extracellular EpCAM/muc1 using quantum dot-based aptamer beacon (QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB (aptamer linker beacon. The QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB was designed using QDs (quantum dots and probe. The EpCAM/muc1-targeting aptamer contains a Ep-CAM/muc1 binding sequence and BHQ1 (black hole quencher 1 or BHQ2 (black hole quencher2. In the absence of target EpCAM/muc1, the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB forms a partial duplex loop-like aptamer beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1/2 quenches the fluorescence signal-on of the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB. The binding of EpCAM/muc1 of CTC to the EpCAM/muc1 binding aptamer sequence of the EpCAM/muc1-targeting oligonucleotide triggered the dissociation of the BHQ1/2 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a green/red fluorescence signal. Furthermore, acute inflammation was stimulated by trigger such as caerulein in vivo, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the cy5.5-EpCAM/muc1 ALB during cancer metastasis due to exogenous expression of EpCAM/muc1 in Panc02-implanted mouse model.

  4. Optical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    Wintec

    , optical sensors, optical data communication and optical ... our filters (Leon et al 2001), solar cells and optical sen- sors (Tanaka et al 1991; Tokizaki et .... volume fractions (Top panel: tanψ for volume fractions, 1⋅2%. (dash) and 0⋅6% (dot); ...

  5. Numerical investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid acousto-optic Bragg cell with a variable feedback gain

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Zhou, Hao

    2014-09-01

    Since around 1979, the operation of an acousto-optic Bragg cell under positive first-order feedback via amplification and delay in the loop has been studied extensively by several groups [1-3]. In recent work, the analysis of the nonlinear dynamics (NLD) of the system was extended to include bistable maps and Lyapunov exponents, and application of the chaos for signal encryption and decryption for uniform plane waves. The present work originated with the problem of a variable photodetector aperture opening relative to the first-order light. This potentially complex problem is simplified by assuming instead a variable feedback gain ( β ~ (t)), which leads to considerably different NLD. This paper examines initially the NLD versus the (DC) bias voltage for different variable- β ~ conditions, including slow and fast rates of change of the gain with time in relation to the feedback delay. It is found that the response depends critically on the rate of rise of the feedback gain, and also that the resulting chaotic regimes are generally significantly different from those for fixed values of β ~ . We have generated constant feedback gain and the variable feedback gain (t) chaos characteristics of the hybrid A-O network. Chaos as an equivalent carrier has been used to encrypt messages for both fixed and variable β ~ . The transmitted signal is detected from the encrypted carrier using a heterodyne method, using a slave Bragg cell with matched keys to generate local chaos followed by a low pass filter and a phase inverter. Results between variable- and fixed-gain systems are compared in terms of advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Effect of UV irradiations on the structural and optical features of porous silicon: application in silicon solar cells

    Aouida, S.; Saadoun, M.; Boujmil, M.F.; Ben Rabha, M.; Bessaies, B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the structural and optical stability of porous silicon layers (PSLs) planned to be used in silicon solar cells technology. The PSLs were prepared by a HNO 3 /HF vapor etching (VE) based method. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy shows that fresh VE-based PSLs contain N-H and Si-F bonds related to a ammonium hexafluorosilicate (NH 4 ) 2 SiF 6 minor phase, and conventional Si-H x and Si-O x bonds. Free air exposures of PSLs without and with UV irradiation lead to oxidation or photo-oxidation of the porous layer, respectively. FT-IR characterisation of the PSLs shows that UV irradiations modify the transformation kinetics replacing instable Si-H x by Si-O x or Si-O-H bonds. When fresh PSLs undergo free air oxidation within 7 days, the surface reflectivity decreases from 10 to about 8%, while it drops to about 4% when a 10 min free air UV irradiation is applied. Long periods of free air oxidation do not ensure the reflectivity to be stable, whereas it becomes stable after only 10 min of UV irradiation. This behaviour was explained taking into account the kinetic differences between oxidation with and without UV irradiation. Fresh VE-based PSLs were found to improve efficiently the photovoltaic (PV) characteristics of crystalline silicon solar cells. The passivating action of VE-based PSLs was discussed. An improvement of the PV performances was observed solely for stable oxidized porous silicon (PS) structures obtained from UV irradiations

  7. Handheld optical coherence tomography-reflectance confocal microscopy probe for detection of basal cell carcinoma and delineation of margins

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Yélamos, Oriol; Chen, Chih-Shan J.; Maguluri, Gopi; Cordova, Miguel A.; Sahu, Aditi; Park, Jesung; Fox, William; Alessi-Fox, Christi; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2017-07-01

    We present a hand-held implementation and preliminary evaluation of a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) probe for detecting and delineating the margins of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in human skin in vivo. A standard OCT approach (spectrometer-based) with a central wavelength of 1310 nm and 0.11 numerical aperture (NA) was combined with a standard RCM approach (830-nm wavelength and 0.9 NA) into a common path hand-held probe. Cross-sectional OCT images and enface RCM images are simultaneously displayed, allowing for three-dimensional microscopic assessment of tumor morphology in real time. Depending on the subtype and depth of the BCC tumor and surrounding skin conditions, OCT and RCM imaging are able to complement each other, the strengths of each helping overcome the limitations of the other. Four representative cases are summarized, out of the 15 investigated in a preliminary pilot study, demonstrating how OCT and RCM imaging may be synergistically combined to more accurately detect BCCs and more completely delineate margins. Our preliminary results highlight the potential benefits of combining the two technologies within a single probe to potentially guide diagnosis as well as treatment of BCCs.

  8. Shear-induced diffusion of red blood cells measured with dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography.

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Li, Baoqiang; Fu, Buyin; Sakadzic, Sava; Carp, Stefan A; Lee, Jonghwan; Boas, David A

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of intravascular microscopic dynamics, such as absolute blood flow velocity, shear stress and the diffusion coefficient of red blood cells (RBCs), are fundamental in understanding the blood flow behavior within the microcirculation, and for understanding why diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow are dominantly sensitive to the diffusive motion of RBCs. Dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography (DLS-OCT) takes the advantages of using DLS to measure particle flow and diffusion within an OCT resolution-constrained three-dimensional volume, enabling the simultaneous measurements of absolute RBC velocity and diffusion coefficient with high spatial resolution. In this work, we applied DLS-OCT to measure both RBC velocity and the shear-induced diffusion coefficient within penetrating venules of the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice. Blood flow laminar profile measurements indicate a blunted laminar flow profile and the degree of blunting decreases with increasing vessel diameter. The measured shear-induced diffusion coefficient was proportional to the flow shear rate with a magnitude of ~0.1 to 0.5 × 10 -6  mm 2 . These results provide important experimental support for the recent theoretical explanation for why DCS is dominantly sensitive to RBC diffusive motion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Retinal ganglion cell complex changes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in diabetic patients without retinopathy

