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Sample records for multi-detector computed tomographic

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice computed tomographic angiography in the detection of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighatkhah, H. R.; Sabouri, S.; Borzouyeh, F.; Bagherzadeh, M. H.; Bakhshandeh, H.; Jalali, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Multislice computed tomographic angiography is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to compare Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography In the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study we evaluated 111 consecutive patients [42(37.8%) male and 69(62.2%) female], who were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs. suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm by using a four detector Multislice computed tomographic angiography. Then we compared results of Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography results as a gold standard method. Digital subtraction angiography was performed by bilateral selective common carotid artery injections and either unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery injections, as necessary. Multislice computed tomographic angiography images were interpreted by one radiologist and digital subtraction angiography was performed by another radiologist who was blinded to the interpretation of the Multislice computed tomographic angiograms. Results: The mean ±S D age of the patients was 49.1±13.6 years (range: 12-84 years). We performed Multislice computed tomographic in 111 and digital subtraction angiography in 85 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio of Multislice computed tomographic angiography, when compared with digital subtraction angiography as the gold standard, were 100%, 90%, 87.5%, 100%, 10 and 0, respectively. Conclusion: Multislice computed tomographic angiography seems to be an accurate and noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms

  2. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali; Ltaief, Hatem; Gratadour, Damien; Keyes, David E.; Sevin, Arnaud; Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Gendron, Eric; Morel, Carine; Vidal, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used

  3. Emission computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Kanno, I.; Koga, K.; Miura, S.; Uemura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Emission computed tomograph wherein a pluralty of detectors surround an object to be examined so as to detect x- or gamma radiation emitted by said object. In front of each of said detectors there is provided a collimator which comprises a pair of main plates and a subsidiary plate interposed therebetween. The plates are made of a material capable of blocking penetration of the radiation therethrough and so supported as to be swingable over an angle sufficient to cover the whole of said object. The plates of all the collimators are simultaneously swung to the same side and at the same angular speed thereby to change the direction of incidence of said radiation on each of said detectors

  4. TomoBank: a tomographic data repository for computational x-ray science

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Francesco; Gürsoy, Doğa; Ching, Daniel J.; Joost Batenburg, K.; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Mancini, Lucia; Marone, Federica; Mokso, Rajmund; Pelt, Daniël M.; Sijbers, Jan; Rivers, Mark

    2018-03-01

    There is a widening gap between the fast advancement of computational methods for tomographic reconstruction and their successful implementation in production software at various synchrotron facilities. This is due in part to the lack of readily available instrument datasets and phantoms representative of real materials for validation and comparison of new numerical methods. Recent advancements in detector technology have made sub-second and multi-energy tomographic data collection possible (Gibbs et al 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 11824), but have also increased the demand to develop new reconstruction methods able to handle in situ (Pelt and Batenburg 2013 IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22 5238-51) and dynamic systems (Mohan et al 2015 IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 1 96-111) that can be quickly incorporated in beamline production software (Gürsoy et al 2014 J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21 1188-93). The x-ray tomography data bank, tomoBank, provides a repository of experimental and simulated datasets with the aim to foster collaboration among computational scientists, beamline scientists, and experimentalists and to accelerate the development and implementation of tomographic reconstruction methods for synchrotron facility production software by providing easy access to challenging datasets and their descriptors.

  5. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. Multi-detector row computed tomography angiography of peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kock, Marc C.J.M.; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Pattynama, Peter M.T.; Myriam Hunink, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT), scan speed and image quality has improved considerably. Since the longitudinal coverage is no longer a limitation, multi-detector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is increasingly used to depict the peripheral arterial runoff. Hence, it is important to know the advantages and limitations of this new non-invasive alternative for the reference test, digital subtraction angiography. Optimization of the acquisition parameters and the contrast delivery is important to achieve a reliable enhancement of the entire arterial runoff in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using fast CT scanners. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different scanning and injection protocols using 4-, 16-, and 64-detector row CT scanners, to propose effective methods to evaluate and to present large data sets, to discuss its clinical value and major limitations, and to review the literature on the validity, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of multi-detector row CT in the evaluation of PAD. (orig.)

  7. CASE SERIES Multi-detector computer tomography venography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the curved coronal plane with particular reference to the course of the common and external iliac veins through the pelvis. Axial venous. Aim. To evaluate the role of multi-detector computer tomography venography (MDCTV), compared with conventional venography, as a diagnostic tool in the management of patients with ...

  8. The value of unenhanced multi-detector computed tomography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) is used to detect urinary tract calculi with high accuracy. The development of multi-detector CT (MDCT) allows reconstructions in coronal, sagittal and oblique directions. Objective: To compare MDCT with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) imaging in evaluating ...

  9. 16-Detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography in patients undergoing evaluation for aortic valve replacement: comparison with catheter angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghat, N.E.; Morgan-Hughes, G.J.; Broadley, A.J.; Undy, M.B.; Wright, D.; Marshall, A.J.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 16-detector row computed tomography (CT) in assessing haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses in patients under evaluation for aortic stenosis pre-aortic valve replacement. Subjects and methods: Forty consecutive patients under evaluation for severe aortic stenosis and listed for cardiac catheterization before potential aortic valve replacement underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCTA) using a GE Lightspeed 16-detector row CT within 1 month of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for comparative purposes. All 13 major coronary artery segments of the American Heart Association model were evaluated for the presence of ≥50% stenosis and compared to the reference standard. Data were analysed on a segment-by-segment basis and also in 'whole patient' terms. Results: A total of 412/450 segments from 35 patients were suitable for analysis. The overall accuracy of MDCTA for detection of segments with ≥50% stenosis was high, with a sensitivity of 81.3%, specificity 95.0%, positive predictive value (PPV) 57.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.4%. On a 'whole-patient' basis, 100% (19/19) of patients with significant coronary disease were correctly identified and there were no false-negatives. Excluding patients with CAC >1000 from the analysis improved the accuracy of MDCTA to: sensitivity 90%, specificity 98.1%, PPV 60%, NPV 99.7%. Conclusion: Non-invasive 16-detector row MDCTA accurately excludes significant coronary disease in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing evaluation before aortic valve replacement and in whom ICA can therefore be avoided. Its segment-by-segment accuracy is improved further if CAC > 1000 is used as a gatekeeper to MDCTA

  10. Usefulness of multi-detector row Computed Tomography for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 74-year-old female underwent surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. Preoperative multi-detector row computed tomography (MD-CT) demonstrated tumor invasion into the accessory right colic vein and the branch of the middle colic artery (MCA), which was not detected by digital subtraction ...

  11. Myocardial perfusion with multi-detector computed tomography: quantitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Patricia M.; Vallejos, J.; Capunay, Carlos M.; Deviggiano, A.; Carrascosa, Jorge M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the skill of multidetector computer tomography, to quantify the different patterns of intensification during the evaluation of the myocardial perfusion. 45 patients were studied with suspicion of cardiovascular disease. Multi-detector computed tomography was utilized on patients at rest and in effort with pharmacological stress, after the administration of dipyridamole. Also they were evaluated using nuclear medicine [es

  12. Construction of a positron emission tomograph with 2.4 mm detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, J.A.; Sprosst, R.L.; Wang, K.

    1986-01-01

    One-quarter of one ring of a positron tomograph has been constructed. The positron annihilation gamma rays are detected by polished plastic scintillators which direct scintillation light by internal reflection to optical fibers for transmission to the photo-multiplier tubes. By viewing each scintillator with four sets of optical fibers, the number of photomultipliers required for an eight ring tomograph with 1024 detectors per ring (2.4 mm wide detectors) can be reduced from 8192 to 288, and the cost of the tomograph reduced accordingly

  13. Application of the FDK algorithm for multi-slice tomographic image reconstruction; Aplicacao do algoritmo FDK para a reconstrucao de imagens tomograficas multicortes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: pcosta@if.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Araujo, Ericky Caldas de Almeida [Fine Image Technology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This work consisted on the study and application of the FDK (Feldkamp- Davis-Kress) algorithm for tomographic image reconstruction using cone-beam geometry, resulting on the implementation of an adapted multi-slice computed tomography system. For the acquisition of the projections, a rotating platform coupled to a goniometer, an X-ray equipment and a digital image detector charge-coupled device type were used. The FDK algorithm was implemented on a computer with a Pentium{sup R} XEON{sup TM} 3.0 processor, which was used for the reconstruction process. Initially, the original FDK algorithm was applied considering only the ideal physical conditions in the measurement process. Then some artifacts corrections related to the projections measurement process were incorporated. The implemented MSCT system was calibrated. A specially designed and manufactured object with a known linear attenuation coefficient distribution ({mu}(r)) was used for this purpose. Finally, the implemented MSCT system was used for multi-slice tomographic reconstruction of an inhomogeneous object, whose distribution {mu}(r) was unknown. Some aspects of the reconstructed images were analyzed to assess the robustness and reproducibility of the system. During the system calibration, a linear relationship between CT number and linear attenuation coefficients of materials was verified, which validate the application of the implemented multi-slice tomographic system for the characterization of linear attenuation coefficients of distinct several objects. (author)

  14. Impact of multi-detector row computed tomography on the tactics of cardiovascular surgery. From qualitative evaluation to quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Kanji; Takano, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the role of multi-detector row computed tomography in cardiovascular surgery. The efficacy of multi-detector row computed tomography was assessed concerning the graft patency of coronary artery bypass, arterial atheromatous degeneration, small vessel imaging, and left ventricular volume measurement. Images were reconstructed using both the volume-rendering and the maximum-intensity-profile methods. Arterial atherosclerotic degeneration was assessed by aortic wall volume and aortic calcification volume. In the assessment of bypass graft patency, multidetector row computed tomography showed a 98% correct positive ratio with sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 100%, respectively. Atheromatous degeneration showed matching results in more than 70% of cases compared with intraoperative findings. More than 92% of arterial branches with diameters of 3 mm or greater were detected by preoperative multi-detector row computed tomography images, though only 6% of branches with diameters of 2 mm or less could be visualized. There was a positive linear correlation between left ventricular volumes determined by multi-detector row computed tomography and those calculated from cine angiography. Multi-detector row computed tomography clearly visualized coronary bypass grafts and aortic arterial branches, providing detailed vascular images. Atheromatous degeneration assessed by multi-detector row computed tomography was equivalent with intraoperative findings in more than 70% of cases. Left ventricular volumes measured by multi-detector row computed tomography correlated closely with those determined by cine-angiography. Multidetector row computed tomography is an efficient and promising modality in cardiovascular surgery. (author)

