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Sample records for multi-element silicon detector

  1. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  2. Progress in multi-element silicon detectors for synchrotron XRF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Rossington, C.; Kipnis, I.; Krieger, B.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon and high purity germanium detectors for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. We have been developing these types of detectors specifically for low noise synchrotron applications, such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, microprobe x-ray fluorescence and total reflection x-ray fluorescence. The current version of the 192-element detector and integrated circuit preamplifier, cooled to -25 degrees C with a single-stage thermoelectric cooler, achieves an energy resolution of <200 eV full width of half maximum (FWHM) per channel (at 5.9 keV, 2 μs peaking time), and each detector element is designed to handle ∼20 kHz count rate. The detector system will soon be completed to 64 channels using new application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) amplifier chips, new CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control standard) analog-to-digital converters recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), CAMAC histogramming modules, and Macintosh-based data acquisition software. We report on the characteristics of this detector system, and the work in progress towards the next generation system

  3. A new large solid angle multi-element silicon drift detector system for low energy X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufon, J.; Schillani, S.; Altissimo, M.; Bellutti, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Billè, F.; Borghes, R.; Borghi, G.; Cautero, G.; Cirrincione, D.; Fabiani, S.; Ficorella, F.; Gandola, M.; Gianoncelli, A.; Giuressi, D.; Kourousias, G.; Mele, F.; Menk, R. H.; Picciotto, A.; Rachevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Sammartini, M.; Stolfa, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zorzi, N.; Vacchi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Low-energy X-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) is an essential tool for bio-related research of organic samples, whose composition is dominated by light elements. Working at energies below 2 keV and being able to detect fluorescence photons of lightweight elements such as carbon (277 eV) is still a challenge, since it requires in-vacuum operations to avoid in-air photon absorption. Moreover, the detectors must have a thin entrance window and collect photons at an angle of incidence near 90 degrees to minimize the absorption by the protective coating. Considering the low fluorescence yield of light elements, it is important to cover a substantial part of the solid angle detecting ideally all emitted X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons. Furthermore, the energy resolution of the detection system should be close to the Fano limit in order to discriminate elements whose XRF emission lines are often very close within the energy spectra. To ensure all these features, a system consisting of four monolithic multi-element silicon drift detectors was developed. The use of four separate detector units allows optimizing the incidence angle on all the sensor elements. The multi-element approach in turn provides a lower leakage current on each anode, which, in combination with ultra-low noise preamplifiers, is necessary to achieve an energy resolution close to the Fano limit. The potential of the new detection system and its applicability for typical LEXRF applications has been proved on the Elettra TwinMic beamline.

  4. Parallel and pipelined front-end for multi-element silicon detectors in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, C.; Epstein, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a silicon quadrant detector (128 elements) implemented as an electron detector in a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. As the electron beam scans over the sample, electrons are counted during each pixel. The authors developed an ASIC for the multichannel counting system. The digital front-end carries out the readout of all elements, in four groups, and uses these data to compute linear combinations to generate up to eight simultaneous images. For the preprocessing the authors implemented a parallel and pipelined system. Dedicated software tools were developed to generate the programs for all the processors. These tools are transparently accessed by the user via a user friendly interface

  5. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  6. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N.; Helsby, W. I.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  7. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsby, W. I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  8. MEGHNAD – A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When heavy ion beam available from such machines fall on a target and undergo collision, very rich and often pristine fields of research open up. In order to carry on such activities, we have taken up a project to build a multi element gamma, heavy ion and neutron array of detectors (MEGHNAD) to detect and study the ...

  9. Head of detector for multi-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynta, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The detector head mounted on the scintillation counter consists of a hollow hexagonal rotary support axially arranged with the photomultiplier of the scintillation counter. In the walls of the hexagonal rotary support there are openings in which are inserted absorption filters. The mounting of the absorption filters on the rotary support allows the analysis of a greater number of elements without the dismantling of the head and the replacement of filters. The suitable geometry of the head is retained so that it is possible to insert the head into the hollows similarly as the scintillation counter. (J.P.)

  10. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  11. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  12. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  13. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  14. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  15. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  16. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  17. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  18. MEDEA: A multi element detector array for gamma ray and light charged particle detection at the LNS-Catania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.

    1992-01-01

    A 4π highly granular Multi Element Detector Array (MEDEA) for γ-rays and light charged particles is described. Its basic configuration consists of 180 barium fluoride scintillator crystals, arranged in the shape of a ball, plus a forward angle wall of 120 phoswich detectors. The inner radius of the ball (22 cm) and the distance of the wall from the target (55 cm) allow the placement of other detectors in the inner volume. The whole detection system operates under vacuum inside a large scattering chamber. Dedicated electronics has been designed and realized. It includes a powerful hardware second level trigger and preanalysis system, which allows on-line event selection, and a modular VME-bus based data acquisition system. In-beam performances of the system are also described. (orig.)

  19. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  20. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  1. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, G

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

  2. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  3. Nuclear physics with simple and multi-element detectors and with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    already investigated in some detail with simple detection systems, but ... cult to find the defining questions in this discipline (and design the ideal detector systems ... applied to real data, a distribution of peaks should be observed, reflecting the ...

  4. MEGHNAD – A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the prototype detector and brief outline of the research programme to be ... Such a nucleus often becomes unstable, and sheds away the extra energy and ... reaction products, and event by event analysis of the nuclear reactions for a .... High voltage is applied at the cathode grid, and the anode is kept at the ground.

  5. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  6. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  7. Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina; Haerkoenen, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 x1017 cm-3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting alter...

  8. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  9. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  10. Characterization of Czochralski silicon detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmented detectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It is shown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher than that of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or Diffusion Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 × 1017 cm−3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting ...

  11. The ARGUS silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ball, S.; Ehret, K.; Geyer, C.; Hesselbarth, J.; Hoelscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Huepper, A.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Seeger, M.; Spengler, J.; Brogle, M.; Horisberger, R.

    1994-01-01

    A silicon microstrip vertex detector has been built as an upgrade to the ARGUS detector for increased precision and efficiency in the reconstruction of decay vertices. This paper discusses the mechanical and electronic design of this device and presents first results from its successful test operation yielding an impact parameter resolution of about 18 μm. ((orig.))

  12. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the

  13. Simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption system using photodiode array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.L.; Chin, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    A photodiode array (PDA) detector-multichannel analyser (MCA) system has been coupled to a flame and a graphite furnace atomiser and tested for simultaneous multielement atomic absorption analysis. Multielement hollow cathode lamps (HCL) are used as light source. Spectral lines are dispersed through a spectrograph with triple gratings and detected by a 25.4 mm PDA detector consisting of 1024 elements. The optical MCA system is capable of recording multiple spectra spanned by the spectrograph/PDA. The transmitted intensity spectra obtained for the standard and analyte solutions during flame or graphite furnace atomisation are converted to absorbance spectra using the MCA software provided. Results from the comparison studies show that the linear range and sensitivities for Ni-Co-Fe and Cu-Cr obtained from the simultaneous measurements are within the same order of magnitudes as those from conventional single element determinations using photomultiplier tube detection. The study also shows that non-atomic absorption can be readily corrected by a two-line method where non-atomic absorption lines can be chosen from the spectra recorded simultaneously. The proposed system has been evaluated for the determination of trace elements using NBS standard reference water SRM 1643b

  14. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  15. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  16. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  17. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodys, Peter; Kubik, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; Reznicek, Pavel; Slavik, Radan

    2007-01-01

    This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented

  18. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  19. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  20. Silicon micropattern detector: a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijne, E H.M.; Jarron, P; Olsen, A; Redaelli, N

    1988-12-15

    The present use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics experiments is described and future needs are evaluated. Possibilities and problems to be encountered in the development of a true two-dimensional detector with intelligent data collection are discussed. This paper serves as an introduction to various other contributions to the conference proceedings, either dealing with futuristic device designs or with cautious steps on the road of technology development.

  1. Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements (SHE identification has been proposed. It will be constructed using very thin silicon detectors about 5 μm thickness. Results of test of 7.3 μm four inch silicon strip detector (SSD with fission fragments and α particles emitted by 252Cf source are presented

  2. Aleph silicon microstrip vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This microstrip vertex locator was located at the heart of the ALEPH experiment, one of the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In the experiments at CERN's LEP, which ran from 1989 to 2000, modern silicon microvertex detectors, such as those used at ALEPH, monitored the production of short-lived particles close to the beam pipe.

  3. SVX/silicon detector studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagby, L.; Johnson, M.; Lipton, R.; Gu, W.

    1995-11-01

    AC coupled silicon detectors, being used for the DO upgrade, may have substantial voltage across the coupling capacitor. Failed capacitors can present ∼50 V to the input of the SVX, Silicon Vertex, device. We measured the effects that failed detector coupling capacitors have on the SVXD (rad soft 3μm), SVXH (rad hard 1.2μm), and SVXIIb (rad soft 1.2μm) amplifier / readout devices. The test results show that neighboring channels saturate when an excessive voltage is applied directly to a SVX channel. We believe that the effects are due to current diffusion within the SVX substrate rather than surface currents on the detectors. This paper discusses the magnitude of the saturation and a possible solution to the problem

  4. Silicon drift detectors, present and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, J.; Bellwied, R.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Caines, H.; Chen, W.; Dyke, H.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Humanic, T.; Kotov, I.; Kuczewski, P.; Leonhardt, W.; Li, Z.; Lynn, D.; Minor, R.; Munhoz, M.; Ott, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Schambach, J.; Soja, R.; Sugarbaker, E.; Willson, R. M.

    2001-04-01

    Silicon drift detectors provide unambiguous two-dimensional position information for charged particle detection with a single detector layer. A large area silicon drift detector was developed for the inner tracking detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we discuss the lessons learned and the future prospects of this technology.

  5. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  6. Imaging monolithic silicon detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Sipala, V.; Cardella, G.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, B.; Cosentino, L.; Costa, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Emanuele, U.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; La Guidara, E.; Marchetta, C.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, G.V.; Russotto, P.

    2008-01-01

    We show the results of some test beams performed on a new monolithic strip silicon detector telescope developed in collaboration with the INFN and ST-microelectronics. Using an appropriate design, the induction on the ΔE stages, generated by the charge released in the E stage, was used to obtain the position of the detected particle. The position measurement, together with the low threshold for particle charge identification, allows the new detector to be used for a large variety of applications due to its sensitivity of only a few microns measured in both directions

  7. Signal development in irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuz, Marko

    2001-01-01

    This work provides a detailed study of signal formation in silicon detectors, with the emphasis on detectors with high concentration of irradiation induced defects in the lattice. These defects give rise to deep energy levels in the band gap. As a consequence, the current induced by charge motion in silicon detectors is signifcantly altered. Within the framework of the study a new experimental method, Charge correction method, based on transient current technique (TCT) was proposed for determination of effective electron and hole trapping times in irradiated silicon detectors. Effective carrier trapping times were determined in numerous silicon pad detectors irradiated with neutrons, pions and protons. Studied detectors were fabricated on oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon wafers with different bulk resistivities. Measured effective carrier trapping times were found to be inversely proportional to fuence and increase with temperature. No dependence on silicon resistivity and oxygen concentration was observ...

  8. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  9. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  10. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  11. Measurements of Silicon Detector Thermal Runaway

    CERN Document Server

    Heusch, C A; Moser, H G

    1999-01-01

    We measured thermal runaway properties of previously irradiated silicon detectors cooled by TPG bars. We simulated their expected behaviour to measure the energy gap in the detector material and to test the validity of various underlying assumptions.

  12. Particle identification by silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Denison de Souza

    1997-01-01

    A method is developed for the evaluation of the energy loss, dE/dx, of a charged particle traversing a silicon strip detector. The method is applied to the DELPHI microvertex detector leading to diagrams of dE/dx versus momentum for different particles. The specific case of pions and protons is treated and the most probable value of dE/dx and the width of the dE/dx distribution for those particles in the momentum range of 0.2 GeV/c to 1.5 GeV/c, are obtained. The resolution found is 13.4 % for particles with momentum higher than 2 GeV/c and the separation power is 2.9 for 1.0 GeV/c pions and protons. (author)

  13. The BELLE silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimonti, G.; Aihara, H.; Alexander, J.; Asano, Y.; Bakich, A.; Bozek, A.; Banas, E.; Browder, T.; Dragic, J.; Fukunaga, C.; Gordon, A.; Guler, H.; Everton, C.; Heenan, E.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Hastings, N.; Hara, T.; Hojo, T.; Higuchi, T.; Iwai, G.; Ishino, H.; Jalocha, P.; Korotuschenko, K.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Lange, J.S.; Li, Y.; Marlow, D.; Moloney, G.; Moffitt, L.; Mori, S.; Matsubara, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palka, H.; Peak, L.S.; Ryuko, J.; Rozanska, M.; Sevior, M.; Shimada, J.; Sumisawa, K.; Stock, R.; Stanic, S.; Swain, S.; Taylor, G.; Takasaki, F.; Tajima, H.; Trabelsi, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M. E-mail: tanakam@post.kek.jp; Takahashi, S.; Tomura, T.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsujita, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.E.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhao, H.; Zontar, D

    2000-10-11

    A silicon vertex detector has been developed for the BELLE experiment at the KEK B-factory to be used to determine the relative displacements of B-meson decay vertices for CP violation measurements. The device has been successfully installed and operated with high-luminosity beam conditions. The average strip yield is larger than 96%, including the preamplifier electronics yield and the detector is currently working stably with a signal-to-noise ratio of 17-40. The measured impact parameter resolution agrees with expectations based on Monte Carlo simulations, and the measured D{sup 0} lifetime is in good agreement with the particle data group's average of other measurements. Several B{yields}J/{psi}K events produced at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance have been detected and separate decay vertices have been found.

  14. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  15. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  16. Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarha, J.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Snider, F.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Gonzales, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T.; Carithers, W.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester, W.; Wong, M.; Amidei, D.; Derwent, P.; Gold, M.; Matthews, J.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Risotri, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F.; Bailey, M.; Garfinkel, A.; Shaw, N.; Tipton, P.; Watts, G.

    1992-04-01

    Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 μm detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 μm placement accuracy of the detectors in the barrel structure is discussed and the detector cooling and mounting systems are described. 12 refs

  17. Absolute sensitivity calibration from 20 A to 430 A of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a multi-element spectral detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Manning, H.L.; Marmar, E.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two methods which together allow sensitivity calibration from 20 A to 430 A are described in detail. The first method, useful up to 120 A, uses a low power source to generate Kα x-rays which are alternately viewed by an absolute detector (a proportional counter) and the spectrometer. The second method extends that calibration to 430 A. It relies on the 2:1 brightness ratio of bright doublet lines from impurity ions which have a single outer shell electron and which are present in hot, magnetically confined plasmas. It requires that the absolute sensitivity of the spectrometer be known at one wavelength point, and in practice requires a multi-element spectral detector

  18. Performance of irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon microstrip devices to be installed in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tracking detectors will have to operate in a high radiation environment. We report on performance studies of silicon microstrip detectors irradiated with neutrons or protons, up to fluences comparable to the first ten years of running at LHC. Obtained results show that irradiated detectors can still be operated with satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio,and in the case of inhomogeneously type inverted detector a very good position resolution is achieved regardless of the zone crossed by the particle

  19. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System (SPD)

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, Federico; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Dima, R; Elias, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, Marian; Librizzi, F; Manzari, Vito; Morel, M; Moretto, Sandra; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato De Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjo, H; Viesti, G; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 detector modules (half-staves) each consisting of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors and one multi-chip read-out module. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so that the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈ 107. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The constraints on material budget and detector module dimensions are very demanding.

  20. Evaluation of prototype silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.; Hall, G.; Roe, S.; Lucas, A.

    1988-01-01

    Operating characteristics of several prototypes of silicon drift detectors are investigated. Detectors are made of unpolished silicon produced by the zone melting method and characterized by n-type conductivity and specific resistance of 3.6-4.6 kOhmxcm. The detectors comprise 40 parallel bands of 200 μm width and 1 cm length separated by 50 μm intervals. Data characterizing the potential distribution near anodes under the operating bias voltage, dependences of capacities and leakage as well as the detector space resolution

  1. P-type silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Krieger, B.; Krofcheck, D.; O'Donnell, R.; Odyniec, G.; Partlan, M.D.; Wang, N.W.

    1995-06-01

    Preliminary results on 16 CM 2 , position-sensitive silicon drift detectors, fabricated for the first time on p-type silicon substrates, are presented. The detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested recently at LBL and show interesting properties which make them attractive for use in future physics experiments. A pulse count rate of approximately 8 x l0 6 s -1 is demonstrated by the p-type silicon drift detectors. This count rate estimate is derived by measuring simultaneous tracks produced by a laser and photolithographic mask collimator that generates double tracks separated by 50 μm to 1200 μm. A new method of using ion-implanted polysilicon to produce precise valued bias resistors on the silicon drift detectors is also discussed

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of diluted system by undulator photon source and multi-element solid-state detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tanida, H

    2001-01-01

    In order to measure the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum of an ultra-diluted system, an optics and detector control system for a synchrotron radiation beamline is developed. The undulator gap width is continuously tuned to obtain the maximum X-ray photon flux during the energy scan for the EXAFS measurement. A piezoelectric translator optimizes the parallelism of the double crystal in a monochromator at each measurement point to compensate for mechanical errors of the monochromator, resulting in a smooth and intense X-ray photon flux during the measurement. For a detection of a weak fluorescence signal from diluted samples, a 19-element solid-state detector and digital signal processor are used. A K-edge EXAFS spectrum of iron in a myoglobin aqueous solution with a concentration of 5.58 parts per million was obtained by this system.

  3. A Highly Sensitive Multi-Element HgCdTe E-APD Detector for IPDA Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeff; Welch, Terry; Mitra, Pradip; Reiff, Kirk; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James

    2014-01-01

    An HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) detector has been developed for lidar receivers, one application of which is integrated path differential absorption lidar measurements of such atmospheric trace gases as CO2 and CH4. The HgCdTe APD has a wide, visible to mid-wave-infrared, spectral response, high dynamic range, substantially improved sensitivity, and an expected improvement in operational lifetime. A demonstration sensor-chip assembly consisting of a 4.3 lm cutoff HgCdTe 4 9 4 APD detector array with 80 micrometer pitch pixels and a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit was developed. For one typical array the APD gain was 654 at 12 V with corresponding gain normalized dark currents ranging from 1.2 fA to 3.2 fA. The 4 9 4 detector system was characterized at 77 K with a 1.55 micrometer wavelength, 1 microsecond wide, laser pulse. The measured unit gain detector photon conversion efficiency was 91.1%. At 11 V bias the mean measured APD gain at 77 K was 307.8 with sigma/mean uniformity of 1.23%. The average, noise-bandwidth normalized, system noise-equivalent power (NEP) was 1.04 fW/Hz(exp 1/2) with a sigma/mean of 3.8%. The measured, electronics-limited, bandwidth of 6.8 MHz was more than adequate for 1 microsecond pulse detection. The system had an NEP (3 MHz) of 0.4 fW/Hz(exp 1/2) at 12 V APD bias and a linear dynamic range close to 1000. A gain-independent quantum-limited SNR of 80% of full theoretical was indicative of a gain-independent excess noise factor very close to 1.0 and the expected APD mode quantum efficiency.

  4. Laboratory course on silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, Luis M

    2005-01-01

    In this laboratory course we present an elementary introduction to the characteristics and applications of silicon detectors in High-Energy Physics, through performing some measurements which give an overview of the properties of these detectors as position resolution. The principles of operation are described in the activities the students have to develop together with some exercises to reinforce their knowledge on these devices

  5. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00714258

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  6. Development of innovative silicon radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, JuanPablo

    Silicon radiation detectors fabricated at the IMB-CNM (CSIC) Clean Room facilities using the most innovative techniques in detector technology are presented in this thesis. TCAD simulation comprises an important part in this work as becomes an essential tool to achieve exhaustive performance information of modelled detectors prior their fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization. Radiation tolerance is also investigated in this work using TCAD simulations through the potential and electric field distributions, leakage current and capacitance characteristics and the response of the detectors to the pass of different particles for charge collection efficiencies. Silicon detectors investigated in this thesis were developed for specific projects but also for applications in experiments which can benefit from their improved characteristics, as described in Chapter 1. Double-sided double type columns 3D (3D-DDTC) detectors have been developed under the NEWATLASPIXEL project in the framework of the CERN ...

  7. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Masciocchi, S.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.S.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors built on a monocrystal so far in order to achieve good transversal acceptance. Construction and performance during the 1993 data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  8. Silicon radiation detectors: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    Silicon nuclear radiation detectors are available today in a large variety of sizes and types. This profusion has been made possible by the ever increasing quality and diameter silicon single crystals, new processing technologies and techniques, and innovative detector design. The salient characteristics of the four basic detector groups, diffused junction, ion implanted, surface barrier, and lithium drift are reviewed along with the silicon crystal requirements. Results of crystal imperfections detected by lithium ion compensation are presented. Processing technologies and techniques are described. Two recent novel position-sensitive detector designs are discussed - one in high-energy particle track reconstruction and the other in x-ray angiography. The unique experimental results obtained with these devices are presented

  9. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  10. The H1 silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitzl, D.; Behnke, O.; Biddulph, M.; Boesiger, K.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Gassner, J.; Haynes, W.J..; Horisberger, R.; Kausch, M.; Lindstroem, M.; Niggli, H.; Noyes, G.; Pollet, P.; Steiner, S.; Streuli, S.; Szeker, K.; Truoel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of the H1 silicon vertex detector is described. It consists of two cylindrical layers of double-sided, double-metal silicon sensors read out by a custom designed analog pipeline chip. The analog signals are transmitted by optical fibres to a custom-designed ADC board and are reduced on PowerPC processors. Details of the design and construction are given and performance figures from the first data-taking periods are presented

  11. Sensors for ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H.F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baselga, M.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Schumacher, D.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Pellegrini, G.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; Greco, V.; Hidalgo, S.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-21

    We report on electrical and charge collection tests of silicon sensors with internal gain as part of our development of ultra-fast silicon detectors. Using C–V and α TCT measurements, we investigate the non-uniform doping profile of so-called low-gain avalanche detectors (LGAD). These are n-on-p pad sensors with charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction, obtained with a highly doped implant. We compare the bias dependence of the pulse shapes of traditional sensors and of LGAD sensors with different dopant density of the diffusion layer, and extract the internal gain.

  12. Silicon Drift Detectors development for position sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Novel Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) with multi-linear architecture specifically intended for 2D position sensing and imaging applications are presented and their achievable spatial, energy and time resolution are discussed. The capability of providing a fast timing of the interaction with nanosecond time resolution is a new available feature that allows operating the drift detector in continuous readout mode for coincidence imaging applications either with an external trigger or in self-timing. The application of SDDs with multi-linear architecture to Compton electrons' tracking within a single silicon layer and the achieved experimental results will be discussed

  13. Sensors for ultra-fast silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Baselga, M.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Schumacher, D.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Pellegrini, G.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; Greco, V.; Hidalgo, S.; Quirion, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on electrical and charge collection tests of silicon sensors with internal gain as part of our development of ultra-fast silicon detectors. Using C–V and α TCT measurements, we investigate the non-uniform doping profile of so-called low-gain avalanche detectors (LGAD). These are n-on-p pad sensors with charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction, obtained with a highly doped implant. We compare the bias dependence of the pulse shapes of traditional sensors and of LGAD sensors with different dopant density of the diffusion layer, and extract the internal gain

  14. A radiation detector fabricated from silicon photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Hatakeyama, S; Norimura, T; Tsuchiya, T

    1984-12-01

    A silicon photodiode is converted to a low energy charged particle radiation detector. The window thickness of the fabricated detector is evaluated to be 50 micrograms/cm2. The area of the depletion region is 13.2 mm2 and the depth of it is estimated to be about 100 microns. The energy resolution (FWHM) is 14.5 ke V for alpha-particles from 241Am and 2.5 ke V for conversion electrons from 109Cd, respectively.

  15. Detector materials: germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1981-11-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1981 Nuclear Science Symposium. The basic physical properties of elemental semiconductors are reviewed. The interaction of energetic radiation with matter is discussed in order to develop a feeling for the appropriate semiconductor detector dimensions. The extremely low net dopant concentrations which are required are derived directly from the detector dimensions. A survey of the more recent techniques which have been developed for the analysis of detector grade semiconductor single crystals is presented

  16. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  17. Study of oxide facing at silicone detectors of ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopestansky, J.; Tykva, R.

    1999-01-01

    Formation of oxide facing on silicone in discrete phases of technological preparation of detectors and interaction of gold (aluminium) steamed with SiO x layer were studied. The homogeneity of Au and Si) x layers and interface Au-SiO x and SiO x -Si were examined. The methods SIMS, and partially XPS, AES and RBS were used

  18. Silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS SCT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robinson, D.; Allport, P.; Andricek, L.; Böhm, Jan; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Chilingarov, A.; Clark, A. G.; Feriere, D.; Fuster, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2002), s. 84-88 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ATLAS SCT * silicon microstrip detectors * irradiation * quality control Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  19. Silicon Drift Detectors - A Novel Technology for Vertex Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D.

    1996-10-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) are novel position sensing silicon detectors which operate in a manner analogous to gas drift detectors. Single SDD's were shown in the CERN NA45 experiment to permit excellent spatial resolution (pseudo-rapidity. Over the last three years we undertook a concentrated R+D effort to optimize the performance of the detector by minimizing the inactive area, the operating voltage and the data volume. We will present test results from several wafer prototypes. The charge produced by the passage of ionizing particles through the bulk of the detectors is collected on segmented anodes, with a pitch of 250 μm, on the far edges of the detector. The anodes are wire-bonded to a thick film multi-chip module which contains preamplifier/shaper chips and CMOS based switched capacitor arrays used as an analog memory pipeline. The ADC is located off-detector. The complete readout chain from the wafer to the DAQ will be presented. Finally we will show physics performance simulations based on the resolution achieved by the SVT prototypes.

  20. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  1. Silicon Detectors for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Eric R.

    Silicon detectors use state-of-the-art electronics to take advantage of the semiconductor properties of silicon to produce very high resolution radiation detectors. These detectors have been a fundamental part of high energy, nuclear, and astroparticle physics experiments for decades, and they hold great potential for significant gains in both PET and SPECT applications. Two separate prototype nuclear medicine imaging systems have been developed to explore this potential. Both devices take advantage of the unique properties of high resolution pixelated silicon detectors, designed and developed as part of the CIMA collaboration and built at The Ohio State University. The first prototype is a Compton SPECT imaging system. Compton SPECT, also referred to as electronic collimation, is a fundamentally different approach to single photon imaging from standard gamma cameras. It removes the inherent coupling of spatial resolution and sensitivity in mechanically collimated systems and provides improved performance at higher energies. As a result, Compton SPECT creates opportunities for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on higher energy isotopes as well as opportunities to expand the use of current isotopes such as 131I due to the increased resolution and sensitivity. The Compton SPECT prototype consists of a single high resolution silicon detector, configured in a 2D geometry, in coincidence with a standard NaI scintillator detector. Images of point sources have been taken for 99mTc (140 keV), 131I (364keV), and 22Na (511 keV), demonstrating the performance of high resolution silicon detectors in a Compton SPECT system. Filtered back projection image resolutions of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, and 6.7 mm were achieved for the three different sources respectively. The results compare well with typical SPECT resolutions of 5-15 mm and validate the claims of improved performance in Compton SPECT imaging devices at higher source energies. They also support the potential of

  2. The two sides of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, S.R.

    2001-10-01

    Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage current to levels of a few pA, while at 130K the Lazarus Effect plays an important role i.e. minimum voltage required for full depletion. Performing voltage scans on a 'standard' silicon pad detector pre- and post annealing, the charge collection efficiency was found to be 60% at 200V and 95% at 200V respectively. Time dependence measurements are presented, showing that for a dose of 6.5x10 14 p/cm 2 (450GeV protons) the time dependence of the charge collection efficiency is negligible. However, for higher doses, 1.2x10 15 p/cm 2 , the charge collection efficiency drops from an initial measured value of 67% to a stable value of 58% over a period of 15 minutes for reversed biased diodes. An analysis of the 'double junction' effect is also presented. A comparison between the Transient Current Technique and an X-ray technique is presented. The double junction has been observed in p + /n/n + silicon detectors after irradiation beyond 'type inversion', corresponding to a fluence equivalent to ∼3x10 13 cm -2 1MeV neutrons, producing p + /p/n + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the

  3. Amorphous silicon based radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Wildermuth, D.; Fujieda, I.; Street, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin(1 μm) and thick (>30μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. 13 refs., 7 figs

  4. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Z.; Escobar, C.; Gadomski, S.; Garcia, C.; Gonzales, S.; Kodyš, Peter; Kubík, P.; Lacasta, C.; Marti, S.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moorhead, G. F.; Phillips, P. W.; Řezníček, P.; Slavík, Radan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 573, 1/2 (2007), s. 12-15 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors - PSD /7./. Liverpool, 12.09.2005-16.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200670601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : semiconductor devices Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  5. A data acquisition system for silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Meschini, M.; Pieri, M.; Castellini, G.

    1998-01-01

    Following initial work on the readout of the L3 silicon microvertex detector, the authors have developed a complete data acquisition system for silicon microstrip detectors for use both in their home institute and at the various test beam facilities at the CERN laboratory. The system uses extensive decoupling schemes allowing a fully floating connection to the detector. This feature has many advantages especially in the readout of the latest double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

  6. Pion-induced damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, S; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; León-Florián, E; Gössling, C; Kaiser, B; Rolf, A; Wunstorf, R; Feick, H; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G; Moll, Michael; Taylor, G; Chilingarov, A G

    1995-01-01

    The damage induced by pions in silicon detectors is studied for positive and negative pions for fluence up to 10(14)cm-2 and 10(13) cm-2 respectively. Results on the energy dependence of the damage in the region of 65-330 MeV near to the  resonance are presented. The change in detector characteristics such as leakage current, charge collection efficiency and effective impurity concentration including long-term annealing effects have been studied. Comparisons to neutron and proton-induced damage are presented and discussed.

  7. Silicon lithium detector for x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabal, A. E.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Noriega Scull, C.; Martinez Munoz, O.; Diaz Cepeda, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Silicon Lithium detector is the system for the detection of nuclear radiation. It transforms the charge that was produced inside of Silicon material as a result of the incidence of particles and X rays, in voltage pulses at the output of the preamplifier. In this work was made the adjustment of the technological process of manufacture of the detector. Also was made the design and construction of the cryostat and preamplifier and then the validation of the system in a Cuban Dewar. The system, which was made for the first time in our country, has an energy resolution of 185 eV for the Fe-55 source (E=5.9 KeV), which has permitted its implementation in energy dispersive X ray fluorescence. (author) [es

  8. Silicon detectors for the sLHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Affolder, A.; Aleev, A.; Allport, P.P.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Popule, Jiří; Šícho, Petr; Tomášek, Michal; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 658, č. 1 (2011), s. 11-16 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032; GA ČR GA202/05/0653; GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : silicon particle detectors * radiation damage * irradiation * charge collection efficiency Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  9. Nuclear radiation detectors using high resistivity neutron transmutation doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, T.; Irmer, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the production of semiconductor detectors based on high resistivity n-type silicon is described. The n-type silicon is produced by neutron irradiation of p-type silicon. The detectors are produced by planar technique. They are suitable for the spectrometry of alpha particles and for the pulse count measurement of beta particles at room temperature. (author)

  10. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M., E-mail: markus.friedl@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ackermann, K. [MPI Munich, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Aihara, H. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aziz, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bergauer, T. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bozek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Division of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31 342 Krakow (Poland); Campbell, A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dingfelder, J. [University of Bonn, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Drasal, Z. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Frankenberger, A. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Gadow, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gfall, I. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Himori, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irmler, C. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-12-21

    The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m{sup 2} and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.

  11. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.; Ackermann, K.; Aihara, H.; Aziz, T.; Bergauer, T.; Bozek, A.; Campbell, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Drasal, Z.; Frankenberger, A.; Gadow, K.; Gfall, I.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Higuchi, T.; Himori, S.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.

    2013-01-01

    The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10 35 cm −2 s −1 in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m 2 and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics

  12. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters {epsilon}{sup 2}{tau}'s are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs.