    Ahmed; I.Hegazy; Rasha; H.Zedan; Tamer; A.Macky; Soheir; M.Esmat

    2017-01-01

    AIM:To assess the ganglion cell complex(GCC)thickness in diabetic eyes without retinopathy. METHODS:Two groups included 45 diabetic eyes without retinopathy and 21 non diabetic eyes. All subjects underwent full medical and ophthalmological history,full ophthalmological examination,measuring GCC thickness and central foveal thickness(CFT)using the RTVue~? spectral domainoptical coherence tomography(SD-OCT),and HbA1C level.RESULTS:GCC focal loss volume(FLV%)was significantly more in diabetic eyes(22.2% below normal)than normal eyes(P=0.024). No statistically significant difference was found between the diabetic group and the control group regarding GCC global loss volume(GLV%)(P=0.160). CFT was positively correlated to the average,superior and inferior GCC(P=0.001,0.000 and 0.001 respectively)and negatively correlated to GLV% and FLV%(P=0.002 and0.031 respectively)in diabetic eyes. C/D ratio in diabetic eyes was negatively correlated to average,superior and inferior GCC(P=0.015,0.007 and 0.017 respectively). The FLV% was negatively correlated to the refraction and level of Hb A1c(P=0.019 and 0.013 respectively)and positively correlated to the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA)in log MAR in diabetic group(P=0.004).CONCLUSION:Significant GCC thinning in diabetes predates retinal vasculopathy,which is mainly focal rather than diffuse. It has no preference to either the superior or inferior halves of the macula. Increase of myopic error is significantly accompanied with increased focal GCC loss. GCC loss is accompanied with increased C/D ratio in diabetic eyes.

  10. A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A

    2016-01-01

    properties for discrimination of AK from SCC and from normal sun exposed skin and to subdifferentiate AKs. METHODS: The technique of semi-log plot has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. This permitted the in vivo measurement of OCT signals coming from the skin entrance up to the superficial reticular dermis...... involvement, non-Bowenoid AK with follicular involvement, Bowenoid AK, hypertrophic and lichenoid form of AK and squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3D microarchitectural structures with in vivo analysis of optical...... properties of tissue scatterers in AK/SCC lesions and normal sun-exposed skin. In vivoHD-OCT analysis of optical properties permits AK discrimination from SCC and AK subdifferentiation with higher accuracy than in vivoHD-OCT analysis of morphology alone....

  11. Investigation of the optical properties of novel organic macromolecules for solar cell applications

    Adegoke, Oluwasegun Oluwasina

    The search for renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel has been a major research focus in the energy sector. The sun, with its vast amount of energy, remains the most abundant and ubiquitous energy source that far exceeds the world energy demand. The ability to effectively capture and convert energy from the sun in the form of photons will be the key to its effective utilization. Organic macromolecules have tremendous potentials to replace and out-perform existing materials, due to their low-cost, ease of tunability, high absorption coefficient and "green" nature. In this dissertation, spectroscopic techniques of steady state absorption and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy were used to show the improved absorption of the oligothiophene-functionalized ZnPc through ultrafast energy transfer. ZnPc is known for its chemical and thermal stability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) in ZnPc-based solar devices is however, very low because of the poor absorption of ZnPc in the 300 - 550 nm region of the solar spectrum. Oligothiophenes have good absorption in the spectral region where the absorption of ZnPc is poor. Other groups of organic compounds that have gained prominence in the study for the design of efficient active materials for photovoltaic cells are the polymers. In the dissertation, different factors which can affect the performance of organic polymers in photovoltaics systems were investigated and analyzed. The effects of the alteration of conjugation, donor-acceptor groups, heteroatoms and alkyl side chains on the photophysical properties and ultimately the performance of organic polymers in organic photovoltaics were investigated. The different effects were investigated using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques which are capable of providing insight of fluorescence decay dynamics at very short times in a time scale of femtosecond. The electronic structure calculations of the polymers were carried out to provide further evidence to the

  12. Expressed sequence tag analysis of adult human optic nerve for NEIBank: Identification of cell type and tissue markers

    Peterson Katherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optic nerve is a pure white matter central nervous system (CNS tract with an isolated blood supply, and is widely used in physiological studies of white matter response to various insults. We examined the gene expression profile of human optic nerve (ON and, through the NEIBANK online resource, to provide a resource of sequenced verified cDNA clones. An un-normalized cDNA library was constructed from pooled human ON tissues and was used in expressed sequence tag (EST analysis. Location of an abundant oligodendrocyte marker was examined by immunofluorescence. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western analysis were used to compare levels of expression for key calcium channel protein genes and protein product in primate and rodent ON. Results Our analyses revealed a profile similar in many respects to other white matter related tissues, but significantly different from previously available ON cDNA libraries. The previous libraries were found to include specific markers for other eye tissues, suggesting contamination. Immune/inflammatory markers were abundant in the new ON library. The oligodendrocyte marker QKI was abundant at the EST level. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is a useful oligodendrocyte cell-type marker in rodent and primate ONs. L-type calcium channel EST abundance was found to be particularly low. A qRT-PCR-based comparative mammalian species analysis reveals that L-type calcium channel expression levels are significantly lower in primate than in rodent ON, which may help account for the class-specific difference in responsiveness to calcium channel blocking agents. Several known eye disease genes are abundantly expressed in ON. Many genes associated with normal axonal function, mRNAs associated with axonal transport, inflammation and neuroprotection are observed. Conclusion We conclude that the new cDNA library is a faithful representation of human ON and EST data

  13. Optical characterization of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} solar cell buffer layers grown by chemical bath and physical vapor deposition

    Trigo, J.F.; Asenjo, B.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M.T. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we study the optical properties of indium sulfide thin films to establish the best conditions to obtain a good solar cell buffer layer. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layers have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and thermal evaporation (PVD). Optical behavior differences have been found between CBD and PVD In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films that have been explained as due to structural, morphological and compositional differences observed in the films prepared by both methods. The resultant refractive index difference has to be attributed to the lower density of the CBD films, which can be related to the presence of oxygen. Its higher refractive index makes PVD film better suited to reduce overall reflectance in a typical CIGS solar cell. (author)

  14. Fast all-optical multistate flip-flop operation realized by a single self-sustained micro-ring laser memory cell

    Wang, Zhuoran; Yuan, Guohui

    2013-01-01

    We investigate all-optical multistate flip-flop operation realized by a single self-sustained micro-ring laser memory cell based on a time-domain multi-mode nonlinear model. Each state is written by the corresponding 100 ps-width input non-return-to-zero (NRZ) pulse carrying the directional and wavelength information, and the cell remains in the written state until another trigger arrives. The effects of key parameters including the detuning frequency and injection power ratio on the injection locking and flipping regions of different modes in both directions of the micro-ring device are studied. By optimizing the operation conditions, we simulate the minimal switching speed for each mode. The fast switching speed of less than 20 ps and up to ten mode flip-flop operation indicate that this single optical memory cell can support ten states at a data rate of at least 10 Gbps, which is particularly valuable for the realization of future all-optical networking and functional sub-system technology. (letter)

