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Sample records for multi-level morphometric feature

  1. Construction of Individual Morphological Brain Networks with Multiple Morphometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have increased attentions to the morphological brain network, which is generally constructed by measuring the mathematical correlation across regions using a certain morphometric feature, such as regional cortical thickness and voxel intensity. However, cerebral structure can be characterized by various factors, such as regional volume, surface area, and curvature. Moreover, most of the morphological brain networks are population-based, which has limitations in the investigations of individual difference and clinical applications. Hence, we have extended previous studies by proposing a novel method for realizing the construction of an individual-based morphological brain network through a combination of multiple morphometric features. In particular, interregional connections are estimated using our newly introduced feature vectors, namely, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the concatenation of seven morphometric features. Experiments were performed on a healthy cohort of 55 subjects (24 males aged from 20 to 29 and 31 females aged from 20 to 28 each scanned twice, and reproducibility was evaluated through test–retest reliability. The robustness of morphometric features was measured firstly to select the more reproducible features to form the connectomes. Then the topological properties were analyzed and compared with previous reports of different modalities. Small-worldness was observed in all the subjects at the range of the entire network sparsity (20–40%, and configurations were comparable with previous findings at the sparsity of 23%. The spatial distributions of the hub were found to be significantly influenced by the individual variances, and the hubs obtained by averaging across subjects and sparsities showed correspondence with previous reports. The intraclass coefficient of graphic properties (clustering coefficient = 0.83, characteristic path length = 0.81, betweenness centrality = 0.78 indicates

  2. Multi-level gene/MiRNA feature selection using deep belief nets and active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rania; Yousri, Noha A; Ismail, Mohamed A; El-Makky, Nagwa M

    2014-01-01

    Selecting the most discriminative genes/miRNAs has been raised as an important task in bioinformatics to enhance disease classifiers and to mitigate the dimensionality curse problem. Original feature selection methods choose genes/miRNAs based on their individual features regardless of how they perform together. Considering group features instead of individual ones provides a better view for selecting the most informative genes/miRNAs. Recently, deep learning has proven its ability in representing the data in multiple levels of abstraction, allowing for better discrimination between different classes. However, the idea of using deep learning for feature selection is not widely used in the bioinformatics field yet. In this paper, a novel multi-level feature selection approach named MLFS is proposed for selecting genes/miRNAs based on expression profiles. The approach is based on both deep and active learning. Moreover, an extension to use the technique for miRNAs is presented by considering the biological relation between miRNAs and genes. Experimental results show that the approach was able to outperform classical feature selection methods in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by 9%, lung cancer by 6% and breast cancer by around 10% in F1-measure. Results also show the enhancement in F1-measure of our approach over recently related work in [1] and [2].

  3. The Interaction Features of the Multi-Level Retaining Walls with Soil Mass

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    Boyko Igor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction features of multi-level retaining walls with soil base were researched by changing their geometric parameters and locality at the plan. During excavation of deep foundation pits it is important to choose the type of constructions which influences on the horizontal displacements. The distance between the levels of retaining walls should be based on the results of numerical modelling. The objective of this paper is to present a comparison between the data of numerical simulations and the results of the in-situ lateral tests of couple piles. The problems have been solved by using the following soil models: Coulomb-Mohr model; model, which is based on the dilatation theory; elastic-plastic model with variable stiffness parameters.

  4. The Interaction Features of the Multi-Level Retaining Walls with Soil Mass

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    Boyko, Igor; Skochko, Liudmyla; Zhuk, Veronica

    2017-09-01

    The interaction features of multi-level retaining walls with soil base were researched by changing their geometric parameters and locality at the plan. During excavation of deep foundation pits it is important to choose the type of constructions which influences on the horizontal displacements. The distance between the levels of retaining walls should be based on the results of numerical modelling. The objective of this paper is to present a comparison between the data of numerical simulations and the results of the in-situ lateral tests of couple piles. The problems have been solved by using the following soil models: Coulomb-Mohr model; model, which is based on the dilatation theory; elastic-plastic model with variable stiffness parameters.

  5. Multi-level governance of forest resources (Editorial to the special feature

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    Esther Mwangi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for many researchers and practitioners relates to how to recognize and address cross-scale dynamics in space and over time in order to design and implement effective governance arrangements. This editorial provides an overview of the concept of multi-level governance (MLG. In particular we highlight definitional issues, why the concept matters as well as more practical concerns related to the processes and structure of multi-level governance. It is increasingly clear that multi-level governance of forest resources involves complex interactions of state, private and civil society actors at various levels, and institutions linking higher levels of social and political organization. Local communities are increasingly connected to global networks and influences. This creates new opportunities to learn and address problems but may also introduce new pressures and risks. We conclude by stressing the need for a much complex approach to the varieties of MLG to better understand how policies work as instruments of governance and to organize communities within systems of power and authority.

  6. Multi-Level and Multi-Scale Feature Aggregation Using Pretrained Convolutional Neural Networks for Music Auto-Tagging

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    Lee, Jongpil; Nam, Juhan

    2017-08-01

    Music auto-tagging is often handled in a similar manner to image classification by regarding the 2D audio spectrogram as image data. However, music auto-tagging is distinguished from image classification in that the tags are highly diverse and have different levels of abstractions. Considering this issue, we propose a convolutional neural networks (CNN)-based architecture that embraces multi-level and multi-scaled features. The architecture is trained in three steps. First, we conduct supervised feature learning to capture local audio features using a set of CNNs with different input sizes. Second, we extract audio features from each layer of the pre-trained convolutional networks separately and aggregate them altogether given a long audio clip. Finally, we put them into fully-connected networks and make final predictions of the tags. Our experiments show that using the combination of multi-level and multi-scale features is highly effective in music auto-tagging and the proposed method outperforms previous state-of-the-arts on the MagnaTagATune dataset and the Million Song Dataset. We further show that the proposed architecture is useful in transfer learning.

  7. morphometric features of a low-elevation urban catchment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    River basin morphometric is a geomorphological tool that applies to physical ... Harcourt region's drainage as it pertains to flooding described the area as ... floods in several sub-basins of a river that posed risks to ... Bight of Bonny, off the Gulf of Guinea into the Atlantic ..... the extreme; because such forest will be thick and.

  8. Combining morphometric features and convolutional networks fusion for glaucoma diagnosis

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    Perdomo, Oscar; Arevalo, John; González, Fabio A.

    2017-11-01

    Glaucoma is an eye condition that leads to loss of vision and blindness. Ophthalmoscopy exam evaluates the shape, color and proportion between the optic disc and physiologic cup, but the lack of agreement among experts is still the main diagnosis problem. The application of deep convolutional neural networks combined with automatic extraction of features such as: the cup-to-disc distance in the four quadrants, the perimeter, area, eccentricity, the major radio, the minor radio in optic disc and cup, in addition to all the ratios among the previous parameters may help with a better automatic grading of glaucoma. This paper presents a strategy to merge morphological features and deep convolutional neural networks as a novel methodology to support the glaucoma diagnosis in eye fundus images.

  9. Morphometric analysis with open source software to explore shallow hydrogeological features in Senegal and Guinea

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    Fussi, Fabio; Di Leo, Margherita; Bonomi, Tullia; Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Hamidou Kane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    stratigraphic logs from water boreholes. We observed the relationships between the spatial distribution of hydrogeological features and the morphology, applying multivariate statistical analysis. The ultimate goal of this study is to infer hydrogeological information of shallow aquifers, exploiting morphometric parameters (together with other layers of information from existing thematic maps and remote sensing) and to reconstruct the geometry and the characteristic of shallow porous aquifer. This research is part of a larger project financed by NERC (National Environment Research Council, UK) in the framework of the program UPGRO (Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poors), with the collaboration of different partners from Italy, Senegal and Guinea

  10. [Morphometric features of the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women].

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    Antyukhov, A D

    2015-01-01

    To identify the interhemispheric asymmetry in the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women. Morphometric features of the structure of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex were studied in histological sections of the brain of 6 men and 6 women (24 hemispheres), aged 19 to 55 years, with no lifetime diagnosis of mental or neurological disease. The value of the profile fields of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex in the left and right hemispheres of the brain were investigated. In women, the average value of neurons in the left hemisphere was somewhat greater than in the right hemisphere, while in men this value was greater in the right hemisphere. The interhemispheric morphometric differences were not significant regardless of gender. In addition, the quantity of relevant fields of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala in women was significantly larger than that of men in both hemispheres. The authors attempted to associate the results obtained in the study with emotional perception in men and women.

  11. Clinical, morphologic, and morphometric features of cranial thoracic spinal stenosis in large and giant breed dogs.

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    Johnson, Philippa; De Risio, Luisa; Sparkes, Andrew; McConnell, Fraser; Holloway, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The clinical, morphologic, and morphometric features of cranial thoracic spinal stenosis were investigated in large and giant breed dogs. Seventy-nine magnetic resonance imaging studies of the cranial thoracic spine were assessed. Twenty-six were retrieved retrospectively and 53 were acquired prospectively using the same inclusion criteria. Images were evaluated using a modified compression scale as: no osseous stenosis (grade 0), osseous stenosis without spinal cord compression (grade 1), and osseous stenosis with spinal cord compression (grade 2). Morphometric analysis was performed and compared to the subjective grading system. Grades 1 and 2 cranial thoracic spinal stenosis were identified on 24 imaging studies in 23 dogs. Sixteen of 23 dogs had a conformation typified by Molosser breeds and 21/23 were male. The most common sites of stenosis were T2-3 and T3-4. The articular process joints were enlarged with abnormal oblique orientation. Stenosis was dorsolateral, lateralized, or dorsoventral. Concurrent osseous cervical spondylomyelopathy was recognized in six dogs and other neurologic disease in five dogs. Cranial thoracic spinal stenosis was the only finding in 12 dogs. In 9 of these 12 dogs (all grade 2) neurolocalization was to the T3-L3 spinal segment. The median age of these dogs was 9.5 months. In the remaining three dogs neurologic signs were not present. Stenosis ratios were of limited benefit in detecting stenotic sites. Grade 2 cranial thoracic spinal stenosis causing direct spinal cord compression may lead to neurologic signs, however milder stenosis (grade 1) is likely to be subclinical or incidental. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  12. Morphometric features of a low-elevation urban catchment and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River basin morphometric is a geomorphological tool that applies to physical measurements about a river form, from which can be derived quantities that explain its characteristics, such as size, shape, stream network and discharge. This paper used basin morphometric to assess flood occurrence in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

  13. An optimal set of features for predicting type IV secretion system effector proteins for a subset of species based on a multi-level feature selection approach.

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    Zhila Esna Ashari

    Full Text Available Type IV secretion systems (T4SS are multi-protein complexes in a number of bacterial pathogens that can translocate proteins and DNA to the host. Most T4SSs function in conjugation and translocate DNA; however, approximately 13% function to secrete proteins, delivering effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. Upon entry, these effectors manipulate the host cell's machinery for their own benefit, which can result in serious illness or death of the host. For this reason recognition of T4SS effectors has become an important subject. Much previous work has focused on verifying effectors experimentally, a costly endeavor in terms of money, time, and effort. Having good predictions for effectors will help to focus experimental validations and decrease testing costs. In recent years, several scoring and machine learning-based methods have been suggested for the purpose of predicting T4SS effector proteins. These methods have used different sets of features for prediction, and their predictions have been inconsistent. In this paper, an optimal set of features is presented for predicting T4SS effector proteins using a statistical approach. A thorough literature search was performed to find features that have been proposed. Feature values were calculated for datasets of known effectors and non-effectors for T4SS-containing pathogens for four genera with a sufficient number of known effectors, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnetii, Brucella spp, and Bartonella spp. The features were ranked, and less important features were filtered out. Correlations between remaining features were removed, and dimensional reduction was accomplished using principal component analysis and factor analysis. Finally, the optimal features for each pathogen were chosen by building logistic regression models and evaluating each model. The results based on evaluation of our logistic regression models confirm the effectiveness of our four optimal sets of

  14. A multilevel-ROI-features-based machine learning method for detection of morphometric biomarkers in Parkinson's disease.

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    Peng, Bo; Wang, Suhong; Zhou, Zhiyong; Liu, Yan; Tong, Baotong; Zhang, Tao; Dai, Yakang

    2017-06-09

    Machine learning methods have been widely used in recent years for detection of neuroimaging biomarkers in regions of interest (ROIs) and assisting diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. The innovation of this study is to use multilevel-ROI-features-based machine learning method to detect sensitive morphometric biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, the low-level ROI features (gray matter volume, cortical thickness, etc.) and high-level correlative features (connectivity between ROIs) are integrated to construct the multilevel ROI features. Filter- and wrapper- based feature selection method and multi-kernel support vector machine (SVM) are used in the classification algorithm. T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) images of 69 PD patients and 103 normal controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) dataset are included in the study. The machine learning method performs well in classification between PD patients and normal controls with an accuracy of 85.78%, a specificity of 87.79%, and a sensitivity of 87.64%. The most sensitive biomarkers between PD patients and normal controls are mainly distributed in frontal lobe, parental lobe, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, and central region. The classification performance of our method with multilevel ROI features is significantly improved comparing with other classification methods using single-level features. The proposed method shows promising identification ability for detecting morphometric biomarkers in PD, thus confirming the potentiality of our method in assisting diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aneurysms of the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation: comparison of the morphometric features.

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    Tykocki, Tomasz; Kostkiewicz, Bogusław

    2014-09-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) located in the posterior circulation are considered to have higher annual bleed rates than those in the anterior circulation. The aim of the study was to compare the morphometric factors differentiating between IAs located in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. A total number of 254 IAs diagnosed between 2009 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients qualified for diagnostic, three-dimensional rotational angiography. IAs were assigned to either the anterior or posterior cerebral circulation subsets for the analysis. Means were compared with a t-test. The univariate and stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of morphometric differences between the groups. For the defined predictors, ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curves and interactive dot diagrams were calculated with the cutoff values of the morphometric factors. The number of anterior cerebral circulation IAs was 179 (70.5 %); 141 (55.5 %) aneurysms were ruptured. Significant differences between anterior and posterior circulation IAs were found for: the parent artery size (5.08 ± 1.8 mm vs. 3.95 ± 1.5 mm; p 45) and aspect ratio (AR) (1.91 ± 0.8 vs. 2.75 ± 1.8; p = 0.02). Predicting factors differentiating anterior and posterior circulation IAs were: the AR (OR = 2.20; 95 % CI 1.80-270; Is 270 correct or should it be 2.70 and parent artery size (OR = 0.44; 95 % CI 0.38-0.54). The cutoff point in the ROC curve was 2.185 for the AR and 4.89 mm for parent artery size. Aspect ratio and parent artery size were found to be predictive morphometric factors in differentiating between anterior and posterior cerebral IAs.

  16. Computer vision approach to morphometric feature analysis of basal cell nuclei for evaluating malignant potentiality of oral submucous fibrosis.

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    Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy K

    2012-06-01

    This research work presents a quantitative approach for analysis of histomorphometric features of the basal cell nuclei in respect to their size, shape and intensity of staining, from surface epithelium of Oral Submucous Fibrosis showing dysplasia (OSFD) to that of the Normal Oral Mucosa (NOM). For all biological activity, the basal cells of the surface epithelium form the proliferative compartment and therefore their morphometric changes will spell the intricate biological behavior pertaining to normal cellular functions as well as in premalignant and malignant status. In view of this, the changes in shape, size and intensity of staining of the nuclei in the basal cell layer of the NOM and OSFD have been studied. Geometric, Zernike moments and Fourier descriptor (FD) based as well as intensity based features are extracted for histomorphometric pattern analysis of the nuclei. All these features are statistically analyzed along with 3D visualization in order to discriminate the groups. Results showed increase in the dimensions (area and perimeter), shape parameters and decreasing mean nuclei intensity of the nuclei in OSFD in respect to NOM. Further, the selected features are fed to the Bayesian classifier to discriminate normal and OSFD. The morphometric and intensity features provide a good sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 98.53% and positive predicative accuracy of 97.35%. This comparative quantitative characterization of basal cell nuclei will be of immense help for oral onco-pathologists, researchers and clinicians to assess the biological behavior of OSFD, specially relating to their premalignant and malignant potentiality. As a future direction more extensive study involving more number of disease subjects is observed.

  17. Multi-Level Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always be enough data to apply credibility theory to a real insurance portfolio.

  18. Morphological and morphometric features of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus liver in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Gizela Melina; Rodrigues, Robson Andrade; Marcondes, Sandriely Fernanda; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g) and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g), from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer). The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm), 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm) and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm), respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, Pcyst diameter (r=0.62, Pnematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

  19. Linguatula serrata prevalence and morphometrical features: an abattoir survey on water buffaloes in Iran

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    Hossein Tajik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and morphometrical characteristics of Linguatula serrata (L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 366 Iranian water buffaloes were investigated. The infestation rate increased with age (P0.1. In this study, 7.65% of animals had L. serrata nymphs with infection rates of 5.73% for MLNs, 1.63% for livers and 0.27% for lungs. Greyish-white coloured nymphs measured 3.5 to 4.5 mm in length, 82 to 84 mm in body segments, 44 to 46 mm in transversely striated spines and 4 mm in oral hooks. The results indicated a high rate of infestation of lymph nodes in buffaloes in Iran. Due to consumption of raw or under-cooked liver and visceral organs of buffaloes by local people, the importance of a thorough inspection at slaughter-time seems imperative.

  20. Morphological and morphometric features of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus liver in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizela Melina Galindo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g, from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer. The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm, 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm, respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, P<0.05. Collagen layer was correlated with cyst diameter (r=0.62, P<0.01. Pericystic and parenchymatous MMCs were moderately (r=0.48 and highly (r=0.90 correlated with nematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

  1. Understanding of morphometric features for adequate water resource management in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Mohamed; Galal, Hanaa K.; Alsubaie, Haneen

    2017-08-01

    Hydrological characteristics such as topographic parameters, drainage attributes, and land use/land cover patterns are essential to evaluate the water resource management of a watershed area. In the current study, delineation of a watershed and calculation of morphometric characteristics were undertaken using the ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM). The drainage density of the basin was estimated to be very high, which indicates that the watershed possesses highly permeable soils and low to medium relief. The stream order of the area ranges from first to sixth order, showing a semi-dendritic and radial drainage pattern that indicates heterogeneity in textural characteristics, and it is influenced by structural characteristics in the study area. The bifurcation ratio (Rb) of the basin ranges from 2.0 to 4.42, and the mean bifurcation ratio is 3.84 in the entire study area, which signifies that the drainage pattern of the entire basin is controlled much more by the lithological and geological structure. The elongation ratio is 0.14, which indicates that the shape of the basin has a narrow and elongated shape. A land use/land cover map was generated by using a Landsat-8 image acquired on 10 August 2015 and classified to distinguish mainly the alluvial deposit from the mountainous rock.

  2. Understanding of morphometric features for adequate water resource management in arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elhag

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological characteristics such as topographic parameters, drainage attributes, and land use/land cover patterns are essential to evaluate the water resource management of a watershed area. In the current study, delineation of a watershed and calculation of morphometric characteristics were undertaken using the ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM. The drainage density of the basin was estimated to be very high, which indicates that the watershed possesses highly permeable soils and low to medium relief. The stream order of the area ranges from first to sixth order, showing a semi-dendritic and radial drainage pattern that indicates heterogeneity in textural characteristics, and it is influenced by structural characteristics in the study area. The bifurcation ratio (Rb of the basin ranges from 2.0 to 4.42, and the mean bifurcation ratio is 3.84 in the entire study area, which signifies that the drainage pattern of the entire basin is controlled much more by the lithological and geological structure. The elongation ratio is 0.14, which indicates that the shape of the basin has a narrow and elongated shape. A land use/land cover map was generated by using a Landsat-8 image acquired on 10 August 2015 and classified to distinguish mainly the alluvial deposit from the mountainous rock.

  3. Multi-level spondylolysis.

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    Hersh, David S; Kim, Yong H; Razi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of isthmic spondylolysis is approximately 3% to 6% in the general population. Spondylolytic defects involving multiple vertebral levels, on the other hand, are extremely rare. Only a handful of reports have examined the outcomes of surgical treatment of multi-level spondylolysis. Here, we present one case of bilateral pars defects at L3, L4, and L5. The patient, a 46-year-old female, presented with lower back pain radiating into the left lower extremity. Radiographs and CT scans of the lumbar spine revealed bilateral pars defects at L3-L5. The patient underwent lumbar discectomy and interbody fusion of L4-S1 as well as direct repair of the pars defect at L3. There were no postoperative complications, and by seven months the patient had improved clinically. While previous reports describe the use of either direct repair or fusion in the treatment of spondylolysis, we are unaware of reports describing the use of both techniques at adjacent levels.

  4. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vásquez-Gassibe, P.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Santos-del-Blanco, L.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability. Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typically affected by wildfires dominated by Pinus pinaster, a species adapted to fire disturbance. Material and Methods: We studied P. pinaster root apexes from seedlings grown in soils collected one year after fire in undisturbed sites, sites moderately affected by fire and sites highly affected by fire. Natural ectomycorrhization was observed at the whole root system level as well as at two root vertical sections (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). We also measured several morphometric traits (tap root length, shoot length, dry biomass of shoots and root/shoot ratio), which were used to test the influence of fire severity and soil chemistry upon them. Main results: Ectomycorrhizal colonization in undisturbed soils for total and separated root vertical sections was higher than in soils that had been affected by fire to some degree. Inversely, seedling vegetative size increased according to fire severity. Research highlights: Fire severity affected soil properties and mycorrhizal colonization one year after occurrence, thus affecting plant development. These findings can contribute to a better knowledge of the factors mediating successful establishment of P. pinaster in Mediterranean forests after wildfires. (Author)

  5. Segmental distribution and morphometric features of primary sensory neurons projecting to the tibial periosteum in the rat.

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    Tadeusz Cichocki

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have demonstrated very rich innervation pattern in the periosteum. Most of the periosteal fibers were found to be sensory in nature. The aim of this study was to identify the primary sensory neurons that innervate the tibial periosteum in the adult rat and to describe the morphometric features of their perikarya. To this end, an axonal fluorescent carbocyanine tracer, DiI, was injected into the periosteum on the medial surface of the tibia. The perikarya of the sensory fibers were traced back in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG L1-L6 by means of fluorescent microscopy on cryosections. DiI-containing neurons were counted in each section and their segmental distribution was determined. Using PC-assisted image analysis system, the size and shape of the traced perikarya were analyzed. DiI-labeled sensory neurons innervating the periosteum of the tibia were located in the DRG ipsilateral to the injection site, with the highest distribution in L3 and L4 (57% and 23%, respectively. The majority of the traced neurons were of small size (area < 850 microm2, which is consistent with the size distribution of CGRP- and SP-containing cells, regarded as primary sensory neurons responsible for perception of pain and temperature. A small proportion of labeled cells had large perikarya and probably supplied corpuscular sense receptors observed in the periosteum. No differences were found in the shape distribution of neurons belonging to different size classes.

  6. Morphometric analysis of craniofacial features in mono- and dizygotic twins discordant for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexis Y; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-09-01

    To compare craniofacial differences between twins discordant for surgically repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) during the developmental ages and to test the effect of zygosity on the shape and size of the craniofacial skeleton of the same twins by means of thin plate spline (TPS) analysis. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric films from 19 sets of monozygotic (MZ) twins (15 male and 4 female) and 10 dizygotic (DZ) twins (7 male and 3 female) were analyzed. TPS analysis evaluated statistically significant differences in the craniofacial shape and size between affected and unaffected twins within MZ and DZ twin couples. No statistically significant differences in craniofacial shape or size between CLP and non-CLP MZ or DZ twins were observed. The level of morphological similarity in CLP vs non-CLP MZ twins was statistically greater than in DZ twins. Morphometric analysis showed that surgically repaired CLP does not produce significant shape or size differences in the craniofacial features of MZ or DZ twins discordant for unilateral CLP.

  7. Multi-level converter with auxiliary resonant-commutated pole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, F.R.; Duarte, J.L.; Groningen, van W.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    The family of multi-level power converters offers advantages for high-power, high-voltage systems. A multi-level nested-cell structure has the attractive feature of static and dynamic voltage sharing among the switches. This is achieved by using clamping capacitors (floating capacitors) rather than

  8. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  9. Seasonal and gender-related differences in morphometric features and cellular and biochemical parameters of Carcinus aestuarii from the Lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Boscolo, Alice; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the seasonal variations in the morphometric features and in the cellular and biochemical parameters of the haemolymph were investigated in both male and female crabs (Carcinus aestuarii). Crabs were seasonally (November 2010-August 2011) collected from the Lagoon of Venice, and the moult stage, weight, width and length of the carapace, and width and length of the bigger chela were evaluated. In addition, the total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte diameter and volume, haemolymph glucose and total protein levels, and haemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities were measured. The results demonstrated that the collected crabs were all in the intermoult stage and that the males were bigger than the females. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of season on the THC and the haemocyte volume and a significant influence of gender on the haemocyte diameter. Season and gender significantly affected the haemolymph glucose concentration, whereas haemolymph protein levels were dependent only on the season. In addition, both season and gender significantly influenced the PO and NAG activities in the haemolymph. Overall, the results demonstrated that crab morphometric features as well as haemolymph cellular and biochemical parameters varied markedly as a function of both season and gender. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BONE LESIONS AND CORRELATION OF CLINICAL, LABORATORY AND MORPHOMETRIC CRITERIA IN PATIENTS WITH LATENT SCLEROSING HEMATOGENOUS OSTEOMYELITIS (GARRÉ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Grigorovsky

    2018-01-01

    correlation dependencies was reported between clinical and laboratorial criteria on the one hand, and with morphometric criteria — on the other hand.Conclusion. Pathomorphological features of bone lesions in sclerosing hematogenous osteomyelitis are nonhomogeneous. Every case in the study demonstrated stereotype alterations such as substantial diffuse fibroses of marrow spaces in cancellous bone and bone regenerate, remodeling of bone tissues with gradual acceleration of osteosclerosis and persisting productive inflammation. Only in sone cases featured small sites of exudative inflammation — microabscesses with microsequestration.

  11. Multi level configuration of ETO products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces and defines central concepts related to multi level configuration and analyzes which challenges an engineer to order company must deal with to be able to realize a multi level configuration system. It is argued that high flexibility can be achieved and focus can be directed...... in certain business processes if a multi level configuration system is realized....

  12. Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Information Systems Studies Security and Research (CISR)

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network is a cost effective, multi-level, easy to use office environment leveraging existing high assurance technology. The Department of Defense and U.S. Government have an identified need to securely share information classified at differing security levels. Because there exist no commercial solutions to this problem, NPS is developing a MLS LAN. The MLS LAN extends high assurance capabilities of an evaluated multi-level secure system to commercial personal com...

  13. Variability of the morphometric features of Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae under the varying and constant micro-climatic condi-tions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Faly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the main morphometric features of imago flies Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Diptera, Calliphoridae of two samples was studied. First sample consists of individuals caught in the wild (park ecosystems of Dnipropetrovsk, the second one – specimens cultured in the laboratory under the constant temperature and humidity. Possible using of C. vicina R.-D. as a bioindicator of anthropogenic factors is analysed. Environmental factors may act as the stimulators of adaptive changes in physiological functions, as the constraints that cause impossibility of the existence of certain species in particular conditions, and as modifiers that determine the morpho- anatomical and physiological changes in organisms. The most significant differences between studied samples were found for the width (“laboratory” individuals are characterized by larger head size and for the length of limbs segments. The fluctuating range of the head width in specimens collected in the wild is much wider, due to the heterogeneity of the micro-climatic conditions of the larvae development and trophic resources. Maximal negative asymmetry of the head width is observed in individuals C. vicina R.-D. of the “natural” sample as compared with “laboratory” individuals. Among imagoes caught in the wild the individuals with a relatively wide head are dominated, as evidenced by the large positive value of kurtosis. At the same time, the distribution of values in “laboratory” individuals is almost normal. In adults bred in the laboratory the shortening of segments of the leg pair I is observed in comparison with the individuals of “natural” sample. Similar results were recorded for other insect groups cultivated in a laboratory. For most other linear measurements of the C. vicina R.-D. body the differences between samples are not registered. Ephemeral existence of the substrate of blow flies leads to higher prevailing evolutionary adaptation of species to varying

  14. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  15. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  16. Jupiter's Multi-level Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Clouds and hazes at various altitudes within the dynamic Jovian atmosphere are revealed by multi-color imaging taken by the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) onboard the Galileo spacecraft. These images were taken during the second orbit (G2) on September 5, 1996 from an early-morning vantage point 2.1 million kilometers (1.3 million miles) above Jupiter. They show the planet's appearance as viewed at various near-infrared wavelengths, with distinct differences due primarily to variations in the altitudes and opacities of the cloud systems. The top left and right images, taken at 1.61 microns and 2.73 microns respectively, show relatively clear views of the deep atmosphere, with clouds down to a level about three times the atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface.By contrast, the middle image in top row, taken at 2.17 microns, shows only the highest altitude clouds and hazes. This wavelength is severely affected by the absorption of light by hydrogen gas, the main constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere. Therefore, only the Great Red Spot, the highest equatorial clouds, a small feature at mid-northern latitudes, and thin, high photochemical polar hazes can be seen. In the lower left image, at 3.01 microns, deeper clouds can be seen dimly against gaseous ammonia and methane absorption. In the lower middle image, at 4.99 microns, the light observed is the planet's own indigenous heat from the deep, warm atmosphere.The false color image (lower right) succinctly shows various cloud and haze levels seen in the Jovian atmosphere. This image indicates the temperature and altitude at which the light being observed is produced. Thermally-rich red areas denote high temperatures from photons in the deep atmosphere leaking through minimal cloud cover; green denotes cool temperatures of the tropospheric clouds; blue denotes cold of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The polar regions appear purplish, because small-particle hazes allow leakage and reflectivity

  17. Geoinformatics for assessing the morphometric control on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    natural disasters are one of the serious geo-hazards, ... Natural features such as land use and land cover, soil and .... steps followed for the generation of morphometric ... language. Infiltration number. Area, perimeter, basin length, min & max.

  18. Morphometrics applied to medical entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Morphometrics underwent a revolution more than one decade ago. In the modern morphometrics, the estimate of size is now contained in a single variable reflecting variation in many directions, as many as there are landmarks under study, and shape is defined as their relative positions after correcting for size, position and orientation. With these informative data, and the corresponding software freely available to conduct complex analyses, significant biological and epidemiological features can be quantified more accurately. We discuss the evolutionary significance of the environmental impact on metric variability, mentioning the importance of concepts like genetic assimilation, genetic accommodation, and epigenetics. We provide examples of measuring the effect of selection on metric variation by comparing (unpublished) Qst values with corresponding (published) Fst. The primary needs of medical entomologists are to distinguish species, especially cryptic species, and to detect them where they are not expected. We explain how geometric morphometrics could apply to these questions, and where there are deficiencies preventing the approach from being utilized at its maximum potential. Medical entomologists in connection with control programs aim to identify isolated populations where the risk of reinfestation after treatment would be low ("biogeographical islands"). Identifying them can be obtained from estimating the number of migrants per generation. Direct assessment of movement remains the most valid approach, but it scores active movement only. Genetic methods estimating gene flow levels among interbreeding populations are commonly used, but gene flow does not necessarily mean the current flow of migrants. Methods using the morphometric variation are neither suited to evaluate gene flow, nor are they adapted to estimate the flow of migrants. They may provide, however, the information needed to create a preliminary map pointing to relevant areas where one could

  19. A Container-based Trusted Multi-level Security Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level security mechanism has been widely applied in the military, government, defense and other domains in which information is required to be divided by security-level. Through this type of security mechanism, users at different security levels are provided with information at corresponding security levels. Traditional multi-level security mechanism which depends on the safety of operating system finally proved to be not practical. We propose a container-based trusted multi-level security mechanism in this paper to improve the applicability of the multi-level mechanism. It guarantees multi-level security of the system through a set of multi-level security policy rules and trusted techniques. The technical feasibility and application scenarios are also discussed. The ease of realization, strong practical significance and low cost of our method will largely expand the application of multi-level security mechanism in real life.

  20. Multi-level damage identification with response reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Dong; Xu, You-Lin

    2017-10-01

    Damage identification through finite element (FE) model updating usually forms an inverse problem. Solving the inverse identification problem for complex civil structures is very challenging since the dimension of potential damage parameters in a complex civil structure is often very large. Aside from enormous computation efforts needed in iterative updating, the ill-condition and non-global identifiability features of the inverse problem probably hinder the realization of model updating based damage identification for large civil structures. Following a divide-and-conquer strategy, a multi-level damage identification method is proposed in this paper. The entire structure is decomposed into several manageable substructures and each substructure is further condensed as a macro element using the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique. The damage identification is performed at two levels: the first is at macro element level to locate the potentially damaged region and the second is over the suspicious substructures to further locate as well as quantify the damage severity. In each level's identification, the damage searching space over which model updating is performed is notably narrowed down, not only reducing the computation amount but also increasing the damage identifiability. Besides, the Kalman filter-based response reconstruction is performed at the second level to reconstruct the response of the suspicious substructure for exact damage quantification. Numerical studies and laboratory tests are both conducted on a simply supported overhanging steel beam for conceptual verification. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-level damage identification via response reconstruction does improve the identification accuracy of damage localization and quantization considerably.

  1. Multi-level deep supervised networks for retinal vessel segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Juan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the appearance of retinal blood vessels are an important indicator for various ophthalmologic and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and choroidal neovascularization. Vessel segmentation from retinal images is very challenging because of low blood vessel contrast, intricate vessel topology, and the presence of pathologies such as microaneurysms and hemorrhages. To overcome these challenges, we propose a neural network-based method for vessel segmentation. A deep supervised fully convolutional network is developed by leveraging multi-level hierarchical features of the deep networks. To improve the discriminative capability of features in lower layers of the deep network and guide the gradient back propagation to overcome gradient vanishing, deep supervision with auxiliary classifiers is incorporated in some intermediate layers of the network. Moreover, the transferred knowledge learned from other domains is used to alleviate the issue of insufficient medical training data. The proposed approach does not rely on hand-crafted features and needs no problem-specific preprocessing or postprocessing, which reduces the impact of subjective factors. We evaluate the proposed method on three publicly available databases, the DRIVE, STARE, and CHASE_DB1 databases. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach achieves better or comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods with a much faster processing speed, making it suitable for real-world clinical applications. The results of cross-training experiments demonstrate its robustness with respect to the training set. The proposed approach segments retinal vessels accurately with a much faster processing speed and can be easily applied to other biomedical segmentation tasks.

  2. Developing Multi-Level Institutions from Top-Down Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Dowsley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature contains numerous examples of the failures of both top-down and bottom-up common pool resource management frameworks. Many authors agree that management regimes instead need to utilize a multi-level governance approach to meet diverse objectives in management. However, many currently operating systems do not have that history. This paper explores the conversion of ancestral top-down regimes to complex systems involving multiple scales, levels and objectives through the management of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus in its five range countries. The less successful polar bear management systems continue to struggle with the challenges of developing institutions with the capacity to learn and change, addressing multiple objectives while recognizing the conservation backbone to management, and matching the institutional scale with biophysical, economic and social scales. The comparatively successful institutions incorporate these features, but reveal on-going problems with vertical links that are partially dealt with through the creation of links to other groups.

  3. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  4. Multi-level governance in EU climate law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses the multi-level governance in EU climate law; it connects the international arena, with EU and national decision-making and relates climate change considerations to competitiveness concerns.

  5. Optimal Multi-Level Lot Sizing for Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Earle Steinberg; H. Albert Napier

    1980-01-01

    The wide spread use of advanced information systems such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has significantly altered the practice of dependent demand inventory management. Recent research has focused on development of multi-level lot sizing heuristics for such systems. In this paper, we develop an optimal procedure for the multi-period, multi-product, multi-level lot sizing problem by modeling the system as a constrained generalized network with fixed charge arcs and side constraints. T...

  6. Multi-level tree analysis of pulmonary artery/vein trees in non-contrast CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyun; Grout, Randall W.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Saha, Punam K.

    2012-02-01

    Diseases like pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension are associated with vascular dystrophy. Identifying such pulmonary artery/vein (A/V) tree dystrophy in terms of quantitative measures via CT imaging significantly facilitates early detection of disease or a treatment monitoring process. A tree structure, consisting of nodes and connected arcs, linked to the volumetric representation allows multi-level geometric and volumetric analysis of A/V trees. Here, a new theory and method is presented to generate multi-level A/V tree representation of volumetric data and to compute quantitative measures of A/V tree geometry and topology at various tree hierarchies. The new method is primarily designed on arc skeleton computation followed by a tree construction based topologic and geometric analysis of the skeleton. The method starts with a volumetric A/V representation as input and generates its topologic and multi-level volumetric tree representations long with different multi-level morphometric measures. A new recursive merging and pruning algorithms are introduced to detect bad junctions and noisy branches often associated with digital geometric and topologic analysis. Also, a new notion of shortest axial path is introduced to improve the skeletal arc joining two junctions. The accuracy of the multi-level tree analysis algorithm has been evaluated using computer generated phantoms and pulmonary CT images of a pig vessel cast phantom while the reproducibility of method is evaluated using multi-user A/V separation of in vivo contrast-enhanced CT images of a pig lung at different respiratory volumes.

  7. Governing the energy challenge : Canada and Germany in a multi-level regional and global context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, B.; Doern, G.B.; Exeter Univ.,

    2009-01-01

    This book features essays by leading energy and public policy specialists from Canada and Germany. It originated in the Transatlantic Energy Conference which was hosted by the Canadian Centre for German and European Studies at Toronto's York University in September 2005. The conference was attended by leading energy scholars and experts from Canadian and European universities, research institutes and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this book was to compare the dynamics of multi-level energy regulatory governance in Germany and Canada, notably the energy policy challenges that include energy security, environmental sustainability and a competitive resource economy. Many strategies to produce more efficient and sustainable energy are presented in the book. Part 1 of the book focuses on the energy industry, with particular emphasise on electricity, nuclear energy and natural gas. Part 2 of the book focuses on domestic patterns of multi-level energy governance and regulation in the two countries. As a member of the European Union, Germany is more advanced in dealing with multi-level governmental and sustainability constraints than Canada is as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The book focuses on the influence that the energy sector and multi-level institutional arrangements have on energy governance, with particular attention to the link between environmental study, climate change issues and economic market reforms. The growing differences between NAFTA and European Union member countries were highlighted. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. On multi-level thinking and scientific understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Michael Edgeworth

    2017-10-01

    Professor Duzheng YE's name has been familiar to me ever since my postdoctoral years at MIT with Professors Jule CHARNEY and Norman PHILLIPS, back in the late 1960s. I had the enormous pleasure of meeting Professor YE personally in 1992 in Beijing. His concern to promote the very best science and to use it well, and his thinking on multi-level orderly human activities, reminds me not only of the communication skills we need as scientists but also of the multi-level nature of science itself. Here I want to say something (a) about what science is; (b) about why multi-level thinking—and taking more than one viewpoint—is so important for scientific as well as for other forms of understanding; and (c) about what is meant, at a deep level, by "scientific understanding" and trying to communicate it, not only with lay persons but also across professional disciplines. I hope that Professor YE would approve.

  9. Mathematical model comparing of the multi-level economics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykalov, S. M.; Kryanev, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical model (scheme) of a multi-level comparison of the economic system, characterized by the system of indices, is worked out. In the mathematical model of the multi-level comparison of the economic systems, the indicators of peer review and forecasting of the economic system under consideration can be used. The model can take into account the uncertainty in the estimated values of the parameters or expert estimations. The model uses the multi-criteria approach based on the Pareto solutions.

  10. Pracovní motivace v multi-level marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Mrázková, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the motivation in multi-level marketing company. The thesis introduces basic general marketing tools, but also multi-level marketing and the theory of motivation. The research in practical part was done in the form of electronical survey, which was completed by 71 responders. The responders were employees of specific company. The thesis does not only focus on the motivation in work in general, but also on the difference in motivation between male and fem...

  11. Multi-Level Security Cannot Realise NEC Objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, H.A.; Hartog, T.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Level Security (MLS) is often viewed as the holy grail of information security, especially in those environments where information of different classifications is being processed. In this paper we argue that MLS cannot facilitate the right balance between need-to-protect and duty-to-share as

  12. Governance and the Commons in a Multi-Level World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Armitage

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level governance may facilitate learning and adaptation in complex social-ecological circumstances. Such arrangements should connect community-based management with regional/national government-level management, link scientific management and traditional management systems, encourage the sharing of knowledge and information, and promote collaboration and dialogue around goals and outcomes. Governance innovations of this type can thus build capacity to adapt to change and manage for resilience. However, critical reflection on the emergence of adaptive, multi-level governance for the commons is warranted. Drawing on examples from the North and South, the purpose of this review is to connect three complementary bodies of scholarship with insights for commons governance in a multi-level world: common property theory, resilience thinking and political ecology. From the commons and resilience literature, normative principles of adaptive, multi-level governance are synthesized (e.g., participation, accountability, leadership, knowledge pluralism, learning and trust. Political ecological interpretations, however, help to reveal the challenge of actualizing these principles and the contextual forces that make entrenched, top-down management systems resilient to change. These forces include the role of power, scale and levels of organization, knowledge valuation, the positioning of social actors and social constructions of nature. Also addressed are the policy narratives that shape governance, and the dialectic relationship among ecological systems and social change. tekst

  13. A collision dynamics model of a multi-level train

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-05

    In train collisions, multi-level rail passenger vehicles can deform in modes that are different from the behavior of single level cars. The deformation in single level cars usually occurs at the front end during a collision. In one particular inciden...

  14. Extending the enterprise through multi-level supply control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der P.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.E.M.; Hegge, H.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Demands for flexibility require larger parts of the supply chain to become customer driven. This article describes multi-level supply control (MLSC) as a mechanism to facilitate that; it allows to specify gradually and thus to shift the customer order decoupling point well across the boundary to the

  15. Multi-level Reconfigurable Self-organization in Overlay Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale decentralized systems organized in overlay networks are complex to manage. Such systems integrate organizational complexity in the application-level resulting in low abstraction and modularity in their services. This thesis introduces a multi-level conceptual architecture for overlay

  16. Detecting bots using multi-level traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    introduces a novel multi-level botnet detection approach that performs network traffic analysis of three protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. The proposed method relies on supervised machine learning for identifying...

  17. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  18. ROUNDSCALE SPEARFISH branchiostegal morphometric data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The morphometric characteristics that separate white marlin Kajikia albidus from roundscale spearfish Tetrapturus georgii can be difficult for non-experts to...

  19. Predicting multi-level drug response with gene expression profile in multiple myeloma using hierarchical ordinal regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Bingzong; Han, Huiying; Song, Sha; Xu, Hongxia; Hong, Yating; Yi, Nengjun; Zhuang, Wenzhuo

    2018-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM), like other cancers, is caused by the accumulation of genetic abnormalities. Heterogeneity exists in the patients' response to treatments, for example, bortezomib. This urges efforts to identify biomarkers from numerous molecular features and build predictive models for identifying patients that can benefit from a certain treatment scheme. However, previous studies treated the multi-level ordinal drug response as a binary response where only responsive and non-responsive groups are considered. It is desirable to directly analyze the multi-level drug response, rather than combining the response to two groups. In this study, we present a novel method to identify significantly associated biomarkers and then develop ordinal genomic classifier using the hierarchical ordinal logistic model. The proposed hierarchical ordinal logistic model employs the heavy-tailed Cauchy prior on the coefficients and is fitted by an efficient quasi-Newton algorithm. We apply our hierarchical ordinal regression approach to analyze two publicly available datasets for MM with five-level drug response and numerous gene expression measures. Our results show that our method is able to identify genes associated with the multi-level drug response and to generate powerful predictive models for predicting the multi-level response. The proposed method allows us to jointly fit numerous correlated predictors and thus build efficient models for predicting the multi-level drug response. The predictive model for the multi-level drug response can be more informative than the previous approaches. Thus, the proposed approach provides a powerful tool for predicting multi-level drug response and has important impact on cancer studies.

  20. Morphometric Evaluation of Preeclamptic Placenta Using Light Microscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficient trophoblast invasion and anomalies in placental development generally lead to preeclampsia (PE but the inter-relationship between placental function and morphology in PE still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometric features of placental villi and capillaries in preeclamptic and normal placentae. The study included light microscopic images of placental tissue sections of 40 preeclamptic and 35 normotensive pregnant women. Preprocessing and segmentation of these images were performed to characterize the villi and capillaries. Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to identify the most significant placental (morphometric features from microscopic images. A total of 10 morphometric features were extracted, of which the villous parameters were significantly altered in PE. FLDA identified 5 highly significant morphometric features (>90% overall discrimination accuracy. Two large subclusters were clearly visible in HCA based dendrogram. PCA returned three most significant principal components cumulatively explaining 98.4% of the total variance based on these 5 significant features. Hence, quantitative microscopic evaluation revealed that placental morphometry plays an important role in characterizing PE, where the villous is the major component that is affected.

  1. Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level modulation codes are investigated. It is shown that if the component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. Particularly, it is shown that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum soft-decision decoding of the code is very small, only a fraction of dB loss in signal to noise ratio at a bit error rate (BER) of 10(exp -6).

  2. Multi-Level Formation of Complex Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-level formation model for complex software systems. The previous works extract the software systems to software networks for further studies, but usually investigate the software networks at the class level. In contrast to these works, our treatment of software systems as multi-level networks is more realistic. In particular, the software networks are organized by three levels of granularity, which represents the modularity and hierarchy in the formation process of real-world software systems. More importantly, simulations based on this model have generated more realistic structural properties of software networks, such as power-law, clustering and modularization. On the basis of this model, how the structure of software systems effects software design principles is then explored, and it could be helpful for understanding software evolution and software engineering practices.

  3. Quantum state preparation using multi-level-atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Th; Deasy, K; Chormaic, S Nic

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics for controlling processes on the quantum scale is the fidelity or robustness of the techniques being used. In the case of single atoms localized in micro-traps, it was recently shown that the use of time-dependent tunnelling interactions in a multi-trap setup can be viewed as analogous to the area of multi-level optics. The atom's centre-of-mass can then be controlled with a high fidelity, using a STIRAP-type process. Here, we review previous work that led to the development of multi-level atom optics and present two examples of our most recent work on quantum state preparation

  4. On the multi-level solution algorithm for Markov chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, G. [Univ. of Erlangen, Nuernberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the recently introduced multi-level algorithm for the steady-state solution of Markov chains. The method is based on the aggregation principle, which is well established in the literature. Recursive application of the aggregation yields a multi-level method which has been shown experimentally to give results significantly faster than the methods currently in use. The algorithm can be reformulated as an algebraic multigrid scheme of Galerkin-full approximation type. The uniqueness of the scheme stems from its solution-dependent prolongation operator which permits significant computational savings in the evaluation of certain terms. This paper describes the modeling of computer systems to derive information on performance, measured typically as job throughput or component utilization, and availability, defined as the proportion of time a system is able to perform a certain function in the presence of component failures and possibly also repairs.