  13. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters ε 2 τ's are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs

  14. Microstructured silicon neutron detectors for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, S; Fleta, C; Jumilla, C; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Rodriguez, J; Lozano, M; Guardiola, C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and performance of a perforated thermal neutron silicon detector with a 6 LiF neutron converter. This device was manufactured within the REWARD project workplace whose aim is to develop and enhance technologies for the detection of nuclear and radiological materials. The sensor perforated structure results in a higher efficiency than that obtained with an equivalent planar sensor. The detectors were tested in a thermal neutron beam at the nuclear reactor at the Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon and the intrinsic detection efficiency for thermal neutrons and the gamma sensitivity were obtained. The Geant4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the experimental conditions, i.e. thermal neutron beam and the whole detector geometry. An intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 8.6%±0.4% with a discrimination setting of 450 keV was measured

  15. Silicon Detectors-Tools for Discovery in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Since the first application of Silicon strip detectors in high energy physics in the early 1980ies these detectors have enabled the experiments to perform new challenging measurements. With these devices it became possible to determine the decay lengths of heavy quarks, for example in the fixed target experiment NA11 at CERN. In this experiment Silicon tracking detectors were used for the identification of particles containing a c-quark. Later on, the experiments at the Large Electron Positron collider at CERN used already larger and sophisticated assemblies of Silicon detectors to identify and study particles containing the b-quark. A very important contribution to the discovery of the last of the six quarks, the top quark, has been made by even larger Silicon vertex detectors inside the experiments CDF and D0 at Fermilab. Nowadays a mature detector technology, the use of Silicon detectors is no longer restricted to the vertex regions of collider experiments. The two multipurpose experiments ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN contain large tracking detectors made of Silicon. The largest is the CMS Inner Tracker consisting of 200 m 2 of Silicon sensor area. These detectors will be very important for a possible discovery of the Higgs boson or of Super Symmetric particles. This paper explains the first applications of Silicon sensors in particle physics and describes the continuous development of this technology up to the construction of the state of the art Silicon detector of CMS.

  16. Radiation damage studies for the D0 silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, F.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current D0 silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalization techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  17. Radiation damage studies for the DOe silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current DOe silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalisation techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  18. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

  19. Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Solano, B

    2004-01-01

    CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

  20. Epitaxial silicon semiconductor detectors, past developments, future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the main physical characteristics of epitaxial silicon as it relates to detector development is presented. As examples of applications results are presented on (1) epitaxial silicon avalanche diodes (ESAD); signal-to-noise, non-linear aspects of the avalanche gain mechanism, gain-bandwidth product, (2) ultrathin epitaxial silicon surface barrier (ESSB) detectors, response to heavy ions, (3) an all-epitaxial silicon diode (ESD), response to heavy ions, charge transport and charge defect. Future prospects of epitaxial silicon as it relates to new detector designs are summarized

  1. Micro-channel cooling for silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaschel, Nils

    2017-12-15

    Silicon tracking detectors employed in high-energy physics are located very close to the interaction points of the colliding particle beams. The high energetic radiation emerging from the interaction induces defects into the silicon, downgrading the efficiency to collect the charges created by passing particles and increasing the noise while data taking. Cooling the sensors to low temperatures can help to prevent defects and maintain a high efficiency and lower noise level. In order to maximize the LHC's discovery potential, the collider and its detectors will be upgraded to a higher luminosity around 2024. The conditions inside the detector will become harsher demanding that the technology must adapt to the new situation. Radiation damage is already an issue in the current ATLAS detector and therefore a huge number of parameters are constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure optimal operation. To provide the best possible settings the behavior of the sensors inside the ATLAS Inner Detector is predicted using simulations. In this work several parameters in the simulation including the depletion voltage and the crosstalk between sensor strips of the SCT detector are analyzed and compared with data. The main part of this work concerns the investigation of a novel cooling system based on microchannels etched into silicon in a generic research and development project at DESY and IMB-CNM. A channel layout is designed providing a homogeneous flow distribution across a large surface area and tested in a computational fluid simulation before its production. Two different fabrication techniques, anodic and eutectic bonding, are used to test prototypes with differing mechanical and thermal properties. Hydromechanical and thermal measurements are performed to fully characterize the flow inside the device and the thermal properties of the prototype in air and in a vacuum. The thermal behavior is analyzed by means of local measurements with thermal resistors and infrared

  2. Micro-channel cooling for silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaschel, Nils

    2017-12-01

    Silicon tracking detectors employed in high-energy physics are located very close to the interaction points of the colliding particle beams. The high energetic radiation emerging from the interaction induces defects into the silicon, downgrading the efficiency to collect the charges created by passing particles and increasing the noise while data taking. Cooling the sensors to low temperatures can help to prevent defects and maintain a high efficiency and lower noise level. In order to maximize the LHC's discovery potential, the collider and its detectors will be upgraded to a higher luminosity around 2024. The conditions inside the detector will become harsher demanding that the technology must adapt to the new situation. Radiation damage is already an issue in the current ATLAS detector and therefore a huge number of parameters are constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure optimal operation. To provide the best possible settings the behavior of the sensors inside the ATLAS Inner Detector is predicted using simulations. In this work several parameters in the simulation including the depletion voltage and the crosstalk between sensor strips of the SCT detector are analyzed and compared with data. The main part of this work concerns the investigation of a novel cooling system based on microchannels etched into silicon in a generic research and development project at DESY and IMB-CNM. A channel layout is designed providing a homogeneous flow distribution across a large surface area and tested in a computational fluid simulation before its production. Two different fabrication techniques, anodic and eutectic bonding, are used to test prototypes with differing mechanical and thermal properties. Hydromechanical and thermal measurements are performed to fully characterize the flow inside the device and the thermal properties of the prototype in air and in a vacuum. The thermal behavior is analyzed by means of local measurements with thermal resistors and infrared

  3. ATLAS silicon microstrip detector system (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The S CT together with the pixel and the transition radiation tracker systems and with a central solenoid forms the central tracking system of the ATLAS detector at LHC. Series production of SCT Silicon microstrip sensors is near completion. The sensors have been shown to be robust against high voltage operation to the 500 V required after fluences of 3x10 14 protons/cm 2 . SCT barrel modules are in series production. A low-noise CCD camera has been used to debug the onset of leakage currents

  4. Silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomerotski, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in silicon detectors used for particle physics experiments for the tracking and vertexing systems. After a general introduction the main focus of the report is on new challenges for this field posed by requirements of the future generation machines. Technologies reviewed in more detail are column parallel CCDs, DEPFET, vertical integration of sensors and electronics and several others which allow fast readout and low mass design. Important system issues such as mechanical arrangements for the sensors and power distribution, which are critical for the low mass design, are also discussed.

  5. Photon response of silicon diode neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    The photon response of silicon diode neutron detectors was studied to solve the problem on detecting neutrons in the presence of high energy photons at accelerator neutron sources. For the experiment Si diodes, Si discs, and moderated activation foil detectors were used. The moderated activation foil detector consisted of a commercial moderator and indium foils 2'' in diameter and approximately 2.7 grams each. The moderator is a cylinder of low-density polyethylene 6 1 / 4 '' in diameter by 6 1 / 16 '' long covered with 0.020'' of cadmium. Neutrons are detected by the reaction 115 In (n,γ) 116 In(T/sub 1 / 2 / = 54 min). Photons cannot be detected directly but photoneutrons produced in the moderator assembly can cause a photon response. The Si discs were thin slices of single-crystal Si about 1.4 mils thick and 1'' in diameter which were used as activation detectors, subsequently being counted on a thin-window pancake G.M. counter. The Si diode fast neutron dosimeter 5422, manufactured by AB Atomenergi in Studsvik, Sweden, consists of a superdoped silicon wafer with a base width of 0.050 inches between two silver contacts coated with 2 mm of epoxy. For this experiment, the technique of measuring the percent change of voltage versus dose was used. Good precision was obtained using both unirradiated and preirradiated diodes. All diodes, calibrated against 252 CF in air,were read out 48 hours after irradiation to account for any room temperature annealing. Results are presented and discussed

  6. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  7. Rapid methods for multi-elemental X-ray fluorescence analysis using excitation isotope sources and Si(Li)-semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Some rapid methods using an unique calibration curve have been developed for multi-elemental X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin and thick layers of various samples having low contents of heavy elements. The matrix absorption effect in thick samples is taken into account according to the scattered radiation.The similar method using a unique calibration curve for determination of low contents of trace elements in thin layers without account of matrix effect is proposed. The results on the intercomposition run soil-5 are in good agreement with the data obtained in different laboratories. The errors of the method are 10 %; in a case of peak superposition - 15 %

  8. Development of Radiation Hard Radiation Detectors, Differences between Czochralski Silicon and Float Zone Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuominen, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop radiation hard silicon detectors. Radiation detectors made ofsilicon are cost effective and have excellent position resolution. Therefore, they are widely used fortrack finding and particle analysis in large high-energy physics experiments. Silicon detectors willalso be used in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment that is being built at the LHC (LargeHadron Collider) accelerator at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research). This work wasdone in the CMS programme of Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP).Exposure of the silicon material to particle radiation causes irreversible defects that deteriorate theperformance of the silicon detectors. In HIP CMS Programme, our approach was to improve theradiation hardness of the silicon material with increased oxygen concentration in silicon material. Westudied two different methods: diffusion oxygenation of Float Zone silicon and use of high resistivityCzochralski silicon.We processed, characterised, tested in a parti...

  9. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  10. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  11. Silicon microstrip detectors on 6'' technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Günther, M; Martignon, G; Bacchetta, N; Bisello, D; Leonardi, G L; Lucas, T; Wilburn, C

    1999-01-01

    The fabrication of microstrip detectors on 4'' high-resistivity wafers that allow for a maximum workable area of about 42 cm sup 2 has been well established. Using 6'' wafers the workable area increases up to 100 cm sup 2 (more than twice the area of a 4'' wafer) allowing a larger number of detectors to be processed at the same time on the same wafer resulting in a sizable reduction of cost. After a prototyping stage, the CDF silicon tracker upgrade is now receiving final production sensors from Micron Semiconductor Ltd. The performance of double-sided single-metal small stereo angle sensors for the CDF SVXII and ISL detectors has been studied. Results include probe station measurements and test beam results. The problems encountered from prototyping to the final devices are described. A brief overview of the response of the sensors to irradiation with gamma-rays and p sup + up to a dose of 0.5 Mrad (well above the doses expected during Run II of the Tevatron) is included. (author)

  12. Silicon radiation detector analysis using back electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guye, R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique for the observation and analysis of defects in silicon radiation detectors is described. This method uses an electron beam from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) impinging on the rear side of the p + n junction of the silicon detector, which itself is active and detects the electron beam induced current (EBIC). It is shown that this current is a sensitive probe of localized trapping centers, either at the junction surface or somewhere in the volume of the silicon crystal. (orig.)

  13. Mechanical design of the CDF SVX II silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarha, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    A next generation silicon vertex detector is planned at CDF for the 1998 Tevatron collider run with the Main Injector. The SVX II silicon vertex detector will allow high luminosity data-taking, enable online triggering of secondary vertex production, and greatly increase the acceptance for heavy flavor physics at CDF. The design specifications, geometric layout, and early mechanical prototyping work for this detector are discussed

  14. Silicon charge detector for the CREAM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.H.; Park, N.H.; Nam, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload had its first successful flight in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a Long Duration Balloon mission. Its aim is to explore the supernova acceleration limit of cosmic rays, the relativistic gas of protons, electrons and heavy nuclei arriving at Earth from outside of the solar system. The instrument is equipped with several systems to measure charge and energy spectra for Z=1-26 nuclei over the energy range 10 11 -10 15 eV. The Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) is a precision device to measure the charge of incident cosmic rays. The design, construction, integration and preliminary performance of the SCD are detailed in this paper

  15. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  16. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  17. Thermal Properties of the Silicon Microstrip Endcap Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz; Hammarström, R

    1998-01-01

    Irradiated silicon detectors must be cooled in order to guarantee stable short and long term operation. Using the SiF1 milestone prototype we have performed a detailed analysis of the thermal properties of the silicon microstrip endcap detector. The strongest constraint on the cooling system is shown to be set by the need to avoid thermal runaway of the silicon detectors. We show that, taking into account the radiation damage to the silicon after 10 years of LHC operation and including some safety margin, the detector will need a cooling fluid temperature of around -20 C. The highest temperature on the silicon will then be in the range -15 C to -10 C. This sets an upper limit on the ambient temperature in the tracker volume.

  18. The silicon strip detector at the Mark 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, R.; Golubev, V.; Lueth, V.; Barnett, B.; Dauncey, P.; Matthews, J.; Adolphsen, C.; Burchat, P.; Gratta, G.; King, M.; Labarga, L.; Litke, A.; Turala, M.; Zaccardelli, C.

    1990-04-01

    We have installed a Silicon Strip Vertex Detector in the Mark II detector at the Stanford Linear Collider. We report on the performance of the detector during a recent test run, including backgrounds, stability and charged particle tracking. 10 refs., 9 figs

  19. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  20. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  1. THE 15 LAYER SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR TRACKER IN EXPERIMENT 896

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.U.

    1998-01-01

    Large linear silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for use in several experiments. Recently 15 detectors were used as a tracking device in BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). The detectors were successfully operated in a 6.2 T magnetic field. The behavior of the detectors, such as drift uniformity, resolution, and charge collection efficiency are presented. The effect of the environment on the detector performance is discussed. Some results from the experimental run are presented. The detectors performed well in an experimental environment. This is the first tracking application of these detectors

  2. Small area silicon diffused junction X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. T.; Pehl, R. H.; Larsh, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low-temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy X-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 sq cm and a thickness of 100 microns. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values, indicating that the defects introduced by the high-temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low-energy X-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 K to 150 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low-energy X-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon-diffused junction technology to X-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon X-ray detector designs.

  3. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm 2 and a thickness of 100 μm. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150 0 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs

  4. Allpix$^{2}$: A Modular Simulation Framework for Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon; Hynds, Daniel; Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Gauvin, Neal; Nurnberg, Andreas Matthias; Schutze, Paul Jean; Vicente Barreto Pinto, Mateus

    2018-01-01

    Allpix$^{2}$ is a generic, open-source software framework for the simulation of silicon pixel detectors. Its goal is to ease the implementation of detailed simulations for both single detectors and more complex setups such as beam telescopes from incident radiation to the digitised detector response. Predefined detector types can be automatically constructed from simple model files describing the detector parameters. The simulation chain is arranged with the help of intuitive configuration files and an extensible system of modules, which implement separate simulation steps such as realistic charge carrier deposition with the Geant4 toolkit or propagation of charge carriers in silicon using a drift-diffusion model. Detailed electric field maps imported from TCAD simulations can be used to precisely model the drift behaviour of charge carriers within the silicon, bringing a new level of realism to Monte Carlo based simulations of particle detectors. This paper provides an overview of the framework and a select...

  5. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  6. Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Dolenec, R.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Krizan, P.; Mazuka, Y.; Pestotnik, R.; Stanovnik, A.; Yamaoka, M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel photon detector-i.e. the silicon photomultiplier-whose main advantage over conventional photomultiplier tubes is the operation in high magnetic fields, has been tested as a photon detector in a proximity focusing RICH with aerogel radiator. This type of RICH counter is proposed for the upgrade of the Belle detector at the KEK B-factory. Recently produced silicon photomultipliers show less noise and have larger size, which are important issues for a large area photon detector. We measured the single photon pulse height distribution, the timing resolution and the position sensitivity for different silicon photomultipliers (Hamamatsu MPPC HC025, HC050, and HC100). The silicon photomultipliers were then used to detect Cherenkov photons emitted by cosmic ray particles in a proximity focusing aerogel RICH. Various light guides were investigated in order to increase the detection efficiency

  7. Portable triple silicon detector telescope spectrometer for skin dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Larsen, H.E.; Christensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The features of a newly developed portable beta telescope spectrometer are described. The detector probe uses three silicon detectors with the thickness: 50 mu m/150 mu m/7000 mu m covered by a 2 mu m thick titanium window. Rejection of photon contributions from mixed beta/photon exposures...... is achieved by coincidence requirements between the detector signals. The silicon detectors, together with cooling aggregate, bias supplies, preamplifiers and charge generation for calibration are contained in a handy detector probe. Through a 3- or 10-m cable the detector unit is connected to a compact...... detectors. The LabVIEW(TM) software distributed by National Instruments was used for all program developments for the spectrometer, comprising also the capability of evaluating the absorbed dose rates from the measured beta spectra. The report describes the capability of the telescope spectrometer...

  8. Experience with the silicon strip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the ALICE Inner Track- ing System (ITS), connecting the TPC with the inner layers of the ITS. The SSD consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules, 95 μm pitch, distributed in two cylindrical bar- rels, whose radii are

  9. A silicon pad shower maximum detector for a Shashlik calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The new luminosity monitor of the DELPHI detector, STIC (Small angle TIle Calorimeter), was built using a Shashlik technique. This technique does not provide longitudinal sampling of the showers, which limits the measurement of the direction of the incident particles and the e-π separation. For these reasons STIC was equipped with a Silicon Pad Shower Maximum Detector (SPSMD). In order to match the silicon detectors to the Shashlick read out by wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers, the silicon wafers had to be drilled with a precision better than 10μm without damaging the active area of the detectors. This paper describes the SPSMD with emphasis on the fabrication techniques and on the components used. Some preliminary results of the detector performance from data taken with a 45GeV electron beam at CERN are presented. (orig.)

  10. The ALICE silicon pixel detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is again reaching its startup phase at the European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN). The LHC started its operation on the 10 th of September, 2008 with huge success managing to sent the the first beam successfully around the entire ring in less than an hour after the first injection in one direction, and later that day in the opposite direction. Unfortunately, on the 19 th of September, an accident occurred during the 5.5 TeV magnet commissioning in Sector 34, which will significantly delay the operation of the LHC. The ALICE experiment will exploit the collisions of accelerated ions produced at the LHC to study strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. e ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) represents the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Traing System (ITS) located at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm from the Interaction Point (IP). One of the main tasks of the SPD is to provide precise traing information. is information is fundamental for the study of weak decays of heavy flavor particles, since the corresponding signature is a secondary vertex separated from the primary vertex only by a few hundred micrometers. e tra density could be as high as 80 tracks per cm 2 in the innermost SPD layer as a consequence of a heavy ion collision. The SPD will provide a spatial resolution of around ≅12 μm in the rφ direction and ≅70 μm in the z direction. The expected occupancy of the SPD ranges from 0.4% to 1.5% which makes it an excellent charged particle multiplicity detector in the pseudorapidity region |η| < 2. Furthermore, by combining all possible hits in the SPD, one can get a rough estimate of the position of the primary interaction. One of the challenges is the tight material budget constraint (<1% radiation length per layer) in order to limit the scattering of the traversing particles. e silicon sensor and its readout chip have a total thickness of only 350 μm and the signal lines from the

  11. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors for collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.; Cheremukhin, A.; Fefelova, E.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon planar detectors before and after fast neutron irradiation ( n o> = 1.35 MeV) at room temperature have been investigated. Maximal neutron fluence has been 8 · 10 13 cm -2 . The detectors have been manufactured of the high resistivity (1 : 10 k Ohm · cm) n-type float-zone silicon (FZ-Si) with the orientation supplied by two different producers: WACKER CHEMITRONIC and Zaporojie Titanium-Magnesium Factory (ZTMF). The influence of fast neutron irradiation of the main parameters of the starting silicon before the technological high temperature treatment has been investigated as well. 30 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Fabrication of detectors and transistors on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1988-06-01

    A new process for the fabrication of silicon p-i-n diode radiation detectors is described. The utilization of backside gettering in the fabrication process results in the actual physical removal of detrimental impurities from critical device regions. This reduces the sensitivity of detector properties to processing variables while yielding low diode reverse-leakage currents. In addition, gettering permits the use of processing temperatures compatible with integrated-circuit fabrication. P-channel MOSFETs and silicon p-i-n diodes have been fabricated simultaneously on 10 kΩ/centerreverse arrowdot/cm silicon using conventional integrated-circuit processing techniques. 25 refs., 5 figs

  13. First performance results of the Phobos silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; Baker, M D; Barton, D S; Betts, R R; Bindel, R; Budzanowski, A; Busza, W; Carroll, A; Decowski, M P; García, E; George, N; Gulbrandsen, K H; Gushue, S; Halliwell, C; Hamblen, J; Heintzelman, G A; Henderson, C; Holynski, R; Hofman, D J; Holzman, B; Johnson, E; Kane, J L; Katzy, J; Khan, N; Kucewicz, W; Kulinich, P; Lin, W T; Manly, S; McLeod, D; Michalowski, J; Mignerey, A; Mülmenstädt, J; Nouicer, R; Olszewski, A; Pak, R; Park, I C; Reed, C; Remsberg, L P; Reuter, M; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rosenberg, L J; Sarin, P; Sawicki, P; Skulski, W; Steadman, S G; Stephans, G S F; Steinberg, P; Stodulski, M; Sukhanov, A; Tang, J L; Teng, R; Trzupek, A; Vale, C; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Verdier, R; Wadsworth, B; Wolfs, F L H; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K; Wuosmaa, A H; Wyslouch, B

    2001-01-01

    The Phobos experiment concluded its first year of operation at RHIC taking data in Au-Au nucleus collisions at s radical = 65 GeV and 130 GeV/nucleon pair. First preliminary results of the performances of our silicon detectors in the experiment are summarized. The Phobos experiment uses silicon pad detectors for both tracking and multiplicity measurements. The silicon sensors vary strongly in their pad geometry. In this paper, we compare the signal response, the signal uniformity and signal-to-noise performance as measured in the experiment for the different geometries. Additionally, we investigate effects of very high channel occupancy on the signal response.

  14. First performance results of the Phobos silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernegger, H.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hołyński, R.; Hofman, D. J.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Steinberg, P.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2001-11-01

    The Phobos experiment concluded its first year of operation at RHIC taking data in Au-Au nucleus collisions at s nn=65 GeV and 130 GeV/ nucleon pair. First preliminary results of the performances of our silicon detectors in the experiment are summarized. The Phobos experiment uses silicon pad detectors for both tracking and multiplicity measurements. The silicon sensors vary strongly in their pad geometry. In this paper, we compare the signal response, the signal uniformity and signal-to-noise performance as measured in the experiment for the different geometries. Additionally, we investigate effects of very high channel occupancy on the signal response.

  15. Wedge silicon detectors for the inner trackering system of CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.; Wheadon, R.

    1997-01-01

    One ''wedge'' double sided silicon detector prototype for the CMS forward inner tracker has been tested both in laboratory and on a high energy particle beam. The results obtained indicate the most reliable solutions for the strip geometry of the junction side. Three different designs of ''wedge'' double sided detectors with different solutions for the ohmic side strip geometry are presented. (orig.)

  16. Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Campisi, M.G.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; Filippo, E. De; Geraci, E.; Geraci, M.; Guazzoni, P.; Manno, M.C. Iacono; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Nigro, S. Lo; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors have been investigated for different detector characteristics as a function of type and energy of the detected particles. A new approach is presented and used to reproduce the effect of the plasma delay in the timing performances. The results are in good agreement with the present data and with previous measurements found in the literature

  17. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  18. Recent progress in low-temperature silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Bell, W.; Berglund, P.; Borchi, E.; Boer, W. de; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Casagrande, L.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Dierlamm, A.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Grohmann, S.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Hempel, O.; Herzog, R.; Haerkoenen, J.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; De Masi, R.; Menichelli, D.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pretzl, K.; Smith, K.; Solano, B. Pere; Sousa, P.; Pirollo, S.; Rato Mendes, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.; Tuominen, E.; Verbitskaya, E.; Da Via, C.; Watts, S.; Wobst, E.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2003-01-01

    The CERN RD39 Collaboration studies the possibility to extend the detector lifetime in a hostile radiation environment by operating them at low temperatures. The outstanding illustration is the Lazarus effect, which showed a broad operational temperature range around 130 K for neutron irradiated silicon detectors

  19. Dismantling the silicon microstrip detector on L3

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The silicon microstrip detector is located at the heart of the detector and must be kept cool to prevent thermal noise. The work shown here is the removal of the cooling system. L3 was dismantled as part of the closure of the entire LEP accelerator in 2000 to make way for the new LHC.

  20. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0 degrees C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0 degrees C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length

  1. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0{degrees}C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0{degrees}C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length.

  2. Slim edges in double-sided silicon 3D detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M; Dalla Betta, G-F; Bagolini, A; Boscardin, M; Giacomini, G; Vianello, E; Zorzi, N

    2012-01-01

    Minimization of the insensitive edge area is one of the key requirements for silicon radiation detectors to be used in future silicon trackers. In 3D detectors this goal can be achieved with the active edge, at the expense of a high fabrication process complexity. In the framework of the ATLAS 3D sensor collaboration, we produced modified 3D silicon sensors with a double-sided technology. While this approach is not suitable to obtain active edges, because it does not use a support wafer, it allows for a new type of edge termination, the slim edge. In this paper we report on the development of the slim edge, from numerical simulations to design and testing, proving that it works effectively without increasing the fabrication complexity of silicon 3D detectors, and that it could be further optimized to reduce the insensitive edge region to less than 100 μm.

  3. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Barnett, B.M.; Bartalina, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the authors show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of ∼4 x 10 14 p/cm 2 , no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at T < 120 K. Besides confirming the previously observed Lazarus effect in single diodes, these results establish, for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments

  4. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  5. Silicon position sensitive detectors for the Helios (NA 34) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Manns, T; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Thompson, J A; Tosh, R; Chand, T; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1987-01-15

    The design construction and testing of X-Y tracking modules for a silicon microstrip vertex detector for use in Fermilab experiment E706 is discussed. A successful adaptation of various technologies, essential for instrumenting this class of detectors at a university laboratory is described. Emphasis is placed on considerable cost reduction, design flexibiity and more rapid turnover with a view toward large detectors for the future.

  6. α-spectra hyperfine structure resolution by silicon planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, V.K.; Verbitskaya, E.M.; Strokan, N.B.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Malyarenko, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The lines with 13 keV step from the main one is α-spectra of nuclei with an odd number of nucleons take place. Silicon planar detectors n-Si with the operation surface of 10 mm 2 are developed for resolution of this hyperfine structure. The mechanism of losses in detectors for short-range-path particles is analyzed. The results of measurements from detectors with 10 keV resolution are presented

  7. cap alpha. -spectra hyperfine structure resolution by silicon planar detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremin, V K; Verbitskaya, E M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L; Malyarenko, A M

    1986-10-01

    The lines with 13 keV step from the main one is ..cap alpha..-spectra of nuclei with an odd number of nucleons take place. Silicon planar detectors n-Si with the operation surface of 10 mm/sup 2/ are developed for resolution of this hyperfine structure. The mechanism of losses in detectors for short-range-path particles is analyzed. The results of measurements from detectors with 10 keV resolution are presented.

  8. Oxide layers for silicon detector protection against enviroment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tsazh, E.; Brylovska, I.; Valerian, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that for protection of silicon detectors of nuclear radiations oxide layers could be used. The layers are produced by electrochemical oxidation of silicon surface with the following low-temperature annealing. These layers have characteristics similar to those for oxide layers produced by treatment of silicon samples at elevated temperature in oxygen flow. To determine properties of oxide layers produced by electrochemical oxidation the α-particle back-scattering method and the method of volt-farad characteristics were used. Protection properties of such layers were checked on the surface-barrier detectors. It was shown that protection properties of such detectors were conserved during long storage at room temperature and during their storage under wet-bulb temperature. Detectors without protection layer have worsened their characteristics

  9. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T.

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  10. 4D tracking with ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    F-W Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Seiden, Abraham; Cartiglia, Nicolò

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of particle detectors has always pushed the technological limit in order to provide enabling technologies to researchers in all fields of science. One archetypal example is the evolution of silicon detectors, from a system with a few channels 30 years ago, to the tens of millions of independent pixels currently used to track charged particles in all major particle physics experiments. Nowadays, silicon detectors are ubiquitous not only in research laboratories but in almost every high-tech apparatus, from portable phones to hospitals. In this contribution, we present a new direction in the evolution of silicon detectors for charge particle tracking, namely the inclusion of very accurate timing information. This enhancement of the present silicon detector paradigm is enabled by the inclusion of controlled low gain in the detector response, therefore increasing the detector output signal sufficiently to make timing measurement possible. After providing a short overview of the advantage of this new technology, we present the necessary conditions that need to be met for both sensor and readout electronics in order to achieve 4D tracking. In the last section, we present the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of our research path.

  11. The silicon vertex tracker for star and future applications of silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellwied, Rene

    2001-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) for the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory has recently been completed and installed. First data were taken in July 2001. The SVT is based on a novel semi-conductor technology called Silicon Drift Detectors. 216 large area (6 by 6 cm) Silicon wafers were employed to build a three barrel device capable of vertexing and tracking in a high occupancy environment. Its intrinsic radiation hardness, its operation at room temperature and its excellent position resolution (better than 20 micron) in two dimensions with a one dimensional detector readout, make this technology very robust and inexpensive and thus a viable alternative to CCD, Silicon pixel and Silicon strip detectors in a variety of applications from fundamental research in high-energy and nuclear physics to astrophysics to medical imaging. I will describe the development that led to the STAR-SVT, its performance and possible applications for the near future

  12. Planar edgeless silicon detectors for the TOTEM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, G; Noschis, E

    2007-01-01

    Recently the first prototype of microstrip edgeless silicon detector for the TOTEM experiment has been successfully produced and tested. This detector is fabricated with standard planar technology, reach sensitivity 50 μm from the cut edge and can operate with high bias at room temperature. These almost edgeless detectors employ a newly conceived terminating structure, which, although being reduced with respect to the conventional ones, still controls the electric field at the device periphery and prevents leakage current breakdown for high bias. Detectors with the new terminating structure are being produced now and will be installed at LHC in the Roman Pots, a special beam insertion, to allow the TOTEM experiment to detect leading protons at 10 σ from the beam. This paper will describe this new terminating structure for planar silicon detectors, how it applies to big size devices and the experimental tests proving their functionality.

  13. The readout system of the new H1 silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Henschel, H.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.W.; Joensson, L.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Wagener, M.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Niggli, H.; Pitzl, D.

    1995-03-01

    The H1 detector at HERA at DESY undergoes presently a major upgrade. In this context silicon strip detectors have been installed at beginning of 1995. The high bunch crossing frequency of HERA (10.4 MHz) demands a novel readout architecture which includes pipelining, signal processing and data reduction at a very early stage. The front end readout is hierarchically organized. The detector elements are read out by the APC chip which contains an analog pipeline and performs first background subtraction. Up to five readout chips are controlled by a Decoder Chip. The readout processor module (OnSiRoC) operates the detectors, controls the Decoder Chips and performs a first level data reduction. The paper describes the readout architecture of the H1 Silicon Detectors and performance data of the complete readout chain. (orig.)

  14. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-01

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  15. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickert, N C

    2008-02-15

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  16. Probe station for testing of ALICE silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Humanic, T J; Piemonte, C; Rashevsky, A; Sugarbaker, E R; Vacchi, A

    2003-01-01

    Large area, 7.25 cm multiplied by 8.76 cm silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for the ALICE experiment at LHC. An active area of the detector of more than 50 cm**2 imposes high demands on the quality of processing and raw material. Automated testing procedures have been developed to test detectors before mounting them on the ladders. Probe stations for ALICE SDD testing were designed and built at INFN, Trieste and Ohio State University (OSU). Testing procedures, detector selection criteria and some details of the OSU probe station design are discussed.

  17. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Hayano, R S; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  18. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hangst, J.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hardy, W.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayden, M.E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Humphries, A.J. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-08-21

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  19. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  20. Developing a fast simulator for irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Diez Gonzalez-Pardo, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Simulation software for irradiated silicon detectors has been developed on the basis of an already existing C++ simulation software called TRACS[1]. This software has been already proven useful in understanding non-irradiated silicon diodes and microstrips. In addition a wide variety of user-focus features has been implemented to improve on TRACS flexibility. Such features include an interface to allow any program to leverage TRACS functionalities, a configuration file and improved documentation.

  1. The silicon shower maximum detector for the STIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The structure of a shashlik calorimeter allows the insertion of tracking detectors within the longitudinal sampling to improve the accuracy in the determination of the direction of the showering particle and the e/π separation ability. The new forward calorimeter of the DELPHI detector has been equipped with two planes of silicon pad detectors respectively after 4 and 7.4 radiation lengths. The novelty of these silicon detectors is that to cope with the shashlik readout fibers, they had to incorporate 1.4 mm holes every cm 2 . The detector consists of circular strips with a radial pitch of 1.7 mm and an angular granularity of 22.5 , read out by means of the MX4 preamplifier. The preamplifier is located at 35 cm from the silicon detector and the signal is carried by Kapton cables bonded to the detector. The matching to the MX4 input pitch of 44 μm was made by a specially developed fanin hybrid. (orig.)

  2. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. J.; Batignani, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-10-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ˜7.77×10 4/s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device.

  3. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.J.; Batignani, G.; Guerra, A.D.A. Del; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ∼7.77x10 4 /s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device

  4. Neutron damage of silicon detectors at 20 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, R.; Gorfine, G.; Guy, L.; Moorhead, G.; Taylor, G.; Tovey, S.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution reports new data on the damage of silicon detectors by low energy (1 MeV) neutrons. The data were taken at the end of 1991. Three exposures of UA2 Inner Silicon detectors were made: at +20 deg C, -15 deg C and -95 deg C. A high neutron flux enabled the required fluences to be achieved in relatively short times. This increases the sensitivity of the experiment to damage types with shorter self-annealing time constants. This note discusses the new data taken at +20 deg C. Analysis of the low temperature exposures is in progress. 5 refs., 15 figs

  5. Silicon-Based Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    This document discusses the silicon-based detectors planned for the High Luminosity LHC. The special aspects to cope with the new environment and its challenges, e.g. very high radiation levels and very high instantaneous luminosity thus high pile-up, high occupancy and high data rates, are addressed. The different design choices of the detectors are put into perspective. Exciting topics like trackers, high granularity silicon-based calorimetry with novel 8~inch processing, fast timing and new triggers are described.