  15. The Favorable Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment on the Antioxidant Protective Mechanism in the Corneal Epithelium and Renewal of Corneal Optical Properties Changed after Alkali Burns

    Cejka, Cestmir; Holan, Vladimir; Trosan, Peter; Zajicova, Alena; Javorkova, Eliska; Cejkova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or corneal limbal epithelial stem cells (LSCs) influence restoration of an antioxidant protective mechanism in the corneal epithelium and renewal of corneal optical properties changed after alkali burns. The injured rabbit corneas (with 0.25 N NaOH) were untreated or treated with nanofiber scaffolds free of stem cells, with nanofiber scaffolds seeded with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), with adipose tissue MSCs (Ad-MSCs), or with LSCs. On day 15 following the injury, after BM-MSCs or LSCs nanofiber treatment (less after Ad-MSCs treatment) the expression of antioxidant enzymes was restored in the regenerated corneal epithelium and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) were low. The central corneal thickness (taken as an index of corneal hydration) increased after the injury and returned to levels before the injury. In injured untreated corneas the epithelium was absent and numerous cells revealed the expressions of iNOS, MMP9, α-SMA, TGF-β1, and VEGF. In conclusion, stem cell treatment accelerated regeneration of the corneal epithelium, restored the antioxidant protective mechanism, and renewed corneal optical properties. PMID:27057279

  16. The Favorable Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment on the Antioxidant Protective Mechanism in the Corneal Epithelium and Renewal of Corneal Optical Properties Changed after Alkali Burns.

    Cejka, Cestmir; Holan, Vladimir; Trosan, Peter; Zajicova, Alena; Javorkova, Eliska; Cejkova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or corneal limbal epithelial stem cells (LSCs) influence restoration of an antioxidant protective mechanism in the corneal epithelium and renewal of corneal optical properties changed after alkali burns. The injured rabbit corneas (with 0.25 N NaOH) were untreated or treated with nanofiber scaffolds free of stem cells, with nanofiber scaffolds seeded with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), with adipose tissue MSCs (Ad-MSCs), or with LSCs. On day 15 following the injury, after BM-MSCs or LSCs nanofiber treatment (less after Ad-MSCs treatment) the expression of antioxidant enzymes was restored in the regenerated corneal epithelium and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) were low. The central corneal thickness (taken as an index of corneal hydration) increased after the injury and returned to levels before the injury. In injured untreated corneas the epithelium was absent and numerous cells revealed the expressions of iNOS, MMP9, α-SMA, TGF-β1, and VEGF. In conclusion, stem cell treatment accelerated regeneration of the corneal epithelium, restored the antioxidant protective mechanism, and renewed corneal optical properties.

  17. The Favorable Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment on the Antioxidant Protective Mechanism in the Corneal Epithelium and Renewal of Corneal Optical Properties Changed after Alkali Burns

    Cestmir Cejka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and/or corneal limbal epithelial stem cells (LSCs influence restoration of an antioxidant protective mechanism in the corneal epithelium and renewal of corneal optical properties changed after alkali burns. The injured rabbit corneas (with 0.25 N NaOH were untreated or treated with nanofiber scaffolds free of stem cells, with nanofiber scaffolds seeded with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs, with adipose tissue MSCs (Ad-MSCs, or with LSCs. On day 15 following the injury, after BM-MSCs or LSCs nanofiber treatment (less after Ad-MSCs treatment the expression of antioxidant enzymes was restored in the regenerated corneal epithelium and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and vascular endothelial factor (VEGF were low. The central corneal thickness (taken as an index of corneal hydration increased after the injury and returned to levels before the injury. In injured untreated corneas the epithelium was absent and numerous cells revealed the expressions of iNOS, MMP9, α-SMA, TGF-β1, and VEGF. In conclusion, stem cell treatment accelerated regeneration of the corneal epithelium, restored the antioxidant protective mechanism, and renewed corneal optical properties.

  18. Determination of true optical absorption and scattering coefficient of wooden cell wall substance by time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy.

    Kitamura, Ryunosuke; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2016-02-22

    The true absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ´s) of the cell wall substance in Douglas fir were determined using time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Samples were saturated with hexane, toluene or quinolone to minimize the multiple reflections of light on the boundary between pore-cell wall substance in wood. μ´s exhibited its minimum value when the wood was saturated with toluene because the refractive index of toluene is close to that of the wood cell wall substance. The optical parameters of the wood cell wall substance calculated were μa = 0.030 mm(-1) and μ´s= 18.4 mm(-1). Monte Carlo simulations using these values were in good agreement with the measured time-resolved transmittance profiles.

  19. Expression patterns of ion channels and structural proteins in a multimodal cell type of the avian optic tectum.

    Lischka, Katharina; Ladel, Simone; Luksch, Harald; Weigel, Stefan

    2018-02-15

    The midbrain is an important subcortical area involved in distinct functions such as multimodal integration, movement initiation, bottom-up, and top-down attention. Our group is particularly interested in cellular computation of multisensory integration. We focus on the visual part of the avian midbrain, the optic tectum (TeO, counterpart to mammalian superior colliculus). This area has a layered structure with the great advantage of distinct input and output regions. In chicken, the TeO is organized in 15 layers where visual input targets the superficial layers while auditory input terminates in deeper layers. One specific cell type, the Shepherd's crook neuron (SCN), extends dendrites in both input regions. The characteristic feature of these neurons is the axon origin at the apical dendrite. The molecular identity of this characteristic region and thus, the site of action potential generation are of particular importance to understand signal flow and cellular computation in this neuron. We present immunohistochemical data of structural proteins (NF200, Ankyrin G, and Myelin) and ion channels (Pan-Na v , Na v 1.6, and K v 3.1b). NF200 is strongly expressed in the axon. Ankyrin G is mainly expressed at the axon initial segment (AIS). Myelination starts after the AIS as well as the distribution of Na v channels on the axon. The subtype Na v 1.6 has a high density in this region. K v 3.1b is restricted to the soma, the primary neurite and the axon branch. The distribution of functional molecules in SCNs provides insight into the information flow and the integration of sensory modalities in the TeO of the avian midbrain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Protects Retinal Ganglion Cell From Optic Nerve Injury Induced Apoptosis via Yes Associated Protein