  5. Regulatory networks, legal federalism, and multi-level regulatory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Wolfgang; Wendel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Transnational regulatory networks play important roles in multi-level regulatory regimes, as e.g, the European Union. In this paper we analyze the role of regulatory networks from the perspective of the economic theory of legal federalism. Often sophisticated intermediate institutional solutions between pure centralisation and pure decentralisation can help to solve complex tradeoff problems between the benefits and problems of centralised and decentralised solutions. Drawing upon the insight...

  6. A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan

    1992-01-01

    Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer

  7. Multi-Level Marketing as a business model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gregor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi Level Marketing is a very popular business model in the Western countries. It is a kind of hybrid of the method of distribution of goods and the method of building a sales network. It is one of the safest (carries a very low risk ways of conducting a business activity. The knowledge about functioning of this business model, both among theoreticians (scanty literature on the subject and practitioners, is still insufficient in Poland. Thus, the presented paper has been prepared as — in the Authors' opinion — it, at least infinitesimally, bridges the gap in the recognition of Multi Level Marketing issues. The aim of the study was, first of all, to describe Multi Level Marketing, to indicate practical benefits of this business model as well as to present basic systems of calculating a commission, which are used in marketing plans of companies. The discussion was based on the study of literature and the knowledge gained in the course of free-form interviews with the leaders of the sector.

  8. Multi-level decision making models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangquan; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents new developments in multi-level decision-making theory, technique and method in both modeling and solution issues. It especially presents how a decision support system can support managers in reaching a solution to a multi-level decision problem in practice. This monograph combines decision theories, methods, algorithms and applications effectively. It discusses in detail the models and solution algorithms of each issue of bi-level and tri-level decision-making, such as multi-leaders, multi-followers, multi-objectives, rule-set-based, and fuzzy parameters. Potential readers include organizational managers and practicing professionals, who can use the methods and software provided to solve their real decision problems; PhD students and researchers in the areas of bi-level and multi-level decision-making and decision support systems; students at an advanced undergraduate, master’s level in information systems, business administration, or the application of computer science.  

  9. Multi-level methods and approximating distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; Baker, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical reaction networks are often modelled using discrete-state, continuous-time Markov chains. System statistics of these Markov chains usually cannot be calculated analytically and therefore estimates must be generated via simulation techniques. There is a well documented class of simulation techniques known as exact stochastic simulation algorithms, an example of which is Gillespie’s direct method. These algorithms often come with high computational costs, therefore approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap method are used. However, in order to minimise the bias in the estimates generated using them, a relatively small value of tau is needed, rendering the computational costs comparable to Gillespie’s direct method. The multi-level Monte Carlo method (Anderson and Higham, Multiscale Model. Simul. 10:146–179, 2012) provides a reduction in computational costs whilst minimising or even eliminating the bias in the estimates of system statistics. This is achieved by first crudely approximating required statistics with many sample paths of low accuracy. Then correction terms are added until a required level of accuracy is reached. Recent literature has primarily focussed on implementing the multi-level method efficiently to estimate a single system statistic. However, it is clearly also of interest to be able to approximate entire probability distributions of species counts. We present two novel methods that combine known techniques for distribution reconstruction with the multi-level method. We demonstrate the potential of our methods using a number of examples.

  10. Multi-level methods and approximating distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D., E-mail: daniel.wilson@dtc.ox.ac.uk; Baker, R. E. [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    Biochemical reaction networks are often modelled using discrete-state, continuous-time Markov chains. System statistics of these Markov chains usually cannot be calculated analytically and therefore estimates must be generated via simulation techniques. There is a well documented class of simulation techniques known as exact stochastic simulation algorithms, an example of which is Gillespie’s direct method. These algorithms often come with high computational costs, therefore approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap method are used. However, in order to minimise the bias in the estimates generated using them, a relatively small value of tau is needed, rendering the computational costs comparable to Gillespie’s direct method. The multi-level Monte Carlo method (Anderson and Higham, Multiscale Model. Simul. 10:146–179, 2012) provides a reduction in computational costs whilst minimising or even eliminating the bias in the estimates of system statistics. This is achieved by first crudely approximating required statistics with many sample paths of low accuracy. Then correction terms are added until a required level of accuracy is reached. Recent literature has primarily focussed on implementing the multi-level method efficiently to estimate a single system statistic. However, it is clearly also of interest to be able to approximate entire probability distributions of species counts. We present two novel methods that combine known techniques for distribution reconstruction with the multi-level method. We demonstrate the potential of our methods using a number of examples.

  11. Panel Data with Cross-Sectional Dependence Characterized by a Multi-Level Factor Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A panel data model with a multi-level cross-sectional dependence is proposed. The factor structure is driven by top-level common factors as well as non-pervasive factors. I propose a simple method to filter out the full factor structure that overcomes limitations in standard procedures which may...... mix up both levels of unobservable factors and may hamper the identification of the model. The model covers both stationary and non-stationary cases and takes into account other relevant features that make the model well suited to the analysis of many types of time series frequently addressed...

  12. Antecedents of Organisational Creativity: A Multi-Level Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to provide a better understanding of the antecedents of organisational creativity with a multi-level approach. Organisational creativity is a sum total of the creativity accounted for by the individual employees of the organisation, the cumulative creativity of a team or group and creativity arising out of different structural components of an organisation. Some of the antecedents identified from the literature include personality, intrinsic motivation, group cohesion, social inhibition, cognitive interference, leader member exchange, organisational culture and climate, amongst others at individual, group and organisational level. Based on the literature review, suggestions for future research and research propositions have been proposed.

  13. Multi level governance framework for sustainable urban mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Cities constitute the backbone of European historic development and provide the basis of its economic future. The near neglect of cities in existing European policies for sustainable growth and development such as the Europe 2020 strategy is untenable. The 2011 White Paper has sought to face...... seem essential to move cities beyond business as usual. Research-wise we need to understand in more detail the political and contextual background for successes - and failures - of European cities. This could help build an effective multi level governance framework for sustainable urban mobility...

  14. Agent-based model with multi-level herding for complex financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo

    2015-02-01

    In complex financial systems, the sector structure and volatility clustering are respectively important features of the spatial and temporal correlations. However, the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure is not yet understood. Especially, how to produce these two features in one model remains challenging. We introduce a novel interaction mechanism, i.e., the multi-level herding, in constructing an agent-based model to investigate the sector structure combined with volatility clustering. According to the previous market performance, agents trade in groups, and their herding behavior comprises the herding at stock, sector and market levels. Further, we propose methods to determine the key model parameters from historical market data, rather than from statistical fitting of the results. From the simulation, we obtain the sector structure and volatility clustering, as well as the eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, for the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. These properties are in agreement with the empirical ones. Our results quantitatively reveal that the multi-level herding is the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure, and provide new insight into the spatio-temporal interactions in financial systems at the microscopic level.

  15. AN AUTOMATIC OPTICAL AND SAR IMAGE REGISTRATION METHOD USING ITERATIVE MULTI-LEVEL AND REFINEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic image registration is a vital yet challenging task, particularly for multi-sensor remote sensing images. Given the diversity of the data, it is unlikely that a single registration algorithm or a single image feature will work satisfactorily for all applications. Focusing on this issue, the mainly contribution of this paper is to propose an automatic optical-to-SAR image registration method using –level and refinement model: Firstly, a multi-level strategy of coarse-to-fine registration is presented, the visual saliency features is used to acquire coarse registration, and then specific area and line features are used to refine the registration result, after that, sub-pixel matching is applied using KNN Graph. Secondly, an iterative strategy that involves adaptive parameter adjustment for re-extracting and re-matching features is presented. Considering the fact that almost all feature-based registration methods rely on feature extraction results, the iterative strategy improve the robustness of feature matching. And all parameters can be automatically and adaptively adjusted in the iterative procedure. Thirdly, a uniform level set segmentation model for optical and SAR images is presented to segment conjugate features, and Voronoi diagram is introduced into Spectral Point Matching (VSPM to further enhance the matching accuracy between two sets of matching points. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively and robustly generate sufficient, reliable point pairs and provide accurate registration.

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gefang; Cheng Yongde; Wu Chungen; Zhang Ji; Gu Yifeng; Li Minghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the clinical efficiency and safety of patients receiving percutaneous vertebroplasty due to multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review eighty-six osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients including 23 with three and more levels of vertebroplasty. The outcome was considered carefully by pre and postoperatively the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)for pain relief, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)for the improvement activity of daily life and also the accompanied imaging information. Results: All procedures were performed successfully. Three patients had a transient high blood pressure and dyspnea, and recovered after sublingual nitroglycerin. The VAS and ODI improved from a mean preoperative score of 8.58±1.12 and 81.43 ±12.54 to a mean postoperative score of 3.03±0.98 and 31.04±11.11 one day afterward. Asymptomatic cement leakage rate was 17.8% with no major complications occurred during operation or post-operation. Five patients had new symptomatic vertebral fracture (s) during follow-up in one year. Conclusions: Vertebroplasty with cement to treat multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in the elderly is safe and effective, providing immediate and long-term pain relief with improvement in quality of life. Due to the risk of fat embolism, the limitation of three per session must be kept strictly. (authors)

  17. On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar

    1990-01-01

    The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.

  18. Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Yonghwan

    2011-03-01

    The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF), and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude- Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.

  19. Multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post peta-scale computing, on the road to exa-scale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the 'K' and 'Hooper' ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm. (authors)

  20. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  1. Three essays on multi-level optimization models and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, Mohammad

    The general form of a multi-level mathematical programming problem is a set of nested optimization problems, in which each level controls a series of decision variables independently. However, the value of decision variables may also impact the objective function of other levels. A two-level model is called a bilevel model and can be considered as a Stackelberg game with a leader and a follower. The leader anticipates the response of the follower and optimizes its objective function, and then the follower reacts to the leader's action. The multi-level decision-making model has many real-world applications such as government decisions, energy policies, market economy, network design, etc. However, there is a lack of capable algorithms to solve medium and large scale these types of problems. The dissertation is devoted to both theoretical research and applications of multi-level mathematical programming models, which consists of three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the renewable energy portfolio under two major renewable energy policies. The potential competition for biomass for the growth of the renewable energy portfolio in the United States and other interactions between two policies over the next twenty years are investigated. This problem mainly has two levels of decision makers: the government/policy makers and biofuel producers/electricity generators/farmers. We focus on the lower-level problem to predict the amount of capacity expansions, fuel production, and power generation. In the second part, we address uncertainty over demand and lead time in a multi-stage mathematical programming problem. We propose a two-stage tri-level optimization model in the concept of rolling horizon approach to reducing the dimensionality of the multi-stage problem. In the third part of the dissertation, we introduce a new branch and bound algorithm to solve bilevel linear programming problems. The total time is reduced by solving a smaller relaxation

  2. Keabsahan Dan Kekuatan Hukum Layanan Multi Level Marketing Di Kota Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mandang, Christian Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apa landasan hukum yang mendasari keabsahan layanan Multi Level Marketing dan bagaimana sebuah Perusahaan dapat memenuhi syarat untuk menjalankan sistem Multi Level Marketing. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian yuridis normatif, maka dapat disimpulkan: 1. Kehadiran Perusahaan dan kegiatan USAha Multi Level Marketing baik secara global maupun secara nasional, khususnya kehadirannya di negara Indonesia berperan untuk membantu berbagai...

  3. PENERAPAN HIRARKI DATA SQL DALAM MULTI LEVEL MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendi Novianto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian besar pengguna pada satu waktu pasti pernah berurusan dengan hirarki data dalam database SQL dan tidak diragukan lagi belajar bahwa pengelolaan data hirarkis bukanlah apa yang dimaksudkan oleh database relasional. Tabel database relasional tidaklah hirarkis (seperti XML, tetapi hanya sebuah daftar. Data hirarkis memiliki hubungan parents-child yang tidak biasanya direpresentasikan dalam tabel database relasional. Multi Level Marketing (MLM merupakan suatu strategi pemasaran di mana tenaga penjualan mendapatkan kompensasi tidak hanya untuk penjualan tapi, tetapi juga untuk penjualan orang lain yang mereka rekrut, menciptakan suatu downline distributor dan hirarki dari berbagai tingkat kompensasi. Istilah lainnya untuk MLM termasuk jaringan pemasaran, penjualan dan pemasaran piramida rujukan. Data Hirarki penting di MLM untuk melacak catatan aktivitas penjualan, sehingga mereka dapat termotivasi setiap saat. Kata kunci : MLM, hirarki data, SQL, marketing.

  4. Multi-level barriers to LTBI treatment: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Blumberg, Elaine; Sipan, Carol; Schmitz, Katharine; West, Joshua; Kelley, Norma; Hovell, Melbourne

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the barriers to effective and timely LTBI treatment encountered in a research study on INH adherence in Latino adolescents. Participant study logs were reviewed, results of continuing medical education pretests for medical providers were examined, and participating medical facilities were contacted in order to construct a profile of multi-level barriers to LTBI treatment. A total of 285 TST positive Latino (96%) high school students were recruited into the trial. We encountered a lack of understanding of the gravity of tuberculosis infection among both the public and providers of health care. Parents and adolescents cited competing priorities, transportation problems and financial constraints as reasons for non-compliance. Improved education of the public and physicians is needed regarding the gravity of the disease and the value of treatment, as well as public and financial support for LTBI treatment by both the government and the medical community.

  5. Multi-Level Marketing - a Tool of Relationship Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the opportunity of using multi-level marketing (MLM as a tool of relationship marketing. The research is firstly based on an analysis regarding the issues about the legality of MLM techniques in the context of EU and US regulation systems. The outcomes of this research stress the main characteristics of legal network marketing and how a person which wants to become independent distributor could avoid the cooperation with an illegal pyramid scheme. The second research is based on a case study at the level of an insurance broker, which emphasizes the benefits that all parties involved in a transaction (broker, distributor and customer could obtain by using an MLM scheme.

  6. Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.

  7. Rapid islanding detection using multi-level inverter for grid-interactive PV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel reference signal is used to form an islanding detection scheme for PV system. • Supply fixed magnitude sinusoidal signal even if utility grid is disconnected. • Seamless transfer between grid-connected and stand-alone modes is possible. - Abstract: A novel reference signal generator is combined with a multi-level inverter to form a rapid islanding detection scheme for grid-interactive PV system. The reference signal generator can easily be synchronized with the utility grid signal and produced a fixed magnitude and very low total harmonic distortion (THD) sinusoidal signal which is in phase with the utility grid signal. Unlike conventional phase-locked loop (PLL) circuitry, the reference signal generator can also provide a fixed magnitude sinusoidal signal even if the utility grid is disconnected and automatically re-synchronous with the grid rapidly. Consequently, seamless transfer between grid-connected and stand-alone modes could easily be achieved if anti-islanding protection is not required. If a saturation element is applied to the raw reference signal followed by the synthesis of the truncated signal using a multi-level inverter, the distinct flat-top feature of the synthesized signal can quickly and easily be identified if the network is in islanding mode at the point of common coupling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed detection scheme

  8. Full-color, large area, transmissive holograms enabled by multi-level diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Nabil; Meem, Monjurul; Wan, Xiaowen; Menon, Rajesh

    2017-07-19

    We show that multi-level diffractive microstructures can enable broadband, on-axis transmissive holograms that can project complex full-color images, which are invariant to viewing angle. Compared to alternatives like metaholograms, diffractive holograms utilize much larger minimum features (>10 µm), much smaller aspect ratios (30 mm ×30 mm). We designed, fabricated and characterized holograms that encode various full-color images. Our devices demonstrate absolute transmission efficiencies of >86% across the visible spectrum from 405 nm to 633 nm (peak value of about 92%), and excellent color fidelity. Furthermore, these devices do not exhibit polarization dependence. Finally, we emphasize that our devices exhibit negligible absorption and are phase-only holograms with high diffraction efficiency.

  9. Individual relocation decisions after tornadoes: a multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Nejat, Ali; Liang, Daan; Pei, Yaolin; Javid, Roxana J

    2018-04-01

    This study examines how multi-level factors affected individuals' relocation decisions after EF4 and EF5 (Enhanced Fujita Tornado Intensity Scale) tornadoes struck the United States in 2013. A telephone survey was conducted with 536 respondents, including oversampled older adults, one year after these two disaster events. Respondents' addresses were used to associate individual information with block group-level variables recorded by the American Community Survey. Logistic regression revealed that residential damage and homeownership are important predictors of relocation. There was also significant interaction between these two variables, indicating less difference between homeowners and renters at higher damage levels. Homeownership diminished the likelihood of relocation among younger respondents. Random effects logistic regression found that the percentage of homeownership and of higher income households in the community buffered the effect of damage on relocation; the percentage of older adults reduced the likelihood of this group relocating. The findings are assessed from the standpoint of age difference, policy implications, and social capital and vulnerability. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  10. PHYSICS OF POLARIZED SCATTERING AT MULTI-LEVEL ATOMIC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenflo, J. O., E-mail: stenflo@astro.phys.ethz.ch [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, SwitzerlandAND (Switzerland); Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, Via Patocchi, CH-6605 Locarno-Monti (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The symmetric peak observed in linear polarization in the core of the solar sodium D{sub 1} line at 5896 Å has remained enigmatic since its discovery nearly two decades ago. One reason is that the theory of polarized scattering has not been experimentally tested for multi-level atomic systems in the relevant parameter domains, although the theory is continually being used for the interpretation of astrophysical observations. A laboratory experiment that was set up a decade ago to find out whether the D{sub 1} enigma is a problem of solar physics or quantum physics revealed that the D{sub 1} system has a rich polarization structure in situations where standard scattering theory predicts zero polarization, even when optical pumping of the m state populations of the hyperfine-split ground state is accounted for. Here we show that the laboratory results can be modeled in great quantitative detail if the theory is extended to include the coherences in both the initial and final states of the scattering process. Radiative couplings between the allowed dipole transitions generate coherences in the initial state. Corresponding coherences in the final state are then demanded by a phase closure selection rule. The experimental results for the well understood D{sub 2} line are used to constrain the two free parameters of the experiment, collision rate and optical depth, to suppress the need for free parameters when fitting the D{sub 1} results.

  11. Multi-level and hybrid modelling approaches for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardini, R; Politano, G; Benso, A; Di Carlo, S

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, high-throughput techniques allowed for the extraction of a huge amount of data from biological systems, unveiling more of their underling complexity. Biological systems encompass a wide range of space and time scales, functioning according to flexible hierarchies of mechanisms making an intertwined and dynamic interplay of regulations. This becomes particularly evident in processes such as ontogenesis, where regulative assets change according to process context and timing, making structural phenotype and architectural complexities emerge from a single cell, through local interactions. The information collected from biological systems are naturally organized according to the functional levels composing the system itself. In systems biology, biological information often comes from overlapping but different scientific domains, each one having its own way of representing phenomena under study. That is, the different parts of the system to be modelled may be described with different formalisms. For a model to have improved accuracy and capability for making a good knowledge base, it is good to comprise different system levels, suitably handling the relative formalisms. Models which are both multi-level and hybrid satisfy both these requirements, making a very useful tool in computational systems biology. This paper reviews some of the main contributions in this field.

  12. Multi-level iteration optimization for diffusive critical calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunzhao; Wu Hongchun; Cao Liangzhi; Zheng Youqi

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear reactor core neutron diffusion calculation, there are usually at least three levels of iterations, namely the fission source iteration, the multi-group scattering source iteration and the within-group iteration. Unnecessary calculations occur if the inner iterations are converged extremely tight. But the convergence of the outer iteration may be affected if the inner ones are converged insufficiently tight. Thus, a common scheme suit for most of the problems was proposed in this work to automatically find the optimized settings. The basic idea is to optimize the relative error tolerance of the inner iteration based on the corresponding convergence rate of the outer iteration. Numerical results of a typical thermal neutron reactor core problem and a fast neutron reactor core problem demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm in the variational nodal method code NODAL with the Gauss-Seidel left preconditioned multi-group GMRES algorithm. The multi-level iteration optimization scheme reduces the number of multi-group and within-group iterations respectively by a factor of about 1-2 and 5-21. (authors)

  13. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C W; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C

    2016-01-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma–biomolecule interactions. (paper)

  14. A three-dimensional comparison of a morphometric and conventional cephalometric midsagittal planes for craniofacial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damstra, Janalt; Fourie, Zacharias; De Wit, Marnix; Ren, Yijin

    2012-02-01

    Morphometric methods are used in biology to study object symmetry in living organisms and to determine the true plane of symmetry. The aim of this study was to determine if there are clinical differences between three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric midsagittal planes used to describe craniofacial asymmetry and a true symmetry plane derived from a morphometric method based on visible facial features. The sample consisted of 14 dry skulls (9 symmetric and 5 asymmetric) with metallic markers which were imaged with cone-beam computed tomography. An error study and statistical analysis were performed to validate the morphometric method. The morphometric and conventional cephalometric planes were constructed and compared. The 3D cephalometric planes constructed as perpendiculars to the Frankfort horizontal plane resembled the morphometric plane the most in both the symmetric and asymmetric groups with mean differences of less than 1.00 mm for most variables. However, the standard deviations were often large and clinically significant for these variables. There were clinically relevant differences (>1.00 mm) between the different 3D cephalometric midsagittal planes and the true plane of symmetry determined by the visible facial features. The difference between 3D cephalometric midsagittal planes and the true plane of symmetry determined by the visible facial features were clinically relevant. Care has to be taken using cephalometric midsagittal planes for diagnosis and treatment planning of craniofacial asymmetry as they might differ from the true plane of symmetry as determined by morphometrics.

  15. PELAKSANAAN JUAL BELI MELALUI SISTEM MULTI LEVEL MARKETING PERSPEKTIF HUKUM ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Dewi Utami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisnis Multi Level Marketing (MLM cukup berperan dalam menggerakkan roda perekonomian masyarakat. Dalam sejumlah kasus, Multi Level Marketing (MLM kerap dijadikan kedok dari bisnis money game dan mendewakan passive income. Bertolak dari kasus kasus seperti itulah, Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI telah menggodok prinsip-prinsip bisnis ini secara syariah termasuk marketing plannya. Tujuannya untuk melindungi pengusaha dan mitra bisnisnya (masyarakat dari praktik bisnis yang haram atau syubhat. Dari prinsip-prinsip yang ditentukan oleh Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI, peneliti mengadakan penelitian ini dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana mekanisme bisnis Multi Level Marketing (MLM, serta untuk mengetahui bagaimana bisnis Multi Level Marketing (MLM menurut hukum Islam. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah menggunakan metode pendekatan yuridis normatif, spesifikasi penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif analitis, sedangkan penentuan sampel menggunakan metode Non Random sampling. Alat penelitian meliputi studi kepustakaan dan wawancara. Metode analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis kualitatif. Ada dua aspek untuk menilai apakah bisnis Multi Level Marketing (MLM itu sesuai dengan syariah atau tidak, yaitu aspek produk atau jasa yang dijual dan sistem dari Multi Level Marketing (MLM itu sendiri. Bagaimana sistem pemberian bonus yang terdapat dalam perusahaan Multi Level Marketing (MLM apakah terbebas dari unsus garar maupun maisir. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji lebih dalam tentang Multi Level Marketing (MLM khususnya dalam Hukum Islam. Sisi negatif yang terdapat pada sistem Multi Level Marketing (MLM tidak mewakili keharaman secara keseluruhan terhadap bisnis yang berbasis Multi Level Marketing (MLM lainnya.

  16. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P; Coque, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent "population biologies." Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of "clinical" antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level

  17. Disentangling multi-level systems: averaging, correlations and memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Jeroen; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    We consider two weakly coupled systems and adopt a perturbative approach based on the Ruelle response theory to study their interaction. We propose a systematic way of parameterizing the effect of the coupling as a function of only the variables of a system of interest. Our focus is on describing the impacts of the coupling on the long term statistics rather than on the finite-time behavior. By direct calculation, we find that, at first order, the coupling can be surrogated by adding a deterministic perturbation to the autonomous dynamics of the system of interest. At second order, there are additionally two separate and very different contributions. One is a term taking into account the second-order contributions of the fluctuations in the coupling, which can be parameterized as a stochastic forcing with given spectral properties. The other one is a memory term, coupling the system of interest to its previous history, through the correlations of the second system. If these correlations are known, this effect can be implemented as a perturbation with memory on the single system. In order to treat this case, we present an extension to Ruelle's response theory able to deal with integral operators. We discuss our results in the context of other methods previously proposed for disentangling the dynamics of two coupled systems. We emphasize that our results do not rely on assuming a time scale separation, and, if such a separation exists, can be used equally well to study the statistics of the slow variables and that of the fast variables. By recursively applying the technique proposed here, we can treat the general case of multi-level systems

  18. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Drew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. Results To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1 Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2 Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3 Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up

  19. Automated Music Video Generation Using Multi-level Feature-based Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong-Chul; Lee, In-Kwon; Byun, Siwoo

    The expansion of the home video market has created a requirement for video editing tools to allow ordinary people to assemble videos from short clips. However, professional skills are still necessary to create a music video, which requires a stream to be synchronized with pre-composed music. Because the music and the video are pre-generated in separate environments, even a professional producer usually requires a number of trials to obtain a satisfactory synchronization, which is something that most amateurs are unable to achieve.

  20. Simple Multi-level Microchannel Fabrication by Pseudo-Grayscale Backside Diffused Light Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Labuz, Joseph M; Kim, Jiwon; Luker, Gary D; Shikanov, Ariella; Takayama, Shuichi

    2013-11-14

    Photolithography of multi-level channel features in microfluidics is laborious and/or costly. Grayscale photolithography is mostly used with positive photoresists and conventional front side exposure, but the grayscale masks needed are generally costly and positive photoresists are not commonly used in microfluidic rapid prototyping. Here we introduce a simple and inexpensive alternative that uses pseudo-grayscale (pGS) photomasks in combination with backside diffused light lithography (BDLL) and the commonly used negative photoresist, SU-8. BDLL can produce smooth multi-level channels of gradually changing heights without use of true grayscale masks because of the use of diffused light. Since the exposure is done through a glass slide, the photoresist is cross-linked from the substrate side up enabling well-defined and stable structures to be fabricated from even unspun photoresist layers. In addition to providing unique structures and capabilities, the method is compatible with the "garage microfluidics" concept of creating useful tools at low cost since pGS BDLL can be performed with the use of only hot plates and a UV transilluminator: equipment commonly found in biology labs. Expensive spin coaters or collimated UV aligners are not needed. To demonstrate the applicability of pGS BDLL, a variety of weir-type cell traps were constructed with a single UV exposure to separate cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, 10-15 μm in size) from red blood cells (RBCs, 2-8 μm in size) as well as follicle clusters (40-50 μm in size) from cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, 10-15 μm in size).

  1. Vehicle logo recognition using multi-level fusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wei; Xiao, Jianli

    2018-04-01

    Vehicle logo recognition plays an important role in manufacturer identification and vehicle recognition. This paper proposes a new vehicle logo recognition algorithm. It has a hierarchical framework, which consists of two fusion levels. At the first level, a feature fusion model is employed to map the original features to a higher dimension feature space. In this space, the vehicle logos become more recognizable. At the second level, a weighted voting strategy is proposed to promote the accuracy and the robustness of the recognition results. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, extensive experiments are performed, which demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high recognition accuracy and work robustly.

  2. Dutch urban governance: multi-level of multi-scalar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokx, J.M.C.; Kempen, R. van

    2010-01-01

    Many accounts of urban governance emphasize municipal and neighbourhood scales, featuring local participation, social cohesion and the relationship between local government and residents. By contrast, our focus is the vertical governance processes of integrated urban policies. We concentrate on the

  3. Watershed-based Morphometric Analysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukristiyanti, S.; Maria, R.; Lestiana, H.

    2018-02-01

    Drainage basin/watershed analysis based on morphometric parameters is very important for watershed planning. Morphometric analysis of watershed is the best method to identify the relationship of various aspects in the area. Despite many technical papers were dealt with in this area of study, there is no particular standard classification and implication of each parameter. It is very confusing to evaluate a value of every morphometric parameter. This paper deals with the meaning of values of the various morphometric parameters, with adequate contextual information. A critical review is presented on each classification, the range of values, and their implications. Besides classification and its impact, the authors also concern about the quality of input data, either in data preparation or scale/the detail level of mapping. This review paper hopefully can give a comprehensive explanation to assist the upcoming research dealing with morphometric analysis.

  4. Exploring Eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Sabrina C

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earliest hominin-occupied sites in Eurasia. Variation in cervid postcranial functional morphology associated with different habitats can be summarized as trade-offs between joint stability versus mobility and rapid movement versus power-generation. Cervids in open habitats emphasize limb stability to avoid joint dislocation during rapid flight from predators. Closed-adapted cervids require more joint mobility to rapidly switch directions in complex habitats. Two skeletal features (of the tibia and calcaneus) have significant phylogenetic signals, while two (the femur and third phalanx) do not. Additionally, morphology of two of these features (tibia and third phalanx) were correlated with body size. For the tibial analysis (but not the third phalanx) this correlation was ameliorated when phylogeny was taken into account. Eucladoceros specimens from France and Romania fall on the more open side of the habitat continuum, a result that is at odds with reconstructions of their diet as browsers, suggesting that they may have had a behavioral regime unlike any extant cervid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multi-level Governance in Environmental Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hiller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines regulatory strategies in the field of ecological disaster management with reference to the sociology of risk. The risk perspective draws attention to the fact that political strategies of regulation are to be understood as processes of risk transformation. The behavior of regulatory agencies is related to their perception of risks and opportunities. From this point of view, efforts in the field of disaster management appear as processes that turn perceived environmental threats into risks and opportunities for the agencies involved. The article shows the course of such a governance process which transforms environmental disasters into organizational risks and opportunities. This leads to the following research question: Which types of organizations favor strategies of risk avoidance and which organizations rather allow active pursuit of opportunities? The empirical part of this study is based on data obtained by field research in a multi-level negotiation system set up for managing hazardous wastes. Empirical findings support the assumption that organizational stability is a central condition for active pursuit of opportunities whereas organizational instability supports an orientation towards the avoidance of organizational risk. El artículo examina las estrategias reguladoras en el ámbito de la gestión de los desastres ecológicos, haciendo referencia a la sociología del riesgo. La perspectiva de riesgo pone su atención sobre el hecho de que las estrategias políticas de regulación se deben entender como procesos de transformación de riesgos. El comportamiento de las agencias reguladoras se relaciona con su percepción de los riesgos y oportunidades. Desde este punto de vista, los esfuerzos en el campo de la gestión de catástrofes se convierten en procesos que transforman las amenazas medioambientales (percibidas en riesgos y oportunidades para las agencias involucradas. El artículo muestra el desarrollo de este

  6. First 3D Cadastral Registration of Multi-level Ownerships Rights in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, H.D.; Stoter, J.E.; Roes, R; Van der Riet, E.; Biljecki, F.; Ledoux, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the first 3D cadastral registration of multi-level ownerships rights in the Netherlands, which was accomplished in March 2016. It is the result of a study that was undertaken from 2013 to 2015 to determine how insight about multi-level ownership can be provided in 3D by the

  7. Cities, Europeanization and Multi-level Governance: Governing Climate Change through Transnational Municipal Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, K.; Bulkeley, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance.

  8. Quantification of mold contamination in multi-level buildings using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...

  9. Interevent time distributions of human multi-level activity in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mryglod, O.; Fuchs, B.; Szell, M.; Holovatch, Yu.; Thurner, S.

    2015-02-01

    Studying human behavior in virtual environments provides extraordinary opportunities for a quantitative analysis of social phenomena with levels of accuracy that approach those of the natural sciences. In this paper we use records of player activities in the massive multiplayer online game Pardus over 1238 consecutive days, and analyze dynamical features of sequences of actions of players. We build on previous work where temporal structures of human actions of the same type were quantified, and provide an empirical understanding of human actions of different types. This study of multi-level human activity can be seen as a dynamic counterpart of static multiplex network analysis. We show that the interevent time distributions of actions in the Pardus universe follow highly non-trivial distribution functions, from which we extract action-type specific characteristic 'decay constants'. We discuss characteristic features of interevent time distributions, including periodic patterns on different time scales, bursty dynamics, and various functional forms on different time scales. We comment on gender differences of players in emotional actions, and find that while males and females act similarly when performing some positive actions, females are slightly faster for negative actions. We also observe effects on the age of players: more experienced players are generally faster in making decisions about engaging in and terminating enmity and friendship, respectively.

  10. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Daiana A; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; Amdam, Gro V; Gonçalves, Lionel S; Francoy, Tiago M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates.

  11. Tile-Level Annotation of Satellite Images Using Multi-Level Max-Margin Discriminative Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-level max-margin discriminative analysis (M3DA framework, which takes both coarse and fine semantics into consideration, for the annotation of high-resolution satellite images. In order to generate more discriminative topic-level features, the M3DA uses the maximum entropy discrimination latent Dirichlet Allocation (MedLDA model. Moreover, for improving the spatial coherence of visual words neglected by M3DA, conditional random field (CRF is employed to optimize the soft label field composed of multiple label posteriors. The framework of M3DA enables one to combine word-level features (generated by support vector machines and topic-level features (generated by MedLDA via the bag-of-words representation. The experimental results on high-resolution satellite images have demonstrated that, using the proposed method can not only obtain suitable semantic interpretation, but also improve the annotation performance by taking into account the multi-level semantics and the contextual information.

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency: Characterization of psychometrics and MRI morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Feng; Lo, Chung-Ping; Wang, Tzu-Lan; Tu, Min-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity of the central nervous system. However, performances in different cognitive domains relevant to vitamin B12 deficiency remain to be detailed. To date, there have been limited studies that examined the relationships between cognitions and structural neuroimaging in a single cohort of low-vitamin B12 status. The present study aimed to depict psychometrics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometrics among patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and to examine their inter-relations. We compared 34 consecutive patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level ≤ 250 pg/ml) to 34 demographically matched controls by their cognitive performances and morphometric indices of brain MRI. The correlations between psychometrics and morphometrics were analyzed. The vitamin B12 deficiency group had lower scores than the controls on total scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (both P psychometric and morphometric indices, pronounced correlations between bicaudate ratio and long-term memory, mental manipulation, orientation, language, and verbal fluency were noted (all P < 0.01). Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a global cognition decline with language, orientation, and mental manipulation selectively impaired. Preferential atrophy in frontal regions is the main neuroimaging feature. Although the frontal ratio highlights the relevant atrophy among patients, the bicaudate ratio might be the best index on the basis of its strong association with global cognition and related cognitive domains, implying dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits as the fundamental pathogenesis related to vitamin B12 deficiency.

  13. Multi-level trellis coded modulation and multi-stage decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Wu, Jiantian; Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    Several constructions for multi-level trellis codes are presented and many codes with better performance than previously known codes are found. These codes provide a flexible trade-off between coding gain, decoding complexity, and decoding delay. New multi-level trellis coded modulation schemes using generalized set partitioning methods are developed for Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) signal sets. New rotationally invariant multi-level trellis codes which can be combined with differential encoding to resolve phase ambiguity are presented.

  14. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yu Hsiao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (noninvariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.

  15. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Lai, Mark H C

    2018-01-01

    Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a) To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b) To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC) and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions) for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (non)invariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.

  16. Networking health: multi-level marketing of health products in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droney, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM0), a business model in which product distributors are compensated for enrolling further distributors as well as for selling products, has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades, especially in the so-called global South. This paper argues that the global success of MLM is due to its involvement in local health markets. While MLM has been subject to a number of critiques, few have analyzed the explicit health claims of MLM distributors. The majority of the products distributed through MLM are health products, which are presented as offering transformative health benefits. Based on interviews with MLM distributors in Ghana, but focusing on the experiences of one woman, this paper shows that MLM companies become intimately entwined with Ghanaian quests for health by providing their distributors with the materials to become informal health experts, allowing their distributors to present their products as medicines, and presenting MLM as an avenue to middle class cosmopolitanism. Ghanaian distributors promote MLM products as medically powerful, and the distribution of these products as an avenue to status and profit. As a result, individuals seeking health become a part of ethically questionable forms of medical provision based on the exploitation of personal relationships. The success of MLM therefore suggests that the health industry is at the forefront of transnational corporations' extraction of value from informal economies, drawing on features of health markets to monetize personal relationships.

  17. Nature vs. nurture in human sociality: multi-level genomic analyses of social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biqing; Zhu, Zijian; Wang, Yingying; Ding, Xiaohu; Guo, Xiaobo; He, Mingguang; Fang, Wan; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Shanbi; Lei, Han; Huang, Ailong; Chen, Tingmei; Ni, Dongsheng; Gu, Yuping; Liu, Jianing; Rao, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Social conformity is fundamental to human societies and has been studied for more than six decades, but our understanding of its mechanisms remains limited. Individual differences in conformity have been attributed to social and cultural environmental influences, but not to genes. Here we demonstrate a genetic contribution to conformity after analyzing 1,140 twins and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies of 2,130 young adults. A two-step genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed replicable associations in 9 genomic loci, and a meta-analysis of three GWAS with a sample size of ~2,600 further confirmed one locus, corresponding to the NAV3 (Neuron Navigator 3) gene which encodes a protein important for axon outgrowth and guidance. Further multi-level (haplotype, gene, pathway) GWAS strongly associated genes including NAV3, PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D), ARL10 (ADP ribosylation factor-like GTPase 10), and CTNND2 (catenin delta 2), with conformity. Magnetic resonance imaging of 64 subjects shows correlation of activation or structural features of brain regions with the SNPs of these genes, supporting their functional significance. Our results suggest potential moderate genetic influence on conformity, implicate several specific genetic elements in conformity and will facilitate further research on cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying human conformity.

  18. Integration of multi-level marketing management systems geographically industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Lavrov; Lada Polikarpova; Alla Handramai

    2015-01-01

    In the article the authors attempt to develop a multi-level management system territorially industry development in market conditions, built in the widespread use of various types of marketing and their horizontal and vertical integration.

  19. space vector pulse width modulation of a multi-level diode clamped

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    step by step development of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector ..... Pulse Width Mod. of Multi-Level Diode Clamped Converter 119 powergui. Discrete, .... Load. Figure 22: Block diagram of the three level DCC design. 3 LEVEL ...

  20. Modeling Performance in C4ISR Sustained Operations: A Multi-Level Approach (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Christopher; Miller, James C; Elliott, Linda; Coovert, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This briefing discusses methodology and preliminary findings focused on the application of multi-level modeling techniques to distinguish effects of sleep loss and task demands on individual and team...

  1. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode Clamped ... of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector pulse-width modulation and the ... two adjacent active vectors in determining the switching process of the multilevel ...

  2. Adjusting to Social Change - A Multi-Level Analysis in Three Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    example, coping may be more collective in collectivist , compared to individualist , societies (Chang & Sivam, 2004). Some cultures have a greater sense...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0041 Adjusting to Social Change - A multi-level Analysis in three cultures Prof Robin Goodwin...COVERED (From – To) 23 May 2012 – 22 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adjusting to Social Change - A multi-level Analysis in three cultures

  3. The Analysis of Product Traits and Innovation Process of Multi Level Marketing Business at Talk Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno, Sutrisno

    2013-01-01

    Multi Level Marketing Business nowadays is rapidly growing. In recent years, there have been so many new Multi Level Marketing Business coming out with their own specific offers and products. One of the advantages of MLM Business is the contribution it makes to economic growth. It makes it possible for the national income to continuously grow. The objectives can be achieved from this research are to examine product traits and innovation process of Talk Fusion. Theories supporting research are...

  4. Pictorial AR Tag with Hidden Multi-Level Bar-Code and Its Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Le

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For decades, researchers have been trying to create intuitive virtual environments by blending reality and virtual reality, thus enabling general users to interact with the digital domain as easily as with the real world. The result is “augmented reality” (AR. AR seamlessly superimposes virtual objects on to a real environment in three dimensions (3D and in real time. One of the most important parts that helps close the gap between virtuality and reality is the marker used in the AR system. While pictorial marker and bar-code marker are the two most commonly used marker types in the market, they have some disadvantages in visual and processing performance. In this paper, we present a novelty method that combines the bar-code with the original feature of a colour picture (e.g., photos, trading cards, advertisement’s figure. Our method decorates on top of the original pictorial images additional features with a single stereogram image that optically conceals a multi-level (3D bar-code. Thus, it has a larger capability of storing data compared to the general 1D barcode. This new type of marker has the potential of addressing the issues that the current types of marker are facing. It not only keeps the original information of the picture but also contains encoded numeric information. In our limited evaluation, this pictorial bar-code shows a relatively robust performance under various conditions and scaling; thus, it provides a promising AR approach to be used in many applications such as trading card games, educations, and advertisements.

  5. Multi-Level Wavelet Shannon Entropy-Based Method for Single-Sensor Fault Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoning Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In actual application, sensors are prone to failure because of harsh environments, battery drain, and sensor aging. Sensor fault location is an important step for follow-up sensor fault detection. In this paper, two new multi-level wavelet Shannon entropies (multi-level wavelet time Shannon entropy and multi-level wavelet time-energy Shannon entropy are defined. They take full advantage of sensor fault frequency distribution and energy distribution across multi-subband in wavelet domain. Based on the multi-level wavelet Shannon entropy, a method is proposed for single sensor fault location. The method firstly uses a criterion of maximum energy-to-Shannon entropy ratio to select the appropriate wavelet base for signal analysis. Then multi-level wavelet time Shannon entropy and multi-level wavelet time-energy Shannon entropy are used to locate the fault. The method is validated using practical chemical gas concentration data from a gas sensor array. Compared with wavelet time Shannon entropy and wavelet energy Shannon entropy, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve accurate location of a single sensor fault and has good anti-noise ability. The proposed method is feasible and effective for single-sensor fault location.

  6. Multi-level restricted maximum likelihood covariance estimation and kriging for large non-gridded spatial datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Castrillon, Julio; Genton, Marc G.; Yokota, Rio

    2015-01-01

    We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic

  7. Quantification of Runoff as Influenced by Morphometric Characteristics in a Rural Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-03-01

    This study addresses the critical scientific question of assessing the relationship between morphometric features and the hydrological factors that increase the risk of flooding in Kelantan River basin, Malaysia. Two hypotheses were developed to achieve this aim, namely: the alternate hypothesis (runoff, is influenced by morphometric characteristics in the study watershed) and the null hypothesis (runoff is not influenced by morphometric characteristics). First, the watershed was delineated into four major catchments, namely: Galas, Pergau, Lebir, and Nenggiri. Next, quantitative morphometric characters such as linear aspects, areal aspects, and relief aspects were determined on each of these catchments. Furthermore, HEC-HMS and flood response analyses were employed to simulate the hydrological response of the catchments. From the results of morphometric analysis, profound spatial changes were observed between runoff features of Kelantan River and the morphometric characteristics. The length of overflow that was related to drainage density and constant channel maintenance was found to be 0.12 in Pergau, 0.04 in both Nenggiri and Lebir, and 0.03 in Galas. Drainage density as influenced by geology and vegetation density was found to be low in all the catchments (0.07-0.24). Results of hydrological response indicated that Lebir, Nenggiri, Galas, and Pergau recorded a flood response factor of 0.75, 0.63, 0.40, and 0.05, respectively. Therefore, Lebir and Nenggiri are more likely to be flooded during a rainstorm. There was no clear indication with regard to the catchment that emerged as the most prevailing in all the morphological features. Hence, the alternate hypothesis was affirmed. This study can be replicated in other catchments with different hydrologic setup.

  8. An improved AE detection method of rail defect based on multi-level ANC with VSS-LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yiming; Wang, Yan; Sun, Mingjian; Hu, Hengshan

    2018-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety and reliability of railway system, Acoustic Emission (AE) method is employed to investigate rail defect detection. However, little attention has been paid to the defect detection at high speed, especially for noise interference suppression. Based on AE technology, this paper presents an improved rail defect detection method by multi-level ANC with VSS-LMS. Multi-level noise cancellation based on SANC and ANC is utilized to eliminate complex noises at high speed, and tongue-shaped curve with index adjustment factor is proposed to enhance the performance of variable step-size algorithm. Defect signals and reference signals are acquired by the rail-wheel test rig. The features of noise signals and defect signals are analyzed for effective detection. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with the previous study, and different filter lengths are investigated to obtain a better noise suppression performance. Meanwhile, the detection ability of the proposed method is verified at the top speed of the test rig. The results clearly illustrate that the proposed method is effective in detecting rail defects at high speed, especially for noise interference suppression.

  9. Application of Multilevel Models to Morphometric Data. Part 2. Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tsybrovskyy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel organization of morphometric data (cells are “nested” within patients requires special methods for studying correlations between karyometric features. The most distinct feature of these methods is that separate correlation (covariance matrices are produced for every level in the hierarchy. In karyometric research, the cell‐level (i.e., within‐tumor correlations seem to be of major interest. Beside their biological importance, these correlation coefficients (CC are compulsory when dimensionality reduction is required. Using MLwiN, a dedicated program for multilevel modeling, we show how to use multivariate multilevel models (MMM to obtain and interpret CC in each of the levels. A comparison with two usual, “single‐level” statistics shows that MMM represent the only way to obtain correct cell‐level correlation coefficients. The summary statistics method (take average values across each patient produces patient‐level CC only, and the “pooling” method (merge all cells together and ignore patients as units of analysis yields incorrect CC at all. We conclude that multilevel modeling is an indispensable tool for studying correlations between morphometric variables.

  10. Morphometric evaluation of Arbor Acre parent stock broilers reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric evaluation of Arbor Acre parent stock broilers reared in ... Economic importance of morphometric parameters such as live weight and body ... (R2) value of 60.30 included forecast indices such as BL, WS, WL, TL, BG and SL.

  11. Multi-level analysis in information systems research: the case of enterprise resource planning system usage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Bhattacherjee, Anol

    2011-11-01

    Information technology (IT) usage within organisations is a multi-level phenomenon that is influenced by individual-level and organisational-level variables. Yet, current theories, such as the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, describe IT usage as solely an individual-level phenomenon. This article postulates a model of organisational IT usage that integrates salient organisational-level variables such as user training, top management support and technical support within an individual-level model to postulate a multi-level model of IT usage. The multi-level model was then empirically validated using multi-level data collected from 128 end users and 26 managers in 26 firms in China regarding their use of enterprise resource planning systems and analysed using the multi-level structural equation modelling (MSEM) technique. We demonstrate the utility of MSEM analysis of multi-level data relative to the more common structural equation modelling analysis of single-level data and show how single-level data can be aggregated to approximate multi-level analysis when multi-level data collection is not possible. We hope that this article will motivate future scholars to employ multi-level data and multi-level analysis for understanding organisational phenomena that are truly multi-level in nature.