  15. Computer tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiedzki, M.

    1982-01-01

    Physical foundations and the developments in the transmission and emission computer tomography are presented. On the basis of the available literature and private communications a comparison is made of the various transmission tomographs. A new technique of computer emission tomography ECT, unknown in Poland, is described. The evaluation of two methods of ECT, namely those of positron and single photon emission tomography is made. (author)

  16. Computer tomographic diagnosis of echinococcosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, M.; Fretz, C.; Fuchs, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    The computer tomographic appearances and differential diagnosis in 22 patients with echinococcosis are described; of these, twelve were of the cystic and ten of the alveolar type. The computer tomographic appearances are characterised by the presence of daughter cysts (66%) within the sharply demarkated parasitic cyst of water density. In the absence of daughter cysts, a definite aetiological diagnosis cannot be made, although there is a tendency to clasification of the occassionally multiple echinococcus cysts. The computer tomographic appearances of advanced alveolar echinococcosis are characterised by partial collequative necrosis, with clacification around the necrotic areas (90%). The absence of CT evidence of partial necrosis and calsification of the pseudotumour makes it difficult to establish a specific diagnosis. The conclusive and non-invasive character of the procedure and its reproducibility makes computer tomography the method of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of echinococcosis.

  17. Development of the Shimadzu computed tomographic scanner SCT-200N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    The Shimadzu Computed Tomographic Scanner SCT-200N has been developed as an ideal CT scanner for diagnosing the head and spine. Due to the large aperture, moderate scan time and the Zoom Scan Mode, any part of the body can be scanned. High quality image can be obtained by adopting the precisely stabilized X-ray unit and densely packed array of 64-detectors. As for its operation, capability of computed radiography (CR) prior to patient positioning and real time reconstruction ensure efficient patient through-put. Details of the SCT-200N are described in this paper. (author)

  18. An attenuation measurement technique for rotating planar detector positron tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, P.A.; Julyan, P.J.; Parker, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new attenuation measurement technique suitable for rotating planar detector positron tomographs. Transmission measurements are made using two unshielded positron-emitting line sources, one attached to the front face of each detector. Many of the scattered and accidental coincidences are rejected by including only those coincidences that form a vector passing within a predetermined distance of either line source. Some scattered and accidental coincidences are still included, which reduces the measured linear attenuation; in principle their contribution can be accurately estimated and subtracted, but in practice, when limited statistics are available (as is the case with the multi-wire Birmingham positron camera), this background subtraction unacceptably increases the noise. Instead an attenuation image having the correct features can be reconstructed from the measured projections. For objects containing only a few discrete linear attenuation coefficients, segmentation of this attenuation image reduces noise and allows the correct linear attenuation coefficients to be restored by renormalization. Reprojection through the segmented image may then provide quantitatively correct attenuation correction factors of sufficient statistical quality to correct for attenuation in PET emission images. (author)

  19. Comparative study of the macroscopic finding, conventional tomographic imaging, and computed tomographic imaging in locating the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon; You, Dong Soo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparison of conventional tomography with reformatted computed tomography for dental implant in locating the mandibular canal. Five dogs were used and after conventional tomographs and fitted computed tomographs were taken, four dentist traced all films. Mandibles were sectioned with 2 mm slice thickness and the sections were then radiographed (contact radiography). Each radiograpic image was traced and linear measurements were made from mandibular canal to alveolar crest, buccal cortex, lingual cortex, and inferior border. The following results were obtained; 1. Reformatted computed tomographs were exacter than conventional tomography by alveolar crest to canal length of -0.6 mm difference between real values and radiographs 2. The average measurements of buccal cortex to mandibular canal width and lingual cortex to mandibular canal width of conventional tomographs were exacter than reformatted computed tomographs, but standard deviations were higher than reformatted computed tomographs. 3. Standard deviations of reformatted computed tomographs were lower than conventional tomographs at all comparing sites 4. At reformatted computed tomography 62.5% of the measurements performed were within ±1 mm of the true value, and at conventional tomography 24.1% were. 5. Mandibular canal invisibility was 0.8% at reformatted computed tomography and 9.2% at conventional tomography. Reformatted computed tomography has been shown to be more useful radiographic technique for assessment of the mandibular canal than conventional tomography.

  20. Multi-detector computed tomography of acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Wildermuth, Simon; Marincek, Borut; University Hospital of Zurich

    2005-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is one of the most common causes for referrals to the emergency department. The sudden onset of severe abdominal pain characterising the ''acute abdomen'' requires rapid and accurate identification of a potentially life-threatening abdominal pathology to provide a timely referral to the appropriate physician. While the physical examination and laboratory investigations are often non-specific, computed tomography (CT) has evolved as the first-line imaging modality in patients with an acute abdomen. Because the new multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner generations provide increased speed, greater volume coverage and thinner slices, the acceptance of CT for abdominal imaging has increased rapidly. The goal of this article is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  1. Development of a rapid multi-line detector for industrial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, Frank; Firsching, Markus; Hofmann, Thomas; Uhlmann, Norman; Neubauer, Harald; Nowak, Arne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a rapid multi-row detector is optimized for industrial computed tomography. With a high frame rate, high spatial resolution and the ability to use up to 450 kVp it is particularly suitable for applications such as fast acquisition of large objects, inline CT or time-resolved 4D CT. (Contains PowerPoint slides). [de

  2. Effects of dose reduction on multi-detector computed tomographic images in evaluating the maxilla and mandible for pre-surgical implant planning: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Sur, Jaideep; Seki, Kenji; Nakajima, Koh; Sano, Tsukasa; Okano, Tomohiro

    2010-08-01

    To assess effects of dose reduction on image quality in evaluating maxilla and mandible for pre-surgical implant planning using cadavers. Six cadavers were used for the study using multi-detector computed tomography (CT) operated at 120 kV and the variable tube current of 80, 40, 20 and 10 mA. A slice thickness of 0.625 mm and pitch 1 were used. Multi-planar images perpendicular and parallel to dentitions were created. The images were evaluated by five oral radiologists in terms of visibility of the anatomical landmarks including alveolar crest, mandibular canal, floors of the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity, contours/cortical layer of jaw bones and the details of trabecular bone. Observers were asked to determine the quality of the images in comparison with 80 mA images based on the criteria: excellent, good, fair or non-diagnostic. The average scores of all observers were calculated for each specimen in all exposure conditions. The 40 mA images could visualize such landmarks and were evaluated to be same or almost equivalent in quality to the 80 mA images. Even the 20 mA images could be accepted just for diagnostic purpose for implant with substantial deterioration of the image quality. The 10 mA images may not be accepted because of the obscured contour caused by image noise. Significant dose reduction by lowering mA can be utilized for pre-surgical implant planning in multi-detector CT.

  3. Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal. Particular reference is made to the gas-pressurized ionization detector chamber, consisting of an array of side-by-side elongate ionization detection cells, the principal axis of each of the said cells being oriented along a radius extending towards the radiation source, and connection means for applying potentials across the cells for taking their output signals. (U.K.)

  4. Computer tomographic and sonographic diagnosis of echinococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Huebener, K.H.; Klott, K.; Jenss, H.; Baehr, R. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinisches Strahleninstitut und Roentgenabteilung; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1980-05-01

    In 33 patients (18 cystic echinococci, 15 alveolar) both methods produced the following findings which could be correlated with the pathological results: single or multi-centric lesions, sharp or indefinite demarkation and abnormalities in the shape and size of the liver. The sonographic findings were analysed with respect to the echo characteristics, whereas the computer tomographically demonstrated lesions were examined densitometrically in order to show calcification. Both methods demonstrate the pathological changes satisfactorily. Computer tomography is more effective in alveolar echinococcus lesions by showing the different types of calcification, whereas sonography provides a more accurate picture of the internal structure of the cysts in cystic echinococcus. Comparison of the methods in 19 patients examined by both showed a high accuracy in each method, but sonography was relatively poor in demonstrating lesions in the spleen.

  5. A fast multi-resolution approach to tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2012-03-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) is a recently developed three-component, three-dimensional anemometric non-intrusive measurement technique, based on an optical tomographic reconstruction applied to simultaneously recorded images of the distribution of light intensity scattered by seeding particles immersed into the flow. Nowadays, the reconstruction process is carried out mainly by iterative algebraic reconstruction techniques, well suited to handle the problem of limited number of views, but computationally intensive and memory demanding. The adoption of the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) has become more and more accepted. In the present work, a novel multi-resolution approach is proposed, relying on the adoption of a coarser grid in the first step of the reconstruction to obtain a fast estimation of a reliable and accurate first guess. A performance assessment, carried out on three-dimensional computer-generated distributions of particles, shows a substantial acceleration of the reconstruction process for all the tested seeding densities with respect to the standard method based on 5 MART iterations; a relevant reduction in the memory storage is also achieved. Furthermore, a slight accuracy improvement is noticed. A modified version, improved by a multiplicative line of sight estimation of the first guess on the compressed configuration, is also tested, exhibiting a further remarkable decrease in both memory storage and computational effort, mostly at the lowest tested seeding densities, while retaining the same performances in terms of accuracy.