    Jia-Xing Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been used in clinical studies. But little is known about its effects on the central nervous system (CNS, or its mechanism of action. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are CNS neuronal cells that can be utilized as a classic model system to evaluate outcomes of LIPUS protection from external trauma-induced retinal injury. In this study, we aim to: (1 determine the pulse energy and the capability of LIPUS in RGC viability, (2 ascertain the protective role of LIPUS in optic nerve (ON crush-induced retinal injury, and 3 explore the cellular mechanisms of RGC apoptosis prevention by LIPUS.Methods: An ON crush model was set up to induce RGC death. LIPUS was used to treat mice eyes daily, and the retina samples were dissected for immunostaining and Western blot. The expression of yes-associated protein (YAP and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis of RGCs was evaluated by TUNEL staining, the survival of RGCs and retained axons were labeled by Fluoro-gold and Tuj1 antibody, respectively. Rotenone was used to set up an in vitro cellular degenerative model and siYAP was used to interfering the expression of YAP to detect the LIPUS protective function.Results: LIPUS protected RGC from loss and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. The ratio of cleaved/pro-caspase3 also decreased significantly under LIPUS treatment. As a cellular mechanical sensor, YAP expression increased and YAP translocated to nucleus in LIPUS stimulation group, however, phospho-YAP was found to be decreased. When YAP was inhibited, the LIPUS could not protect RGC from caspase3-dependent apoptosis.Conclusion: LIPUS prevented RGCs from apoptosis in an ON crush model and in vitro cellular degenerative model, which indicates a potential treatment for further traumatic ON injury. The mechanism of protection is dependent on YAP activation and correlated with caspase-3 signaling.

  1. Adhesion kinetics of human primary monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages: Dynamic cell adhesion measurements with a label-free optical biosensor and their comparison with end-point assays.

    Orgovan, Norbert; Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Szabó, Bálint; Horvath, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages (MFs) are closely related immune cells that differ in their main functions. These specific functions are, to a considerable degree, determined by the differences in the adhesion behavior of the cells. To study the inherently and essentially dynamic aspects of the adhesion of monocytes, DCs, and MFs, dynamic cell adhesion assays were performed with a high-throughput label-free optical biosensor [Epic BenchTop (BT)] on surfaces coated with either fibrinogen (Fgn) or the biomimetic copolymer PLL-g-PEG-RGD. Cell adhesion profiles typically reached their maximum at ∼60 min after cell seeding, which was followed by a monotonic signal decrease, indicating gradually weakening cell adhesion. According to the biosensor response, cell types could be ordered by increasing adherence as monocytes, MFs, and DCs. Notably, all three cell types induced a larger biosensor signal on Fgn than on PLL-g-PEG-RGD. To interpret this result, the molecular layers were characterized by further exploiting the potentials of the biosensor: by measuring the adsorption signal induced during the surface coating procedure, the authors could estimate the surface density of adsorbed molecules and, thus, the number of binding sites potentially presented for the adhesion receptors. Surfaces coated with PLL-g-PEG-RGD presented less RGD sites, but was less efficient in promoting cell spreading than those coated with Fgn; hence, other binding sites in Fgn played a more decisive role in determining cell adherence. To support the cell adhesion data obtained with the biosensor, cell adherence on Fgn-coated surfaces 30-60 min after cell seeding was measured with three complementary techniques, i.e., with (1) a fluorescence-based classical adherence assay, (2) a shear flow chamber applying hydrodynamic shear stress to wash cells away, and (3) an automated micropipette using vacuum-generated fluid flow to lift cells up. These techniques confirmed the results

  2. Tracking micro-optical resonances for identifying and sensing novel procaspase-3 protein marker released from cell cultures in response to toxins

    Chen, Ying-Jen; Vollmer, Frank; Xiang, Wei; Klucken, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The response of cells to toxins is commonly investigated by detecting intracellular markers for cell death, such as caspase proteins. This requires the introduction of labels by the permeabilization or complete lysis of cells. Here we introduce a non-invasive tool for monitoring a caspase protein in the extracellular medium. The tool is based on highly sensitive optical micro-devices, referred to as whispering-gallery mode biosensors (WGMBs). WGMBs are functionalized with antibodies for the specific and label-free detection of procaspase-3 released from human embryonic kidney HEK293 and neuroglioma H4 cells after introducing staurosporine and rotenone toxins, respectively. Additional tests show that the extracellular accumulation of procaspase-3 is concomitant with a decrease in cell viability. The hitherto unknown release of procaspase-3 from cells in response to toxins and its accumulation in the medium is further investigated by Western blot, showing that the extracellular detection of procaspase-3 is interrelated with cytotoxicity of alpha-synuclein protein (aSyn) overexpressed in H4 cells. These studies provide evidence for procaspase-3 as a novel extracellular biomarker for cell death, with applications in cytotoxicity tests. Such WGMBs could be applied to further identify as-yet unknown extracellular biomarkers using established antibodies against intracellular antigens. (paper)

  3. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell.

    Iwata, Takuro; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-12-05

    A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200-300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  4. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell

    Takuro Iwata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200–300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  5. Designing a miniaturised heated stage for in situ optical measurements of solid oxide fuel cell electrode surfaces, and probing the oxidation of solid oxide fuel cell anodes using in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Brightman, E.; Maher, R.; Offer, G. J.; Duboviks, V.; Heck, C.; Cohen, L. F.; Brandon, N. P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel miniaturised heated stage for in operando optical measurements on solid oxide fuel cell electrode surfaces is described. The design combines the advantages of previously reported designs, namely, (i) fully controllable dual atmosphere operation enabling fuel cell pellets to be tested in operando with either electrode in any atmosphere being the focus of study, and (ii) combined electrochemical measurements with optical spectroscopy measurements with the potential for highly detailed study of electrochemical processes; with the following advances, (iii) integrated fitting for mounting on a mapping stage enabling 2-D spatial characterisation of the surface, (iv) a compact profile that is externally cooled, enabling operation on an existing microscope without the need for specialized lenses, (v) the ability to cool very rapidly, from 600 °C to 300 °C in less than 5 min without damaging the experimental apparatus, and (vi) the ability to accommodate a range of pellet sizes and thicknesses. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Recovery of Visual Function in a Patient with an Onodi Cell Mucocele Compressive Optic Neuropathy Who Had a 5-Week Interval between Onset and Surgical Intervention: A Case Report

    Wencan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report on a patient with compressive optic neuropathy secondary to an Onodi cell mucocele, who fully recovered visual function following surgery. Method. Case report. Results. A 28-year-old male was admitted with a right visual acuity of 20/100 following treatment for an initial diagnosis of optic neuritis. Subsequent examination suggested compressive optic neuropathy, and neuroimaging confirmed the presence of an Onodi mucocele compressing the optic nerve. The patient underwent a right endonasal sphenoethmoidectomy with decompression 5 weeks after the initial onset of symptoms. Three weeks following surgery, the visual acuity was 20/20, and there was complete resolution of the visual field defect, which has remained stable at 1 year. Conclusion. Onodi cell mucocele should be included in the differential diagnosis of a young patient with compressive optic neuropathy. Surgical decompression should be considered even when symptoms have been present for over a month.