  12. The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.

  13. Design of shared unit-dose drug distribution network using multi-level particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linjie; Monteiro, Thibaud; Wang, Tao; Marcon, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Unit-dose drug distribution systems provide optimal choices in terms of medication security and efficiency for organizing the drug-use process in large hospitals. As small hospitals have to share such automatic systems for economic reasons, the structure of their logistic organization becomes a very sensitive issue. In the research reported here, we develop a generalized multi-level optimization method - multi-level particle swarm optimization (MLPSO) - to design a shared unit-dose drug distribution network. Structurally, the problem studied can be considered as a type of capacitated location-routing problem (CLRP) with new constraints related to specific production planning. This kind of problem implies that a multi-level optimization should be performed in order to minimize logistic operating costs. Our results show that with the proposed algorithm, a more suitable modeling framework, as well as computational time savings and better optimization performance are obtained than that reported in the literature on this subject.

  14. Tabu search approaches for the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Lai, K. K.

    2010-08-01

    A new multi-level warehouse layout problem, the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints (MLWLPAC), is investigated. The same item type is required to be located in adjacent cells, and horizontal and vertical unit travel costs are product dependent. An integer programming model is proposed to formulate the problem, which is NP hard. Along with a cube-per-order index policy based heuristic, the standard tabu search (TS), greedy TS, and dynamic neighbourhood based TS are presented to solve the problem. The computational results show that the proposed approaches can reduce the transportation cost significantly.

  15. Simulation and Analysis of a Grid Connected Multi-level Converter Topologies and their Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shadab Mirza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation and analysis of a grid connected multi-level converter topologies. In this paper, converter circuit works as an inverter by controlling the switching angle (α. This paper, presents a MATLAB/SIMULINK model of multi-level converter topologies (topology1 & topology2. Topology1 is without transformer while topology2 with transformer. Both the topologies are simulated and analyzed for three level converters in order to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD. A comparative study of topology1 and topology2 is also presented in this paper for different switching angles (α and battery voltages. The results have been tabulated and discussed.

  16. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  17. Retrospective Morphometric Analysis of the Infraorbital Foramen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of our study is to examine the morphometric characteristics of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) and its anatomic localization by using conebeam computerized tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: In our study, the anatomic characteristics of the IOF were identified by studying retrospectively the CBCT ...

  18. A single-phase multi-level D-STATCOM inverter using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoodeh, Pedram

    This dissertation presents the design of a novel multi-level inverter with FACTS capability for small to mid-size (10-20kW) permanent-magnet wind installations using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology. The aim of the work is to design a new type of inverter with D-STATCOM option to provide utilities with more control on active and reactive power transfer of distribution lines. The inverter is placed between the renewable energy source, specifically a wind turbine, and the distribution grid in order to fix the power factor of the grid at a target value, regardless of wind speed, by regulating active and reactive power required by the grid. The inverter is capable of controlling active and reactive power by controlling the phase angle and modulation index, respectively. The unique contribution of the proposed work is to combine the two concepts of inverter and D-STATCOM using a novel voltage source converter (VSC) multi-level topology in a single unit without additional cost. Simulations of the proposed inverter, with 5 and 11 levels, have been conducted in MATLAB/Simulink for two systems including 20 kW/kVAR and 250 W/VAR. To validate the simulation results, a scaled version (250 kW/kVAR) of the proposed inverter with 5 and 11 levels has been built and tested in the laboratory. Experimental results show that the reduced-scale 5- and 11-level inverter is able to fix PF of the grid as well as being compatible with IEEE standards. Furthermore, total cost of the prototype models, which is one of the major objectives of this research, is comparable with market prices.

  19. Graduate Attribute Attainment in a Multi-Level Undergraduate Geography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Sarah; Spronken-Smith, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated students' perceptions of graduate attributes in a multi-level (second and third year) geography course. A case study with mixed methodology was employed, with data collected through focus groups and a survey. We found that undergraduate geography students can identify the skills, knowledge and attributes that are developed through…

  20. A Dynamic Multi-Level Factor Model with Long-Range Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A dynamic multi-level factor model with stationary or nonstationary global and regional factors is proposed. In the model, persistence in global and regional common factors as well as innovations allows for the study of fractional cointegrating relationships. Estimation of global and regional...

  1. Transition in governance of river basin management in The Netherlands through multi-level social learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herk, S.; Rijke, J.S.; Zevenbergen, C.; Ashley, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a new adaptive, multi-level governance approach that supported a transition in river basin management in the Netherlands. The floods of 1993 and 1995 in the Netherlands triggered a paradigm shift in flood management. The 2.3 billion Euro flood safety programme

  2. Developing the multi-level functioning interface framework for DER models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.; You, Shi

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarises several modelling applications of distributed energy resources (DERs) for various purposes, and describes the related operational issues regarding the complexity of the future distribution grid. Furthermore, a multi-level functioning interface framework is proposed for DER mo....... The information mapping for photovoltaic panel (PV) modelling is also provided as an example....

  3. Analysis of Harmonic Injection to the Modulation of Multi-Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the analysis of third and ninth harmonic injection to the modulation of a multilevel diode clamped converter (DCC) at a varying modulation index. The spectral distributions of the various multi-level waveforms obtained under normal modulation index of 0.8 and over modulation index of 1.15 were ...

  4. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  5. Fabrication and characterization of injection molded multi level nano and microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Tanzi, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We here present a method for fabrication of multi-level all-polymer chips by means of silicon dry etching, electroplating and injection molding. This method was used for successful fabrication of microfluidic chips for applications in the fields of electrochemistry, cell trapping and DNA elongati...

  6. Due date assignment procedures with dynamically updated coefficients for multi-level assembly job shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, N.R.; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Morehead, D.C.; Surkis, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a study of due date assignment procedures in job shop environments where multi-level assembly jobs are processed and due dates are internally assigned. Most of the reported studies in the literature have focused on string type jobs. We propose a dynamic update approach (which

  7. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LUBANG MULTI LEVEL UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN LEMPAR TANGKAP BOLA KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Aryo Trubus Anom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a media Hole Multi Level to capture the small ball throwing learning grade IV elementary school level that can increase students roll control. The model of the research is the development of research and data analysis in the form of a percentage of data types with a description of the qualitative and quantitative. Procedure development include; 1 Potential problems, 2 Data collection, 3 Early media product design Multi Level Hole, 4 Design Validation by expert penjas and learning experts, 5 Revision products I, 6 Trials I in MI Ma’arif NU Darmakradenan, 7 Product revision II, 8 Trial II at four elementary school in the village of Darmakradenan, 9 Product revision III, 10 And products. The results of expert validation against the media Pit Multi Level was 80%, I Test of 83,23%, and II trials of 85.97%. Those results can be concluded that the development of the media Pit Multi Level can be used to capture the small ball throwing learning grade IV elementary school level.

  8. Replantation of multi-level fingertip amputation using the pocket principle (palmar pocket method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, J; Ishikawa, K; Soeda, H; Kitayama, T

    2003-07-01

    Two cases of multi-level fingertip amputation are presented. In each case, replantation was achieved in a two-stage procedure, involving reattachment, de-epithelialisation and insertion into a palmar pocket in stage 1, followed by removal from the palmar pocket 16 days later. The cases are described and the technique is discussed.

  9. Achieving strategic renewal: the multi-level influences of top and middle managers’ boundary-spanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, L.; Fourne, S.P.L.; Elfring, T.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on corporate entrepreneurship (CE) and social network research, this study focuses on strategic renewal as a form of CE and examines the impact of boundary-spanning at top and middle management levels on business units’ exploratory innovation. Analyses of multi-source and multi-level data,

  10. The Integrated Multi-Level Bilingual Teaching of "Social Research Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanhan; Ye, Jian

    2012-01-01

    "Social Research Methods," as a methodology course, combines theories and practices closely. Based on the synergy theory, this paper tries to establish an integrated multi-level bilingual teaching mode. Starting from the transformation of teaching concepts, we should integrate interactions, experiences, and researches together and focus…

  11. Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying the Criticality Index Model. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... This study has carefully shown and expressed a step by step computation of the severity level of the Turbine component parts, using the Criticality Index model.

  12. Enabling multi-level relevance feedback on PubMed by integrating rank learning into DBMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Taehoon; Oh, Jinoh; Ko, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungchul; Han, Wook-Shin

    2010-04-16

    Finding relevant articles from PubMed is challenging because it is hard to express the user's specific intention in the given query interface, and a keyword query typically retrieves a large number of results. Researchers have applied machine learning techniques to find relevant articles by ranking the articles according to the learned relevance function. However, the process of learning and ranking is usually done offline without integrated with the keyword queries, and the users have to provide a large amount of training documents to get a reasonable learning accuracy. This paper proposes a novel multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, called RefMed, which supports both ad-hoc keyword queries and a multi-level relevance feedback in real time on PubMed. RefMed supports a multi-level relevance feedback by using the RankSVM as the learning method, and thus it achieves higher accuracy with less feedback. RefMed "tightly" integrates the RankSVM into RDBMS to support both keyword queries and the multi-level relevance feedback in real time; the tight coupling of the RankSVM and DBMS substantially improves the processing time. An efficient parameter selection method for the RankSVM is also proposed, which tunes the RankSVM parameter without performing validation. Thereby, RefMed achieves a high learning accuracy in real time without performing a validation process. RefMed is accessible at http://dm.postech.ac.kr/refmed. RefMed is the first multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, which achieves a high accuracy with less feedback. It effectively learns an accurate relevance function from the user's feedback and efficiently processes the function to return relevant articles in real time.

  13. A multi-level surface rebalancing approach for efficient convergence acceleration of 3D full core multi-group fine grid nodal diffusion iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geemert, René van

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of multi-level rebalancing approach for nodal transport. • Generally improved and more mesh-independent convergence behavior. • Importance for intended regime of 3D pin-by-pin core computations. - Abstract: A new multi-level surface rebalancing (MLSR) approach has been developed, aimed at enabling an improved non-linear acceleration of nodal flux iteration convergence in 3D steady-state and transient reactor simulation. This development is meant specifically for anticipating computational needs for solving envisaged multi-group diffusion-like SP N calculations with enhanced mesh resolution (i.e. 3D multi-box up to 3D pin-by-pin grid). For the latter grid refinement regime, the previously available multi-level coarse mesh rebalancing (MLCMR) strategy has been observed to become increasingly inefficient with increasing 3D mesh resolution. Furthermore, for very fine 3D grids that feature a very fine axial mesh as well, non-convergence phenomena have been observed to emerge. In the verifications pursued up to now, these problems have been resolved by the new approach. The novelty arises from taking the interface current balance equations defined over all Cartesian box edges, instead of the nodal volume-integrated process-rate balance equation, as an appropriate restriction basis for setting up multi-level acceleration of fine grid interface current iterations. The new restriction strategy calls for the use of a newly derived set of adjoint spectral equations that are needed for computing a limited set of spectral response vectors per node. This enables a straightforward determination of group-condensed interface current spectral coupling operators that are of crucial relevance in the new rebalancing setup. Another novelty in the approach is a new variational method for computing the neutronic eigenvalue. Within this context, the latter is treated as a control parameter for driving another, newly defined and numerically more fundamental

  14. Loading Analysis of Modular Multi-level Converter for Offshore High-voltage DC Application under Various Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    challenges but may also result in overstressed components for the modular multi-level converter. However, the thermal loading of the modular multi-level converter under various grid faults has not yet been clarified. In this article, the power loss and thermal performance of the modular multi-level converter...... low-voltage ride-through strongly depend on the types and severity values of grid voltage dips. The thermal distribution among the three phases of the modular multi-level converter may be quite uneven, and some devices are much more stressed than the normal operating condition, which may...

  15. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Campos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively, morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate.

  16. Morphometric analysis of the arteries of Willis Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaz Huseyin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Willis polygon forms the basis of the arterial circulation of the cerebrum. Willis polygon is a vascular structure whom variations are not rare. Knowledge of the anatomy and preservation of its integrity is crucial for performing neurovascular surgery and intracranial tumour surgery. Because of the important vascular and neurological structures, approaches to this region are considered extremely risky. One of the main variations in-person basis is the diameter differences of the arteries, which forms Willis polygon, between the left and right hemispheres. About structure and variations, studies of Rhoton and Yasargil had formed the touchstone. Our aim is to contribute to the literature and clinical studies, to be done in the future, by comparing our results with previous studies about variations and morphometric features of Willis polygon.

  17. Morphometric and landsliding analyses in chain domain: the Roccella basin, NE Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    The dynamic interaction of endogenic and exogenic processes in active geodynamic context leads to the deterioration of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the rocks, inducing slopes instability. In such context, the morphometric parameters and the analysis of landslide distribution contribute to appraise the evolutive state of hydrographic basins. The aim of the study is the morphometric characterization of the Roccella Torrent basin (Rtb) located in South Italy. Landsliding and tectonic structure dynamically interact with the drainage pattern that records these effects and permits the definition of the evolutive geomorphic stage of the basin. The Air Photograph Investigation and field surveys permitted to draw the main geomorphic features, the drainage pattern of the Rtb, to calculate the morphometric parameters and to delimit the landslides’ bodies. Detailed analysis about the landslide distribution within a test site 17 km2 wide were carried out to elaborate indicative indexes of the landslides type and to single out the lithotypes that are more involved in slope instability phenomena. The morphometric parameters indicate the rejuvenation state within the Rtb where the stream reaches show the effects of increased energy relief in agreement with the geological settings of this sector of the Apennine-Maghrebian Chain.

  18. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    OpenAIRE

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Fieder, Martin; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented t...

  19. Innovation in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency. Sharing experience with multi-level governance to enhance energy efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, Nigel; Gasc, Emilien; Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2009-12-15

    Despite creating a plethora of national and international regulations and voluntary programmes to improve energy efficiency, countries are far from achieving full energy efficiency potential across all sectors of the economy. One major challenge, among numerous barriers, is policy implementation. One strategy that many national governments and international organisations have used to address the implementation issue is to engage regional and local authorities. To that end, many programmes have been created that foster energy efficiency action and collaboration across levels of government. The aim of this report is to identify trends and detail recent developments in multi-level governance in energy efficiency (MLGEE). By sharing lessons learned from daily practitioners in the field, the IEA hopes energy efficiency policy makers at all levels of government will be able to identify useful multilevel governance (MLG) practices across geographical and political contexts and use these to design robust programmes; modify existing programmes, and connect and share experiences with other policy makers in this field.

  20. Reproducibility of morphometric X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culton, N.; Pocock, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry (MXA) using DXA is potentially a useful clinical tool which may provide additional vertebral fracture information with low radiation exposure. While morphometric analysis is semi-automated, operator intervention is crucial for the accurate positioning of the six data points quantifying the vertebral heights at the anterior, middle and posterior positions. Our study evaluated intra-operator reproducibility of MXA in an elderly patient population and assessed the effect of training and experience on vertebral height precision. Ten patients, with a mean lumbar T score of - 2.07, were studied. Images were processed by a trained operator who had initially only limited morphometric experience. The analysis of the data files were repeated at 2 and 6 weeks, during which time the operator had obtained further experience and training. The intra-operator precision of vertebral height measurements was calculated using the three separate combinations of paired analyses, and expressed as the coefficient of variation. This study confirms the importance of adequate training and attention to detail in MXA analysis. The data indicate that the precision of MXA is adequate for its use in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures, based on a 20% deformity criteria. Use of MXA for monitoring would require approximately an 8% change in vertebral heights to achieve statistical significance

  1. Non-linear interactions of multi-level atoms with a near-resonant standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, T.J.; Scholten, R.E.; Walkiewicz, M.R.; Farrell, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using a semiclassical density matrix formalism we have calculated the behavior of multi-level atoms interacting with a standing wave field, and show how complex non-linear phenomena, including multi-photon effects, combine to produce saturation spectra as observed in experiments. We consider both 20-level sodium and 24-level rubidium models, contrasting these with a simple 2-level case. The influence of parameters such as atomic trajectory and the time the atom remains in the beam are shown to have a critical effect on the lineshape of these resonances and the emission/absorption processes. Stable oscillations in the excited state populations for both the two-level and multi-level cases are shown to be limit cycles. These limit cycles undergo period doubling as the system evolves into chaos. Finally, using a Monte Carlo treatment, these processes average to produce saturated absorption spectra complete with power and Doppler broadening effects consistent with experiment. (authors)

  2. Habit, custom, and power: a multi-level theory of population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2013-03-01

    In multi-level theory, individual behavior flows from cognitive habits, either directly through social referencing, rules of thumb, or automatic behaviors; or indirectly through the shaping of rationality itself by framing or heuristics. Although behavior does not arise from individually rational optimization, it generally appears to be rational, because the cognitive habits that guide behavior evolve toward optimality. However, power imbalances shaped by particular social, political, and economic structures can distort this evolution, leading to individual behavior that fails to maximize individual or social well-being. Replacing the dominant rational-choice paradigm with a multi-level theoretical paradigm involving habit, custom, and power will enable public health to engage in rigorous new areas of research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Off-resonant transitions in the collective dynamics of multi-level atomic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study the contributions of off-resonant transitions to the dynamics of a system of N multi-level atoms sharing one excitation and interacting with the quantized vector electromagnetic field. The rotating wave approximation significantly simplifies the derivation of the equations of motion...... describing the collective atomic dynamics, but it leads to an incorrect expression for the dispersive part of the atom–atom interaction terms. For the case of two-level atoms and a scalar electromagnetic field, it turns out that the atom–atom interaction can be recovered correctly if integrals over...... the photon mode frequencies are extended to incorporate negative values. We explicitly derive the atom–atom interaction for multi-level atoms, coupled to the full vector electromagnetic field, and we recover also in this general case the validity of the results obtained by the extension to negative...

  4. Jansen-MIDAS: A multi-level photomicrograph segmentation software based on isotropic undecimated wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Alexandre Fioravante; Cabrera, Flávio Camargo; Nakasuga, Wagner Massayuki; Pagamisse, Aylton; Job, Aldo Eloizo

    2018-01-01

    Image segmentation, the process of separating the elements within a picture, is frequently used for obtaining information from photomicrographs. Segmentation methods should be used with reservations, since incorrect results can mislead when interpreting regions of interest (ROI). This decreases the success rate of extra procedures. Multi-Level Starlet Segmentation (MLSS) and Multi-Level Starlet Optimal Segmentation (MLSOS) were developed to be an alternative for general segmentation tools. These methods gave rise to Jansen-MIDAS, an open-source software. A scientist can use it to obtain several segmentations of hers/his photomicrographs. It is a reliable alternative to process different types of photomicrographs: previous versions of Jansen-MIDAS were used to segment ROI in photomicrographs of two different materials, with an accuracy superior to 89%. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Interactive Approach for Multi-Level Multi-Objective Fractional Programming Problems with Fuzzy Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Osman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interactive approach for solving multi-level multi-objective fractional programming (ML-MOFP problems with fuzzy parameters is presented. The proposed interactive approach makes an extended work of Shi and Xia (1997. In the first phase, the numerical crisp model of the ML-MOFP problem has been developed at a confidence level without changing the fuzzy gist of the problem. Then, the linear model for the ML-MOFP problem is formulated. In the second phase, the interactive approach simplifies the linear multi-level multi-objective model by converting it into separate multi-objective programming problems. Also, each separate multi-objective programming problem of the linear model is solved by the ∊-constraint method and the concept of satisfactoriness. Finally, illustrative examples and comparisons with the previous approaches are utilized to evince the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  6. New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with emphasis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem

  7. Profiling micro-organic contaminants in groundwater using multi-level piezometers

    OpenAIRE

    White, Debbie; Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Williams, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of micro-organic pollutants, including ‘emerging contaminants’ within groundwater is of increasing interest. Robust protocols are required to minimise the introduction of contamination during the sampling process. Below we discuss the sampling protocols used to reduce inputs of plasticisers during the sampling process, as well as the techniques used to characterise the distribution of micro-organic pollutants in the subsurface. In this study multi-level piezometers...

  8. A dedicated database system for handling multi-level data in systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Pornputtapong, Natapol; Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Nilsson, Avlant; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled extensive generation of multi-level omics data. These data are crucial for systems biology research, though they are complex, heterogeneous, highly dynamic, incomplete and distributed among public databases. This leads to difficulties in data accessibility and often results in errors when data are merged and integrated from varied resources. Therefore, integration and management of systems biological data remain very challenging...

  9. “Peran Polri Dalam Penyidikan Tindak Pidana Yang Terkait Dengan Multi Level Marketing”.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Ronny Nicolas; Syahrin, Alvi; Mulyadi, Mahmud; Marlina, Marlina

    2015-01-01

    Business industry Multi Level Marketing (MLM) is a lucrative market society especially with the promised bonuses obtained upon the sale of its products. However, there are also business masquerading as MLM, low quality products but a bonus for members is very large, so as to make the public flocked to follow the program masquerading as MLM business. The issues raised in this study is whether there is legal provision that can ensnare actors masquerading as MLM business practice is, how do I de...

  10. Critical network effect induces business oscillations in multi-level marketing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Juanico, Dranreb Earl

    2012-01-01

    The "social-networking revolution" of late (e.g., with the advent of social media, Facebook, and the like) has been propelling the crusade to elucidate the embedded networks that underlie economic activity. An unexampled synthesis of network science and economics uncovers how the web of human interactions spurred by familiarity and similarity could potentially induce the ups and downs ever so common to our economy. Zeroing in on the million-strong global industry known as multi-level marketin...

  11. A multi-level approach to understanding the impact of cyber crime on the financial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Lagazio; Nazneen Sherif; Mike Cushman

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a multi-level model, based on system dynamics methodology, to understand the impact of cyber crime on the financial sector. Consistent with recent findings, our results show that strong dynamic relationships, amongst tangible and intangible factors, affect cyber crime cost and occur at different levels of society and value network. Specifically, shifts in financial companies’ strategic priorities, having the protection of customer trust and loyalty as a key objective, ...

  12. A multi-level qualitative analysis of Telehomecare in Ontario: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hunting, Gemma; Shahid, Nida; Sahakyan, Yeva; Fan, Iris; Moneypenny, Crystal R.; Stanimirovic, Aleksandra; North, Taylor; Petrosyan, Yelena; Krahn, Murray D.; Rac, Valeria E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite research demonstrating the potential effectiveness of Telehomecare for people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure, broad-scale comprehensive evaluations are lacking. This article discusses the qualitative component of a mixed-method program evaluation of Telehomecare in Ontario, Canada. The objective of the qualitative component was to explore the multi-level factors and processes which facilitate or impede the implementation and adoption of the pro...

  13. A Formal Model of Trust Chain based on Multi-level Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangying

    2013-01-01

    Trust chain is the core technology of trusted computing. A formal model of trust chain based on finite state automata theory is proposed. We use communicating sequential processes to describe the system state transition in trust chain and by combining with multi-level security strategy give the definition of trust system and trust decision theorem of trust chain transfer which is proved meantime. Finally, a prototype system is given to show the efficiency of the model.

  14. Study of multi-level atomic systems with the application of magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Roy, Subhankar; Ummal Momeen, M.

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of multiple energy levels associated with each atomic system determines the various processes related to light- matter interactions. It is necessary to understand the influence of different levels in a given atomic system. In this work we focus on multi- level atomic schemes with the application of magnetic field. We analyze the different EIT windows which appears in the presence of moderately high magnetic field (∼ 10 G) strength.

  15. Thermo-mechanical analysis for multi-level HLW repository concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the influence of design parameters for the underground high-level nuclear waste repository with multi-level concept. B. Necessity o In order to construct an HLW repository in deep underground, it is required to select a site, which is far from major discontinuities. To dispose the whole spent fuels generated from the Korean nuclear power plants in a repository, the underground area of about 4km 2 is required. This would be a constraints for selecting an adequate repository site. It is recommended to dispose the two different spent fuels, PWR and CANDU, in different areas at the operation efficiency point of view. It is necessary to investigate the influence of parameters, which can affect the stability of multi-level repository. It is also needed to consider the influence of heat generated from the HLW and the high in situ stress in deep location. Therefore, thermo-mechanical coupling analysis should be carried out and the results should be compared with the results from single-level repository concept. Three-dimensional analysis is required to model the disposal tunnel and deposition hole. It is recommended to use the Korean geological condition and actually measured rock properties in Korea in order to achieve reliable modeling results. A FISH routine developed for effective modeling of Thermal-Mechanical coupling was implemented in the modeling using FLAC3D, which is a commercial three-dimensional FDM code. The thermal and mechanical properties of rock and rock mass achieved from Yusung drilling site, were used for the computer modeling. Different parameters such as level distance, waste type disposed on different levels, and time interval between the operation on different levels, were considered in the three-dimensional analysis. From the analysis, it was possible to derive adequate multi-level repository concept. Results and recommendations for application From the thermal-mechanical analysis for the multi-level repository

  16. Multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes, in which the decoding of a component code at each stage can be either soft-decision or hard-decision, maximum likelihood or bounded-distance. Error performance of codes is analyzed for a memoryless additive channel based on various types of multi-stage decoding, and upper bounds on the probability of an incorrect decoding are derived. Based on our study and computation results, we find that, if component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. In particular, we find that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum decoding of the overall code is very small: only a fraction of dB loss in SNR at the probability of an incorrect decoding for a block of 10(exp -6). Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes really offers a way to achieve the best of three worlds, bandwidth efficiency, coding gain, and decoding complexity.

  17. Serving the army as secretaries: intersectionality, multi-level contract and subjective experience of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomsky-Feder, Edna; Sasson-Levy, Orna

    2015-03-01

    With the growing elusiveness of the state apparatus in late modernity, military service is one of the last institutions to be clearly identified with the state, its ideologies and its policies. Therefore, negotiations between the military and its recruits produce acting subjects of citizenship with long-lasting consequences. Arguing that these negotiations are regulated by multi-level (civic, group, and individual) contracts, we explore the various meanings that these contracts obtain at the intersectionality of gender, class, and ethnicity; and examine how they shape the subjective experience of soldierhood and citizenship. More particularly, we analyse the meaning of military service in the retrospective life stories of Israeli Jewish women from various ethno-class backgrounds who served as army secretaries - a low-status, feminine gender-typed occupation within a hyper-masculine organization. Findings reveal that for women of the lower class, the organizing cultural schema of the multi-level contract is that of achieving respectability through military service, which means being included in the national collective. Conversely, for middle-class women, it is the sense of entitlement that shapes their contract with the military, which they expect to signify and maintain their privileged status. Thus, while for the lower class, the multi-level contract is about inclusion within the boundaries of the national collective, for the dominant groups, this contract is about reproducing social class hierarchies within national boundaries. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  18. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identifie......-ordination and management of the network assets at different voltage levels and geographical locations. The paper finally shows the applicability of the multi-level control architecture to some of the key challenges in the distribution system operation by relevant scenarios....... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  19. Morphometric and Histological Study of Osteophytes in Human Cadaveric Lumbar Vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwini Aithal Padur; Naveen Kumar; Swamy Ravindra Shanthakumar; Arijit Bishnu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Osteophytes are bony outgrowth on the vertebral column. Its prevalence in the lumbar region and clinical importance mandates to conduct a detailed study of lumbar osteophytes in the cadaveric vertebral column. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the detailed features of lumbar osteophytes and document its prevalence, morphometric and histological structure. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study in which frequency of occurrence of lumbar osteophyt...

  20. STUDY OF MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF FOETAL STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aneesur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interest in human development is very widespread largely because of the curiosity about our beginnings and desire to improve the quality of life. Understanding of the processes involved in the formation of various organs and systems has unrevealed most cryptic secrets of the nature. Human development begins at fertilisation when a male gamete or sperm unites with a female gamete or oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. With the formation of zygote (single-celled stage, foetal development begins. The aim of the study is to- 1 Study the morphometric parameters of foetal stomach at various gestational ages. 2 Compare these observations with the previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present work was the cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at SRTRGMC and Hospital, Ambajogai Dist., Beed, Maharashtra. For this, approval of Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. 30 aborted human foetuses of different age groups ranging from 12 to 36 weeks of fertilisation were taken from the Department of OB-GYN. Foetuses were preserved by using 10% formalin. Age of foetuses were determined by crown-rump length and history given by mother. Foetuses were dissected after preservation for 15 days and morphometric studies were done on stomach. RESULTS Various quantitative parameters like weight of foetus, crown-rump length, total length of stomach, weight of stomach, length of greater curvature, lesser curvature, width of cardia and width of pylorus were used. For the purpose of study and comparison with other researchers, the foetuses were divided into 3 groups. Morphometric changes were observed in different groups and compared with previous studies. CONCLUSION With the increase in the body weight, crown-rump length and gestational age of the foetus, there is gradual increase on various parameters of stomach.

  1. Examining multi-level effects on corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei Matthew J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What influences firms to engage in socially responsible (irresponsible activities? Corporate social responsibility (CSR, the efforts of firms to create a positive and desirable impact on society, and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI, contrary actions of unethical behavior that negatively influence society, have become an important focus of discussion for both corporations and scholars. Despite this interest, our understanding of organizations’ socially responsible (irresponsible actions and their antecedents is still developing. A dearth of knowledge about the multi-level nature of the drivers of CSR and CSI continues to exist. Utilizing a longitudinal sample composed of 899 firms in 66 industries, we follow a prominent model to empirically examine industry-, firm-, and individual-level effects on CSR and CSI. Employing variance decomposition analysis, our results confirm that all three levels of investigation do indeed influence CSR and CSI. More substantively, our analysis estimates the magnitude of the effects attributable to each of the three levels for both CSR and CSI. We also compare multi-level influences on two separate CSR strategies, those targeting primary stakeholders (strategic CSR and those targeting secondary stakeholders (social CSR. We find greater industry- and firmlevel effects on social CSR, and higher individual-level effects on strategic CSR. Our results build on the conceptual work of previous authors by providing empirical analyses to confirm multilevel influences on CSR and extending prior multi-level theory to the concept of CSI. Further, we add to the emerging literature regarding stakeholder demands by examining the various influences on CSR strategies targeting different stakeholder groups.

  2. Sperm kinematic, head morphometric and kinetic-morphometric subpopulations in the blue fox (Alopex lagopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Soler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides information on the blue fox ejaculated sperm quality needed for seminal dose calculations. Twenty semen samples, obtained by masturbation, were analyzed for kinematic and morphometric parameters by using CASA-Mot and CASA-Morph system and principal component (PC analysis. For motility, eight kinematic parameters were evaluated, which were reduced to PC1, related to linear variables, and PC2, related to oscillatory movement. The whole population was divided into three independent subpopulations: SP1, fast cells with linear movement; SP2, slow cells and nonoscillatory motility; and SP3, medium speed cells and oscillatory movement. In almost all cases, the subpopulation distribution by animal was significantly different. Head morphology analysis generated four size and four shape parameters, which were reduced to PC1, related to size, and PC2, related to shape of the cells. Three morphometric subpopulations existed: SP1: large oval cells; SP2: medium size elongated cells; and SP3: small and short cells. The subpopulation distribution differed between animals. Combining the kinematic and morphometric datasets produced PC1, related to morphometric parameters, and PC2, related to kinematics, which generated four sperm subpopulations - SP1: high oscillatory motility, large and short heads; SP2: medium velocity with small and short heads; SP3: slow motion small and elongated cells; and SP4: high linear speed and large elongated cells. Subpopulation distribution was different in all animals. The establishment of sperm subpopulations from kinematic, morphometric, and combined variables not only improves the well-defined fox semen characteristics and offers a good conceptual basis for fertility and sperm preservation techniques in this species, but also opens the door to use this approach in other species, included humans.

  3. Modular Multi-level converter based HVDC System for Grid Connection of Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanarathna, U.N.; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Gole, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the application of modular multi-level converters (MMC) as a means for harnessing the power from off-shore wind power plants. The MMC consists of a large number of simple voltage sourced converter (VSC) submodules that can be easily assembled into a converter for high......-voltage and high power. The paper shows that the MMC converter has a fast response and low harmonic content in comparison with a two-level VSC option. The paper discusses the modeling approach used, including a solution to the modeling challenge imposed by the very large number of switching devices in the MMC....

  4. Multi-level adaptive simulation of transient two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chueh, C.C.

    2010-10-01

    An implicit pressure and explicit saturation (IMPES) finite element method (FEM) incorporating a multi-level shock-type adaptive refinement technique is presented and applied to investigate transient two-phase flow in porous media. Local adaptive mesh refinement is implemented seamlessly with state-of-the-art artificial diffusion stabilization allowing simulations that achieve both high resolution and high accuracy. Two benchmark problems, modelling a single crack and a random porous medium, are used to demonstrate the robustness of the method and illustrate the capabilities of the adaptive refinement technique in resolving the saturation field and the complex interaction (transport phenomena) between two fluids in heterogeneous media. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. MULTI-LEVEL SAMPLING APPROACH FOR CONTINOUS LOSS DETECTION USING ITERATIVE WINDOW AND STATISTICAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fo'ad Rohani; Mohd Aizaini Maarof; Ali Selamat; Houssain Kettani

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a Multi-Level Sampling (MLS) approach for continuous Loss of Self-Similarity (LoSS) detection using iterative window. The method defines LoSS based on Second Order Self-Similarity (SOSS) statistical model. The Optimization Method (OM) is used to estimate self-similarity parameter since it is fast and more accurate in comparison with other estimation methods known in the literature. Probability of LoSS detection is introduced to measure continuous LoSS detection performance...

  6. Emitter signal separation method based on multi-level digital channelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xun; Ping, Yifan; Wang, Sujun; Feng, Ying; Kuang, Yin; Yang, Xinquan

    2018-02-01

    To solve the problem of emitter separation under complex electromagnetic environment, a signal separation method based on multi-level digital channelization is proposed in this paper. A two-level structure which can divide signal into different channel is designed first, after that, the peaks of different channels are tracked using the track filter and the coincident signals in time domain are separated in time-frequency domain. Finally, the time domain waveforms of different signals are acquired by reverse transformation. The validness of the proposed method is proved by experiment.

  7. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  8. Multi-level governance-perspective on management of nuclear waste disposal. A comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Haefner, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The primary aim of the project is to conduct a detailed social and political analysis of the preconditions for the development of an acceptable strategy for nuclear waste disposal in Germany. This includes the identification of stakeholders and their interests, responsibilities, value systems, views and expectations as well as paths for a constructive approach to dialogue and problem-solving. A focus of the research project will be an international comparative multi-level governance analysis of acceptance patterns and steering mechanisms for conflict resolution.

  9. Multi-level methods for solving multigroup transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, D. Y.; Gol'din, V. Y.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for solving eigenvalue problems for the multigroup neutron transport equation in 1D slab geometry is presented. In this paper we formulate and compare different variants of nonlinear multi-level iteration methods. They are defined by means of multigroup and effective one-group low-order quasi diffusion (LOQD) equations. We analyze the effects of utilization of the effective one-group LOQD problem for estimating the eigenvalue. We present numerical results to demonstrate the performance of the iteration algorithms in different types of reactor-physics problems. (authors)

  10. Multi-level switching in TiOx Fy film with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Wu, Chuangui; Shuai, Yao; Pan, Xinqiang; Luo, Wenbo; You, Tiangui; Du, Nan; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2017-01-01

    A reliable bipolar resistive switching device was achieved with multi-level switching behavior in fluorine-doped titanium oxide (TiO x F y ) film. Different resistance states can be precisely controlled by different pulse voltages, which reveals the device’s high potential in neuromorphic research. The characteristics of I – V curves in each resistance state were analyzed. Nanoparticles were observed in the TiO x F y film by HR-TEM. The underlying physical mechanisms during resistance switching are discussed and a model of a meshy conducting path is proposed. (paper)

  11. Multi-level nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for multigroup transport k-Eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method is an efficient and flexible transport iterative scheme for solving reactor-physics problems. This paper presents a fast iterative algorithm for solving multigroup neutron transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry. The proposed method is defined by a multi-level system of equations that includes multigroup and effective one-group low-order NDA equations. The Eigenvalue is evaluated in the exact projected solution space of smallest dimensionality, namely, by solving the effective one- group eigenvalue transport problem. Numerical results that illustrate performance of the new algorithm are demonstrated. (author)

  12. A Multi-step and Multi-level approach for Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The problem formulation step incorporates a knowledge base for the identification and setup of the design criteria. Candidate compounds are identified using a multi-level generate and test CAMD solution algorithm capable of designing molecules having a high level of molecular detail. A post solution step...... using an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS) for result analysis and verification is included in the methodology. Keywords: CAMD, separation processes, knowledge base, molecular design, solvent selection, substitution, group contribution, property prediction, ICAS Introduction The use of Computer...... Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) for the identification of compounds having specific physic...

  13. Multi-level governance-perspective on management of nuclear waste disposal. A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Haefner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the project is to conduct a detailed social and political analysis of the preconditions for the development of an acceptable strategy for nuclear waste disposal in Germany. This includes the identification of stakeholders and their interests, responsibilities, value systems, views and expectations as well as paths for a constructive approach to dialogue and problem-solving. A focus of the research project will be an international comparative multi-level governance analysis of acceptance patterns and steering mechanisms for conflict resolution.

  14. Topological structures of adiabatic phase for multi-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengxin; Zhou Xiaoting; Liu Xin; Liu Xiongjun; Chen Jingling

    2007-01-01

    The topological properties of adiabatic gauge fields for multi-level (three-level in particular) quantum systems are studied in detail. Similar to the result that the adiabatic gauge field for SU(2) systems (e.g. two-level quantum system or angular momentum systems, etc) has a monopole structure, the curvature 2-forms of the adiabatic holonomies for SU(3) three-level and SU(3) eight-level quantum systems are shown to have monopole-like (for all levels) or instanton-like (for the degenerate levels) structures

  15. Assessment of Material Solutions of Multi-level Garage Structure Within Integrated Life Cycle Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałach, Daniel; Sagan, Joanna; Gicala, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an environmental and economic analysis of the material solutions of multi-level garage. The construction project approach considered reinforced concrete structure under conditions of use of ordinary concrete and high-performance concrete (HPC). Using of HPC allowed to significant reduction of reinforcement steel, mainly in compression elements (columns) in the construction of the object. The analysis includes elements of the methodology of integrated lice cycle design (ILCD). By making multi-criteria analysis based on established weight of the economic and environmental parameters, three solutions have been evaluated and compared within phase of material production (information modules A1-A3).

  16. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  17. A multi-level code for metallurgical effects in metal-forming processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Silling, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics and Mechanics Dept.; Hughes, D.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Chiesa, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The authors present the final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, A Multi-level Code for Metallurgical Effects in metal-Forming Processes, performed during the fiscal years 1995 and 1996. The project focused on the development of new modeling capabilities for simulating forging and extrusion processes that typically display phenomenology occurring on two different length scales. In support of model fitting and code validation, ring compression and extrusion experiments were performed on 304L stainless steel, a material of interest in DOE nuclear weapons applications.

  18. Variability of morphometric parameters of human trabecular tissue from coxo-arthritis and osteoporotic samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marinozzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric and architectural bone parameters change in diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The mechanical strength of bone is primarily influenced by bone quantity and quality. Bone quality is defined by parameters such as trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular density and degree of anisotropy that describe the micro-architectural structure of bone. Recently, many studies have validated microtomography as a valuable investigative technique to assess bone morphometry, thanks to micro-CT non-destructive, non-invasive and reliability features, in comparison to traditional techniques such as histology. The aim of this study is the analysis by micro-computed tomography of six specimens, extracted from patients affected by osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, in order to observe the tridimensional structure and calculate several morphometric parameters.

  19. Machine Learning for Nuclear Mechano-Morphometric Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Adityanarayanan; Damodaran, Karthik; Soylemezoglu, Ali C; Uhler, Caroline; Shivashankar, G V

    2017-12-20

    Current cancer diagnosis employs various nuclear morphometric measures. While these have allowed accurate late-stage prognosis, early diagnosis is still a major challenge. Recent evidence highlights the importance of alterations in mechanical properties of single cells and their nuclei as critical drivers for the onset of cancer. We here present a method to detect subtle changes in nuclear morphometrics at single-cell resolution by combining fluorescence imaging and deep learning. This assay includes a convolutional neural net pipeline and allows us to discriminate between normal and human breast cancer cell lines (fibrocystic and metastatic states) as well as normal and cancer cells in tissue slices with high accuracy. Further, we establish the sensitivity of our pipeline by detecting subtle alterations in normal cells when subjected to small mechano-chemical perturbations that mimic tumor microenvironments. In addition, our assay provides interpretable features that could aid pathological inspections. This pipeline opens new avenues for early disease diagnostics and drug discovery.

  20. Availability of convenience stores and adolescent alcohol use in Taiwan: a multi-level analysis of national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Heng; Lin, I-Chin; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chen, Wei J

    2013-12-01

    To examine the association between alcohol in school environments and adolescent alcohol use over the previous 6 months. A multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed of cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2004, 2005 and 2006. A total of 52 214 students aged 11-19 years from 387 middle or high schools were selected from a nationally representative, multi-stage, stratified probability sampling across Taiwan. Information on socio-demographic features and substance use experiences was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The alcohol in the environment was measured using the availability of convenience stores surrounding the schools. Using geographical information systems, the weighted numbers of convenience stores within 1 km, a 12-15-minute walk, of a school were calculated. The schools were later categorized into three subgroups via the tertile of nearby convenience stores. Considering the compositional characteristics, the availability of convenience stores was found to account for 1.5% of the school-level variance of youthful drinking. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of alcohol use over the previous 6 months among youth attending schools with medium and high availability were 1.04 (0.96-1.13) and 1.08 (1.00-1.17), respectively, with a P-value of 0.04 in the trend test. The greater availability of convenience stores near a school is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use among adolescents over the previous 6 months. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Ship Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Images Based on Wavelet Transform and Multi-Level False Alarm Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection by Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs and satellites plays an important role in a spectrum of related military and civil applications. To improve the detection efficiency, accuracy, and speed, a novel ship detection method from coarse to fine is presented. Ship targets are viewed as uncommon regions in the sea background caused by the differences in colors, textures, shapes, or other factors. Inspired by this fact, a global saliency model is constructed based on high-frequency coefficients of the multi-scale and multi-direction wavelet decomposition, which can characterize different feature information from edge to texture of the input image. To further reduce the false alarms, a new and effective multi-level discrimination method is designed based on the improved entropy and pixel distribution, which is robust against the interferences introduced by islands, coastlines, clouds, and shadows. The experimental results on optical remote sensing images validate that the presented saliency model outperforms the comparative models in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves core and the accuracy in the images with different sizes. After the target identification, the locations and the number of the ships in various sizes and colors can be detected accurately and fast with high robustness.

  2. Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile Basin, Western Ethiopia. ... In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the morphometric characteristics of Didessa ... Stream networks and watersheds were delineated in ArcGIS 10.1 software environment by utilizing ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. MORPHOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF GUT MICROFLORA IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Meijer, B.C

    1991-01-01

    The morphology of faecal microflora of nine healthy human volunteers was studied by digital image analysis of microscopic slides. Weekly specimens were collected during an 8-week period. Seven morphometrical parameters were derived: the means and medians of components 1, 2 and 3, and morphometrical

  4. Parasites and Morphometric Indices of Frozen Fish Sold in Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasites and morphometric indices of frozen fish sold in Nsukka Urban Market in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria were investigated between June and December 2008 to determine the parasite prevalence, mean intensity and abundance and some morphometric indices associated with ...

  5. Morphometrics and Theriology. Homage to Marco Corti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Loy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the role of museum theriological collections in the context of twenty years of morphometric progresses. It also recalls twenty years of collaboration and friendship with Marco Corti, Italian theriologist and morphometrician, died on January 2007. The synthesis is addressed to the many young students that are picking up the baton and will likely contribute to the growth of the Italian school of morphometrics, to which Marco Corti dedicated most of his work at the University of Rome "La Sapienza". Riassunto Morfometria e teriologia. Omaggio a Marco Corti. Il lavoro discute il ruolo delle collezioni teriologiche alla luce di venti anni di progressi della morfometria. Esso rappresenta anche la sintesi di un’esperienza umana e professionale, avendo l’autore condiviso molte tappe della ‘rivoluzione morfometrica’ degli anni ottanta con molti dei suoi protagonisti, alcuni dei quali oggi non sono più con noi. In particolare Marco Corti, teriologo e morfometrista, scomparso nel 2007. La sintesi è anche dedicata ai molti giovani studenti e ricercatori che stanno contribuendo alla crescita della scuola italiana di morfometria, cui Marco Corti ha dedicato gli ultimi venti anni di insegnamento e ricerca all’Università di Roma "La Sapienza".

  6. Stakeholder conceptualisation of multi-level HIV and AIDS determinants in a Black epicentre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Reason, Janaiya L; Hanlon, Kelsey; Guthrie, Barbara; Schensul, Jean J

    2017-09-01

    HIV has reached epidemic proportions among African Americans in the USA but certain urban contexts appear to experience a disproportionate disease burden. Geographic information systems mapping in Philadelphia indicates increased HIV incidence and prevalence in predominantly Black census tracts, with major differences across adjacent communities. What factors shape these geographic HIV disparities among Black Philadelphians? This descriptive study was designed to refine and validate a conceptual model developed to better understand multi-level determinants of HIV-related risk among Black Philadelphians. We used an expanded ecological approach to elicit reflective perceptions from administrators, direct service providers and community members about individual, social and structural factors that interact to protect against or increase the risk for acquiring HIV within their community. Gender equity, social capital and positive cultural mores (e.g., monogamy, abstinence) were seen as the main protective factors. Historical negative contributory influences of racial residential segregation, poverty and incarceration were among the most salient risk factors. This study was a critical next step toward initiating theory-based, multi-level community-based HIV prevention initiatives.

  7. Fabricating a multi-level barrier-integrated microfluidic device using grey-scale photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoonkwang; Kim, Minseok; Kim, Taesung

    2013-01-01

    Most polymer-replica-based microfluidic devices are mainly fabricated by using standard soft-lithography technology so that multi-level masters (MLMs) require multiple spin-coatings, mask alignments, exposures, developments, and bakings. In this paper, we describe a simple method for fabricating MLMs for planar microfluidic channels with multi-level barriers (MLBs). A single photomask is necessary for standard photolithography technology to create a polydimethylsiloxane grey-scale photomask (PGSP), which adjusts the total amount of UV absorption in a negative-tone photoresist via a wide range of dye concentrations. Since the PGSP in turn adjusts the degree of cross-linking of the photoresist, this method enables the fabrication of MLMs for an MLB-integrated microfluidic device. Since the PGSP-based soft-lithography technology provides a simple but powerful fabrication method for MLBs in a microfluidic device, we believe that the fabrication method can be widely used for micro total analysis systems that benefit from MLBs. We demonstrate an MLB-integrated microfluidic device that can separate microparticles. (paper)

  8. Multi-Level Integration of Environmentally Perturbed Internal Phenotypes Reveals Key Points of Connectivity between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Benis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genotype and external phenotype of organisms are linked by so-called internal phenotypes which are influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, we used five existing -omics datasets representing five different layers of internal phenotypes, which were simultaneously measured in dietarily perturbed mice. We performed 10 pair-wise correlation analyses verified with a null model built from randomized data. Subsequently, the inferred networks were merged and literature mined for co-occurrences of identified linked nodes. Densely connected internal phenotypes emerged. Forty-five nodes have links with all other data-types and we denote them “connectivity hubs.” In literature, we found proof of 6% of the 577 connections, suggesting a biological meaning for the observed correlations. The observed connectivities between metabolite and cytokines hubs showed higher numbers of literature hits as compared to the number of literature hits on the connectivities between the microbiota and gene expression internal phenotypes. We conclude that multi-level integrated networks may help to generate hypotheses and to design experiments aiming to further close the gap between genotype and phenotype. We describe and/or hypothesize on the biological relevance of four identified multi-level connectivity hubs.