  6. Development of x-ray computed tomographic scanner for iron and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Isamu; Nakamura, Shigeo.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography is extensively used in medicine, but has rarely been applied to non-medical purposes. Steel specimens pose particularly difficult problems-very poor transmission of X-rays and the need for high resolving capability. There has thus been no effective tomographic method of examining steel specimens. Due to the growing need for non-destructive, non-contact methods for observing and analyzing the internal conditions of steel microscopically, however, we have developed an X-ray Computed Tomographic Scanner for Steel (CTS) system, specifically for examination of steel specimens. Its major specifications and functions are as follows. Type: the second-generation CT, 8-channels, Scanning method: 6 0 revolution, 30-times traversing, Slice width: 0.5 mm, Resolving capability: 0.25 x 0.25 mm, X-ray source: 420 kV, 3 mA, X-ray detector: BGO scintillator, Standard specimen shape: 50 mm dia., 100 mm high, Measuring time: 10.5 min. Porosity of a stainless steel (SUS 304) bloom was examined three-dimensionally by the CTS system. Corrosion procedure of a steel slab was also examined. (author)

  7. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT imaging of cardiovascular effects of pulmonary embolism: What the radiologists need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboul-fotouh E. Mourad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with pulmonary embolism have high mortality and morbidity rate due to right heart failure and circulatory collapse leading to sudden death. Multi-detector computed tomography MDCT can efficiently evaluate the cardiovascular factors related to pulmonary embolism. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT in differentiation of between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism groups depending on the associated cardiovascular parameters and create a simple reporting system. Patients & methods: Prospective study contained 145 patients diagnosed clinically pulmonary embolism. All patients were examined by combined electrocardiographically gated computed tomography pulmonary angiography-computed tomography venography (ECG-CTPA-CTV using certain imaging criteria in a systematic manner. Results: Our study revealed 95 and 55 non-severe and severe pulmonary embolism groups respectively. Many cardiovascular parameters related to pulmonary embolism shows significant p value and can differentiate between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism patients include pulmonary artery diameter, intraventricular septum flattening, bowing, superior vena cava and Azygos vein diameters, right and left ventricular diameters. Conclusion: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT can be valuable to assess the severity of pulmonary embolism using the related cardiovascular parameters and leading the management strategy aim for best outcome. Keywords: Pulmonary embolism, MDCT, Cardiovascular, Computed tomography venography

  8. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial pyogenic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. J.; Suh, J. H.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The early diagnosis and effective treatment of brain abscess pose a difficult clinical problem. With the advent of computed tomography, however, it appears that mortality due to intracranial abscess has significantly diminished. 54 cases of intracranial pyogenic abscess are presented. Etiologic factors and computed tomographic findings are analyzed and following result are obtained. 1. The common etiologic factors are otitis media, post operation, and head trauma, in order of frequency. 2. The most common initial computed tomographic findings of brain abscess is ring contrast enhancement with surrounding brain edema. 3. The most characteristic computed tomographic finding of ring contrast enhancement is smooth thin walled ring contrast enhancement. 4. Most of thick irregular ring contrast enhancement are abscess associated with cyanotic heart disease or poor operation. 5. The most common findings of epidural and subdural empyema is crescentic radiolucent area with thin wall contrast enhancement without surrounding brain edema in convexity of brain

  9. Data acquisition for experiments with multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments with multi-detector arrays have special requirements and place higher demands on computer data acquisition systems. In this contribution we discuss data acquisition systems with special emphasis on multi-detector arrays and in particular we describe a new data acquisition system, AMPS which we have ...

  10. Multi-detector row computed tomographic evaluation of a rare type of complete vascular ring: Double aortic arch with atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Ying Ying; Fu, Ching Yun; Wei, Hao Ji; Tsai, I Chen; Chen, Clayton Chi Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (China)

    2013-10-15

    Double aortic arch with an atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery was diagnosed with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in two children with dysphagia. This rare type of complete vascular ring is clinically important because it may be confused with right aortic arch in mirror imaging. Anatomic details of this rare type of complete vascular ring demonstrated on MDCT facilitated appropriate surgical treatment.

  11. Radiographic test phantom for computed tomographic lung nodule analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for evaluating a computed tomograph scan of a nodule in a lung of a human or non-human animal. The method comprises generating a computer tomograph of a transverse section of the animal containing lung and nodule tissue, and generating a second computer tomograph of a test phantom comprising a device which simulates the transverse section of the animal. The tissue simulating portions of the device are constructed of materials having radiographic densities substantially identical to those of the corresponding tissue in the simulated transverse section of the animal and have voids therein which simulate, in size and shape, the lung cavities in the transverse section and which contain a test reference nodule constructed of a material of predetermined radiographic density which simulates in size, shape and position within a lung cavity void of the test phantom the nodule in the transverse section of the animal and comparing the respective tomographs

  12. A distributed multi-GPU system for high speed electron microscopic tomographic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Shawn Q.; Branlund, Eric; Kesthelyi, Bettina; Braunfeld, Michael B.; Cheng, Yifan; Sedat, John W. [The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the W.M. Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 600, 16th Street, Room S412D, CA 94158-2517 (United States); Agard, David A., E-mail: agard@msg.ucsf.edu [The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the W.M. Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 600, 16th Street, Room S412D, CA 94158-2517 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Full resolution electron microscopic tomographic (EMT) reconstruction of large-scale tilt series requires significant computing power. The desire to perform multiple cycles of iterative reconstruction and realignment dramatically increases the pressing need to improve reconstruction performance. This has motivated us to develop a distributed multi-GPU (graphics processing unit) system to provide the required computing power for rapid constrained, iterative reconstructions of very large three-dimensional (3D) volumes. The participating GPUs reconstruct segments of the volume in parallel, and subsequently, the segments are assembled to form the complete 3D volume. Owing to its power and versatility, the CUDA (NVIDIA, USA) platform was selected for GPU implementation of the EMT reconstruction. For a system containing 10 GPUs provided by 5 GTX295 cards, 10 cycles of SIRT reconstruction for a tomogram of 4096{sup 2}x512 voxels from an input tilt series containing 122 projection images of 4096{sup 2} pixels (single precision float) takes a total of 1845 s of which 1032 s are for computation with the remainder being the system overhead. The same system takes only 39 s total to reconstruct 1024{sup 2}x256 voxels from 122 1024{sup 2} pixel projections. While the system overhead is non-trivial, performance analysis indicates that adding extra GPUs to the system would lead to steadily enhanced overall performance. Therefore, this system can be easily expanded to generate superior computing power for very large tomographic reconstructions and especially to empower iterative cycles of reconstruction and realignment. -- Highlights: {yields} A distributed multi-GPU system has been developed for electron microscopic tomography (EMT). {yields} This system allows for rapid constrained, iterative reconstruction of very large volumes. {yields} This system can be easily expanded to generate superior computing power for large-scale iterative EMT realignment.

  13. A distributed multi-GPU system for high speed electron microscopic tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Shawn Q.; Branlund, Eric; Kesthelyi, Bettina; Braunfeld, Michael B.; Cheng, Yifan; Sedat, John W.; Agard, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Full resolution electron microscopic tomographic (EMT) reconstruction of large-scale tilt series requires significant computing power. The desire to perform multiple cycles of iterative reconstruction and realignment dramatically increases the pressing need to improve reconstruction performance. This has motivated us to develop a distributed multi-GPU (graphics processing unit) system to provide the required computing power for rapid constrained, iterative reconstructions of very large three-dimensional (3D) volumes. The participating GPUs reconstruct segments of the volume in parallel, and subsequently, the segments are assembled to form the complete 3D volume. Owing to its power and versatility, the CUDA (NVIDIA, USA) platform was selected for GPU implementation of the EMT reconstruction. For a system containing 10 GPUs provided by 5 GTX295 cards, 10 cycles of SIRT reconstruction for a tomogram of 4096 2 x512 voxels from an input tilt series containing 122 projection images of 4096 2 pixels (single precision float) takes a total of 1845 s of which 1032 s are for computation with the remainder being the system overhead. The same system takes only 39 s total to reconstruct 1024 2 x256 voxels from 122 1024 2 pixel projections. While the system overhead is non-trivial, performance analysis indicates that adding extra GPUs to the system would lead to steadily enhanced overall performance. Therefore, this system can be easily expanded to generate superior computing power for very large tomographic reconstructions and especially to empower iterative cycles of reconstruction and realignment. -- Highlights: → A distributed multi-GPU system has been developed for electron microscopic tomography (EMT). → This system allows for rapid constrained, iterative reconstruction of very large volumes. → This system can be easily expanded to generate superior computing power for large-scale iterative EMT realignment.

  14. Computed tomography with thermal neutrons and gaseous position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Ines Silvani

    2001-12-01

    A third generation tomographic system using a parallel thermal neutron beam and gaseous position sensitive detector has been developed along three discrete phases. At the first one, X-ray tomographic images of several objects, using a position sensitive detector designed and constructed for this purpose have been obtained. The second phase involved the conversion of that detector for thermal neutron detection, by using materials capable to convert neutrons into detectable charged particles, testing afterwards its performance in a tomographic system by evaluation the quality of the image arising from several test-objects containing materials applicable in the engineering field. High enriched 3 He, replacing the argon-methane otherwise used as filling gas for the X-ray detection, as well as, a gadolinium foil, have been utilized as converters. Besides the pure enriched 3 He, its mixture with argon-methane and later on with propane, have been also tested, in order to evaluate the detector efficiency and resolution. After each gas change, the overall performance of the tomographic system using the modified detector, has been analyzed through measurements of the related parameters. This was done by analyzing the images produced by test-objects containing several materials having well known attenuation coefficients for both thermal neutrons and X-rays. In order to compare the performance of the position sensitive detector as modified to detect thermal neutrons, with that of a conventional BF 3 detector, additional tomographs have been conducted using the last one. The results have been compared in terms of advantages, handicaps and complementary aspects for different kinds of radiation and materials. (author)

  15. Semidetector-radiation detector arrangement, as well as its application in a tomographic scanner, in a device to determine radiation intensity or to measure the radiation penetration or absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, L.; Hosier, K.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The CdTe detector or a plate with several CdTe or HgI 2 detectors is suitable for use in computer controlled tomographic X-ray scanners. The detector is used in connection with a pulsed radiation source (Am 241) and a frequency filter technique for measuring the resulting electrical charge pulse of the detector. Merely a narrow frequency band is selected according to the measured duration of the incident radiation pulses. (DG) [de

  16. Experience of computed tomographic myelography and discography in cervical problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Uratsuji, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kunio; Matsui, Eigo [Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Hospital, Sumoto, Hyogo (Japan); Kurihara, Akira

    1983-06-01

    CTM (computed tomographic myelography) was performed on 15 cases of cervical lesions, and on 5 of them, CTD (computed tomographic discography) was also made. CTM revealed the intervertebral state, and in combination with CTD, providing more accurate information. The combined method of CTM and CTD was useful for soft disc herniation.