  7. Results from Coupled Optical and Electrical Sentaurus TCAD Models of a Gallium Phosphide on Silicon Electron Carrier Selective Contact Solar Cell

    Limpert, Steven; Ghosh, Kunal; Wagner, Hannes; Bowden, Stuart; Honsberg, Christiana; Goodnick, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin

    2014-06-09

    We report results from coupled optical and electrical Sentaurus TCAD models of a gallium phosphide (GaP) on silicon electron carrier selective contact (CSC) solar cell. Detailed analyses of current and voltage performance are presented for devices having substrate thicknesses of 10 μm, 50 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm, and with GaP/Si interfacial quality ranging from very poor to excellent. Ultimate potential performance was investigated using optical absorption profiles consistent with light trapping schemes of random pyramids with attached and detached rear reflector, and planar with an attached rear reflector. Results indicate Auger-limited open-circuit voltages up to 787 mV and efficiencies up to 26.7% may be possible for front-contacted devices.

  8. Localized landslide risk assessment with multi pass L band DInSAR analysis

    Yun, HyeWon; Rack Kim, Jung; Lin, Shih-Yuan; Choi, YunSoo

    2014-05-01

    In terms of data availability and error correction, landslide forecasting by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) analysis is not easy task. Especially, the landslides by the anthropogenic construction activities frequently occurred in the localized cutting side of mountainous area. In such circumstances, it is difficult to attain sufficient enough accuracy because of the external factors inducing the error component in electromagnetic wave propagation. For instance, the local climate characteristics such as orographic effect and the proximity to water source can produce the significant anomalies in the water vapor distribution and consequently result in the error components of InSAR phase angle measurements. Moreover the high altitude parts of target area cause the stratified tropospheric delay error in DInSAR measurement. The other obstacle in DInSAR observation over the potential landside site is the vegetation canopy which causes the decorrelation of InSAR phase. Thus rather than C band sensor such as ENVISAT, ERS and RADARSAT, DInSAR analysis with L band ALOS PLASAR is more recommendable. Together with the introduction of L band DInSAR analysis, the improved DInSAR technique to cope all above obstacles is necessary. Thus we employed two approaches i.e. StaMPS/MTI (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers/Multi-Temporal InSAR, Hopper et al., 2007) which was newly developed for extracting the reliable deformation values through time series analysis and two pass DInSAR with the error term compensation based on the external weather information in this study. Since the water vapor observation from spaceborne radiometer is not feasible by the temporal gap in this case, the quantities from weather Research Forecasting (WRF) with 1 km spatial resolution was used to address the atmospheric phase error in two pass DInSAR analysis. Also it was observed that base DEM offset with time dependent perpendicular baselines of InSAR time series produce a significant error even in the advanced time series techniques such as StaMPS/MTI. We tried to compensate with the algorithmic base together with the usage of high resolution LIDAR DEM. The target area of this study is the eastern part of Korean peninsula centered. In there, the landslide originated by the geomorphic factors such as high sloped topography and localized torrential down pour is critical issue. The surface deformations from error corrected two pass DInSAR and StaMPS/MTI are crossly compared and validated with the landslide triggering factors such as vegetation, slope and geological properties. The study will be further extended for the application of future SAR sensors by incorporating the dynamic analysis of topography to implement practical landslide forecasting scheme.

  9. Optimasi Proses Multi-Pass Equal Channel Angular Pressing Dengan Simulasi Komputer

    Choiron, Moch. Agus; Anam, Khairul; Prasetyo, Totok Tri

    2014-01-01

    UFG (Ultra-fine grained) material is a material with a grain size between 10 nm to 1000 nm were developed to improve the quality of the material microstructure byreducing the grain size. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is a method to produce the UFG material by utilizing the shear stress on the material. Shear stress distribution in the material as it passes through the channel intersection is important to investigate so that it can be known the die design that can produce a uniform sh...

  10. Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators

    Morozov, V.S.; Bogacz, S.A.; Roblin, Y.R.; Beard, K.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.

  11. Determining Snow Depth Using Airborne Multi-Pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    2013-09-01

    Snow Water Equivalent xxiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS An intelligent heart acquires knowledge, and the ear of the wise seeks knowledge. ( Proverbs 18:15...the phase and elevation. y = 2.3575x + 4.8809 R² = 0.9386 0 2 4 6 8 10 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 E le va tio n D ev ia tio n (m et er s) Phase...5 6 7 8 9 10 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 E le va tio n D ev ia tio n (m et er s) Phase Deviation (radians) Phase to Elevation Linear Regression

  12. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  13. SU-G-TeP3-07: On the Development of Mechano-Biological Assessment of Leukemia Cells Using Optical Tweezers

    Brost, E; Brooks, J; Piepenburg, J; Watanabe, Y; Hui, S [Therapeutic Radiology and Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Chakraborty, S; Das, T [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems Department of New Materials and Biosystems Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Green, A [Department of Physics, University of Saint Thomas, Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patients with BCR-ABL (Ph +ve) acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at very high risk of relapse and mortality. In line with the NIH mission to understand the physical and biological processes, we seek to report mechano-biological method to assessment and distinguish treated/untreated leukemia cells. Methods: BCR-ABL leukemia cell populations and silica microspheres were trapped in a 100x magnification optical trapping system (λ=660 nm, 70 mW). Light refracted through the trapped sample was collected in the back focal plane by a quadrant detector to measure the positions of individual cells. The sample was driven at a known frequency and amplitude with a flexure translation stage, and the target’s response was recorded. The measured response was calibrated using the known driving parameters, and information about cell movements due to mechano-biological effects was extracted. Two leukemia cell populations were tested: a control group and a group treated with 2 Gy. Results: The mechano-biological movements of 10 microspheres, control cells, and treated cells were tracked over a ∼30 minute window at 1 minute intervals. The microsphere population did not see significant change in mechano-biological movements over the testing interval and remained constant. The control cell population saw a two-fold rise in activity that peaked around 1200 seconds, then dropped off sharply. The treated cell population saw a two-fold rise in activity that peaked at 400 seconds, and dropped off slowly. Conclusion: The investigated technique allows for direct measurement the movements of a trapped object due to mechano-biological effects such as thermal and extracellular motion. When testing microspheres, the mechano-biological activity remained constant over time due to the lack of biological factors. In both the control and treated cell populations, the mechano-biological activity was increased, possibly due to mitochondrial activation. This extra activity decreased over time

  14. Photometric device using optical fibers

    Boisde, Gilbert; Perez, J.-J.