  6. On determining dead layer and detector thicknesses for a position-sensitive silicon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, J.; Lee, Jenny; Lynch, W. G.; Niu, C. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Brown, K. W.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, K. P.; Chen, G.; Estee, J.; Li, Z.; Pruitt, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Xiao, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, two particular properties of the position-sensitive, thick silicon detectors (known as the "E" detectors) in the High Resolution Array (HiRA) are investigated: the thickness of the dead layer on the front of the detector, and the overall thickness of the detector itself. The dead layer thickness for each E detector in HiRA is extracted using a measurement of alpha particles emitted from a 212Pb pin source placed close to the detector surface. This procedure also allows for energy calibrations of the E detectors, which are otherwise inaccessible for alpha source calibration as each one is sandwiched between two other detectors. The E detector thickness is obtained from a combination of elastically scattered protons and an energy-loss calculation method. Results from these analyses agree with values provided by the manufacturer.

  7. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Position sensitive silicon detectors inside the Tevatron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellettini, G.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Cervelli, F.; Del Fabbro, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Sestini, P.; Stefanini, A.; Tonelli, G.; Zetti, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Cordelli, M.; Curatolo, M.; Dulach, B.; Esposito, B.; Giromini, P.; Miscetti, S.; Sansoni, A.

    1986-01-01

    Four position sensitive silicon detectors have been tested inside the Tevatron beam pipe at Fermilab. The system is the prototype of the small angle silicon spectrometer designed to study primarily p-anti p elastic and diffractive cross-sections at the Collider of Fermilab (CDF). Particles in the beam halo during p-anti p storage tests were used to study the performance of the detectors. Efficiency, linearity of response and spatial resolution are shown. Measurements performed at different distances from the beam axis have shown that the detectors could be operated at 8.5 mm from the beam with low rates and no disturbance to the circulating beams. This distance corresponds to about 11 times the standard half-width of the local beam envelope. The behaviour of the detectors with the radiation dose has also been investigated. (orig.)

  10. Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241 Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed

  11. High resolution silicon detectors for colliding beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Raso, G.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.

    1984-01-01

    Resolution and linearity of the position measurement of Pisa multi-electrode silicon detectors are presented. The detectors are operated in slightly underdepleted mode and take advantage of their intrinsic resistivity for resistive charge partition between adjacent strips. 22 μm resolution is achieved with readout lines spaced 300 μm. Possible applications in colliding beam experiments for the detection of secondary vertices are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Characterization procedures for double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, N.L. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Frautschi, M.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Hoeferkamp, M.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.; Seidel, S.C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Center for Particle Phys.

    1995-08-15

    Since double-sided silicon microstrip detectors are still evolving technologically and are not yet commercially available, they require extensive electrical evaluation by the user to ensure they were manufactured to specifications. In addition, measurements must be performed to determine detector operating conditions. Procedures for measuring the following quantities are described: - Leakage current, - Depletion voltage, - Bias resistance, - Interstrip resistance, - Coupling capacitance, - Coupling capacitor breakdown voltage. (orig.).

  13. Characterization procedures for double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, N.L.; Frautschi, M.A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Seidel, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Since double-sided silicon microstrip detectors are still evolving technologically and are not yet commercially available, they require extensive electrical evaluation by the user to ensure they were manufactured to specifications. In addition, measurements must be performed to determine detector operating conditions. Procedures for measuring the following quantities are described: - Leakage current, - Depletion voltage, - Bias resistance, - Interstrip resistance, - Coupling capacitance, - Coupling capacitor breakdown voltage. (orig.)

  14. Distribution of electric field and charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of electric field in silicon strip detectors is analyzed in the case of dull depletion as well as for partial depletion. Influence of inhomogeneous electric fields on the charge collection and performances of silicon strip detectors is discussed

  15. New developments in double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Boulos, T.; Cattaneo, P.; Dietl, H.; Hauff, D.; Holl, P.; Lange, E.; Lutz, G.; Moser, H.G.; Schwarz, A.S.; Settles, R.; Struder, L.; Kemmer, J.; Buttler, W.

    1990-01-01

    A new type of double sided silicon strip detector has been built and tested using highly density VLSI readout electronics connected to both sides. Capacitive coupling of the strips to the readout electronics has been achieved by integrating the capacitors into the detector design, which was made possible by introducing a new detector biasing concept. Schemes to simplify the technology of the fabrication of the detectors are discussed. The static performance properties of the devices as well as implications of the use of VLSI electronics in their readout are described. Prototype detectors of the described design equipped with high density readout electronics have been installed in the ALEPH detector at LEP. Test results on the performance are given

  16. Development of new type of silicon detector with internal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.F.

    1988-11-01

    The first test version of a new type of silicon detector made of extremely pure material was designed and manufactured. Numerical simulation provided great assistance in selecting the process parameters. The principle of operation aimed at of a radiation deflector consisting of an MOS transistor with more than fully depleted base area was confirmed. The energy resolution of the detectors was determined at 300 0 K and 6 keV (Mn K α ) to be 250 eV half width and is therefore considerably better than the conventional uncooled detectors. The detector principle permits the realisation of a two-dimensional detector matrix which can be addressed, with non-destructive triggering. With a measured signal/noise ratio of the individual detectors of better than 400 for minimum ionised particles, new types of fast triggering processes can be achieved in high energy physics with good local resolution (≅ 50 μm). (orig.) [de

  17. Infrared LED Array For Silicon Strip Detector Qualification

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkes, Guido; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Schwerdtfeger, Wolfgang; Waldschmitt, M; Weiler, K W; Weseler, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    The enormous amount of silicon strip detector modules for the CMS tracker requires a test-sytem to allow qualification of each individual detector module and its front-end electronics within minutes. The objective is to test the detector with a physical signal. Signals are generated in the detector by illumination with lightpulses emitted by a LED at 950~nm and with a rise time of 10~ns. In order to avoid a detector moving, an array of 64 LEDs is used, overlaping the complete detector width. The total length of an array is 15~cm. The spot size of an individual LED is controlled by apertures to illuminate about 25 strips. Furthermore it is possible to simulate the high leakage current of irradiated sensors by constant illumination of the sensor. This provides an effective mean to identfy pinholes on a sensor.

  18. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  19. Assessment of a silicon detector for pulsed neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Arnaboldi, C.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2004-01-01

    Resonance detectors (RD) are being developed for neutron spectroscopy in the epithermal energy region at spallation neutron sources. Different choices of converter foils and gamma spectrometers are being compared as part of an optimization and selection process within the TECHNI project. This paper reports on the design of a silicon detector system and some preliminary tests on the VESUVIO spectrometer. The detector has a good efficiency in the X-ray energy range, where two intense photon peaks (at 12 and 48 keV) are expected to be emitted following neutron capture in a uranium converter foil. The detector energy resolution has been improved by nitrogen vapor cooling of the silicon chip and by careful design of the preamplifier electronics. Neutron time of flight spectra have been measured on VESUVIO when the converter foil is placed in the neutron beam. In that case, the detector response is dominated by a continuum due to Compton detection of gammas of higher energy. These results provide a basis for a critical assessment of the applicability of silicon detectors for RD measurements of epithermal neutrons

  20. Performance of silicon drift detectors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Gatti, E.; Manzari, V.; Rehak, P.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the properties of silicon drift detectors in a magnetic field was carried out. A silicon drift detector with 41 anodes, providing unambiguous x and y position information, was used for measurements. Studies were done in three principal orientations of the detector relative to the direction of the magnetic field. The magnetic field was varied between 0 and 0.7 T and the drift field between 300 and 600 V/cm. Basic agreement with the theory of electron transport in semiconductors in a magnetic field was found. The transport properties of electrons in a magnetic field can be described by a mobility matrix. The components of the matrix depend on the electron mobility, Hall mobility and on the vector of the magnetic field. The precision of measurement was better than 0.2% for most of the parameters. For the electric field of a silicon drift detector, there is a first-order effect of the magnetic field only in one out of three principal directions. In this direction, the plane of the detector is perpendicular to the magnetic field and electrons drift at an angle α relative to the direction of the drift field. In two other principal directions, which are more important for tracking of the particles with drift detectors, there are no first-order magnetic effects. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-07-11

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  2. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10 16 particles per cm 2 , which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10 15 particles per cm 2 .

  3. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, F.; /CERN /Imperial Coll., London; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  4. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  5. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G.; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  6. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  7. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  8. The Silicon Ministrip Detector of the DELPHI Very Forward Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067985

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this work is the design, test and construction of a new silicon tracking detector for the extreme forward region of the DELPHI experiment at LEP. I joined the Very Forward Tracker (VFT) Ministrip group in 1993, at a time when the upgrade of the DELPHI tracking system was proposed. My first task was to participate in the design of the ministrip detector for the VFT. This included the optimisation of the detector layout in simulations and the study of prototype detectors in the testbeam. In 1994 I became responsible for the tests and assembly' of the VFT ministrip detector at CERN. The main focus of my work was the study of the performance of a large variety of detectors in beam tests. This included the preparation of the test setup, the tests of different detectors and the analysis of the measurements. With these measurements it is possible to compare the advantages and disadvantages of various new layouts for large pitch silicon strip detectors. In particular the signal response and spatial res...

  9. Neutron radiation damage studies on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, W.; Kraner, H.W.

    1990-10-01

    Effects of neutron radiation on electrical properties of Si detectors have been studied. At high neutron fluence (Φ n ≥ 10 12 n/cm 2 ), C-V characteristics of detectors with high resistivities (ρ ≥ 1 kΩ-cm) become frequency dependent. A two-trap level model describing this frequency dependent effect is proposed. Room temperature anneal of neutron damaged (at LN 2 temperature) detectors shows three anneal stages, while only two anneal stages were observed in elevated temperature anneal. 19 refs., 14 figs

  10. Silicon technologies for the CLIC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagel, S.

    2017-06-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e+e- collider designed to provide particle collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark and the Higgs boson, as well as searches for Beyond the Standard Model physics require a highly performant CLIC detector. In particular the vertex detector must provide a single point resolution of only a few micrometers while not exceeding the envisaged material budget of around 0.2% X0 per layer. Beam-beam interactions and beamstrahlung processes impose an additional requirement on the timestamping capabilities of the vertex detector of about 10 ns. These goals can only be met by using novel techniques in the sensor and ASIC design as well as in the detector construction. The R&D program for the CLIC vertex detector explores various technologies in order to meet these demands. The feasibility of planar sensors with a thickness of 50-150 μm, including different active edge designs, are evaluated using Timepix3 ASICs. First prototypes of the CLICpix readout ASIC, implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology and with a pixel size of 25×25μm 2, have been produced and tested in particle beams. An updated version of the ASIC with a larger pixel matrix and improved precision of the time-over-threshold and time-of-arrival measurements has been submitted. Different hybridization concepts have been developed for the interconnection between the sensor and readout ASIC, ranging from small-pitch bump bonding of planar sensors to capacitive coupling of active HV-CMOS sensors. Detector simulations based on Geant 4 and TCAD are compared with experimental results to assess and optimize the performance of the various designs. This contribution gives an overview of the R&D program undertaken for the CLIC vertex detector and presents performance measurements of the prototype detectors currently under investigation.

  11. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the characterization of the electrical properties of amorphous silicon films for the three different growth methods, RF sputtering, PECVD, and LPCVD are reported. The performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n-type crystalline silicon is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current and the alpha particle response of 5 mm diameter detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. The results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated

  12. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the silicon detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sampling layers – twenty of thickness 5/7X0, followed by ten of thickness 10/7X0. The silicon detectors dominate the cost of our design, so we use simple .... understanding of the cross talk, we are continuing to work on a quantitative model.

  13. The DELPHI silicon microvertex detector: from concept to physical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewska, A.

    1994-09-01

    The silicon microvertex detector which has been used in DELPHI experiments at CERN is described in detail. The brief description of the LEP accelerator as well as the results of the physical experiment have also been presented. (author). 65 refs, 50 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Silicon μ-strip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed and constructed for a fixed target experiment at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into Fastbus memory. Construction and performance during the actual data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  15. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  16. Performance of the CDF Silicon VerteX detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, O.

    1992-11-01

    The current status of the online and offline performance of the CDF Silicon VerteX detector is presented. So far, at low radiation dose, the device delivers good quality data. After the latest alignment using collision data, a spatial resolution of 13 pm is achieved in the transverse plane, demonstrating that CDF has a powerful tool to detect b decay vertices

  17. Beam test of a large area silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Chinnici, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Palma, F.; Sampietro, M.; Rehak, P.; Ballocchi, G.; Kemmer, J.; Holl, P.; Cox, P.T.; Giacomelli, P.; Vacchi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The results from the tests of the first large area (4 x 4 cm 2 ) planar silicon drift detector prototype in a pion beam are reported. The measured position resolution in the drift direction is (σ=40 ± 10)μm

  18. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1996-10-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  19. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1997-01-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  20. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  1. Status of the Silicon Strip Detector at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Simonis, H J

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Tracker is the world's largest silicon detector. It has only recently been moved underground and installed in the 4T solenoid. Prior to this there has been an intensive testing on the surface, which confirms that the detector system fully meets the design specifications. Irradiation studies with the sensor material shows that the system will survive for at least 10 years in the harsh radiation environment prevailing within the Tracker volume. The planning phase for SLHC as the successor of LHC, with a ten times higher luminosity at the same energy has already begun. First R\\&D studies for more robust detector materials and a new Tracker layout have started.

  2. Feasibility studies of microelectrode silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Lusiani, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Pignatel, G.U.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Sandrelli, F.; Speziali, V.; Svelto, F.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experience on design and fabrication, on high-resistivity silicon substrates, of microstrip detectors and integrated electronics, devoted to high-energy physics experiments and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the full program of our collaboration, with particular regards to the tuning of a new fabrication process, allowing for the production of good quality transistors, while keeping under control the basic detector parameters, such as leakage current. Experimental results on JFET and bipolar transistors are presented, and a microstrip detector with an integrated JFET in source-follower configuration is introduced

  3. The development of a silicon multiplicity detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Kraner, H.W.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Sondericker, J.; Stephani, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Barrette, J.; Hall, J.; Mark, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolfe, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States); Borenstein, S.R. [York College-CUNY, Jamaica, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The physics program and the design criteria for a Silicon Pad Detector at RHIC are reviewed. An end cap double sided readout detector configuration for RHIC is presented. Its performance as an on-line and off-line centrality tagging device is studied by means of simulations with Fritiof as the event generator. The results of an in-beam test of a prototype double-sided Si-detector are presented. Good signal-to-noise ratio are obtained with front junction and the resistive back side readout. Good separation between one and two minimum-ionizing particle signals is achieved.

  4. Portable triple silicon detector telescope spectrometer for skin dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Helt-Hansen, J; Christensen, P

    1999-01-01

    The features of a newly developed portable beta telescope spectrometer are described. The detector probe uses three silicon detectors with the thickness: 50 mu m/150 mu m/7000 mu m covered by a 2 mu m thick titanium window. Rejection of photon contributions from mixed beta/photon exposures is achieved by coincidence requirements between the detector signals. The silicon detectors, together with cooling aggregate, bias supplies, preamplifiers and charge generation for calibration are contained in a handy detector probe. Through a 3- or 10-m cable the detector unit is connected to a compact, portable processing unit including a laptop computer executing control, monitor, histogram and display tasks. The use of digital signal processing at an early stage of the signal chain has facilitated the achievement of a compact, low-weight device. 256 channels are available for each of the three detectors. The LabVIEW sup T sup M software distributed by National Instruments was used for all program developments for the sp...

  5. Silicon Technologies for the CLIC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon

    2017-01-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e$^+$e$^−$ collider designed to provide particle collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark and the Higgs boson, as well as searches for Beyond the Standard Model physics require a highly performant CLIC detector. In particular the vertex detector must provide a single point resolution of only a few micrometers while not exceeding the envisaged material budget of around 0.2%$~X_0$ per layer. Beam-beam interactions and beamstrahlung processes impose an additional requirement on the timestamping capabilities of the vertex detector of about 10 ns. These goals can only be met by using novel techniques in the sensor and ASIC design as well as in the detector construction. The R&D program for the CLIC vertex detector explores various technologies in order to meet these demands. The feasibility of planar sensors with a thickness of 50–150$~\\mu$m, including different active edge designs, are evaluated using Timepix3 A...

  6. The charge collection in single side silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Weilhammer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The transient current technique has been used to investigate signal formation in unirradiated silicon microstrip detectors, which are similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Nanosecond pulsed infrared and red lasers were used to induce the signals under study. Two peculiarities in the detector performance were observed: an unexpectedly slow rise to the signal induced in a given strip when signals are injected opposite to the strip, and a long duration of the induced signal in comparison with the calculated drift time of charge carriers through the detector thickness - with a significant fraction of the charge being induced after charge carrier arrival. These major effects and details of the detector response for different positions of charge injection are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem and compared with predictions arising from the more commonly studied phenomenon of signal formation in planar pad detectors.

  7. New results on silicon microstrip detectors of CMS tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, N.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bolla, G.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Favro, G.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Li Yahong; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    Interstrip and backplane capacitances on silicon microstrip detectors with p + strip on n substrate of 320 μm thickness were measured for pitches between 60 and 240 μm and width over pitch ratios between 0.13 and 0.5. Parametrisations of capacitance w.r.t. pitch and width were compared with data. The detectors were measured before and after being irradiated to a fluence of 4x10 14 protons/cm 2 of 24 GeV/c momentum. The effect of the crystal orientation of the silicon has been found to have a relevant influence on the surface radiation damage, favouring the choice of a substrate. Working at high bias (up to 500 V in CMS) might be critical for the stability of detector, for a small width over pitch ratio. The influence found to enhance the stability

  8. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  9. Energy response of neutron area monitor with silicon semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Izumi, Sigeru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaihara, Akihisa; Nakamura, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype neutron area monitor with a silicon semiconductor detector has been developed which has the energy response of 1 cm dose equivalent recommended by the ICRP-26. Boron and proton radiators are coated on the surface of the silicon semiconductor detector. The detector is set at the center of a cylindrical polyethylene moderator. This moderator is covered by a porous cadmium board which serves as the thermal neutron absorber. Neutrons are detected as α-particles generated by the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li and as recoil protons generated by the interaction of fast neutrons with hydrogen. The neutron energy response of the monitor was measured using thermal neutrons and monoenergetic fast neutrons generated by an accelerator. The response was consistent with the 1 cm dose equivalent response required for the monitor within ±34% in the range of 0.025 - 15 Mev. (author)

  10. Temperature detectors on irradiated silicon base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, M.; Dzhalelov, M.A.; Kurbanov, A.O.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known, that the most suitable for thermal resistors production is compensated silicon with impurities forming deep lying in forbidden zone, having big negative resistance temperature coefficients (RTC). In the capacity of initial materials for thermal resistors with negative RTC the n-type monocrystalline silicon with specific resistance ∼30 Ω·cm at 300 K is applied. Before the irradiation the phosphorus diffusion is realizing at temperature ∼1000 deg. C for 10 min. Irradiation is putting into practise by WWR-SM reactor fast neutrons within the range (7-10)·10 13 cm -2 . The produced resistors have nominal resistance range (8-20)·10 3 Ω·cm, coefficient of the thermal sensitivity B=4000-6000 deg. C., RTC α 300K =4-6.6 %/grad. It is shown, that offered method allows to obtain same type resistors characteristics on the base of neutron-irradiated material

  11. A new detector concept for silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadigov, A., E-mail: saazik@yandex.ru [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ahmadov, F.; Ahmadov, G. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ariffin, A.; Khorev, S. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Sadygov, Z. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Suleymanov, S. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Zerrouk, F. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Madatov, R. [Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-07-11

    A new design and principle of operation of silicon photomultipliers are presented. The new design comprises a semiconductor substrate and an array of independent micro-phototransistors formed on the substrate. Each micro-phototransistor comprises a photosensitive base operating in Geiger mode and an individual micro-emitter covering a small part of the base layer, thereby creating, together with this latter, a micro-transistor. Both micro-emitters and photosensitive base layers are connected with two respective independent metal grids via their individual micro-resistors. The total value of signal gain in the proposed silicon photomultiplier is a result of both the avalanche gain in the base layer and the corresponding gain in the micro-transistor. The main goals of the new design are: significantly lower both optical crosstalk and after-pulse effects at high signal amplification, improve speed of single photoelectron pulse formation, and significantly reduce the device capacitance.

  12. Suppression of irradiation effects in gold-doped silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, M.; Sloan, T.; Jones, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two sets of silicon detectors were irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons to different fluences and then characterized. The first batch were ordinary p-i-n photodiodes fabricated from high-resistivity (400 Ω cm) silicon, while the second batch were gold-doped powder diodes fabricated from silicon material initially of low resistivity (20 Ω cm). The increase in reverse leakage current after irradiation was found to be more in the former case than in the latter. The fluence dependence of the capacitance was much more pronounced in the p-i-n diodes than in the gold-doped diodes. Furthermore, photo current generation by optical means was less in the gold doped devices. All these results suggest that gold doping in silicon somewhat suppresses the effects of neutron irradiation. (author)

  13. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after γ-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO i , C i O i , C i C s , VP or V 2 several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO 2 defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep acceptor, a model has been introduced to

  14. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  15. Field oxide radiation damage measurements in silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M [Particle Detector Group, Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland); Singh, P; Shepard, P F [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Surface radiation damage in planar processed silicon detectors is caused by radiation generated holes being trapped in the silicon dioxide layers on the detector wafer. We have studied charge trapping in thick (field) oxide layers on detector wafers by irradiating FOXFET biased strip detectors and MOS test capacitors. Special emphasis was put on studying how a negative bias voltage across the oxide during irradiation affects hole trapping. In addition to FOXFET biased detectors, negatively biased field oxide layers may exist on the n-side of double-sided strip detectors with field plate based n-strip separation. The results indicate that charge trapping occurred both close to the Si-SiO[sub 2] interface and in the bulk of the oxide. The charge trapped in the bulk was found to modify the electric field in the oxide in a way that leads to saturation in the amount of charge trapped in the bulk when the flatband/threshold voltage shift equals the voltage applied over the oxide during irradiation. After irradiation only charge trapped close to the interface is annealed by electrons tunneling to the oxide from the n-type bulk. (orig.).

  16. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel χ 2 minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  17. NA62 Gigatracker sets new standards for silicon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The NA62 experiment should start collecting its first data (technical run) in a little over one year. At the heart of the experiment is the Gigatracker, a newly conceived silicon pixel detector, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. The demonstration detector has recently shown a time resolution of 175 picoseconds, an unprecedented record in the field of silicon pixel detectors.   The Gigatracker prototype. A 115 metre long vacuum tank, a brand new set of detectors surrounding it and an extremely rare decay to study: this is the new NA62 detector, foreseen to be installed in the SPS North Area in 2012. “We will study a very rare decay of the K+. Such a decay is sensitive to contributions coming from new particles and therefore represents a powerful way of searching for new physics, complementary to the direct approach of the LHC detectors,” explains Augusto Ceccucci, NA62 spokesperson. The particles from the SPS accelerator a...

  18. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel {chi}{sup 2} minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  19. Study of Silicon Microstrip Detector Properties for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lois-Gómez, C; Vázquez-Regueiro, P

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment, at present under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violating phenomena and rare decays in the B meson systems. The need of a good tracking performance and the high density of particles close to the beam pipe lead to the use of silicon microstrip detectors in a significant part of the LHCb tracking system. The Silicon Tracker (ST) will be built using p-on-n silicon detectors with strip pitches of approximately 200 $\\mu$m and readout strips up to 38 cm in length. This thesis describes the tests carried out on silicon microstrip detectors for the ST, starting from the characterization of different prototypes up to the final tests on the detectors that are being installed at CERN. The results can be divided in three main blocks. The first part comprises an exhaustive characterization of several prototype sensors selected as suitable candidates for the detector and was performed in order to decide some design param...

  20. Experimental studies of radiation damage of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, T.; Ghete, V.M.; Ghiordanescu, N.; Lazanu, I.; Mihul, A.; Golutvin, I.; Lazanu, S.; Savin, I.; Vasilescu, A.; Biggeri, U.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W.

    1994-02-01

    New particle physics experiments are correlated with high luminosity and/or high energy. The new generation of colliding beam machines which will be constructed will make an extrapolation of a factor of 100 in the center of mass energy and of 1000 in luminosity beyond present accelerators. The scientific community hopes that very exciting physics results could be achieved this way, from the solution to the problem of electroweak symmetry breaking to the possible discovery of new, unpredicted phenomena. The particles which compose the radiation field are: electrons, pions, neutrons, protons and photons. It has become evident that the problem of the radiation resistance of detectors in this severe environment is a crucial one. This situation is complicated more by the fact that detectors must work all the run time of the machine, and better all the time of the experiment, without replacement (part or whole). So, studies related to the investigation of the radiation hardness of all detector parts, are developing. The studies are in part material and device characterization after irradiation, and in part technological developments, made in order to find harder, cheaper technologies, for larger surfaces. Semiconductor detectors have proven to be a good choice for vertex and calorimeter. Both fixed target machines and colliders had utilized in the past silicon junction detectors as the whole or part of the detection system. Precision beam hodoscopes and sophisticated trigger devices with silicon are equally used. The associated electronics in located near the detectors, and is subjected to the same radiation fields. Studies of material and device radiation hardness are developing in parallel. Here the authors present results on the radiation hardness of silicon, both as a bulk material and as detectors, to neutron irradiation at high fluences

  1. New developments on silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashevsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the frame of the project to develop large-area linear drift detectors few prototypes have been designed and produced. the function of these prototypes is to allow the evaluation of the solutions chosen for the geometry of the on-board electrodes and the production process. On these prototypes it is studied the static characteristics and measured time of-flight and charge collection injecting charges with an IR laser source. It is report the results from one of the prototypes

  2. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, Markus, E-mail: friedl@hephy.a [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-02-01

    After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R and D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.

  3. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, Markus; Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8x10 35 cm -2 s -1 , which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R and D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.

  4. Characterising large area silicon drift detectors with MOS injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, V.; Rashevsky, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the INFN DSI project, the first prototypes of a large-area Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) have been designed and produced on 5'' diameter wafers of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon with a resistivity of 3000 Ω·cm. The detector is a 'butterfly' bi-directional structure with a drift length of 32 mm and the drifting charge is collected by two arrays of anodes having a pitch of 200 μm. The high-voltage divider is integrated on-board and is realised with p + implantations. For test and calibration purposes, the detector has a new type of MOS injector. The paper presents results obtained to injecting charge at the maximum drift distance (32mm) from the anodes by means of the MOS injecting structure, As front-end electronics, the authors have used a 32-channels low-noise bipolar VLSI circuit (OLA, Omni-purpose Low-noise Amplifer) specifically designed for silicon drift detectors. The uniformity of the drift time in different regions of the sensitive area and its dependence on the ambient temperature are studied

  5. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  6. TOSCA simulation of some effects observed in irradiated silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszczynski, A.S.

    2001-12-01

    TOSCA package has been used to simulate some effects observed recently in heavily irradiated silicon detectors. In particular, unexpected possibility of α-particle registration at p+ contact has been explained without presented elsewhere assumption that there was p-n junction of unknown origin beneath p+ layer. Performed simulations showed that assumption on relaxation-like character of irradiated silicon material is also not necessary to explain such effects like low-voltage capacitance peak in reverse bias and negative capacitance in forward bias. (author)

  7. Silicon Detector System for High Rate EXAFS Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pullia, A.; Kraner, H. W.; Siddons, D. P.; Furenlid, L. R.; Bertuccio, G.

    1995-01-01

    A multichannel silicon pad detector for EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) applications has been designed and built. The X-ray spectroscopic measurements demonstrate that an adequate energy resolution of 230 eV FWHM (corresponding to 27 rms electrons in silicon) can be achieved reliably at −35 °C. A resolution of 190 eV FWHM (corresponding to 22 rms electrons) has been obtained from individual pads at −35 °C. At room temperature (25 °C) an average energy resolution of 380 eV FWH...

  8. The fabrication of nitrogen detector porous silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husairi, F. S.; Othman, N.; Eswar, K. A.; Guliling, Muliyadi; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this study the porous silicon nanostructure used as a the nitrogen detector was fabricated by using anodization method because of simple and easy to handle. This method using 20 mA/ cm2 of current density and the etching time is from 10 - 40 minutes. The properties of the porous silicon nanostructure analyzed using I-V testing (electrical properties) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. From the I-V testing, sample PsiE40 where the sensitivity is 25.4% is a sensitivity of PSiE40 at 10 seconds exposure time.

  9. Charge collection properties of heavily irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2005-01-01

    Detectors processed on epitaxial silicon seem to be a viable solution for the extreme radiation levels in the innermost layers of tracking detectors at upgraded LHC (SLHC). A set of epitaxial pad detectors of 50 and 75μm thicknesses (ρ=50Ωcm) was irradiated with 24GeV/c protons and reactor neutrons up to equivalent fluences of 10 16 cm -2 . Charge collection for minimum ionizing electrons from a 90 Sr source was measured using a charge sensitive preamplifier and a 25ns shaping circuit. The dependence of collected charge on annealing time and operation temperature was studied. Results were used to predict the performance of fine pitch pixel detectors proposed for SLHC

  10. Charge collection properties of heavily irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramberger, G. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si; Cindro, V. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fretwurst, E. [University of Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Lindstroem, G. [University of Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Mandic, I. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuz, M. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zavrtanik, M. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-12-01

    Detectors processed on epitaxial silicon seem to be a viable solution for the extreme radiation levels in the innermost layers of tracking detectors at upgraded LHC (SLHC). A set of epitaxial pad detectors of 50 and 75{mu}m thicknesses ({rho}=50{omega}cm) was irradiated with 24GeV/c protons and reactor neutrons up to equivalent fluences of 10{sup 16}cm{sup -2}. Charge collection for minimum ionizing electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source was measured using a charge sensitive preamplifier and a 25ns shaping circuit. The dependence of collected charge on annealing time and operation temperature was studied. Results were used to predict the performance of fine pitch pixel detectors proposed for SLHC.

  11. Simulation and test of 3D silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleta, C.; Pennicard, D.; Bates, R.; Parkes, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Wright, V.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented here is the result of the collaborative effort between the University of Glasgow, ITC-IRST (Trento) and IMB-CNM (Barcelona) in the framework of the CERN-RD50 Collaboration to produce 3D silicon radiation detectors and study their performance. This paper reports on two sets of 3D devices. IRST and CNM have fabricated a set of single-type column 3D detectors, which have columnar electrodes of the same doping type and an ohmic contact located at the backplane. Simulations of the device behaviour and electrical test results are presented. In particular, current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and charge collection efficiency measurements are reported. Other types of structures called double-sided 3D detectors are currently being fabricated at CNM. In these detectors the sets of n and p columns are made on opposite sides of the device. Electrical and technological simulations and first processing results are presented

  12. Interdefect charge exchange in silicon particle detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Santocchia, A

    2002-01-01

    Silicon particle detectors in the next generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to a very challenging radiation environment. The principal obstacle to long-term operation arises from changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/), which lead to an increase in the bias required to deplete the detector and hence achieve efficient charge collection. We have previously presented a model of interdefect charge exchange between closely spaced centers in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This manifestly non-Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism leads to a marked increase in carrier generation rate and negative space charge over the SRH prediction. There is currently much interest in the subject of cryogenic detector operation as a means of improving radiation hardness. Our motivation, however, is primarily to investigate our model further by testing its predictions over a range of temperatures. We present measurements of spectra from /sup 241/Am alpha par...

  13. Novel detectors for silicon based microdosimetry, their concepts and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of semiconductor microdosimetry and the most current (state-of-the-art) Silicon on Insulator (SOI) detectors for microdosimetry based mainly on research and development carried out at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) at the University of Wollongong with collaborators over the last 18 years. In this paper every generation of CMRP SOI microdosimeters, including their fabrication, design, and electrical and charge collection characterisation are presented. A study of SOI microdosimeters in various radiation fields has demonstrated that under appropriate geometrical scaling, the response of SOI detectors with the well-known geometry of microscopically sensitive volumes will record the energy deposition spectra representative of tissue cells of an equivalent shape. This development of SOI detectors for microdosimetry with increased complexity has improved the definition of microscopic sensitive volume (SV), which is modelling the deposition of ionising energy in a biological cell, that are led from planar to 3D SOI detectors with an array of segmented microscopic 3D SVs. The monolithic ΔE-E silicon telescope, which is an alternative to the SOI silicon microdosimeter, is presented, and as an example, applications of SOI detectors and ΔE-E monolithic telescope for microdosimetery in proton therapy field and equivalent neutron dose measurements out of field are also presented. An SOI microdosimeter "bridge" with 3D SVs can derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in 12C ion radiation therapy that matches the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) quite well, but with outstanding spatial resolution. The use of SOI technology in experimental microdosimetry offers simplicity (no gas system or HV supply), high spatial resolution, low cost, high count rates, and the possibility of integrating the system onto a single device with other types of detectors.