  17. Tomographic Reconstruction from a Few Views: A Multi-Marginal Optimal Transport Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, I., E-mail: isabelle.abraham@cea.fr [CEA Ile de France (France); Abraham, R., E-mail: romain.abraham@univ-orleans.fr; Bergounioux, M., E-mail: maitine.bergounioux@univ-orleans.fr [Université d’Orléans, UFR Sciences, MAPMO, UMR 7349 (France); Carlier, G., E-mail: carlier@ceremade.dauphine.fr [CEREMADE, UMR CNRS 7534, Université Paris IX Dauphine, Pl. de Lattre de Tassigny (France)

    2017-02-15

    In this article, we focus on tomographic reconstruction. The problem is to determine the shape of the interior interface using a tomographic approach while very few X-ray radiographs are performed. We use a multi-marginal optimal transport approach. Preliminary numerical results are presented.

  18. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial gliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathological evidence of cerebral gliosis are analyzed. CT findings do not permit differentiation of gliosis from other neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. (orig.)

  19. Multi-detector row computed tomography and blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio; Pedrosa, Ivan; Sparano, Amelia; Romano, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. The clinical presentation of trauma patients varies widely from one individual to another and ranges from minor reports of pain to shock. Knowledge of the mechanism of injury, the time of injury, estimates of motor vehicle accident velocity and deceleration, and evidence of associated injury to other systems are all salient features to provide for an adequate assessment of chest trauma. Multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanning and MDCT-angiography are being used more frequently in the diagnosis of patients with chest trauma. The high sensitivity of MDCT has increased the recognized spectrum of injuries. This new technology can be regarded as an extremely valuable adjunct to physical examination to recognize suspected and unsuspected blunt chest trauma

  20. Gas microstrip detectors for X-ray tomographic flow imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Key, M J; Luggar, R D; Kundu, A

    2003-01-01

    A investigation into the suitability of gas microstrip detector technology for a high-speed industrial X-ray tomography system is reported. X-ray energies in the region 20-30 keV are well suited to the application, which involves imaging two-dimensional slices through gas/liquid multiphase pipeline flows for quantitative component fraction measurement. Stable operation over a period representing several hundred individual tomographic scans at gas gains of 500 is demonstrated using a Penning gas mixture of krypton/propylene.

  1. Computed tomographic findings of traumatic intracranial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Ki Jeoung; Yoon, Il Gyu

    1985-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial lesion has been one of the most frequent and serious problem in neurosurgical pathology. Computed tomography made it possible to get prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention of intracranial lesions by its safety, fastness and accuracy. Computed tomographic scan was carried out on 1309 cases at Soonchunhyang Chunan Hospital for 15 months from October 1983 to December 1984. We have reviewed the computed tomographic scans of 264 patients which showed traumatic intracranial lesion. The result were as follows: 1. Head trauma was the most frequent diagnosed disease using computed tomographic scans (57.8%) and among 264 cases the most frequent mode of injury was traffic accident (73.9%). 2. Skull fracture was accompanied in frequency of 69.7% and it was detected in CT in 38.6%: depression fracture was more easily detected in 81%. 3. Conutercoup lesion (9.5%) was usually accompanied with temporal and occipital fracture, and it appeared in lower incidence among pediatric group. 4. Intracranial lesions of all 264 cases were generalized cerebral swelling (24.6%), subdural hematoma (22.3%), epidural hematoma (20.8%), intracerebral hematoma (6.1%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.0%). 5. The shape of hematoma was usually biconvex (92.7%) in acute epidural hematoma and cresentic (100%) in acute subdural hematoma, but the most chronic the case became, they showed planoconvex and bicconvex shapes. 6. Extra-axial hematoma was getting decreased in density as time gone by. 7. Hematoma density was not in direct proportion to serum hemoglobin level as single factor

  2. Computed tomographic findings of traumatic intracranial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Ki Jeoung; Yoon, Il Gyu [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Traumatic intracranial lesion has been one of the most frequent and serious problem in neurosurgical pathology. Computed tomography made it possible to get prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention of intracranial lesions by its safety, fastness and accuracy. Computed tomographic scan was carried out on 1309 cases at Soonchunhyang Chunan Hospital for 15 months from October 1983 to December 1984. We have reviewed the computed tomographic scans of 264 patients which showed traumatic intracranial lesion. The result were as follows: 1. Head trauma was the most frequent diagnosed disease using computed tomographic scans (57.8%) and among 264 cases the most frequent mode of injury was traffic accident (73.9%). 2. Skull fracture was accompanied in frequency of 69.7% and it was detected in CT in 38.6%: depression fracture was more easily detected in 81%. 3. Conutercoup lesion (9.5%) was usually accompanied with temporal and occipital fracture, and it appeared in lower incidence among pediatric group. 4. Intracranial lesions of all 264 cases were generalized cerebral swelling (24.6%), subdural hematoma (22.3%), epidural hematoma (20.8%), intracerebral hematoma (6.1%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.0%). 5. The shape of hematoma was usually biconvex (92.7%) in acute epidural hematoma and cresentic (100%) in acute subdural hematoma, but the most chronic the case became, they showed planoconvex and bicconvex shapes. 6. Extra-axial hematoma was getting decreased in density as time gone by. 7. Hematoma density was not in direct proportion to serum hemoglobin level as single factor.

  3. Computed Tomographic Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Power of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penagaluri, Ashritha; Higgins, Angela Y.; Vavere, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    laboratories. Prevalence of flow-limiting CAD defined by invasive coronary angiography equal to 50% or greater with an associated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging defect was 45% (114/252) and 23% (30/129) in males and females, respectively. Patient-based diagnostic......Background-Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) is a validated approach for detection and exclusion of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD), but little data are available on gender-specific performance of these modalities. In this study, we...... aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined coronary CTA and CTP in detecting flow-limiting CAD in women compared with men.  Methods and Results-Three hundred and eighty-one patients who underwent both CTA-CTP and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging...

  4. Computed-tomographic determination of mineral content of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delov, I.; Tabakov, S.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of precise computed-tomographic densitometry of the mineral content of bones is pointed out. A method is proposed including the use of standard density and observance of definite radiation, scanning and image estimation parameters. A good correlation of the results obtained for the mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae with literature data are reported. A method is also described for determining the mineral content of tubular bones based on densiprofile check-up of the computed-tomographic density. The procedure takes 10-15 minutes and includes 1 or 2 scans. It might therefore gain wide acceptance for the diagnosis and tracing of osteoporosis and other osteopathies associated with distrorted calcium metabolism

  5. A distributed multi-GPU system for high speed electron microscopic tomographic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shawn Q; Branlund, Eric; Kesthelyi, Bettina; Braunfeld, Michael B; Cheng, Yifan; Sedat, John W; Agard, David A

    2011-07-01

    Full resolution electron microscopic tomographic (EMT) reconstruction of large-scale tilt series requires significant computing power. The desire to perform multiple cycles of iterative reconstruction and realignment dramatically increases the pressing need to improve reconstruction performance. This has motivated us to develop a distributed multi-GPU (graphics processing unit) system to provide the required computing power for rapid constrained, iterative reconstructions of very large three-dimensional (3D) volumes. The participating GPUs reconstruct segments of the volume in parallel, and subsequently, the segments are assembled to form the complete 3D volume. Owing to its power and versatility, the CUDA (NVIDIA, USA) platform was selected for GPU implementation of the EMT reconstruction. For a system containing 10 GPUs provided by 5 GTX295 cards, 10 cycles of SIRT reconstruction for a tomogram of 4096(2) × 512 voxels from an input tilt series containing 122 projection images of 4096(2) pixels (single precision float) takes a total of 1845 s of which 1032 s are for computation with the remainder being the system overhead. The same system takes only 39 s total to reconstruct 1024(2) × 256 voxels from 122 1024(2) pixel projections. While the system overhead is non-trivial, performance analysis indicates that adding extra GPUs to the system would lead to steadily enhanced overall performance. Therefore, this system can be easily expanded to generate superior computing power for very large tomographic reconstructions and especially to empower iterative cycles of reconstruction and realignment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Computed tomographic appearances of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigira, Masaki; Shimizu, Toru (Gunma Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery)

    1989-08-01

    Computed tomographical analysis of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis was performed in 27 patients. In the earliest stage hyperostosis occurred around the cartilaginous portion of the first ribs. The sternoclavicular joint space was preserved even in the late stage III of the disorder. It is also suggested that perichondritis and periostitis play important roles in the etiology of this disorder. (orig./GDG).