  9. Is multi-level marketing of nutrition supplements a legal and an ethical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Diana; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa

    2018-06-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM) of nutrition products has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades. 'Wellness' is the second most popular niche in the MLM industry and represents 35% of sales among all the products in 2016. This category includes dietary supplements, weight management and sports nutrition products. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether this practice is legal and ethical. An analysis of available documentary information about the legal aspects of Multi-level marketing business was performed. Ethical reflexion was based on the "principlism" approach. We argue that, while being a controversial business model, MLM is not fraudulent from a legal point of view. However, it is an unethical strategy obviating all the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and autonomy. What is at stake is the possible economic scam and the potential harm those products could cause due to unproven efficacy, exceeding daily nutrient requirements and potential toxicity. The sale of dietary and nutrition supplements products by physicians and dieticians presents a conflict of interests that can undermine the primary obligation of physicians to serve the interests of their patients before their own. While considering that MLM of dietary supplements and other nutrition products are a legal business strategy, we affirm that it is an unethical practice. MLM products that have nutritional value or promoted as remedies may be unnecessary and intended for conditions that are unsuitable for self-prescription as well. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Internet of Things Based Multi-Level Privacy-Preserving Access Control for Smart Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Salama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the Internet of Things (IoT in healthcare through the use of mobile medical applications and wearable devices allows patients to capture their healthcare data and enables healthcare professionals to be up-to-date with a patient’s status. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, which is considered as one of the major applications of IoT, is a home environment augmented with embedded ambient sensors to help improve an individual’s quality of life. This domain faces major challenges in providing safety and security when accessing sensitive health data. This paper presents an access control framework for AAL which considers multi-level access and privacy preservation. We focus on two major points: (1 how to use the data collected from ambient sensors and biometric sensors to perform the high-level task of activity recognition; and (2 how to secure the collected private healthcare data via effective access control. We achieve multi-level access control by extending Public Key Infrastructure (PKI for secure authentication and utilizing Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC for authorization. The proposed access control system regulates access to healthcare data by defining policy attributes over healthcare professional groups and data classes classifications. We provide guidelines to classify the data classes and healthcare professional groups and describe security policies to control access to the data classes.

  11. Multi-level discriminative dictionary learning with application to large scale image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Sun, Gang; Huang, Qingming; Wang, Shuhui; Lin, Zhouchen; Wu, Enhua

    2015-10-01

    The sparse coding technique has shown flexibility and capability in image representation and analysis. It is a powerful tool in many visual applications. Some recent work has shown that incorporating the properties of task (such as discrimination for classification task) into dictionary learning is effective for improving the accuracy. However, the traditional supervised dictionary learning methods suffer from high computation complexity when dealing with large number of categories, making them less satisfactory in large scale applications. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-level discriminative dictionary learning method and apply it to large scale image classification. Our method takes advantage of hierarchical category correlation to encode multi-level discriminative information. Each internal node of the category hierarchy is associated with a discriminative dictionary and a classification model. The dictionaries at different layers are learnt to capture the information of different scales. Moreover, each node at lower layers also inherits the dictionary of its parent, so that the categories at lower layers can be described with multi-scale information. The learning of dictionaries and associated classification models is jointly conducted by minimizing an overall tree loss. The experimental results on challenging data sets demonstrate that our approach achieves excellent accuracy and competitive computation cost compared with other sparse coding methods for large scale image classification.

  12. Multi-Level Interval Estimation for Locating damage in Structures by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Danguang; Gao Yanhua; Song Junlei

    2010-01-01

    A new analysis technique, called multi-level interval estimation method, is developed for locating damage in structures. In this method, the artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis method is combined with the statistics theory to estimate the range of damage location. The ANN is multilayer perceptron trained by back-propagation. Natural frequencies and modal shape at a few selected points are used as input to identify the location and severity of damage. Considering the large-scale structures which have lots of elements, multi-level interval estimation method is developed to reduce the estimation range of damage location step-by-step. Every step, estimation range of damage location is obtained from the output of ANN by using the method of interval estimation. The next ANN training cases are selected from the estimation range after linear transform, and the output of new ANN estimation range of damage location will gained a reduced estimation range. Two numerical example analyses on 10-bar truss and 100-bar truss are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1980-09-01

    A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with empahsis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem. (orig.) [de

  14. Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the multi-level functionalities of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Based on a conceptual model of multi-level story flows of social media (Jung and Moro, 2012), the study analyses the multiple functionalities that were ascribed to social media by individuals, organisations, and macro-level social systems (government and the mass media) after the earthquake. Based on survey data, a review of Twitter timelines and secondary sources, the authors derive five functionalities of social media: interpersonal communications with others (micro level); channels for local governments; organisations and local media (meso level); channels for mass media (macro level); information sharing and gathering (cross level); and direct channels between micro-/meso- and macro-level agents. The study sheds light on the future potential of social media in disaster situations and suggests how to design an effective communication network to prepare for emergency situations. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  15. Multi-level restricted maximum likelihood covariance estimation and kriging for large non-gridded spatial datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Castrillon, Julio

    2015-11-10

    We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic parameters of the model are filtered out thus enabling the estimation of the covariance parameters to be decoupled from the deterministic component. Moreover, the multi-level covariance matrix of the contrasts exhibit fast decay that is dependent on the smoothness of the covariance function. Due to the fast decay of the multi-level covariance matrix coefficients only a small set is computed with a level dependent criterion. We demonstrate our approach on problems of up to 512,000 observations with a Matérn covariance function and highly irregular placements of the observations. In addition, these problems are numerically unstable and hard to solve with traditional methods.

  16. Multi-level policies and adaptive social networks – a conceptual modeling study for maintaining a polycentric governance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Mathias

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information and collaboration patterns embedded in social networks play key roles in multilevel and polycentric modes of governance. However, modeling the dynamics of such social networks in multilevel settings has been seldom addressed in the literature. Here we use an adaptive social network model to elaborate the interplay between a central and a local government in order to maintain a polycentric governance. More specifically, our analysis explores in what ways specific policy choices made by a central agent affect the features of an emerging social network composed of local organizations and local users. Using two types of stylized policies, adaptive co-management and adaptive one-level management, we focus on the benefits of multi-level adaptive cooperation for network management. Our analysis uses viability theory to explore and to quantify the ability of these policies to achieve specific network properties. Viability theory gives the family of policies that enables maintaining the polycentric governance unlike optimal control that gives a unique blueprint. We found that the viability of the policies can change dramatically depending on the goals and features of the social network. For some social networks, we also found a very large difference between the viability of the adaptive one-level management and adaptive co-management policies. However, results also show that adaptive co-management doesn’t always provide benefits. Hence, we argue that applying viability theory to governance networks can help policy design by analyzing the trade-off between the costs of adaptive co-management and the benefits associated with its ability to maintain desirable social network properties in a polycentric governance framework.

  17. Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape among certain species of Aedes mosquitoes in District Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ritwik; Devi, N Pemola; Jauhari, R K

    2015-06-01

    Insect wing morphology has been used in many studies to describe variations among species and populations using traditional morphometrics, and more recently geometric morphometrics. A landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of the wings of three species of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae), viz. Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. pseudotaeniatus, at District Dehradun was conducted belling on the fact that it can provide insight into the population structure, ecology and taxonomic identification. Adult Aedes mosquito specimens were randomly collected using aerial nets and morphologically examined and identified. The landmarks were identified on the basis of landmark based geometric morphometric analysis thin-plate spline (mainly the software tps-Util 1.28; tps-Dig 1.40; tps-Relw 1.53; and tps-Spline 1.20) and integrated morphometrics programme (mainly twogroup win8 and PCA win8) were utilized. In relative warp (RW) analysis, the first two RW of Ae. aegypti accounted for the highest value (95.82%), followed by Ae. pseudotaeniatus (90.89%), while the lowest (90.12%) being recorded for Ae. albopictus. The bending energies of Ae. aegypti and Ae. pseudotaeniatus were quite identical being 0.1882 and 0.1858 respectively, while Ae. albopictus recorded the highest value of 0.9774. The mean difference values of the distances among Aedes species performing Hotelling's T 2 test were significantly high, predicting major differences among the taxa. In PCA analysis, the horizontal and vertical axis summarized 52.41 and 23.30% of variances respectively. The centroid size exhibited significant differences among populations (non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, H = 10.56, p < 0.01). It has been marked out that the geometric morphometrics utilizes powerful and comprehensive statistical procedures to analyze the shape differences of a morphological feature, assuming that the studied mosquitoes may represent different genotypes and probably come from one diverse gene pool.

  18. A multi-level qualitative analysis of Telehomecare in Ontario: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, Gemma; Shahid, Nida; Sahakyan, Yeva; Fan, Iris; Moneypenny, Crystal R; Stanimirovic, Aleksandra; North, Taylor; Petrosyan, Yelena; Krahn, Murray D; Rac, Valeria E

    2015-12-09

    Despite research demonstrating the potential effectiveness of Telehomecare for people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure, broad-scale comprehensive evaluations are lacking. This article discusses the qualitative component of a mixed-method program evaluation of Telehomecare in Ontario, Canada. The objective of the qualitative component was to explore the multi-level factors and processes which facilitate or impede the implementation and adoption of the program across three regions where it was first implemented. The study employs a multi-level framework as a conceptual guide to explore the facilitators and barriers to Telehomecare implementation and adoption across five levels: technology, patients, providers, organizations, and structures. In-depth semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations with program stakeholders, as well as a Telehomecare document review were used to elicit key themes. Study participants (n = 89) included patients and/or informal caregivers (n = 39), health care providers (n = 23), technicians (n = 2), administrators (n = 12), and decision makers (n = 13) across three different Local Health Integration Networks in Ontario. Key facilitators to Telehomecare implementation and adoption at each level of the multi-level framework included: user-friendliness of Telehomecare technology, patient motivation to participate in the program, support for Telehomecare providers, the integration of Telehomecare into broader health service provision, and comprehensive program evaluation. Key barriers included: access-related issues to using the technology, patient language (if not English or French), Telehomecare provider time limitations, gaps in health care provision for patients, and structural barriers to patient participation related to geography and social location. Though Telehomecare has the potential to positively impact patient lives and strengthen models of health care provision, a

  19. Estimating population age structure using otolith morphometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doering-Arjes, P.; Cardinale, M.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    known-age fish individuals. Here we used known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Faroe Bank and Faroe Plateau stocks. Cod populations usually show quite large variation in growth rates and otolith shape. We showed that including otolith morphometrics into ageing processes has the potential...... populations. The intercalibration method was successful but generalization from one stock to another remains problematic. The development of an otolith growth model is needed for generalization if an operational method for different populations is required in the future....... to make ageing objective, accurate, and fast. Calibration analysis indicated that a known-age sample from the same population and environment is needed to obtain robust calibration; using a sample from a different stock more than doubles the error rate, even in the case of genetically highly related...

  20. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  1. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  2. Just how multi-level is leadership research? : A document co-citation analysis 1980–2013 on leadership constructs and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batistic, S.; Cerne, Matej; Vogel, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The use of multi-level theories and methodologies in leadership has gained momentum in recent years. However, the leadership field still suffers from a fragmented and unclear evolution and practice of multi-level approaches. The questions of how and to what extent multi-level research has evolved in

  3. Multi-level and Multi-component Bitmap Encoding for Efficient Search Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu BHAN, Department of Computer Applications

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in data warehousing for decision makers is becoming more and more crucial to make faster and efficient decisions. On-line decision needs short response times. Many indexing techniques have been created to achieve this goal in read only environments. Indexing technique that has attracted attention in multidimensional databases is Bitmap Indexing. The paper discusses the various existing bitmap indexing techniques along with their performance characteristics. The paper proposes two new bitmap indexing techniques in the class of multi-level and multi-component encoding schemes and prove that the two techniques have better space–time performance than some of the existing techniques used for range queries. We provide an analytical model for comparing the performance of our proposed encoding schemes with that of the existing ones.

  4. Analyzing the Role of Multi-level Learning in Implementing computerized HIS in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective for looking at the development and implementation of large scale computerised HIS as a multi-level learning process. Drawing on the empirical evidences from the ongoing Health Information systems program ( HISP) initiatives on the development, customization...... and implementation of computerised HIS in Ethiopia, the paper analyses the learning mechanisms, learning outcomes and obstacles for learning at individual, group, and organizational levels. Empirical data on two distinct phases of software development and customization (District health Information Software (DHIS......) versions 1.3 and 2.0) are contrasted. More specifically, we tried to show the dynamics of learning and the specific learning mechanisms by analysing and contrasting the interaction between IS developers and public health care domain experts, technological capacity at individual, group, and organizational...

  5. Multi-level cascaded DC/DC converters for PV applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.A. Hafez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A robust multi-level cascaded DC/DC system for Photovoltaic (PV application is advised in this article. There are three PV generators, each is coupled to a half-bridge buck cell. Each PV-generator–buck-converter channel is controlled such that maximum power is captured independently under different irradiation and temperature levels. The system operation under normal and abnormal conditions was comprehensively investigated. Internal Model Control (IMC technique was adopted for tuning the controllers. An elaborate switching modulation strategy was used to reduce the current ripple and inductor size, while maintaining high efficiency. Annotative, simple and robust remedial strategies were proposed to mitigate different anticipated faults. Comprehensive simulation results in Matlab environment were illustrated for corroborating the performance of the advised cascaded DC/DC system under normal/abnormal conditions. The proposed system enjoys the merits of independency, reduced volumetric dimensions and improved efficiency. Furthermore, the system is inherently fault-tolerant.

  6. Multi-level, automatic file management system using magnetic disk, mass storage system and magnetic tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Minoru; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1979-12-01

    A simple, effective file management system using magnetic disk, mass storage system (MSS) and magnetic tape is described. Following are the concepts and techniques introduced in this file management system. (1) File distribution and continuity character of file references are closely approximated by memory retention function. A density function using the memory retention function is thus defined. (2) A method of computing the cost/benefit lines for magnetic disk, MSS and magnetic tape is presented. (3) A decision process of an optimal organization of file facilities incorporating file demands distribution to respective file devices, is presented. (4) A method of simple, practical, effective, automatic file management, incorporating multi-level file management, space management and file migration control, is proposed. (author)

  7. Experiments of Multi-Level Read-Only Recording Using Readout Signal Wave-Shape Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Tang; Jing, Pei; Long-Fa, Pan; Yi, Ni; Hua, Hu; Bu-Qing, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    An innovative multilevel read-only recording method is proposed. In this method, a short pit/land is deliberately inserted to the original land/pit. This modifies the wave-shape of readout signal. Taking the wave-shape as the symbol of level detection, a signal wave-shape modulation (SWSM) multilevel method is realized. This method is carried out and validated on the DVD read-only manufacture and readout system. A capacity of 15 GB can be expected, and a bit error rate of 10 −4 is achieved. The capacity can meet the demand of high definition movie publication. This method also provides a potential multi-level solution for other storage formats and systems. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  8. Multi-level Governance as an Alternative: The Municipality of Barcelona and the Ciutat Refugi Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Irgil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the response of the Municipality of Barcelona to the Syrian refugee crisis in Europe as an alternative solution that challenges the national government’s restrictive approach. This response introduces the Ciutat Refugi Plan with a city-to-city network at the municipal level that involves other European cities in creating safe routes for refugees at the local government level. In line with multi-level governance theory, I argue that central governments’ inaction has pressured local governments to take action during the Syrian refugee influx. Relying on the influence of local government networks, the Municipality of Barcelona uses discourse as a tool of action in opening discursive spaces for humanitarian political responses to the refugee crisis. Using critical discourse analysis, I test this argument by examining in-depth interviews, speeches of people in power that have appeared in news articles, and statements on official websites.

  9. Automatic Multi-Level Thresholding Segmentation Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DJEROU,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new multi-level image thresholding technique, called Automatic Threshold based on Multi-objective Optimization "ATMO" that combines the flexibility of multi-objective fitness functions with the power of a Binary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm "BPSO", for searching the "optimum" number of the thresholds and simultaneously the optimal thresholds of three criteria: the between-class variances criterion, the minimum error criterion and the entropy criterion. Some examples of test images are presented to compare our segmentation method, based on the multi-objective optimization approach with Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods. Our experimental results show that the thresholding method based on multi-objective optimization is more efficient than the classical Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods.

  10. Mapping and navigating transitions - The multi-level perspective compared with arenas of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    actors to navigate. The second concern builds on the observation that actors engage at all levels in society including visions, institutions, and innovations. The third concern addresses the role of academic theories and advice regarding governance of transition processes in which they function......Transitions of socio-technical systems imply the reconfiguration of institutions and politics making made evident the need to understand and intervene in existing patterns of growth and socio-technical practices in more sustainable directions. In recent decades, theories of transitions have been...... introduced, which include the multi-level approach indicating ways to govern transitions through understanding the interactions between niches, regimes and landscapes. An alternative approach is suggested, which takes its outset in arenas of development and increased awareness of actors and their way...

  11. Multi-level governance: The way forward for European illicit drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, Caroline

    2007-12-01

    Illicit drug policy has long been an area that has attracted international policy intervention, however, the European Union has declared it an area of subsidiarity, leaving ultimate control to national governments. Nevertheless, European Union preoccupation with the illicit drug issue and international drug trafficking and organised crime concerns have ensured that continued and increased cooperation in illicit drug policy is never off the agenda. This article examines the history of European integration in contrasting areas of policy and considers both the desirability and the viability of an increasingly harmonised drug policy for Europe. Finally, it proposes a model of integrated illicit drug policy that is strongly connected to developing patterns of European social policy, calling on multi-level governance and close involvement at the level of the citizen.

  12. Post-stroke balance rehabilitation under multi-level electrotherapy: a conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban eDutta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is caused when an artery carrying blood from heart to an area in the brain bursts or a clot obstructs the blood flow thereby preventing delivery of oxygen and nutrients. About half of the stroke survivors are left with some degree of disability. Innovative methodologies for restorative neurorehabilitation are urgently required to reduce long-term disability. The ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections is called neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is involved in post-stroke functional disturbances, but also in rehabilitation. It has been shown that active cortical participation in a closed-loop brain machine interface (BMI can induce neuroplasticity in cortical networks where the brain acts as a controller, e.g., during a visuomotor task. Here, the motor task can be assisted with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES where the BMI will act as a real-time decoder. However, the cortical control and induction of neuroplasticity in a closed-loop brain machine interface is also dependent on the state of brain, e.g., visuospatial attention during visuomotor task performance. In fact, spatial neglect is a hidden disability that is a common complication of stroke and is associated with prolonged hospital stays, accidents, falls, safety problems and chronic functional disability. This hypothesis and theory article presents a multi-level electrotherapy paradigm towards motor rehabilitation in virtual reality that postulates that while the brain acts as a controller in a closed-loop BMI to drive NMES, the state of brain can be can be altered towards improvement of visuomotor task performance with non-invasive brain stimulation. This leads to a multi-level electrotherapy paradigm where a virtual reality-based adaptive response technology is proposed for post-stroke balance rehabilitation. In this article, we present a conceptual review of the related

  13. Multi-Level Determinants of Parasitic Fly Infection in Forest Passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Darío Ezequiel; Antoniazzi, Leandro Raúl; Saravia, María José; Silvestri, Leonardo; Rorhmann, David; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2013-01-01

    The study of myiasis is important because they may cause problems to the livestock industry, public health, or wildlife conservation. The ecology of parasitic dipterans that cause myiasis is singular, as they actively seek their hosts over relatively long distances. However, studies that address the determinants of myiasis dynamics are very scarce. The genus Philornis include species that may be excellent models to study myiasis ecology, as they exclusively parasitize bird nestlings, which stay in their nests until they are fully fledged, and larvae remain at the point of entry until the parasitic stage is over, thus allowing the collection of sequential individual-level infection data from virtually all the hosts present at a particular area. Here we offer a stratified multi-level analysis of longitudinal data of Philornis torquans parasitism in replicated forest bird communities of central Argentina. Using Generalized Linear Models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and an information theory approach for model selection, we conducted four groups of analyses, each with a different study unit, the individual, the brood, the community at a given week, and the community at a given year. The response variable was larval abundance per nestling or mean abundance per nestling. At each level, models included the variables of interest of that particular level, and also potential confounders and effect modifiers of higher levels. We found associations of large magnitude at all levels, but only few variables truly governed the dynamics of this parasite. At the individual level, the infection was determined by the species and the age of the host. The main driver of parasite abundance at the microhabitat level was the average height of the forest, and at the community level, the density of hosts and prior rainfall. This multi-level approach contributed to a better understanding of the ecology of myiasis. PMID:23874408

  14. Multi-level Bayesian analyses for single- and multi-vehicle freeway crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study presents multi-level analyses for single- and multi-vehicle crashes on a mountainous freeway. Data from a 15-mile mountainous freeway section on I-70 were investigated. Both aggregate and disaggregate models for the two crash conditions were developed. Five years of crash data were used in the aggregate investigation, while the disaggregate models utilized one year of crash data along with real-time traffic and weather data. For the aggregate analyses, safety performance functions were developed for the purpose of revealing the contributing factors for each crash type. Two methodologies, a Bayesian bivariate Poisson-lognormal model and a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with correlated random effects, were estimated to simultaneously analyze the two crash conditions with consideration of possible correlations. Except for the factors related to geometric characteristics, two exposure parameters (annual average daily traffic and segment length) were included. Two different sets of significant explanatory and exposure variables were identified for the single-vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) crashes. It was found that the Bayesian bivariate Poisson-lognormal model is superior to the Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model, the former with a substantially lower DIC and more significant variables. In addition to the aggregate analyses, microscopic real-time crash risk evaluation models were developed for the two crash conditions. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were estimated with the random parameters accounting for seasonal variations, crash-unit-level diversity and segment-level random effects capturing unobserved heterogeneity caused by the geometric characteristics. The model results indicate that the effects of the selected variables on crash occurrence vary across seasons and crash units; and that geometric characteristic variables contribute to the segment variations: the more unobserved heterogeneity have been accounted, the better

  15. A Multi-Level Model of Information Seeking in the Clinical Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Peter W.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Kaufman, David R.; Mendonça, Eneida A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians often have difficulty translating information needs into effective search strategies to find appropriate answers. Information retrieval systems employing an intelligent search agent that generates adaptive search strategies based on human search expertise could be helpful in meeting clinician information needs. A prerequisite for creating such systems is an information seeking model that facilitates the representation of human search expertise. The purpose of developing such a model is to provide guidance to information seeking system development and to shape an empirical research program. Design: The information seeking process was modeled as a complex problem-solving activity. After considering how similarly complex activities had been modeled in other domains, we determined that modeling context-initiated information seeking across multiple problem spaces allows the abstraction of search knowledge into functionally consistent layers. The knowledge layers were identified in the information science literature and validated through our observations of searches performed by health science librarians. Results: A hierarchical multi-level model of context-initiated information seeking is proposed. Each level represents (1) a problem space that is traversed during the online search process, and (2) a distinct layer of knowledge that is required to execute a successful search. Grand strategy determines what information resources will be searched, for what purpose, and in what order. The strategy level represents an overall approach for searching a single resource. Tactics are individual moves made to further a strategy. Operations are mappings of abstract intentions to information resource-specific concrete input. Assessment is the basis of interaction within the strategic hierarchy, influencing the direction of the search. Conclusion: The described multi-level model provides a framework for future research and the foundation for development of an

  16. Quantitative diagnosis of bladder cancer by morphometric analysis of HE images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Nebylitsa, Samantha V.; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2015-02-01

    In clinical practice, histopathological analysis of biopsied tissue is the main method for bladder cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The diagnosis is performed by a pathologist based on the morphological features in the image of a hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained tissue sample. This manuscript proposes algorithms to perform morphometric analysis on the HE images, quantify the features in the images, and discriminate bladder cancers with different grades, i.e. high grade and low grade. The nuclei are separated from the background and other types of cells such as red blood cells (RBCs) and immune cells using manual outlining, color deconvolution and image segmentation. A mask of nuclei is generated for each image for quantitative morphometric analysis. The features of the nuclei in the mask image including size, shape, orientation, and their spatial distributions are measured. To quantify local clustering and alignment of nuclei, we propose a 1-nearest-neighbor (1-NN) algorithm which measures nearest neighbor distance and nearest neighbor parallelism. The global distributions of the features are measured using statistics of the proposed parameters. A linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to classify the high grade and low grade bladder cancers. The results show using a particular group of nuclei such as large ones, and combining multiple parameters can achieve better discrimination. This study shows the proposed approach can potentially help expedite pathological diagnosis by triaging potentially suspicious biopsies.

  17. Seed morphometric characteristics of European species of Elatine (Elatinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Popiela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Elatine L. contains ca. 25 small, herbaceous, annual species distributed in ephemeral waters in both hemispheres. All species are amphibious and characterized by a high degree of morphological variability. The importance of seed morphology in Elatine taxonomy has been emphasized by many authors. The degree of seed curvature and seed coat reticulation have been traditionally considered very important in recognizing individual species of this genus. Seed morphometric characteristics of 10 Elatine species, including all European native taxa, are provided on the basis of material from two or three populations of each species. A total of 24–50 seeds were studied from each population, altogether 1,260 images were used for the morphometric study. In total, six parameters were measured from SEM pictures: object surface area, profile specific perimeter (object circuit, rectangle of the object (a length, rectangle of the object (b width, angle of the seed curvature, and number of pits in the seed coat counted in the middle row. Our study shows that the range of morphological variation of seeds in European species of Elatine is great, both between the species and the populations. Discrimination analysis showed that all six traits significantly differentiate the populations studied (λ = 0.001, p < 0.001, and the greatest contributions were “number of pits”, “rectangle_a”, and “the angle curvature”. Multidimensional scaling based on a correlation matrix of Mahalanobis distance of the six features studied revealed the greatest similarity between the three populations of E. alsinastrum, E. macropoda, and E. hexandra. Regarding interspecific differences, a Kruskal–Wallis tests showed that, in many cases, lack of statistically significant differences between species relative to the studied seed traits. If distinction of species is only based on seeds, especially if only a few seeds are evaluated, the following species pairs can be easily

  18. Morphometric analysis of hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis C infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, Alia; Jamal Shahid; Mubarik Azhar

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess steatosis by a morphometric method and to study its relationship with other histological features of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This was a comparative descriptive study. The study was carried out in the Department of Histopathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from March 2006 to March 2007. Patients who had undergone a liver biopsy for the evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and laboratory data were collected at the time of biopsy. The first hundred biopsy specimens that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for grades of steatosis (semiquantitatively), diameter of fat globules (by a morphometric method), necroinflammation, and fibrosis (semiquantitatively). Liver biopsies were processed for paraffin embedding, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, whereas Gomori's Reticulin stain was used for the evaluation of fibrosis. Out of 46 cases showing fatty change, pansteatosis was observed in 24 (52%) patients: 12 (26%) cases had a pericentral and mid zonal distribution of fat globules and eight (17.5%) cases revealed a mid zonal pattern only. There were two (4.5%) cases in which fat globules were found in periportal and mid zonal areas. None of the histological parameters (the stage of fibrosis and grades of inflammation) had any significant correlation with these distribution patterns of steatosis. The diameter of fat droplets was quantified by morphometry. A mixed pattern of steatosis was observed more frequently (21 out of 46 cases): 17 cases had microglobules and eight biopsies showed macroglobules. The size of the fat globules exhibited a significant correlation with the stage of fibrosis ( P < 0.0001). The analysis of the grades of necroinflammation did not reveal any significant relationship with the diameter of fat globules. A mixed pattern of fat globules is more frequently observed in CHC, but macrovesicular steatosis is associated with a higher stage

  19. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  20. Morphometric characteristics in the horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Arthropoda: Merostomata)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Das, S.; Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    comparative morphometry. This study also emphasizes that care must be taken to apply morphometric for a uniform size group of horseshoe crab populations. It is known that the changes in the form of an animal cannot be described satisfactorily...

  1. Morphometric Changes in the Cortical Microvascular Network in Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, E.; van Gool, W.A.; Hoozemans, J.J.M.; van Haastert, E.S.; Eikelenboom, P.; Rozemuller, A.J.M.; van de Berg, W.D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is accompanied by abnormalities of the microvasculature. Despite the potential importance of morphometric changes in the cortical capillary network on neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment, few autopsy studies have addressed this issue. In the present

  2. Morphometric analysis of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don), a critically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2012-07-12

    Jul 12, 2012 ... interplay of climate, geographical history and evolutionary dynamics in ... morphometric analysis of living plant (Dressler and. Dodson, 1960) and to the .... Number of flowers. 25. UPPINT ..... Classification and phylogeny in the.

  3. Morphometric analysis of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don), a critically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometric study was conducted during 2009 to 2010. About 28 morphological characters were measured under 13 natural populations of Dactylorhiza hatagirea. Geographic variation in morphology reflects phenotypic responses to environmental gradients and evolutionary history of populations and species.

  4. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE SELLA TURCICA; GENDER EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohamed Elsayed Ali SAKRAN *1, Mohammad Afzal KHAN 2, Faris Mohammed Nour ALTAF 3, Hassan Elsiddig Hassan FARAGALLA 4, Amal Yousif Ahmed Elhaj MUSTAFA 5, Muhammad Mazhar HIJAZI 6, Rayan Abdulshakur NIYAZI 7, Abrar Jamal TAWAKUL 8, Abeer Zubair MALEBARI 9, Amal AbdulAziz SALEM 10.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Precise anatomical knowledge of the sella turcica is important for neurologists and surgeons operating in the region of cavernous sinus or the surrounding structures. The current study was undertaken to record normal morphometric parameters for future reference and to determine if there is any significance difference in the sella turcica morphometry regarding the gender. Methodology: A Morphometric analysis of the Sella Turcica and structures in vicinity were done...

  5. Digital Morphometrics: A New Upper Airway Phenotyping Paradigm in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Richard J; Leinwand, Sarah E; Bearn, Cary B; Maislin, Greg; Rao, Ramya Bhat; Nagaraja, Adithya; Wang, Stephen; Keenan, Brendan T

    2017-08-01

    OSA is associated with changes in pharyngeal anatomy. The goal of this study was to objectively and reproducibly quantify pharyngeal anatomy by using digital morphometrics based on a laser ruler and to assess differences between subjects with OSA and control subjects and associations with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use digital morphometrics to quantify intraoral risk factors for OSA. Digital photographs were obtained by using an intraoral laser ruler and digital camera in 318 control subjects (mean AHI, 4.2 events/hour) and 542 subjects with OSA (mean AHI, 39.2 events/hour). The digital morphometric paradigm was validated and reproducible over time and camera distances. A larger modified Mallampati score and having a nonvisible airway were associated with a higher AHI, both unadjusted (P digital morphometrics is an accurate, high-throughput, and noninvasive technique to identify anatomic OSA risk factors. Morphometrics may also provide a more reproducible and standardized measurement of the Mallampati score. Digital morphometrics represent an efficient and cost-effective method of examining intraoral crowding and tongue size when examining large populations, genetics, or screening for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Big data privacy protection model based on multi-level trusted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Liu, Zehua; Han, Hongfeng

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces and inherit the multi-level trusted system model that solves the Trojan virus by encrypting the privacy of user data, and achieve the principle: "not to read the high priority hierarchy, not to write the hierarchy with low priority". Thus ensuring that the low-priority data privacy leak does not affect the disclosure of high-priority data privacy. This paper inherits the multi-level trustworthy system model of Trojan horse and divides seven different risk levels. The priority level 1˜7 represent the low to high value of user data privacy, and realize seven kinds of encryption with different execution efficiency Algorithm, the higher the priority, the greater the value of user data privacy, at the expense of efficiency under the premise of choosing a more encrypted encryption algorithm to ensure data security. For enterprises, the price point is determined by the unit equipment users to decide the length of time. The higher the risk sub-group algorithm, the longer the encryption time. The model assumes that users prefer the lower priority encryption algorithm to ensure efficiency. This paper proposes a privacy cost model for each of the seven risk subgroups. Among them, the higher the privacy cost, the higher the priority of the risk sub-group, the higher the price the user needs to pay to ensure the privacy of the data. Furthermore, by introducing the existing pricing model of economics and the human traffic model proposed by this paper and fluctuating with the market demand, this paper improves the price of unit products when the market demand is low. On the other hand, when the market demand increases, the profit of the enterprise will be guaranteed under the guidance of the government by reducing the price per unit of product. Then, this paper introduces the dynamic factors of consumers' mood and age to optimize. At the same time, seven algorithms are selected from symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms to define the enterprise

  7. Barriers to Uptake of Conservation Agriculture in southern Africa: Multi-level Analyses from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew; Stringer, Lindsay; Whitfield, Stephen; Wood, Ben; Chinseu, Edna

    2015-04-01

    Conservation agriculture is a key set of actions within the growing body of climate-smart agriculture activities being advocated and rolled out across much of the developing world. Conservation agriculture has purported benefits for environmental quality, food security and the sustained delivery of ecosystem services. In this paper, new multi-level analyses are presented, assessing the current barriers to adoption of conservation agriculture practices in Malawi. Despite significant donor initiatives that have targeted conservation agriculture projects, uptake rates remain low. This paper synthesises studies from across 3 levels in Malawi: i.) national level- drawing on policy analysis, interviews and a multi-stakeholder workshop; ii.) district level - via assessments of development plans and District Office and extension service support, and; iii) local level - through data gained during community / household level studies in Dedza District that have gained significant donor support for conservation agriculture as a component of climate smart agriculture initiatives. The national level multi-stakeholder Conservation Agriculture workshop identified three areas requiring collaborative research and outlined routes for the empowerment of the National Conservation Agriculture Task Force to advance uptake of conservation agriculture and deliver associated benefits in terms of agricultural development, climate adaptation and mitigation. District level analyses highlight that whilst District Development Plans are now checked against climate change adaptation and mitigation criteria, capacity and knowledge limitations exist at the District level, preventing project interventions from being successfully up-scaled. Community level assessments highlight the need for increased community participation at the project-design phase and identify a pressing requirement for conservation agriculture planning processes (in particular those driven by investments in climate

  8. A multi-level model of emerging technology: An empirical study of the evolution of biotechnology from 1976 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an ecological, multi-level model that can be used to study the evolution of emerging technology. More specifically, by defining technology as a system composed of a set of interacting components, we can build upon the argument of multi-level density dependence from organizational ecology to develop a distribution-independent model of technological evolution. This allows us to distinguish between different stages of component development, which provides more insight into the emergence of stable component configurations, or dominant designs. We validate our hypotheses in the biotechnology industry by using patent data from the USPTO from 1976 to 2003. PMID:29795575

  9. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weggelaar Anne-Marie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims. Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that

  10. Topological Data Analysis as a Morphometric Method: Using Persistent Homology to Demarcate a Leaf Morphospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Current morphometric methods that comprehensively measure shape cannot compare the disparate leaf shapes found in seed plants and are sensitive to processing artifacts. We explore the use of persistent homology, a topological method applied as a filtration across simplicial complexes (or more simply, a method to measure topological features of spaces across different spatial resolutions, to overcome these limitations. The described method isolates subsets of shape features and measures the spatial relationship of neighboring pixel densities in a shape. We apply the method to the analysis of 182,707 leaves, both published and unpublished, representing 141 plant families collected from 75 sites throughout the world. By measuring leaves from throughout the seed plants using persistent homology, a defined morphospace comparing all leaves is demarcated. Clear differences in shape between major phylogenetic groups are detected and estimates of leaf shape diversity within plant families are made. The approach predicts plant family above chance. The application of a persistent homology method, using topological features, to measure leaf shape allows for a unified morphometric framework to measure plant form, including shapes, textures, patterns, and branching architectures.

  11. DNA immunisation. New histochemical and morphometric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ehirchiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic germinal center reactions were measured during primary response to a plasmidic DNA intramuscular injection. Cardiotoxin-pretreated Balb/c mice were immunized with DNA plasmids encoding or not the SAG1 protein, a membrane antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. Specific anti-SAG1 antibodies were detected on days 16 and 36 after injection of coding plasmids. The results of ELISAs showed that the SAG1-specific antibodies are of the IgG2a class. Morphometric analyses were done on serial immunostained cryosections of spleen and draining or non-draining lymph nodes. This new approach made it possible to evaluate the chronological changes induced by DNA immunisation in the germinal centres (in number and in size. Significant increases in the number of germinal centres were measured in the spleen and only in draining lymph nodes after plasmid injection. the measured changes of the germinal centers appeared to result from the adjuvant stimulatory effect of the plasmidic DNA since both the coding and the noncoding plasmid DNA induced them. No measurable changes were recorded in the Tdependent zone of lymph organs.

  12. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  13. Role of calibration, validation, and relevance in multi-level uncertainty integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chenzhao; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    Calibration of model parameters is an essential step in predicting the response of a complicated system, but the lack of data at the system level makes it impossible to conduct this quantification directly. In such a situation, system model parameters are estimated using tests at lower levels of complexity which share the same model parameters with the system. For such a multi-level problem, this paper proposes a methodology to quantify the uncertainty in the system level prediction by integrating calibration, validation and sensitivity analysis at different levels. The proposed approach considers the validity of the models used for parameter estimation at lower levels, as well as the relevance at the lower level to the prediction at the system level. The model validity is evaluated using a model reliability metric, and models with multivariate output are considered. The relevance is quantified by comparing Sobol indices at the lower level and system level, thus measuring the extent to which a lower level test represents the characteristics of the system so that the calibration results can be reliably used in the system level. Finally the results of calibration, validation and relevance analysis are integrated in a roll-up method to predict the system output. - Highlights: • Relevance analysis to quantify the closeness of two models. • Stochastic model reliability metric to integrate multiple validation experiments. • Extend the model reliability metric to deal with multivariate output. • Roll-up formula to integrate calibration, validation, and relevance.

  14. MKEM: a Multi-level Knowledge Emergence Model for mining undiscovered public knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Swanson proposed the Undiscovered Public Knowledge (UPK model, there have been many approaches to uncover UPK by mining the biomedical literature. These earlier works, however, required substantial manual intervention to reduce the number of possible connections and are mainly applied to disease-effect relation. With the advancement in biomedical science, it has become imperative to extract and combine information from multiple disjoint researches, studies and articles to infer new hypotheses and expand knowledge. Methods We propose MKEM, a Multi-level Knowledge Emergence Model, to discover implicit relationships using Natural Language Processing techniques such as Link Grammar and Ontologies such as Unified Medical Language System (UMLS MetaMap. The contribution of MKEM is as follows: First, we propose a flexible knowledge emergence model to extract implicit relationships across different levels such as molecular level for gene and protein and Phenomic level for disease and treatment. Second, we employ MetaMap for tagging biological concepts. Third, we provide an empirical and systematic approach to discover novel relationships. Results We applied our system on 5000 abstracts downloaded from PubMed database. We performed the performance evaluation as a gold standard is not yet available. Our system performed with a good precision and recall and we generated 24 hypotheses. Conclusions Our experiments show that MKEM is a powerful tool to discover hidden relationships residing in extracted entities that were represented by our Substance-Effect-Process-Disease-Body Part (SEPDB model.

  15. Presenting a Multi-level Superstructure Optimization Approach for Mechatronic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Bech, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control) and descr......Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control......) and describe the interface between the technologies, whereas the lack of well-established, systematic engineering methods to form the basic set-off in analysis and design of complete mechatronic systems has been obvious. The focus of the current paper is therefore to present an integrated design approach...... for mechatronic system design, utilizing a multi-level superstructure optimization based approach. Finally two design examples are presented and the possibilities and limitations of the approach are outlined....

  16. Transport in a three-terminal graphene quantum dot in the multi-level regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Arnhild; Simonet, Pauline; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate transport in a three-terminal graphene quantum dot. All nine elements of the conductance matrix have been independently measured. In the Coulomb blockade regime, accurate measurements of individual conductance resonances reveal slightly different resonance energies depending on which pair of leads is used for probing. Rapid changes in the tunneling coupling between the leads and the dot due to localized states in the constrictions have been excluded by tuning the difference in resonance energies using in-plane gates which couple preferentially to individual constrictions. The interpretation of the different resonance energies is then based on the presence of a number of levels in the dot with an energy spacing of the order of the measurement temperature. In this multi-level transport regime, the three-terminal device offers the opportunity to sense if the individual levels couple with different strengths to the different leads. This in turn gives qualitative insight into the spatial profile of the corresponding quantum dot wave functions. (paper)

  17. Pulse number control of electrical resistance for multi-level storage based on phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, K; Takata, M; Kasai, T; Kitagawa, A; Akita, J

    2007-01-01

    Phase change nonvolatile memory devices composed of SeSbTe chalcogenide semiconductor thin film were fabricated. The resistivity of the SeSbTe system was investigated to apply to multi-level data storage. The chalcogenide semiconductor acts as a programmable resistor that has a large dynamic range. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor can be set to intermediate resistances between the amorphous and crystalline states using electric pulses of a specified power, and it can be controlled by repetition of the electric pulses. The size of the memory cell used in this work is 200 nm thick with a contact area of 1 μm diameter. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor gradually varies from 41 kΩ to 840 Ω within octal steps. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor decreases with increasing number of applied pulses. The step-down characteristic of the resistance can be explained as the crystalline region of the active phase change region increases with increasing number of applied pulses. The extent of crystallization was also estimated by the overall resistivity of the active region of the memory cell

  18. Multi-level analyses of spatial and temporal determinants for dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwambeke, Sophie O; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Khantikul, Nardlada; Burghoorn-Maas, Chantal; Panart, Kamolwan; Oskam, Linda; Lambin, Eric F; Somboon, Pradya

    2006-01-18

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is now endemic in most tropical countries. In Thailand, dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever is a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children. A longitudinal study among 1750 people in two rural and one urban sites in northern Thailand from 2001 to 2003 studied spatial and temporal determinants for recent dengue infection at three levels (time, individual and household). Determinants for dengue infection were measured by questionnaire, land-cover maps and GIS. IgM antibodies against dengue were detected by ELISA. Three-level multi-level analysis was used to study the risk determinants of recent dengue infection. Rates of recent dengue infection varied substantially in time from 4 to 30%, peaking in 2002. Determinants for recent dengue infection differed per site. Spatial clustering was observed, demonstrating variation in local infection patterns. Most of the variation in recent dengue infection was explained at the time-period level. Location of a person and the environment around the house (including irrigated fields and orchards) were important determinants for recent dengue infection. We showed the focal nature of asymptomatic dengue infections. The great variation of determinants for recent dengue infection in space and time should be taken into account when designing local dengue control programs.

  19. Multi-level analyses of spatial and temporal determinants for dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskam Linda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is now endemic in most tropical countries. In Thailand, dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever is a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children. A longitudinal study among 1750 people in two rural and one urban sites in northern Thailand from 2001 to 2003 studied spatial and temporal determinants for recent dengue infection at three levels (time, individual and household. Methods Determinants for dengue infection were measured by questionnaire, land-cover maps and GIS. IgM antibodies against dengue were detected by ELISA. Three-level multi-level analysis was used to study the risk determinants of recent dengue infection. Results Rates of recent dengue infection varied substantially in time from 4 to 30%, peaking in 2002. Determinants for recent dengue infection differed per site. Spatial clustering was observed, demonstrating variation in local infection patterns. Most of the variation in recent dengue infection was explained at the time-period level. Location of a person and the environment around the house (including irrigated fields and orchards were important determinants for recent dengue infection. Conclusion We showed the focal nature of asymptomatic dengue infections. The great variation of determinants for recent dengue infection in space and time should be taken into account when designing local dengue control programs.

  20. Evolution of global contribution in multi-level threshold public goods games with insurance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinming; Tang, Lixin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding voluntary contribution in threshold public goods games has important practical implications. To improve contributions and provision frequency, free-rider problem and assurance problem should be solved. Insurance could play a significant, but largely unrecognized, role in facilitating a contribution to provision of public goods through providing insurance compensation against the losses. In this paper, we study how insurance compensation mechanism affects individuals’ decision-making under risk environments. We propose a multi-level threshold public goods game model where two kinds of public goods games (local and global) are considered. Particularly, the global public goods game involves a threshold, which is related to the safety of all the players. We theoretically probe the evolution of contributions of different levels and free-riders, and focus on the influence of the insurance on the global contribution. We explore, in both the cases, the scenarios that only global contributors could buy insurance and all the players could. It is found that with greater insurance compensation, especially under high collective risks, players are more likely to contribute globally when only global contributors are insured. On the other hand, global contribution could be promoted if a premium discount is given to global contributors when everyone buys insurance.

  1. CMT: a constrained multi-level thresholding approach for ChIP-Seq data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rezaeian

    Full Text Available Genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins using ChIP-Seq has emerged as an alternative to ChIP-chip methods. ChIP-Seq technology offers many advantages over ChIP-chip arrays, including but not limited to less noise, higher resolution, and more coverage. Several algorithms have been developed to take advantage of these abilities and find enriched regions by analyzing ChIP-Seq data. However, the complexity of analyzing various patterns of ChIP-Seq signals still needs the development of new algorithms. Most current algorithms use various heuristics to detect regions accurately. However, despite how many formulations are available, it is still difficult to accurately determine individual peaks corresponding to each binding event. We developed Constrained Multi-level Thresholding (CMT, an algorithm used to detect enriched regions on ChIP-Seq data. CMT employs a constraint-based module that can target regions within a specific range. We show that CMT has higher accuracy in detecting enriched regions (peaks by objectively assessing its performance relative to other previously proposed peak finders. This is shown by testing three algorithms on the well-known FoxA1 Data set, four transcription factors (with a total of six antibodies for Drosophila melanogaster and the H3K4ac antibody dataset.