  14. Development of electron temperature measuring system by silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Liao Min

    2007-12-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy with two channels Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) are adopted for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak in 2005. The working principle, design and first operation of the SDD soft X-ray spectroscopy are introduced. The measuring results of electron temperature are also presented. The results show that the SDD is very good detector for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak. These will become a solid basic work to establish SDD array for electron temperature profiling. (authors)

  15. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Campabadal, F; Key, M; Lozano, M; Martínez, C; Pellegrini, G; Rafí, J M; Ullán, M; Johansen, L; Pommeresche, B; Stugu, B; Ciocio, A; Fadeev, V; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Siegrist, J; Spieler, H; Vu, C; Bell, P J; Charlton, D G; Dowell, John D; Gallop, B J; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Mahout, G; McMahon, T J; Wilson, J A; Barr, A J; Carter, J R; Fromant, B P; Goodrick, M J; Hill, J C; Lester, C G; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Robinson, D; Sabetfakhri, A; Shaw, R J; Anghinolfi, F; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Chouridou, S; Fortin, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwé, M; Ferrari, P; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; MacPherson, A; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Ruggiero, G; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Bialas, W; Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Koperny, S; Blocki, J; Brückman, P; Gadomski, S; Godlewski, J; Górnicki, E; Malecki, P; Moszczynski, A; Stanecka, E; Stodulski, M; Szczygiel, R; Turala, M; Wolter, M; Ahmad, A; Benes, J; Carpentieri, C; Feld, L; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Mikulec, B; Mangin-Brinet, M; D'Onofrio, M; Donega, M; Moêd, S; Sfyrla, A; Ferrère, D; Clark, A G; Perrin, E; Weber, M; Bates, R L; Cheplakov, A P; Saxon, D H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M; Iwata, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Ikegami, Y; Unno, Y; Takashima, R; Brodbeck, T; Chilingarov, A G; Hughes, G; Ratoff, P; Sloan, T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; King, B T; Maxfield, S J; Smith, N A; Sutcliffe, P; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Beck, G A; Carter, A A; Lloyd, S L; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Morin, J; Nagai, K; Pritchard, T W; Anderson, B E; Butterworth, J M; Fraser, T J; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Postranecky, M; Warren, M R M; Cindro, V; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Duerdoth, I P; Freestone, J; Foster, J M; Ibbotson, M; Loebinger, F K; Pater, J; Snow, S W; Thompson, R J; Atkinson, T M; Bright, G; Kazi, S; Lindsay, S; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G N; Bachindgagyan, G; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Merkine, M; Andricek, L; Bethke, Siegfried; Kudlaty, J; Lutz, Gerhard; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R; Schieck, J; Cornelissen, T; Gorfine, G W; Hartjes, F G; Hessey, N P; de Jong, P; Muijs, A J M; Peeters, S J M; Tomeda, Y; Tanaka, R; Nakano, I; Dorholt, O; Danielsen, K M; Huse, T; Sandaker, H; Stapnes, S; Bargassa, Pedrame; Reichold, A; Huffman, T; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A; Doucas, G; Hawes, B; Lau, W; Howell, D; Kundu, N; Wastie, R; Böhm, J; Mikestikova, M; Stastny, J; Broklová, Z; Broz, J; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Kubík, P; Reznicek, P; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I; Chren, D; Horazdovsky, T; Linhart, V; Pospísil, S; Sinor, M; Solar, M; Sopko, B; Stekl, I; Ardashev, E N; Golovnya, S N; Gorokhov, S A; Kholodenko, A G; Rudenko, R E; Ryadovikov, V N; Vorobev, A P; Adkin, P J; Apsimon, R J; Batchelor, L E; Bizzell, J P; Booker, P; Davis, V R; Easton, J M; Fowler, C; Gibson, M D; Haywood, S J; MacWaters, C; Matheson, J P; Matson, R M; McMahon, S J; Morris, F S; Morrissey, M; Murray, W J; Phillips, P W; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Dorfan, D E; Grillo, A A; Rosenbaum, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Booth, P; Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Dervan, P; Grigson, C; Harper, R; Moraes, A; Peak, L S; Varvell, K E; Chu Ming Lee; Hou Li Shing; Lee Shih Chang; Teng Ping Kun; Wan Chang Chun; Hara, K; Kato, Y; Kuwano, T; Minagawa, M; Sengoku, H; Bingefors, N; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Fuster, J; García, C; García, J E; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Modesto, P; Sánchez, J; Sospedra, L; Vos, M; Fasching, D; González, S; Jared, R C; Charles, E

    2005-01-01

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 multiplied by 1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  16. Silicon drift detectors coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillators for spaceborne gamma-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, M.; Fiorini, C.; Labanti, C.; Longoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Rossi, E.; Soltau, H.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), thanks to their peculiar low noise characteristics, have proven to be excellent photodetectors for CsI(Tl) scintillation light detection. Two basic detector configurations have been developed: either a single SDD or a monolithic array of SDDs coupled to a single CsI(Tl) crystal. A 16 independent detectors prototype is under construction, designed to work in conjunction with the MEGA Compton telescope prototype under development at MPE, Garching, Germany. A single SDD coupled to a CsI(Tl) crystal has also been tested as a monolithic detector with an extended energy range between 1.5 keV and 1 MeV. The SDD is used as a direct X-ray detector for low energy photons interacting in silicon and as a scintillation light photodetector for photons interacting in the crystal. The type of interaction is identified by means of pulse shape discrimination technique. Detectors based on an array of SDDs coupled to a single CsI(Tl) crystal have also been built. The readout of these detectors is based on the Anger camera technique, and submillimeter spatial resolution can be achieved. The two detectors' approaches and their applications will be described

  17. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  18. Works of art investigation with silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Leutenegger, P; Fiorini, C; Strüder, L; Kemmer, J; Lechner, P; Sciuti, S; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy analysis is a non-destructive technique widely used in archeometry to investigate the chemical composition of pigments, metal alloys and stones for restoration and historical investigation. The classical detection systems for archeometrical investigations utilize cryogenic detectors, like Si(Li) and HPGe, characterized by a satisfactory energy resolution (of the order of 140 eV FWHM at 6 keV). However, the requirements of liquid N sub 2 drastically limit the portability of such systems, limiting the possibility of making measurements 'on the field'. Recently new silicon PIN diodes Peltier cooled were introduced, allowing the construction of portable instrumentation. However, their energy resolution (of the order of 250 eV FWHM at 6 keV) results in some cases unsatisfactory (for instance in the identification of light elements). Both the requirements of portability and good energy resolution are fulfilled by the silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD, cooled by a Peltie...

  19. Ultraviolet /UV/ sensitive phosphors for silicon imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, W.; Cowens, M. W.; Butner, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of UV sensitive organic phosphors and the radiometric properties of phosphor coated silicon detectors in the VUV, UV, and visible wavelengths are described. With evaporated films of coronene and liumogen, effective quantum efficiencies of up to 20% have been achieved on silicon photodiodes in the vacuum UV. With thin films of methylmethacrylate (acrylic), which are doped with organic laser dyes and deposited from solution, detector quantum efficiencies of the order of 15% for wavelengths of 120-165 nm and of 40% for wavelengths above 190 nm have been obtained. The phosphor coatings also act as antireflection coatings and thereby enhance the response of coated devices throughout the visible and near IR.

  20. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  1. Two gamma dose evaluation methods for silicon semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Faguo; Jin Gen; Yang Yapeng; Xu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Silicon PIN diodes have been widely used as personal and areal dosimeters because of their small volume, simplicity and real-time operation. However, because silicon is neither a tissue-equivalent nor an air-equivalent material, an intrinsic disadvantage for silicon dosimeters is that a significant over-response occurs at low-energy region, especially below 200 keV. Using a energy compensation filter to flatten the energy response is one method overcoming this disadvantage. But for dose compensation method, the estimated dose depends only on the number of the detector pulses. So a weight function method was introduced to evaluate gamma dose, which depends on pulse number as well as its amplitude. (authors)

  2. The CDF silicon vertex detector SVX and its upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, S.; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    1994-11-01

    The three generations of CDF silicon vertex detectors, SVX, SVX', and SVX II, are described. SVX, which operated during Tevatron run Ia, achieved 10.6 μm resolution in r - φ. SVX' is a radiation-hard device for run Ib with a similar but improved mechanical design and improved signal/noise. SVX II, which will be installed for run II, will track in three dimensions with radiation tolerance and electronics appropriate to a Main Injector environment

  3. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M.D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Burrows, C; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C.L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M.C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J.S; Hardy, W.N; Hayden, M.E; Humphries, A.J; Isaac, C.A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J.T.K; Menary, S; Napoli, S.C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C.Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R.L; Sampson, J.A; Sarid, E; Seddon, D; Silveira, D.M; So, C; Stracka, S; Tharp, T; Thompson, R.I; Thornhill, J; Tooley, M.P; Van Der Werf, D.P; Wells, D

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA ' s analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA ' s new neutral atom trap.

  4. Impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushpil, V.V.; Kushpil, S.A.; Petracek, V.

    1999-01-01

    A new impulse method of temperature measurement based on switching characteristic of the P-N junction is described. Temperature of silicon detector can be determined, due to the strong temperature dependence of minority carrier lifetime, from the charge registered during the switching-off process. The method has been tested in temperature range 25 - 60 deg C. Advantages, drawbacks and precision of this method are discussed

  5. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Burrows, C. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2013-12-21

    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA's analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA's new neutral atom trap.

  6. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  7. Spatial resolution of wedge shaped silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticic, T.; Barnett, B.; Blumenfeld, B.; Chien, C.Y.; Fisher, P.; Gougas, A.; Krizmanic, J.; Madansky, L.; Newman, D.; Orndorff, J.; Pevsner, A.; Spangler, J.

    1995-01-01

    Several wedge-shaped silicon microstrip detectors with pitches from 30 to 100 μm have been designed by our group and beam tested at the CERN SPS. We find the spatial resolution σ becomes larger at the rate of 0.21 μm per 1 μm increase in pitch, but the number of strips per cluster remains about the same as the pitch varies from 30 to 100 μm. (orig.)

  8. Experience with parallel optical link for the CDF silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Dense Optical Interface Module (DOIM) is a byte-wide optical link developed for the Run II upgrade of the CDF silicon tracking system [1]. The module consists of a transmitter with a laser-diode array for conversion of digitized detector signals to light outputs, a 22 m optical fiber ribbon cable for light transmission, and a receiver converting the light pulses back to electrical signals. We report on the design feature, characteristics, and radiation tolerance

  9. Silicon detectors operating beyond the LHC collider conditions: scenarios for radiation fields and detector degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.; Lazanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Particle physics makes its greatest advances with experiments at the highest energies. The way to advance to a higher energy regime is through hadron colliders, or through non-accelerator experiments, as for example the space astroparticle missions. In the near future, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be operational, and beyond that, its upgrades: the Super-LHC (SLHC) and the hypothetical Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). At the present time, there are no detailed studies for future accelerators, except those referring to LHC. For the new hadron collider LHC and some of its updates in luminosity and energy, the silicon detectors could represent an important option, especially for the tracking system and calorimetry. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the expected long-time degradation of the silicon as material and for silicon detectors, during continuous radiation, in these hostile conditions. The behaviour of silicon in relation to various scenarios for upgrade in energy and luminosity is discussed in the frame of a phenomenological model developed previously by the authors and now extended to include new mechanisms, able to explain and give solutions to discrepancies between model predictions and detector behaviour after hadron irradiation. Different silicon material parameters resulting from different technologies are considered to evaluate what materials are harder to radiation and consequently could minimise the degradation of device parameters in conditions of continuous long time operation. (authors)

  10. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  11. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. The left part of figure 1 shows the simulated layout for the ATLAS tracker upgrade to be installed in the volume taken up by the current ATLAS pixel, strip and transition radiation detectors. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The...

  12. Assembly and validation of the SSD silicon microstrip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A.P.; Kuijer, P.G.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Oskamp, C.J.; Sokolov, A.N.; van den Brink, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE. The SSD detector consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules. The electrical connection between silicon sensor and front-end electronics is made via TAB-bonded

  13. Silicon Drift Detector response function for PIXE spectra fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Tapinassi, S.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Pazzi, G.; Lucarelli, F.

    2018-02-01

    The correct determination of the X-ray peak areas in PIXE spectra by fitting with a computer program depends crucially on accurate parameterization of the detector peak response function. In the Guelph PIXE software package, GUPIXWin, one of the most used PIXE spectra analysis code, the response of a semiconductor detector to monochromatic X-ray radiation is described by a linear combination of several analytical functions: a Gaussian profile for the X-ray line itself, and additional tail contributions (exponential tails and step functions) on the low-energy side of the X-ray line to describe incomplete charge collection effects. The literature on the spectral response of silicon X-ray detectors for PIXE applications is rather scarce, in particular data for Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and for a large range of X-ray energies are missing. Using a set of analytical functions, the SDD response functions were satisfactorily reproduced for the X-ray energy range 1-15 keV. The behaviour of the parameters involved in the SDD tailing functions with X-ray energy is described by simple polynomial functions, which permit an easy implementation in PIXE spectra fitting codes.

  14. Pulse shape method for the Chimera silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, A.; Arena, N.; Cardella, G.; D' Andrea, M.; Filippo, E. de; Fichera, F.; Giudice, N.; Guardone, N.; Grimaldi, A.; Nicotra, D.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Rapicavoli, C.; Rizza, G.; Russotto, P.; Sacca, G.; Urso, S.; Lanzano, G. [Catania Univ., INFN Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Alderighi, M.; Sechi, G. [INFN Milano and Istituto di Fisica Cosmica CNR, Milano (Italy); Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Cali, C.; Campagna, V.; Cavallaro, S.; Di Stefano, A.; Giustolisi, F.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Maiolino, C.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Salamone, S. [Catania Univ., INFN-LNS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Auditore, L.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M. [Messina Univ., INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Guazzoni, P.; Russo, S.; Sassi, M.; Zetta, L. [Milano Univ., INFN Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Blicharska, J.; Grzeszczuk, A. [Silesia Univ., Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Chatterjee, M.B. [Saha Institute Of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Geraci, E.; Zipper, W. [Bologna Univ., INFN Bologna and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M. [Napoli Univ., INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Schroder, W.U.; T-ke, J. [Rochester Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Rochester, N.Y. (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Since January 2003, the 4{pi} CHIMERA (Charged Heavy Ions Mass and Energy Resolving Array) detector in its full configuration has successfully been operated at the 'Catania Laboratori Nazionali del Sud' (LNS) accelerator facility. The detector has been used with a variety of beams from the Superconducting Cyclotron in heavy-ion reaction studies at Fermi bombarding energies. Future experiments with a focus on isospin physics at Fermi energies, planned for both primary and less intense secondary particle beams, suggest the development of new and more versatile experimental particle identification methods. Recent achievements in implementing specific pulse shape particle identification methods for CHIMERA silicon detectors are reported. They suggest an upgrade of the present charge and mass identification capability of CHIMERA by a simple extension of the method. (authors)

  15. A Proposal to Upgrade the Silicon Strip Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matis, Howard; Michael, LeVine; Jonathan, Bouchet; Stephane, Bouvier; Artemios, Geromitsos; Gerard, Guilloux; Sonia, Kabana; Christophe, Renard; Howard, Matis; Jim, Thomas; Vi Nham, Tram

    2007-01-01

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) was built by a collaboration of Nantes, Strasbourg and Warsaw collaborators. It is a beautiful detector; it can provide 500 mu m scale pointing resolution at the vertex when working in combination with the TPC. It was first used in Run 4, when half the SSD was installed in an engineering run. The full detector was installed for Run 5 (the Cu-Cu run) and the operation and performance of the detector was very successful. However, in preparation for Run 6, two noisy ladders (out of 20) were replaced and this required that the SSD be removed from the STAR detector. The re-installation of the SSD was not fully successful and so for the next two Runs, 6 and 7, the SSD suffered a cooling system failure that allowed a large fraction of the ladders to overheat and become noisy, or fail. (The cause of the SSD cooling failure was rather trivial but the SSD could not be removed between Runs 6 and 7 due to the inability of the STAR detector to roll along its tracks at that time.)

  16. A large area silicon UCN detector with the analysis of UCN polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasakov, M.S.; Serebrov, A.P.; Khusainov, A.Kh.; Pustovoit, A.; Borisov, Yu.V.; Fomin, A.K.; Geltenbort, P.; Kon'kov, O.I.; Kotina, I.M.; Shablii, A.I.; Solovei, V.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A silicon UCN detector with an area of 45cm 2 and with a 6 LiF converter was developed at PNPI. The spectral efficiency of the silicon UCN detector was measured by means of a gravitational spectrometer at ILL. The sandwich-type detector from two silicon plates with a 6 LiF converter placed between them was also studied. Using this type of technology the UCN detector with analysis of polarization was developed and tested. The analyzing power of this detector assembly reaches up to 75% for the main part of UCN spectrum. This UCN detector with analysis of UCN polarization can be used in the new EDM spectrometer

  17. Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector at NIKHEF, Amsterdam.

    CERN Multimedia

    Ginter, P

    2005-01-01

    Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector (SCT) at NIKHEF, Amsterdam. Technicians are mounting the power distribution cables on the cylinder that houses nine disks with silicon sensors.

  18. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 μm) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1.1%

  19. Four-channel readout ASIC for silicon pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Zamiatin, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    A custom front-end readout ASIC has been designed for silicon calorimeters supposed to be used in high-energy physics experiments. The ASIC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains four channels of a fast low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) with inverting outputs summed by a linear adder (LA) followed by an RC-CR shaping amplifier (SA) with 30 ns peaking time. Availability of separate outputs of the CSPs and the LA makes it possible to join any number of silicon detector layers to obtain the longitudinal and transversal resolution required using only this ASIC in any silicon calorimeter minitower configuration. Noise performance is ENC=1800e - +18e - /pF at 30 ns peaking time for detector capacitance up to C d =400 pF. Rise time is 8 ns at input capacitance C d =100 pF. Power dissipation is less than 50 mW/ chip at voltage supply 5 V

  20. Silicon for ultra-low-level detectors and sup 32 Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1991-11-15

    A recent dark matter experiment using a silicon diode detector confirms that the decay of {sup 32}Si is a dangerous background in ultra-low-level experiments using silicon as detector material or shielding. In this Letter we study the mechanism of how {sup 32}Si enters commercially available silicon. Ways to avoid this contamination are pointed out. Limits on the {sup 32}Si content of silicon from measurements with miniaturized low-level proportional counters are also given. (orig.).

  1. A 1024 pad silicon detector to solve tracking ambiguities in high multiplicity events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Di Bari, D.; Didonna, V.; Elia, D.; Ghidini, B.; Lenti, V.; Manzari, V.; Nappi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon detectors with two-dimensional pad readout have been designed and constructed for the WA97 experiment at CERN, in order to solve ambiguities for track reconstruction in a silicon microstrip telescope. A high density fanouts has been developed on a glass support to allow the electrical contacts between the detector and the front end electronics. Silicon pad detectors have been successfully operated both during the proton-Pb and Pb-Pb runs of the WA97 experiment. (orig.)

  2. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxe, Michael P.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2015-01-01

    Radioxenon detectors are used for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in a network of detectors throughout the world called the International Monitoring System (IMS). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with testing a V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and Lares Ltd-developed Silicon PIN detector for radioxenon detection. PNNL measured radioxenon with the silicon PIN detector and determined its potential compared to current plastic scintillator beta cells. While the PNNL tested Si detector experienced noise issues, a second detector was tested in Russia at Lares Ltd, which did not exhibit the noise issues. Without the noise issues, the Si detector produces much better energy resolution and isomer peak separation than a conventional plastic scintillator cell used in the SAUNA systems in the IMS. Under the assumption of 1 cm 3 of Xe in laboratory-like conditions, 24-hr count time (12-hr count time for the SAUNA), with the respective shielding the minimum detectable concentrations for the Si detector tested by Lares Ltd (and a conventional SAUNA system) were calculated to be: 131m Xe - 0.12 mBq/m 3 (0.12 mBq/m 3 ); 133 Xe - 0.18 mBq/m 3 (0.21 mBq/m 3 ); 133m Xe - 0.07 mBq/m 3 (0.15 mBq/m 3 ); 135 Xe - 0.45 mBq/m 3 (0.67 mBq/m 3 ). Detection limits, which are one of the important factors in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon in field conditions, are significantly better than for SAUNA-like detection systems for 131m Xe and 133m Xe, but similar for 133 Xe and 135 Xe. Another important factor is the amount of ''memory effect'' or carry over signal from one radioxenon measurement to the subsequent sample. The memory effect is reduced by a factor of 10 in the Si PIN detector compared to the current plastic scintillator cells. There is potential for further reduction with the

  3. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  4. Laminated Amorphous Silicon Neutron Detector (pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Harry; Branz, Howard; Stradins, Paul; Xu, Yueqin

    2009-01-01

    An internal R and D project was conducted at the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) of National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), to determine the feasibility of developing a multi-layer boron-10 based thermal neutron detector using the amorphous silicon (AS) technology currently employed in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays. The boron-10 neutron reaction produces an alpha that can be readily detected. A single layer detector, limited to an approximately 2-micron-thick layer of boron, has a theoretical sensitivity of about 3%; hence a thin multi-layer device with high sensitivity can theoretically be manufactured from single layer detectors. Working with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), an AS PiN diode alpha detector was developed and tested. The PiN diode was deposited on a boron-10 coated substrate. Testing confirmed that the neutron sensitivity was nearly equal to the theoretical value of 3%. However, adhesion problems with the boron-10 coating prevented successful development of a prototype detector. Future efforts will include boron deposition work and development of integrated AS signal processing circuitry.

  5. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  6. Silicon pixel R&D for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)674552

    2017-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear $e^{+}e^{−}$ collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The main challenges are: a point resolution of a few microns, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X$_{0}$ per layer for the vertex region and ~1% X$_{0}$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analogue readout are explored. For the outer tra...

  7. Silicon carbide and its use as a radiation detector material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, F; Bertuccio, G; Cavallini, A; Vittone, E

    2008-01-01

    We present a comprehensive review of the properties of the epitaxial 4H silicon carbide polytype (4H–SiC). Particular emphasis is placed on those aspects of this material related to room, high-temperature and harsh environment ionizing radiation detector operation. A review of the characterization methods and electrical contacting issues and how these are related to detector performance is presented. The most recent data on charge transport parameters across the Schottky barrier and how these are related to radiation spectrometer performance are presented. Experimental results on pixel detectors having equivalent noise energies of 144 eV FWHM (7.8 electrons rms) and 196 eV FWHM at +27 °C and +100 °C, respectively, are reported. Results of studying the radiation resistance of 4H–SiC are analysed. The data on the ionization energies, capture cross section, deep-level centre concentrations and their plausible structures formed in SiC as a result of irradiation with various particles are reviewed. The emphasis is placed on the study of the 1 MeV neutron irradiation, since these thermal particles seem to play the main role in the detector degradation. An accurate electrical characterization of the induced deep-level centres by means of PICTS technique has allowed one to identify which play the main role in the detector degradation. (topical review)

  8. High-resolution ion-implanted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Borany, J.; Schmidt, B.

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of the properties of silicon detectors developed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (Rossendorf) and made by a special planar technology using ion implantation, anodic oxidation, thermal oxidation in an oxygen atmosphere containing HCl, and annealing by pulses of 10--20 msec duration. The resolution for α particles of 5.5 MeV energy was 11.2 keV (active area A 2 ). The detectors were characterized by a low intrinsic noise (< or =5 keV), so that they could be used for spectrometry of low-energy electrons (E/sub e/< or =250 keV). In a certain range of energies (E/sub x/ = 15--60 keV) it was possible to use these detectors for spectrometry of x rays at room temperature. Examples and results of applications of detectors in radiation chemistry (investigations of backscattering of particles and nuclear reaction spectroscopy) are given. The feasibility of annealing of radiation defects in such detectors after irradiation with a large dose of charged particles is considered

  9. Position-sensitive silicon strip detector characterization using particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Maenpaeae, Teppo

    2012-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors are fast, cost-effective and have an excellent spatial resolution.They are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. Modern high energyphysics experiments impose harsh operation conditions on the detectors, e.g., of LHCexperiments. The high radiation doses cause the detectors to eventually fail as a resultof excessive radiation damage. This has led to a need to study radiation tolerance usingvarious techniques. At the same time, a need to operate sensors approaching the endtheir lifetimes has arisen.The goal of this work is to demonstrate that novel detectors can survive the environment that is foreseen for future high-energy physics experiments. To reach this goal,measurement apparatuses are built. The devices are then used to measure the propertiesof irradiated detectors. The measurement data are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn.Three measurement apparatuses built as a part of this work are described: two telescopes measuring the tracks of the beam of a particle acceler...

  10. The Belle II silicon vertex detector assembly and mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S., E-mail: stefano.bettarini@pi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Belle II experiment at the asymmetric SuperKEKB collider in Japan will operate at an instantaneous luminosity approximately 50 times greater than its predecessor (Belle). The central feature of the experiment is a vertex detector comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detectors (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors (SVD). One of the key measurements for Belle II is CP violation asymmetry in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons, which hinges on a precise charged-track vertex determination and low-momentum track measurement. Towards this goal, a proper assembly of the SVD components with precise alignment ought to be performed and the geometrical tolerances should be checked to fall within the design limits. We present an overview of the assembly procedure that is being followed, which includes the precision gluing of the SVD module components, wire-bonding of the various electrical components, and precision 3D coordinate measurements of the final SVD modules. Finally, some results from the latest test-beam are reported.

  11. Silicon micro-vertex detector for Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    The Belle experiment at the KEK B-factory is Japan provided the landmark experimental confirmation of CP violation mechanism within the standard model that led to the physics Nobel prize in 2008. In its second phase, called Belle II, it would seek for the holy-grail of new physics using rare decays of B and D mesons and tau leptons as a probe, in complimentary to the direct searches carried out with the LHC experiments. An important component of this upgrade is to replace the innermost subdetector, namely the silicon micro-vertex detector (SVD). The new SVD will, like the old one, consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detector, but made from 6âĂİ wafers and located at higher radii as a novel, two-layer DEPFET pixel detector will be inserted very dose to the beam- pipe. Starting with the physics motivation, we discuss the design concept, fabrication and the Indian contributions toward the Belle II SVD. (author)

  12. A comprehensive analysis of irradiated silicon detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Santocchia, A; Hall, G; MacEvoy, B; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Pignatel, Giogrio Umberto

    2003-01-01

    The effect of particle irradiation on high-resistivity silicon detectors has been extensively studied with the goal of engineering devices able to survive the very challenging radiation environment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main aspect under investigation has been the changes observed in detector effective doping concentration (N/sub eff/). We have previously proposed a mechanism to explain the evolution of N/sub eff/, whereby charge is exchanged directly between closely-spaced defect centres in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This model has been implemented in both a commercial finite-element device simulator (ISE-TCAD) and a purpose-built simulation of interdefect charge exchange. To control the risk of breakdown due to the high leakage currents foreseen during ten years of LHC operation, silicon detectors will be operated below room temperature (around -10 degrees C). This, and more general current interest in the field of cryogenic operation, has led us to inve...

  13. Characterisation of silicon detectors for the LHCb Vertex Locator Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00401830

    The LHCb Vertex Locator must be upgraded in the next long shutdown of the LHC, starting at the end of 2018. This is due to the increased occupancy. The current silicon strip detector is being upgraded to a silicon pixel detector. The prototype sensors for this detector were tested thoroughly before a final design will be chosen. The testing was done with the Timepix3 Telescope, which was commissioned in the summer of 2014. The charge collected by the sensors and efficiency of the sensors were investigated. After maximum irradiation, of 8$\\times$10$^{15}$ 1 MeV n$_{eq}$/cm$^{2}$, the sensors must have a most probable value of collected charge of 6000 electrons before 1000 V or breakdown, whichever comes first. The sensors must also have a high efficiency at maximum irradiation of 8$\\times$10$^{15}$ 1 MeV n$_{eq}$/cm$^{2}$. All tested sensors reach these criteria. All sensors reach 6000 electrons between 600 V and 800 V and have a cluster finding efficiency of over 95\\% at the respective voltages. Overall, a 15...

  14. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bozek, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); and others

    2016-07-11

    The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment, structured in a lantern shape, consists of four layers of ladders, fabricated from two to five silicon sensors. The APV25 readout ASIC chips are mounted on one side of the ladder to minimize the signal path for reducing the capacitive noise; signals from the sensor backside are transmitted to the chip by bent flexible fan-out circuits. The ladder is assembled using several dedicated jigs. Sensor motion on the jig is minimized by vacuum chucking. The gluing procedure provides such a rigid foundation that later leads to the desired wire bonding performance. The full ladder with electrically functional sensors is consistently completed with a fully developed assembly procedure, and its sensor offsets from the design values are found to be less than 200 μm. The potential functionality of the ladder is also demonstrated by the radioactive source test.

  15. Silicon Detector System for High Rate EXAFS Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullia, A; Kraner, H W; Siddons, D P; Furenlid, L R; Bertuccio, G

    1995-08-01

    A multichannel silicon pad detector for EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) applications has been designed and built. The X-ray spectroscopic measurements demonstrate that an adequate energy resolution of 230 eV FWHM (corresponding to 27 rms electrons in silicon) can be achieved reliably at -35 °C. A resolution of 190 eV FWHM (corresponding to 22 rms electrons) has been obtained from individual pads at -35 °C. At room temperature (25 °C) an average energy resolution of 380 eV FWHM is achieved and a resolution of 350 eV FWHM (41 rms electrons) is the best performance. A simple cooling system constituted of Peltier cells is sufficient to reduce the reverse currents of the pads and their related shot noise contribution, in order to achieve resolutions better than 300 eV FWHM which is adequate for the EXAFS applications.

  16. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  17. A double sided silicon strip detector as a DRAGON end detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wrede, C; Rogers, J G; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The new DRAGON facility (detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions), located at the TRlUMF-ISAC Radioactive Beams facility in Vancouver, Canada is now operational. This facility is used to study radiative proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics (heavy ion beam onto a light gaseous target) with both stable beams and radioactive beams of mass A=13-26 in the energy range 0.15-1.5 MeV/u. A double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) has been used to detect recoil ions. Tests have been performed to determine the performance of this DSSSD.

  18. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  19. Silicon strip detector system for Fermilab E706

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Wilkins, R [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Hossain, S [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    Fermilab Experiment E706 is an experiment to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron II. A part of the charged particle spectrometer is a silicon strip detector system used to determine the position of interaction vertices in the production target and to provide angular formation about the secondary hadrons produced in a collision. We present some design criteria, as well as the results of tests of a wafer similar to those to be used in the experiment.

  20. CODA : Compact front-end analog ASIC for silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.; Sardesai, S.V.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the design of a front-end signal processing ASIC to be used with Silicon detectors having full depletion capacitance up to 40 pf. The ASIC channel consists of a charge amplifier, a shaper amplifier (CR-RC 3 ) and a comparator. There is provision for changing gain and polarity. The circuit has an estimated power dissipation of 16 mw. The ASIC is fabricated in 1.2 um CMOS technology. The 0pf noise is ∼400e. The chip has an area of 3 by 4 mm is packaged in 48 pin CLCC and COB option (Chip on Board). (author)

  1. Gas microstrip detectors on polymer, silicon and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Gaedke, R.M.; Goss, L.T.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.; Vanstraelen, G.; Wahl, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present results on the performance of Gas Microstrip Detectors on various substrates. These include a 300 μm anode-anode pitch pattern on Tempax borosilicate glass and ABS/copolyether, a 200 μm pattern on Upilex ''S'' polyimide, Texin 4215, Tedlar, ion-implanted Kapton, orientation-dependent etched flat-topped silicon (''knife-edge chamber''), and iron-vanadium glass, and a 100 μm pitch pattern on Upilex ''S'' and ion-implanted Kapton. (orig.)

  2. Development and performance of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batignani, G.; Forti, F.; Moneta, L.; Triggiani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Focardi, E.; Giorgi, M.A.; Parrini, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1991-01-01

    Microstrip silicon detectors with orthogonal readout on opposite sides have been designed and fabricated. The active area of each device is 25 cm 2 and the strip pitch is 25 μm on the junction side and 50 μm on the opposite ohmic side. A space resolution of 15 μm on the junction side (100 μm readout pitch) and 24 μm on the ohmic side (200 μm readout pitch) has been measured. We also report on AC-coupling chips, designed and fabricated in order to allow AC connection of the strips to the amplifiers. These chips are 6.4x5.0 mm 2 and have 100 μm pitch. Both AC-couplers and detectors have been installed as part of the ALEPH minivertex. (orig.)

  3. Data quality monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benucci, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Physics and Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework aims at providing a homogeneous monitoring environment across various applications related to data taking at the CMS experiment. In this contribution, the DQM system for the Silicon Strip Tracker will be introduced. The set of elements to assess the status of detector will be mentioned, along with the way to identify problems and trace them to specific tracker elements. Monitoring tools, user interfaces and automated software will be briefly described. The system was used during extensive cosmic data taking of CMS in Autumn 2008, where it demonstrated to have a flexible and robust implementation and has been essential to improve the understanding of the detector. CMS Collaboration believes that this tool is now mature to face the forthcoming data-taking era.