  7. Computed tomographic appearances of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Masaki; Shimizu, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographical analysis of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis was performed in 27 patients. In the earliest stage hyperostosis occurred around the cartilaginous portion of the first ribs. The sternoclavicular joint space was preserved even in the late stage III of the disorder. It is also suggested that perichondritis and periostitis play important roles in the etiology of this disorder. (orig./GDG)

  8. Computed tomographic appearances of cherubism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, S D; Boccardi, A; Mela, F; Romagnoli, R

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) aspects of six cases of cherubism are described. Through its optimal representation of the lesions, CT enabled certain characteristics of this disease to be substantiated, namely, limitation of the process to the bones of the jaw and primarily superficial development of the mandibular lesions, coupled with an unusual mandibular condylar impairment. Moreover, the composition of this series permitted investigation of the condition in its several stages of progression.

  9. Microdose computed tomographic cardiac angiography in normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Kiira T; O'Brien, Mauria A; Hartman, Susan K; Mulherin, Allison C; McReynolds, Casie J; McMichael, Maureen; Rapoport, Gregg; O'Brien, Robert T

    2014-03-01

    To determine if microdose contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) allows characterization of cardiac chambers in lightly sedated normal cats. Seven healthy domestic cats. Lightly sedated normal cats were imaged pre-contrast and with microdose (0.22 ml/kg of non-ionic iodinated contrast medium, 300 mg I/ml) triple-phase MDCTA in a motion restriction device. On pre-contrast images, the aorta (median: 52.43 Hounsfield units [HU], range 27.35-76.74 HU) was outlined by significantly (p = 0.015) lower attenuating periaortic fat (-66.16 HU, -42.62 to -92.77 HU). On post-contrast images, median peak contrast enhancement in the right ventricle (111.77 HU, 36.09-141.60 HU) was achieved in 3.1 s (range 2.9-7.3 s), in the aorta (149.30 HU, 99.43-319.60 HU) and left atrium (180.83 HU, 88.53-266.84 HU) in 6.4 s (range 5.6-7.7 s) and in the left ventricle (147.89 HU, 57.23-245.77 HU) in 7.10 s (range 6.2-11.2 s). Significantly higher attenuation was measured between all chambers and walls, the right ventricular lumen and interventricular septum (median ratio 53.78 HU, range 0.21-83.20 HU), left ventricular lumen and left ventricular free wall (89.32 HU, 38.81-185.95 HU) and aorta and periaortic fat (190.43 HU, 143.22-425.44 HU) on post-contrast images. Sufficient biological contrast is available on survey CT to discriminate between the aorta and the left atrium, and microdose MDCTA provides sufficient contrast enhancement for adequate visualization of the heart chambers in normal cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Case Report: Unusual computed tomographic features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report of a 57-year old woman who presented with signs and symptoms of intracranial mass. Computed tomographic (CT) and clinical features were unusual and suggestive of a parasaggital Meningioma. However an accurate diagnosis of a tuberculoma was made at surgery and histopathological examination.

  11. X-ray detectors in axial computed tomography development; Sensori di radiazioni X negli sviluppi della tomografia assiale computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislon, R.; Imperiali, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-12-01

    The increase of potentially of axial computed tomography as a non destructive investigation method in industrial field is particularly tied to the development of the X-rays detectors. The transition from the first gas ionization detectors to the last semiconductor detectors has indeed dramatically increased the performances of tomographic systems. In this report, after a quick analysis of fundamental principles of tomography, the most significant parameters for a detector to be used in a tomographic system are reviewed. The examination of the principal kinds of detectors that have been up to now used, with their working schemes, allows to delineate their characteristics and so to compare them with the ideal detector sketched above. The necessity of using high definition arrays brings to put into evidence the inadequacy of both gas and liquid ionization detectors and also of those types of light conversion devices which utilize for signal amplification a photomultiplier tube. Systems based on charge coupled devices or on a light conversion obtained with semiconductor photodiode arrays are definitely to be preferred. The progress of the last years in microelectronic technologies has brought great improvements in this field.

  12. Normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in children on multi-detector row chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. [University Medical Center Utrecht and Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To study normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes on multi-detector chest computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 120 children aged 1-17 years underwent emergency CT, including the chest, after high-energy trauma. Axial 5-mm reconstructions were evaluated for lymph nodes at hilar and various mediastinal levels and the short-axis diameters were measured. At least one lymph node was found in 115 (96%) children, with subcarinal (69%), lower paratracheal (64%) and hilar (60%) nodes being most common. Up to 10 years of age most lymph nodes were smaller than or equal to 7 mm. In older children lymph nodes measuring up to 10-mm-short-axis diameter were found. Lymph nodes were rare along the mammary vessels, at lower oesophageal and at prevascular and posterior mediastinal levels in children. Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are more common than previously thought, probably because of increased detection by modern multi-detector CT. Lymph node location and age have to be taken into account when evaluating lymph nodes in the paediatric chest. (orig.)

  13. Normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in children on multi-detector row chest computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    To study normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes on multi-detector chest computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 120 children aged 1-17 years underwent emergency CT, including the chest, after high-energy trauma. Axial 5-mm reconstructions were evaluated for lymph nodes at hilar and various mediastinal levels and the short-axis diameters were measured. At least one lymph node was found in 115 (96%) children, with subcarinal (69%), lower paratracheal (64%) and hilar (60%) nodes being most common. Up to 10 years of age most lymph nodes were smaller than or equal to 7 mm. In older children lymph nodes measuring up to 10-mm-short-axis diameter were found. Lymph nodes were rare along the mammary vessels, at lower oesophageal and at prevascular and posterior mediastinal levels in children. Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are more common than previously thought, probably because of increased detection by modern multi-detector CT. Lymph node location and age have to be taken into account when evaluating lymph nodes in the paediatric chest. (orig.)

  14. Comparative evaluation of computed tomography for dental implants on the mandibular edentulous area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kyung Hoon; Jeong, Ho Gul; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Oral Science Research Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the recently developed multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in pre-operative implant evaluation, by comparing them with the single detector computed tomography, already confirmed for accuracy in this area. Five partially edentulous dry human mandibles, with 1 X 1 mm gutta percha cones, placed in 5 mm intervals posterior to the mental foramen on each side of the buccal part of the mandible, were used in this study. They were scanned as follows: 1) Single detector computed tomography: slice thickness 1 mm, 200 mA, 120 kV 2) Multi-detector computed tomography: slice thickness 0.75 mm, 250 mA, 120 kV 3) Cone beam computed tomography: 15 mAs, 120 kV Axial images acquired from three computed tomographs were transferred to personal computer, and then reformatted cross-sectional images were generated using V-Implant 2.0 (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea) software. Among the cross-sectional images of the gutta percha cone, placed in the buccal body of the mandible, the most precise cross section was selected as the measuring point and the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest was measured and analyzed 10 times by a dentist. There were no significant intraobserver differences in the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest (p>0.05). There were no significant differences among single detector computed tomography, multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest (p>0.05). Multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography are clinically useful in the evaluation of pre-operative site for mandibular dental implants, with consideration for radiation exposure dose and scanning time.

  15. Comparative evaluation of computed tomography for dental implants on the mandibular edentulous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kyung Hoon; Jeong, Ho Gul; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the recently developed multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in pre-operative implant evaluation, by comparing them with the single detector computed tomography, already confirmed for accuracy in this area. Five partially edentulous dry human mandibles, with 1 X 1 mm gutta percha cones, placed in 5 mm intervals posterior to the mental foramen on each side of the buccal part of the mandible, were used in this study. They were scanned as follows: 1) Single detector computed tomography: slice thickness 1 mm, 200 mA, 120 kV 2) Multi-detector computed tomography: slice thickness 0.75 mm, 250 mA, 120 kV 3) Cone beam computed tomography: 15 mAs, 120 kV Axial images acquired from three computed tomographs were transferred to personal computer, and then reformatted cross-sectional images were generated using V-Implant 2.0 (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea) software. Among the cross-sectional images of the gutta percha cone, placed in the buccal body of the mandible, the most precise cross section was selected as the measuring point and the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest was measured and analyzed 10 times by a dentist. There were no significant intraobserver differences in the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest (p>0.05). There were no significant differences among single detector computed tomography, multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest (p>0.05). Multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography are clinically useful in the evaluation of pre-operative site for mandibular dental implants, with consideration for radiation exposure dose and scanning time.

  16. Simulation of Tomographic Reconstruction of Magnetosphere Plasma Distribution By Multi-spacecraft Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Nesterov, I.; Andreeva, E.; Zelenyi, L.; Veselov, M.; Galperin, Y.; Buchner, J.

    A satellite radiotomography method for electron density distributions was recently proposed for closely-space multi-spacecraft group of high-altitude satellites to study the physics of reconnection process. The original idea of the ROY project is to use a constellation of spacecrafts (one main and several sub-satellites) in order to carry out closely-spaced multipoint measurements and 2D tomographic reconstruction of elec- tron density in the space between the main satellite and the subsatellites. The distances between the satellites were chosen to vary from dozens to few hundreds of kilometers. The easiest data interpretation is achieved when the subsatellites are placed along the plasma streamline. Then, whenever a plasma density irregularity moves between the main satellite and the subsatellites it will be scanned in different directions and we can get 2D distribution of plasma using these projections. However in general sub- satellites are not placed exactly along the plasma streamline. The method of plasma velocity determination relative to multi-spacecraft systems is considered. Possibilities of 3D tomographic imaging using multi-spacecraft systems are analyzed. The model- ing has shown that efficient scheme for 3D tomographic imaging would be to place spacecrafts in different planes so that the angle between the planes would make not more then ten degrees. Work is supported by INTAS PROJECT 2000-465.