  2. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  3. DESTINY: A Comprehensive Tool with 3D and Multi-Level Cell Memory Modeling Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparsh Mittal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To enable the design of large capacity memory structures, novel memory technologies such as non-volatile memory (NVM and novel fabrication approaches, e.g., 3D stacking and multi-level cell (MLC design have been explored. The existing modeling tools, however, cover only a few memory technologies, technology nodes and fabrication approaches. We present DESTINY, a tool for modeling 2D/3D memories designed using SRAM, resistive RAM (ReRAM, spin transfer torque RAM (STT-RAM, phase change RAM (PCM and embedded DRAM (eDRAM and 2D memories designed using spin orbit torque RAM (SOT-RAM, domain wall memory (DWM and Flash memory. In addition to single-level cell (SLC designs for all of these memories, DESTINY also supports modeling MLC designs for NVMs. We have extensively validated DESTINY against commercial and research prototypes of these memories. DESTINY is very useful for performing design-space exploration across several dimensions, such as optimizing for a target (e.g., latency, area or energy-delay product for a given memory technology, choosing the suitable memory technology or fabrication method (i.e., 2D v/s 3D for a given optimization target, etc. We believe that DESTINY will boost studies of next-generation memory architectures used in systems ranging from mobile devices to extreme-scale supercomputers. The latest source-code of DESTINY is available from the following git repository: https://bitbucket.org/sparshmittal/destinyv2.

  4. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  5. A dedicated database system for handling multi-level data in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornputtapong, Natapol; Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Nilsson, Avlant; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled extensive generation of multi-level omics data. These data are crucial for systems biology research, though they are complex, heterogeneous, highly dynamic, incomplete and distributed among public databases. This leads to difficulties in data accessibility and often results in errors when data are merged and integrated from varied resources. Therefore, integration and management of systems biological data remain very challenging. To overcome this, we designed and developed a dedicated database system that can serve and solve the vital issues in data management and hereby facilitate data integration, modeling and analysis in systems biology within a sole database. In addition, a yeast data repository was implemented as an integrated database environment which is operated by the database system. Two applications were implemented to demonstrate extensibility and utilization of the system. Both illustrate how the user can access the database via the web query function and implemented scripts. These scripts are specific for two sample cases: 1) Detecting the pheromone pathway in protein interaction networks; and 2) Finding metabolic reactions regulated by Snf1 kinase. In this study we present the design of database system which offers an extensible environment to efficiently capture the majority of biological entities and relations encountered in systems biology. Critical functions and control processes were designed and implemented to ensure consistent, efficient, secure and reliable transactions. The two sample cases on the yeast integrated data clearly demonstrate the value of a sole database environment for systems biology research.

  6. Multi-level emulation of complex climate model responses to boundary forcing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Giang T.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Holden, Philip B.; Edwards, Neil R.; Sóbester, András; Challenor, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Climate model components involve both high-dimensional input and output fields. It is desirable to efficiently generate spatio-temporal outputs of these models for applications in integrated assessment modelling or to assess the statistical relationship between such sets of inputs and outputs, for example, uncertainty analysis. However, the need for efficiency often compromises the fidelity of output through the use of low complexity models. Here, we develop a technique which combines statistical emulation with a dimensionality reduction technique to emulate a wide range of outputs from an atmospheric general circulation model, PLASIM, as functions of the boundary forcing prescribed by the ocean component of a lower complexity climate model, GENIE-1. Although accurate and detailed spatial information on atmospheric variables such as precipitation and wind speed is well beyond the capability of GENIE-1's energy-moisture balance model of the atmosphere, this study demonstrates that the output of this model is useful in predicting PLASIM's spatio-temporal fields through multi-level emulation. Meaningful information from the fast model, GENIE-1 was extracted by utilising the correlation between variables of the same type in the two models and between variables of different types in PLASIM. We present here the construction and validation of several PLASIM variable emulators and discuss their potential use in developing a hybrid model with statistical components.

  7. MetricForensics: A Multi-Level Approach for Mining Volatile Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eliassi-Rad, Tina [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Faloutsos, Christos [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Akoglu, Leman [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Li, Lei [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maruhashi, Koji [Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Prakash, B. Aditya [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tong, H [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-02-08

    Advances in data collection and storage capacity have made it increasingly possible to collect highly volatile graph data for analysis. Existing graph analysis techniques are not appropriate for such data, especially in cases where streaming or near-real-time results are required. An example that has drawn significant research interest is the cyber-security domain, where internet communication traces are collected and real-time discovery of events, behaviors, patterns and anomalies is desired. We propose MetricForensics, a scalable framework for analysis of volatile graphs. MetricForensics combines a multi-level “drill down" approach, a collection of user-selected graph metrics and a collection of analysis techniques. At each successive level, more sophisticated metrics are computed and the graph is viewed at a finer temporal resolution. In this way, MetricForensics scales to highly volatile graphs by only allocating resources for computationally expensive analysis when an interesting event is discovered at a coarser resolution first. We test MetricForensics on three real-world graphs: an enterprise IP trace, a trace of legitimate and malicious network traffic from a research institution, and the MIT Reality Mining proximity sensor data. Our largest graph has »3M vertices and »32M edges, spanning 4:5 days. The results demonstrate the scalability and capability of MetricForensics in analyzing volatile graphs; and highlight four novel phenomena in such graphs: elbows, broken correlations, prolonged spikes, and strange stars.

  8. Multi-level Monte Carlo Methods for Efficient Simulation of Coulomb Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketson, Lee

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the use of multi-level Monte Carlo (MLMC) schemes--originally introduced by Giles for financial applications--for the efficient simulation of Coulomb collisions in the Fokker-Planck limit. The scheme is based on a Langevin treatment of collisions, and reduces the computational cost of achieving a RMS error scaling as ɛ from O (ɛ-3) --for standard Langevin methods and binary collision algorithms--to the theoretically optimal scaling O (ɛ-2) for the Milstein discretization, and to O (ɛ-2 (logɛ)2) with the simpler Euler-Maruyama discretization. In practice, this speeds up simulation by factors up to 100. We summarize standard MLMC schemes, describe some tricks for achieving the optimal scaling, present results from a test problem, and discuss the method's range of applicability. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the University of California, Los Angeles, under grant DE-FG02-05ER25710, and by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Participatory System Science: Multi-Level Comprehension Through a Game-like Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.; Kuntz, L.

    2012-12-01

    Participatory System Science: Multi-Level Comprehension Through a Game-like Process We built a time-series game that permits the player to make water management decisions concerning the Skagit River (north-central Washington state) every five years for 60 years. This work was inspired by the integrative efforts of the Skagit Climate Science Consortium and the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington. Our principle guiding concepts have been - Construct a reasonable system description with -- wherever possible -- Events / Consequences rendered both visually and in terms of financial impact. - Base the system description on peer reviewed publications - Emphasize both connection and absence of connection between player Actions and subsequent Consequences in the catchment basin. Player choices center around dam flow levels and steps to mitigate negative impacts of sediment transport into the lower (populated) reaches of the Skagit River and into Puget Sound (levees, new dams, estuary restoration, etcetera). With this work we hope to explore scientific results in public awareness by engaging the game Player as a problem solver.

  10. Multi-level computational chemistry study on hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Ise, Mariko; Inaba, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the deactivation mechanism of the hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system, we investigate by using multi-level computational chemistry simulation methods. The recombiner apparatus is modeled by the numerical mesh system in the axial coordinates, and unsteady, advection and reaction rate equations are solved by using a finite difference method. The chemical reactions are formulated to represent adsorption-desorption of hydrogen and oxygen on Pt catalyst, and time developments of the coverage factors of Pt are solved numerically. The computational simulations successfully reproduce the very similar behaviors observed by experiments, such as increasing of the inversion rates of H 2 to H 2 O, the temperatures distributions along the flow direction, dependencies of experimental condition, and so on. Thus Pt poisoning is considered to cause the deactivation of the hydrogen recombination catalyst. To clarify the poisoning mechanism, the molecular level simulation is applied to the system of Pt on boehmite attacked by a cyclic siloxane which has been detected by experiments and considered as one of poisoning spices. The simulation shows ring-opening reaction of the cyclic siloxane on Pt, then attachment of two ends of the chain-like siloxane to Pt and boehmite, respectively, and that finally the recombination reaction is prevented. This may be the first study to find out the detailed dynamical mechanism of hydrogen recombination catalyst poisoning with cyclic siloxane. (author)

  11. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations.

  12. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F H; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2013-01-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  13. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F. H.; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2013-07-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  14. A frozen Gaussian approximation-based multi-level particle swarm optimization for seismic inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinglai, E-mail: jinglaili@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Mathematics, and MOE Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lin, Guang, E-mail: lin491@purdue.edu [Department of Mathematics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Computational Sciences and Mathematics Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Yang, Xu, E-mail: xuyang@math.ucsb.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA)-based multi-level particle swarm optimization (MLPSO) method for seismic inversion of high-frequency wave data. The method addresses two challenges in it: First, the optimization problem is highly non-convex, which makes hard for gradient-based methods to reach global minima. This is tackled by MLPSO which can escape from undesired local minima. Second, the character of high-frequency of seismic waves requires a large number of grid points in direct computational methods, and thus renders an extremely high computational demand on the simulation of each sample in MLPSO. We overcome this difficulty by three steps: First, we use FGA to compute high-frequency wave propagation based on asymptotic analysis on phase plane; Then we design a constrained full waveform inversion problem to prevent the optimization search getting into regions of velocity where FGA is not accurate; Last, we solve the constrained optimization problem by MLPSO that employs FGA solvers with different fidelity. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by a two-dimensional full-waveform inversion example of the smoothed Marmousi model.

  15. Multi-level Simulation of a Real Time Vibration Monitoring System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bryan A.; Wilkerson, Delisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a custom built Digital Signal Processing (DSP) printed circuit board designed to implement the Advanced Real Time Vibration Monitoring Subsystem proposed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Transportation Directorate in 2000 for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is being developed for ground use as part of the AHMS Health Management Computer-Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA). The HMC-IRA RTVMS design contains five DSPs which are highly interconnected through individual communication ports, shared memory, and a unique communication router that allows all the DSPs to receive digitized data fiom two multi-channel analog boards simultaneously. This paper will briefly cover the overall board design but will focus primarily on the state-of-the-art simulation environment within which this board was developed. This 16-layer board with over 1800 components and an additional mezzanine card has been an extremely challenging design. Utilization of a Mentor Graphics simulation environment provided the unique board and system level simulation capability to ascertain any timing or functional concerns before production. By combining VHDL, Synopsys Software and Hardware Models, and the Mentor Design Capture Environment, multiple simulations were developed to verify the RTVMS design. This multi-level simulation allowed the designers to achieve complete operability without error the first time the RTVMS printed circuit board was powered. The HMC-IRA design has completed all engineering and deliverable unit testing. P

  16. Toward a Theory of Industrial Supply Networks: A Multi-Level Perspective via Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most supply chains (SCs, transaction relationships between suppliers and customers are commonly considered to be an extrapolation from a linear perspective. However, this traditional linear concept of an SC is egotistic and oversimplified and does not sufficiently reflect the complex and cyclical structure of supplier-customer relationships in current economic and industrial situations. The interactional relationships and topological characteristics between suppliers and customers should be analyzed using supply networks (SNs rather than traditional linear SCs. Therefore, this paper reconceptualizes SCs as SNs in complex adaptive systems (CAS, and presents three main contributions. First, we propose an integrated framework of CAS network by synthesizing multi-level network analysis from the network-, community- and vertex-perspective. The CAS perspective enables us to understand the advances of SN properties. Second, in order to emphasize the CAS properties of SNs, we conducted a real-world SN based on the Japanese industry and describe an advanced investigation of SN theory. The CAS properties help in enriching the SN theory, which can benefit SN management, community economics and industrial resilience. Third, we propose a quantitative metric of entropy to measure the complexity and robustness of SNs. The results not only support a specific understanding of the structural outcomes relevant to SNs, but also deliver efficient and effective support to the management and design of SNs.

  17. Magneto-optical transmission-reflection beam splitter for multi-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.E.; Goodman, P.; Sidorov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    An atomic de Broglie wave beam splitter is proposed. The interaction of multi-level atoms (J g = 1 - J e = 0) with a laser beam in the presence of a static magnetic field leads to the partial transmission and reflection of the atomic beam. The coherent splitting of the atomic beam occurs due to non-adiabatic transitions between different dressed states in the vicinity of avoided crossings. The transition probabilities and populations of split beams are dependent on the value of the magnetic field, laser detuning, and the ratio between different polarization components in the laser beam. For optimal conditions the population of each of the two transmitted and two reflected beams is 25 per cent. For cooled atoms it is possible to obtain splitting angles of 80 mrad. The effect of spontaneous emission during the atom-light interaction was estimated and for a reasonable detuning losses were reduced to less than 10 per cent. 14 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. OAHG: an integrated resource for annotating human genes with multi-level ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Sun, Jie; Xu, Wanying; Dong, Lixiang; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Meng

    2016-10-05

    OAHG, an integrated resource, aims to establish a comprehensive functional annotation resource for human protein-coding genes (PCGs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs by multi-level ontologies involving Gene Ontology (GO), Disease Ontology (DO), and Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Many previous studies have focused on inferring putative properties and biological functions of PCGs and non-coding RNA genes from different perspectives. During the past several decades, a few of databases have been designed to annotate the functions of PCGs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs, respectively. A part of functional descriptions in these databases were mapped to standardize terminologies, such as GO, which could be helpful to do further analysis. Despite these developments, there is no comprehensive resource recording the function of these three important types of genes. The current version of OAHG, release 1.0 (Jun 2016), integrates three ontologies involving GO, DO, and HPO, six gene functional databases and two interaction databases. Currently, OAHG contains 1,434,694 entries involving 16,929 PCGs, 637 miRNAs, 193 lncRNAs, and 24,894 terms of ontologies. During the performance evaluation, OAHG shows the consistencies with existing gene interactions and the structure of ontology. For example, terms with more similar structure could be associated with more associated genes (Pearson correlation γ 2  = 0.2428, p < 2.2e-16).

  19. Rethinking Global Care Chains through the Perspective of Heterogeneous States, Discursive Framings and Multi-Level Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene; Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Petersson, Elin

    2017-01-01

    discursive policy analysis with feminist state and multi-level governance theories. Paying attention to the role of the state, we focus on the framing of policy problems that are important for care chains and on potential tensions between different framings within a state and across the different levels...

  20. Requirements for multi-level systems pharmacology models to reach end-usage : The case of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyman, E.; Rozendaal, Y.J.W.; Helmlinger, G.; Hamrén, B.; Kjellsson, M.C.; Strålfors, P.; van Riel, N.A.W.; Gennemark, P.; Cedersund, G.

    2016-01-01

    We are currently in the middle of a major shift in biomedical research: unprecedented and rapidly growing amounts of data may be obtained today, from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, at molecular, physiological and clinical levels. To make use of these large-scale, multi-level datasets,

  1. Requirements for multi-level systems pharmacology models to reach end-usage: the case of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyman, Elin; Rozendaal, Yvonne J. W.; Helmlinger, Gabriel; Hamrén, Bengt; Kjellsson, Maria C.; Strålfors, Peter; van Riel, Natal A. W.; Gennemark, Peter; Cedersund, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    We are currently in the middle of a major shift in biomedical research: unprecedented and rapidly growing amounts of data may be obtained today, from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, at molecular, physiological and clinical levels. To make use of these large-scale, multi-level datasets,

  2. Dual deep modeling: multi-level modeling with dual potencies and its formalization in F-Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Bernd; Schuetz, Christoph G; Jeusfeld, Manfred A; Schrefl, Michael

    2018-01-01

    An enterprise database contains a global, integrated, and consistent representation of a company's data. Multi-level modeling facilitates the definition and maintenance of such an integrated conceptual data model in a dynamic environment of changing data requirements of diverse applications. Multi-level models transcend the traditional separation of class and object with clabjects as the central modeling primitive, which allows for a more flexible and natural representation of many real-world use cases. In deep instantiation, the number of instantiation levels of a clabject or property is indicated by a single potency. Dual deep modeling (DDM) differentiates between source potency and target potency of a property or association and supports the flexible instantiation and refinement of the property by statements connecting clabjects at different modeling levels. DDM comes with multiple generalization of clabjects, subsetting/specialization of properties, and multi-level cardinality constraints. Examples are presented using a UML-style notation for DDM together with UML class and object diagrams for the representation of two-level user views derived from the multi-level model. Syntax and semantics of DDM are formalized and implemented in F-Logic, supporting the modeler with integrity checks and rich query facilities.

  3. How Multi-Levels of Individual and Team Learning Interact in a Public Healthcare Organisation: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Louise; Kelliher, Felicity; Harrington, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the relevant literature on organisational learning and offer a preliminary conceptual framework as a basis to explore how the multi-levels of individual learning and team learning interact in a public healthcare organisation. The organisational learning literature highlights a need for further understanding of…

  4. Multi-level Strategy for Identifying Proteasome-Catalyzed Spliced Epitopes Targeted by CD8(+) T Cells during Bacterial Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805613; Liepe, Juliane; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Keller, Christin; Henklein, Petra; Schalkwijk, Hanna H; Cardoso, Rebeca; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115553843

    2017-01-01

    Proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing (PCPS) generates peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules, but because their identification is challenging, the immunological relevance of spliced peptides remains unclear. Here, we developed a reverse immunology-based multi-level approach to

  5. Multi-level infrastructure of interconnected testbeds of large-scale wireless sensor networks (MI2T-WSN)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available are still required for further testing before the real implementation. In this paper we propose a multi-level infrastructure of interconnected testbeds of large- scale WSNs. This testbed consists of 1000 sensor motes that will be distributed into four...

  6. Empirically Examining the Performance of Approaches to Multi-Level Matching to Study the Effect of School-Level Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.; Figlio, David

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for applied education researchers in using multi-level data to study the effects of interventions implemented at the school level. Two primary approaches are currently employed in observational studies of the effect of school-level interventions. One approach employs intact school matching: matching…

  7. Multifunctional agriculture meets Health Care: applying the Multi-level Transition Sciences Perspective to Care Farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Grin, J.; Hulsink, W.

    2013-01-01

    Care farming is a promising example of multifunctional agriculture: it is an innovation at the crossroads of the agricultural and healthcare sectors. Our objective is to develop a framework for understanding the success of initiatives in this field. We link empirical data with the multi-level

  8. Climate technology transfer at the local, national and global levels: analyzing the relationships between multi-level structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema Abissa, Fisseha; Tessema Abissa, Fisseha

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationships between multi-leveled decision structures for climate technology transfer through an analysis of top-down macro-policy and bottom-up micro-implementation. It examines how international climate technology transfer policy under the UNFCCC filters down to the

  9. Power penalties for multi-level PAM modulation formats at arbitrary bit error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliteevskiy, Nikolay A.; Wood, William A.; Downie, John D.; Hurley, Jason; Sterlingov, Petr

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in combining multi-level pulsed amplitude modulation formats (PAM-L) and forward error correction (FEC) in next-generation, short-range optical communications links for increased capacity. In this paper we derive new formulas for the optical power penalties due to modulation format complexity relative to PAM-2 and due to inter-symbol interference (ISI). We show that these penalties depend on the required system bit-error rate (BER) and that the conventional formulas overestimate link penalties. Our corrections to the standard formulas are very small at conventional BER levels (typically 1×10-12) but become significant at the higher BER levels enabled by FEC technology, especially for signal distortions due to ISI. The standard formula for format complexity, P = 10log(L-1), is shown to overestimate the actual penalty for PAM-4 and PAM-8 by approximately 0.1 and 0.25 dB respectively at 1×10-3 BER. Then we extend the well-known PAM-2 ISI penalty estimation formula from the IEEE 802.3 standard 10G link modeling spreadsheet to the large BER case and generalize it for arbitrary PAM-L formats. To demonstrate and verify the BER dependence of the ISI penalty, a set of PAM-2 experiments and Monte-Carlo modeling simulations are reported. The experimental results and simulations confirm that the conventional formulas can significantly overestimate ISI penalties at relatively high BER levels. In the experiments, overestimates up to 2 dB are observed at 1×10-3 BER.

  10. Multi-level intervention to prevent influenza infections in older low income and minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J; Radda, Kim; Coman, Emil; Vazquez, Elsie

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we describe a successful multi-level participatory intervention grounded in principles of individual and group empowerment, and guided by social construction theory. The intervention addressed known and persistent inequities in influenza vaccination among African American and Latino older adults, and associated infections, hospitalizations and mortality. It was designed to increase resident ability to make informed decisions about vaccination, and to build internal and external infrastructure to support sustainability over time. The intervention brought a group of social scientists, vaccine researchers, geriatricians, public health nurses, elder services providers and advocates together with senior housing management and activist African American and Latino residents living in public senior housing in a small east coast city. Two buildings of equal size and similar ethnic composition were randomized as intervention and control buildings. Pre and post intervention surveys were conducted in both buildings, measuring knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Processes and outcomes were documented at four levels: Influenza Strategic Alliance (macro and exo levels), building management (meso level), building resident committee (meso level) and individual residents. The Influenza Strategic Alliance (I.S.A.) provided ongoing resources, information and vaccine; the building management provided economic and other in-kind resources and supported residents to continue flu clinics in the building. The V.I.P. Resident Committee conducted flu campaigns with flu clinics in English and Spanish. The vaccination rate in the intervention building at post test exceeded the study goal of 70% and showed a significant improvement over the control building. The intervention achieved desired outcomes at all four levels and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccination, and improvements in pro-vaccination knowledge, beliefs, and understanding of health consequences.

  11. Multi-level virtual prototyping of electromechanical actuation system for more electric aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian FU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical actuators (EMAs are becoming increasingly attractive in the field of more electric aircraft because of their outstanding benefits, which include reduced fuel burn and maintenance cost, enhanced system flexibility, and improved management of fault detection and isolation. However, electromechanical actuation raises specific issues when being used for safety-critical aerospace applications like flight controls: huge reflected inertia to load, jamming-type failure, and increase of backlash with service due to wear and local dissipation of heat losses for thermal balance. This study proposes an incremental approach for virtual prototyping of EMAs. It is driven by a model-based system engineering process in order to enable simulation-aided design. Best practices supported by Bond graph formalism are suggested to develop a model’s structure efficiently and to make the model ready for use (or extension by addressing the above mentioned issues. Physical effects are progressively introduced, and the realism of lumped-parameter models is increased step-by-step. In particular, multi-level component models are architected to ensure continuity between engineering activities. The models are implemented in the AMESim simulation environment, and simulation responses are given to illustrate how they can be used for preliminary sizing, control design, thermal balance verification, and faults to failure analysis. The proposed best practices intend to provide engineers with fast, reusable, and efficient means to assess performance virtually and enhance maturity, performance, and robustness. Keywords: Bond graph, Electromechanical actuator, Flight control, Model-based system engineering, More electric aircraft, Power-by-wire

  12. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  13. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF THE PARACENTRAL LOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Oliveira Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction:There are no studies that evaluate measurements of the distances between the grooves that delimit the Paracentral Lobule (PCL in the literature. This study seeks to contribute to the knowledge regarding the anatomy of the PCL, conducting an analysis of morphometric measurements in this region and its correlation with the paracentral sulcus, marginal branch of the cingulate and central sulcus. Methods:42 hemispheres were evaluated, 20 were right and 22 left. Using digital caliper Dc - 6 Western ®, measurements of the size of PCL in the sagittal axis and coronal axis were made, in addition to measures of the Central Sulcus to the Paracentral Sulcus (motor area and Central Sulcus to Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus (somesthetic area, comparing the prevalence of each of these lengths between hemispheres. Results:The average length between the Paracentral Sulcus and the Central Sulcus was 24.49 cm(14.2 to 38.6 cm in the right hemisphere and 25.50 cm(11.7 to 37.0 cm in the left. As between the Central Sulcus and the Marginal Branch of the Cingulate Sulcus was in average 10.03 cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm in the right and in the left PCL 9.17cm(2.6 to 22.7 cm. In the right hemisphere, 19 samples(86,4% presented greater motor area than somesthetic and, in the left hemisphere, 19 samples(95% had greater motor area. Conclusion:The motor area showed prevalence in relation to the sensory area in the analysis of the two hemispheres, while the comparison of other measures between the two hemispheres showed no significance.

  14. Customized binary and multi-level HfO2-x-based memristors tuned by oxidation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weifan; Sun, Huajun; Zhou, Yaxiong; Lu, Ke; Xue, Kanhao; Miao, Xiangshui

    2017-08-30

    The memristor is a promising candidate for the next generation non-volatile memory, especially based on HfO 2-x , given its compatibility with advanced CMOS technologies. Although various resistive transitions were reported independently, customized binary and multi-level memristors in unified HfO 2-x material have not been studied. Here we report Pt/HfO 2-x /Ti memristors with double memristive modes, forming-free and low operation voltage, which were tuned by oxidation conditions of HfO 2-x films. As O/Hf ratios of HfO 2-x films increase, the forming voltages, SET voltages, and R off /R on windows increase regularly while their resistive transitions undergo from gradually to sharply in I/V sweep. Two memristors with typical resistive transitions were studied to customize binary and multi-level memristive modes, respectively. For binary mode, high-speed switching with 10 3 pulses (10 ns) and retention test at 85 °C (>10 4 s) were achieved. For multi-level mode, the 12-levels stable resistance states were confirmed by ongoing multi-window switching (ranging from 10 ns to 1 μs and completing 10 cycles of each pulse). Our customized binary and multi-level HfO 2-x -based memristors show high-speed switching, multi-level storage and excellent stability, which can be separately applied to logic computing and neuromorphic computing, further suitable for in-memory computing chip when deposition atmosphere may be fine-tuned.

  15. Establishing some Correlations between Certain Morphometric Parameters and Embryo Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Păcală

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to establish some correlations between certain morphometric parameters and embryo quality. The morphometric parameters taken into consideration were: zona pellucida thickness, outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter. For experiments we used embryos recovered at 24 hours from mouse females superovulated with gonadotrope hormones (eCG and hCG. The embryos recovered were cultivated in KSOM media, supplemented with amino acids, and during the in vitro cultivation they were measured at different time intervals for establishing morphometric parameters. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Minitab 15, using Fitted Line Plot regression that allows testing of the linear and polynomial regression of one variable. After statistical analyze of the data we found that the thickness of the zona pellucida can constitute a morphometric parameter that can be used as an indicator of subsequent development of the 2 cell embryos to morula and blastocyst stage respectively. The other morphometric parameters studied (outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter cannot be used as indicators of the embryo development.

  16. Morphometric analysis of llama (Lama glama) sperm head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, C; Lombardo, D M; Giuliano, S; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, M I; Miragaya, M H

    2012-05-01

    Llama production in Argentina has increased, as the international interest in breeding this type of animals has grown in the last years. Considering the great polymorphism that llama spermatozoa present at evaluation using light microscopy, the aim of this study was to objectively evaluate llama sperm head morphometry using digital morphometric analysis. Five ejaculates from each of eight males were obtained to evaluate morphometric parameters of 8000 sperm heads stained with Tinción 15(®). The following average results were obtained for each parameter: size parameters: area 20.09 μm(2), length 6.60 μm, width 4.14 μm, equivalent circle diameter 5.06 μm, curve length 5.79 μm and curve width 3.48 μm; boundary parameters: perimeter 18.54 μm and convex perimeter 17.34 μm; and shape parameters: roundness 1.28 and elongation 1.59. Morphometric parameters of sperm head were compared between ejaculates of the same male and between males. Significant differences between ejaculates of the same male were found for all parameters evaluated (P < 0.01). Significant differences between males were found for all morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) except for curve length, curve width and perimeter. The differences detected would indicate that there is not a single morphometric pattern for Lama glama sperm head, because parameter values cannot be standardised. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Subcutaneous Fascial Bands—A Qualitative and Morphometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. Methods In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Results Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Conclusion Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part. PMID:21931632

  18. Morphometrical differences between resectable and non-resectable pancreatic cancer: a fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Catalin; Giza, Dana Elena; Petrisor, Petre; Dobrescu, Radu; Popescu, Irinel; Herlea, Vlad

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive cancer with a rising incidence and poor prognosis despite active surgical treatment. Candidates for surgical resection should be carefully selected. In order to avoid unnecessary laparotomy it is useful to identify reliable factors that may predict resectability. Nuclear morphometry and fractal dimension of pancreatic nuclear features could provide important preoperative information in assessing pancreas resectability. Sixty-one patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study between 2003 and 2005. Patients were divided into two groups: one resectable cancer group and one with non-resectable pancreatic cancer. Morphometric parameters measured were: nuclear area, length of minor axis and length of major axis. Nuclear shape and chromatin distribution of the pancreatic tumor cells were both estimated using fractal dimension. Morphometric measurements have shown significant differences between the nuclear area of the resectable group and the non-resectable group (61.9 ± 19.8µm vs. 42.2 ± 15.6µm). Fractal dimension of the nuclear outlines and chromatin distribution was found to have a higher value in the non-resectable group (p<0.05). Objective measurements should be performed to improve risk assessment and therapeutic decisions in pancreatic cancer. Nuclear morphometry of the pancreatic nuclear features can provide important pre-operative information in resectability assessment. The fractal dimension of the nuclear shape and chromatin distribution may be considered a new promising adjunctive tool for conventional pathological analysis.

  19. Microtomographic and morphometric characterization of a bioceramic bone substitute in dental implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Meleo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, bone tissue regeneration studies have led to a deeper knowledge of chemical and structural features of the best biomaterials to be used as replacements for lost bone structures, with the autologus bone still today the only graft material able to ostegenerate, osteinduct and/or osteoconduct. The difficulties of the small available amount of autologus bone, together with morbidity of a second surgical operation on the same patient, have been overcome using both synthetic and biologic substitute bones. The possibility of investigating morphometric characteristics of substitute bones makes it possible to evaluate the predictability of regenerative processes and, so far, a range of different methods have been used for the purpose. X-ray microtomography (micro-CT is a miniaturized form of conventional tomography, able to analyze the internal structure of small objects, performing three-dimensional images with high spatial resolution (<10 micron pixel size. For a correct analysis, samples need not be altered or treated in any way, as micro-CT is a non-invasive and non-destructive technique. It shows promising results in biomaterial studies and tissue engineering. This work shows the potential applications of this microtomographic technique by means of an in vitro analysis system, in characterizing morphometric features of human bone tissue, and contributes to the use of this technique in studies concerning biomaterials and bioscaffolds inserted in bone tissue.

  20. Just how multi-level is leadership research? A document co-citation analysis 1980–2013 on leadership constructs and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Batistic, S.; Cerne, M.; Vogel, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The use of multi-level theories and methodologies in leadership has gained momentum in recent years. However, the leadership field still suffers from a fragmented and unclear evolution and practice of multi-level approaches. The questions of how and to what extent multi-level research has evolved in both leadership phenomena and leadership outcomes, and which informal research networks drove this evolution, remain vastly unexplored. In this study, the extent of literature published between 19...

  1. Intestinal morphometric and biomechanical changes during aging in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Previously we demonstrated pronounced morphometric and biomechanical remodeling in the rat intestine during physiological growth up to 32 weeks of age. The aim of the present study is to study intestinal geometric and biomechanical changes in aging rats. Materials and methods...... in the circumferential direction. In conclusion pronounced morphometric and biomechanical remodeling occurred in the rat intestine during aging. The observed changes likely reflect the changes of the physiological function of the intestine during ageing, similar to other tissues where function, mechanical loading......: Twenty-four male Wistar rats, aged from 6 to 22 months, were used in the study. The body weight and the wet weight per length of duodenal and ileal segments were measured at the termination of experiment. Morphometric data were obtained by measuring the wall thickness and wall cross-sectional area...

  2. Loggerhead sea turtle oral cavity morphometrics and size class from 2001 to 2004 (NCEI Accession 0164321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains standard external morphometrics and internal oral cavity morphometrics from wild and captive reared loggerhead sea turtles in size classes...

  3. Monthly morphometric data on captive Kemps ridley sea turtles from 1998-2014 (NCEI Accession 0156880)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains monthly morphometric measurements on captive reared sea turtles at the Galveston, TX NOAA lab. Morphometric measurements are taken to track growth...

  4. Multi-level significance of vulnerability indicators. Case study: Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanga, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment aims, most frequently, to emphasize internal fragility of a system comparing to a reference standard, to similar systems or in relation to a given hazard. Internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the capacity to predict, to prepare for, to cope with or to recover from a disaster. Thus, vulnerability is linked to resilience and adaptive capacity. From local level to global one, vulnerability factors and corresponding indicators are different and their significance must be tested and validated in a well-structured conceptual and methodological framework. In this paper, the authors aim to show the real vulnerability of rural settlements in Eastern Romania in a multi-level approach. The research area, Tutova Hills, counts about 3421 sq.km and more than 200.000 inhabitants in 421 villages characterized by deficient accessibility, lack of endowments, subsistential agriculture, high pressure on natural environment (especially on forest and soil resources), poverty and aging process of population. Factors that could influence the vulnerability of these rural settlements have been inventoried and assigned into groups through a cluster analysis: habitat and technical urban facilities, infrastructure, economical, social and demographical indicators, environment quality, management of emergency situations etc. Firstly, the main difficulty was to convert qualitative variable in quantitative indicators and to standardize all values to make possible mathematical and statistical processing of data. Secondly, the great variability of vulnerability factors, their different measuring units and their high amplitude of variation require different method of standardization in order to obtain values between zero (minimum vulnerability) and one (maximum vulnerability). Final vulnerability indicators were selected and integrated in a general scheme, according to their significance resulted from an appropriate factor analysis: linear and

  5. Analisis Kemampuan Awal Multi Level Representasi Mahasiswa Tingkat I pada Konsep Reaksi Redoks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Langitasari

    2016-01-01

    reaksi redoks masih tergolong sangat rendah. Mahasiswa belum mampu mendeskripsikan dan menjelaskan hasil pengamatan reaksi redoks (makroskopik dalam bentuk atom, molekul, dan ion yang terlibat dalam reaksi. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa pemahaman simbolik dan submikroskopik mahasiswa tingkat I masih sangat terbatas dan hanya 2,9% mahasiswa yang mampu membuat hubungan antara pengamatan makroskopik, representasi simbolik dan gambaran submikroskopik.Kata kunci:  Kemampuan awal, Reaksi redoks, Multi level representasi

  6. Drift-Implicit Multi-Level Monte Carlo Tau-Leap Methods for Stochastic Reaction Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Hammouda, Chiheb

    2015-05-12

    In biochemical systems, stochastic e↵ects can be caused by the presence of small numbers of certain reactant molecules. In this setting, discrete state-space and stochastic simulation approaches were proved to be more relevant than continuous state-space and deterministic ones. These stochastic models constitute the theory of stochastic reaction networks (SRNs). Furthermore, in some cases, the dynamics of fast and slow time scales can be well separated and this is characterized by what is called sti↵ness. For such problems, the existing discrete space-state stochastic path simulation methods, such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the explicit tau-leap method, can be very slow. Therefore, implicit tau-leap approxima- tions were developed to improve the numerical stability and provide more e cient simulation algorithms for these systems. One of the interesting tasks for SRNs is to approximate the expected values of some observables of the process at a certain fixed time T. This is can be achieved using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. However, in a recent work, Anderson and Higham in 2013, proposed a more computationally e cient method which combines multi-level Monte Carlo (MLMC) technique with explicit tau-leap schemes. In this MSc thesis, we propose new fast stochastic algorithm, particularly designed 5 to address sti↵ systems, for approximating the expected values of some observables of SRNs. In fact, we take advantage of the idea of MLMC techniques and drift-implicit tau-leap approximation to construct a drift-implicit MLMC tau-leap estimator. In addition to accurately estimating the expected values of a given observable of SRNs at a final time T , our proposed estimator ensures the numerical stability with a lower cost than the MLMC explicit tau-leap algorithm, for systems including simultane- ously fast and slow species. The key contribution of our work is the coupling of two drift-implicit tau-leap paths, which is the basic brick for

  7. RNA-Seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidala Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. The sudden and rampant resurgence of C. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance. Results We performed a next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq experiment to find differentially expressed genes between pesticide-resistant (PR and pesticide-susceptible (PS strains of C. lectularius. A reference transcriptome database of 51,492 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was created by combining the databases derived from de novo assembled mRNA-Seq tags (30,404 ESTs and our previous 454 pyrosequenced database (21,088 ESTs. The two-way GLMseq analysis revealed ~15,000 highly significant differentially expressed ESTs between the PR and PS strains. Among the top 5,000 differentially expressed ESTs, 109 putative defense genes (cuticular proteins, cytochrome P450s, antioxidant genes, ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and acetyl cholinesterase involved in penetration resistance and metabolic resistance were identified. Tissue and development-specific expression of P450 CYP3 clan members showed high mRNA levels in the cuticle, Malpighian tubules, and midgut; and in early instar nymphs, respectively. Lastly, molecular modeling and docking of a candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP397A1V2 revealed the flexibility of the deduced protein to metabolize a broad range of insecticide substrates including DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, and imidacloprid. Conclusions We developed significant molecular resources for C. lectularius putatively involved in metabolic resistance as well as those participating in other modes of insecticide resistance. RNA-Seq profiles of PR strains combined with tissue-specific profiles and molecular docking revealed multi-level insecticide

  8. Scaling mimesis: Morphometric and ecomorphological similarities in three sympatric plant-mimetic fish of the family Carangidae (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Alexya Cunha de; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sakai, Yoichi; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Barros, Breno

    2018-01-01

    The mimetic juveniles of a number of carangid fish species resemble plant parts floating near the water surface, such as leaves, seeds and other plant debris. The present study is the first to verify the morphological similarities and ecomorphological relationships between three carangids (Oligoplites saurus, Oligoplites palometa and Trachinotus falcatus) and their associated plant models. Behavioral observations were conducted in the estuary of Curuçá River, in northeastern Pará (Brazil) between August 2015 and July 2016. Individual fishes and associated floating objects (models) were sampled for comparative analysis using both geometric and morphometric approaches. While the mimetic fish and their models retain their own distinct, intrinsic morphological features, a high degree of morphological similarity was found between each fish species and its model. The morphometric analyses revealed a general tendency of isometric development in all three fish species, probably related to their pelagic habitats, during all ontogenetic stages.

  9. Use of morphometric analysis and self-organizing maps for alluvial fan classification: case study on Ostorankooh altitudes, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Seif, Abdollah; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to classify alluvial fans formed by high-gradient braided streams and torrents that discharge into the Oshtorankook altitudes in the Lorestan province, Iran. The morphology of the fans and their watershed is quantitatively described through estimated morphometric parameters. For relationships between geomorphological features of the fans and their drainage basins, self-organizingmaps (SOM) were used. In SOM, according to both qualitative data and morphometric variables, the clustering tendency of alluvial fans was investigated using 15 alluvial fans parameters. The results of the analysis showed that several morphologically different fan types were recognizedbased on their geomorphological characteristics in the study area. A strong positive relationship was found between the drainage basin area and size of the fan with a simple power function. In addition, the relationship between fan slope and drainage area was found to be negative and moderately strong with a simple power function

  10. Morphometric relations of fractal-skeletal based channel network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractal-skeletal based channel network (F-SCN model is proposed. Four regular sided initiator-basins are transformed as second order fractal basins by following a specific generating mechanism with non-random rule. The morphological skeletons, hereafter referred to as channel networks, are extracted from these fractal basins. The morphometric and fractal relationships of these F-SCNs are shown. The fractal dimensions of these fractal basins, channel networks, and main channel lengths (computed through box counting method are compared with those of estimated length–area measures. Certain morphometric order ratios to show fractal relations are also highlighted.

  11. A web-system of virtual morphometric globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinsky, Igor; Garov, Andrei; Karachevtseva, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Virtual globes — programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets — are increasingly used in geo- and planetary sciences. We develop a web-system of virtual morphometric globes. As the initial data, we used the following global digital elevation models (DEMs): (1) a DEM of the Earth extracted from SRTM30_PLUS database; (2) a DEM of Mars extracted from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) gridded data record archive; and (3) A DEM of the Moon extracted from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) gridded data record archive. From these DEMs, we derived global digital models of the following 16 local, nonlocal, and combined morphometric variables: horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, mean curvature, Gaussian curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, unsphericity curvature, difference curvature, vertical excess curvature, horizontal excess curvature, ring curvature, accumulation curvature, catchment area, dispersive area, topographic index, and stream power index (definitions, formulae, and interpretations can be found elsewhere [1]). To calculate local morphometric variables, we applied a finite-difference method intended for spheroidal equal angular grids [1]. Digital models of a nonlocal and combined morphometric variables were derived by a method of Martz and de Jong adapted to spheroidal equal angular grids [1]. DEM processing was performed in the software LandLord [1]. The calculated morphometric models were integrated into the testing version of the system. The following main functions are implemented in the system: (1) selection of a celestial body; (2) selection of a morphometric variable; (3) 2D visualization of a calculated global morphometric model (a map in equirectangular projection); (4) 3D visualization of a calculated global morphometric model on the sphere surface (a globe by itself); (5) change of a globe scale (zooming); and (6) globe rotation by an arbitrary angle. The testing version of the system

  12. Observation and quantification of the quantum dynamics of a strong-field excited multi-level system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuoye; Wang, Quanjun; Ding, Jingjie; Cavaletto, Stefano M; Pfeifer, Thomas; Hu, Bitao

    2017-01-04

    The quantum dynamics of a V-type three-level system, whose two resonances are first excited by a weak probe pulse and subsequently modified by another strong one, is studied. The quantum dynamics of the multi-level system is closely related to the absorption spectrum of the transmitted probe pulse and its modification manifests itself as a modulation of the absorption line shape. Applying the dipole-control model, the modulation induced by the second strong pulse to the system's dynamics is quantified by eight intensity-dependent parameters, describing the self and inter-state contributions. The present study opens the route to control the quantum dynamics of multi-level systems and to quantify the quantum-control process.

  13. A Review of Structure Construction of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials from Single Structures to Multi-Level Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological performance of artificial biomaterials is closely related to their structure characteristics. Cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation are all strongly affected by the different scale structures of biomaterials. Silk fibroin (SF, extracted mainly from silkworms, has become a popular biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical properties, tunable degradation, ease of processing, and sufficient supply. As a material with excellent processability, SF can be processed into various forms with different structures, including particulate, fiber, film, and three-dimensional (3D porous scaffolds. This review discusses and summarizes the various constructions of SF-based materials, from single structures to multi-level structures, and their applications. In combination with single structures, new techniques for creating special multi-level structures of SF-based materials, such as micropatterning and 3D-printing, are also briefly addressed.

  14. Homogeneous-oxide stack in IGZO thin-film transistors for multi-level-cell NAND memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hao; Wei, Yehui; Zhang, Xinlei; Jiang, Ran

    2017-11-01

    A nonvolatile charge-trap-flash memory that is based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors was fabricated with a homogeneous-oxide structure for a multi-level-cell application. All oxide layers, i.e., tunneling layer, charge trapping layer, and blocking layer, were fabricated with Al2O3 films. The fabrication condition (including temperature and deposition method) of the charge trapping layer was different from those of the other oxide layers. This device demonstrated a considerable large memory window of 4 V between the states fully erased and programmed with the operation voltage less than 14 V. This kind of device shows a good prospect for multi-level-cell memory applications.

  15. Estimating the concentration of gold nanoparticles incorporated on natural rubber membranes using multi-level starlet optimal segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, A. F. de, E-mail: siqueiraaf@gmail.com; Cabrera, F. C., E-mail: flavioccabrera@yahoo.com.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil); Pagamisse, A., E-mail: aylton@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Matemática e Computação (Brazil); Job, A. E., E-mail: job@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    This study consolidates multi-level starlet segmentation (MLSS) and multi-level starlet optimal segmentation (MLSOS) techniques for photomicrograph segmentation, based on starlet wavelet detail levels to separate areas of interest in an input image. Several segmentation levels can be obtained using MLSS; after that, Matthews correlation coefficient is used to choose an optimal segmentation level, giving rise to MLSOS. In this paper, MLSOS is employed to estimate the concentration of gold nanoparticles with diameter around 47  nm, reduced on natural rubber membranes. These samples were used for the construction of SERS/SERRS substrates and in the study of the influence of natural rubber membranes with incorporated gold nanoparticles on the physiology of Leishmania braziliensis. Precision, recall, and accuracy are used to evaluate the segmentation performance, and MLSOS presents an accuracy greater than 88 % for this application.

  16. Multi-floor cascading ferroelectric nanostructures: multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Lee, Bom-Yi; Seol, Daehee; Park, Beomjin; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-01-01

    Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process.Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07377d

  17. Leveling up? An inter-neighborhood experiment on parochialism and the efficiency of multi-level public goods provision

    OpenAIRE

    Gallier, Carlo; Goeschl, Timo; Kesternich, Martin; Lohse, Johannes; Reif, Christiane; Römer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Many public goods can be provided at different spatial levels. Evidence from social identity theory and in-group favoritism raises the possibility that where higher-level provision is more efficient, subjects’ narrow concern for local outcomes (parochialism) could harm efficiency. Building on the experimental paradigm of multi-level public good games and the ‘neighborhood attachment’ concept, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with 600 participants in a setting conducive to parochial...

  18. Teachers' experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health :|bdeveloping a multi-level intervention programme / Jaqueline de Vos

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Jaqueline

    2012-01-01

    Workplace bullying is recognised as a major psychosocial stressor in various professions and can have severe effects on health. Teachers are distinguished as an occupational group that is severely affected by this phenomenon. The general objectives of this research study were to firstly investigate teachers’ experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health, and secondly, to develop a multi-level intervention programme that can be implemented to address workplace bullying and its ef...

  19. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Mo

    Full Text Available For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective.We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position.The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree.The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  20. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhong, Dongyan; Xu, Hao; Wang, Lan; Yu, Jia; Luo, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective. We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position. The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa) and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa) after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree). The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  1. Multi-Level Data-Security and Data-Protection in a Distributed Search Infrastructure for Digital Medical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Michael; Krefting, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Human sample data is stored in biobanks with software managing digital derived sample data. When these stand-alone components are connected and a search infrastructure is employed users become able to collect required research data from different data sources. Data protection, patient rights, data heterogeneity and access control are major challenges for such an infrastructure. This dissertation will investigate concepts for a multi-level security architecture to comply with these requirements.

  2. Minimizing End-to-End Interference in I/O Stacks Spanning Shared Multi-Level Buffer Caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an end-to-end interference minimizing uniquely designed high performance I/O stack that spans multi-level shared buffer cache hierarchies accessing shared I/O servers to deliver a seamless high performance I/O stack. In this thesis, I show that I can build a superior I/O stack which minimizes the inter-application interference…

  3. Teaching a Large Multi-Level Class Using Different Strategies and Activities to Motivate English Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Sevy

    2016-01-01

    Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English languag...