  4. Polarization of silicon detectors by minimum ionizing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dezillie, B; Li, Z; Verbitskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    This work presents quantitative predictions of the properties of highly irradiated (e.g. by high-energy particles, up to an equivalent fluence of 1x10 sup 1 sup 4 n cm sup - sup 2) silicon detectors operating at cryogenic temperature. It is shown that the exposure to the Minimum Ionising Particle (MIP) with counting rates of about 10 sup 6 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 can influence the electric field distribution in the detector's sensitive volume. This change in the electric field distribution and its effect on the charge collection efficiency are discussed in the frame of a model based on trapping of carriers generated by MIPs. The experiment was performed at 87 K with an infrared (1030 nm) laser to simulate MIPs.

  5. Limitations on energy resolution of segmented silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Chudyba, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper experimental study of charge division effects and energy resolution of X-ray silicon pad detectors are presented. The measurements of electrical parameters, capacitances and leakage currents, for six different layouts of pad arrays are reported. The X-ray spectra have been measured using a custom developed dedicated low noise front-end electronics. The spectra measured for six different detector layouts have been analysed in detail with particular emphasis on quantitative evaluation of charge division effects. Main components of the energy resolution due to Fano fluctuations, electronic noise, and charge division, have been estimated for six different sensor layouts. General recommendations regarding optimisation of pad sensor layout for achieving best possible energy resolution have been formulated.

  6. Knock-on electrons in WA98 silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, S.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon Drift Detector is used to estimate production of knock-on electrons created by passage of 158 GeV /u fully stripped Pb ion through thick lead target. Analysed data were collected in 1995 during Pb+Pb run in WA98 heavy ion experiment at CERN SPS. Information from WA98 Cherenkov beam counter makes it possible to classify events according to number of additional Pb ions which have during detector's read-out time passed through the target without nuclear interaction. Events with one and none pile-up ion are used for statistical separation of knock-on electrons from all detected charged particles. Resulting inclusive spectra of knock-on electrons are compared with GRANT simulations and good agreement is found. (author)

  7. Charge transport in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Roy, P.; Casse, G.L.; Glaser, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Lemeilleur, F.

    1999-01-01

    A model describing the transport of the charge carriers generated in n-type silicon detectors by ionizing particles is presented. In order to reproduce the experimental current pulse responses induced by α and β particles in non-irradiated and irradiated detectors up to fluences (PHI) much beyond the n to p-type inversion, an n-type region 15 μm deep is introduced on the p + side of the diode. This model also gives mobilities which decrease linearly up to fluences of around 5x10 13 particles/cm 2 and beyond, converging to saturation values of about 1000 and 450 cm 2 /V s for electrons and holes, respectively. The charge carrier lifetime degradation with increased fluence, due to trapping, is responsible for a predicted charge collection deficit for β particles and for α particles which is found to agree with direct CCE measurements. (author)

  8. SVX II a silicon vertex detector for run II of the tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoletto, D.

    1994-11-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of the vertex detector of the CDF experiment to be installed for run II of the Tevatron in 1998. Three barrels of four layers of double sided detectors will cover the interaction region. The requirement of the silicon tracker and the specification of the sensors are discussed together with the proposed R ampersand D to verify the performance of the prototypes detectors produced by Sintef, Micron and Hamamatsu

  9. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for Tevatron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korjenevski, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Microstrip Tracking detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments have now been operating for almost three years at Fermilab. These detectors were designed originally for an integrated luminosity of 2fb -1 . As the expected luminosity for Run IIb at the Tevatron collider was initially envisioned to reach 15fb -1 , radiation tolerances of both devices were revisited, culminating in proposals for new systems. With reduced expectations for total luminosity at ∼6fb -1 , the full detector-replacement projects were terminated. The CDF detector is expected nevertheless to cope efficiently with the lower anticipated dose, however, the D0 experiment is planning a smaller-scale project: a Layer-0 (L0) upgrade of the silicon tracker (D0SMT). The new device will fit between the beam line and the inner layer of the current Tracker. Built of single-sided sensors, this upgrade is expected to perform well in the harsh radiation environment, and be able to withstand an integrated luminosity of 15fb -1 . Prototypes of Run IIb sensors were irradiated using 10MeV protons at the tandem Van de Graaff at the James R. McDonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. A fit to the 10MeV proton data yields a damage parameter αp=11x10-17Acm. This is consistent with results from RD48 (αp=9.9x10-17Acm). The scaling of damage to 1MeV neutron fluence uses a hardness factor (κ) derived from the non-ionizing components of the energy loss (NEIL). NEIL predicts a hardness factor of 3.87 for 10MeV protons. We obtained an experimental value of this factor of 2.54, or 34% smaller than scaling predictions from NEIL

  10. Multi Elemental Study Using Prompt Gamma Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normanshah Dahing; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Normanshah Dahing; Hanafi Ithnin; Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Hearie Hassan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10x10x10 cm 3 and 15x15x15 cm 3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with computer simulation, NAA and XRF as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed. (author)

  11. Study of silicon microstrips detector quantum efficiency using mathematical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Pernia, Diana; Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Fabelo, Antonio Leyva; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Cruz Inclan, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows the results from the application of mathematical simulation to study the quantum efficiency of a microstrips crystalline silicon detector, intended for medical imaging and the development of other applications such as authentication and dating of cultural heritage. The effects on the quantum efficiency of some parameters of the system, such as the detector-source geometry, X rays energy and detector dead zone thickness, were evaluated. The simulation results were compared with the theoretical prediction and experimental available data, resulting in a proper correspondence. It was concluded that the use of frontal configuration for incident energies lower than 17 keV is more efficient, however the use of the edge-on configuration for applications requiring the detection of energy above this value is recommended. It was also found that the reduction of the detector dead zone led to a considerable increase in quantum efficiency for any energy value in the interval from 5 to 100 keV.(author)

  12. Resistivity measurements on the neutron irradiated detector grade silicon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng

    1993-11-01

    Resistivity measurements under the condition of no or low electrical field (electrical neutral bulk or ENB condition) have been made on various device configurations on detector grade silicon materials after neutron irradiation. Results of the measurements have shown that the ENB resistivity increases with neutron fluence ({Phi}{sub n}) at low {phi}{sub n} (<10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}) and saturates at a value between 300 and 400 k{Omega}-cm at {phi}{sub n} {approximately}10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}. Meanwhile, the effective doping concentration N{sub eff} in the space charge region (SCR) obtained from the C-V measurements of fully depleted p{sup +}/n silicon junction detectors has been found to increase nearly linearly with {phi}{sub n} at high fluences ({phi}{sub n} > 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}). The experimental results are explained by the deep levels crossing the Fermi level in the SCR and near perfect compensation in the ENB by all deep levels, resulting in N{sub eff} (SCR) {ne} n or p (free carrier concentrations in the ENB).

  13. Development of Silicon Detectors for the High Luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Thomas Valentin

    2015-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be upgraded to a High Luminosity LHC in the year 2022, increasing the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of five. This will have major impacts on the experiments at the LHC, such as the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, and especially for their inner silicon tracking systems. Among other things, the silicon sensors used therein will be exposed to unprecedented levels of radiation damage, necessitating a replacement of the entire tracking detector. In order to maintain the excellent current performance, a new tracking detector has to be equipped with sensors of increased radiation hardness and higher granularity. The CMS experiment is undertaking an extensive R and D campaign in the search for the future silicon sensor technology baseline to be used in this upgrade. This thesis presents two methods suitable for use in this search: finite element TCAD simulations and test beam measurements. The simulations are focussed on the interstrip capacitance between sensor strips and are compared to measurements before and after the inclusion of radiation damage effects. A geometrical representation of the strip sensors used in the campaign has been found, establishing the predictive power of simulations. The test beam measurements make use of the high-precision pixel telescopes available at the DESY-II test beam facility. The performance of these telescopes has been assessed and their achievable pointing resolution has been found to be below 2 μm. Thin, epitaxial silicon is a candidate material for usage in radiation hard sensors for the future CMS tracking detector. Sample strip sensors of this material have been irradiated to fluences of up to 1.3 x 10 16 n eq /cm 2 with 800 MeV or 23 GeV protons. Test beam measurements with 5 GeV electrons have been performed to investigate the radiation hardness of epitaxial sensors using the pixel beam telescopes. The epitaxial device under test (DUT) has been integrated into the

  14. Tritel: 3D silicon detector telescope used for space dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Hirn, A.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Csoke, A.; Bodnar, L.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many risks of long-duration space flights is the excessive exposure to cosmic radiation, which has great importance particularly during solar flares and higher solar activity. Radiation weighting factor, which is a function of the linear energy transfer of the radiation, is used to convert absorbed dose to equivalent dose. Since space radiation mainly consists of charged heavy particles, the equivalent dose differs significantly from the absorbed dose. The objectives of this project are to develop and manufacture a three-axis silicon detector telescope (Tritel), and to develop software for data evaluation of the measured energy deposition spectra. The 3 D silicon telescope should be the first such device used for measuring the dose astronauts are subjected to. Research and development began in the K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute several years ago. The geometric parameters of the 3 D silicon Let telescope were defined, results of previous measurements were used as a benchmark. Features of various types and sizes of telescopes were analyzed. Elements of the Tritel telescope system, issues of the electronic block diagram, requirements for the mechanical construction and possibilities of data handling and data evaluation are analyzed in this paper. First results of the calibrations are presented as well. (authors)

  15. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  16. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  17. Hybrid Detectors for Neutrons Combining Phenyl- Polysiloxanes with 3D Silicon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Palma, Matteo; Quaranta, Alberto; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Carturan, Sara; Cinausero, Marco; Gramegna, Fabiana; Marchi, Tommaso; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Mendicino, Roberto; Povoli, Marco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Giacomini, Gabriele; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    We report on the initial results of a research project aimed at the development hybrid detectors for fast neutrons by combining a phenyl-polysiloxane-based converter with a 3D silicon detector. To this purpose, new 3D sensor structures have been designed, fabricated and electrically tested, showing low depletion voltage and good leakage current. Moreover, the radiation detection capability of 3D sensors was tested by measuring the signals recorded from alpha particles, gamma rays, and pulsed lasers. The converter has been poured into the 3D cavities with excellent coupling, as confirmed by cross-section SEM analyses. Preliminary tests with neutrons have been carried out on the first hybrid detector prototypes at the CN accelerator of INFN LNL. The device design and technology are discussed, along with the first results from the electrical and functional characterization. (authors)

  18. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1991-11-01

    A control and data acquisition system has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    urner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a control and data acquisition system that has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules

  20. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1991-11-01

    A control and data acquisition system has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Muon flux measurement with silicon detectors in the CERN neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, E.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The neutrino beam installations at the CERN SPS accelerator are described, with emphasis on the beam monitoring systems. Especially the muon flux measurement system is considered in detail, and the calibration procedure and systematic aspects of the measurements are discussed. An introduction is given to the use of silicon semiconductor detectors and their related electronics. Other special chapters concern non-linear phenomena in the silicon detectors, radiation damage in silicon detectors, energy loss and energy deposition in silicon and a review of energy loss phenomena for high energy muons in matter. (orig.)

  2. Accurate and independent spectral response scale based on silicon trap detectors and spectrally invariant detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Jarle

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to establish an independent high accuracy spectral response scale over a broad spectral range based on standard laboratory equipment at a moderate cost. This had to be done by a primary method, where the responsivity of the detector is linked to fundamental constants. Summary, conclusion and future directions: In this thesis it has been demonstrated that an independent spectral response scale from the visual to the IR based on simple relative measurements can be established. The accuracy obtained by the hybrid self-calibration method demonstrates that state of the art accuracy is obtained with self-calibration principles. A calculable silicon trap detector with low internal losses over a wide spectral range is needed to establish the scale, in addition to a linear, spectrally independent detector with a good signal to noise ratio. By fitting the parameters in the responsivity model to a purely relative measurement we express the spectral response in terms of fundamental constants with a known uncertainty This is therefore a primary method. By applying a digital filter on the relative measurements of the InGaAs detectors in the infrared reduces the standard deviation by 30 %. In addition, by optimising the necessary scaling constant converting the relative calibration to absolute values, we have managed to establish an accurate and cost efficient spectral response scale in the IR. The full covariance analysis, which takes into account the correlation in the absolute values of the silicon detector, the correlation caused by the filter and the scaling constant, shows that the spectral response scale established in the infrared with InGaAs detectors is done with high accuracy. A similar procedure can be used in the UV, though it has not been demonstrated here. In fig. 10 the responsitivities of the detectors (a) and their associated uncertainties (b) at the 1 sigma level of confidence is compared for the three publications. We see that the responsivity

  3. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  4. Characterization of Silicon Photomultiplier Detectors using Cosmic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Favian; Castro, Juan; Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Fan, Sewan; Ritt, Stefan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The silicon photomultiplier light detector has gained a lot of attention lately in fields such as particle physics, astrophysics, and medical physics. Its popularity stems from its lower cost, compact size, insensitivity to magnetic fields, and its excellent ability to distinguish a quantized number of photons. They are normally operated at room temperature and biased above their breakdown voltages. As such, they may also exhibit properties that may hinder their optimal operation which include a thermally induced high dark count rate, after pulse effects, and cross talk from photons in nearby pixels. At this poster session, we describe our data analysis and our endeavor to characterize the multipixel photon counter (MPPC) detectors from Hamamatsu under different bias voltages and temperature conditions. Particularly, we describe our setup which uses cosmic rays to induce scintillation light delivered to the detector by wavelength shifting optical fibers and the use of a fast 1 GHz waveform sampler, the domino ring sampler (DRS4) digitizer board. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  5. Method for the preparation of n-i-p type radiation detector from silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keleti, J.; Toeroek, T.; Lukacs, J.; Molnar, I.

    1978-01-01

    The patent describes a procedure for the preparation of n-i-p type silicon radiation detectors. The aim was to provide an adaquate procedure for the production of α, β, γ-detectors from silicon available on the market, either p-type single crystal silicon characterised by its boron level. The procedure and the 9 claims are illustrated by two examples. (Sz.J.)

  6. Timing performances and edge effects of detectors worked from 6-in. silicon slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; De Filippo, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Femino, S.; Geraci, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Guazzoni, P.; Iacono Manno, M.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Musumarra, A.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of new passivated implanted planar silicon detectors, obtained for the first time from 6 in. silicon slices, have been tested. The time and energy resolutions have been studied as a function of the type and energy of the detected particles, in order to test the performances of these detectors for time of flight measurements in the Chimera project. Some problems arising from edge effects observed in double-pad detectors have been solved by using a guard ring. (orig.)

  7. Coordinate determination of high energy charged particles by silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinate determination accuracy of minimum ionizing and short-range particles by silicon strip detectors has been considered. The charge collection on neighboring strips of the detector is studied and the influence of diffusion and the electric field distribution on the accuracy of the coordinate determination is analyzed. It has been shown that coordinates of both minimum ionizing and short-range particles can be determined with accuracy to a few microns using silicon strip detectors. 11 refs.; 8 figs

  8. Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-16

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0054 Silicon based mid infrared SiGeSn heterostrcture emitters and detectors Greg Sun UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report... Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors ” February 10, 2016 Principal Investigator: Greg Sun Engineering...diodes are incompatible with the CMOS process and therefore cannot be easily integrated with Si electronics . The GeSn mid IR detectors developed in

  9. System software design for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkaczyk, S. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Bailey, M. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-11-01

    An automated system for testing and performance evaluation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) data acquisition electronics is described. The SVX data acquisition chain includes the Fastbus Sequencer and the Rabbit Crate Controller and Digitizers. The Sequencer is a programmable device for which we developed a high level assembly language. Diagnostic, calibration and data acquisition programs have been developed. A distributed software package was developed in order to operate the modules. The package includes programs written in assembly and Fortran languages that are executed concurrently on the SVX Sequencer modules and either a microvax or an SSP. Test software was included to assist technical personnel during the production and maintenance of the modules. Details of the design of different components of the package are reported.

  10. System software design for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Bailey, M.

    1991-11-01

    An automated system for testing and performance evaluation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) data acquisition electronics is described. The SVX data acquisition chain includes the Fastbus Sequencer and the Rabbit Crate Controller and Digitizers. The Sequencer is a programmable device for which we developed a high level assembly language. Diagnostic, calibration and data acquisition programs have been developed. A distributed software package was developed in order to operate the modules. The package includes programs written in assembly and Fortran languages that are executed concurrently on the SVX Sequencer modules and either a microvax or an SSP. Test software was included to assist technical personnel during the production and maintenance of the modules. Details of the design of different components of the package are reported

  11. Lithium-drifted silicon detector with segmented contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Craig S.; Luke, Paul N.

    2006-06-13

    A method and apparatus for creating both segmented and unsegmented radiation detectors which can operate at room temperature. The devices include a metal contact layer, and an n-type blocking contact formed from a thin layer of amorphous semiconductor. In one embodiment the material beneath the n-type contact is n-type material, such as lithium compensated silicon that forms the active region of the device. The active layer has been compensated to a degree at which the device may be fully depleted at low bias voltages. A p-type blocking contact layer, or a p-type donor material can be formed beneath a second metal contact layer to complete the device structure. When the contacts to the device are segmented, the device is capable of position sensitive detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiation, such as photons, electrons, and ions.

  12. Silicon detectors for x and gamma-ray with high radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpoca, Valerica; Popescu, Ion V.; Ruscu, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Silicon detectors are widely used in X and gamma-ray spectroscopy for direct detection or coupled with scintillators in high energy nuclear physics (modern collider experiments are representative), medicine and industrial applications. In X and gamma dosimetry, a low detection limit (under 6 KeV) with silicon detectors becomes available. Work at the room temperature is now possible due to the silicon processing evolution, which assures low reverse current and high life time of carriers. For several years, modern semiconductor detectors have been the primary choice for the measurement of nuclear radiation in various scientific fields. Nowadays the recently developed high resolution silicon detectors found their way in medical applications. As a consequence many efforts have been devoted to the development of high sensitivity and radiation hardened X and gamma-ray detectors for the energy range of 5 - 150 keV. The paper presents some results concerning the technology and behaviour of X and Gamma ray silicon detectors used in physics research, industrial and medical radiography. The electrical characteristics of these detectors, their modification after exposure to radiation and the results of spectroscopic X and Gamma-ray measurements are discussed. The results indicated that the proposed detectors enables the development of reliable silicon detectors to be used in controlling the low and high radiation levels encountered in a lot of application

  13. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 , twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ eq =2.10 16 cm -2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb -1 . Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in

  14. Development of a fabrication technology for double-sided AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Rachevskaia, I.; Zen, M.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors for tracking applications. Two batches of detectors with good electrical figures and a low defect rate were successfully manufactured at IRST Laboratory. The processing techniques and the experimental results obtained from these detector prototypes are presented and discussed

  15. Test beam results of Silicon Drift Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouais, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Busso, L.; Cerello, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gregorio, A.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Idzik, M.; Kolojvari, A.; Mazza, G.; Montano, L. M.; Nilsen, B.S.; Petta, C.; Randazzo, N.; Rashevsky, A.; Reito, S.; Rivetti, A.; Tosello, F.; Trzaska, W.H.; Vacchi, A

    1999-08-01

    We report preliminary beam test results of linear Silicon Drift Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. Linearity, resolution, charge transport and collection, and efficiency have been studied using a minimum ionizing particle beam for a very large area detector prototype read out with the OLA preamplifier/shaper and for another detector read out using a new transimpedance amplifier with a non linear response.

  16. Petalet prototype for the ATLAS silicon strip detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperlich, Dennis [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Bloch, Ingo; Keller, John Stakely; Lohwasser, Kristin; Poley, Louise; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Diez Cornell, Sergio [DESY (Germany); Hauser, Marc Manuel; Mori, Riccardo; Kuehl, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich [Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve more precise measurements and to search new physics phenomena, the luminosity at the LHC is expected to be increased during a series of upgrades in the next years. The latest scheduled upgrade, called the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is proposed to provide instantaneous luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}. The increased luminosity and the radiation damage will affect the current Inner Tracker. In order to cope with the higher radiation dose and occupancy, the ATLAS experiment plans to replace the current Inner Detector with a new all-silicon tracker consisting of ∝8 m{sup 2} pixel and ∝192 m{sup 2} strip detectors. In response to the needs, highly modular structures will be used for the strip system, called Staves for the barrel region and Petals for the end-caps region. A small-scaled prototype for the Petal, the Petalet, is built to study some specialties of this complex wedge-shaped structures. The Petalet consists of one large and two small sized sensors. This report focuses on the recent progress in the prototyping of the Petalet and their electrical performances.

  17. Silicon Sensor and Detector Developments for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, Raffaello

    2011-01-01

    CMS started a campaign to identify the future silicon sensor technology baseline for a new Tracker for the high-luminosity phase of LHC, coupled to a new effective way of providing tracking information to the experiment trigger. To this end a large variety of 6'' wafers was acquired in different thicknesses and technologies at HPK and new detector module designs were investigated. Detector thicknesses ranging from 50$\\mu$m to 300$\\mu$m are under investigation on float zone, magnetic Czochralski and epitaxial material both in n-in-p and p-in-n versions. P-stop and p-spray are explored as isolation technology for the n-in-p type sensors as well as the feasibility of double metal routing on 6'' wafers. Each wafer contains different structures to answer different questions, e.g. influence of geometry, Lorentz angle, radiation tolerance, annealing behaviour, validation of read-out schemes. Dedicated process test-structures, as well as diodes, mini-sensors, long and very short strip sensors and real pixel sensors ...

  18. Position calibration of silicon strip detector using quasi-elastic scattering of 16O+197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wenqi; Hu Hailong; Zhang Gaolong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elastic scattering is induced by weakly unstable nuclei. Generally, a good angular resolution for angular distribution of elastic scattering is needed. The silicon strip detector is often used for this kind of experiment. Purpose: In order to use silicon strip detector to study the elastic scattering of weakly unbound nuclei, it is important to get the information of its position calibration. It is well known that the elastic scattering of stable nuclei has a good angular distribution and many experimental data have been obtained. Methods: So the scattering of stable nuclei can be used to calibrate the position information of silicon strip detector. In this experiment, the positions of silicon strip detectors are calibrated using 101 MeV and 59 MeV 16 O scattering on the 197 Au target. Results: The quasi-elastic peaks can be observed in the silicon strip detectors and the counts of quasi-elastic 16 O can be obtained. The solid angles of the silicon strip detectors are calibrated by using alpha source which has three alpha energy values. The angular distribution of quasi-elastic scattering of 16 O+ 197 Au is obtained at these two energy values. Conclusions: The experimental data of angular distribution are reasonable and fit for the principle of angular distribution of elastic scattering. It is concluded that in the experiment these silicon strip detectors can accurately give the position information and can be used for the elastic scattering experiment. (authors)

  19. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  20. Accelerated life test of an ONO stacked insulator film for a silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shoji; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    We have used to acquire the signal through an integrated capacitor for a silicon micro-strip detector. When we have been using a double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, we have required a long-term stability and a high feasibility for the integrated capacitor. An oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) insulator film was theoretically expected to have a superior nature in terms of long term reliability. In order to test long term reliability for integrated capacitor of a silicon micro-strip detector, we made a multi-channel measuring system for capacitors

  1. The development of two ASIC's for a fast silicon strip detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christain, D.; Haldeman, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Newcomer, F.M.; VanBerg, R.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed, low noise readout system for silicon strip detectors is being developed for Fermilab E771, which will begin taking data in 1989. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experimental apparatus consists of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification and a 16000 channel silicon microstrip vertex detector. This paper reviews the design and prototyping of two application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) an amplifier and a discriminator, which are being produced for the silicon strip detector readout system

  2. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to {phi}{sub eq}=10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E{sub C}-0.460 eV and E205a at E{sub C}-0.395 eV where E{sub C} is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V{sub 3} defect

  3. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10 35 cm -2 s -1 . In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to Φ eq =10 16 cm -2 . The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E C -0.460 eV and E205a at E C -0.395 eV where E C is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V 3 ) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V 3 defect exhibits a bistability, as does the leakage current. In oxygen

  4. Radiation hard silicon particle detectors for HL-LHC—RD50 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzo, S., E-mail: Stefano.Terzo@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the LHC by upgrading towards the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC). The Phase-II-Upgrade scheduled for 2024 will mean unprecedented radiation levels, way beyond the limits of the silicon trackers currently employed. All-silicon central trackers are being studied in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, with extremely radiation hard silicon sensors to be employed on the innermost layers. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a massive R&D program is underway across experimental boundaries to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. We will present results of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels corresponding to HL-LHC fluences. Based on these results, we will give recommendations for the silicon detectors to be used at the different radii of tracking systems in the LHC detector upgrades. In order to complement the measurements, we also perform detailed simulation studies of the sensors. - Highlights: • The RD50 collaboration investigates the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. • Different approaches to simulate the detector response after irradiation are shown. • HV-CMOS are cost-effective solution for the outer pixel layers at HL-LHC. • 3D and thin planar sensors with slim edges are solutions for innermost layers at HL-LHC. • Sensors with intrinsic gain are investigated to develop ultra-fast silicon detectors.

  5. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on wafers from various sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezillie, B.; Bates, S.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Leroy, C.

    1997-01-01

    Impurity concentrations in the initial silicon material are expected to play an important role for the radiation hardness of silicon detectors, during their irradiation and for their evolution with time after irradiation. This work reports on the experimental results obtained with detectors manufactured using various float-zone (FZ) and epitaxial-grown material. Preliminary results comparing the changes in leakage current and full depletion voltage of FZ and epitaxial detectors as a function of fluence and of time after 10 14 cm -2 proton irradiation are given. The measurement of charge collection efficiency for epitaxial detectors is also presented. (orig.)

  6. Design optimization of a breast imaging system based on silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stres, S.; Mikuz, M.

    2000-01-01

    A mammographic imaging set-up using silicon microstrip detectors in edge-on geometry was simulated using the GEANT package. Deposited energy in tissue of various thicknesses was evaluated and shown to agree to within 10% with reference calculations. Optimal energies as well as spectra for mammography with silicon detectors were determined by maximizing the figure of merit of a realistic imaging set-up. The scattered to primary radiation ratio was studied for various detector geometries. It was found that fan-shaped detectors are needed to maintain the image quality for divergent photon beams. (author)

  7. Naturally occurring 32 Si and low-background silicon dark matter detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, John L.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Bliss, Mary; Bunker, Raymond; Finch, Zachary S.

    2018-05-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope Si-32 represents a potentially limiting background in future dark matter direct-detection experiments. We investigate sources of Si-32 and the vectors by which it comes to reside in silicon crystals used for fabrication of radiation detectors. We infer that the Si-32 concentration in commercial single-crystal silicon is likely variable, dependent upon the specific geologic and hydrologic history of the source (or sources) of silicon “ore” and the details of the silicon-refinement process. The silicon production industry is large, highly segmented by refining step, and multifaceted in terms of final product type, from which we conclude that production of Si-32-mitigated crystals requires both targeted silicon material selection and a dedicated refinement-through-crystal-production process. We review options for source material selection, including quartz from an underground source and silicon isotopically reduced in Si-32. To quantitatively evaluate the Si-32 content in silicon metal and precursor materials, we propose analytic methods employing chemical processing and radiometric measurements. Ultimately, it appears feasible to produce silicon-based detectors with low levels of Si-32, though significant assay method development is required to validate this claim and thereby enable a quality assurance program during an actual controlled silicon-detector production cycle.

  8. Naturally occurring 32Si and low-background silicon dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, John L.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Bliss, Mary; Bunker, Raymond; Finch, Zachary S.

    2018-05-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope 32Si represents a potentially limiting background in future dark matter direct-detection experiments. We investigate sources of 32Si and the vectors by which it comes to reside in silicon crystals used for fabrication of radiation detectors. We infer that the 32Si concentration in commercial single-crystal silicon is likely variable, dependent upon the specific geologic and hydrologic history of the source (or sources) of silicon "ore" and the details of the silicon-refinement process. The silicon production industry is large, highly segmented by refining step, and multifaceted in terms of final product type, from which we conclude that production of 32Si-mitigated crystals requires both targeted silicon material selection and a dedicated refinement-through-crystal-production process. We review options for source material selection, including quartz from an underground source and silicon isotopically reduced in 32Si. To quantitatively evaluate the 32Si content in silicon metal and precursor materials, we propose analytic methods employing chemical processing and radiometric measurements. Ultimately, it appears feasible to produce silicon detectors with low levels of 32Si, though significant assay method development is required to validate this claim and thereby enable a quality assurance program during an actual controlled silicon-detector production cycle.

  9. On selecting a sensitive region thickness of a silicon semiconductor detector for operation under counting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronkin, N.S.; Khakhalin, V.V.

    1972-01-01

    The paper discusses the selection of a thickness of a sensitive area of a silicon semiconductor detector, used in the count regime based on the signal to noise ratio and β-radiation registration efficiency. (author)

  10. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  11. Beam Test Results for Single- and Double-Sided Silicon Detector Prototypes of the CMS Central Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of two beam tests performed in July and September 1995 at CERN using silicon microstrip detectors of various types: single sided, double sided with small angle stereo strips, double sided with orthogonal strips, double sided with pads. For the read-out electronics use was made of Preshape32, Premux128 and VA1 chips. The signal to noise ratio and the resolution of the detectors was studied for different incident angles of the incoming particles and for different values of the detector bias voltage. The goal of these tests was to check and improve the performances of the prototypes for the CMS Central Detector.

  12. A prototype silicon detector system for space cosmic-ray charge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Dong, Yi-Fa; Gong, Ke; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Ya-Qing; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    A readout electronics system used for space cosmic-ray charge measurement for multi-channel silicon detectors is introduced in this paper, including performance measurements. A 64-channel charge sensitive ASIC (VA140) from the IDEAS company is used. With its features of low power consumption, low noise, large dynamic range, and high integration, it can be used in future particle detecting experiments based on silicon detectors.

  13. An algorithm for calculating the Lorentz angle in silicon detectors [online

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Valeria; De Boer, Willem; Bol, Johannes; Dierlamm, Alexander; Grigoriev, Eugene; Hauler, Florian; Heising, Stephan; Jungermann, Levin

    2001-01-01

    The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector will use silicon sensors in the harsh radiation environment of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and high magnetic fields. The drift direction of the charge carriers is aected by the Lorentz force due to the high magnetic field. Also the resulting radiation damage changes the properties of the drift. The CMS silicon strip detector is read out on the p-side of the sensors, where holes are coll...

  14. Novel results on fluence dependence and annealing behavior of oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, C; Lozano, M; Campabadal, F; Santander, J; Fonseca, L; Ullán, M; Moreno, A J D

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the latest results on electrical properties degradation of silicon radiation detectors manufactured at the Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM) subjected to proton irradiation at CERN, Switzerland, for high-energy physics (HEP) applications. The evolution of full depletion voltage and leakage current with fluence as well as their annealing behavior with time were studied. The results obtained extend the previous understanding of the role played by technology and oxygenated material in hardening silicon radiation detectors. (15 refs).

  15. Novel results on fluence dependence and annealing behaviour of oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, C; Lozano, M; Campabadal, F; Santander, J; Fonseca, L; Ullán, M; Moreno, A

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the latest results on electrical properties degradation of silicon radiation detectors manufactured at IMB-CNM (Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona) subjected to proton irradiation at CERN for high energy physics applications. The evolution of full depletion voltage and leakage current with fluence, as well as their annealing behaviour with time, were studied. The results obtained extend the previous understanding of the role played by technology and oxygenated material in hardening silicon radiation detectors. (15 refs).

  16. A doublet of 3" cylindrical silicon drift detectors in the CERES/NA45 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Faschingbauer, U; Baur, R; Ceretto, F; Drees, A; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Hemberger, M; Pérez de los Heros, C; Hess, F; Holl, P; Irmscher, D; Jacob, C; Kemmer, J; Minaev, Yu I; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S V; Rehak, P; Sampietro, M; Schükraft, Jürgen; Shimansky, S S; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Voigt, C A; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    1995-01-01

    We report on the performance of a doublet of 3" cylindrical silicon drift detectors installed as an upgrade of the CERES/NA45 electron pair spectrometer for the Pb-beam at the CERN SPS. The silicon detectors provide external particle tracking and background rejection of conversions and close Dalitz pairs. Results on vertex reconstruction and rejection from Pb test-run in 1994 are presented.

  17. A novel self-biased linear silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, F.; Gramegna, G.; Marzocca, C.

    1999-01-01

    A novel linear silicon drift detector (SDD) is proposed in which the proper potential profile is established by the voltage drop along a unique p + cathode implanted across the surfaces. This p + implant, arranged in a zigzag shape, acts at the same time as voltage divider and field cathode and allows one to increase the sensitive area, improving also the uniformity of the thermal distribution and thus minimizing the fluctuation of the electron mobility on the sensitive zone of the SDD. The perturbations of the drift field due to the asymmetry of the strips constituting the zigzag cathode have been evaluated by solving analytically Poisson's equation for a simplified model of the structure. Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out to prove the negligible amount of the perturbation and the effectiveness of the proposed structure. Based on this principle, a prototype has been manufactured at Canberra Semiconductor Company. Dynamic measurements of the time-of-flight of an injected charge prove that the linearity of the prototype and the drift uniformity in the anode direction are very high

  18. Measurements using a silicon detector near the Fukushima nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Uchinori, Yu.; Kitamura, H.