  17. Design and applications of Computed Industrial Tomographic Imaging System (CITIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, G.S.; Umesh Kumar; Datta, S.S.; Rao, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Computed tomographic imaging is an advanced technique for nondestructive testing (NDT) and examination. For the first time in India a computed aided tomography system has been indigenously developed in BARC for testing industrial components and was successfully demonstrated. The system in addition to Computed Tomography (CT) can also perform Digital Radiography (DR) to serve as a powerful tool for NDT applications. It has wider applications in the fields of nuclear, space and allied fields. The authors have developed a computed industrial tomographic imaging system with Cesium 137 gamma radiation source for nondestructive examination of engineering and industrial specimens. This presentation highlights the design and development of a prototype system and its software for image reconstruction, simulation and display. The paper also describes results obtained with several tests specimens, current development and possibility of using neutrons as well as high energy x-rays in computed tomography. (author)

  18. Computed tomographic evaluation of the altered pancreas in dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, B.

    2002-11-01

    Eighteen dogs and 12 cats of varying breed, age and sex underwent a computed tomographic study of the pancreas. Length, diameter and density of each lobe of the pancreas were measured. Further, the gained results were compared to the information established by the clinical examination, sonography, haematology and histology. Contrast CT improved evaluation of the pancreas in all cases of normal life controls. CT criteria such as changes in size, density, delimitation of the pancreas and the peripancreatic structures were analyzed. Increased pancreatic size was seen in inflammatory as well as in neoplastic diseases. There were no reliable computed tomographic criteria to differentiate pancreatic neoplasia from inflammation without peripancreatic findings. Ultrasonography proved to be a good screening method in this study: sonographic and computed tomographic results correlated in all cases with the exception of 5 cases. In contrast to ultrasonography CT could differentiate normal pancreas from pancreas atrophy. Computed tomography was superior to sonography in determining the full extent of pancreatic and peripancreatic signs due to the good overview and overall image of the abdominal structures. Serum chemistry of a- amylase and lipase were obtained in 28 animals. Assays of serum lipase and a- amylase activities were only able to detect acute pancreatitis in half of the canine cases. Despite morphological alterations detected with the help of sonography or CT, there were no significant increases in a- amylase and lipase in cats. Following computed tomography the pancreas of 10 animals was examined pathohistologically. With the exception of 2 cases the computed tomographic results correlated with the pathohistological findings. In conclusion, computed tomography (CT) proved to be a valuable method to evaluate the localization, the full extent and the seriousness of pancreatic lesions. (author)

  19. Computed tomographic diagnosis of abdominal abscess in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, J.P.; Berger, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight children suspected clinically of having an abdominal abscess were examined by CT. Eighteen had gallium 67 citrate scans and 22 had ultrasound studies. Computed tomography was found to be the most accurate test for diagnosis and evaluation of an abscess and the computed tomographic appearance of abscess is illustrated. However, because of cost factors, radiation dose, and clinical considerations, computed tomography is not always the first modality of choice in evaluating a suspected abdominal abscess [fr

  20. Characterization of a spectroscopic detector for application in x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Fix, Brian J.; Smith, Jerel A.; Brown, William D.; Azevedo, Stephen G.; Martz, Harry E.

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in cadmium telluride (CdTe) energy-discriminating pixelated detectors have enabled the possibility of Multi-Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (MSXCT) to incorporate spectroscopic information into CT. MultiX ME 100 V2 is a CdTe-based spectroscopic x-ray detector array capable of recording energies from 20 to 160 keV in 1.1 keV energy bin increments. Hardware and software have been designed to perform radiographic and computed tomography tasks with this spectroscopic detector. Energy calibration is examined using the end-point energy of a bremsstrahlung spectrum and radioisotope spectral lines. When measuring the spectrum from Am-241 across 500 detector elements, the standard deviation of the peak-location and FWHM measurements are +/- 0.4 and +/- 0.6 keV, respectively. As these values are within the energy bin size (1.1 keV), detector elements are consistent with each other. The count rate is characterized, using a nonparalyzable model with a dead time of 64 +/- 5 ns. This is consistent with the manufacturer's quoted per detector-element linear-deviation at 2 Mpps (million photons per sec) of 8.9 % (typical) and 12 % (max). When comparing measured and simulated spectra, a low-energy tail is visible in the measured data due to the spectral response of the detector. If no valid photon detections are expected in the low-energy tail, then a background subtraction may be applied to allow for a possible first-order correction. If photons are expected in the low-energy tail, a detailed model must be implemented. A radiograph of an aluminum step wedge with a maximum height of 20 mm shows an underestimation of attenuation by about 10 % at 60 keV. This error is due to partial energy deposition from higher energy (>60 keV) photons into a lower-energy ( 60 keV) bin, reducing the apparent attenuation. A radiograph of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cylinder taken using a bremsstrahlung spectrum from an x-ray voltage of 100 kV filtered by 1.3 mm Cu is

  1. Characterization of a spectroscopic detector for application in x-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, A. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fix, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, W. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Azevedo, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Recent advances in cadmium telluride (CdTe) energy-discriminating pixelated detectors have enabled the possibility of Multi-Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (MSXCT) to incorporate spectroscopic information into CT. MultiX ME 100 V2 is a CdTe-based spectroscopic x-ray detector array capable of recording energies from 20 to 160 keV in 1.1 keV energy bin increments. Hardware and software have been designed to perform radiographic and computed tomography tasks with this spectroscopic detector. Energy calibration is examined using the end-point energy of a bremsstrahlung spectrum and radioisotope spectral lines. When measuring the spectrum from Am-241 across 500 detector elements, the standard deviation of the peak-location and FWHM measurements are ±0.4 and ±0.6 keV, respectively. As these values are within the energy bin size (1.1 keV), detector elements are consistent with each other. The count rate is characterized, using a nonparalyzable model with a dead time of 64 ± 5 ns. This is consistent with the manufacturer’s quoted per detector-element linear-deviation at 2 Mpps (million photons per sec) of 8.9% (typical) and 12% (max). When comparing measured and simulated spectra, a low-energy tail is visible in the measured data due to the spectral response of the detector. If no valid photon detections are expected in the low-energy tail, then a background subtraction may be applied to allow for a possible first-order correction. If photons are expected in the low-energy tail, a detailed model must be implemented. A radiograph of an aluminum step wedge with a maximum height of about 20 mm shows an underestimation of attenuation by about 10% at 60 keV. This error is due to partial energy deposition from higher-energy (> 60 keV) photons into a lower-energy (~60 keV) bin, reducing the apparent attenuation. A radiograph of a PTFE cylinder taken using a bremsstrahlung spectrum from an x-ray voltage of 100 kV filtered by 1.3 mm Cu is reconstructed using Abel inversion

  2. Application of cadmium telluride detectors to high energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.; Thomas, G.; Cuzin, M.; Verger, L.

    1991-01-01

    15 years ago, Cadmium Telluride detectors have been investigated in our laboratory as possible detectors for medical scanners [1]. Today most of these machines are using high pressure Xenon gas as multicells detectors, BGO or CdWO 4 scintillators for industrial computerized tomography. Xenon gas detectors are well suited for detection of 100 KeV X-rays and enables to build 1000 cells homogeneous detector with a dynamic range of 3 decades. BGO and CdWO 4 scintillators, associated with photomultipliers or photodiodes are used for higher energy (400 KeV). They present a low afterglow and a dynamic range of 4 to 5 decades. Non destructive testing of very absorbing objects (eg 2 m diameter solid rocket motor) by X-ray tomography requires much higher energy X-rays (16 MeV) and doses up to 12000 rads/min at 1 meter. For this application Cadmium Telluride detectors operating as photoconductors are well suited. A prototype of tomograph machine, able to scan 0.5 m diameter high density objects has been realized with 25 CdTe detectors (25x15x0.8 mm 3 ). It produces good quality 1024x1024 tomographic images

  3. The computed tomographic appearances of cherubism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, S.D.; Boccardi, A.; Mela, F.; Romagnoli, R.

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) aspects of six cases of cherubism are described. Through its optimal representation of the lesions, CT enabled certain characteristics of this disease to be substantiated, namely, limitation of the process to the bones of the jaw and primarily superficial development of the mandibular lesions, coupled with an unusual mandibular condylar impairment. Moreover, the composition of this series permitted investigation of the condition in its several stages of progression. (orig.)

  4. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetre, C., E-mail: camilla@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Johansen, G.A. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Tjugum, S.A. [Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Roxar Flow Measurement, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow

  5. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  6. Positron emission mammography with tomographic acquisition using dual planar detectors: initial evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Mark F; Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) with tomographic acquisition using dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation compared with PEM using stationary detectors. PEM tomography (PEMT) was compared with stationary PEM for point source and compressed breast phantom studies performed with a compact dual detector system. The acquisition geometries were appropriate for the target application of PEM guidance of stereotactic core biopsy. Images were reconstructed with a three-dimensional iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm. PEMT eliminated blurring normal to the detectors seen with stationary PEM. Depth of interaction effects distorted the shape of the point spread functions for PEMT as the angular range from normal incidence of lines of response used in image reconstruction increased. Streak artefacts in PEMT for large detector rotation increments led to the development of an expression for the maximum rotation increment that maintains complete angular sampling. Studies with a compressed breast phantom were used to investigate contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) trade-offs for different sized spherical tumour models. PEMT and PEM both had advantages depending on lesion size and detector separation. The most appropriate acquisition method for specific detection or quantitation tasks requires additional investigation

  7. Clamshell tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, Th. F.

    1984-01-01

    In brief, the invention is a tomograph modified to be in a clamshell configuration so that the ring or rings may be moved to multiple sampling positions. The tomograph includes an array of detectors arranged in successive adjacent relative locations along a closed curve in a first position in a selected plane, and means for securing the detectors in the relative locations in a first sampling position. The securing means is movable in the plane in two sections and pivotable at one point and only one point to enable movement of at least one of the sections to a second sampling position out of the closed curve so that the ends of the section which are opposite the point are moved apart a predetermined space

  8. The CDD system in computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelnik, Daniel; Elsholtz, Fabian Henry Juergen; Hamm, Bernd; Niehues, Stefan Markus; Bojarski, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose cation in computed tomographic diagnosis and briefly recapitulates its targeted advantages over preliminary systems. Primarily, application of the CDD in computed tomography diagnostics is described. Differences with respect to the categories of the older systems are pointed out on the level of each CDD type using imaging examples. The presented images are derived from our institute according to the S2k criteria. Literature was researched on PubMed. Results The CDD constitutes an improvement compared to older systems for categorizing the stages of diverticular disease. It provides more discriminatory power on the descriptive-morphological level and defines as well as differentiates more courses of the disease. Furthermore, the categories translate more directly into state-of-the-art decision-making concerning hospitalization and therapy. The CDD should be applied routinely in the computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease. Typical imaging patterns are presented.