    1981-02-01

    Remote measurements in radioactive environment are now possible with optical fibers. Measurement instruments developed by CEA are constitued of: - an optical probe (5 mm to 1 meter optical path length), - a photometric measurement device, - optical fiber links. 'TELEPHOT' is a photometric device for industrial installations. It is uses interferentiel filters for 2 to 5 simultaneous wave lengths. 'CRUDMETER' measures the muddiness of water. It can be equipped with a high sensitivity cell of 50 cm optical path length tested up to 250 bars. Coupling a double beam spectrophotometer to a remote optical probe, up to 1 meter optical path length, is carried out by means of an optical device using optical fibers links, eventually several hundred meter long. For these equipments special step index large core fibers, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, have been developed as well connectors. For industrial control and research these instruments offer new prospect thanks to optical fibers use [fr

  15. Optical programmable metamaterials

    Gong, Cheng; Zhang, Nan; Dai, Zijie; Liu, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    We suggest and demonstrate the concept of optical programmable metamaterials which can configure the device's electromagnetic parameters by the programmable optical stimuli. In such metamaterials, the optical stimuli produced by a FPGA controlled light emitting diode array can switch or combine the resonance modes which are coupled in. As an example, an optical programmable metamaterial terahertz absorber is proposed. Each cell of the absorber integrates four meta-rings (asymmetric 1/4 rings) with photo-resistors connecting the critical gaps. The principle and design of the metamaterials are illustrated and the simulation results demonstrate the functionalities for programming the metamaterial absorber to change its bandwidth and resonance frequency.

  16. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage.

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Sue, Ruei-Siang; Lin, Jian-Cheng; Syu, Hong-Jang; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2016-08-10

    This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs) and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode with periodic holes (perforations) under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively.

  17. Variation in the Optical Properties of the SiC-SiO2 Composite Antireflection Layer in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Annealing

    Jannat, Azmira; Li, Zhen Yu; Akhter, M. Shaheer; Yang, O.-Bong

    2017-11-01

    This study showed the effects of annealing on a sol-gel-derived SiC-SiO2 composite antireflection (AR) layer and investigated the optical and photovoltaic properties of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. The SiC-SiO2 composite AR coating showed a considerable decrease in reflectance from 7.18% to 3.23% at varying annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The refractive indices of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer were tuned from 2.06 to 2.45 with the increase in annealing temperature. The analysis of the current density-voltage characteristics indicated that the energy conversion efficiencies of the fabricated Si solar cells gradually increased from 16.99% to 17.73% with increasing annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The annealing of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer in Si solar cells was crucial to improving the optical, morphological, and photovoltaic properties.

  18. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO electrode with periodic holes (perforations under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively.

  19. On-line determination of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell culture based on fibre optic detection of oxygen in flow-injection analysis.

    Dremel, B A; Li, S Y; Schmid, R D

    1992-01-01

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system based on fibre optic detection of oxygen consumption using immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) and lactate oxidase (LOD) is described for the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell cultures. The consumption of oxygen was determined via dynamic quenching by molecular oxygen of the fluorescence of an indicator. GOD and LOD were immobilized on controlled pore glass (CPG) in enzyme reactors which were directly linked to a specially designed fibre optic flow-through cell covering the oxygen optrode. The system is linear for 0-30 mM glucose, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements) and for 0-30 mM lactate, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements). The enzyme reactors used were stable for more than 4 weeks in continuous operation, and it was possible to analyse up to 20 samples per hour. The system has been successfully applied to the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations of an animal cell culture designed for the production of recombinant human antithrombine III (AT-III). Results of the on-line measurement obtained by the FIA system were compared with the off-line results obtained by a glucose and lactate analyser from Yellow Springs Instrument Company (YSI).

  20. The optical rotator

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    1997-01-01

    further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes......The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  1. Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy

    Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate clinical value of a fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique developed for in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) during clinical endoscopy. We have developed a rapid fiber-optic Raman endoscopic system capable of simultaneously acquiring both fingerprint (FP)(800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber (HW)(2800-3600 cm-1) Raman spectra from esophageal tissue in vivo. A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra were acquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing endoscopic examination. The total Raman dataset was split into two parts: 80% for training; while 20% for testing. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one patient-out, cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented on training dataset to develop diagnostic algorithms for tissue classification. PLS-DA-LOPCV shows that simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy on training dataset provides a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.0% and specificity of 97.4% for ESCC classification. Further, the diagnostic algorithm applied to the independent testing dataset based on simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique gives a predictive diagnostic sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 93.6% for ESCC identification, which is superior to either FP or HW Raman technique alone. This work demonstrates that the simultaneous FP/HW fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique improves real-time in vivo diagnosis of esophageal neoplasia at endoscopy.

  2. Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications

    Ravichandran, K.; Philominathan, P. [PG and Research Department of Physics, AVVM, Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Good quality CdS films were fabricated by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. CdS films have been deposited from aqueous solutions of sulphur and cadmium, keeping the molar concentrations of S:Cd = 0.01:0.01, 0.02:0.02, 0.04:0.04 and 0.06:0.06 in the starting solutions. The structural studies reveal that the S:Cd concentration has a strong influence on the microstructural characteristics of the sprayed CdS films. It was found that there is a transition in the preferred orientation from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane when S:Cd molar concentration increases. The SEM images depict that the films are uniform and homogeneous. All the films have high optical transmittance (>80%) in the visible range. The optical band gap values are found to be in the range of 2.46-2.52 eV. CdS films fabricated by this simple and economic spray technique without using any carrier gas are found to be good in structural and optical properties which are desirable for photovoltaic applications. Hence, this simplified version of spray technique can be considered as an economic alternative to conventional spray pyrolysis (using carrier gas), for the mass production of low-cost, large area CdS coatings for solar cell applications. (author)

  3. Simultaneously improving optical absorption of both transverse-electric polarized and transverse-magnetic polarized light for organic solar cells with Ag grating used as transparent electrode

    Yongbing Long

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate optical performance of organic solar cells with Ag grating electrode. It is demonstrated that optical absorption for both transverse-electric (TE polarized and transverse-magnetic(TM polarized light is simultaneously improved when compared with that for the device without the Ag grating. The improvement is respectively attributed to the resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons within the device. After an additional WO3 layer is capped on the Ag grating, absorption of TE-polarized light is further improved due to resonance of double microcavities within the device, and absorption of TM-polarized light is improved by the combined effects of the microcavity resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons. Correspondingly, the short current density for randomly polarized light is improved by 18.1% from that of the device without the Ag grating. Finally, it is demonstrated that high transmission may not be an essential prerequisite for metallic gratings when they are used as transparent electrode since absorption loss caused by low transmission can be compensated by using a capping layer to optimize optical resonance of the WMC structure within the device.