    2011-01-01

    The massive tsunami hit the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant after the Tohoku earthquake on March 11 th , 2011. Emergency electric systems of diesel electric machines stopped and during several days later the hydrogen exploded due to over-heated reactors at units 1, 3 and 4. In addition, serious damage was caused in a fuel nuclear storage of unit 2. As a result of these accidents, an extremely large amount of radioisotopes were spread in air, soil, tap water, seawater and food around large areas in East Japan.First, this presentation reports about radiation measurements with the silicon detector Liulin at the J-village, a base of emergency workers, located 20 km from Fukushima Daiichi from March 23 rd , 2011 to August 5 th , 2011. Comparison of measurements with the same device at some other locations (Chiba city, Moscow, board of aircraft) before and after the accident will be presented. Second, the presentation describes our efforts to develop a new portable gamma camera based on Medipix to locate radiation hotspots at Fukushima prefecture. (authors)

  19. Investigation of epitaxial silicon layers as a material for radiation hardened silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.; Verbitskaya, E.

    1997-12-01

    Epitaxial grown thick layers (≥ 100 micrometers) of high resistivity silicon (Epi-Si) have been investigated as a possible candidate of radiation hardened material for detectors for high-energy physics. As grown Epi-Si layers contain high concentration (up to 2 x 10 12 cm -3 ) of deep levels compared with that in standard high resistivity bulk Si. After irradiation of test diodes by protons (E p = 24 GeV) with a fluence of 1.5 x 10 11 cm -2 , no additional radiation induced deep traps have been detected. A reasonable explanation is that there is a sink of primary radiation induced defects (interstitial and vacancies), possibly by as-grown defects, in epitaxial layers. The ''sinking'' process, however, becomes non-effective at high radiation fluences (10 14 cm -2 ) due to saturation of epitaxial defects by high concentration of radiation induced ones. As a result, at neutron fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 the deep level spectrum corresponds to well-known spectrum of radiation induced defects in high resistivity bulk Si. The net effective concentration in the space charge region equals to 3 x 10 12 cm -3 after 3 months of room temperature storage and reveals similar annealing behavior for epitaxial as compared to bulk silicon

  20. Proposed method of assembly for the BCD silicon strip vertex detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeyer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The BCD Silicon strip Vertex Detector is constructed of 10 identical central region modules and 18 similar forward region modules. This memo describes a method of assembling these modules from individual silicon wafers. Each wafer is fitted with associated front end electronics and cables and has been tested to insure that only good wafers reach the final assembly stage. 5 figs

  1. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1.4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm 2 by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.)

  2. Performance characteristics and radiation damage results from the Fermilab E706 silicon microstrip detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Orris, D; Shepard, P F; Weerasundara, P D; Choudhary, B C; Joshi, U; Kapoor, V; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1989-07-01

    A charged particle spectrometer containing a 7120-channel silicon microstrip detector system, one component of Fermilab experiment E706 to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions, was utilized in a run in which 6 million events were recorded. We describe the silicon system, provide early results of track and vertex reconstruction, and present data on the radiation damage to the silicon wafers resulting from the narrow high intensity beam. (orig.).

  3. Effect of SiO$_{2}$ passivating layer in segmented silicon planar detectors on the detector response

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Golubkov, S; Konkov, K; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Sidorov, A; Weilhammer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Silicon detectors with a fine segmentation (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of LHC experiments. Due to the high luminosity of the LHC machines they are required to have a fast response to fit the short shaping time of 25 ns and to be radiation hard. Evaluation of silicon microstrip detectors developed for the ATLAS silicon tracker and carried out under collaboration of CERN and PTI has shown the reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short- range radiation. Since the negative signal is of about 30% of the normal positive one, the effect strongly reduces the charge collection efficiency in irradiated detectors. The investigation presents the consideration on the origin of a negative response in Si microstrip detectors and the experimental proof of the model. The study of the effect has been carried out using "baby" strip detectors with a special design: each strip has a window in a metallization, which covers the p/sup +/ implant. The sca...

  4. Vertically etched silicon nano-rods as a sensitive electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajmirzaheydarali, M; Akbari, M; Soleimani-Amiri, S; Sadeghipari, M; Shahsafi, A; Akhavan Farahani, A; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2015-01-01

    We have used vertically etched silicon nano-rods to realize electron detectors suitable for scanning electron microscopes. The results of deep etching of silicon nano-structures are presented to achieve highly ordered arrays of nano-rods. The response of the electron detector to energy of the primary electron beam and the effects of various sizes and materials has been investigated, indicating its high sensitivity to secondary and back-scattered electrons. The miniaturized structure of this electron detector allows it to be placed in the vicinity of the specimen to improve the resolution and contrast. This detector collects electrons and converts the electron current to voltage directly by means of n-doped silicon nano-rods on a p-type silicon substrate. Silicon nano-rods enhance the surface-to-volume ratio of the detector as well as improving the yield of electron detection. The use of nano-structures and silicon nanowires as an electron detector has led to higher sensitivities than with micro-structures. (paper)

  5. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  6. Characterization of X3 Silicon Detectors for the ELISSA Array at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnevskaya, S.; Balabanski, D. L.; Choudhury, D.; Cognata, M. La; Constantin, P.; Filipescu, D. M.; Ghita, D. G.; Guardo, G. L.; Lattuada, D.; Matei, C.; Rotaru, A.; Spitaleri, C.; State, A.; Xu, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Position-sensitive silicon strip detectors represent one of the best solutions for the detection of charged particles as they provide good energy and position resolution over a large range of energies. A silicon array coupled with the gamma beams at the ELI-NP facility would allow measuring photodissociation reactions of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on heavy nuclei intervening in the p-process. Forty X3 detectors for our ELISSA (ELI-NP Silicon Strip Detectors Array) project have been recently purchased and tested. We investigated several specifications, such as leakage currents, depletion voltage, and detector stability under vacuum. The energy and position resolution, and ballistic deficit were measured and analyzed. This paper presents the main results of our extensive testing. The measured energy resolution for the X3 detectors is better than results published for similar arrays (ANASEN or ORRUBA).

  7. X- and gamma-ray N+PP+ silicon detectors with high radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petris, M.; Ruscu, R.; Moraru, R.; Cimpoca, V.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the use of p-type silicon detectors as starting material for X-and gamma-ray detectors because of several potential benefits it would bring: 1. high purity p-type silicon grown by the float-zone process exhibits better radial dopant uniformity than n-type float-zone silicon; 2. it is free of radiation damage due to the neutron transmutation doping process and behaves better in a radiation field because mainly acceptor like centers are created through the exposure and the bulk material type inversion does not occur as in the n-type silicon. But the p-type silicon, in combination with a passivating layer of silicon dioxide, leads to a more complex detector layout since the positive charge in the oxide causes an inversion in the surface layer under the silicon dioxide. Consequently, it would be expected that N + P diodes have a higher leakage current than P + N ones. All these facts have been demonstrated experimentally. These features set stringent requirements for the technology of p-type silicon detectors. Our work presents two new geometries and an improved technology for p-type high resistivity material to obtain low noise radiation detectors. Test structures were characterized before and after the gamma exposure with a cumulative dose in the range 10 4 - 5 x 10 6 rad ( 60 Co). Results indicate that proposed structures and their technology enable the development of reliable N + PP + silicon detectors. For some samples (0.8 - 12 mm 2 ), extremely low reverse currents were obtained and, in combination with a low noise charge preamplifier, the splitting of 241 Am X-ray lines was possible and also the Mn Kα line (5.9 keV) was extracted from the noise with a 1.9 keV FWHM at the room temperature. An experimental model of a nuclear probe based on these diodes was designed for X-ray detection applications. (authors)

  8. Development of new assembly techniques for a silicon micro-vertex detector unit using the flip-chip bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Mandai, M.; Kanazawa, H.; Yamanaka, J.; Miyahara, S.; Kamiya, M.; Fujita, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, M.; Koike, S.; Matsuda, T.; Ozaki, H.; Tanaka, M.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Okuno, S.; Haba, J.; Hanai, H.; Mori, S.; Yusa, K.; Fukunaga, C.

    1994-01-01

    Full-size models of a detector unit for a silicon micro-vertex detector were built for the KEK B factory. The Flip-Chip Bonding (FCB) method using a new type anisotropic conductive film was examined. The structure using the FCB method successfully provides a new architecture for the silicon micro-vertex detector unit. (orig.)

  9. Jagiellonian University Radiation Damage in Silicon Particle Detectors in High Luminosity Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A

    2017-01-01

    Radiation damage is nowadays the most serious problem in silicon particle detectors placed in the very harsh radiation environment. This problem will be even more pronounced after the LHC Upgrade because of extremely strong particle fluences never encountered before. In this review, a few aspects of radiation damage in silicon trackers are presented. Among them, the change in the silicon lattice and its influence on the detector performance are discussed. Currently applied solutions and the new ideas for future experiments will be also shown. Most of the results presented in this summary were obtained within the RD50 Collaboration

  10. Silicon-CsI detector array for heavy-ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Pogodin, P I; Cheng, Y W; Ingram, F D; Bjarki, O; Grévy, S; Magestro, D J; Molen, A M V; Westfall, G D

    2000-01-01

    An array of 60 silicon-CsI(Tl) detector telescopes has been developed along with associated electronics. The close packing of the telescopes required novel designs for the photodiodes and the silicon DELTA E detectors. Newly developed electronics include preamplifiers, shaping amplifiers, test pulse circuitry, and a module to monitor leakage currents in the silicon diodes. The array covers angles from 5 deg. to 18 deg. in the 4 pi Array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. It measures protons to 150 MeV and has isotopic resolution for intermediate mass nuclei.

  11. 3D simulations and modeling of new low capacitance silicon pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Bo; Li, Yu Yun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Li, Zheng, E-mail: zhengli58@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2016-09-21

    With signal to noise ratio (S/N) being a key parameter of a high performance detector, reducing the detector noise has been one of the main tasks in detector development. A new low capacitance silicon pixel detector is proposed, which is based on a new electrode geometry with reduced effective electrode area while keeping the sensitive volume unchanged. Detector electrical characteristics including electrostatic potential, electric field, full depletion voltage, and capacitance have been simulated in detail using a 3D TCAD tool. From these simulations and calculations, we confirm that the new detector structure has a much reduced capacitance (by a factor of 3) as compared to the traditional pixel detectors with the same sensitive volume. This reduction in detector capacitance can certainly improve the detector signal to noise ratio. However, the full depletion voltage for the new structure is larger than that of the traditional one due to the small electrode effect.

  12. Technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Panas, Andrzej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE). The developed technology enables the fabrication of both planar and epiplanar p+-ν-n+ detector structures with an active area of up to 50 cm2. The starting material for epiplanar structures are silicon wafers with a high-resistivity n-type epitaxial layer ( ν layer - ρ < 3 kΩcm) deposited on a highly doped n+-type substrate (ρ< 0,02Ωcm) developed and fabricated at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. Active layer thickness of the epiplanar detectors (νlayer) may range from 10 μm to 150 μm. Imported silicon with min. 5 kΩcm resistivity is used to fabricate planar detectors. Active layer thickness of the planar detectors (ν) layer) may range from 200 μm to 1 mm. This technology enables the fabrication of both discrete and multi-junction detectors (monolithic detector arrays), such as single-sided strip detectors (epiplanar and planar) and double-sided strip detectors (planar). Examples of process diagrams for fabrication of the epiplanar and planar detectors are presented in the paper, and selected technological processes are discussed.

  13. A beta ray spectrometer based on a two-, or three-element silicon detector coincidence telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Weizman, Y.; Hirning, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of a beta ray energy spectrometer based on a two-or three-element silicon detector telescope is described. The front detector (A) is a thin, totally depleted, silicon surface barrier detector either 40 μm, 72 μm or 98 μm thick. The back detector (C) is a Li compensated silicon detector, 5000 μm thick. An additional thin detector can be inserted between these two detectors when additional photon rejection capability is required in intense photon fields. The capability of the spectrometer to reject photons is based on the fact that incident photons will have a small probability of simultaneously losing detectable energy in two detectors and an even smaller probability of losing detectable energy in all three detectors. Electrons, however, above a low energy threshold, will always record simultaneous, events in all three detectors. The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from a lower energy coincidence threshold of 70 keV with 60% efficiency increasing to 100% efficiency in the energy region between 150 keV and 2.5 MeV. (Author)

  14. Cross-talk studies on FPCB of double-sided silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhankui; Li, Haixia; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhusheng; Chen, Cuihong; Liu, Fengqiong; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Chunyan; Zu, Kailing

    2014-01-01

    Double-sided silicon micro-strip detector's parameters and a test method and the results of cross-talk of FPCB are given in this abstract. In addition, the value of our detector's readout signal has little relation to FPCB's cross-talk.

  15. Signal collection and position reconstruction of silicon strip detectors with 200 μm readout pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Pernegger, H.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors with large readout pitch and intermediate strips offer an interesting approach to reduce the number of readout channels in the tracking systems of future collider experiments without compromising too much on the spatial resolution. Various detector geometries with a readout pitch of 200 μm have been studied for their signal response and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  16. Developments in Silicon Detectors and their impact on LHCb Physics Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gouldwell-Bates, A

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a high energy physics detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will probe the current understanding of the Standard Model through precise measurements of CP violation and rare decays. The LHCb detector heavily depends on the silicon vertexing (VELO) sub-detector for excellent vertex and proper decay time resolutions. The VELO detector sits at a position of only 7 mm from the LHC proton beams. However, the proximity of the silicon sensors to the proton beams results in the detectors suffering radiation damage. Radiation damage results in three changes in the macroscopic properties of the silicon detector: an increase of the leakage current, a decrease in the charge collection efficiency, and changes in the operation voltage required to fully deplete the silicon detector of the free charge carriers. Due to this radiation damage, it is expected that a replacement or upgrade of the LHCb vertex detector will be required by 2010, only 3 years after the turn-on of the LHC. This thesis...

  17. Technology of fabrication of silicon-lithium detector with superficial junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Rodriguez, A.E.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Noriega Scull, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Silicon nuclear radiation detectors transform the charge produced within the semiconductor crystal, product of the impinges of particles and X rays, in pulses of voltage at the output of the preamplifier. The planar Silicon-Lithium (Si(Li)) detector with superficial junction is basically a Pin structure diode. By mean of the diffusion and drift of Lithium in the Silicon a compensated or depletion region was created. There the incident radiation interacts with the Silicon, producing an electric signal proportional to the detector's energy deposited in the semiconductor. The technological process of fabrication this kind of detectors comprises several stages, some of them complex and of long duration. They also demand a systematic control. The technological process of Si(Li) detector's fabrication was carried out. The detector's fabrication electric characteristics were measured in some steps. An obtained device was mounted in the holder within a cryostat, in order to work to temperature of the liquid nitrogen. The energy resolution of the detector was measured and the value was 180 eV for the line of 5.9 KeV of an Fe-55 source. This value has allowed to work with the detector in energy disperse X-rays fluorescence. (author) [es

  18. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Rold, M. Da; Descovich, M.; Kaminski, A.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, F.; Verzellesi, G.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC

  19. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Da Rold, M; Descovich, M; Kaminski, A; Messineo, A; Rizzo, F; Verzellesi, G

    2001-01-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC. (3 refs).

  20. Sub-nanosecond time-of-flight for segmented silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.T. de; Alexander, A.; Brown, K.; Floyd, B.; Gosser, Z.Q.; Hudan, S.; Poehlman, J.; Rudolph, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a multichannel time-of-flight system for readout of a segmented, ion-passivated, ion-implanted silicon detector is described. This system provides sub-nanosecond resolution (δt∼370ps) even for low energy α particles which deposit E≤7.687MeV in the detector.

  1. Development and analysis of silicon based detectors for low energy nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, G.A.

    1990-11-01

    The design and assembly of a prototype silicon based detector especially for the detection of auroral X-rays is presented. The theoretical fundamentals are shown and the adoption of the detector for applications in future satellite experiments are described. 136 refs

  2. SENTIRAD-An innovative personal radiation detector based on a scintillation detector and a silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Manor, A.; Seif, R.; Ghelman, M.; Cohen-Zada, I.; Ellenbogen, M.; Bronfenmakher, V.; Pushkarsky, V.; Gonen, E.; Mazor, T.; Cohen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The alarming personal radiation detector (PRD) is a device intended for Homeland Security (HLS) applications. This portable device is designed to be worn or carried by security personnel to detect photon-emitting radioactive materials for the purpose of crime prevention. PRD is required to meet the scope of specifications defined by various HLS standards for radiation detection. It is mandatory that the device be sensitive and simultaneously small, pocket-sized, of robust mechanical design and carriable on the user's body. To serve these specialized purposes and requirements, we developed the SENTIRAD, a new radiation detector designed to meet the performance criteria established for counterterrorist applications. SENTIRAD is the first commercially available PRD based on a CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal that is optically coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) serving as a light sensor. The rapidly developing technology of SiPM, a multipixel semiconductor photodiode that operates in Geiger mode, has been thoroughly investigated in previous studies. This paper presents the design considerations, constraints and radiological performance relating to the SENTIRAD radiation sensor.

  3. Construction and performance of silicon detectors for the small angle spectrometers of the collider detector of Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellettini, G.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Cervelli, F.; Del Fabbro, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Sestini, P.; Stefanini, A.; Tonelli, G.; Zetti, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Cordelli, M.; Curatolo, M.; Dulach, B.; Esposito, B.; Giromini, P.; Miscetti, S.; Sansoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    The manufacturing process of a series of position sensitive silicon detectors is described together with the tests performed to optimize the performance of the detectors. The detectors are Schottky diodes with strips on the ohmic contact which allow to determine the position of the incoming ionizing particles by charge partition. Four detectors were assembled in a telescope and tested inside the vacuum pipe of the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab. The system is a prototype of the Small Angle Silicon Spectrometer, designed primarily to study p-anti p elastic and diffractive cross sections, and is a part of the Collider Detector of Fermilab (CDF). Several tests were performed to check the efficiency and the linearity of response of various regions of the detectors. Scans of the beam halo were also done in high and low β optics to check how close to the beam the detectors could be operated. Finally, the dependence of the detector response on temperature and integrated radiation dose was investigated. (orig.)

  4. Silicon Detectors for the sLHC - an Overview of Recent RD50 Results

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN around 2018 by upgrading the LHC towards the sLHC (Super-LHC). Due to the radiation damage to the silicon detectors used, the physics experiment will require new tracking detectors for sLHC operation. All-silicon central trackers are being studied in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, with extremely radiation hard silicon sensors on the innermost layers. The radiation hardness of these new sensors must surpass the one of LHC detectors by roughly an order of magnitude. Within the CERN RD50 collaboration, a massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Among the R&D topics are the development of new sensor types like 3D silicon detectors designed for the extreme radiation levels of the sLHC. We will report on the recent results obtained by RD50 from tests of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels corresponding to SLHC fluences. Based on ...

  5. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  6. The design, construction and performance of the ALEPH silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mours, B.

    1996-03-01

    The ALEPH silicon vertex detector is the first detector operating in a colliding beam environment that uses silicon strip detectors which provide readout on both sides and hence a three-dimensional point measurement for the trajectory of charged particles. The detector system was commissioned successfully at the e + e - collider LEP at the research centre CERN, Switzerland, during the year 1991 while taking data at the Z 0 resonance. The achieved spatial resolution of the complete 73 728 channel device (intrinsic plus alignment) in 12 μm in the r.φ view and 12 μm in the z view. The design and construction of the entire detector system are discussed in detail and the experience gained in running the detector is described with special emphasis on the uses of this novel tracking device for the physics of short-lived heavy particles produced in the decays of the Z 0 resonance. (orig.)

  7. SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS FOR THE STAR/SVT EXPERIMENT AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAKAHASHI, J.

    1998-01-01

    Large area linear Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) were developed to be used in the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR experiment at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The SDD is in its final design and has been submitted for large scale production. Test results show that the detector exhibits excellent position resolution and low noise. A special characterization procedure was developed to test detector wafers in order to select good detectors for the SVT. Recently, 15 STAR/SVT SDD's were assembled as a tracking device in a BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). It is the first tracking application of these detectors and their corresponding front-end electronics in an experimental environment. Preliminary results indicating good detector performance are shown and discussed in this paper

  8. Electron Beam Induced Radiation Damage of the Semiconductor Radiation Detector based on Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Kim, Yong Kyun; Park, Se Hwan; Haa, Jang Ho; Kang, Sang Mook; Chung, Chong Eun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Park, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Tae Hyung

    2005-01-01

    A Silicon Surface Barrier (SSB) semiconductor detector which is generally used to detect a charged particle such as an alpha particle was developed. The performance of the developed SSB semiconductor detector was measured with an I-V curve and an alpha spectrum. The response for an alpha particle was measured by Pu-238 sources. A SSB semiconductor detector was irradiated firstly at 30sec, at 30μA and secondly 40sec, 40μA with a 2MeV pulsed electron beam generator in KAERI. And the electron beam induced radiation damage of a homemade SSB detector and the commercially available PIN photodiode were investigated. An annealing effect of the damaged SSB and PIN diode detector were also investigated using a Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA). This data may assist in designing the silicon based semiconductor radiation detector when it is operated in a high radiation field such as space or a nuclear power plant

  9. A test-bench for measurement of electrical static parameters of strip silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Elsha, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control. (author)

  10. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  11. Beam test performance and simulation of prototypes for the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Anelli, G.; Antinori, F.

    2007-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector (SPD) of the ALICE experiment in preparation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to provide the precise vertex reconstruction needed for measuring heavy flavor production in heavy ion collisions at very high energies and high multiplicity. The SPD forms the innermost part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) which also includes silicon drift and silicon strip detectors. Single assembly prototypes of the ALICE SPD have been tested at the CERN SPS using high energy proton/pion beams in 2002 and 2003. We report on the experimental determination of the spatial precision. We also report on the first combined beam test with prototypes of the other ITS silicon detector technologies at the CERN SPS in November 2004. The issue of SPD simulation is briefly discussed

  12. Large diameter lithium compensated silicon detectors for the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allbritton, G.L.; Andersen, H.; Barnes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication of the 100 mm diameter, 3 mm thick lithium-compensated silicon, Si(Li), detectors for the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) instrument on board the ACE satellite required development of new float-zone silicon growing techniques, new Si(Li) fabrication procedures, and new particle beam testing sequences. These developments are discussed and results are presented that illustrate the advances made in realizing these CRIS Si(Li) detectors, which, when operational in the CRIS detector telescopes, will usher in a new generation of cosmic-ray isotope spectrometers

  13. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The present ATLAS silicon strip (SCT) and transition radiation (TRT) trackers will be replaced with new silicon strip detectors, as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK), for the Phase-2 upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs to establish radiation harder strip detectors that can survive in a radiation level up to 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity based on n+-on-p microstrip detector. We describe main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication, followed by a description of possible module integration schema

  14. Silicon position-sensitive detectors for the Helios (NA 34) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Manns, T; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Thompson, J A; Tosh, R; Chand, T; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1987-01-15

    The design construction and testing of X-Y tracking modules for a silicon microstrip vertex detector for use in Fermilab experiment E706 is discussed. A successful adaptation of various technologies, essential for instrumenting this class of detectors at a university laboratory is described. Emphasis is placed on considerable cost reduction, design flexibiity and more rapid turnover with a view toward large detectors for the future.

  15. Tuning of the silicon microstrip detector (SCT) digitization parameters at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwakarma, Akanksha [Humboldt University, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The increased luminosity of LHC in RUN-2 causes high radiation exposure of the ATLAS detector. This might bring about changes in the detector responses, especially of the pixel and the silicon strip detector. To study this, several digitization parameters are varied in the simulation and are analysed by comparing with data. In particular, the impact on the reconstructed cluster and track is considered. This investigation is used to optimize data-Monte Carlo agreement.

  16. Test beam results of silicon drift detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nouais, D; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Giubellino, P; Gregorio, A; Hernández-Montoya, R; Idzik, M; Kolojvari, A A; Mazza, G; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nilsson, B S; Petta, C; Randazzo, N; Rashevsky, A; Reito, S; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Trzaska, W H; Vacchi, A

    1999-01-01

    We report preliminary beam test results of linear silicon drift detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. Linearity, resolution, charge transport and collection, and efficiency have been studied using a minimum ionizing particle beam for a very large area detector prototype read out with the OLA preamplifier/shaper and for another detector read out using a new transimpedance amplifier with a nonlinear response. (14 refs).

  17. The bipolar silicon microstrip detector: A proposal for a novel precision tracking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to combine the technology of fully depleted microstrip detectors fabricated on n doped high resistivity silicon with the concept of the bipolar transistor. This is done by adding a n ++ doped region inside the normal p + implanted region of the reverse biased p + n diode. The resulting structure has amplifying properties and is referred to as bipaolar pixel transistor. The simplest readout scheme of a bipolar pixel array by an aluminium strip bus leads to the bipolar microstrip detector. The bipolar pixel structure is expected to give a better signal-to-noise performance for the detection of minimum ionizing charged particle tracks than the normal silicon diode strip detector and therefore should allow in future the fabrication of thinner silicon detectors for precision tracking. (orig.)

  18. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  19. Epitaxy - a new technology for fabrication of advanced silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Wiest, F.; Pahlke, A.; Boslau, O.; Goldstrass, P.; Eggert, T.; Schindler, M.; Eisele, I.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty five years after the introduction of the planar process to the fabrication of silicon radiation detectors a new technology, which replaces the ion implantation doping by silicon epitaxy is presented. The power of this new technique is demonstrated by fabrication of silicon drift detectors (SDDs), whereby both the n-type and p-type implants are replaced by n-type and p-type epi-layers. The very first SDDs ever produced with this technique show energy resolutions of 150 eV for 55 Fe at -35 deg C. The area of the detectors is 10 mm 2 and the thickness 300 μm. The high potential of epitaxy for future detectors with integrated complex electronics is described

  20. Systematic investigation of background sources in neutron flux measurements with a proton-recoil silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Acosta, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, México D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Aïche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2017-01-01

    Proton-recoil detectors (PRDs), based on the well known standard H(n,p) elastic scattering cross section, are the preferred instruments to perform precise quasi-absolute neutron flux measurements above 1 MeV. The limitations of using a single silicon detector as PRD at a continuous neutron beam facility are investigated, with the aim of extending such measurements to neutron energies below 1 MeV. This requires a systematic investigation of the background sources affecting the neutron flux measurement. Experiments have been carried out at the AIFIRA facility to identify these sources. A study on the role of the silicon detector thickness on the background is presented and an energy limit on the use of a single silicon detector to achieve a neutron flux precision better than 1% is given.

  1. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with encapsulated silicon pixel detector and readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; George, K.A.; Girone, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Piedigrossi, D.; Riedler, P.; Rozema, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings report on the performance of the latest prototype pixel hybrid photon detector in preparation for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The prototype encapsulates a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary read-out chip with short (25 ns) peaking time and low ( - ) detection threshold. A brief description of the prototype is given, followed by the preliminary results of the characterisation of the prototype behaviour when tested using a low intensity pulsed light emitting diode. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using previous prototypes. The proceedings conclude with a summary of the current status and future plans

  2. Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors for 4D tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Ficorella, F.; Mandurrino, M.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Sola, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution we review the progress towards the development of a novel type of silicon detectors suited for tracking with a picosecond timing resolution, the so called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors. The goal is to create a new family of particle detectors merging excellent position and timing resolution with GHz counting capabilities, very low material budget, radiation resistance, fine granularity, low power, insensitivity to magnetic field, and affordability. We aim to achieve concurrent precisions of ~ 10 ps and ~ 10 μm with a 50 μm thick sensor. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, which are silicon detectors with an internal multiplication mechanism so that they generate a signal which is factor ~10 larger than standard silicon detectors. The basic design of UFSD consists of a thin silicon sensor with moderate internal gain and pixelated electrodes coupled to full custom VLSI chip. An overview of test beam data on time resolution and the impact on this measurement of radiation doses at the level of those expected at HL-LHC is presented. First I-V and C-V measurements on a new FBK sensor production of UFSD, 50 μm thick, with B and Ga, activated at two diffusion temperatures, with and without C co-implantation (in Low and High concentrations), and with different effective doping concentrations in the Gain layer, are shown. Perspectives on current use of UFSD in HEP experiments (UFSD detectors have been installed in the CMS-TOTEM Precision Protons Spectrometer for the forward physics tracking, and are currently taking data) and proposed applications for a MIP timing layer in the HL-LHC upgrade are briefly discussed.

  3. Silicon surface barrier detector and study of energy spectrum of alpha particles from radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, S.D.; Sinha, Vijaya

    1986-01-01

    The principles of working of three commonly used radiation detectors, namely ionization chambers, scintillation counters with photomultiplier tube (PMT) systems and semiconductor detectors are briefly discussed. Out of the semiconductor detectors, the silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector has distinct advantages for detection of radiations, alpha particles in particular. The experimental setup to obtain the energy spectrum of alpha particles from 241 Am source using SSB fabricated in the Physics Department of Gujarat University, Ahmedabad is described. Its performance is compared with scintillation counter using PMT. SSB detector shows a sharp peak of #approx # 3 per cent energy resolution. The factors affecting the peak, namely, electronic noise, source dependent factors and detector-dependent factors are discussed. A method of calibrating SSB detectors based on energy loss mechanism of alpha particles in thin absorbers is described. Applications of such detectors are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  4. The performance of silicon detectors for the SiliPET project: A small animal PET scanner based on stacks of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auricchio, Natalia; Domenico, Giovanni di; Zavattini, Guido; Milano, Luciano; Malaguti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scanner for small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based on stacks of double sided silicon detectors. Each stack is made of 40 planar detectors with dimension 60x60x1 mm 3 and 128 orthogonal strips on both sides to read the two coordinates of interaction, the third being the detector number in the stack. Multiple interactions in a stack are discarded by an exclusive OR applied between each detector plane of a stack. In this way we achieve a precise determination of the interaction point of the two 511 keV photons. The reduced dimensions of the scanner also improve the solid angle coverage resulting in a high sensitivity. Preliminary results were obtained with MEGA prototype tracker (11 double sided Si detector layers), divided into two stacks 2 cm apart made of, respectively, 5 and 6 prototype layers, placing a small spherical 22 Na source in different positions. We report on the results, spatial resolution, imaging and timing performances obtained with double sided silicon detectors, manufactured by ITC-FBK, having an active area of 3x3 cm 2 , thickness of 1 mm and a strip pitch of 500μm. Two different strip widths of 300 and 200μm equipped with 64 orthogonal p and n strips on opposite sides were read out with the VATAGP2.5 ASIC, a 128-channel 'general purpose' charge sensitive amplifier.

  5. Performance tests of developed silicon strip detector by using a 150 GeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Hyojung; Jung, Sunwoo; Kah, Dongha; Kang, Heedong; Kim, Hongjoo; Park, Hwanbae

    2008-01-01

    We manufactured and characterized a silicon micro-strip detector to be used in a beam tracker. A silicon detector features a DC-coupled silicon strip sensor with VA1 Prime2 analog readout chips. The silicon strip sensors have been fabricated on 5-in. wafers at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea). The silicon strip sensor is single-sided and has 32 channels with a 1 mm pitch, and its active area is 3.2 by 3.2 cm 2 with 380 μm thickness. The readout electronics consists of VA hybrid, VA Interface, and FlashADC and Control boards. Analog signals from the silicon strip sensor were being processed by the analog readout chips on the VA hybrid board. Analog signals were then changed into digital signals by a 12 bit 25 MHz FlashADC. The digital signals were read out by the Linux-operating PC through the FlashADC-USB2 interface. The DAQ system and analysis programs were written in the framework of ROOT package. The beam test with the silicon detector had been performed at CERN beam facility. We used a 150 GeV electron beam out of the SPS(Super Proton Synchrotron) H2 beam line. We present beam test setup and measurement result of signal-to-noise ratio of each strip channel. (author)

  6. Design, characterization and beam test performance of different silicon microstrip detector geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catacchini, E.; Ciampolini, L.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.