  4. Bayesian Mixed Hidden Markov Models: A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Categorical Outcomes with Differential Misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based health status outcomes are often prone to misclassification. When studying the effect of risk factors on such outcomes, ignoring any potential misclassification may lead to biased effect estimates. Analytical challenges posed by these misclassified outcomes are further complicated when simultaneously exploring factors for both the misclassification and health processes in a multi-level setting. To address these challenges, we propose a fully Bayesian Mixed Hidden Markov Model (BMHMM) for handling differential misclassification in categorical outcomes in a multi-level setting. The BMHMM generalizes the traditional Hidden Markov Model (HMM) by introducing random effects into three sets of HMM parameters for joint estimation of the prevalence, transition and misclassification probabilities. This formulation not only allows joint estimation of all three sets of parameters, but also accounts for cluster level heterogeneity based on a multi-level model structure. Using this novel approach, both the true health status prevalence and the transition probabilities between the health states during follow-up are modeled as functions of covariates. The observed, possibly misclassified, health states are related to the true, but unobserved, health states and covariates. Results from simulation studies are presented to validate the estimation procedure, to show the computational efficiency due to the Bayesian approach and also to illustrate the gains from the proposed method compared to existing methods that ignore outcome misclassification and cluster level heterogeneity. We apply the proposed method to examine the risk factors for both asthma transition and misclassification in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS). PMID:24254432

  5. Enabling the MLSpOC (Multi-Level Space Operations Center) of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missal, D.

    2012-09-01

    accredited today at multiple sites both CONUS and OCONUS. It is designed to assist information systems developers achieve DCID 6/3 Protection Level 4 or 5 (PL4 or PL5) or DoD SABI C&A for SECRET-to-UNCLASSIFIED systems (PL3). The product is on the DoD/DNI Unified Cross-domain Management Office's (UCDMO) Baseline of accredited solutions, and is the only solution on the Baseline which the Government considers to be an "All-in-One" approach to the Cross-domain Security challenge. Our solution is also the only PL-4 Cloud in existence and that is deployed and operational in the entire world today (at DIA). The Space marketplace is a very unique cross-domain challenge, as a need exists for Unclassified SSA Data Sharing at a deeper and more fundamental level than anywhere else in the IC or DoD. For instance, certain Agencies and/or Programs have a requirement to share information with Partner Nations that are not considered to be "friendly" (e.g. China). Our Solution is the ONLY solution in the world today that's achieved C&A, and that is uniquely positioned to enable the Multi-level Space Operations Center (MLSpOC) of the Future.

  6. Morphometric Studies Of The Cerebellum And Forebrain Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric studies were undertaken using the brains of six African giant rats. The mean of weights and lengths (tip of the olfactory bulb to the caudal border of the cerebellum) were observed tobe 4.88 0.183g and 4.40 0.193g, respectively. Similarly, the mean weight and length of the cerebellum and the forebrain ...

  7. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    significance of these landscape parameters was ... reported that the geomorphic characteristics of a drainage basins play ... form and process of drainage basins that may ... tropical rain forest of Nigeria occupying an area of .... morphometric parameters such as relief, shape ... on floodplains can be pulled down while areas.

  8. Morphometric and landuse analysis: implications on flood hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the morphometric, landuse and lithological attributes of five basins (Iwaraja, Ilesa, Olupona, Osogbo I and Osogbo II) with particular reference to flood hazards in Ilesa and Osogbo metropolis, Osun State Nigeria. Ilesa town is situated within Iwaraja and Ilesa basins while Osogbo metropolis spread ...

  9. Morphometric Analysis of Mandibular Growth in Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

  10. Effect of Genotype and Age on Some Morphometric, Body Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A population of 231 roosters of the Nigerian indigenous chickens of normal feathered frizzle feathered and naked neck genotypes was evaluated for the effect of genotype and age on some morphometric body linear measurements and semen characteristics of three Nigerian chicken genotypes. 20 roosters from each ...

  11. Morphometric analyses of the river basins in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Morphometric analyses of seven river basins in Goa, India have been carried out. The linear and areal aspects of these basins are reported here. The plots of stream order versus stream numbers and stream orders versus mean stream lengths are found...

  12. Morphometric variation in the Tunisian green frog, Rana saharica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana saharica is the most widely distributed anuran in Tunisia. We examined morphological variation in 124 specimens as a function of their geographical origin, using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional morphometrics. Our results supported the existence of three morphotypes of this species, correctly ...

  13. A morphometric analysis of the genus Ficus Linn. (moraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar parameters of Ficus in Nigeria were subjected to quantitative analysis. The morphometric analysis is based on ten quantitative parameters of the leaves of species. Principal compound analysis produced six groups whose characters are described. Highly significant positive correlation exists between leaf length and ...

  14. Discriminant analysis of morphometric differentiation in the West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the usefulness of morphological characteristics to distinguish two important indigenous goat breeds in Nigeria. Fifteen morphometric traits were measured on West African Dwarf – WAD (n = 160) and Red Sokoto – RS (n = 142) goats that ranged in age of up to 19 months and were reared extensively in ...

  15. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  16. Morphometric studies on a part of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Morphometric and slope angle studies carried out on a part of Indian Ocean Basin have shown that gentle slope angle ranges dominate, 92% of the area represented by 0-3 degrees slopes. Young's hypothesis of log-normal distribution of slope angle...

  17. External morphometric study of hatchery reared mahseer ( Tor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different samples of Mahseer (Tor putitora) were examined for the study of external morphometric characters of the fish. Slopes of log transformed data were used for comparison with an isometric slopes (b=1, b= 0.33 or b= 3). Relationships between wet body weight and external body parts lengths showed that increasing ...

  18. Hybridization within a Pilosella population: a morphometric analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urfus, Tomáš; Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 223-238 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : hybridization * introgression * multivariate morphometrics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  19. Ethnical evaluation of Bangladeshi young adults in terms of morphometrically-analyzed craniofacial skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Md. Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric study for the craniofacial relations and variations in humans have long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological features of craniofacial skeleton in Bangladeshi young adults and to compare it with already reported standards for the Caucasian population as well as cephalometric values of other Indian races using Steiner′s reference norms. The study was conducted for 52 Bangladeshi young adults (27 male and 25 females, aged 21-27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles, clinically acceptable occlusion with permanent dentition and no history of orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Bangladeshi subjects were more protrusive skeletally and dentally than Caucasians. Furthermore, the mandibular plane angle was smaller in Bangladeshi subjects than in the Caucasians. Present results also suggest that the Astrics, Dravidians, and Armenoid who penetrated into Bengal in the early ages may have contributed substantially to the morphogenesis of craniofacial skeleton in the present Bengalis. The results of this study support the idea that a single standard of facial esthetics should not be applied to all racial and ethnic groups.

  20. Morphometric and Histological Study of Osteophytes in Human Cadaveric Lumbar Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Aithal Padur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteophytes are bony outgrowth on the vertebral column. Its prevalence in the lumbar region and clinical importance mandates to conduct a detailed study of lumbar osteophytes in the cadaveric vertebral column. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the detailed features of lumbar osteophytes and document its prevalence, morphometric and histological structure. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study in which frequency of occurrence of lumbar osteophytes was studied in 40 cadaveric vertebral columns over a period of four years. The lumbar part of the vertebral columns was dissected and examined meticulously. The occurrence of lumbar osteophytes with their vertebral levels and morphometric measurements were recorded. A small excision of the osteophyte was processed histologically to study its microscopic details using routine Haematoxylin & Eosin stain. Results: Lumbar osteophytes were present in 4 specimens (10%. They were mostly found on the right side of the vertebral bodies. Histopathological examination of the osteophytes revealed degenerative osteophytic cartilage and fibrillation overlying the trabecular bone enclosing fatty marrow spaces containing haematopoietic elements. Conclusion: Lumbar osteophytes were found in 10% of the specimens studied and it is assumed that these cadaveric reports deserve further attention given their potential clinical implications. Knowledge regarding occurrence and incidence of osteophytes is essential for management of common degenerative changes of the vertebral column.

  1. Automated Morphological and Morphometric Analysis of Mass Spectrometry Imaging Data: Application to Biomarker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard de Muller, Gaël; Ait-Belkacem, Rima; Bonnel, David; Longuespée, Rémi; Stauber, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging datasets are mostly analyzed in terms of average intensity in regions of interest. However, biological tissues have different morphologies with several sizes, shapes, and structures. The important biological information, contained in this highly heterogeneous cellular organization, could be hidden by analyzing the average intensities. Finding an analytical process of morphology would help to find such information, describe tissue model, and support identification of biomarkers. This study describes an informatics approach for the extraction and identification of mass spectrometry image features and its application to sample analysis and modeling. For the proof of concept, two different tissue types (healthy kidney and CT-26 xenograft tumor tissues) were imaged and analyzed. A mouse kidney model and tumor model were generated using morphometric - number of objects and total surface - information. The morphometric information was used to identify m/z that have a heterogeneous distribution. It seems to be a worthwhile pursuit as clonal heterogeneity in a tumor is of clinical relevance. This study provides a new approach to find biomarker or support tissue classification with more information. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Morphometric Controls on Glacier Mass Balance of the Puruogangri Ice Field, Central Tibetan Plateau

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    Lin Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the impacts of climatic changes and morphometric features on glacier mass balance is crucial to providing insight into glacier changes and their effects on regional water resources and ecosystems. Here, we presented an evaluation of morphometric effects on the glacier mass balances of the Puruogangri ice field (PIF on the Tibetan Plateau. A clear spatial variability of glacier mass balances, ranging from −0.035 to +0.019 m·w.e.·year−1, was estimated by comparing the TanDEM-X DEM (2012 with the SRTM-X DEM (2000. In general, the observed glacier mass changes were consistent with our fieldwork investigations. Furthermore, by applying the method of linear regression analysis, we found that the mass changes of individual glaciers on the PIF were mainly dominated by the mean altitude (R = 0.84, p < 0.001, however, they were statistically independent of glacier size, aspect, and surface velocity. At a local scale (grid size of 10 × 10 pixels, apart from the factor of altitude, surface velocity was correlated with glacier mass change.

  3. Morphometric analysis of three normal facial types in mixed dentition using posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs: preliminary results

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    Renato Bigliazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the craniofacial features of subjects with normal occlusion with different vertical patterns in the mixed dentition using morphometric analysis (Thin-Plate Spline analysis - TPS applied to posteroanterior (PA films. The sample comprised 39 individuals (18 females and 21 males, all in mixed dentition, aged from 8.4 to 10 years with satisfactory occlusion and balanced profile and with no history of orthodontic or facial orthopedic treatment. The sample was divided into three groups (mesofacial, brachyfacial and dolichofacial according to the facial types proposed by Ricketts (1989. The average craniofacial configurations of each study group were obtained by orthogonal superimposition of Procrustes, thereby eliminating size differences and allowing only shape differences between groups to be analyzed by viewing the TPS deformation grid. Significant differences were found among the three facial types but were more remarkable between mesofacials and dolichofacials than between mesofacials and brachyfacials. TPS morphometric analysis proved efficient for accurate visualization of transverse and vertical differences among facial types even before pubertal growth spurt. These differences cannot be easily detected by traditional posteroanterior cephalometry.

  4. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis.

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    Christine Mayer

    Full Text Available Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with facial shape and texture (color pattern in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3-10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF PRE-LARVAE OF THREE SALMONIDS SPECIES AT ONE-DAY AGE

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    Ye. Barylo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and analyze the morphometric and some biochemical parameters of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in post-embryonic period under the conditions of "Rybnyi Potik” farm in the Transcarpathian region for further use of the obtained data in scientific and practical works related to the cultivation of the juveniles of valuable salmonid species. Methodology. One-day free embryos (pre-larvae of brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout we used as study materials. Morphometric parameters we studied by the methods of N. O. Lange, E. N. Dmitrieva. The content of total lipids was determined in accordance with Folch. in the tissuesm, which were taken for biochemical studies. Separate classes of lipids were received by thin layer chromatography. Findings. We carried out a comparative analysis of morphometric measurements and biochemical parameters of one-day pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout based on the obtained data. We investigated morphometric and biochemical specific features of pre-larvae in post-embryonic period and showed the species differences of morphometric measurements. Significant differences were observed between the content of lipids in the body and yolk sac of free embryos. In particular, a higher content of phospholipids and triglycerides was observed in the body of brook trout compared to brown trout. We also recorded higher contents of mono- and diacylglycerols, free cholesterol, non-etherified fatty acids (NEFA, triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters in the yolk sac of brook trout. Compared to brown trout, rainbow trout had a significant increase in mono- and diacylglycerols, free cholesterol and NEFA in both body and yolk sac as well higher levels of total lipids, triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters were registered in yolk sac. Originality. For the first time we carried out and compared the specific features of pre-larval brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout in the

  6. Incumbency in Multi-level Political Systems and Recruitment Advantage: The Case of the Czech Regional Assemblies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernard, Josef; Šafr, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 267-291 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/12/0714 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : incumbency * legislative recruitment * multi-level political system Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 0.143, year: 2016 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/6184b97b7357aa4e289089fff7852b7d898290d9_16-3-02Bernard15.indd.pdf

  7. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-Level Rule-Based Models in Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittig, Arne T; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  8. Study and Analysis of a Natural Reference Frame Current Controller for a Multi-Level H-Bridge Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, P.

    2008-01-01

    will be needed in order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid with an increased level of renewable power. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents an analysis of the natural...... reference frame controller, based on proportional-resonant (PR) technique, for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network. The proposed method is tested in terms of harmonic content in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), voltage...

  9. Multi-level resistive switching behaviors and retention characteristics in ZnO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Weifeng; Jia, Caihong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown on SrTiO3:Nb (NSTO) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering method. The multi-level resistance states were observed by applying different amplitudes and/or polarities of voltage pulses, which is supposed to be related to the drift of oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the decay of retention is also corresponding to the migration of oxygen vacancies. The retention and cycle stability implies that the ZnO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunctions are promising for high density memory application.

  10. A multi-band, multi-level, multi-electron model for efficient FDTD simulations of electromagnetic interactions with semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2015-08-01

    We report a new computational model for simulations of electromagnetic interactions with semiconductor quantum well(s) (SQW) in complex electromagnetic geometries using the finite-difference time-domain method. The presented model is based on an approach of spanning a large number of electron transverse momentum states in each SQW sub-band (multi-band) with a small number of discrete multi-electron states (multi-level, multi-electron). This enables accurate and efficient two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) simulations of nanophotonic devices with SQW active media. The model includes the following features: (1) Optically induced interband transitions between various SQW conduction and heavy-hole or light-hole sub-bands are considered. (2) Novel intra sub-band and inter sub-band transition terms are derived to thermalize the electron and hole occupational distributions to the correct Fermi-Dirac distributions. (3) The terms in (2) result in an explicit update scheme which circumvents numerically cumbersome iterative procedures. This significantly augments computational efficiency. (4) Explicit update terms to account for carrier leakage to unconfined states are derived, which thermalize the bulk and SQW populations to a common quasi-equilibrium Fermi-Dirac distribution. (5) Auger recombination and intervalence band absorption are included. The model is validated by comparisons to analytic band-filling calculations, simulations of SQW optical gain spectra, and photonic crystal lasers.

  11. Improving band-to-band tunneling in a tunneling carbon nanotube field effect transistor by multi-level development of impurities in the drain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali; Ghodrati, Maryam

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, in order to improve the performance of a tunneling carbon nanotube field effect transistor (T-CNTFET) a new structure is proposed using multi-level impurity distribution along the drain region. The new T-CNTFET structure consists of six parts in the drain with stepwise doping distribution. The impurities on the drain side are n -type and the length of each region is 5nm. Electronic features of the proposed structure are simulated by the solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equations and the self-consistent method using Non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF). Simulation results show that the proposed structure reduces the band curvature near the drain-channel connection and widens the tunneling barrier. As a result, band-to-band tunneling and the OFF current are reduced and the ON/OFF current ratio increases in comparison with the conventional structure. In summary, by improving the subthreshold swing parameters, delay time, power delay product ( PDP and cut-off frequency compared to the conventional structure, the proposed structure can be considered as a proper candidate for digital applications with high speed and low power dissipation.

  12. Multi-level machine learning prediction of protein–protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Julian Zubek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of protein–protein interactions (PPI is the key step in understanding proteins’ biological functions, which are typically context-dependent. Many existing PPI predictors rely on aggregated features from protein sequences, however only a few methods exploit local information about specific residue contacts. In this work we present a two-stage machine learning approach for prediction of protein–protein interactions. We start with the carefully filtered data on protein complexes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Protein Data Bank (PDB database. First, we build linear descriptions of interacting and non-interacting sequence segment pairs based on their inter-residue distances. Secondly, we train machine learning classifiers to predict binary segment interactions for any two short sequence fragments. The final prediction of the protein–protein interaction is done using the 2D matrix representation of all-against-all possible interacting sequence segments of both analysed proteins. The level-I predictor achieves 0.88 AUC for micro-scale, i.e., residue-level prediction. The level-II predictor improves the results further by a more complex learning paradigm. We perform 30-fold macro-scale, i.e., protein-level cross-validation experiment. The level-II predictor using PSIPRED-predicted secondary structure reaches 0.70 precision, 0.68 recall, and 0.70 AUC, whereas other popular methods provide results below 0.6 threshold (recall, precision, AUC. Our results demonstrate that multi-scale sequence features aggregation procedure is able to improve the machine learning results by more than 10% as compared to other sequence representations. Prepared datasets and source code for our experimental pipeline are freely available for download from: http://zubekj.github.io/mlppi/ (open source Python implementation, OS independent.

  13. Determination of a novel size proxy in comparative morphometrics

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    Andrew Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute size is a critical determinant of organismal biology, yet there exists no real consensus as to what particular metric of ‘size’ is empirically valid in assessments of extinct mammalian taxa. The methodological approach of JE Mosimann has found extensive favour in ‘size correction’ in comparative morphometrics, but not ‘size prediction’ in palaeontology and palaeobiology. Analyses of five distinct mammalian data sets confirm that a novel size variate (GMSize derived from k=8 dimensions of the postcranial skeleton effectively satisfies all expectations of the Jolicoeur–Mosimann theorem of univariate and multivariate size. On the basis of strong parametric correlations between the k=8 variates and between scores derived from the first principal component and geometric mean size (GMSize in all series, this novel size variable has considerable utility in comparative vertebrate morphometrics and palaeobiology as an appropriate descriptor of individual size in extant and extinct taxa.

  14. MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND MICRORELIEF OF THE LUMBRICUS CELOMOCYTES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE OSMOTIC PRESSURE

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    Andrey Andreevich Prisnyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study the morphometric parameters and microrelief of the coelomocytes membrane of the Lumbricus representatives in normal and under osmotic pressure. Materials and methods: In the experiments, representatives of three species belonging to the genus Lumbricus were used. To conduct each series of experiments a coelomic liquid of 15 representatives of each species was used. From the circulation system of each individual examined, at least 250 cells were processed. The study of morphometric parameters of coelomocytes was carried out in isotonic conditions, and also with the use of osmotic tests in vitro. The features of the surface topography of coelomocytes were study using the “Integra Vita Probe Nanaboratorium” (NT-MDT, Russia. The analysis of amplitude and functional average statistical parameters of membrane roughness is carried out. The results of the research were processed using statistics methods using the Microsoft Excel 7.0 analysis package. Results: The Lumbricus representatives of revealed differences in the responses of amoebocytes and eleocytes to the effect of osmotic stress. Under the conditions of osmotic pressure, several morphologically different forms were found among the cells of each type. This indicates the potential ability of coelomocytes to spread out on the substrate for any type of osmotic pressure. The change in the topography of the cell membrane of coelomocytes under the hypoosmotic pressure is characterized by a smoothing of the microrelief structures with a decrease in the size of the microvysings and microinvaginations. Conclusion: The microrelief of the coelomocytes membrane reflects the features of their functional status changing under the influence of environmental factors.

  15. Interspecific variation in the tetradactyl manus of modern tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) exposed using geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Jamie A; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The distal forelimb (autopodium) of quadrupedal mammals is a key morphological unit involved in locomotion, body support, and interaction with the substrate. The manus of the tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) is unique within modern perissodactyls, as it retains the plesiomorphic tetradactyl (four-toed) condition also exhibited by basal equids and rhinoceroses. Tapirs are known to exhibit anatomical mesaxonic symmetry in the manus, although interspecific differences and biomechanical mesaxony have yet to be rigorously tested. Here, we investigate variation in the manus morphology of four modern tapir species (Tapirus indicus, Tapirus bairdii, Tapirus pinchaque, and Tapirus terrestris) using a geometric morphometric approach. Autopodial bones were laser scanned to capture surface shape and morphology was quantified using 3D-landmark analysis. Landmarks were aligned using Generalised Procrustes Analysis, with discriminant function and partial least square analyses performed on aligned coordinate data to identify features that significantly separate tapir species. Overall, our results support the previously held hypothesis that T. indicus is morphologically separate from neotropical tapirs; however, previous conclusions regarding function from morphological differences are shown to require reassessment. We find evidence indicating that T. bairdii exhibits reduced reliance on the lateral fifth digit compared to other tapirs. Morphometric assessment of the metacarpophalangeal joint and the morphology of the distal facets of the lunate lend evidence toward high loading on the lateral digits of both the large T. indicus (large body mass) and the small, long limbed T. pinchaque (ground impact). Our results support other recent studies on T. pinchaque, suggesting subtle but important adaptations to a compliant but inclined habitat. In conclusion, we demonstrate further evidence that the modern tapir forelimb is a variable locomotor unit with a range of interspecific features

  16. MORPHOMETRIC ASPECTS IN THE BÂRLAD BASIN

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    BĂLAN OANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bârlad valley morphometry is strongly influenced by lithology, geological structure and climatic conditions. Between its springs and the outflow we noticed notable deviations from valley monocline structure and from the consecvent overall direction of the river system. Morphometric analysis of the Bârlad valley cumulates and summarizes the sequence of events that occurred in its hydrographic basin, which in turn has been actively reflected in indices such as generated the altimetry, the relief depth fragmentation.

  17. Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam

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    A. Haque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was brown (31.18% followed by white (28.53%, fawn (15.29%, grey (13.53%, black (4.41% and mixed (7.06%. The prominent colour of tail switch was black (74.53%. Most of animals had black muzzle (86.47%, black hooves (84.71% and black horn (100%. Morphometric characteristics data obtained were classified according to location, age group and sex of the animal. The means for body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were 83.668±0.590, 91.942±0.55, 113.146±0.738, 121.181±0.761, 54.196±0.527, 26.098±0.186, 32.705±0.166, 18.131±0.111 and 35.035±0.195 cm respectively. Age and sex had significant effect on all the morphometric characters however, location effect was non significant. The indigenous cattle of Assam are comparatively smaller in size than most of the recognized breeds of cattle however coat colour showed sizeable variation. The data generated for indigenous cattle of Assam would be useful to characterize them.

  18. A geometric morphometric assessment of the optic cup in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Cardini, Andrea; Sigal, Ian A; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Chua, Brian E; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A

    2010-09-01

    The morphologic appearance of the optic disc is of interest in glaucoma. In contrast to descriptive classification systems that are currently used, a quantitative approach to the analysis of optic disc morphology is required. Our goal was to determine the optimal method for quantifying optic cup shape by comparing traditional (ovality, form-factor and neuroretinal rim (NRR) width ratio) and geometric morphometric approaches. Left optic disc stereophotographs of 160 (80 normal and 80 glaucomatous (stratified by severity)) subjects were examined. The optic cup margins were stereoscopically delineated with a custom tracing system and saved as a series of discrete points. The geometric morphometric methods of elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and sliding semi-landmark analysis (SSLA) were used to eliminate variation unrelated to shape (e.g. size) and yield a series of shape variables. Differences in optic cup shape between normal and glaucoma groups were investigated. Discriminant functions were computed and the sensitivity and specificity of each technique determined. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for all methods and evaluated in their potential to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the shape variables. All geometric morphometric methods revealed differences between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape, in addition to the traditional parameters of ovality, form-factor and NRR width ratio (pgeometric morphometric approach for discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape is superior to that provided by traditional single parameter shape measures. Such analytical techniques could be incorporated into future automated optic disc screening modalities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Velde, Joris; Wouters, Johan; Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Duprez, Fréderic; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result

  20. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  1. Multi-level Strategy for Identifying Proteasome-Catalyzed Spliced Epitopes Targeted by CD8+ T Cells during Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk C.M. Platteel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing (PCPS generates peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules, but because their identification is challenging, the immunological relevance of spliced peptides remains unclear. Here, we developed a reverse immunology-based multi-level approach to identify proteasome-generated spliced epitopes. Applying this strategy to a murine Listeria monocytogenes infection model, we identified two spliced epitopes within the secreted bacterial phospholipase PlcB that primed antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in L. monocytogenes-infected mice. While reacting to the spliced epitopes, these CD8+ T cells failed to recognize the non-spliced peptide parts in the context of their natural flanking sequences. Thus, we here show that PCPS expands the CD8+ T cell response against L. monocytogenes by exposing spliced epitopes on the cell surface. Moreover, our multi-level strategy opens up opportunities to systematically investigate proteins for spliced epitope candidates and thus strategies for immunotherapies or vaccine design.

  2. Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone.

  3. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for the job, production and operating costs. Studies have examined the air flow parameters change in one–, two– and three–levels multichannel cyclone. These constructions differ according to the productivity of cleaned air under the constant peripheral and transitional (50/50 case air flow relations. Accordance with the results of air flow dynamics – velocity distribution of multi-channel cyclone, aerodynamic resistance and efficiency can be judged on the flow turbulence, the flow channel cross-section and select the most appropriate application. Cleaning efficiency studies were carried out using fine granite and wood ashes PM. The maximum cleaning efficiency was 93.3%, at an average of 4.5 g/m3, the aerodynamic resistance was equal to 1525 Pa.

  4. Factors affecting public prejudice and social distance on mental illness: analysis of contextual effect by multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeongap; Lim, Jun-Tae; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2012-03-01

    While there have been many quantitative studies on the public's attitude towards mental illnesses, it is hard to find quantitative study which focused on the contextual effect on the public's attitude. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the public's beliefs and attitudes including contextual effects. We analyzed survey on the public's beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness in Korea with multi-level analysis. We analyzed the public's beliefs and attitudes in terms of prejudice as an intermediate outcome and social distance as a final outcome. Then, we focused on the associations of factors, which were individual and regional socio-economic factors, familiarity, and knowledge based on the comparison of the intermediate and final outcomes. Prejudice was not explained by regional variables but was only correlated with individual factors. Prejudice increased with age and decreased by high education level. However, social distance controlling for prejudice increased in females, in people with a high education level, and in regions with a high education level and a high proportion of the old. Therefore, social distance without controlling for prejudice increased in females, in the elderly, in highly educated people, and in regions with a high education and aged community. The result of the multi-level analysis for the regional variables suggests that social distance for mental illness are not only determined by individual factors but also influenced by the surroundings so that it could be tackled sufficiently with appropriate considering of the relevant regional context with individual characteristics.

  5. Development of depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-level life course conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Erica C; Brinkman, Tara M; Baker, Justin N

    2017-06-01

    As therapeutic and supportive care interventions become increasingly effective, growing numbers of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors face a myriad of physical and psychological sequelae secondary to their disease and treatment. Mental health issues, in particular, present a significant problem in this unique patient population, with depression affecting a sizable number of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Multiple key determinants impact a survivor's risk of developing depression, with variables traversing across biologic, individual, family, community, and global levels, as well as spanning throughout the life course of human development from the preconception and prenatal periods to adulthood. A multi-level life course conceptual model offers a valuable framework to identify and organize the diverse variables that modulate the risk of developing depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. This review describes the first multi-level life course perspective applied to development of depression in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. This conceptual framework may be used to guide the investigation of mental health interventions for SCACs to ensure that key determinants of depression occurrence are adequately addressed across various levels and throughout the life trajectory.

  6. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113 and...

  7. 49 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart B of... - Example of a Multi-Level Car Complying with Window Location and Staggering Requirements-§§ 238...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of a Multi-Level Car Complying with Window Location and Staggering Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2 Figure 2 to Subpart B of Part 238.... 238, Subpt. B, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Subpart B of Part 238—Example of a Multi-Level Car Complying with...

  8. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113 and...

  9. Multi-level communication of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via tunneling nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierk Wittig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs may offer a very specific and effective way of intercellular communication. Here we investigated TNTs in the human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell line ARPE-19. Morphology of TNTs was examined by immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the function of TNTs between cells, we studied the TNT-dependent intercellular communication at different levels including electrical and calcium signalling, small molecular diffusion as well as mitochondrial re-localization. Further, intercellular organelles transfer was assayed by FACS analysis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microscopy showed that cultured ARPE-19 cells are frequently connected by TNTs, which are not attached to the substratum. The TNTs were straight connections between cells, had a typical diameter of 50 to 300 nm and a length of up to 120 µm. We observed de novo formation of TNTs by diverging from migrating cells after a short time of interaction. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed characteristic features of TNTs. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TNTs between ARPE-19 cells contain F-actin but no microtubules. Depolymerisation of F-actin, induced by addition of latrunculin-B, led to disappearance of TNTs. Importantly, these TNTs could function as channels for the diffusion of small molecules such as Lucifer Yellow, but not for large molecules like Dextran Red. Further, organelle exchange between cells via TNTs was observed by microscopy. Using Ca²⁺ imaging we show the intercellular transmission of calcium signals through TNTs. Mechanical stimulation led to membrane depolarisation, which expand through TNT connections between ARPE-19 cells. We further demonstrate that TNTs can mediate electrical coupling between distant cells. Immunolabelling for Cx43 showed that this gap junction protein is interposed at one end of 44% of TNTs between ARPE-19 cells. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations indicate that

  10. A comparative analysis of multi-level computer-assisted decision making systems for traumatic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Toan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper focuses on the creation of a predictive computer-assisted decision making system for traumatic injury using machine learning algorithms. Trauma experts must make several difficult decisions based on a large number of patient attributes, usually in a short period of time. The aim is to compare the existing machine learning methods available for medical informatics, and develop reliable, rule-based computer-assisted decision-making systems that provide recommendations for the course of treatment for new patients, based on previously seen cases in trauma databases. Datasets of traumatic brain injury (TBI patients are used to train and test the decision making algorithm. The work is also applicable to patients with traumatic pelvic injuries. Methods Decision-making rules are created by processing patterns discovered in the datasets, using machine learning techniques. More specifically, CART and C4.5 are used, as they provide grammatical expressions of knowledge extracted by applying logical operations to the available features. The resulting rule sets are tested against other machine learning methods, including AdaBoost and SVM. The rule creation algorithm is applied to multiple datasets, both with and without prior filtering to discover significant variables. This filtering is performed via logistic regression prior to the rule discovery process. Results For survival prediction using all variables, CART outperformed the other machine learning methods. When using only significant variables, neural networks performed best. A reliable rule-base was generated using combined C4.5/CART. The average predictive rule performance was 82% when using all variables, and approximately 84% when using significant variables only. The average performance of the combined C4.5 and CART system using significant variables was 89.7% in predicting the exact outcome (home or rehabilitation, and 93.1% in predicting the ICU length of stay for

  11. A multi-level capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on a nano-scale strained silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jea-Gun; Kim, Seong-Je; Shin, Mi-Hee; Song, Seung-Hyun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Chung, Sung-Woong; Enomoto, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    A multi-level capacitor-less memory cell was fabricated with a fully depleted n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor on a nano-scale strained silicon channel on insulator (FD sSOI n-MOSFET). The 0.73% biaxial tensile strain in the silicon channel of the FD sSOI n-MOSFET enhanced the effective electron mobility to ∼ 1.7 times that with an unstrained silicon channel. This thereby enables both front- and back-gate cell operations, demonstrating eight-level volatile memory-cell operation with a 1 ms retention time and 12 μA memory margin. This is a step toward achieving a terabit volatile memory cell.

  12. Development of an alarm analysis system based on multi-level flow models for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiande; Yang Ming; Zhang Zhijian

    2008-01-01

    An alarm analysis system based on Multi-level Flow Models (MFM) was developed for a PWR NPP. By automatically identifying the primary root causes in complex fault situations, the workload of the operators can be reduced. In addition, because MFM also provides a set of graphical symbols that implies causalities, operators can confirm diagnosis results by semiotic analysis, and hence the understandability of the process of alarm analysis as well as the reliability of maintenance task can be increased. 19 cases of simulation data from RELAP5/MOD2 code were utilized for evaluating the performance of the proposed system. The simulation results show that the proposed alarm analysis system has a good ability to detect and diagnose accidents earlier in time before reactor trip. (authors)

  13. FGP Approach for Solving Multi-level Multi-objective Quadratic Fractional Programming Problem with Fuzzy parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m. s. osman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider fuzzy goal programming (FGP approach for solving multi-level multi-objective quadratic fractional programming (ML-MOQFP problem with fuzzy parameters in the constraints. Firstly, the concept of the ?-cut approach is applied to transform the set of fuzzy constraints into a common deterministic one. Then, the quadratic fractional objective functions in each level are transformed into quadratic objective functions based on a proposed transformation. Secondly, the FGP approach is utilized to obtain a compromise solution for the ML-MOQFP problem by minimizing the sum of the negative deviational variables. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability and performance of the proposed approach.

  14. The design of multi-core DSP parallel model based on message passing and multi-level pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jingyu; Hu, Jian; He, Wenjing; Meng, Fanrong; Li, Chuanrong

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the design of embedded signal processing system is often based on a specific application, but this idea is not conducive to the rapid development of signal processing technology. In this paper, a parallel processing model architecture based on multi-core DSP platform is designed, and it is mainly suitable for the complex algorithms which are composed of different modules. This model combines the ideas of multi-level pipeline parallelism and message passing, and summarizes the advantages of the mainstream model of multi-core DSP (the Master-Slave model and the Data Flow model), so that it has better performance. This paper uses three-dimensional image generation algorithm to validate the efficiency of the proposed model by comparing with the effectiveness of the Master-Slave and the Data Flow model.

  15. Teaching a Large Multi-Level Class Using Different Strategies and Activities to Motivate English Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sevy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English language skills, specifically grammar and sentence structure. These strategies include group work, task-based learning, the inverted or flipped classroom, role-play and intrinsic learning. The author explains how these strategies work in a specific group of university pupils in Ecuador to overcome these specific problems in a classroom, but without student participation they can be flawed.

  16. Electrically-controlled nonlinear switching and multi-level storage characteristics in WOx film-based memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Wang, J. B.; Zhong, X. L.

    2018-05-01

    Resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) is considered as a promising candidate for the next generation memory due to its scalability, high integration density and non-volatile storage characteristics. Here, the multiple electrical characteristics in Pt/WOx/Pt cells are investigated. Both of the nonlinear switching and multi-level storage can be achieved by setting different compliance current in the same cell. The correlations among the current, time and temperature are analyzed by using contours and 3D surfaces. The switching mechanism is explained in terms of the formation and rupture of conductive filament which is related to oxygen vacancies. The experimental results show that the non-stoichiometric WOx film-based device offers a feasible way for the applications of oxide-based RRAMs.

  17. Do places matter? A multi-level analysis of regional variations in health-related behaviour in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C; Jones, K; Moon, G

    1993-09-01

    A number of commentators have argued that there is a distinctive geography of health-related behaviour. Behaviour has to be understood not only in terms of individual characteristics, but also in relation to local cultures. Places matter, and the context in which behaviour takes place is crucial for understanding and policy. Previous empirical research has been unable to operationalize these ideas and take simultaneous account of both individual compositional and aggregate contextual factors. The present paper addresses this shortcoming through a multi-level analysis of smoking and drinking behaviours recorded in a large-scale national survey. It suggests that place, expressed as regional differences, may be less important than previously implied.

  18. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  19. Morphometric study of the Habo dome, Kachchh, Gujarat, India: implications on neotectonic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, N.; Mohanty, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Kachchh Basin of western India was developed during the separation of the Indian plate from the Gondwanaland in Mesozoic. Series of E-W striking master faults were generated during this extensional phase. The collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates in Eocene time resulted in the change of stress regime to a compressional setting when the built-up stress developed NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW striking transverse faults and reactivated the earlier E-W master faults. The present work was carried out in the Habo dome, located in the central part of the Kachchh Basin, to analyse the morphometric features such as the bifurcation ratio, circulation ratio, drainage texture, asymmetric factor, hypsometric indices and mountain front sinuosity of selected sub-watersheds of the area to understand the effects of fault reactivation and neotectonic activities on the geometry of the dome. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were used to extract drainage network for morphometric analysis of the Kaswati, Khari, and Pur river basins. The study area is elliptical in outline with the long axis trending approximately E-W. The evolution of this domal structure is interpreted to be the result of fault-bound nature of the block. The northern slope of the dome is bound by the Kachchh Mainland Fault and the eastern and western boundaries are marked by transverse faults. The undulating topography was developed by differential movements along several transverse faults striking NW-SE, N-S, and NE-SW. The earlier interpretation of laccolith intrusion into the sedimentary rocks is not supported by the data analysis and field mapping. Stress propagations from the Himalayan range in the northeast and Sulaiman range in the northwest are identified to be the causative factor for historical seismicity and drainage anomalies in the area. Keywords: Basin morphometry, Geographical Information System, Lineament patterns, Kachchh basin, Neotectonics, Fault reactivation

  20. Heritability of face shape in twins: a preliminary study using 3D stereophotogrammetry and geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M. Weinberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable.  Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape.  In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods: 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic.  Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis.  This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis.  The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results: Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions: Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation.

  1. The Use of Biosimulation in the Design of a Novel Multi-level Weight Loss Maintenance Program for Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Van Buren, Dorothy J.; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Ezzet, Farkad; Russian, Angela C.; Perri, Michael G.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Weight loss outcomes achieved through conventional behavior change interventions are prone to deterioration over time. Basic learning laboratory studies in the area of behavioral extinction and renewal and multi-level models of weight control offer clues as to why newly acquired weight loss skills are prone to relapse. According to these models, current clinic-based interventions may not be of sufficient duration or scope to allow for the practice of new skills across the multiple community contexts necessary to promote sustainable weight loss. Although longer, more intensive interventions with greater reach may hold the key to improving weight loss outcomes, it is difficult to test these assumptions in a time efficient and cost-effective manner. A research design tool that has been increasingly utilized in other fields (e.g., pharmaceuticals) is the use of biosimulation analyses. The present paper describes our research team's use of computer simulation models to assist in designing a study to test a novel, comprehensive socio-environmental treatment approach to weight loss maintenance in children ages 7 to 12 years. Methods Weight outcome data from the weight loss, weight maintenance, and follow-up phases of a recently completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) were used to describe the time course of a proposed, extended multi-level treatment program. Simulations were then conducted to project the expected changes in child percent overweight trajectories in the proposed study. Results A 12.9% decrease in percent overweight at 30 months was estimated based upon the midway point between models of “best-case” and “worst-case” weight maintenance scenarios. Conclusions Preliminary data and further analyses, including biosimulation projections, suggest that our socio-environmental approach to weight loss maintenance treatment is promising and warrants evaluation in a large-scale RCT. Biosimulation techniques may have utility in the design of future

  2. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Schilpzand

    Full Text Available While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics.Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012. For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences.Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p < 0.001, consented to participate (71% versus 56%; p < 0.001, agreed to teacher participation (90% versus 82%; p < 0.001 and agreed to follow-up contact (91% versus 80%; p < 0.001. Fewer cohort 2 parents required reminders (52% versus 63%; p < 0.001, and cohort 2 parents responded more promptly than cohort 1 parents (mean difference: 19.4 days, 95% CI: 18.0 to 20.9, p < 0.001.These results illustrate the value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  3. Optimizing survivability of multi-state systems with multi-level protection by multi-processor genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Dai Yuanshun; Xie Min; Leng Poh, Kim

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider vulnerable systems which can have different states corresponding to different combinations of available elements composing the system. Each state can be characterized by a performance rate, which is the quantitative measure of a system's ability to perform its task. Both the impact of external factors (stress) and internal causes (failures) affect system survivability, which is determined as probability of meeting a given demand. In order to increase the survivability of the system, a multi-level protection is applied to its subsystems. This means that a subsystem and its inner level of protection are in their turn protected by the protection of an outer level. This double-protected subsystem has its outer protection and so forth. In such systems, the protected subsystems can be destroyed only if all of the levels of their protection are destroyed. Each level of protection can be destroyed only if all of the outer levels of protection are destroyed. We formulate the problem of finding the structure of series-parallel multi-state system (including choice of system elements, choice of structure of multi-level protection and choice of protection methods) in order to achieve a desired level of system survivability by the minimal cost. An algorithm based on the universal generating function method is used for determination of the system survivability. A multi-processor version of genetic algorithm is used as optimization tool in order to solve the structure optimization problem. An application example is presented to illustrate the procedure presented in this paper

  4. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  5. The Inappropriate Symmetries of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Geometric Morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L

    In today's geometric morphometrics the commonest multivariate statistical procedures, such as principal component analysis or regressions of Procrustes shape coordinates on Centroid Size, embody a tacit roster of symmetries -axioms concerning the homogeneity of the multiple spatial domains or descriptor vectors involved-that do not correspond to actual biological fact. These techniques are hence inappropriate for any application regarding which we have a-priori biological knowledge to the contrary (e.g., genetic/morphogenetic processes common to multiple landmarks, the range of normal in anatomy atlases, the consequences of growth or function for form). But nearly every morphometric investigation is motivated by prior insights of this sort. We therefore need new tools that explicitly incorporate these elements of knowledge, should they be quantitative, to break the symmetries of the classic morphometric approaches. Some of these are already available in our literature but deserve to be known more widely: deflated (spatially adaptive) reference distributions of Procrustes coordinates, Sewall Wright's century-old variant of factor analysis, the geometric algebra of importing explicit biomechanical formulas into Procrustes space. Other methods, not yet fully formulated, might involve parameterized models for strain in idealized forms under load, principled approaches to the separation of functional from Brownian aspects of shape variation over time, and, in general, a better understanding of how the formalism of landmarks interacts with the many other approaches to quantification of anatomy. To more powerfully organize inferences from the high-dimensional measurements that characterize so much of today's organismal biology, tomorrow's toolkit must rely neither on principal component analysis nor on the Procrustes distance formula, but instead on sound prior biological knowledge as expressed in formulas whose coefficients are not all the same. I describe the problems

  6. Morphometric analysis of cinder cones on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): results and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doniz Paez, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied morphometric to the cinder cones of Tenerife. The technical morphometric allows to establish simple models of morphology, and size to the most frequent volcanoes of Tenerife's mafic volcanism. The obtained classification allow to distinguish four morphological types of scoria cones and three size groups, which is also extended to other volcanic regions. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Multi level marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis on "Multilevel marketing" focuses on characterization of multilevel marketing, pyramid schemes and their comparison. The work is divided into three chapters. The first part is devoted to the theme of multilevel marketing and principles of its operation. The main positives and negatives of this system are marked out. The second chapter describes pyramid schemes, their functioning, unsustainability and illegality. It is also devoted to Ponzi scheme. In the last chapter the cha...

  8. Flowering calendar and morphometric features of pollen for some invasive species in the Middle Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradova Yulia

    2016-12-01

    Clinical experiments for widely distributed alien Asteraceae (Helianthus tuberosus, Symphyotrichum × salignum, S. novae-angliae, Solidago spp., etc. should be made. It is necessary to determine their ability to cause allergic reactions, because their pollen has echinate exine, similar with closely related species, which already recognized as the source of allergy.

  9. Morphometric MRI features are associated with surgical outcome in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho; Gaça, Larissa Botelho; Sandim, Gabriel Barbosa; Assunção Leme, Idaiane Batista; Carrete, Henrique; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sato, João Ricardo; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2017-05-01

    Corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) improves seizure control, quality of life, and decreases mortality for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). One-third of patients continue having seizures, and it is pivotal to determine structural abnormalities that might influence the postoperative outcome. Studies indicate that nonhippocampal regions may play a role in the epileptogenic network in MTLE-HS and could generate seizures postoperatively. The aim of this study is to analyze areas of atrophy, not always detected on routine MRI, comparing patients who became seizure free (SF) with those non seizure free (NSF) after CAH, in an attempt to establish possible predictors of surgical outcome. 105 patients with refractory MTLE-HS submitted to CAH (59 left MTLE; 46 males) and 47 controls were enrolled. FreeSurfer was performed for cortical thickness and volume estimation comparing patients to controls and SF versus NSF patients. The final sample after post processing procedures resulted in 99 patients. Cortical thickness analyses showed reductions in left insula in NSF patients compared to those SF. Significant volume reductions in SF patients were present in bilateral thalami, hippocampi and pars opercularis, left parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal pole. In NSF patients reductions were present bilaterally in thalami, hippocampi, entorhinal cortices, superior frontal and supramarginal gyri; on the left: superior and middle temporal gyri, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, pars opercularis and middle frontal gyrus; and on the right: precentral, superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri. Comparison between SF and NSF patients showed ipsilateral gray matter reductions in the right entorhinal cortex (p=0.003) and contralateral parahippocampal gyrus (p=0.05) in right MTLE-HS. Patients NSF had a longer duration of epilepsy than those SF (p=0.028). NSF patients exhibited more extensive areas of atrophy than SF ones. As entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus are reduced in NSF patients compared to those SF these structures might be implicated in the network responsible for the maintenance of postoperative seizures. Duration of epilepsy is a predictor of seizure outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphometric analysis of the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radunović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optic nerve is anatomically observed in four segments: intrabulbar, orbital, canalicular, and cranial. According to the literature, the surface of the transversal cut of the nerve is different through it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve, throughout its three segments from the eye. Methods. Five pairs of optic nerves, obtained from the autopsies were examined. Using Heidenhain's (azan staining, the cuts were prepared for microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed using the stereological methods for morphometric cytology - the Weible’s testing system M42. The following measures were established: the surface of the transverse cut of the nerve, the entire surface of fasciculi, the entire surface of connective tissue and blood vessels, the number of fasciculi, the surface of a single fasciculus. Results. The surface of the transverse cut of the nerve was found to grow from the orbital to the cranial segment, as well as the entire surface of fasciculi. While their number is significantly lower in the cranial segment, the number of fasciculi varied slightly between the orbital and the canalicular segment. The surface of a single fasciculus grows from the bulb to the chiasma. There is probable a cause to believe that this may be due to fusion of the “small” fasciculi in the orbitocranial direction. Conclusion. There are significant differences among the examined parameters of the different parts of the optic nerve.