  4. Nonlinear optics

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  5. Physical optics

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  6. Physical optics

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  7. Use of an Optical Trap for Study of Host-Pathogen Interactions for Dynamic Live Cell Imaging

    Tam, Jenny M.; Castro, Carlos E.; Heath, Robert J. W.; Mansour, Michael K.; Cardenas, Michael L.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Lang, Matthew J.; Vyas, Jatin M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic live cell imaging allows direct visualization of real-time interactions between cells of the immune system1, 2; however, the lack of spatial and temporal control between the phagocytic cell and microbe has rendered focused observations into the initial interactions of host response to pathogens difficult. Historically, intercellular contact events such as phagocytosis3 have been imaged by mixing two cell types, and then continuously scanning the field-of-view to find serendipitous int...

  8. Influence of cell-internalization on relaxometric, optical and compositional properties of targeted paramagnetic quantum dot micelles

    Starmans, L. W. E.; Kok, M. B.; Sanders, H. M. H. F.; Zhao, Y.; Donegá, C. de Mello; Meijerink, A.; Mulder, W. J. M.; Grüll, H.; Strijkers, G. J.; Nicolay, K.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dot micelles (pQDs) with a paramagnetic coating are promising nanoparticles for bimodal molecular imaging. Their bright fluorescence allows for optical detection, while their Gd payload enables visualization with contrast-enhanced MRI. A popular approach in molecular MRI is the targeting of

  9. Effect of electrodeposition and annealing of ZnO on optical and photovoltaic properties of the p-Cu2O/n-ZnO solar cells

    Hussain, Sajad; Cao Chuanbao; Nabi, Ghulam; Khan, Waheed S.; Usman, Zahid; Mahmood, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The p-Cu 2 O/n-ZnO heterojunction was fabricated by using electrodeposition and rf sputtering techniques, respectively. → The effect of electrodeposition on optical and photovoltaic properties of the p-Cu 2 O/n-ZnO solar cells has been examined. → The preannealing of ZnO thin films has enhanced the efficiency of solar cells. → The efficiency of the solar cell was measured 0.46%. - Abstract: Cu 2 O/ZnO p-n heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by rf sputtering deposition of n-ZnO layer, followed by electrodeposition of p-Cu 2 O layer. The different electrodeposition potentials were applied to deposit Cu 2 O on ZnO. The particle size, crystal faces, crystallinity of Cu 2 O is important factor which determine the p-n junction interface and consequently their effect on the performance of the heterojunction solar cell. It is observed that at -0.6 V, p-Cu 2 O film generates fewer surface states in the interband region due to the termination of [1 1 0] resulting in higher efficiency (0.24%) with maximum particle size (53 nm). The bandgap of Cu 2 O at this potential is found to be 2.17 eV. Furthermore, annealing of ZnO film was performed to get rid of deteriorating one and two dimensional defects, which always reduce the performance of solar cell significantly. We found that the solar cell performance efficiency is nearly doubled by increasing the annealing temperature of ZnO thin films due to increasing electrical conductance and electron mobility. Doping studies and fine tuning of the junction morphology will be necessary to further improve the performance of Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction solar cells.

  10. Local pH Monitoring of Small Cluster of Cells using a Fiber-Optic Dual-Core Micro-Probe.

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Xiao, Hai; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa

    2017-03-31

    Biological studies of tissues and cells have enabled numerous discoveries, but these studies still bear potential risks of invalidation because of cell heterogeneity. Through high-accuracy techniques, recent studies have demonstrated that discrepancies do exist between the results from low-number-cell studies and cell-population-based results. Thus the urgent need to re-evaluate key principles on limited number of cells has been provoked. In this study, a novel designed dual-core fiber-optic pH micro-probe was fabricated and demonstrated for niche environment pH sensing with high spatial resolution. An organic-modified silicate (OrMoSils) sol-gel thin layer was functionalized by entrapping a pH indicator, 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), on a ~70 μm sized probe tip. Good linear correlation between fluorescence ratio of I 560 nm /I 640 nm and intercellular pH values was obtained within a biological-relevant pH range from 6.20 to 7.92 (R 2 = 0.9834), and with a pH resolution of 0.035 ± 0.005 pH units. The probe's horizontal spatial resolution was demonstrated to be less than 2mm. Moreover, the probe was evaluated by measuring the localized extracellular pH changes of cultured human lung cancer cells (A549) when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs). Results showed that the probe has superior capability for fast, local, and continual monitoring of a small cluster of cells, which provides researchers a fast and accurate technique to conduct local pH measurements for cell heterogeneity-related studies.

  11. Cardiac tissue geometry as a determinant of unidirectional conduction block: assessment of microscopic excitation spread by optical mapping in patterned cell cultures and in a computer model.

    Fast, V G; Kléber, A G

    1995-05-01

    Unidirectional conduction block (UCB) and reentry may occur as a consequence of an abrupt tissue expansion and a related change in the electrical load. The aim of this study was to evaluate critical dimensions of the tissue necessary for establishing UCB in heart cell culture. Neonatal rat heart cell cultures with cell strands of variable width emerging into a large cell area were grown using a technique of patterned cell growth. Action potential upstrokes were measured using a voltage sensitive dye (RH-237) and a linear array of 10 photodiodes with a 15 microns resolution. A mathematical model was used to relate action potential wave shapes to underlying ionic currents. UCB (block of a single impulse in anterograde direction - from a strand to a large area - and conduction in the retrograde direction) occurred in narrow cell strands with a width of 15(SD 4) microns (1-2 cells in width, n = 7) and there was no conduction block in strands with a width of 31(8) microns (n = 9, P multiple rising phases. Mathematical modelling showed that two rising phases were caused by electronic current flow, whereas local ionic current did not coincide with the rising portions of the upstrokes. (1) High resolution optical mapping shows multiphasic action potential upstrokes at the region of abrupt expansion. At the site of the maximum decrement in conduction, these peaks were largely determined by the electrotonus and not by the local ionic current. (2) Unidirectional conduction block occurred in strands with a width of 15(4) microns (1-2 cells).

  12. Using the Optical Fractionator to Estimate Total Cell Numbers in the Normal and Abnormal Developing Human Forebrain

    Larsen, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    abnormal development. Furthermore, many studies of brain cell numbers have employed biased counting methods, whereas innovations in stereology during the past 20-30 years enable reliable and efficient estimates of cell numbers. However, estimates of cell volumes and densities in fetal brain samples...

  13. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Neurocognitive Function, Retinopathy, and Retinal Thinning by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Sickle Cell Patients.