    1998-01-01

    During the last few years a large number of silicon microstrip detectors has been especially designed and tested in order to study and optimize the performances of the tracking devices to be used in the forward-backward part of the CMS (technical proposal, CERN/LHCC 94-38 LHCC/Pl, 15 December 1994) experiment. Both single and double sided silicon detectors of a trapezoidal ('wedge') shape and with different strip configurations, including prototypes produced with double metal technology, were characterized in the laboratory and tested using high-energy beams. Furthermore, due to the high-radiation environment where the detectors should operate, particular care was devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. The main results of detector performances (charge response, signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution etc.) will be reviewed and discussed. (author)

  7. Validity of spherical approximations of initial charge cloud shape in silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cheng; Danielsson, Mats; Bornefalk, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Spherical approximation has been used extensively in low-energy X-ray imaging to represent the initial charge cloud produced by photon interactions in silicon detectors, mainly because of its simplicity. However, for high-energy X-rays, where the initial charge distribution is as important as the diffusion process, the spherical approximation will not result in a realistic detector response. In this paper, we present a bubble-line model that simulates the initial charge cloud in silicon detectors for photons in the energy range of medical imaging. An initial charge cloud can be generated by sampling the center of gravity and the track size from statistical distributions derived from Monte Carlo generated tracks and by distributing a certain proportion of photon energy into a bubble (68%) and a line portion uniformly. The simulations of detector response demonstrate that the new model simulates the detector response accurately and corresponds well to Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    In this work it was developed radiation detectors silicon surface barrier that were capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation from a low energy of iodine-125 seeds used in brachytherapy treatments. >From commercial silicon substrates detectors were developed, one sequence left of chemical treatments to the surfaces of these substrates with the intention of minimizing the possible noise generated, validation of the samples obtained as diodes, ensuring detector characteristics and effective use as detector for Iodine-125 radioactive sources with energy of about 25 keV and Americium-251 with energy on the order of 59 keV. Finished performing the analysis of the obtained energy spectra and so it was possible to observe the ability of these detectors to measure the energy from these seeds. (author)

  9. Technology for the compatible integration of silicon detectors with readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Compatible integration of detectors and readout electronics on the same silicon substrate is of growing interest. As the methods of microelectronics technology have already been adapted for detector fabrication, a common technology basis for detectors and readout electronics is available. CMOS technology exhibits most attractive features for the compatible realization of readout electronics when advanced LSI processing steps are combined with detector requirements. The essential requirements for compatible integration are the availability of high resistivity (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon substrate, the formation of suitably doped areas for MOS circuits and the isolation of the low voltage circuit from the detector operated at much higher supply voltage. Junction isolation as a first approach based on present production technology and dielectric isolation based on an advanced SOI-LSI technology are discussed as the most promising solutions for present and future applications, respectively. (orig.)

  10. Large area silicon drift detectors for x-rays -- New results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Patt, B.E.; Tull, C.R.; Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1998-01-01

    Large area silicon drift detectors, consisting of 8 mm and 12 mm diameter hexagons, were fabricated on 0.35 mm thick high resistivity n-type silicon. An external FET and a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier were used for testing the prototype detectors. The detector performance was measured in the range 75 to 25 C using Peltier cooling, and from 0.125 to 6 micros amplifier shaping time. Measured energy resolutions were 159 eV FWHM and 263 eV FWHM for the 0.5 cm 2 and 1 cm 2 detectors, respectively (at 5.9 keV, -75 C, 6 micros shaping time). The uniformity of the detector response over the entire active area (measured using 560 nm light) was < 0.5%

  11. Thermal simulations of the new design for the BELLE silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragic, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The experienced imperfections of the BELLE silicon vertex detector, SVD1 motioned the design of a new detector, SVD2, which targets on improving the main weaknesses encountered in the old design. In this report we focus on tile thermal aspects of the SVD2 ladder, whereby sufficient cooling of the detector is necessary in order to minimise the detector leakage currents. It is estimated that reducing the temperature of the silicon detector from 25 deg C to 15 deg C would result in a 50% reduction in leak current. Further, cooling the detector would help minimize mechanical stresses from the thermal cycling. Our task is to ensure that the heat generated by the readout chips is conducted down the SVD hybrid unit effectively, such that the chip and the hybrid temperature does not overbear the SVD silicon sensor temperature. We considered the performance of two materials to act as a heat spreading plate which is glued between the two hybrids in order to improve the heat conductivity of the hybrid unit, namely Copper and Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG). The effects of other ladder components were also considered in order to enhance the cooling of the silicon detectors. Finite element analysis with ANSYS software was used to simulate the thermal conditions of the SVD2 hybrid unit, in accordance with the baseline design for the mechanical structure of the ladder. It was found that Cu was a preferred material as it achieved equivalent silicon sensor cooling (3.6 deg C above cooling point), while its mechanical properties rendered it a lot more practical. Suppressing, the thermal path via a rib support block, by increasing its thermal resistivity, as well as increasing thermal conductivity of the ribs in the hybrid region, were deemed essential in the effective cooling of the silicon sensors

  12. Measurements of environmental gamma-ray spectra using a multi-element TL dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1986-12-01

    A method to estimate the energy distribution and dose of environmental gamma radiation was developed using a multielement TL dosemeter. Experimentally obtained energy responses from a multi-element TL dosemeter with different kinds of filters were used to calculate the energy distribution and related dose by the SAND-II computer code. The code was originally developed to estimate the neutron flux using a multiple foil activation method. Measurements were made at several locations with the multi-element TL dosemeter and comparisons were made with results from a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and a high-pressure ionization chamber. (author)

  13. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a powerful software package that simulates the signal generation in these devices has been developed. Moreover in this thesis it has been also shown that the degradation due to radiation in silicon detectors can be strongly reduced if the data taking is done with detectors operated at 130 K. This makes low temperature operation that benefits of the recovery of the charge collection efficiency in highly irradiated silicon detectors (also known as Lazarus effect) an optimal option for future high luminosity experiments. (author)

  14. Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels

  15. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  16. Heavy-ion irradiation effects on passivated implanted planar silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, W. de; Brijs, B.; Vandervorst, W.; Burger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Commercially available p + nn + passivated implanted planar silicon detectors have been shown to be very performing for standard RBS-analysis with 4 He beams. Lifetimes are found to range up till >10 9 particles. The end of lifetime occurs concurrent with internal breakdown of the detector. Inverted n + np + detectors where the junction is located well outside the damage region, are expected to be less sensitive to the radiation damage and to have a higher lifetime. In the present paper the characteristics for heavy-ion detection of both types of detector are investigated and discussed upon. (orig.)

  17. Directly-deposited blocking filters for high-performance silicon x-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, M.; Kissel, S.; Masterson, R.; Ryu, K.; Suntharalingam, V.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon X-ray detectors often require blocking filters to mitigate noise and out-of-band signal from UV and visible backgrounds. Such filters must be thin to minimize X-ray absorption, so direct deposition of filter material on the detector entrance surface is an attractive approach to fabrication of robust filters. On the other hand, the soft (E OD 6) care must be taken to prevent light from entering the sides and mounting surfaces of the detector. Our methods have been used to deposit filters on the detectors of the REXIS instrument scheduled to fly on OSIRIS-ReX later this year.

  18. Performance studies of X3 silicon detectors for the future ELISSA array at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnevskaya, S.; Balabanski, D. L.; Choudhury, D.; Constantin, P.; Filipescu, D. M.; Ghita, D. G.; Guardo, G. L.; Lattuada, D.; Matei, C.; Rotaru, A.; State, A.

    2018-05-01

    ELISSA is an array of silicon strip detectors under construction at the ELI-NP facility for measurements of photodissociation reactions using high-brilliance, quasi monoenergetic gamma beams. The detection system consists of 35 single-sided position-sensitive X3 detectors arranged in a cylindrical configuration and eight QQQ3 detectors as end-caps. A batch of forty X3 detectors have been tested at ELI-NP. The energy and position resolution, ballistic deficit, leakage currents, and depletion voltage were measured and analyzed. Measurements of the energy resolution were carried out using two read-out electronic chains, one based on multichannel preamplifiers and another based on multiplexers.

  19. Operation and performance of the silicon vertex detector (SVX') at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.P.

    1994-10-01

    The authors describe the operation and performance of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX'), which replaced the CDF SVX detector for run lb of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The new features of the SVX' include AC coupled readout, Field OXide Field Effect Transistor (FOXFET) biasing and radiation hard front end electronics. The authors expect the detector to survive beyond the 100 pb -1 of data taking anticipated for the present CDF physics run. Preliminary results from the collider data show that the detector has a resolution of about 12 μm. This provides a powerful tool to do top and bottom physics

  20. Qualification of a new supplier for silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@cern.ch [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frühwirth, E. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J.; Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors are capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This paper presents the development, production and results from the electrical characterisation of the first sensors produced by Infineon.

  1. Novel silicon stripixel detector: concept, simulation, design, and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.

    2004-01-01

    A novel detector concept has been developed in this work that has the necessary properties to provide two-dimensional (2-D) position sensitivity with a moderate number of readout electronic channels and single-sided detector fabrication process. The concept is based on interleaved pixel electrodes arranged in a projective X-Y readout, which makes possible position encoding with minimum number of channels. In further discussions, we refer to this concept as 'stripixel' detector, as it combines the 2-D position resolution of a pixel electrode geometry with the simplicity of the projective readout of a double-sided strip detector. For DC coupled detectors with large pitches (>20 μm), individual pixels are divided into X- and Y-cell that can be interleaved by many different schemes that ensure the charge sharing between them. This type of stripixel detectors is called interleaved stripixel detectors. When the detector pitch goes down (<20 μm), the X and Y-pixel may not have to be interleaved, and they can be connected in an alternating way to X-Y strip readout. This type of stripixel detectors is called alternating stripixel detectors (ASD). For ASD, a position resolution better than 1 μm in two dimensions can be achieved by determining the centroid of the charge collected on pixel electrodes with a granularity in the range of 5-6 μm. For AC coupled detectors, no interleaving scheme may be needed, and there may be no limit on the pitch size, i.e. it may go from pitches in the order of microns, to hundreds of microns or even mm's. This electrode granularity does not pose difficult demands on the lithography and the fabrication technology. This novel detector concept can be applied to any semiconductor detectors/sensors, such as Si, Ge, GaAs, SiC, diamond, etc

  2. Building blocks for future detectors: Silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, R; Britzger, M; Burmeister, O; Danzmann, K; Duck, J; Eberle, T; Friedrich, D; Luck, H; Mehmet, M; Steinlechner, S; Willke, B; Brueckner, F; Nawrodt, R

    2010-01-01

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use the combination of quasi-monochromatic, continuous-wave laser light at 1064 nm and fused silica test masses at room temperature. Detectors of the third generation, such as the Einstein-Telescope, will involve a considerable sensitivity increase. The combination of 1550 nm laser radiation and crystalline silicon test masses at low temperatures might be important ingredients in order to achieve the sensitivity goal. Here we compare some properties of the fused silica and silicon test mass materials relevant for decreasing the thermal noise in future detectors as well as the recent technology achievements in the preparation of laser radiation at 1064 nm and 1550 nm relevant for decreasing the quantum noise. We conclude that silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light have the potential to form the future building blocks of gravitational wave detection.

  3. Design and Tests of the Silicon Sensors for the ZEUS Micro Vertex Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dannheim, D.; Koetz, U.; Coldewey, C.; Fretwurst, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Klanner, R.; Martens, J.; Koffeman, E.; Tiecke, H.; Carlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    To fully exploit the HERA-II upgrade,the ZEUS experiment has installed a Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using n-type, single-sided, silicon micro-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 micrometers, with five intermediate strips (20 micrometer strip pitch). The designs of the silicon sensors and of the test structures used to verify the technological parameters, are presented. Results on the electrical measurements are discussed. A total of 1123 sen...

  4. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1. 4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (USA)); Ziemba, F.P. (Quantrad Corp. (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm{sup 2} by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.).

  5. Characterization of oxygen dimer-enriched silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Boisvert, V; Moll, M; Murin, L I; Pintilie, I

    2005-01-01

    Various types of silicon material and silicon p+n diodes have been treated to increase the concentration of the oxygen dimer (O2i) defect. This was done by exposing the bulk material and the diodes to 6 MeV electrons at a temperature of about 350 °C. FTIR spectroscopy has been performed on the processed material confirming the formation of oxygen dimer defects in Czochralski silicon pieces. We also show results from TSC characterization on processed diodes. Finally, we investigated the influence of the dimer enrichment process on the depletion voltage of silicon diodes and performed 24 GeV/c proton irradiations to study the evolution of the macroscopic diode characteristics as a function of fluence.

  6. Development of silicon detectors for Beam Loss Monitoring at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Zabrodskii, A.; Bogdanov, A.; Shepelev, A.; Dehning, B.; Bartosik, M. R.; Alexopoulos, A.; Glaser, M.; Ravotti, F.; Sapinski, M.; Härkönen, J.; Egorov, N.; Galkin, A.

    2017-03-01

    Silicon detectors were proposed as novel Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) for the control of the radiation environment in the vicinity of the superconductive magnets of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The present work is aimed at enhancing the BLM sensitivity and therefore the capability of triggering the beam abort system before a critical radiation load hits the superconductive coils. We report here the results of three in situ irradiation tests of Si detectors carried out at the CERN PS at 1.9-4.2 K. The main experimental result is that all silicon detectors survived irradiation up to 1.22× 1016 p/cm2. The third test, focused on the detailed characterization of the detectors with standard (300 μm) and reduced (100 μm) thicknesses, showed only a marginal difference in the sensitivity of thinned detectors in the entire fluence range and a smaller rate of signal degradation that promotes their use as BLMs. The irradiation campaigns produced new information on radiation damage and carrier transport in Si detectors irradiated at the temperatures of 1.9-4.2 K. The results were encouraging and permitted to initiate the production of the first BLM prototype modules which were installed at the end of the vessel containing the superconductive coil of a LHC magnet immersed in superfluid helium to be able to test the silicon detectors in real operational conditions.

  7. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    To extend the physics potential of the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) at CERN, upgrades of the accelerator complex and the detectors towards the Super-LHC (sLHC) are foreseen. The upgrades, separated in Phase-1 and Phase-2, aim at increasing the luminosity while leaving the energy of the colliding particles (7 TeV per proton beam) unchanged. After the Phase-2 upgrade the instantaneous luminosity will be a factor of 5-10 higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. Due to the increased track rate and extreme radiation levels for the tracking detectors, upgrades of the detectors are necessary. At ATLAS, one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker. This article describes the plans for the Phase-2 upgrade of the silicon strip detector of ATLAS. Radiation hard n-in-p silicon detectors with shorter strips than currently installed in ATLAS are planned. Results of measurements with these sensors and plans for module designs will be discussed.

  8. Development of Silicon Drift Detectors using Boron layer technology

    OpenAIRE

    Golshani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation detectors are used in a large variety of fields such as medicine, security, defense, geophysics, industry and physics. They have been developed to detect the energy or position of radiation or charge particles. In Chapter 1 several X-ray detectors were introduced briefly. In gas filled X-ray detectors, incoming photons ionize inert gas and create electron and ions which can be collected at a thin wire anode inside of the chamber. The advantage of this type of detector is the possibi...

  9. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the open-quotes technology of choiceclose quotes for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1 degree at high energy. The status of this R ampersand D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument

  10. Test beam results from the prototype L3 silicon microvertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.; Adriani, O.; Ahlen, S.

    1993-11-01

    We report test beam results on the overall system performance of two modules of the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector exposed to a 50 GeV pion beam. Each module consists of two AC coupled double-sided silicon strip detectors equipped with VLSI readout electronics. The associated data acquisition system comprises an 8 bit FADC, an optical data transmission circuit, a specialized data reduction processor and a synchronization module. A spatial resolution of 7.5 μm and 14 μm for the two coordinates and a detection efficiency in excess of 99% are measured. (orig.)

  11. The paradox of characteristics of silicon detectors operated at temperature close to liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, V.; Shepelev, A.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zamantzas, C.; Galkin, A.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to give characterization of silicon p+/n/n+ detectors for the monitoring systems of the Large Hadron Collider machine at CERN with the focus on justifying the choice of silicon resistivity for the detector operation at the temperature of 1.9-10 K. The detectors from n-type silicon with the resistivity of 10, 4.5, and 0.5 kΩ cm were investigated at the temperature from 293 up to 7 K by the Transient Current Technique with a 660 nm pulse laser and alpha-particles. The shapes of the detector current pulse response allowed revealing a paradox in the properties of shallow donors of phosphorus, i.e., native dopants in the n-type Si. There was no carrier freeze-out on the phosphorus energy levels in the space charge region (SCR), and they remained positively charged irrespective of temperature, thus limiting the depleted region depth. As for the base region of a partially depleted detector, the levels became neutral at T < 28 K, which transformed silicon to an insulator. The reduction of the activation energy for carrier emission in the detector SCR estimated in the scope of the Poole-Frenkel effect failed to account for the impact of the electric field on the properties of phosphorus levels. The absence of carrier freeze-out in the SCR justifies the choice of high resistivity silicon as the only proper material for detector operation in a fully depleted mode at extremely low temperature.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fabio Eduardo da; Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues da

    2015-01-01

    This work used 5 silicon substrates, n-type with resistivity between 500-20,000 Ω.cm, with 12 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness, from Wacker - Chemitronic, Germany. To produce the surface barrier detectors, the substrates were first cleaned, then, they were etched with HNO 3 solution. After this, a deposition of suitable materials on the crystal was made, to produce the desired population inversion of the crystal characteristics. The substrates received a 10 mm diameter gold contact in one of the surfaces and a 5 mm diameter aluminum in the other. The curves I x V and the energy spectra for 28 keV and 59 keV, for each of the produced detectors, were measured. From the 5 substrates, 4 of them resulted in detectors and one did not present even diode characteristics. The results showed that the procedures used are suitable to produce detectors with this type of silicon substrates. (author)

  13. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine Compton imaging of positron emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G; Royle, G J; Cullum, I; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Iles, G

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6x6 cm sup 2 , 500 mu m thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5 deg. is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  14. Silicon drift detectors with on-chip electronics for x-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, C; Longoni, A; Hartmann, R; Lechner, P; Strüder, L

    1997-01-01

    The silicon drift detector (SDD) is a semiconductor device based on high resistivity silicon fully depleted through junctions implanted on both sides of the semiconductor wafer. The electrons generated by the ionizing radiation are driven by means of a suitable electric field from the point of interaction toward a collecting anode of small capacitance, independent of the active area of the detector. A suitably designed front-end JFET has been directly integrated on the detector chip close to the anode region, in order to obtain a nearly ideal capacitive matching between detector and transistor and to minimize the stray capacitances of the connections. This feature allows it to reach high energy resolution also at high count rates and near room temperature. The present work describes the structure and the performance of SDDs specially designed for high resolution spectroscopy with soft x rays at high detection rate. Experimental results of SDDs used in spectroscopy applications are also reported.

  15. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.L. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Martel, I. [Dpto de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, CH 1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Jiménez, R. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Galán, J., E-mail: jgalan@diesia.uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Salmerón, P. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2016-09-11

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from {sup 12}C up to {sup 84}Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  16. Development of Silicon Drift Detectors using Boron layer technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golshani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation detectors are used in a large variety of fields such as medicine, security, defense, geophysics, industry and physics. They have been developed to detect the energy or position of radiation or charge particles. In Chapter 1 several X-ray detectors were introduced briefly. In gas filled

  17. Studies of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, S.C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Bruner, N.L. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Frautschi, M.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Hoeferkamp, M.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.; Patton, A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Particle Phys.

    1996-12-01

    The electrical characteristics of detectors manufactured by SINTEF/SI with a variety of geometrical and processing options have been investigated. The detectors` leakage current, depletion voltage, bias resistance, interstrip and coupling capacitance, and coupling capacitor breakdown voltage were studied. (orig.).

  18. Studies of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, S.C.; Bruner, N.L.; Frautschi, M.A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Patton, A.

    1996-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of detectors manufactured by SINTEF/SI with a variety of geometrical and processing options have been investigated. The detectors' leakage current, depletion voltage, bias resistance, interstrip and coupling capacitance, and coupling capacitor breakdown voltage were studied. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M.

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N + - strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P + - strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade

  20. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  1. Radiation hardness of silicon detectors manufactured on epitaxial material and FZ bulk enriched with oxygen, carbon, tin and platinum

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; Talamonti, R; Watts, S; Zanet, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used normalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors. (5 refs).

  2. Performance of the Charge Injectors of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kushpil, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 37 (2012), s. 970-975 ISSN 1875-3892. [TIPP 2011 - Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011. Chicago, 09.06.2011-14.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : semiconductor detector * silicon drift detector * MOS charge injector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389212017920

  3. Beam test results of the irradiated Silicon Drift Detector for ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Kushpil, S.; Crescio, E.; Giubellino, P.; Idzik, M.; Kolozhvari, A.; Kushpil, V.; Martinez, M. I.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, A.; Meddi, F.; Nouais, D.; Petracek, V.; Piemonte, C.; Rashevsky, A.; Riccati, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Drift Detectors will equip two of the six cylindrical layers of high precision position sensitive detectors in the ITS of the ALICE experiment at LHC. In this paper we report the beam test results of a SDD irradiated with 1 GeV electrons. The aim of this test was to verify the radiation tolerance of the device under an electron fluence equivalent to twice particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation.

  4. Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development act...

  5. Indium-bump-free antimonide superlattice membrane detectors on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamiri, M., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu; Klein, B.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Dahiya, V.; Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Myers, S. [SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Krishna, S., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2016-02-29

    We present an approach to realize antimonide superlattices on silicon substrates without using conventional Indium-bump hybridization. In this approach, PIN superlattices are grown on top of a 60 nm Al{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}Sb sacrificial layer on a GaSb host substrate. Following the growth, the individual pixels are transferred using our epitaxial-lift off technique, which consists of a wet-etch to undercut the pixels followed by a dry-stamp process to transfer the pixels to a silicon substrate prepared with a gold layer. Structural and optical characterization of the transferred pixels was done using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The interface between the transferred pixels and the new substrate was abrupt, and no significant degradation in the optical quality was observed. An Indium-bump-free membrane detector was then fabricated using this approach. Spectral response measurements provided a 100% cut-off wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K. The performance of the membrane detector was compared to a control detector on the as-grown substrate. The membrane detector was limited by surface leakage current. The proposed approach could pave the way for wafer-level integration of photonic detectors on silicon substrates, which could dramatically reduce the cost of these detectors.

  6. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  7. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  8. Silicon microstrip detector development in the Institute for High Energy Physics Zeuthen, GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Nowak, W.D.; Truetzschler, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in regard of the growing interest to study short living particles demanding for high resolution vertex detectors the authors started to build Si microstrip detectors. The first detector generation was characterized by a small area of silicon and a readout via printed circuit board fan out. Now they can assemble detectors with larger areas and VLSI readout. A special cleanroom has been built. Equipment and tools necessary are available. Silicon wafers and thick film hybrid circuits are fabricated under collaboration by the GDR industry. Applications of their detectors were several test-runs at CERN to calibrate the L3 time expansion chamber (TEC) and the L3 muon chambers. A 10-layer telescope is designed now and it is planned to calibrate a high resolution scintillation fiber target. Future applications will be high resolution vertex detectors, e.g. L3 upgrading (LEP, CERN) or KEDR (VEPP-5, Novosibirsk). Further investigations will concern AC coupled strip detectors (single and double sided) and pixel and/or pad detectors

  9. Study of charge transport in silicon detectors: Non-irradiated and irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Roy, P.; Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Lemeilleur, F.

    1999-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of silicon detectors (standard planar float zone and MESA detectors) as a function of the particle fluence can be extracted by the application of a model describing the transport of charge carriers generated in the detectors by ionizing particles. The current pulse response induced by α and β particles in non-irradiated detectors and detectors irradiated up to fluences PHI ∼ 3 · 10 14 particles/cm 2 is reproduced via this model: i) by adding a small n-type region 15 μm deep on the p + side for the detectors at fluences beyond the n to p-type inversion and ii) for the MESA detectors, by considering one additional dead layer of 14 μm (observed experimentally) on each side of the detector, and introducing a second (delayed) component to the current pulse response. For both types of detectors, the model gives mobilities decreasing linearily up to fluences of about 5·10 13 particles/cm 2 and converging, beyond, to saturation values of about 1050 cm 2 /Vs and 450 cm 2 /Vs for electrons and holes, respectively. At a fluence PHI ∼ 10 14 particles/cm 2 (corresponding to about ten years of operation at the CERN-LHC), charge collection deficits of about 14% for β particles, 25% for α particles incident on the front and 35% for α particles incident on the back of the detector are found for both type of detectors

  10. Characterisation of Silicon Timing Detectors for the RD50 Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Immig, David Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Increasing pile-up and irradiation following with the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, demands the development of improved semiconductor detectors. The former problem can be reduced by more precise time information, which can be obtained using a future detector based on the low gain avalanche diode (LGAD). LGADs are studied by the RD50-Collaboration, which studies the characteristics of semiconductor devices to improve these for future requirements of high energy physics. This reports is engaged with the process to characterise semiconductor detectors, specially LGADs, with capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements as well as transient current techniques of un- and irradiated semiconductor devices.

  11. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1997-12-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron

  12. Application of imitation for energy calibration of silicon semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aivazyan, G M; Mikaelyan, M A

    2003-01-01

    An effective method is described for energy calibration of semiconductor detectors (SCD) with different thickness. The method is based on imitating the charge on the input of the preamplifier deposited in SCD by known energy ionizing particles, the imitation being performed by a pulser with a partial with use of alpha-active sources. The results of laboratory studies of the described method are given with detectors of either large, 50-1000 mu m, or small, 18-20 mu m, thickness

  13. Synchrotron applications of an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Can Aydiner, C.; Almer, J.; Bernier, J.; Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Haeffner, D.; Kump, K.; Lee, P. L.; Lienert, U.; Miceli, A.; Vera, G.; LANL; GE Healthcare

    2008-01-01

    A GE Revolution 41RT flat-panel detector (GE 41RT) from GE Healthcare (GE) has been in operation at the Advanced Photon Source for over two years. The detector has an active area of 41 cm x 41 cm with 200 (micro)m x 200 (micro)m pixel size. The nominal working photon energy is around 80 keV. The physical set-up and utility software of the detector system are discussed in this article. The linearity of the detector response was measured at 80.7 keV. The memory effect of the detector element, called lag, was also measured at different exposure times and gain settings. The modulation transfer function was measured in terms of the line-spread function using a 25 (micro)m x 1 cm tungsten slit. The background (dark) signal, the signal that the detector will carry without exposure to X-rays, was measured at three different gain settings and with exposure times of 1 ms to 15 s. The radial geometric flatness of the sensor panel was measured using the diffraction pattern from a CeO 2 powder standard. The large active area and fast data-capturing rate, i.e. 8 frames s -1 in radiography mode, 30 frames s -1 in fluoroscopy mode, make the GE 41RT one of a kind and very versatile in synchrotron diffraction. The loading behavior of a Cu/Nb multilayer material is used to demonstrate the use of the detector in a strain-stress experiment. Data from the measurement of various samples, amorphous SiO 2 in particular, are presented to show the detector effectiveness in pair distribution function measurements

  14. Silicon Sensors for the Upgrades of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Schleper, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accel- erator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The rst upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2 10 34 cm-2 s-1 A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5 10 34 cm-2 s1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The rst upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout elec- tronics that allow ecient data taking up to a luminosity of 2 10 34 cm-2s-1,twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at dierent institutes. Ham...

  15. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  16. Performance of a silicon microstrip detector in a high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.; Brown, C.N.; Kapustinsky, J.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Peng, J.C.; Sailor, W.; Holzscheiter, K.; Sadler, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of a silicon microstrip detector that has been studied in a high rate environment using electron, pion, and proton beams. The pulse height, time response, and leakage current have been studied as a function of particle fluence up to a total integrated flus of about 4 x 10 14 protons/cm 2

  17. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of

  18. Spectrometer based on the silicon semiconductor detectors for a study of the two charged particles correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumsztein, Z.W.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Szawlowski, M.

    1974-01-01

    The spectrometer based on the silicon semiconductor detectors for a study of the correlation between two charged particles is described. The results of the time resolution and particles identification measurements are presented. The tests were performed in the proton beam of the JINR synchrocyclotron. (author)

  19. Results from multipoint alignment monitoring using the new generation of amorphous silicon position detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC-University of Cantabria Santander (Spain)] (and others)

    2008-08-11

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of large sensitive area (28x28 mm{sup 2}) semitransparent amorphous silicon position detector sensors. More than 100 units have been characterized. They show a very high performance. To illustrate a multipoint application, we present results from the monitoring of five sensors placed in a 5.5-m-long light path.

  20. Overview of radiation damage in silicon detectors - models and defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work in the area of radiation damage in silicon detectors. It is not intended as a comprehensive review, but provides a snapshot guide to current ideas and indicates how the subject is expected to develop in the immediate future. (orig.)

  1. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto [Univ. of the Basque Country, Leioa (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.

  2. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  3. Radiation hard silicon detectors - developments by the RD48(ROSE) collaboration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindström, G.; Kohout, Z.; Pospíšil, S.; Šícho, Petr; Sopko, B.; Vrba, Václav; Wilhelm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 2 (2001), s. 308-326 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : silicon detectors * radiation hardness * defect engineering * non ionizing energy los Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2001

  4. Silicon drift detectors in alice experiment at lhc, performance tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALICE collaboration

    2001-01-01

    A brief introduction to the silicon drift detector (SDD) in ALICE experiment at LHC CERN. Excellent agreement are found between the results from the simulation code (Ali Root) and the results of the test beam data for SDD s. A study of SDD performance and double track separation capability are shown

  5. Monolithic integration of detectors and transistors on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Batignani, Giovanni; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Gregori, Paolo; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We report on the most recent results from an R and D activity aimed at the development of silicon radiation detectors with embedded front-end electronics. The key features of the fabrication technology and the available active devices are described. Selected results from the characterization of transistors and test structures are presented and discussed, and the considered application fields are addressed

  6. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  7. Results from multipoint alignment monitoring using the new generation of amorphous silicon position detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of large sensitive area (28x28 mm 2 ) semitransparent amorphous silicon position detector sensors. More than 100 units have been characterized. They show a very high performance. To illustrate a multipoint application, we present results from the monitoring of five sensors placed in a 5.5-m-long light path

  8. Recent results from the development of silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F. E-mail: dallabe@dit.unitn.it; Boscardin, M.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciacchi, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Novelli, M.; Piemonte, C.; Rachevskaia, I.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Ronchin, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Speziali, V.; Rosso, V.; Traversi, G.; Zorzi, N

    2004-02-01

    In the past few years we have developed a technological process allowing for the fabrication of radiation detectors with integrated electronics on high-resistivity silicon substrates. We report on some recent results relevant to the process optimisation and to device/circuit characterization.

  9. Recent results from the development of silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciacchi, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Novelli, M.; Piemonte, C.; Rachevskaia, I.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Ronchin, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Speziali, V.; Rosso, V.; Traversi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years we have developed a technological process allowing for the fabrication of radiation detectors with integrated electronics on high-resistivity silicon substrates. We report on some recent results relevant to the process optimisation and to device/circuit characterization

  10. Nuclear-Recoil Energy Scale in CDMS II Silicon Dark-Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; et al.

    2018-03-07

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment aims to detect dark matter particles that elastically scatter from nuclei in semiconductor detectors. The resulting nuclear-recoil energy depositions are detected by ionization and phonon sensors. Neutrons produce a similar spectrum of low-energy nuclear recoils in such detectors, while most other backgrounds produce electron recoils. The absolute energy scale for nuclear recoils is necessary to interpret results correctly. The energy scale can be determined in CDMS II silicon detectors using neutrons incident from a broad-spectrum $^{252}$Cf source, taking advantage of a prominent resonance in the neutron elastic scattering cross section of silicon at a recoil (neutron) energy near 20 (182) keV. Results indicate that the phonon collection efficiency for nuclear recoils is $4.8^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$% lower than for electron recoils of the same energy. Comparisons of the ionization signals for nuclear recoils to those measured previously by other groups at higher electric fields indicate that the ionization collection efficiency for CDMS II silicon detectors operated at $\\sim$4 V/cm is consistent with 100% for nuclear recoils below 20 keV and gradually decreases for larger energies to $\\sim$75% at 100 keV. The impact of these measurements on previously published CDMS II silicon results is small.

  11. Operation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector with colliding beams at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Grieco, G.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Ristori, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F.; Bailey, M.W.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Kruse, M.C.; Shaw, N.M.; Carithers, W.C.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester, W.; Wong, M.; Yao, W.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T.R.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Skarha, J.; Snider, F.D.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S.; Amidei, D.; Derwent, P.F.; Song, T.Y.; Dunn, A.; Gold, M.; Matthews, J.; Bacchetta, N.; Azzi, P.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Tipton, P.; Watts, G.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the main features of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) and discuss its performance during actual colliding beam operation at the Fermilab Tevatron. Details on S/N ratio, alignment, resolution and efficiency are given

  12. The influence of fast neutron irradiation on the noise properties of silicon surface-barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, W.; Korbel, K.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility to the fast neutron irradiation of silicon surface-barrier detectors has been investigated. It was shown that the 1/f-noise decreases substantially with increasing fluence in the range from 10 10 n/cm 2 to 10 11 n/cm 2 . The deterioration of the detector performance is caused mainly by the positively-charged defects induced by the radiation. The critical value of the neutron fluence, at which the detector performance begins to be worsened was also determined. 5 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  13. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ley, J.-L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, 13288 Marseille (France); Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Létang, J.M. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Magne, M. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90×90×2 mm{sup 3}, 2×64 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (38×35×30 mm{sup 3}, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  14. Interference coupling mechanisms in Silicon Strip Detectors - CMS tracker "wings" A learned lesson for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Rivetta, C

    2009-01-01

    The identification of coupling mechanisms between noise sources and sensitive areas of the front-end electronics (FEE) in the previous CMS tracker sub-system is critical to optimize the design and integration of integrated circuits, sensors and power distribution circuitry for the proposed SLHC Silicon Strip Tracker systems. This paper presents a validated model of the noise sensitivity observed in the Silicon Strip Detector-FEE of the CMS tracker that allows quantifying both the impact of the noise coupling mechanisms and the system immunity against electromagnetic interferences. This model has been validated based on simulations using finite element models and immunity tests conducted on prototypes of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) and Outer Barrel (TOB) systems. The results of these studies show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in the design of future detectors to increase the immunity against electromagnetic noise.