  9. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Baracat, Jamal; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Pereira, Ricardo Minniti Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  10. Thoracic Injuries in earthquake-related versus non-earthquake-related trauma patients: differentiation via Multi-detector Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhi-hui; Yang, Zhi-gang; Chen, Tian-wu; Chu, Zhi-gang; Deng, Wen; Shao, Heng

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Massive earthquakes are harmful to humankind. This study of a historical cohort aimed to investigate the difference between earthquake-related crush thoracic traumas and thoracic traumas unrelated to earthquakes using a multi-detector Computed Tomography (CT). METHODS: We retrospectively compared an earthquake-exposed cohort of 215 thoracic trauma crush victims of the Sichuan earthquake to a cohort of 215 non-earthquake-related thoracic trauma patients, focusing on the lesions and coexisting injuries to the thoracic cage and the pulmonary parenchyma and pleura using a multi-detector CT. RESULTS: The incidence of rib fracture was elevated in the earthquake-exposed cohort (143 vs. 66 patients in the non-earthquake-exposed cohort, Risk Ratio (RR) = 2.2; pchest (45/143 vs. 11/66 patients, RR = 1.9; ptraumas resulting from the earthquake were life threatening with a high incidence of bony thoracic fractures. The ribs were frequently involved in bilateral and severe types of fractures, which were accompanied by non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries. PMID:21789386

  11. Computer tomographic examinations in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.

    1984-01-01

    Epileptic patients that was examined at the Universitas Hospital (Bloemfontein) by means of computerized tomography for the period July 1978 - December 1980, are divided into two groups: a) Patients with general epilepsy of convulsions - 507; b) Patients with vocal or partial epilepsy - 111. The method of examination and the results for both general and vocal epilepsy are discussed. A degenerative state was found in 35% of the positive computer tomographic examinations in general epilepsy and 22% of the positive examinations for vocal epilepsy. The purpose of the article was to explain the circumstances that can be expected when a epileptic patient is examined by means of computerized tomography

  12. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma

  13. Unfolding and smoothing applied to the quality enhancement of neutron tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Silvani, Maria I.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2008-01-01

    Resolution and contrast are the major parameters defining the quality of a computer-aided tomographic image. These parameters depend upon several features of the image acquisition system, such as detector resolution, geometrical arrangement of the source-object-detector, beam divergence, source strength, detector efficiency and counting time. Roughly, the detector finite resolution is the main source of systematic errors affecting the separation power of the image acquisition system, while the electronic noise and statistical fluctuation are responsible for the data dispersion, which spoils the contrast. An algorithm has been developed in this work aiming at the improvement of the image quality through the minimization of both types of errors. The systematic ones are reduced by a mathematical unfolding of the position spectra - used as projections to reconstruct the 2D-images - using the Line Spread Function - LSF of the neutron tomographic system. The principle behind this technique is that every single channel contains information about all channels of the spectrum, but it is concealed due to the automatic integration carried out by the detector. Therefore, knowing the shape of this curve, it is possible to retrieve the original spectra. These spectra are unfortunately corrupted by the unavoidable statistical fluctuation, and by oscillations arising from the unfolding process, which strongly affects the quality of the final unfolded image. In order to reduce this impact, the spectra have been filtered by a Fourier transform technique or smoothed with a least square fitting procedure. The algorithm has been applied to spectra of some test-bodies generated by an earlier developed tomographic simulator, which reproduces the spectra furnished by a thermal neutron tomographic system employing a position sensitive detector. The obtained results have shown that the unfolded spectra produce final images capable to resolve features otherwise not achievable with the

  14. Computed tomographic investigations on intraventricular hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laber-Szillat, S.

    1982-01-01

    This work investigated in 106 patients with intraventricular hematomas all the known factors which can have an influence on prognosis: age, sex, anamnesis of the patients, size, extent and localization of the intracranial bleeding, underlying angiopathy and differences between arterial and venous and spontaneous and traumatic bleedings. It was shown that the state of mind was the deciding prognostic factor, whereby viligance was the cumulative expression of all other investigated influences. A computed tomography (CT) examination is deciding in the question of operative hydrocephalus care. In 13 patients it was further shown, how clearly CT results and brain dissection allowed themselves to be compared. The computed tomographic examination method is best suited to achieve even physiological and more extensive prognostic possibilities. (orig.) [de

  15. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 2. Organ doses from computed tomographic examinations in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Panzer, W.; Drexler, G.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides a catalogue of organ dose conversion factors resulting from computed tomographic (CT) examinations of children. Two radiation qualities and two exposure geometries were simulated as well as the use of asymmetrical beams. The use of further beam shaping devices was not considered. The organ dose conversion factors are applicable to babies at the age of ca. 2 months and to children between 5 and 7 years but can be used for other ages as well with the appropriate adjustments. For the calculations, the patients were represented by the GSF tomographic anthropomorphic models BABY and CHILD. The radiation transport in the body was simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The doses are presented as conversion factors of mean organ doses per air kerma free in air on the axis of rotation. Mean organ dose conversion factors are given per organ and per scanned body section of 1 cm height. The mean dose to an organ resulting from a particular CT examination can be estimated by summing up the contributions to the organ dose from all relevant sections. To facilitate the selection of the appropriate sections, a table is given which relates the tomographic models' coordinates to certain anatomical landmarks in the human body. (orig.)

  16. A new algorithm for γ-ray tomographic imaging using a scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terajima, Hirokatsu; Nakajima, Masato; Itoh, Takashi.

    1979-01-01

    The gamma ray tomographic imaging giving 3-dimensional distribution of RI in human bodies is being actively investigated for the reason that the conventional images are of 2-dimensional projection, but it is not yet employed practically, because there are some problems in the tomographic image quality obtained. One of the methods is a technique to determine the radioisotope distribution on each tomographic plane by placing a planar detector in parallel with the assumed tomographic planes and by processing the 2-dimensional radioisotope projection images thus obtained. It does not require the repetition of reconstructive algorithm. The authors have proposed the algorithm for this method, and have carried out the experiments to verify the propriety of the algorithm. Radioisotope phantom is composed of the overlapping acrylic cubic vessels of 30 mm sides containing radioisotopes arranged 2-dimensionally in each layer, and the multi-pinhole shutter array is used as the collimator. The projection image of radioisotope distribution on the scintillator face is converted into the digital imaging data sampled in 2-dimensional space of 64 x 64 with the mini-computer. Among the probable causes to affect the reconstructed image quality, statistical fluctuation, absorption of gamma ray and the shape of aperture for the collimator are discussed. These indicate that this method is more effective than the conventional methods, and can be the effective technique for medical diagnosis and therapy, because this is a technique to determine 3-dimensional distribution of RI by utilizing existing equipments. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Design and applications of Computed Industrial Tomographic Imaging System (CITIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, G S; Kumar, Umesh; Datta, S S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Isotope Div.

    1994-12-31

    This paper highlights the design and development of a prototype Computed Tomographic (CT) imaging system and its software for image reconstruction, simulation and display. It also describes results obtained with several test specimens including Dhruva reactor uranium fuel assembly and possibility of using neutrons as well as high energy x-rays in computed tomography. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Development of a fast multi-line x-ray CT detector for NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, T.; Nachtrab, F.; Schlechter, T.; Mühlbauer, J.; Schröpfer, S.; Firsching, M.; Uhlmann, N.; Neubauer, H.; Ernst, J.; Schweiger, T.; Oberst, M.; Meyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Typical X-ray detectors for non-destructive testing (NDT) are line detectors or area detectors, like e.g. flat panel detectors. Multi-line detectors are currently only available in medical Computed Tomography (CT) scanners. Compared to flat panel detectors, line and multi-line detectors can achieve much higher frame rates. This allows time-resolved 3D CT scans of an object under investigation. Also, an improved image quality can be achieved due to reduced scattered radiation from object and detector themselves. Another benefit of line and multi-line detectors is that very wide detectors can be assembled easily, while flat panel detectors are usually limited to an imaging field with a size of approx. 40 × 40 cm 2 at maximum. The big disadvantage of line detectors is the limited number of object slices that can be scanned simultaneously. This leads to long scan times for large objects. Volume scans with a multi-line detector are much faster, but with almost similar image quality. Due to the promising properties of multi-line detectors their application outside of medical CT would also be very interesting for NDT. However, medical CT multi-line detectors are optimized for the scanning of human bodies. Many non-medical applications require higher spatial resolutions and/or higher X-ray energies. For those non-medical applications we are developing a fast multi-line X-ray detector.In the scope of this work, we present the current state of the development of the novel detector, which includes several outstanding properties like an adjustable curved design for variable focus-detector-distances, conserving nearly uniform perpendicular irradiation over the entire detector width. Basis of the detector is a specifically designed, radiation hard CMOS imaging sensor with a pixel pitch of 200 μ m. Each pixel has an automatic in-pixel gain adjustment, which allows for both: a very high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range. The final detector is planned to have 256 lines of

  19. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  20. Computed tomographic determination of tracheal dimensions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griscom, N.T.