  11. Sex determination from the frontal bone: a geometric morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaza, Néstor A

    2014-09-01

    Sex estimation in human skeletal remains when using the cranium through traditional methods is a fundamental pillar in human identification; however, it may be possible to incur in a margin of error due because of the state of preservation in incomplete or fragmented remains. The aim of this investigation was sex estimation through the geometric morphometric analysis of the frontal bone. The sample employed 60 lateral radiographs of adult subjects of both sexes (30 males and 30 females), aged between 18 and 40 years, with mean age for males of 28 ± 4 and 30 ± 6 years for females. Thin-plate splines evidenced strong expansion of the glabellar region in males and contraction in females. No significant differences were found between sexes with respect to size. The findings suggest differences in shape and size in the glabellar region, besides reaffirming the use of geometric morphometrics as a quantitative method in sex estimation. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Applications of wavelets in morphometric analysis of medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Tao, Xiaodong; Shen, Dinggang

    2003-11-01

    Morphometric analysis of medical images is playing an increasingly important role in understanding brain structure and function, as well as in understanding the way in which these change during development, aging and pathology. This paper presents three wavelet-based methods with related applications in morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. The first method handles cases where very limited datasets are available for the training of statistical shape models in the deformable segmentation. The method is capable of capturing a larger range of shape variability than the standard active shape models (ASMs) can, by using the elegant spatial-frequency decomposition of the shape contours provided by wavelet transforms. The second method addresses the difficulty of finding correspondences in anatomical images, which is a key step in shape analysis and deformable registration. The detection of anatomical correspondences is completed by using wavelet-based attribute vectors as morphological signatures of voxels. The third method uses wavelets to characterize the morphological measurements obtained from all voxels in a brain image, and the entire set of wavelet coefficients is further used to build a brain classifier. Since the classification scheme operates in a very-high-dimensional space, it can determine subtle population differences with complex spatial patterns. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

  13. EVOLUTION OF MORPHOMETRIC MEASURES IN THE MANGALARGA MARCHADOR BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANO MARTINS SANTIAGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangalarga Marchador breed accounts for the largest horse herd in Brazil and has been experiencing national and international expansion. Nevertheless, there is little scientific production on the evolution of this breed and there are no studies on the morphometric transformations that took place during its formation. In this context, the present study aimed to assess the evolution in morphometric measures of the Mangalarga Marchador breed between 1970 and 2010. The research used information archived at the Brazilian Association of Mangalarga Marchador Breeders from 23,148 males and 92,980 females in a completely randomized experimental design. The six treatments consisted of the animals measured between 1970 and 1979, 1980 and 1989, 1990 and 1994, 1995 and 1999, 2000 and 2004, and 2005 and 2010, respectively. The measures assessed were: height at withers and croup, length of the head, neck, back, croup, shoulder, and body, width of the head and croup, thoracic circumference, and cannon circumference Over the period analyzed, males and females experienced a reduction in thoracic circumference, in the lengths of the head, back, croup, and shoulder, and in the widths of the head and croup. In the males, neck length and cannon circumference also decreased, while body length increased in females. Over time, breed selection led to smaller head, higher stature, and shorter trunk length. However, important measures for the breed’s functionality, such as shoulder length and thoracic circumference, decreased.

  14. The learner’s perspective in GP teaching practices with multi-level learners: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students, junior hospital doctors on rotation and general practice (GP) registrars are undertaking their training in clinical general practices in increasing numbers in Australia. Some practices have four levels of learner. This study aimed to explore how multi-level teaching (also called vertical integration of GP education and training) is occurring in clinical general practice and the impact of such teaching on the learner. Methods A qualitative research methodology was used with face-to-face, semi-structured interviews of medical students, junior hospital doctors, GP registrars and GP teachers in eight training practices in the region that taught all levels of learners. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted using thematic analysis techniques aided by the use of the software package N-Vivo 9. Primary themes were identified and categorised by the co-investigators. Results 52 interviews were completed and analysed. Themes were identified relating to both the practice learning environment and teaching methods used. A practice environment where there is a strong teaching culture, enjoyment of learning, and flexible learning methods, as well as learning spaces and organised teaching arrangements, all contribute to positive learning from a learners’ perspective. Learners identified a number of innovative teaching methods and viewed them as positive. These included multi-level learner group tutorials in the practice, being taught by a team of teachers, including GP registrars and other health professionals, and access to a supernumerary GP supervisor (also termed “GP consultant teacher”). Other teaching methods that were viewed positively were parallel consulting, informal learning and rural hospital context integrated learning. Conclusions Vertical integration of GP education and training generally impacted positively on all levels of learner. This research has provided further evidence about the

  15. Optimized ONO thickness for multi-level and 2-bit/cell operation for wrapped-select-gate (WSG) SONOS memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Woei-Cherng; Chao, Tien-Sheng; Yang, Tsung-Yu; Peng, Wu-Chin; Yang, Wen-Luh; Chen, Jian-Hao; Ma, Ming Wen; Lai, Chao-Sung; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Liou, Jhyy Cheng; Chen, Tzu Ping; Chen, Chien Hung; Lin, Chih Hung; Chen, Hwi Huang; Ko, Joe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, highly reliable wrapped-select-gate (WSG) silicon–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon (SONOS) memory cells with multi-level and 2-bit/cell operation have been successfully demonstrated. The source-side injection mechanism for WSG-SONOS memory with different ONO thickness was thoroughly investigated. The different programming efficiencies of the WSG-SONOS memory under different ONO thicknesses are explained by the lateral electrical field extracted from the simulation results. Furthermore, multi-level storage is easily obtained, and good V TH distribution presented, for the WSG-SONOS memory with optimized ONO thickness. High program/erase speed (10 µs/5 ms) and low programming current (3.5 µA) are used to achieve the multi-level operation with tolerable gate and drain disturbance, negligible second-bit effect, excellent data retention and good endurance performance

  16. Homo floresiensis contextualized: a geometric morphometric comparative analysis of fossil and pathological human samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Baab

    Full Text Available The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism ("cretinism" and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity. This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1 is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo.

  17. Homo floresiensis Contextualized: A Geometric Morphometric Comparative Analysis of Fossil and Pathological Human Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baab, Karen L.; McNulty, Kieran P.; Harvati, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus) migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism (“cretinism”) and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity). This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1) is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo. PMID:23874886

  18. A multi-level, multi-jurisdictional strategy: Transnational tobacco companies' attempts to obstruct tobacco packaging restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; Mackinder, Sophie

    2018-03-09

    Despite the extensive literature on the tobacco industry, there has been little attempt to study how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) coordinate their political activities globally, or to theorise TTC strategies within the context of global governance structures and policy processes. This article draws on three concepts from political science - policy transfer, multi-level governance and venue shifting - to analyse TTCs' integrated, global strategies to oppose augmented packaging requirements across multiple jurisdictions. Following Uruguay's introduction of extended labelling requirements, Australia became the first country in the world to require tobacco products to be sold in standardised ('plain') packaging in 2012. Governments in the European Union, including in the United Kingdom and Ireland, adopted similar laws, with other member states due to follow. TTCs vehemently opposed these measures and developed coordinated, global strategies to oppose their implementation, exploiting the complexity of contemporary global governance arrangements. These included a series of legal challenges in various jurisdictions, alongside political lobbying and public relations campaigns. This article draws on analysis of public documents and 32 semi-structured interviews with key policy actors. It finds that TTCs developed coordinated and highly integrated strategies to oppose packaging restrictions across multiple jurisdictions and levels of governance.

  19. Multi-Level Family Factors and Affective and Behavioral Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.

  20. Genome Partitioner: A web tool for multi-level partitioning of large-scale DNA constructs for synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Matthias; Del Medico, Luca; Christen, Heinz; Christen, Beat

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in lower-cost DNA synthesis techniques have enabled new innovations in the field of synthetic biology. Still, efficient design and higher-order assembly of genome-scale DNA constructs remains a labor-intensive process. Given the complexity, computer assisted design tools that fragment large DNA sequences into fabricable DNA blocks are needed to pave the way towards streamlined assembly of biological systems. Here, we present the Genome Partitioner software implemented as a web-based interface that permits multi-level partitioning of genome-scale DNA designs. Without the need for specialized computing skills, biologists can submit their DNA designs to a fully automated pipeline that generates the optimal retrosynthetic route for higher-order DNA assembly. To test the algorithm, we partitioned a 783 kb Caulobacter crescentus genome design. We validated the partitioning strategy by assembling a 20 kb test segment encompassing a difficult to synthesize DNA sequence. Successful assembly from 1 kb subblocks into the 20 kb segment highlights the effectiveness of the Genome Partitioner for reducing synthesis costs and timelines for higher-order DNA assembly. The Genome Partitioner is broadly applicable to translate DNA designs into ready to order sequences that can be assembled with standardized protocols, thus offering new opportunities to harness the diversity of microbial genomes for synthetic biology applications. The Genome Partitioner web tool can be accessed at https://christenlab.ethz.ch/GenomePartitioner.

  1. Genome Partitioner: A web tool for multi-level partitioning of large-scale DNA constructs for synthetic biology applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Christen

    Full Text Available Recent advances in lower-cost DNA synthesis techniques have enabled new innovations in the field of synthetic biology. Still, efficient design and higher-order assembly of genome-scale DNA constructs remains a labor-intensive process. Given the complexity, computer assisted design tools that fragment large DNA sequences into fabricable DNA blocks are needed to pave the way towards streamlined assembly of biological systems. Here, we present the Genome Partitioner software implemented as a web-based interface that permits multi-level partitioning of genome-scale DNA designs. Without the need for specialized computing skills, biologists can submit their DNA designs to a fully automated pipeline that generates the optimal retrosynthetic route for higher-order DNA assembly. To test the algorithm, we partitioned a 783 kb Caulobacter crescentus genome design. We validated the partitioning strategy by assembling a 20 kb test segment encompassing a difficult to synthesize DNA sequence. Successful assembly from 1 kb subblocks into the 20 kb segment highlights the effectiveness of the Genome Partitioner for reducing synthesis costs and timelines for higher-order DNA assembly. The Genome Partitioner is broadly applicable to translate DNA designs into ready to order sequences that can be assembled with standardized protocols, thus offering new opportunities to harness the diversity of microbial genomes for synthetic biology applications. The Genome Partitioner web tool can be accessed at https://christenlab.ethz.ch/GenomePartitioner.

  2. Multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading among women living with HIV in Kazakhstan: A neglected key population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Primbetova, Sholpan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Bilokon, Yelena; Chubukova, Lyubov; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days. Women who reported recent sex trading were more likely than women who did not trade sex in the past 90 days to experience intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.73), to have been homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.19-14.29), and to know or suspect a male partner had a sexually transmitted infection (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07-4.53), had sex with another partner (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.25-9.14), or injected drugs in the past year (AOR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.64-6.65). These findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention and intervention programs that address the multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading for women infected with HIV.

  3. Progress and challenges in the development and qualification of multi-level multi-physics coupled methodologies for reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.; Avramova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Current trends in nuclear power generation and regulation as well as the design of next generation reactor concepts along with the continuing computer technology progress stimulate the development, qualification and application of multi-physics multi-scale coupled code systems. The efforts have been focused on extending the analysis capabilities by coupling models, which simulate different phenomena or system components, as well as on refining the scale and level of detail of the coupling. This paper reviews the progress made in this area and outlines the remaining challenges. The discussion is illustrated with examples based on neutronics/thermohydraulics coupling in the reactor core modeling. In both fields recent advances and developments are towards more physics-based high-fidelity simulations, which require implementation of improved and flexible coupling methodologies. First, the progresses in coupling of different physics codes along with the advances in multi-level techniques for coupled code simulations are discussed. Second, the issues related to the consistent qualification of coupled multi-physics and multi-scale code systems for design and safety evaluation are presented. The increased importance of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are discussed along with approaches to propagate the uncertainty quantification between the codes. The incoming OECD LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) benchmark is the first international activity to address this issue and it is described in the paper. Finally, the remaining challenges with multi-physics coupling are outlined. (authors)

  4. Multi-level lobbying in the EU: The case of the Renewables Directive and the German energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydersbond, Inga Margrete

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the lobbying strategies employed by the interest organizations of Germany's energy industries in the process leading up to the EU's Renewable Energy Directive. How did they lobby, and what does this reveal about their perceptions of power relations in the EU? This report focuses on the most controversial part of the Directive: legal prescriptions for support mechanisms to increase the production of renewable energy in Europe. The utilities and the renewables industries disagreed deeply, with the utilities industry favouring an EU-wide green certificate scheme, while the renewables industry pressed for national feed-in tariffs. Nine interest organizations representing these sectors, five German and four at the EU level, serve as cases in this study. Expectations as to lobbying behaviour based on the two theories/theory perspectives of liberal intergovernmentalism (LI) and multi-level governance (MLG) are formulated and tested in a most-likely case design. Result: observations are better described by the MLG perspective than by LI.(auth)

  5. Multi-level comparison of empathy in schizophrenia: an fMRI study of a cartoon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Kang, Do Hyung; Kim, Chi-Won; Gu, Bon Mi; Park, Ji-Young; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Shin, Na Young; Lee, Jong-Min; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-02-28

    Empathy deficits might play a role in social dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the neuroanatomical underpinnings of the subcomponents of empathy in schizophrenia. This study investigated the hemodynamic responses to three subcomponents of empathy in patients with schizophrenia (N=15) and healthy volunteers (N=18), performing an empathy cartoon task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The experiment used a block design with four conditions: cognitive, emotional, and inhibitory empathy, and physical causality control. Data were analyzed by comparing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal activation between the two groups. The cognitive empathy condition activated the right temporal pole to a lesser extent in the patient group than in comparison subjects. In the emotional and inhibitory conditions, the patients showed greater activation in the left insula and in the right middle/inferior frontal cortex, respectively. These findings add to our understanding of the impaired empathy in patients with schizophrenia by identifying a multi-level cortical dysfunction that underlies a deficit in each subcomponent of empathy and highlighting the importance of the fronto-temporal cortical network in ability to empathize. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributed multi-level supervision to effectively monitor the operations of a fleet of autonomous vehicles in agricultural tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-03-05

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  7. Progress and challenges in the development and qualification of multi-level multi-physics coupled methodologies for reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K.; Avramova, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Current trends in nuclear power generation and regulation as well as the design of next generation reactor concepts along with the continuing computer technology progress stimulate the development, qualification and application of multi-physics multi-scale coupled code systems. The efforts have been focused on extending the analysis capabilities by coupling models, which simulate different phenomena or system components, as well as on refining the scale and level of detail of the coupling. This paper reviews the progress made in this area and outlines the remaining challenges. The discussion is illustrated with examples based on neutronics/thermohydraulics coupling in the reactor core modeling. In both fields recent advances and developments are towards more physics-based high-fidelity simulations, which require implementation of improved and flexible coupling methodologies. First, the progresses in coupling of different physics codes along with the advances in multi-level techniques for coupled code simulations are discussed. Second, the issues related to the consistent qualification of coupled multi-physics and multi-scale code systems for design and safety evaluation are presented. The increased importance of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are discussed along with approaches to propagate the uncertainty quantification between the codes. The incoming OECD LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) benchmark is the first international activity to address this issue and it is described in the paper. Finally, the remaining challenges with multi-physics coupling are outlined. (authors)

  8. A multi-level hierarchic Markov process with Bayesian updating for herd optimization and simulation in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, R M; Kristensen, A R; Dijkstra, J; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2011-12-01

    Herd optimization models that determine economically optimal insemination and replacement decisions are valuable research tools to study various aspects of farming systems. The aim of this study was to develop a herd optimization and simulation model for dairy cattle. The model determines economically optimal insemination and replacement decisions for individual cows and simulates whole-herd results that follow from optimal decisions. The optimization problem was formulated as a multi-level hierarchic Markov process, and a state space model with Bayesian updating was applied to model variation in milk yield. Methodological developments were incorporated in 2 main aspects. First, we introduced an additional level to the model hierarchy to obtain a more tractable and efficient structure. Second, we included a recently developed cattle feed intake model. In addition to methodological developments, new parameters were used in the state space model and other biological functions. Results were generated for Dutch farming conditions, and outcomes were in line with actual herd performance in the Netherlands. Optimal culling decisions were sensitive to variation in milk yield but insensitive to energy requirements for maintenance and feed intake capacity. We anticipate that the model will be applied in research and extension. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-focus and multi-level techniques for visualization and analysis of networks with thematic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, Michele; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Selker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Information-rich data sets bring several challenges in the areas of visualization and analysis, even when associated with node-link network visualizations. This paper presents an integration of multi-focus and multi-level techniques that enable interactive, multi-step comparisons in node-link networks. We describe NetEx, a visualization tool that enables users to simultaneously explore different parts of a network and its thematic data, such as time series or conditional probability tables. NetEx, implemented as a Cytoscape plug-in, has been applied to the analysis of electrical power networks, Bayesian networks, and the Enron e-mail repository. In this paper we briefly discuss visualization and analysis of the Enron social network, but focus on data from an electrical power network. Specifically, we demonstrate how NetEx supports the analytical task of electrical power system fault diagnosis. Results from a user study with 25 subjects suggest that NetEx enables more accurate isolation of complex faults compared to an especially designed software tool.

  10. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conesa-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  11. Multi-level Governance of Land Use Changes in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons from Paragominas, State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use governance in the Brazilian Amazon has undergone significant changes in the last decade. At the national level, law enforcement capacity has increased and downstream industries linked to commodity chains responsible for deforestation have begun to monitor some of their suppliers’ impacts on forests. At the municipal level, local actors have launched a Green Municipality initiative, aimed at eliminating deforestation and supporting green supply chains at the territorial level. In this paper, we analyze the land use transition since 2001 in Paragominas—the first Green Municipality—and discuss the limits of the governance arrangements underpinning these changes. Our work draws on a spatially explicit analysis of biophysical variables and qualitative information collected in interviews with key private and public stakeholders of the main commodity chains operating in the region. We argue that, up to now, the emerging multi-level scheme of land governance has not succeeded in promoting large-scale land use intensification, reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Moreover, private governance mechanisms based on improved product standards, fail to benefit from potential successful partnerships between the public and private sector at the territorial level. We propose a governance approach that adopts a broader territorial focus as a way forward.

  12. Analysing barriers to service improvement using a multi-level theory of innovation: the case of glaucoma outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Vasilakis, Christos; Utley, Martin; Foster, Paul; Kotecha, Aachal; Fulop, Naomi J

    2018-05-01

    The development and implementation of innovation by healthcare providers is understood as a multi-determinant and multi-level process. Theories at different analytical levels (i.e. micro and organisational) are needed to capture the processes that influence innovation by providers. This article combines a micro theory of innovation, actor-network theory, with organisational level processes using the 'resource based view of the firm'. It examines the influence of, and interplay between, innovation-seeking teams (micro) and underlying organisational capabilities (meso) during innovation processes. We used ethnographic methods to study service innovations in relation to ophthalmology services run by a specialist English NHS Trust at multiple locations. Operational research techniques were used to support the ethnographic methods by mapping the care process in the existing and redesigned clinics. Deficiencies in organisational capabilities for supporting innovation were identified, including manager-clinician relations and organisation-wide resources. The article concludes that actor-network theory can be combined with the resource-based view to highlight the influence of organisational capabilities on the management of innovation. Equally, actor-network theory helps to address the lack of theory in the resource-based view on the micro practices of implementing change. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  13. Research on multi-level decision game strategy of electricity sales market considering ETS and block chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjie

    2017-08-01

    In order to fully consider the impact of future policies and technologies on the electricity sales market, improve the efficiency of electricity market operation, realize the dual goal of power reform and energy saving and emission reduction, this paper uses multi-level decision theory to put forward the double-layer game model under the consideration of ETS and block chain. We set the maximization of electricity sales profit as upper level objective and establish a game strategy model of electricity purchase; while we set maximization of user satisfaction as lower level objective and build a choice behavior model based on customer satisfaction. This paper applies the strategy to the simulation of a sales company's transaction, and makes a horizontal comparison of the same industry competitors as well as a longitudinal comparison of game strategies considering different factors. The results show that Double-layer game model is reasonable and effective, it can significantly improve the efficiency of the electricity sales companies and user satisfaction, while promoting new energy consumption and achieving energy-saving emission reduction.

  14. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.

  15. Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT on COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN. The optimal HRT was 8 h; at that time, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were 83.8%, 86.3%, and 65%, respectively. The system also greatly reduced excess sludge production; the removal efficiency was 82.8% with a HRT of 8 h. The study applied high-throughput pyrosequencing technology to evaluate the microbial diversity and community structures in distinct stages of the biological reactor. The relevance between process performance and microbial community structure was analyzed at the phylum and class level. The abundant Firmicutes made a large contribution to improving the biodegradability of painting wastewater through hydrolysis acidification and reducing sludge production through fermentation in the biological reactor.

  16. Multi-level lobbying in the EU: The case of the Renewables Directive and the German energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydersbond, Inga Margrete

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the lobbying strategies employed by the interest organizations of Germany's energy industries in the process leading up to the EU's Renewable Energy Directive. How did they lobby, and what does this reveal about their perceptions of power relations in the EU? This report focuses on the most controversial part of the Directive: legal prescriptions for support mechanisms to increase the production of renewable energy in Europe. The utilities and the renewables industries disagreed deeply, with the utilities industry favouring an EU-wide green certificate scheme, while the renewables industry pressed for national feed-in tariffs. Nine interest organizations representing these sectors, five German and four at the EU level, serve as cases in this study. Expectations as to lobbying behaviour based on the two theories/theory perspectives of liberal intergovernmentalism (LI) and multi-level governance (MLG) are formulated and tested in a most-likely case design. Result: observations are better described by the MLG perspective than by LI.(auth)

  17. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859. Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.

  18. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  19. River modeling and multi-level fish health assessment to evaluate impacts from oil sands water releases (Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.; Swanson, S.M.; Lagimodiere, M.; Gulley, J.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-level, multi-scale approach was used to assess potential impacts to fish health from oil sands water releases. The method used to arrive at predicted impacts involved assembling experimental data on the effects of chronic exposure to oil sands wastewaters on biochemical, physiological and whole-organism endpoint. This information was used to determine no effect levels (NOELs) and lowest effect levels (LOELs) for the suite of fish health parameters used in laboratory experiments (primarily biochemical and physiological measurement endpoints). LOELs and NOELs were compared to modeled concentrations of wastewater in the Athabasca River for five time snapshots. For each time period, concentrations were predicted based on mean annual flows and 7Q10 flows (low flows). This comparison was used to predict impacts on biochemical/physiological endpoints. Impacts on at the whole-organism and population-level were determined by comparing what the laboratory data would predict with what was observed in the field. This process was used to draw a conclusion regarding the health and sustainability of fish populations

  20. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  1. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of four SMEs’ use of a multi-level participatory self-help intervention model (the PoWRS model – Prevention of Work Related Stress). The model itself supports a new view on prevention of work-related stress in the participating companies besides the concrete...... to explicate tacit knowledge about what creates enthusiasms and stress at the work place, Multi-voting which decided two work-related changes to be initiated, a KickOff session to mark the start-up of the actual changes, continuous interviews of colleagues by the in-house facilitators, and ongoing status...... be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME...

  2. Dealing with Multi-Level Governance and Wicked Problems in Urban Transportation Systems: The Case of Palermo Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Noto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian New Public Management (NPM has been mainly characterized by a political orientation toward power decentralization to local governments and privatization of public companies. Nowadays, local utilities in Italy are often run by joint stock companies controlled by public agencies such as Regional and Municipal Administrations. Due to this transformation, these companies must comply with a set of diverse expectations coming from a wide range of stakeholders, related to their financial, competitive and social performance. Such fragmented governance increases the presence of “wicked” problems in the decision-making sphere of these entities. Given this multi-level governance structure, how do these agents influence public services performance? In recent years, coordination and inter-institutional joint action have been identified as possible approaches for dealing with governance fragmentation and wicked problems deriving from it. How can we adapt a performance management perspective in order to help us reform the system and so have a better collaboration between the stakeholders involved? In order to address and discuss these research questions, a case study will be developed. The case concerns AMAT, the local utility providing the public transportation service in the Municipality of Palermo (Italy. The result of this study is a dynamic model including a set of performance indicators that help us in understanding the impact of the governing structure on the system’s performance.

  3. The effects of creep and recovery on the in vitro biomechanical characteristics of human multi-level thoracolumbar spinal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busscher, Iris; van Dieën, Jaap H; van der Veen, Albert J; Kingma, Idsart; Meijer, Gerdine J M; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Veldhuizen, Albert G

    2011-06-01

    Several physiological and pathological conditions in daily life cause sustained static bending or torsion loads on the spine resulting in creep of spinal segments. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creep and recovery on the range of motion, neutral zone, and neutral zone stiffness of thoracolumbar multi-level spinal segments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Six human cadaveric spines (age at time of death 55-84 years) were sectioned in T1-T4, T5-T8, T9-T12, and L1-L4 segments and prepared for testing. Moments were applied of +4 to -4 N m in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. This was repeated after 30 min of creep loading at 2 N m in the tested direction and after 30 min of recovery. Displacement of individual motion segments was measured using a 3D optical movement registration system. The range of motion, neutral zone, and neutral zone stiffness of the middle motion segments were calculated from the moment-angular displacement data. The range of motion increased significantly after creep in extension, lateral bending and axial rotation (Pcreep showed an increasing trend as well, and the neutral zone after flexion creep increased by on average 36% (Pcreep in axial rotation (Pcreep loading. This higher flexibility of the spinal segments may be a risk factor for potential spinal instability or injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. First metatarsophalangeal joint motion in Homo sapiens: theoretical association of two-axis kinematics and specific morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Michael N; McElroy, Tucker; Durrant, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The metatarsal head and proximal phalanx exhibit considerable asymmetry in their shape and geometry, but there is little documentation in the literature regarding the prevalence of structural characteristics that occur in a given population. Although there is a considerable volume of in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrating first metatarsal inversion around its longitudinal axis with dorsiflexion, little is known regarding the applicability of specific morphometrics to these motions. Nine distinctive osseous characteristics in the metatarsal head and phalanx were selected based on their location, geometry, and perceived functional relationship to previous studies describing metatarsal motion as inversion with dorsiflexion. The prevalences of the chosen characteristics were determined in a cohort of 21 randomly selected skeletal specimens, 19 of which were provided by the anatomical preparation office at the University of California, San Diego, and two of which were in the possession of one of us (M.D.). The frequency of occurrence of each selected morphological characteristic in this sample and the relevant summary statistics confirm a strong association between the selected features and a conceptual two-axis kinematic model of the metatarsophalangeal joint. The selected morphometrics are consistent with inversion of the metatarsal around its longitudinal axis as it dorsiflexes.

  5. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  6. Shaping up: a geometric morphometric approach to assemblage ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, L M; Piller, K R

    2015-09-01

    This study adopts an ecomorphological approach to test the utility of body shape as a predictor of niche relationships among a stream fish assemblage of the Tickfaw River (Lake Pontchartrain Basin) in southeastern Louisiana, U.S.A. To examine the potential influence of evolutionary constraints, analyses were performed with and without the influence of phylogeny. Fish assemblages were sampled throughout the year, and ecological data (habitat and tropic guild) and body shape (geometric morphometric) data were collected for each fish specimen. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine relationships and differences between body shape and ecological data. Results indicate that a relationship exists between body shape and trophic guild as well as flow regime, but no significant correlation between body shape and substratum was found. Body shape was a reliable indicator of position within assemblage niche space. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Morphometric comparison of pumpkinseed (Centrarchidae populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zięba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of morphometric differentiation between two populations of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus inhabiting distinctively different habitats in north-west Poland was examined. Fish were collected at sites that differ in water temperature and hydrology – an ambient temperature, urban pond vs an artificially-heated drainage channel, respectively. In principal component analysis, the first and second components, which accounted for 40% and 11 %, respectively, of the variability between the habitat types, revealed that the observed differences were related to head and body dimensions, with specimens from the heated site having generally larger heads, higher bodies, and longer anterior components. Larger body size is normally associated with greater survival in unnatural and highly variable environments. This study was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (decision No DEC-2011/01/D/NZ8/01807.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia: a morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Claudio Campi de

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 normal subjects were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging studies using a 1.5 T scanner. Axial and coronal T 2-weighted images were obtained. The volumes of the brain, intracranial, supratentorial, infratentorial and the total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometric methods. The volumes of the amygdala-hippocampus complex, para hippocampal gyrus cortex, putamen, globus pallidus, temporal lobe, gray and white matter of temporal lobe were also measured. These volumes were normalized using the intracranial volume as reference. The most relevant findings observed were reduced brain volume and increased total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes in patients with schizophrenia when compared to the controls. Patients with schizophrenia had also smaller amygdala-hippocampus complexes, temporal lobes and temporal lobe white matter than the controls, as well as increased putamen volumes. (author)

  9. Esophageal morphometric and biomechanical changes during aging in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    of the present study is to investigate the esophageal geometry and biomechanical changes during aging in rats. Materials and methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats, aged from 6 to 22 months, were used in the study. The body weight and the wet weight per length of esophageal segment were measured at the termination...... was found among 12, 18 and 22 months groups (p>0.05). The longitudinal stress-strain curves shifted from right to the left during aging (pstiffness has no obvious...... change after 12 months in the circumferential direction. Furthermore, we confirm that the esophagus was stiffer in the longitudinal direction than in the circumferential direction. Conclusions A pronounced morphometric and biomechanical remodeling was occurred in the rat esophagus during aging...

  10. Hydrological inferences through morphometric analysis of lower Kosi river basin of India for water resource management based on remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Chandel, Rajeev Singh; Mishra, Varun Narayan; Singh, Prafull

    2018-03-01

    Satellite based remote sensing technology has proven to be an effectual tool in analysis of drainage networks, study of surface morphological features and their correlation with groundwater management prospect at basin level. The present study highlights the effectiveness and advantage of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis for quantitative and qualitative assessment of flood plain region of lower Kosi river basin based on morphometric analysis. In this study, ASTER DEM is used to extract the vital hydrological parameters of lower Kosi river basin in ARC GIS software. Morphometric parameters, e.g., stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, etc., have been calculated for the Kosi basin and their hydrological inferences were discussed. Most of the morphometric parameters such as bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture concluded that basin has good prospect for water management program for various purposes and also generated data base that can provide scientific information for site selection of water-harvesting structures and flood management activities in the basin. Land use land cover (LULC) of the basin were also prepared from Landsat data of 2005, 2010 and 2015 to assess the change in dynamic of the basin and these layers are very noteworthy for further watershed prioritization.

  11. Correlation between three-dimensional power Doppler and morphometric measurement of endometrial vascularity at the time of embryo implantation in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Saravelos, Sotirios H; Liu, Yingyu; Huang, Jin; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu

    2017-06-01

    Power Doppler in combination with three-dimensional (3D-PD) ultrasonography has been used as a noninvasive tool to evaluate the vascularity. However, it is unclear whether 3D-PD can accurately reflect endometrial vascularization and replace the invasive endometrial biopsy. This study aims to investigate the correlation between 3D-PD and micro vessel morphometric measurement of endometrial vascularity. Twenty-five women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage were recruited for 3D-PD and endometrial biopsy on precisely day LH + 7. Immunohistochemistry using vWF was employed to identify micro vessels in endometrial biopsy specimens followed by the use of morphometric technique to measure the mean vessel diameter and volume fractions. The vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) assessed by 3D-PD were calculated for both the endometrial and sub-endometrial regions. There were no significant correlations between any of the ultrasonographic measurements (endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial VI/FI/VFI, sub-endometrial volume, sub-endometrial VI/FI/VFI) and morphometric features (number of micro vessel, mean diameter of micro vessel and volume fraction measurement of vessel). This study indicates that endometrial vascularity assessed by 3D-PD could not be used to reflect changes in micro vessels of the endometrium at the time of embryo implantation in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

  12. In Good Company? A Multi-Study, Multi-Level Investigation of the Effects of Coworker Relationships on Employee Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauren S.; Judge, Timothy A.; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Two multi-level studies were conducted to examine the effects of attitudes towards coworkers on daily well-being. Study 1 linked daily levels of coworker satisfaction to job satisfaction and life satisfaction and examined the extent to which job satisfaction mediated the relationship between coworker satisfaction and life satisfaction among 33…

  13. Effect of temperature and phonons on the spectral properties of a multi-level semiconductor quantum dot single-photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since it was realized that efficient quantum computing can be performed using single photons and standard linear optics elements, immense international research activity has been aimed at developing semiconductor quantum dot (QD) single-photon sources (SPS). In order to optimise the design of SPS...... us to study complicated multi-level QDs, not possible within the commonly used independent boson model (IBM)....

  14. The Role of School Culture and Basic Psychological Needs on Iranian Adolescents' Academic Alienation: A Multi-Level Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Hojjat; Brown, Monica R.; Amani Saribagloo, Javad; Dadashzadeh, Shiva

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this current research was a multi-level analysis of the relationship between school culture, basic psychological needs, and adolescents' academic alienation. One thousand twenty-nine (N = 1,029) high school students from Qom City were randomly selected through a multi-phase cluster sampling method and answered questions regarding…

  15. Multi-level risk factors for suicidal ideation among at-risk adolescent females : The role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giletta, M.; Calhoun, C.D.; Hastings, P.D.; Rudolph, K.D.; Nock, M.K.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological,

  16. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Leticia Rodrigues; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Cestari, Tania Mary; Taga, Rumio; Damante, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (Vt) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54+3.38x (r²=0.90). The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  17. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphometric characteristics of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oľga Grygorieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to determine morphometric differences of fruits between selected sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.. The 28 genotypes (referred as CS-01 to CS-28 were introduced by seeds from Czech Republic, Carpathians, Kyrgyzstan. Genotypes of sweet chestnut are grow more than 30 years in Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine. They are well adapted to the climatic and soil conditions. The fruits were collected at the period of their full maturity (September. The population differs in weight, shape, size and color of fruits. Their morphometric parameters were following: weight from 1.70 g (CS-26 to 18.60 g (CS-20, length from 8.07 mm (CS-28 to 33.39 mm (CS-11, width from 16.34 mm (CS-28 to 40.95 mm (CS-11, thickness from 9.02 mm (CS-26 to 28.70 mm (CS-11 and hilum length from 6.62 mm (CS-26 to 31.30 mm (CS-07, hilum width from 6.50 mm (CS-23 to 19.99 mm (CS-07. The shape index of the fruits was found in the range of 0.81 (CS-20 to 0.98 (CS-12. The shape index of the hilum was found in the range of 1.48 (CS-04 to 2.03 (CS-23. The outcome of the research point to the fact that the genepool Ukrainian sweet chestnut is a rich source of genetic diversity and might be used in selection for creation a new genotypes and cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  19. Morphometric findings in avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Diana; Trăistaru, Rodica; Alexandru, D O; Kamal, C K; Pirici, D; Pop, O T; Mălăescu, D Gh

    2012-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is an illness with a controversial etiology, the trigger event being the suppression of blood flow to the femoral head. The disease affects mostly young adults within their third and fifth decade, the majority of the patients being men. The main risk factors are trauma, chronic alcohol consumption, smoking, corticotherapy. The main goal of our study is to describe the morphometric changes found in the bone tissue of patients diagnosed with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, with different risk factors, by comparing the area of bone trabeculae inside the area of necrosis with that from the adjacent viable tissue. The morphometric study used biological material from 16 patients with ages between 29 and 57 years, who underwent surgery for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. They were admitted in the Orthopedics Department at the Emergency County Hospital in Craiova between 2010 and 2011 and were split into four groups. Group I presented trauma as the main risk factor, Group II had corticotherapy as the defining risk factor, Group III presented chronic alcohol consumption and Group IV was represented by the patients who smoked and exhibited chronic alcohol consumption. There was not a significant statistical difference between the areas of bone trabeculae of the four groups when we compared viable bone tissue to the necrotized one. Knowing the risk factors of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head is critical to the management of the disease, because diagnosing it in an early stage is a necessity for obtaining a good result for conservative treatment.

  1. Sequence-based genotyping clarifies conflicting historical morphometric and biological data for 5 Eimeria species infecting turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, S; Ogedengbe, M E; Hafeez, M A; Sayf-Al-Din, M; Gad, N; Barta, J R

    2015-02-01

    Unlike with Eimeria species infecting chickens, specific identification and nomenclature of Eimeria species infecting turkeys is complicated, and in the absence of molecular data, imprecise. In an attempt to reconcile contradictory data reported on oocyst morphometrics and biological descriptions of various Eimeria species infecting turkey, we established single oocyst derived lines of 5 important Eimeria species infecting turkeys, Eimeria meleagrimitis (USMN08-01 strain), Eimeria adenoeides (Guelph strain), Eimeria gallopavonis (Weybridge strain), Eimeria meleagridis (USAR97-01 strain), and Eimeria dispersa (Briston strain). Short portions (514 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mt COI) from each were amplified and sequenced. Comparison of these sequences showed sufficient species-specific sequence variation to recommend these short mt COI sequences as species-specific markers. Uniformity of oocyst features (dimensions and oocyst structure) of each pure line was observed. Additional morphological features of the oocysts of these species are described as useful for the microscopic differentiation of these Eimeria species. Combined molecular and morphometric data on these single species lines compared with the original species descriptions and more recent data have helped to clarify some confusing, and sometimes conflicting, features associated with these Eimeria spp. For example, these new data suggest that the KCH and KR strains of E. adenoeides reported previously represent 2 distinct species, E. adenoeides and E. meleagridis, respectively. Likewise, analysis of the Weybridge strain of E. adenoeides, which has long been used as a reference strain in various studies conducted on the pathogenicity of E. adenoeides, indicates that this coccidium is actually a strain of E. gallopavonis. We highly recommend mt COI sequence-based genotyping be incorporated into all studies using Eimeria spp. of turkeys to confirm species identifications and so

  2. Relationships between college settings and student alcohol use before, during and after events: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J; Saltz, Robert F

    2007-11-01

    We examined how alcohol risk is distributed based on college students' drinking before, during and after they go to certain settings. Students attending 14 California public universities (N=10,152) completed a web-based or mailed survey in the fall 2003 semester, which included questions about how many drinks they consumed before, during and after the last time they went to six settings/events: fraternity or sorority party, residence hall party, campus event (e.g. football game), off-campus party, bar/restaurant and outdoor setting (referent). Multi-level analyses were conducted in hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine relationships between type of setting and level of alcohol use before, during and after going to the setting, and possible age and gender differences in these relationships. Drinking episodes (N=24,207) were level 1 units, students were level 2 units and colleges were level 3 units. The highest drinking levels were observed during all settings/events except campus events, with the highest number of drinks being consumed at off-campus parties, followed by residence hall and fraternity/sorority parties. The number of drinks consumed before a fraternity/sorority party was higher than other settings/events. Age group and gender differences in relationships between type of setting/event and 'before,''during' and 'after' drinking levels also were observed. For example, going to a bar/restaurant (relative to an outdoor setting) was positively associated with 'during' drinks among students of legal drinking age while no relationship was observed for underage students. Findings of this study indicate differences in the extent to which college settings are associated with student drinking levels before, during and after related events, and may have implications for intervention strategies targeting different types of settings.

  3. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-09-23

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage

  4. Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: a multi-level cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlkvist, Eva; Hartig, Terry; Nilsson, Annika; Högberg, Hans; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Engström, Maria

    2016-09-01

    To test the relationship between greenery in gardens at residential facilities for older people and the self-perceived health of residents, mediated by experiences of being away and fascination when in the garden and the frequency of visitation there. To examine how these indirect effects vary with the number of physical barriers to visiting the garden. Many older people in residential facilities suffer from complex health problems. Access to a green outdoor environment may enable psychological distance, engage effortless attention, encourage more frequent visitation and promote resident health. A multi-level, cross-sectional, correlational design. Questionnaires were administered June-August, 2011 to convenience samples of residents at 72 facilities for older people with complex healthcare needs. One to 10 eligible residents were sampled during self-motivated garden visits at each facility (n = 290). They reported on their garden experiences and health. Facility staff reported on objective garden characteristics and barriers to access. A serial mediation model was tested with multiple linear regression analysis. The total indirect effect of greenery on self-perceived health was positive and significant. Garden greenery appears to affect health by enhancing a sense of being away, affording possibilities to experience the outdoor environment as interesting and encouraging visitation. Among residents in homes with multiple barriers, only fascination mediated the relationship between greenery and self-perceived health. Ample greenery in outdoor space at residential facilities for older people appears to promote experiences of being away and fascination, more frequent visitation and better health. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Males collectively defend their one-male units against bachelor males in a multi-level primate society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yang, Bang-He; Yu, Yang; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Group-level male-male co-operation, which has been documented in several primate and non-primate societies, may be mutualistically advantageous to the participants when confronted with threats such as takeovers and cuckoldry by external males. Co-operation among members of distinct social units-while universal among humans-is extremely rare in non-human primates. We present the first observations of collective action or co-operation among males of different one-male units (OMU) in a multi-level society of Rhinopithecus roxellana. A total of 59 instances of male co-operation were recorded. Male co-operation included coordinated chasing, joint vigilance, and patrolling behavior directed at lone adult males trying to enter an OMU. Male co-operation was significantly more frequent during the mating season when the risk of incursions and extra-group paternity was higher. Paternity of infants born in the subsequent birth season and kin relationships among resident males were identified using microsatellite genotype. All infants were sired by OMU males, which we interpret as possible evidence for their success at thwarting mating attempts by satellite males. OMU males were principally unrelated suggesting that male co-operation is best understood in terms of the mutual direct benefits individuals obtain through collective action. Our findings lend support to the bachelor threat hypothesis in which the cooperative behavior of several individuals is more effective than the lone action of a single individual in providing mate defense. Our research has implications for understanding male bonding, higher-level collective action, and the evolution of social co-operation in human societies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Workplace social capital and mental health among Chinese employees: a multi-level, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Dai, Junming; Jia, Yingnan; Liu, Xingdi; Jin, Kezhi; Fu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the majority of previous research on social capital and health has been on residential neighborhoods and communities, the evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Chinese employees in a large, multi-level, cross-sectional study. By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 2,796 employees were identified from 35 workplaces in Shanghai during March to November 2012. Workplace social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure, and the Chinese language version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess mental health. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, occupation status, smoking status, physical activity, and job stress. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with mental health status. In total, 34.9% of workers reported poor mental health (WHO-5health, 1.39 (95% CI: 1.10-1.75), 1.85 (95% CI: 1.38-2.46) and 3.54 (95% CI: 2.73-4.59), respectively. Corresponding odds ratios for workplace-level social capital were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.61-1.49), 1.14 (95% CI: 0.72-1.81) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.05-2.53) for the third, second, and lowest quartiles, respectively. Higher workplace social capital is associated with lower odds of poor mental health among Chinese employees. Promoting social capital at the workplace may contribute to enhancing employees' mental health in China.

  7. Workplace Social Capital and Mental Health among Chinese Employees: A Multi-Level, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R.; Dai, Junming; Jia, Yingnan; Liu, Xingdi; Jin, Kezhi; Fu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Whereas the majority of previous research on social capital and health has been on residential neighborhoods and communities, the evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Chinese employees in a large, multi-level, cross-sectional study. Methods By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 2,796 employees were identified from 35 workplaces in Shanghai during March to November 2012. Workplace social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure, and the Chinese language version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess mental health. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, occupation status, smoking status, physical activity, and job stress. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with mental health status. Results In total, 34.9% of workers reported poor mental health (WHO-5workplace-level social capital were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.61–1.49), 1.14 (95% CI: 0.72–1.81) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.05–2.53) for the third, second, and lowest quartiles, respectively. Conclusions Higher workplace social capital is associated with lower odds of poor mental health among Chinese employees. Promoting social capital at the workplace may contribute to enhancing employees’ mental health in China. PMID:24404199

  8. Exploring the relationships between drivers' familiarity and two-lane rural road accidents. A multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Paolo; Berloco, Nicola; Colonna, Pasquale; Ranieri, Vittorio; Ryeng, Eirin

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that drivers' route familiarity/unfamiliarity (using different definitions of familiarity), and the interactions between familiar and unfamiliar drivers, may affect both the driving performances and the likelihood of road crashes. The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution in the search for relationships between familiarity and crashes by: 1) introducing a measure of familiarity based on the distance from residence; 2) analyzing a traffic and accident dataset referred to rural two-lane sections of the Norwegian highways E6 and E39; 3) using a multi-level approach, based on different perspectives, from a macro analysis to more detailed levels. In the macro analyses, the accident rates computed for different seasons and for different summer traffic variation rates (used as indicators of the share of familiar drivers in the flow) were performed. At the second level, a logistic regression model was used to explain the familiarity/unfamiliarity of drivers (based on their distance from residence), through variables retrieved from the database. In the last step, an in-depth analysis considering also accident types and dynamics was conducted. In the macro analysis, no differences were found between accident rates in the different conditions. Whereas, as emerged from the detailed analyses, the factors: high traffic volume, low summer traffic variation, autumn/winter, minor intersections/driveways, speed limits accident risk, possibly due to distraction and dangerous behaviors, while the influence of being unfamiliar on the accident proneness has some unclarified aspects. However, crashes to unfamiliar drivers may cluster at sites showing high summer traffic variation and in summer months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intelligent wear mode identification system for marine diesel engines based on multi-level belief rule base methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinping; Xu, Xiaojian; Sheng, Chenxing; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Zhixiong

    2018-01-01

    Wear faults are among the chief causes of main-engine damage, significantly influencing the secure and economical operation of ships. It is difficult for engineers to utilize multi-source information to identify wear modes, so an intelligent wear mode identification model needs to be developed to assist engineers in diagnosing wear faults in diesel engines. For this purpose, a multi-level belief rule base (BBRB) system is proposed in this paper. The BBRB system consists of two-level belief rule bases, and the 2D and 3D characteristics of wear particles are used as antecedent attributes on each level. Quantitative and qualitative wear information with uncertainties can be processed simultaneously by the BBRB system. In order to enhance the efficiency of the BBRB, the silhouette value is adopted to determine referential points and the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used to transform input wear information into belief degrees. In addition, the initial parameters of the BBRB system are constructed on the basis of expert-domain knowledge and then optimized by the genetic algorithm to ensure the robustness of the system. To verify the validity of the BBRB system, experimental data acquired from real-world diesel engines are analyzed. Five-fold cross-validation is conducted on the experimental data and the BBRB is compared with the other four models in the cross-validation. In addition, a verification dataset containing different wear particles is used to highlight the effectiveness of the BBRB system in wear mode identification. The verification results demonstrate that the proposed BBRB is effective and efficient for wear mode identification with better performance and stability than competing systems.