  15. Study of the effects of neutron irradiation on silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Panizza, G.; Hall, G.; Sotthibandhu, S.; Ziock, H.J.; Ferguson, P.; Sommer, W.F.; Edwards, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; Pitzl, D.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors and test structures were exposed to neutron fluences up to Φ=6.1x10 14 n/cm 2 , using the ISIS neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). In this paper we report some of our results concerning the effects of displacement damage, with a comparison of devices made of silicon of different resistivity. The various samples exposed showed a very similar dependence of the leakage current on the fluence received. We studied the change of effective doping concentration, and observed a behaviour suggesting the onset of type inversion at a fluence of ∝2.0x10 13 n/cm 2 , a value which depends on the initial doping concentration. The linear increase of the depletion voltage for fluences higher than the inversion point could eventually determine the maximum fluence tolerable by silicon detectors. (orig.)

  16. Study of the effects of neutron irradiation on silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubellino, P.; Panizza, G. (INFN Torino (Italy)); Hall, G.; Sotthibandhu, S. (Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)); Ziock, H.J.; Ferguson, P.; Sommer, W.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Edwards, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)); Cartiglia, N.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; Pitzl, D.; O' Shaughnessy, K.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. (Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics, Univ. California, CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Silicon strip detectors and test structures were exposed to neutron fluences up to {Phi}=6.1x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, using the ISIS neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). In this paper we report some of our results concerning the effects of displacement damage, with a comparison of devices made of silicon of different resistivity. The various samples exposed showed a very similar dependence of the leakage current on the fluence received. We studied the change of effective doping concentration, and observed a behaviour suggesting the onset of type inversion at a fluence of {proportional to}2.0x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}, a value which depends on the initial doping concentration. The linear increase of the depletion voltage for fluences higher than the inversion point could eventually determine the maximum fluence tolerable by silicon detectors. (orig.).

  17. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Sótér, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 x 1 mm^2. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ~ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen a...

  18. Development and application of nuclear radiation detector made from high resistivity silicon and compound semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Honglin; Zhang Xiufeng; Zhang Wanchang; Li Jiang

    1995-11-01

    The development of high resistivity silicon detectors and compound semiconductor detectors as well as their application in nuclear medicine are described. It emphasizes on several key techniques in fabricating detectors in order to meet their application in nuclear medicine. As for a high resistivity silicon detector, its counting rate to 125 I 28.5 keV X-ray has to be improved. So employing a conic mesa structure can increase the thickness of samples, and can raise the electric field of collecting charges under the same bias voltage. As for a GaAs detector, its performance of collecting charges has to be improved. So the thicknesses of GaAs samples are decreased and proper thermal treatment to make Ni-Ge-Au ohmic contacts are employed. Applying a suitable reverse bias voltage can obtain a fully depleted detector, and can obtain a lower forward turn-on voltage and a thinner weak electric field region. After resolving these key techniques, the performance of GaAs detectors has been distinctly improved. The count rate to 125 I X-ray has increased by three or five times under the same testing condition and background circumstance (2 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  19. Production and Quality Assurance of Detector Modules for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volyanskyy, D; Agari, M; Bauer, C; Blouw, J; Hofmann, W; Löchner, S; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Smale, N; Schwingenheuer, B; Voss, H; Borysova, M; Ohrimenko, O; Pugatch, V; Yakovenko, V; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Fauland, P; Frei, R; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Perrin, A; Schneider, O; Tran, M T; Van Hunen, J; Vervink, K; Adeva, B; Esperante-Pereira, D; Gallas, A; Fungueirino-Pazos, J L; Lois, C; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló-Casasus, M; Vázquez, P; Bernhard, R P; Bernet, R; Gassner, J; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Needham, M; Sakhelashvili, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Van Tilburg, J; Vollhardt, A; Wenger, A

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb experiment, which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider~(CERN, Geneva), is designed to study $CP$ violation and find rare decays in the $B$ meson system. To achieve the physics goals the LHCb detector must have excellent tracking performance. An important element of the LHCb tracking system is the Silicon Tracker, which covers a sensitive surface of about 12~m$^2$ with silicon microstrip detectors and includes about 272k readout channels. It uses up to 132~cm long detector modules with readout strips of up to 38~cm in length and up to 57~cm long Kapton interconnects in between sensors and readout hybrids. The production of detector modules has been completed recently and the detector is currently under installation. A rigorous quality assurance programme has been performed to ensure that the detector modules meet the mechanical and electrical requirements and study their various characteristics. In this paper, the detector design, the module production steps, and the module qua...

  20. Development of Hybrid and Monolithic Silicon Micropattern Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Beker, H; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Lemeilleur, F; Ropotar, I

    2002-01-01

    %RD-19 \\\\ \\\\ In a collaborative effort between particle physics institutes and microelectronics industry we are undertaking the development of true 2-dimensional semiconductor particle detectors with on-chip signal processing and information extraction: the so-called micropattern detector. This detector is able to cope in a robust way with high multiplicity events at high rates, while allowing for a longer detector lifetime under irradiation and a thinner sensitive depletion region. Therefore, it will be ideally suited for the complicated events in the LHC p-p collider experiments. Following a $^{\\prime}$stepping stone$^{\\prime}$ approach several telescopes of pixel planes, totalling now 600 cm$^{2}$ with \\(>\\)~1~M elements have been used in the WA97, NA50 and NA57 lead ion experiments. This new technology has facilitated the tracking considerably (see Fig.1). Not only Si but also GaAs and possibly diamond matrices can be connected to the readout matrix. Tests with GaAs pixel detectors with the RD-19 readout ...

  1. One dimensional detector for X-ray diffraction with superior energy resolution based on silicon strip detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dąbrowski, W; Fiutowski, T; Wiącek, P; Fink, J; Krane, H-G

    2012-01-01

    1-D position sensitive X-ray detectors based on silicon strip detector technology have become standard instruments in X-ray diffraction and are available from several vendors. As these devices have been proven to be very useful and efficient further improvement of their performance is investigated. The silicon strip detectors in X-ray diffraction are primarily used as counting devices and the requirements concerning the spatial resolution, dynamic range and count rate capability are of primary importance. However, there are several experimental issues in which a good energy resolution is important. The energy resolution of silicon strip detectors is limited by the charge sharing effects in the sensor as well as by noise of the front-end electronics. The charge sharing effects in the sensor and various aspects of the electronics, including the baseline fluctuations, which affect the energy resolution, have been analyzed in detail and a new readout concept has been developed. A front-end ASIC with a novel scheme of baseline restoration and novel interstrip logic circuitry has been designed. The interstrip logic is used to reject the events resulting in significant charge sharing between neighboring strips. At the expense of rejecting small fraction of photons entering the detector one can obtain single strip energy spectra almost free of charge sharing effects. In the paper we present the design considerations and measured performance of the detector being developed. The electronic noise of the system at room temperature is typically of the order of 70 el rms for 17 mm long silicon strips and a peaking time of about 1 μs. The energy resolution of 600 eV FWHM has been achieved including the non-reducible charge sharing effects and the electronic noise. This energy resolution is sufficient to address a common problem in X-ray diffraction, i.e. electronic suppression of the fluorescence radiation from samples containing iron or cobalt while irradiated with 8.04 ke

  2. Electronics and readout of a large area silicon detector for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Scampoli, P.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Spiwoks, R.; Tsesmelis, E.; Benslama, K.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Kambara, H.; Wu, X.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Schultz, T.; Bardos, R.A.; Gorfine, G.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N.; Bibby, J.H.; Hawkings, R.J.; Kundu, N.; Weidberg, A.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.; Teiger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the RD2 project is to evaluate the feasibility of a silicon tracker and/or preshower detector for LHC. Irradiation studies with doses equivalent to those expected at LHC have been performed to determine the behavior of operational parameters such as leakage current, depletion voltage and charge collection during the life of the detector. The development of fast, dense, low power and low cost signal processing electronics is one of the major activities of the collaboration. We describe the first fully functional integrated analog memory chip with asynchronous read and write operations and level 1 trigger capture capabilities. A complete test beam system using this analog memory chip at 66 MHz has been successfully operated with RD2 prototype silicon detectors during various test runs. The flexibility of the electronics and readout have allowed us to easily interface our set-up to other data acquisition systems. Mechanical studies are in progress to design a silicon tracking detector with several million channels that may be operated at low (0-10 C) temperature, while maintaining the required geometrical precision. Prototype readout boards for such a detector are being developed and simulation studies are being performed to optimize the readout architecture. (orig.)

  3. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bond...

  4. Advances in the project about Pin type silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez F, J.; Cerdeira, A.; Aceves, M.; Diaz, A.; Estrada, M.; Rosales, P.; Cabal, A.E.; Montano L, M.; Leyva, A.

    1998-01-01

    The obtained advances in the collaboration project ININ-CINVESTAV about development of Pin type semiconductor radiation detectors here are presented. It has been characterized the response to different types of radiation made in CINVESTAV and INAOE. Measurements have been realized with different types of sensitive to charge preamplifiers determining the main characteristics which must be executed to be able to be employed with low capacitance detectors. As applications it has been possible to measure the irradiation time in a mammography machine and X-ray energy spectra have been obtained in the order of 14 KeV, with 4 KeV at ambient temperature. The future actions of project have been indicated and the possible applications of these detectors. (Author)

  5. Development of large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Xia Opin; Li Zhen Fu; Zhang Guo Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhang Xia; Song Xian Cai; Jia Huan Yi; Lei Jian Hua; Sun Yuan Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode, with their dimensions of phi 40, phi 50 and phi 60 mm, their depletion thickness of 200-300 mu m, have been developed. Their performance measurements have been made, which indicate that the developed detectors can satisfactorily meet the needs in expectation. Compared with the detectors commercially available on the market, authors' large PIN detectors can serve both as reliable and efficient high-resolution devices for nuclear counting experiments, as well as monitors of high-intensity radiation fields in the current mode under a bias of 100-1000 V, while the detectors commercially available are only for the counting use

  6. Spectroscopic measurements with a silicon drift detector having a continuous implanted drift cathode-voltage divider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; D'Acunto, L; Franck, D; Gregorio, A; Pihet, P; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A silicon drift detector (SDD) prototype where the drift electrode also plays the role of a high-voltage divider has been realised and characterised for spectroscopic applications at near-room temperatures. Among the advantages of this design, is the absence of metal on the sensitive surface which makes this detector interesting for soft X-rays. The detector prototype has a large sensitive area (2x130 mm sup 2) and the charge is collected by two anodes (butterfly-like detector). The energy resolution of a such a detector has been investigated at near-room temperatures using a commercial, hybrid, low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The results obtained for the X-ray lines from sup 5 sup 5 Fe and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am are presented.

  7. ATLAS irradiation studies of n-in-n and p-in-n silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P P; Buttar, C M; Carter, J; Drage, L M; Ferrère, D; Morgan, D; Riedler, P; Robinson, D

    1999-01-01

    Prior to the module production of the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker for the barrel and the forward wheels, the characterisation of full-size prototype silicon detectors after radiation to fluences corresponding to 10 years of ATLAS operation is required. The behaviour of p-in-n and n-in-n detectors produced by several manufacturers before and after irradiation to a fluence of 3*10/sup 14/ protons/cm/sup 2/ at the CERN PS facility is discussed. This article summarises some recent results from the ATLAS SCT collaboration. The measurements of leakage current, full depletion voltage, signal-to-noise ratio and charge collection efficiency are presented. Despite the better efficiency performance of n-in-n detectors below depletion, the collaboration chose the p-in-n technology due to its simpler and less costly production since good charge collection efficiencies were achieved at the desired maximum bias voltage. (14 refs).

  8. Electronics and mechanics for the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmler, C; Bergauer, T; Friedl, M; Gfall, I; Valentan, M, E-mail: irmler@hephy.oeaw.ac.a [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    A major upgrade of the KEK-B factory (Tsukuba, Japan), aiming at a peak luminosity of 8 x 10{sup 35}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which is 40 times the present value, is foreseen until 2014. Consequently an upgrade of the Belle detector and in particular its Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is required. We will introduce the concept and prototypes of the full readout chain of the Belle II SVD. Its APV25 based front-end utilizes the Origami chip-on-sensor concept, while the back-end VME system provides online data processing as well as hit time finding using FPGAs. Furthermore, the design of the double-sided silicon detectors and the mechanics will be discussed.

  9. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    present ATLAS silicon strip tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker(TRT) are to be replaced with new silicon strip detectors as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK) for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs based on n+-on-p microstrip detectors to fabricate improved radiation hard strip detectors that can survive the radiation levels corresponding to the integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb−1. We describe the main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication and the related R&D results, followed by a description of the candidate schema for module integration.

  10. Operating characteristics of radiation-hardened silicon pixel detectors for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hyosung, Cho

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have forward silicon pixel detectors as its innermost tracking device. The pixel devices will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype silicon pixel detectors have been designed to meet the specification of the CMS experiment. No guard ring is required on the n/sup +/ side, and guard rings on the p/sup +/ side are always kept active before and after type inversion. The whole n/sup +/ side is grounded and connected to readout chips, which greatly simplifies detector assembling and improves the stability of bump-bonded readout chips on the n/sup +/ side. Operating characteristics such as the leakage current, the full depletion voltage, and the potential distributions over guard rings were tested using standard techniques. The tests are discussed in this paper. (9 refs).

  11. A silicon pixel detector with routing for external VLSI read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.L.; Seller, P.

    1988-07-01

    A silicon pixel detector with an array of 32 by 16 hexagonal pixels has been designed and is being built on high resistivity silicon. The detector elements are reverse biased diodes consisting of p-implants in an n-type substrate and are fully depleted from the front to the back of the wafer. They are intended to measure high energy ionising particles traversing the detector. The detailed design of the pixels, their layout and method of read-out are discussed. A number of test structures have been incorporated onto the wafer to enable measurements to be made on individual pixels together with a variety of active devices. The results will give a better understanding of the operation of the pixel array, and will allow testing of computer simulations of more elaborate structures for the future. (author)

  12. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  13. Application of imitation for energy calibration of silicon semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivazyan, G.M.; Badalyan, H.V.; Mikaelyan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An effective method is described for energy calibration of semiconductor detectors (SCD) with different thickness. The method is based on imitating the charge on the input of the preamplifier deposited in SCD by known energy ionizing particles, the imitation being performed by a pulser with a partial with use of α-active sources. The results of laboratory studies of the described method are given with detectors of either large, 50-1000μm, or small, 18-20 μm, thickness

  14. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  15. Investigation of innovative silicon detector assembling solutions for hadron calorimeter modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, G.; Ammannati, N.

    1995-01-01

    The application of large areas of silicon detector mosaics in calorimetry for high energy particles measurement in Physics has grown in the last few years and is still in progress. The high number of mosaic units in the calorimeter implies the following main requirements to be satisfied: a simple low cost for manufacturing and assembling, easy mountable/dismountable units, possibility to move or change silicon detectors easily, reliability of the electrical contacts between the aluminium layer on the silicon detector surface and the PCB breaker points.In order to satisfy the above requirements several assembling solutions have been investigated and tested recently, as fixed contact by using conducting epoxy-glues, mechanically dismountable contacts of gold-plated PCB copper to the silicon detectors, and others.The results of the tests show a general degradation of the original electrical characteristics of the contacts after of varying lengths operating times.This fact, due to corrosion phenomena assisted by chemical residuals in the contact interface, causes an irreversible damage of the detectors in the long term.In addition we found a room temperature interdiffusion of gold and copper.A promising solution to these problems can be achieved by careful removal of chemical, increase of golden layer of the PCB electrical copper contacts or aluminising them by pure aluminium vapour deposition in vacuum chamber.Thee estimated degradation time between the PCB copper and the aluminium film is very low in this case, and the risk of diffusion in the detector aluminium film surface is low along the whole operating life of the calorimeter. (orig.)

  16. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palviainen, Tanja; Tuuva, Tuure; Leinonen, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n + -type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p + /n/n + detector structure with an n + guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software

  17. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palviainen, Tanja [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)]. E-mail: tanja.palviainen@lut.fi; Tuuva, Tuure [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Leinonen, Kari [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2007-04-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n{sup +}-type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p{sup +}/n/n{sup +} detector structure with an n{sup +} guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software.

  18. Junction depth dependence of breakdown in silicon detector diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, G.A.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Munday, D.J.; Pritchard, T.W.; Robinson, D.; Wilburn, C.D.; Wyllie, K.

    1996-01-01

    The high voltage capability of detector diodes fabricated in the planar process is limited by the high field generated at the edge of the junction.We have fabricated diodes with increased junction depth with respect to our standard process and find a significantly higher breakdown voltage,in reasonable agreement with previous studies of junction breakdown. (orig.)

  19. Commissioning of the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christakoglou, P.; Botje, M.A.J.; Mischke, A.; van Leeuwen, M.

    2009-01-01

    The latest results from the commissioning of the SSD with cosmics are presented in this paper. The hardware status of the detector, the front-end electronics, cooling, data acquisition and issues related to the on-line monitoring are shown. In addition, the procedures implemented and followed to

  20. Performance Test Results of a Single-sided Silicon Strip Detector with a Radioactive Source and a Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Y. I.; Kah, D. H.; Son, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Bae, J. B.; Ryu, S.; Park, H.; Kim, K. R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to high intrinsic precision and high speed properties of a silicon material, the silicon detector has been used in various applications such as medical imaging detector, radiation detector, positioning detectors in space science and experimental particle physics. High technology, modern equipment, and deep expertise are required to design and fabricate good quality of silicon sensors. Only few facilities in the world can develop silicon sensors which meet requirements of sensor performances. That is one of main reasons that the silicon sensor is so expensive and it takes time to purchase the silicon sensor once it is ordered. We designed and fabricated AC-coupled single-sided silicon strip sensors and developed front-end electronics and DAQ system to read out sensor signals. The silicon strip sensors were fabricated on a 5-in. n-type silicon wafer which has an orientation, high resistivity (>5 kΩ · cm) and a thickness of 380 μm. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel by using a radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam from the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) in Seoul. We present the measurement results of the SNRs of the silicon strip sensor with a proton beam and radioactive sources

  1. Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors in non-depletion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Li, Z.; Haerkoenen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.

    2006-01-01

    The non-depletion detector operation mode has generally been disregarded as an option in high-energy physics experiments. In this paper, the non-depletion operation is examined by detailed analysis of the electric field distribution and the current pulse response of heavily irradiated silicon (Si) detectors. The previously reported model of double junction in heavily irradiated Si detector is further developed and a simulation of the current pulse response has been performed. It is shown that detectors can operate in a non-depletion mode due to the fact that the value of the electric field in a non-depleted region is high enough for efficient carrier drift. This electric field originates from the current flow through the detector and a consequent drop of the potential across high-resistivity bulk of a non-depleted region. It is anticipated that the electric field in a non-depleted region, which is still electrically neutral, increases with fluence that improves the non-depleted detector operation. Consideration of the electric field in a non-depleted region allows the explanation of the recorded double-peak current pulse shape of heavily irradiated Si detectors and definition of the requirements for the detector operational conditions. Detailed reconstruction of the electric field distribution gives new information on radiation effects in Si detectors

  2. Diagnostic x-ray spectra measurements using a silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Laitano, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A silicon surface barrier detector having a low efficiency for x-ray is used to analyse diagnostic x-ray spectra. This characteristic is advantageous in overcoming experimental problems caused by high fluence rates typical of diagnostic x-ray beams. The pulse height distribution obtained with silicon surface barrier detectors is very different from the true photon spectra because of the presence of escaped Compton photons and the fact that detection efficiency falls abruptly when photon energy increases. A detailed analysis of the spurious effects involved in detection is made by a Monte Carlo method. A stripping procedure is described for implementation on a personal computer. The validity of this method is tested by comparison with experimental results obtained with a Ge detector. The spectra obtained with the Si detector are in fairly good agreement with the analogous spectra measured with a Ge detector. The advantages of using Si as opposed to Ge detectors in x-ray spectrometry are: its simplicity of use, its greater economy for use in routine diagnostic x-ray spectroscopy and the possibility that the stripping procedure can be implemented on a personal computer. (author)

  3. Short p-type silicon microstrip detectors in 3D-stc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)], E-mail: simon.eckert@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Dalla-Betta, G.-F.; Zoboli, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are needed to cope with the increased radiation dose, requiring new tracking detectors. In the upgraded ATLAS detector the region from 20 to 50 cm distance to the beam will be covered by silicon strip detectors (SSD) with short strips. These will have to withstand a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 1x10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence extreme radiation resistance is necessary. For the short strips, we propose to use SSD realised in the radiation tolerant 3D technology, where rows of columns-etched into the silicon bulk-are joined together to form strips. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SSD for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3D-single-type-column (stc) SSD with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SCT. The modules were read out with the SCT Data Acquisition system and tested with an IR-laser. We report on the performance of these 3D modules, in particular the noise at 40 MHz which constitutes a measurement of the effective detector capacitance. Conclusions about options for using 3D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC are drawn.

  4. Influence for high intensity irradiation on characteristics of silicon strip-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Pugatch, V.M.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Silicon strip detectors (SSD) are widely used for the coordinate determination of short-range as well as minimum ionizing particles with high spatial resolution. Submicron position sensitivity of strip-detectors for short-range particles has been studied by means of two dimensional analyses of charges collected by neighboring strips as well as by measurement of charge collection times [1]. Silicon strip detectors was also used for testing high energy electron beam [2]. Under large fluences the radiation defects are stored and such characteristics of strip-detectors as an accuracy of the coordinate determination and the registration efficiency are significantly changed. Radiation defects lead to a decrease of the lifetime and mobility of charge carriers and therefore to changes of conditions for the charge collection in detectors. The inhomogeneity in spatial distribution if defects and electrical field plays an important role in the charge collection. In this report the role of the diffusion and drift in the charge collection in silicon strip-detectors under irradiation up to 10 Mrad has been studied. The electric field distribution and its dependence on the radiation dose in the detector have been calculated. It is shown that for particles incident between adjacent strips the coordinate determination precision depends strongly on the detector geometry and the electric field distribution, particularly in the vicinity of strips. Measuring simultaneously the collected charges and collection times on adjacent strips one can essentially improve reliability of the coordinate determination for short-range particles. Usually SSD are fabricated on n-type wafers. It is well known that under high intensity irradiation n-Si material converts into p-Si as far as p-type silicon is more radiative hard than n-type silicon [3] it is reasonable to fabricate SSD using high resistivity p-Si. Characteristics of SSD in basis n-and P-Si have been compared and higher

  5. A study on the beta voltaic micro-nuclear battery based on the planar technology silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; He Gaokui; Huang Xiaojian; Liu Yang; Meng Xin; Hao Xiaoyong

    2011-01-01

    It describes briefly the beta voltaic micro-nuclear battery based on the planar technology silicon detector and radioisotope. Different sensitive area of silicon detectors are used to cooperate with 63 Ni source to buildup of beta voltaic micro-nuclear batteries. The experimental data show that the larger sensitive area the silicon detector has, the higher open circuit voltage it produces, and the open circuit voltage of single cell has reached an excellent result from 0.15 V to 0.30 V. It is possible to get high output power by series or parallel connecting the beta voltaic micro-nuclear batteries. (authors)

  6. Mechanical and thermal behavior of a prototype support structure for a large silicon vertex detector (BCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulderink, H.; Michels, N.; Joestlein, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Bottom Collider Detector (BCD) has been proposed as a device to study large numbers of events containing B mesons. To identify secondary vertices in hadronic events it will employ the most ambitious silicon strip tracking detector proposed to-date. This report will discuss results from measurements on a first mechanical/thermal model of the vertex detector support structure. The model that was built and used for the studies described here is made of brass. Brass was used because it is readily available and easily assembled by soft soldering, and, for appropriate thicknesses, it will behave similarly to the beryllium that will be used in the actual detector. The trough was built to full scale with the reinforcement webbing and the cooling channels in place. There were no detector modules in place. We plan, however, to install modules in the trough in the future. The purpose of the model was to address two concerns that have arisen about the proposed structure of the detector. The first is whether or not the trough will be stable enough. The trough must be very light in weight yet have a high degree of rigidity. Because of the 3m length of the detector there is question as to the stiffness of the proposed trough. The main concern is that there will sagging or movement of the trough in the middle region. The second problem is the heat load. There will be a great deal of heat generated by the electronics attached to the detector modules. So the question arises as to whether or not the silicon detectors can be kept cool enough so that when the actual experiment is run the readings will be valid. The heat may also induce motion by differential expansion of support components. 26 figs

  7. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-10-01

    Results on characterization of electrical properties of amorphous Si films for the 3 different growth methods (RF sputtering, PECVD [plasma enhanced], LPCVD [low pressure]) are reported. Performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n- type crystalline Si is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current, and the alpha particle response of 5mm dia detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. Results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated

  8. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Michel; Minano Moya, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. (authors)

  9. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. A key issue ...

  10. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  11. Atlas Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a significant factor, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for Super-LHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will imply a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  12. Development of an automatic characterisation system for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, J; Krammer, M; Wedenig, R

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment will be equipped with the largest silicon tracker in the world. The tracker will consist of about 25,000 silicon sensors which will cover an area of more than 200 m sup 2. Four quality test centres will carry out various checks on a representative sample of sensors to assure a homogeneous quality throughout the 2((1)/(2)) years of production. One of these centres is based in Vienna. To cope with the large number of sensors a fast and fully automatic characterisation system has been realised. We developed the software in LabView and built a cost-efficient probe station in house by assembling individual components and commercial instruments. Both the global properties of a sensor and the characteristic quantities of the individual strips can be measured. The measured data are immediately analysed and sent to a central database. The mechanical and electrical set-up will be explained and results from CMS prototype sensors are presented.

  13. Development of an automatic characterisation system for silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, J.; Bergauer, T.; Krammer, M.; Wedenig, R.

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment will be equipped with the largest silicon tracker in the world. The tracker will consist of about 25,000 silicon sensors which will cover an area of more than 200 m 2 . Four quality test centres will carry out various checks on a representative sample of sensors to assure a homogeneous quality throughout the 2((1)/(2)) years of production. One of these centres is based in Vienna. To cope with the large number of sensors a fast and fully automatic characterisation system has been realised. We developed the software in LabView and built a cost-efficient probe station in house by assembling individual components and commercial instruments. Both the global properties of a sensor and the characteristic quantities of the individual strips can be measured. The measured data are immediately analysed and sent to a central database. The mechanical and electrical set-up will be explained and results from CMS prototype sensors are presented

  14. Research and development of a beta skin-dose monitor using silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Manho.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop improved ways to computer and measure the beta skin dose. Beta spectra for the various sources were calculated based on the Fermi beta decay theory. The calculated average energies of the spectra agreed with the literature values within 6%. Monte Carlo electron transport codes have been developed for use on microcomputers. The one-dimensional code ZEBRA has been converted to a microcomputer version called Eltran2 which runs on the Macintosh or any IBM compatible microcomputers. Eltran2 has then been modified into a two-dimensional program called Eltran3. Using Eltran2 and Eltran3, different source distributions and the hot particle dose have been studied. It has been found that the VARSKIN code overestimates the skin dose from hot particles by about 10 to 40% in comparison with Eltran3 calculations, because the VARSKIN code is based on the data tables for an unbounded medium. An ion-implanted silicon detector was selected because of its small size, high sensitivity, and low leakage current. To cover a wide range of dose rate, both the pulse and current mode operations of the silicon detector were used, with an overlap of one order of magnitude in the measurable dose rate ranges. By using a gradient shield of about 7 mg/cm 2 on the detector, dose gradient measurements have been performed. Five 60 Co hot particles received from GPU Nuclear Corporation have been measured by the silicon detector and the measurements agreed well with Eltran3 calculations. In the pulse mode, variation of the depletion depth of the silicon detector due to the changes of bias voltage was confirmed. Based on this research, a prototype beta skin dose monitor has been constructed. The device includes an 8-bit analogue-to-digital converter and a Z-80 microprocessor with a machine-coded program, to calculate the skin dose

  15. Lorentz angle measurements in irradiated silicon detectors between 77 K and 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, V.; Boer, W. de; Bol, J.

    2001-01-01

    Future experiments are using silicon detectors in a high radiation environment and in high magnetic fields. The radiation tolerance of silicon improves by cooling it to temperatures below 180 K. However, at low temperatures the mobility increases, which leads to larger deflections of the charge carriers by the Lorentz force. We present measurements of the Lorentz angle between 77 K and 300 K before and after irradiation with a primary beam of 21 MeV protons to a flux of 10 13 /cm 2 . (author)

  16. Simulation of thermal properties of the silicon detector modules in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Duerdoth, I P; Yuldashev, B S

    2002-01-01

    The temperature distribution and power flow from cell on the Silicon Module of the Forward Semiconductor Tracker in the ATLAS experiment have been simulated for irradiated detector. Power generated by conduction was compared for the modules with one and two cooling points. To obtain an optimal cooling temperature, the temperature of the hottest cell was plotted against power on the silicon module. The analysis of the approximation function and values for the critical power for each cooling temperature are presented. The optimal value of the cooling temperature occurred to be 260 K. (author)

  17. Fabrication of silicon strip detectors using a step-and-repeat lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1991-11-01

    In this work we describe the use of a step-and-repeat lithography system (stepper) for the fabrication of silicon strip detectors. Although the field size of the stepper is only 20 mm in diameter, we have fabricated much larger detectors by printing a repetitive strip detector pattern in a step-and-repeat fashion. The basic unit cell is 7 mm in length. The stepper employs a laser interferometer for stage placement, and the resulting high precision allows one to accurately place the repetitive patterns on the wafer. A small overlap between the patterns ensures a continuous strip. A detector consisting of 512 strips on a 50 μm pitch has been fabricated using this technique. The dimensions of the detector are 6.3 cm by 2.56 cm. Yields of over 99% have been achieved, where yield is defined as the percentage of strips with reverse leakage current below 1 nA. In addition to the inherent advantages of a step-and-repeat system, this technique offers great flexibility in the fabrication of large-area strip detectors since the length and width of the detector can be changed by simply reprogramming the stepper computer. Hence various geometry strip detectors can be fabricated with only one set of masks, as opposed to a separate set of masks for each geometry as would be required with a contact or proximity aligner

  18. A high rate, low noise, x-ray silicon strip detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Jaklevic, J.; Kipnis, I.; Rossington, C.; Spieler, H.

    1993-11-01

    An x-ray detector system, based on a silicon strip detector wire-bonded to a low noise charge-senstive amplifier integrated circuit, has been developed for synchrotron radiation experiments which require very high count rates and good energy resolution. Noise measurements and x-ray spectra were taken using a 6 mm long, 55 μm pitch strip detector in conjunction with a prototype 16-channel charge-sensitive preamplifier, both fabricated using standard 1.2 μm CMOS technology. The detector system currently achieves an energy resolution of 350 eV FWHM at 5.9 key, 2 μs peaking time, when cooled to -5 degree C

  19. Muon flux measurement with silicon detectors in the CERN neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The present work mainly describes the 'Neutrino Flux Monitoring' system (NFM), which has been built for the 400-GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) neutrino beams. A treatment is given of some general subjects related to the utilization of silicon detectors and the properties of high-energy muons. Energy loss of minimal-ionizing particles, which has to be distinguished from energy deposition in the detector, is considered. Secondary radiation, also called 'spray', consisting of 'delta rays' and other cascade products, is shown to play an important role in the muon flux measurement inside a shield, especially for muons of high energy (> 100 GeV). Radiation induced damage in the detectors, which determines the long term performance, is discussed. The relation between the detector response and the real muon flux is determined. The use of NFM system for on-line beam monitoring is described. (Auth.)

  20. Power monitoring in space nuclear reactors using silicon carbide radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Patel, Jagdish U.; Williams, John G.

    2005-01-01

    Space reactor power monitors based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor neutron detectors are proposed. Detection of fast leakage neutrons using SiC detectors in ex-core locations could be used to determine reactor power: Neutron fluxes, gamma-ray dose rates and ambient temperatures have been calculated as a function of distance from the reactor core, and the feasibility of power monitoring with SiC detectors has been evaluated at several ex-core locations. Arrays of SiC diodes can be configured to provide the required count rates to monitor reactor power from startup to full power Due to their resistance to temperature and the effects of neutron and gamma-ray exposure, SiC detectors can be expected to provide power monitoring information for the fill mission of a space reactor.