    Oltra, Erica Z; Chow, Clement C; Wubben, Thomas; Lim, Jennifer I; Chau, Felix Y; Moss, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the relationship between neurocognitive function and two distinct forms of retinopathy in sickle cell disease. Patients with sickle cell disease (n = 44, age range: 19-56 years, 70% female) were prospectively recruited for this cross-sectional study. Retinopathy was characterized by: (1) Presence of focal retinal thinning on spectral domain optical coherence tomography and (2) determination of the sickle retinopathy stage on funduscopic exam based on Goldberg classification. Neurocognitive function was assessed using the Philadelphia Brief Assessment of Cognition (PBAC), a validated test of cognition. Univariate and multivariate analyses for PBAC score outcomes were performed. Retinal thinning and retinopathy stage were primary variables of interest and age, gender, genotype, education, and history of stroke were covariates. Univariate analysis revealed associations with total PBAC score and age (P = 0.049), history of stroke (P = 0.04), and genotype (P retinopathy stage were not associated with each other in this sample. Neither the presence of focal retinal thinning nor degree of retinopathy was associated with total PBAC score in univariate or multivariate analyses. We find an association between lower cognitive function and older age, history of stroke and sickle cell genotype SS in patients with sickle cell disease. Our data do not provide evidence to support an association between cognitive function and retinopathy in sickle cell patients.

  14. Impact of hydrogen dilution on optical properties of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition for solar cell applications

    Chen, Huai-Yi; Lee, Yao-Jen; Chang, Chien-Pin; Koo, Horng-Show; Lai, Chiung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    P-i-n single-junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells were successfully fabricated in this study on a glass substrate by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition (HDP-CVD) at low power of 50 W, low temperature of 200°C and various hydrogen dilution ratios (R). The open circuit voltage (Voc ), short circuit current density (Jsc ), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency (η) of the solar cell as well as the refractive index (n) and absorption coefficient (α) of the i-layer at 600 nm wavelength rise with increasing R until an abrupt drop at high hydrogen dilution, i.e. R > 0.95. However, the optical energy bandgap (Eg ) of the i-layer decreases with the R increase. Voc and α are inversely correlated with Eg . The hydrogen content affects the i-layer and p/i interface quality of the a-Si:H thin film solar cell with an optimal value of R = 0.95, which corresponds to solar cell conversion efficiency of 3.85%. The proposed a-Si:H thin film solar cell is expected to be improved in performance.

  15. Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Hasegawa, Akiyuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Kobayashi, Mari; Iwana, Shin-Ichi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissues are engineered by stacking cell sheets, and these tissues have been applied in clinical regenerative therapies. The optimal fabrication technique of 3D human tissues and the real-time observation system for these tissues are important in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cardiac physiology, and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. In this study, for aiming the clinical application, 3D human cardiac tissues were rapidly fabricated by human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cell sheets with centrifugation, and the structures and beatings in the cardiac tissues were observed cross-sectionally and noninvasively by two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The fabrication time was reduced to approximately one-quarter by centrifugation. The cross-sectional observation showed that multilayered cardiac cell sheets adhered tightly just after centrifugation. Additionally, the cross-sectional transmissions of beatings within multilayered human cardiac tissues were clearly detected by OCT. The observation showed the synchronous beatings of the thicker 3D human cardiac tissues, which were fabricated rapidly by cell sheet technology and centrifugation. The rapid tissue-fabrication technique and OCT technology will show a powerful potential in cardiac tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery research.

  16. Quantum optics

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  17. Development of an optical time-resolved measurement system under high-pressure and low-temperature with a piston-cylinder pressure cell

    Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Kino, Yohei; Nakagawa, Koichi; Nakagawa, Daisuke; Yamada, Jun-ichi; Toda, Yasunori

    2016-04-01

    To perform the femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy under high pressure and low temperature, we constructed a measurement system with a piston cylinder type pressure cell installing an optical fiber bundle. The applied pressure was achieved to 6 kbar and the cell was cooled down to 15 K. Several demonstrations revealed that broadening and change of polarization of pulse (duration of ˜120 fs) owing to the dispersions in the fiber bundle are much small indicating that those have little influence on the measurement of carrier relaxation dynamics. In the measurements of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2 under 1.3 kbar at 43 K, we have successfully detected the polarization anisotropy of the carrier relaxation dynamics and estimated the decay time in the same way as the normal measurement.

  18. Optical properties of anthocyanin dyes on TiO2 as photosensitizers for application of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Ahliha, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2018-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the alternative energy that can convert light energy into electrical energy. The component of DSSC consists of FTO substrates, TiO2, electrolyte, dye sensitizer, and counter electrode. This study aim was to determine the effect of optical properties of anthocyanin dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The dye sensitizer used can be extracted from anthocyanin pigments such as dragon fruit, black rice, and red cabbage. The red cabbage sensitizer shows lower absorbance value in the visible range (450-580 nm), than dragon fruit and black rice. The chemical structure of each dye molecules has an R group (carbonyl and hydroxyl) that forms a bond with the oxide layer. Red cabbage dye cell has the highest efficiency, 0.06% then dragon fruit and black rice, 0.02% and 0.03%.

  19. Tests of a polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium based on spin-exchange optical pumping and a storage cell for polarized deuterium

    Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.; Kinney, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which is based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping has been developed at Argonne. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments is discussed. At present, the laser-driven polarized source delivers hydrogen 8 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 25%. A passive storage cell for polarized deuterium was tested in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring. The storage cell was found to increase the target thickness by approximately a factor of three and no loss in polarization was observed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Evaluation of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Primary Craniopharyngioma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Yang, Liu; Qu, Yuanzhen; Lu, Wen; Liu, Fengjun

    2016-07-03

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the differences in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) in child and adult patients with primary craniopharyngioma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and to evaluate their significance in the diagnosis of primary craniopharyngioma. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-six participants were divided into 3 groups: 32 in the child craniopharyngioma group (CCG) and 32 in the adult craniopharyngioma group (ACG) who were treated in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between November 2013 and October 2014, and 32 in the normal group (NG). All subjects were scanned by FD-OCT to map GCC and pRNFL thicknesses. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness, and pRNFL thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters, including horizontal cup-disc ratio (HCDR), vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area (ODA), and cup area (CA), respectively. RESULTS The correlation between GCC and pRNFL thickness in the CCG was slightly stronger compared with the ACG. A significant difference in GCC thickness was observed among the CCG, ACG, and NG. Although the pRNFL thickness in both the CCG and ACG was significantly higher than that in NG, no significant difference in pRNFL thickness was detected between the 2 craniopharyngioma groups. The average, superior, and inferior pRNFL thicknesses were negatively correlated with VCDR in the CCG (in double eyes) and ACG (only in left eyes). CONCLUSIONS GCC was more sensitive than pRNFL in detecting optic nerve damage in the eyes of craniopharyngioma patients. A thinner pRNFL was especially correlated with VCDR in child craniopharyngioma patients.