  11. Trade liberalization and tuberculosis incidence: a longitudinal multi-level analysis in 22 high burden countries between 1990 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Trade liberalization is promoted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) through a complex architecture of binding trade agreements. This type of trade, however, has the potential to modify the upstream and proximate determinants of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We aimed to analyse the association between trade liberalization and TB incidence in 22 high-burden TB countries between 1990 and 2010. and findings A longitudinal multi-level linear regression analysis was performed using five different measures of trade liberalization as exposure [WTO membership, duration of membership, trade as % of gross domestic product, and components of both the Economic Freedom of the World Index (EFI4) and the KOF Index of Globalization (KOF1)]. We adjusted for a wide range of factors, including differences in human development index (HDI), income inequality, debts, polity patterns, conflict, overcrowding, population stage transition, health system financing, case detection rates and HIV prevalence. None of the five trade indicators was significantly associated with TB incidence in the crude analysis. Any positive effect of EFI4 on (Log-) TB incidence over time was confounded by differences in socio-economic development (HDI), HIV prevalence and health financing indicators. The adjusted TB incidence rate ratio of WTO member countries was significantly higher [RR: 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-2.29] when compared with non-member countries. We found no association between specific aggregate indicators of trade liberalization and TB incidence. Our analyses provide evidence of a significant association between WTO membership and higher TB incidence, which suggests a possible conflict between the architecture of WTO agreements and TB-related Millennium Development Goals. Further research is needed, particularly on the relation between the aggregate trade indices used in this study and the hypothesized mediators and also on sector-specific indices, specific trade agreements and

  12. Application and assessment of multiscale bending energy for morphometric characterization of neural cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Roberto Marcondes; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    1997-05-01

    The estimation of the curvature of experimentally obtained curves is an important issue in many applications of image analysis including biophysics, biology, particle physics, and high energy physics. However, the accurate calculation of the curvature of digital contours has proven to be a difficult endeavor, mainly because of the noise and distortions that are always present in sampled signals. Errors ranging from 1% to 1000% have been reported with respect to the application of standard techniques in the estimation of the curvature of circular contours [M. Worring and A. W. M. Smeulders, CVGIP: Im. Understanding, 58, 366 (1993)]. This article explains how diagrams of multiscale bending energy can be easily obtained from curvegrams and used as a robust general feature for morphometric characterization of neural cells. The bending energy is an interesting global feature for shape characterization that expresses the amount of energy needed to transform the specific shape under analysis into its lowest energy state (i.e., a circle). The curvegram, which can be accurately obtained by using digital signal processing techniques (more specifically through the Fourier transform and its inverse, as described in this work), provides multiscale representation of the curvature of digital contours. The estimation of the bending energy from the curvegram is introduced and exemplified with respect to a series of neural cells. The masked high curvature effect is reported and its implications to shape analysis are discussed. It is also discussed and illustrated that, by normalizing the multiscale bending energy with respect to a standard circle of unitary perimeter, this feature becomes an effective means for expressing shape complexity in a way that is invariant to rotation, translation, and scaling, and that is robust to noise and other artifacts implied by image acquisition.

  13. Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees.

  14. Morphometric characterization of Binswanger's disease: Comparison with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiino, Akihiko, E-mail: shiino@belle.shiga-med.ac.jpc.jp [Biomedical MR Science Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta, Ohtsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Akiguchi, Ichiro; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo [Center of Neurological and Cerebrovascular Disease, Takeda Hospital (Japan); Nozaki, Kazuhiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Shiga University of Medical Science (Japan); Tooyama, Ikuo [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science (Japan); Inubushi, Toshiro [Biomedical MR Science Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta, Ohtsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Background and purpose: Dementia due to hypertensive vascular disease is a potential target to treat prophylactively before it progresses insidiously. Binswanger's disease (BD) is a type of subcortical vascular dementia, but its clinical features and pathophysiology are still obscure. We therefore tried to find a topographic distribution of brain atrophy in BD by morphometric analysis. Methods: Twenty patients with BD, 50 patients with AD, and 80 elderly controls were recruited. We contrasted the gray matter atrophy of BD to that of AD to identify a pathognomic pattern using magnetic resonance imaging. We used DARTEL (diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponential Lie algebra) for voxel-based morphometry, expecting that its sophisticated algorithm would work well to deal with the subjects with brain atrophy. Results: Atrophy of cortices was predominant in the posterior cortices in AD but was in the anterior cortices in BD. Atrophy of amygdala and hippocampus was similar in each disease. In contrast, thalamus, caudate nucleus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and frontal cortices were significantly more atrophied in BD than in AD (z-score >3). Conclusions: We demonstrated topographic patterns of brain atrophy in BD. Since affected regions of BD match with the anatomical connections of frontal–subcortical circuits, it seems reasonable to suppose that BD pathology is the result of hypertensive vascular disease and subsequent regression from the white matter injuries.

  15. Diversity of neotropical electric fish Microsternarchus (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae: an electrophysiological and geometric morphometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adília Nogueira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The South American hypopomid electric fish tribe Microsternarchini includes three small species from the Upper Orinoco and Negro rivers. These are placed in monotypic genera: Microsternarchus, Racenisia and Procerusternarchus. Recent collections from tributaries in Negro, Solimões and Amazonas Basins have revealed new specimens of Microsternarchus with significant variations in external morphology and in Electric Organ Discharge parameters (EOD. In order to estimate the diversity within the genus a previous molecular study was done using DNA barcoding, that suggested the presence of multiple Microsternarchus's lineages with high levels of genetic divergence between them. Here we try to determine if the variation in morphology and EOD parameters in the new specimens meet the genetic divergence found. To test the presence of differences in shape among the different lineages we performed a geometric morphometric analysis, which included a relative warp and multivariate analysis on distances between 14 anatomical landmarks defined on the basis of external morphology and homologous among the lineages. The EOD variations were also explored using multivariate analyses of 20 electrophysiological parameters calculated through an algorithm developed in Matlab. The results show that there are significant differences in body shape and EOD in three lineages of Microsternarchus, and the features that contributed most were related to the shape of the head, the coefficient of variation of the signal and the duration and area of the different phases of the pulse. The discrimination of the three lineages confirms the occurrence of new species in the group that are currently being described.

  16. The shape of the hominoid proximal femur: a geometric morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component. Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. Previous analyses have partitioned complex proximal femoral morphology into discrete features (e.g. head, neck, greater trochanter) to facilitate conventional linear measurements. In this study, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics are used to examine the shape of the proximal femur in hominoids to determine whether femoral shape co-varies with locomotor category. Fourteen landmarks are recorded on adult femora of Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to adjust for position, orientation and scale among landmark configurations. Principal components analysis is used to collapse and compare variation in residuals from GPA, and thin-plate spline analysis is used to visualize shape change among taxa. The results indicate that knucklewalking African apes are similar to one another in femoral shape, whereas the more suspensory Asian apes diverge from the African ape pattern. The shape of the human and orangutan proximal femur converge, a result that is best explained in terms of the distinct requirements for locomotion in each group. These findings suggest that the shape of the proximal femur is brought about primarily by locomotor behaviour. PMID:17310545

  17. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...

  18. A new interpretation of the bee fossil Melitta willardi Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Melittidae) based on geometric morphometrics of the wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Alexandre; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Dehon, Manuel; Engel, Michael S; Michez, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Although bees are one of the major lineages of pollinators and are today quite diverse, few well-preserved fossils are available from which to establish the tempo of their diversification/extinction since the Early Cretaceous. Here we present a reassessment of the taxonomic affinities of Melitta willardiCockerell 1909, preserved as a compression fossil from the Florissant shales of Colorado, USA. Based on geometric morphometric wing shape analyses M. willardi cannot be confidently assigned to the genus Melitta Kirby (Anthophila, Melittidae). Instead, the species exhibits phenotypic affinity with the subfamily Andreninae (Anthophila, Andrenidae), but does not appear to belong to any of the known genera therein. Accordingly, we describe a new genus, Andrenopteryx gen. n., based on wing shape as well as additional morphological features and to accommodate M. willardi. The new combination Andrenopteryx willardi (Cockerell) is established.

  19. A new interpretation of the bee fossil Melitta willardi Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Melittidae based on geometric morphometrics of the wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dewulf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although bees are one of the major lineages of pollinators and are today quite diverse, few well-preserved fossils are available from which to establish the tempo of their diversification/extinction since the Early Cretaceous. Here we present a reassessment of the taxonomic affinities of Melitta willardi Cockerell 1909, preserved as a compression fossil from the Florissant shales of Colorado, USA. Based on geometric morphometric wing shape analyses M. willardi cannot be confidently assigned to the genus Melitta Kirby (Anthophila, Melittidae. Instead, the species exhibits phenotypic affinity with the subfamily Andreninae (Anthophila, Andrenidae, but does not appear to belong to any of the known genera therein. Accordingly, we describe a new genus, Andrenopteryx gen. n., based on wing shape as well as additional morphological features and to accommodate M. willardi. The new combination Andrenopteryx willardi (Cockerell is established.

  20. Effectiveness of a multi-level implementation strategy for ASD interventions: study protocol for two linked cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn C

    2018-05-09

    The Centers for Disease Control (2018) estimates that 1 in 59 children has autism spectrum disorder, and the annual cost of ASD in the U.S. is estimated to be $236 billion. Evidence-based interventions have been developed and demonstrate effectiveness in improving child outcomes. However, research on generalizable methods to scale up these practices in the multiple service systems caring for these children has been limited and is critical to meet this growing public health need. This project includes two, coordinated studies testing the effectiveness of the Translating Evidence-based Interventions (EBI) for ASD: Multi-Level Implementation Strategy (TEAMS) model. TEAMS focuses on improving implementation leadership, organizational climate, and provider attitudes and motivation in order to improve two key implementation outcomes-provider training completion and intervention fidelity and subsequent child outcomes. The TEAMS Leadership Institute applies implementation leadership strategies and TEAMS Individualized Provider Strategies for training applies motivational interviewing strategies to facilitate provider and organizational behavior change. A cluster randomized implementation/effectiveness Hybrid, type 3, trial with a dismantling design will be used to understand the effectiveness of TEAMS and the mechanisms of change across settings and participants. Study #1 will test the TEAMS model with AIM HI (An Individualized Mental Health Intervention for ASD) in publicly funded mental health services. Study #2 will test TEAMS with CPRT (Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching) in education settings. Thirty-seven mental health programs and 37 school districts will be randomized, stratified by county and study, to one of four groups (Standard Provider Training Only, Standard Provider Training + Leader Training, Enhanced Provider Training, Enhanced Provider Training + Leader Training) to test the effectiveness of combining standard, EBI-specific training with the two TEAMS

  1. Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, Kathleen M; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-10-16

    Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family) and area- (school and neighborhood) levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km) of their school. Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997) from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1) individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2) area-level administrator (school) questionnaires; and (3) area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91), having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97), and family socioeconomic status (RR for 'not well off' vs. 'very well off' = 1.14, 1.01-1.26). Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42), the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for 'major problem' vs. 'no problem' = 1.47, 1.16-1.57), and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.33 CI, 1.05-1.53). Engagement in active transportation to school was related

  2. Multi-level emulation of a volcanic ash transport and dispersion model to quantify sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Natalie J.; Huntley, Nathan; Dacre, Helen F.; Goldstein, Michael; Thomson, David; Webster, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Following the disruption to European airspace caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 there has been a move towards producing quantitative predictions of volcanic ash concentration using volcanic ash transport and dispersion simulators. However, there is no formal framework for determining the uncertainties of these predictions and performing many simulations using these complex models is computationally expensive. In this paper a Bayesian linear emulation approach is applied to the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) to better understand the influence of source and internal model parameters on the simulator output. Emulation is a statistical method for predicting the output of a computer simulator at new parameter choices without actually running the simulator. A multi-level emulation approach is applied using two configurations of NAME with different numbers of model particles. Information from many evaluations of the computationally faster configuration is combined with results from relatively few evaluations of the slower, more accurate, configuration. This approach is effective when it is not possible to run the accurate simulator many times and when there is also little prior knowledge about the influence of parameters. The approach is applied to the mean ash column loading in 75 geographical regions on 14 May 2010. Through this analysis it has been found that the parameters that contribute the most to the output uncertainty are initial plume rise height, mass eruption rate, free tropospheric turbulence levels and precipitation threshold for wet deposition. This information can be used to inform future model development and observational campaigns and routine monitoring. The analysis presented here suggests the need for further observational and theoretical research into parameterisation of atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore it can also be used to inform the most important parameter perturbations for a small operational

  3. Workplace social capital and mental health among Chinese employees: a multi-level, cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas the majority of previous research on social capital and health has been on residential neighborhoods and communities, the evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Chinese employees in a large, multi-level, cross-sectional study. METHODS: By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 2,796 employees were identified from 35 workplaces in Shanghai during March to November 2012. Workplace social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure, and the Chinese language version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5 was used to assess mental health. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, occupation status, smoking status, physical activity, and job stress. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with mental health status. RESULTS: In total, 34.9% of workers reported poor mental health (WHO-5<13. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers with the highest quartile of personal social capital, workers with the third, second, and lowest quartiles exhibited 1.39 to 3.54 times greater odds of poor mental health, 1.39 (95% CI: 1.10-1.75, 1.85 (95% CI: 1.38-2.46 and 3.54 (95% CI: 2.73-4.59, respectively. Corresponding odds ratios for workplace-level social capital were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.61-1.49, 1.14 (95% CI: 0.72-1.81 and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.05-2.53 for the third, second, and lowest quartiles, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher workplace social capital is associated with lower odds of poor mental health among Chinese employees. Promoting social capital at the workplace may contribute to enhancing employees' mental health in China.

  4. Response of Functional Structure of Soil Microbial Community to Multi-level Nitrogen Additions on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The use of fossil fuels and fertilizers has increased the amount of biologically reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere over the past century. Tibet is the one of the most threatened regions by nitrogen deposition, thus understanding how its microbial communities function maybe of high importance to predicting microbial responses to nitrogen deposition. Here we describe a short-time nitrogen addition conducted in an alpine steppe ecosystem to investigate the response of functional structure of soil microbial community to multi-level nitrogen addition. Using a GeoChip 4.0, we showed that functional diversities and richness of functional genes were unchanged at low level of nitrogen fertilizer inputs (=40 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Detrended correspondence analysis indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different across the nitrogen gradients. Most C degradation genes whose abundances significantly increased under elevated N fertilizer were those involved in the degradation of relatively labile C (starch, hemicellulose, cellulose), whereas the abundance of certain genes involved in the degradation of recalcitrant C (i.e. lignin) was largely decreased (such as manganese peroxidase, mnp). The results suggest that the elevated N fertilization rates might significantly accelerate the labile C degradation, but might not spur recalcitrant C degradation. The combined effect of gdh and ureC genes involved in N cycling appeared to shift the balance between ammonia and organic N toward organic N ammonification and hence increased the N mineralization potential. Moreover, Urease directly involved in urea mineralization significantly increased. Lastly, Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil (TOC+NH4++NO3-+NO2-+pH) and plant (Aboveground plant productivity + Shannon Diversity) variables could explain 38.9% of the variation of soil microbial community composition. On the basis of above observations, we predict that increasing of nitrogen

  5. Exploring multi-level system factors facilitating educator training and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Schetter, Patricia L; McGee Hassrick, Elizabeth

    2018-01-08

    This study examines how system-wide (i.e., region, district, and school) mechanisms such as leadership support, training requirements, structure, collaboration, and education affect the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools and how this affects the outcomes for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite growing evidence for the positive effects of EBPs for ASD, these practices are not consistently or effectively used in schools. Although special education programs are mandated to use EBPs, there are very few evidence-based methods for selecting, implementing, and sustaining EBPs. Research focuses primarily on teacher training, without attention to contextual factors (e.g., implementation climate, attitudes toward EBPs, resource allocation, and social networks) that may impact outcomes. Using an implementation science framework, this project will prospectively examine relations between system-wide factors and teachers' use of EBPs and student education outcomes. Survey data will be collected from approximately 85 regional special education directors, 170 regional program specialists, 265 district special education directors, 265 behavior specialists, 925 school principals, 3538 special education teachers, and 2700 paraprofessionals. Administrative data for the students with ASD served by participating teachers will be examined. A total of 79 regional-, district-, and school-level personnel will also participate in social network interviews. Mixed methods, including surveys, administrative data, and observational checklists, will be used to gather in-depth information about system-wide malleable factors that relate to positive teacher implementation of EBPs and student outcomes. Multi-level modeling will be used to assess system-wide malleable factors related to EBP implementation which will be linked to the trainer, teacher, and student outcomes and examined based on moderators (e.g., district size, Special Education Local Plan Area structure

  6. Multi-level emulation of a volcanic ash transport and dispersion model to quantify sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Harvey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the disruption to European airspace caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 there has been a move towards producing quantitative predictions of volcanic ash concentration using volcanic ash transport and dispersion simulators. However, there is no formal framework for determining the uncertainties of these predictions and performing many simulations using these complex models is computationally expensive. In this paper a Bayesian linear emulation approach is applied to the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME to better understand the influence of source and internal model parameters on the simulator output. Emulation is a statistical method for predicting the output of a computer simulator at new parameter choices without actually running the simulator. A multi-level emulation approach is applied using two configurations of NAME with different numbers of model particles. Information from many evaluations of the computationally faster configuration is combined with results from relatively few evaluations of the slower, more accurate, configuration. This approach is effective when it is not possible to run the accurate simulator many times and when there is also little prior knowledge about the influence of parameters. The approach is applied to the mean ash column loading in 75 geographical regions on 14 May 2010. Through this analysis it has been found that the parameters that contribute the most to the output uncertainty are initial plume rise height, mass eruption rate, free tropospheric turbulence levels and precipitation threshold for wet deposition. This information can be used to inform future model development and observational campaigns and routine monitoring. The analysis presented here suggests the need for further observational and theoretical research into parameterisation of atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore it can also be used to inform the most important parameter perturbations

  7. Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with a drunk driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Muñoz, José Ignacio; Blank-Gomel, Aharon

    2017-06-01

    To assess the impact of demographic, intrapersonal and environmental factors on the likelihood in Chile of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID). Multi-level cross-sectional study. Data were acquired from two large-scale household surveys of representative samples of Chile's Metropolitan Region. The study included 1341 individuals ≥ 16 years; 696 of them reported engaging in PAID. The primary outcome was self-reported frequencies of having accepted a ride with an alcohol-impaired driver. PAID was associated significantly with 'age' [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-0.99, P = 0.03], 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.078-0.44, P = 0.00), 'time exposure as passenger' (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = 0.00) and 'sex' (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.53-0.87, P = 0.00). In women, PAID was associated with 'age' (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.99, P = 0.02), 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.59, P = 0.00) and 'low quality of public bus stops' (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.98-0.99, P = 0.01). Younger women with high education levels were more likely to engage in PAID than younger women with low education levels. In men, PAID was associated with 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02-0.63, P = 0.01) and 'time exposure as passenger' (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = 0.02). In Chile, men are at higher risk of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID) than women. In women, PAID appears to be associated with lower traffic safety beliefs, lower quality of public bus stations and an interaction between education and age. In men, PAID is associated with lower traffic safety beliefs and higher time exposure as passenger. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Feature Article

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Feature Article. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 80-85 Feature Article. What's New in Computers Windows 95 · Vijnan Shastri · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 86-89 Feature ...

  9. Assessing dental wear in reindeer using geometric morphometrical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Rødven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing dental wear is a useful tool for monitoring the interaction between ungulates and their food resources. However, using a univariate measurement for dental wear, like for instance height of the first molar may not capture the variation in dental wear important for the dental functional morphology. We here demonstrate a method for assessing dental wear for ungulates by using geometric morphometrical methods on 11 mandibles from nine Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Shape measurements were obtained from a combination of fixed and sliding semi-landmarks, and dental wear was estimated using residual variation of the landmarks. The morphometric measurements obtained showed a good fit when compared to subjective scores of dental wear. We conclude that this method may give a more integrated and robust assessment of dental wear than univariate methods, and suggest it to be used as an alternative or in addition to traditional measurements of dental wear.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Vurdering av tannslitasje hos rein ved hjelp av geometrisk morfometriske metoder Vurdering av tannslitasje er en anvendbar metode for å overvåke betydningen av miljøet for livshistorien til hovdyr. Imidlertid vil bruk av et enkelt mål, som for eksempel høyde på første molar, ikke nødvendigvis fange opp variasjonen i tannslitasje som er viktig i forhold til tennenes funksjonelle morfologi. I denne artikkelen viser vi hvordan tannslitasje kan vurderes ved å anvende geometrisk morfometriske metoder på 11 underkjever fra ni Svalbardrein (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Formen på tannrekka ble målt ved hjelp av en kombinasjon av fikserte og glidende semi-landemerker, hvor tannslitasje ble estimert ved å bruke residual variasjon av landemerkene. De morfometriske målene stemte godt overens med subjektiv vurdering av tannslitasje. Vi konkluderer at denne metoden kan gi en mer integrert og robust vurdering av tannslitasje enn univariate

  10. Small Area and Individual Level Predictors of Physical Activity in Urban Communities: A Multi-Level Study in Stoke on Trent, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Stephansen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population physical inactivity has been declared a global public health priority. We report a detailed multi-level analysis of small area indices and individual factors as correlates of physical activity in deprived urban areas. Multi-level regression analysis was used to investigate environmental and individual correlates of physical activity. Nine individual factors were retained in the overall model, two related to individual intentions or beliefs, three to access to shops, work or fast food outlets and two to weather; age and gender being the other two. Four area level indices related to: traffic, road casualties, criminal damage and access to green space were important in explaining variation in physical activity.

  11. Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Breum, Lars

    Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies Introduction: Ecological models of health behavior have potential as theoretical framework to comprehend the multiple levels of factors influencing physical...... to be taken into consideration. A theoretical implication of this finding is to develop a site-specific physical activity behavior model adding a layered structure to the ecological model representing the determinants related to the specific site. Support: This study was supported by TrygFonden, Realdania...... activity (PA). The potential is shown by the fact that there has been a dramatic increase in application of ecological models in research and practice. One proposed core principle is that an ecological model is most powerful if the model is behavior-specific. However, based on multi-level interventions...

  12. Analysing the breakthrough of rock 'n' roll (1930-1970) Multi-regime interaction and reconfiguration in the multi-level perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Geels, Frank W.

    2007-01-01

    The breakthrough of rock 'n' roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the multi-level perspective. One characteristic of the case is interactions between multiple regimes: radio and recording. Another characteristic is the presence of strong cultural components, with rock 'n...

  13. Functional morphometric analysis of the furcula in mesozoic birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A Close

    Full Text Available The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs, including phylogenetic Flexible Discriminant Analysis (pFDA. Additionally, the morphospace derived from the furculae of extant birds is used to shed light on possible flight adaptations of Mesozoic fossil taxa. While broad conclusions of earlier work are supported (U-shaped furculae are associated with soaring, strong anteroposterior curvature with wing-propelled diving, correlations between form and function do not appear to be so clear-cut, likely due to the significantly larger dataset and wider spectrum of flight modes sampled here. Interclavicular angle is an even more powerful discriminator of flight mode than curvature, and is positively correlated with body size. With the exception of the close relatives of modern birds, the ornithuromorphs, Mesozoic taxa tend to occupy unique regions of morphospace, and thus may have either evolved unfamiliar flight styles or have arrived at similar styles through divergent musculoskeletal configurations.

  14. Morphometric evaluation of AgNORs in odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeshyla, Huchanahalli S; Shashidara, Raju; Sudheendra, Udyavara Sridhara

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the morphometry of AgNORs in odontogenic cysts and to compare their biologic behavior to determine whether AgNOR morphometry is helpful in predicting the behavior. Ten cases each of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC) and radicular cyst (RC) were stained with silver nitrate. Morphometric analysis of 100 selected epithelial and connective tissue cells was done to record their nuclear volume, nuclear perimeter, contour index of the nucleus, AgNOR count, AgNOR proportion and single AgNOR volume. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. AgNOR count, nuclear volume and nuclear perimeter were greatest in the OKC followed by DC and RC, suggesting that these parameters differentiate between the aggressive and less aggressive odontogenic cysts. Single AgNOR volume and AgNOR proportion were greatest in the RC followed by OKC and DC, respectively. Results of our study taken in isolation point to AgNOR count as the most reliable factor in differentiating between aggressive and nonaggressive odontogenic cysts.

  15. A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Salvagno

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goat is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methodological contributions have been published at different times and by various people to facilitate this task, largely relying on a macro-morphological approach. This is now routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists but, although it certainly has its value, has also been shown to have limitations. Morphological discriminant criteria can vary in different populations and correct identification is highly dependent upon a researcher's experience, availability of appropriate reference collections, and many other factors that are difficult to quantify. There is therefore a need to establish a more objective system, susceptible to scrutiny. In order to fulfil such a requirement, this paper offers a comprehensive morphometric method for the identification of sheep and goat postcranial bones, using a sample of more than 150 modern skeletons as a basis, and building on previous pioneering work. The proposed method is based on measurements-some newly created, others previously published-and its use is recommended in combination with the more traditional morphological approach. Measurement ratios, used to translate morphological traits into biometrical attributes, are demonstrated to have substantial diagnostic potential, with the vast majority of specimens correctly assigned to species. The efficacy of the new method is also tested with Discriminant Analysis, which provides a successful verification of the biometrical indices, a statistical means to select the most promising measurements, and an additional line of analysis to be used in conjunction with the others.

  16. A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagno, Lenny; Albarella, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goat is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methodological contributions have been published at different times and by various people to facilitate this task, largely relying on a macro-morphological approach. This is now routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists but, although it certainly has its value, has also been shown to have limitations. Morphological discriminant criteria can vary in different populations and correct identification is highly dependent upon a researcher's experience, availability of appropriate reference collections, and many other factors that are difficult to quantify. There is therefore a need to establish a more objective system, susceptible to scrutiny. In order to fulfil such a requirement, this paper offers a comprehensive morphometric method for the identification of sheep and goat postcranial bones, using a sample of more than 150 modern skeletons as a basis, and building on previous pioneering work. The proposed method is based on measurements-some newly created, others previously published-and its use is recommended in combination with the more traditional morphological approach. Measurement ratios, used to translate morphological traits into biometrical attributes, are demonstrated to have substantial diagnostic potential, with the vast majority of specimens correctly assigned to species. The efficacy of the new method is also tested with Discriminant Analysis, which provides a successful verification of the biometrical indices, a statistical means to select the most promising measurements, and an additional line of analysis to be used in conjunction with the others.

  17. A model for determining baseline morphometrics of skeletal myofibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimum diameter method of morphometry (MDM is used to measure and detect changes in myofibre diameters (FD. The MDM is used to identify pathology in skeletal muscle. In such studies, an assumption is made that the mean FD in a particular muscle in both limbs is essentially the same. This study explored this premise to determine the accuracy of MDM as a means of morphometric analysis. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the left (G1 and right (G2 tibialis anterior of four vervet monkeys and from the massaged left (G3 and untreated right (G4 tibialis anterior of four animals. Wax sections were prepared for MDM and FD was measured. Three specimens were re-measured on four occasions. The mean FD of each biopsy from G1 and G2 limbs were compared and the number of measurements necessary to produce a meaningful result determined. Repeated measurement showed a difference of 175 FD were measured, the difference from the final mean was less than 2.0%. These data show that, (1 FD data derived from a muscle in an untreated limb can be used as a control for experiment mediated changes of FD in the other, (2 MDM is a reliable means of measuring FD and (3 150–175 FD are needed to provide a dependable result.

  18. Symmetry analysis of talus bone: A Geometric morphometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K; Dobbe, A; Komeili, A; Duke, K; El-Rich, M; Dhillon, S; Adeeb, S; Jomha, N M

    2014-01-01

    The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric shapes were identified. Numerical results showed that talus bones are bilaterally symmetrical in nature, and the difference between the surface area of the left and right talus bones was less than 7.5%. Similarly, the difference in the volume of both bones was less than 7.5%. Results of the three-dimensional (3D) deviation analyses demonstrated the mean deviation between left and right talus bones were in the range of -0.74 mm to 0.62 mm. It was observed that in eight of 11 subjects, the deviation in symmetry occurred in regions that are clinically less important during talus surgery. We conclude that left and right talus bones of intact human ankle joints show a strong degree of symmetry. The results of this study may have significance with respect to talus surgery, and in investigating traumatic talus injury where the geometric shape of the contralateral talus can be used as control. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:139-45.

  19. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson M. Paris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  20. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Thomson M; Allan, Sandra A; Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii , Citrus aurantifolia , Citrus macrophylla , Citrus maxima , Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata . Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica . Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla . This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  1. Morphometric Measurements of Bony Nasolacrimal Canal in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Araz Server; Cigdem, Kalaycik Ertugay; Karagoz, Yesim; Yigit, Ozgur; Longur, Ecem Sevim

    2018-05-01

    Morphology and dimensions of the bony nasolacrimal canal duct (BNLD) as a key factor in the development of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We aimed to obtain detailed morphometric analysis of BNLD in children without nasolacrimal duct pathology by using computed tomography and provide standard measurements by means of age which could be utilized in planning management or in invasive interventions. Picture Archiving Communication Systems database of our hospital's radiology department was searched for this retrospective study. Subjects were under 18 years of age who had undergone a paranasal, maxillofacial, or temporal bone high-resolution computed tomography scan in last 2 years with various indications. Those with fractures including facial bones and/or nasolacrimal canal or history of nasolacrimal duct pathology were excluded from the study. We measured the diameter, angle, and surface area of BNLD. A total number of 136 subjects (86 boys, 50 girls) were included in the study. The average age was 7.3 ± 5.1 years. We documented statistically significantly positive correlation between all measured diameters and ages (P  0.050). Our study demonstrated that development of BNLD continues during childhood, regardless of gender.

  2. The Reproducibility of Nuclear Morphometric Measurements in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Kronqvist

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computerized nuclear morphometry was determined in repeated measurements of 212 samples of invasive breast cancer. The influence of biological variation and the selection of the measurement area was also tested. Morphometrically determined mean nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.89, grading efficiency (GE 0.95 and standard deviation (SD of nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.84, GE 0.89 showed high reproducibility. In this respect, nuclear morphometry equals with other established methods of quantitative pathology and exceeds the results of subjective grading of nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. A training period of eight days was sufficient to produce clear improvement in consistency of nuclear morphometry results. By estimating the sources of variation it could be shown that the variation associated with the measurement procedure itself is small. Instead, sample associated variation is responsible for the majority of variation in the measurements (82.9% in mean nuclear profile area and 65.9% in SD of nuclear profile area. This study points out that when standardized methods are applied computerized morphometry is a reproducible and reliable method of assessing nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. For further improvement special emphasize should be put on sampling rules of selecting the microscope fields and measurement areas.

  3. A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J; Darioly, A; Mast, M Schmid; Schmid, P C; Bischof, N

    2010-11-01

    The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at multiple levels (i.e. reaction, learning, behaviour) and in teams composed of members of different status and competence. An experiment with a two (CST: with vs. without) by two (competence/hierarchical status: congruent vs. incongruent) design was carried out. A total of 64 participants were trained for 2.5 h on a simulated process control environment, with the experimental group being given 45 min of training on receptiveness and influencing skills. Prior to the 1-h experimental session, participants were assigned to two-person teams. The results showed overall support for the use of such a multi-level approach of training evaluation. Stronger positive effects of CST were found for subjective measures than for objective performance measures. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work provides some guidance for the use of a multi-level evaluation of CRM training. It also emphasises the need to collect objective performance data for training evaluation in addition to subjective measures with a view to gain a more accurate picture of the benefits of such training approaches.

  4. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    -fighting missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  5. Multi-level quantum monte Carlo wave functions for complex reactions: The decomposition of α-hydroxy-dimethylnitrosamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracchia, F.; Filippi, Claudia; Amovilli, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present here several novel features of our recently proposed Jastrow linear generalized valence bond (J-LGVB) wave functions, which allow a consistently accurate description of complex potential energy surfaces (PES) of medium-large systems within quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). In particular, we

  6. Clastic polygonal networks around Lyot crater, Mars: Possible formation mechanisms from morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, L. M.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Hagermann, A.; Barrett, A. M.; Collins, G. S.; Soare, R. J.

    2018-03-01

    Polygonal networks of patterned ground are a common feature in cold-climate environments. They can form through the thermal contraction of ice-cemented sediment (i.e. formed from fractures), or the freezing and thawing of ground ice (i.e. formed by patterns of clasts, or ground deformation). The characteristics of these landforms provide information about environmental conditions. Analogous polygonal forms have been observed on Mars leading to inferences about environmental conditions. We have identified clastic polygonal features located around Lyot crater, Mars (50°N, 30°E). These polygons are unusually large (>100 m diameter) compared to terrestrial clastic polygons, and contain very large clasts, some of which are up to 15 metres in diameter. The polygons are distributed in a wide arc around the eastern side of Lyot crater, at a consistent distance from the crater rim. Using high-resolution imaging data, we digitised these features to extract morphological information. These data are compared to existing terrestrial and Martian polygon data to look for similarities and differences and to inform hypotheses concerning possible formation mechanisms. Our results show the clastic polygons do not have any morphometric features that indicate they are similar to terrestrial sorted, clastic polygons formed by freeze-thaw processes. They are too large, do not show the expected variation in form with slope, and have clasts that do not scale in size with polygon diameter. However, the clastic networks are similar in network morphology to thermal contraction cracks, and there is a potential direct Martian analogue in a sub-type of thermal contraction polygons located in Utopia Planitia. Based upon our observations, we reject the hypothesis that polygons located around Lyot formed as freeze-thaw polygons and instead an alternative mechanism is put forward: they result from the infilling of earlier thermal contraction cracks by wind-blown material, which then became

  7. Pioneer identification of fake tiger claws using morphometric and DNA-based analysis in wildlife forensics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin; Sharma, Vinita; Sharma, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Ved Prakash; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2016-09-01

    we suggest that a hierarchical combination of techniques be used for identifying claws involved in wildlife offences, i.e. that an X-ray, morphometric and DNA-based analysis be carried out, to ascertain whether the claws are of tigers or leopards. To identify species in the illegal wildlife trade morphometric and genetic reference database should be developed. Morphological features as well as DNA profiles need to be used for better implementation of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 of India and other laws/treaties in South-east Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological and morphometric evaluation of prepubertal gilt ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus at different oestrus cycle stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oberlender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies are performed in developing techniques/procedures that provide greater reproductive performance in farm animals, including pigs. In this sense, the study of gilts reproductive organs at different oestrus cycle stages for assessing the presence of abnormalities and/or other parameters that may affect the future animal fertility is important. In order to evaluate the morphological, morphometric and histomorphometric features of ovaries, uterus and uterine tubes (UTs characteristics of prepubertal gilts at different oestrus cycle stages, reproductive tracts from 48 animals immediately after slaughter were obtained. After, the structures were dissected and removed, and the ovaries were used for classification of oestrus cycle stage of each gilt in follicular phase (FP and luteal phase (FL. Then, morphometric evaluations of ovaries, UTs, uterine horns and uterine body were performed. Besides that, medial segments of UTs and uterus were fixed in Bouin solution, processed and included in paraffin, when histological sections of 5.0 micrometers (µm were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Histomorphometric analyzes using image capture system and specific software were performed. Afterwards, data were submitted to Student's t test for assessment the statistical differences (P0.05 between morphometric parameters of ovaries, UTs and uterus of gilts in FP and LP. Likewise, in respect to the placement of reproductive structures, both in the oestrus cycle stages, as in the general average, there was no difference (P>0.05. Regarding the histomorphometric variables, gilts classified in FP presented a higher (P<0.05 height of glandular and UT epithelium compared to animals in LP. On the other hand, the diameter of endometrial glands was higher (P<0.05 in gilts at LP compared to FP. Furthermore, gilts in LP presented a higher (P<0.05 proportion of endometrium occupied by glands, whereas animals in FP had a higher (P<0.05 proportion of

  9. Diagnostic and prognostic histopathology system using morphometric indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Bahram; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Fontenay, Gerald V

    2015-05-12

    Determining at least one of a prognosis or a therapy for a patient based on a stained tissue section of the patient. An image of a stained tissue section of a patient is processed by a processing device. A set of features values for a set of cell-based features is extracted from the processed image, and the processed image is associated with a particular cluster of a plurality of clusters based on the set of feature values, where the plurality of clusters is defined with respect to a feature space corresponding to the set of features.

  10. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

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    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  11. Do morphometric measurements allow sex discrimination in Mockingbirds (Mimus sp)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, D. V.; Montalti, D.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in birds may be expressed as differences in body size, plumage, color and/or behavior. Many species are monomorphic in color, making sex determination difficult in the field. An example of the latter are mockingbirds, which are passerines of the genus Mimus, endemic to the Americas. In order to distinguish between male and female mockingbirds using external body measurements that are easy to take, the objective of this work was to quantify morphometric differences between sexes in adults of the following species: M. thenca (45 specimens), M. patagonicus (95), M. saturninus (88), M. triurus (152), and M. dorsalis (7). We measured the following variables: culmen length, bill height and width, tarsus length, middle toe length, wing chord and tail length. Measurements were generally larger in males than in females except for bill width in M. saturninus and M. triurus, culmen length in M. thenca and M. dorsalis, and bill height in M. dorsalis. There were significant differences between sexes in wing chord for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus; tail length for M. patagonicus and M. triurus; tarsus length for M. patagonicus; and in middle toe length for M. triurus. No significant differences in measurements were found between sexes for M. thenca. Significant discriminant functions were obtained for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus, with a percentage of correct classification less than 80%. Only a few variables were useful for sex determination in the studied Mimus species, i.e. wing chord, tail length, middle toe length and tarsus length for three, two, one and one species, respectively.

  12. Stereological and Morphometric Analysis of MRI Chiari Malformation Type-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkoç, Ozan Alper; Songur, Ahmet; Eser, Olcay; Toktas, Muhsin; Esi, Ertap; Haktanir, Alpay

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying ethiological factors in chiari malformation (CM) type-I (CMI) via performing volumetric and morphometric length-angle measurements. Methods A total of 66 individuals [33 patients (20-65 years) with CMI and 33 control subjects] were included in this study. In sagittal MR images, tonsillar herniation length and concurrent anomalies were evaluated. Supratentorial, infratentorial, and total intracranial volumes were measured using Cavalieri method. Various cranial distances and angles were used to evaluate the platybasia and posterior cranial fossa (PCF) development. Results Tonsillar herniation length was measured 9.09±3.39 mm below foramen magnum in CM group. Tonsillar herniation/concurrent syringomyelia, concavity/defect of clivus, herniation of bulbus and fourth ventricle, basilar invagination and craniovertebral junction abnormality rates were 30.3, 27, 18, 2, 3, and 3 percent, respectively. Absence of cisterna magna was encountered in 87.9% of the patients. Total, IT and ST volumes and distance between Chamberlain line and tip of dens axis, Klaus index, clivus length, distance between internal occipital protuberance and opisthion were significantly decreased in patient group. Also in patient group, it was found that Welcher basal angle/Boogard angle increased and tentorial slope angle decreased. Conclusion Mean cranial volume and length-angle measurement values significantly decreased and there was a congenital abnormality association in nearly 81.5 percent of the CM cases. As a result, it was concluded that CM ethiology can be attributed to multifactorial causes. Moreover, congenital defects can also give rise to this condition. PMID:26713146

  13. Morphometric and Phylogenic Analysis of Six Population Indonesian Local Goats

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    A. Batubara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives were to characterize morphometric and genetic distance between populations of Indonesian local goats. The morphological discriminant and canonical analysis were carried out to estimate the phylogenic relationship and determine the discriminant variable between Benggala goats (n= 96, Marica (n= 60, Jawarandu (n= 94, (Kacang (n= 217, Muara (n= 30 and Samosir (n= 42. Discriminant analysis used to clasify body weight and body measurements. In the analysis of variance showed that body weight and body measurement (body length, height at withers, thorax width, thorax height, hert girth, skull width and height, tail length and width, ear length and width of Muara goats was higher (P<0.05 compared to the other groups, and the lowest was in Marica goats. The smallest genetic distance was between Marica and Samosir (11.207 and the highest were between Muara and Benggala (255.110. The highest similarity between individual within population was found in Kacang (99.28% and the lowest in Samosir (82.50%. The canonical analysis showed high correlation on canon circumference, body weight, skull width, skull height, and tail width variables so these six variables can be used as distinguishing variables among population. The result from Mahalonobis distance for phenogram tree and canonical analysis showed that six populations of Indonesian local goats were divided into six breed of goats: the first was Muara, the second was Jawarandu, the third was Kacang, the fourth was Benggala, the fifth was Samosir and the sixth was Marica goats. The diversity of body size and body weight of goats was observed quite large, so the chances of increasing productivity could be made through selection and mating programs.

  14. Morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper

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    Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human subiculum is a significant part of the hippocampal formation positioned between the hippocampus proper and the entorhinal and other cortices. It plays an important role in spatial navigation, memory processing and control of the response to stress. The aim of our study was identification of the morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper: the maximum length and width of cell body and total dendritic length and volume of cell body. Comparing the measured parameters of different types of subicular neurons (bipolar, multipolar, pyramidal neurons with triangular-shaped soma and neurons with oval-shaped soma, we can conclude that bipolar neurons have the lowest values of the measured parameters: the maximum length of their cell body is 14.1 ± 0.2 µm, the maximum width is 13.9 ± 0.5 µm, and total dendritic length is 14597 ± 3.1 µm. The lowest volume value was observed in bipolar neurons; the polymorphic layer is 1152.99 ± 662.69 µm3. The pyramidal neurons of the pyramidal layer have the highest value for the maximal length of the cell body (44.43 ± 7.94 µm, maximum width (23.64 ± 1.89 µm, total dendritic length (1830 ± 466.3 µm and volume (11768.65±4004.9 µm3 These characteristics of the pyramidal neurons indicate their importance, because the axons of these neurons make up the greatest part of the fornix, along with the axons of neurons of the CA1 hippocampal field.

  15. Morphometric analysis of collagen and inflammatory cells in periodontal disease

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    Golijanin Ranko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Periodontal disease affects gingival tissue and supporting apparatus of the teeth leading to its decay. The aim of this study was to highlight and precisely determine histological changes in the gum tissue. Methods. Gingival biopsy samples from 53 healthy and parodontopathy-affected patients were used. Clinical staging of the disease was performed. Tissue specimens were fixed and routinely processed. Sections, 5 μm thin, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, histochemical Van-Gieson for the collagen content, Spicer method for mast-cells and immunochemical method with anti-CD68 and anti-CD38 for the labelling of the macrophages and plasma-cells. Morphometric analysis was performed by a M42 test system. Results. While the disease advanced, collagen and fibroblast volume density decreased almost twice in the severe cases compared to the control ones, but a significant variation was observed within the investigated groups. The mast-cell number increased nearly two times, while the macrophage content was up to three times higher in severe parodontopathy than in healthy gingival tissue. However, the relative proportion of these cells stayed around 6% in all cases. Plasma-cells had the most prominent increase in the number (over 8 times compared to the control, but again, a variation within investigated groups was very high. Conclusion. Gingival tissue destruction caused by inflammatory process leads to significant changes in collagen density and population of resident connective tissue cells. Although inflammatory cells dominated with the disease advancing, a high variation within the same investigated groups suggests fluctuation of the pathological process.

  16. Do morphometric measurements allow sex discrimination in Mockingbirds (Mimus sp)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, D. V.; Montalti, D.

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in birds may be expressed as differences in body size, plumage, color and/or behavior. Many species are monomorphic in color, making sex determination difficult in the field. An example of the latter are mockingbirds, which are passerines of the genus Mimus, endemic to the Americas. In order to distinguish between male and female mockingbirds using external body measurements that are easy to take, the objective of this work was to quantify morphometric differences between sexes in adults of the following species: M. thenca (45 specimens), M. patagonicus (95), M. saturninus (88), M. triurus (152), and M. dorsalis (7). We measured the following variables: culmen length, bill height and width, tarsus length, middle toe length, wing chord and tail length. Measurements were generally larger in males than in females except for bill width in M. saturninus and M. triurus, culmen length in M. thenca and M. dorsalis, and bill height in M. dorsalis. There were significant differences between sexes in wing chord for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus; tail length for M. patagonicus and M. triurus; tarsus length for M. patagonicus; and in middle toe length for M. triurus. No significant differences in measurements were found between sexes for M. thenca. Significant discriminant functions were obtained for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus, with a percentage of correct classification less than 80%. Only a few variables were useful for sex determination in the studied Mimus species, i.e. wing chord, tail length, middle toe length and tarsus length for three, two, one and one species, respectively.

  17. The influence of spatial variability of lithological and morphometric characters on drainage network arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Laura; Buccolini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    Several factors control the spatial setting and temporal development of the drainage systems: climate, sea level changes, lithology, tectonics, morphometry, land use and land cover. The present work deals with the role of spatial variability of lithology and morphometry on drainage networks arrangement and presents some preliminary evaluations. The test area was the Periadriatic belt of central Italy, composed of Plio-Pleistocene foredeep succession (clay, sands and conglomerate) arranged in a northeastern vergence monocline. We analyzed 37 small basins directly flowing in the Adriatic Sea (18 in Abruzzi and 19 in Marche Region) that have homogenous climatic, eustatic, tectonic, land use and land cover features. For this reason, we could focus our research on lithology and morphometry. We used 10 m cell-size Italian DEM (TINITALY) supplying by INGV (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) [from http://tinitaly.pi.ingv.it/] as source of morphometric data, and extracted watersheds and stream networks through an automatic procedure included in TauDEM toolbox within ArcGIS 9.3 [freely downloaded from http://hydrology.usu.edu/taudem/taudem5/index.html]. For each drainage basin, we reconstructed the topography prior to the inception of fluvial incision through the Topo-to-Raster interpolation tool, considering the heights of the watershed divide as elevation points and obtaining the pre-incision DEM in which the fluvial valleys resulted filled. On this DEM, we calculated the Morphometric Slope Index (MSI), developed by Buccolini et al. (2012), using the formula M SI = Rc -L -Ar/A2D in which Rc is circularity ratio, L is slope length, A2D and Ar are plane and surface area, respectively. In particular, Ar represents the three-dimensional area calculated on the pre-incision DEM. This index is a unique reference index for basin morphometry including both areal and linear features, such as size, shape, inclination, length and width. As drainage network parameter we

  18. Effects of freezing on white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789): Implications for multivariate morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that duration of freezing differentially affects whole-body morphometrics of a derived teleost. Whole-body morphometrics are frequently analyzed to test hypotheses of different species, or stocks within a species, of fishes. Specimens used for morphometric analyses are typically fixed or preserved prior to analysis, yet little research has been done on how fixation or preservation methods or duration of preservation of specimens might affect outcomes of multivariate statistical analyses of differences in shape. To determine whether whole-body morphometrics changed as a result of freezing, 23 whole-body morphometrics of age-1 white perch (Morone americana) from western Lake Erie (n = 211) were analyzed immediately after capture, after being held on ice overnight, and after freezing for 100 or 200 days. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all four groups differed significantly from one another (P time to avoid biases related to the length of time they were frozen. Similar experiments should be conducted on other species and also using formalin- and alcohol-preserved specimens.

  19. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Daniela A; Benítez, Hugo A; Borissov, Ivailo M; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.

  20. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Schmieder

    Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.