    1982-01-01

    A computed tomographic system for determining the internal diameters, cross-sectional area, and length of the trachea in children and adolescents was developed. Intraluminal volumes were calculated from these measurements.The results of 18 analyses are reported

  1. Relationship between noise, dose, and pitch in cardiac multi-detector row CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primak, Andrew N; McCollough, Cynthia H; Bruesewitz, Michael R; Zhang, Jie; Fletcher, Joel G

    2006-01-01

    In spiral computed tomography (CT), dose is always inversely proportional to pitch. However, the relationship between noise and pitch (and hence noise and dose) depends on the scanner type (single vs multi-detector row) and reconstruction mode (cardiac vs noncardiac). In single detector row spiral CT, noise is independent of pitch. Conversely, in noncardiac multi-detector row CT, noise depends on pitch because the spiral interpolation algorithm makes use of redundant data from different detector rows to decrease noise for pitch values less than 1 (and increase noise for pitch values > 1). However, in cardiac spiral CT, redundant data cannot be used because such data averaging would degrade the temporal resolution. Therefore, the behavior of noise versus pitch returns to the single detector row paradigm, with noise being independent of pitch. Consequently, since faster rotation times require lower pitch values in cardiac multi-detector row CT, dose is increased without a commensurate decrease in noise. Thus, the use of faster rotation times will improve temporal resolution, not alter noise, and increase dose. For a particular application, the higher dose resulting from faster rotation speeds should be justified by the clinical benefits of the improved temporal resolution. RSNA, 2006

  2. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  3. Multi-scale analysis of lung computed tomography images

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Fantacci, M E; Preite Martinez, A; Retico, A; De Mitri, I; Donadio, S; Fulcheri, C

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of lung internal nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images was developed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 project. The three modules of our lung CAD system, a segmentation algorithm for lung internal region identification, a multi-scale dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a multi-scale neural technique for false positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on a dataset of low-dose and thin-slice CT scans are shown in terms of free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves and discussed.

  4. Research of z-axis geometric dose efficiency in multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Moon Chan

    2006-01-01

    With the recent prevalence of helical CT and multi-slice CT, which deliver higher radiation dose than conventional CT due to overbeaming effect in X-ray exposure and interpolation technique in image reconstruction. Although multi-detector and helical CT scanner provide a variety of opportunities for patient dose reduction, the potential risk for high radiation levels in CT examination can't be overemphasized in spite of acquiring more diagnostic information. So much more concerns is necessary about dose characteristics of CT scanner, especially dose efficient design as well as dose modulation software, because dose efficiency built into the scanner's design is probably the most important aspect of successful low dose clinical performance. This study was conducted to evaluate z-axis geometric dose efficiency in single detector CT and each level multi-detector CT, as well as to compare z-axis dose efficiency with change of technical scan parameters such as focal spot size of tube, beam collimation, detector combination, scan mode, pitch size, slice width and interval. The results obtained were as follows; 1. SDCT was most highest and 4 MDCT was most lowest in z-axis geometric dose efficiency among SDCT, 4, 8, 16, 64 slice MDCT made by GE manufacture. 2. Small focal spot was 0.67-13.62% higher than large focal spot in z-axis geometric dose efficiency at MDCT. 3. Large beam collimation was 3.13-51.52% higher than small beam collimation in z-axis geometric dose efficiency at MDCT. Z-axis geometric dose efficiency was same at 4 slice MDCT in all condition and 8 slice MDCT of large beam collimation with change of detector combination, but was changed irregularly at 8 slice MDCT of small beam collimation and 16 slice MDCT in all condition with change of detector combination. 5. There was no significant difference for z-axis geometric dose efficiency between conventional scan and helical scan, and with change of pitch factor, as well as change of slice width or interval for

  5. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  6. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  7. Computed tomographic findings in manifesting carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Verbeeten, B.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical and computed tomographic (CT) findings in 3 manifesting carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy are reported. CT proved to be an important adjunct to the clinical examination: in all our 3 cases a decrease in density was found in various non-paretic muscles

  8. Direct computation of harmonic moments for tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Takaaki; Ito, Nobutaka; Takamatsu, Tomonori; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    A novel algorithm to compute harmonic moments of a density function from its projections is presented for tomographic reconstruction. For projection p(r, θ), we define harmonic moments of projection by ∫ π 0 ∫ ∞ -∞ p(r,θ)(re iθ ) n drd θ and show that it coincides with the harmonic moments of the density function except a constant. Furthermore, we show that the harmonic moment of projection of order n can be exactly computed by using n+ 1 projection directions, which leads to an efficient algorithm to reconstruct the vertices of a polygon from projections.

  9. Coronary CT angiography using 64 detector rows: methods and design of the multi-centre trial CORE-64

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julie M.; Vavere, Andrea L.; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Bush, David E.; Lardo, Albert C.; Texter, John; Brinker, Jeffery; Lima, Joao A.C. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medical School, Humboldt-Universitaet und Freie Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin, PO Box 10098 (Germany); Rochitte, Carlos E.; Lemos, Pedro A. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Heart Institute (InCor), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Niinuma, Hiroyuki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Morioka (Japan); Paul, Narinder [Toronto General Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Hoe, John [Medi-Rad Associates Ltd, CT Centre, Mt Elizabeth Hospital, Singapore (Singapore); Roos, Albert de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Yoshioka, Kunihiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Morioka (Japan); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Clouse, Melvin E. [Harvard University, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) for the noninvasive detection of coronary artery stenoses is a promising candidate for widespread clinical application because of its non-invasive nature and high sensitivity and negative predictive value as found in several previous studies using 16 to 64 simultaneous detector rows. A multi-centre study of CT coronary angiography using 16 simultaneous detector rows has shown that 16-slice CT is limited by a high number of nondiagnostic cases and a high false-positive rate. A recent meta-analysis indicated a significant interaction between the size of the study sample and the diagnostic odds ratios suggestive of small study bias, highlighting the importance of evaluating MSCT using 64 simultaneous detector rows in a multi-centre approach with a larger sample size. In this manuscript we detail the objectives and methods of the prospective ''CORE-64'' trial (''Coronary Evaluation Using Multidetector Spiral Computed Tomography Angiography using 64 Detectors''). This multi-centre trial was unique in that it assessed the diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography in nine centres worldwide in comparison to conventional coronary angiography. In conclusion, the multi-centre, multi-institutional and multi-continental trial CORE-64 has great potential to ultimately assess the per-patient diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography using 64 simultaneous detector rows. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Volume Rendering Images of Multi-Detector CT for the Detection of Lumbar Transverse Process Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hak; Chun, Tong Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To compare the accuracy of three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) volume rendering techniques with axial images of multi-detector row computed tomography to identify lumbar transverse process (LTP) fractures in trauma patients. We retrospectively evaluated 42 patients with back pain as a result of blunt trauma between January and June of 2010. Two radiologists examined the 3D CT volume rendering images independently. The confirmation of a LTP fracture was based on the consensus of the axial images by the two radiologists. The results of 3D CT volume rendering images were compared with the axial images and the diagnostic powers (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) were calculated. Seven of the 42 patients had twenty five lumbar transverse process fractures. The diagnostic power of the 3D CT volume rendering technique is as accurate as axial images. Reader 1, sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%, accuracy 99.9%; and Reader 2 sensitivity 100%, specificity 99.8%, accuracy 99.8%. The accordance of the two radiologists was 99.8%. 3D CT volume rendering images can alternate axial images to detect lumbar transverse process fractures with good image quality.

  11. Characteristics of patients with a significant stenosis in a conventional coronary angiogram with a normal multi-detector computed tomographic coronary angiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Chang; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has high diagnostic value for detecting or excluding coronary artery stenosis. However, conventional coronary angiograms (CCA) are occasionally required in patients having persistent chest pain with normal MDCT. We retrospectively analyzed 90 patients who underwent CCA due to persistent chest pain with normal MDCT. The patients were classified into patients having more than 50% diameter stenosis in CCA (false negative, group I: n=14, 62.6±7.5 years, 7 males) and those having less than 50% diameter stenosis (true negative, group II: n=76, 52.1±12.0 years, 42 males). Significant stenosis was observed in 9 patients at the left anterior descending artery, 4 at the right coronary artery, and 1 at the left circumflex artery in group I. Group I patients were older than group II patients (63±8 versus 52±12 years, P<0.001). There were more patients with hypertension and smoking in group I (64.3% versus 7.9%, 35.7% versus 3.9%, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). The levels of uric acid and homocysteine were higher in group I than in group II (5.7±1.5 versus 4.6±1.2 mg/dL, 9.6±3.1 versus 7.4±2.5 mol/L, P=0.008, P=0.010, respectively). There were more ST or T changes in the electrocardiograms in group I (35.7% versus 1.3%) (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, a history of hypertension, uric acid levels, and ischemic evidence in the electrocardiogram were independent factors for a false negative of MDCT (odds ratio 11.11, 4.76, 1.81, 95% confidence interval 4.67 to 10.00, 1.41 to 1.61, 1.05 to 3.33, P=0.009, P=0.012, P=0.046, respectively). In certain situations, the findings of coronary stenosis by MDCT do not always correlate with that of CCA. (author)

  12. Computed tomographic study in children with microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masatoshi; Okuno, Takehiko; Mikawa, Haruki

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) brain scanning was performed on fifty-eight infants and children with microcephaly. CT scans were useful for detecting unsuspected brain lesions and for diagnosing underlying diseases. The head size did not correlate with the CT findings, the degree of mental retardation, or the existence of motor disturbance or epilepsy. On the other hand, the CT findings were correlated with the degree of mental retardation, and the existence of motor disturbance or epilepsy. CT scans were useful for determining the prognosis of the microcephaly. (author)

  13. The Use of Chest Computed Tomographic Angiography in Blunt Trauma Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasadia, Rabea; DuBose, Joseph; Peleg, Kobi; Stephenson, Jacob; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2018-02-05

    Blunt chest trauma in children is common. Although rare, associated major thoracic vascular injuries (TVIs) are lethal potential sequelae of these mechanisms. The preferred study for definitive diagnosis of TVI in stable patients is computed tomographic angiography imaging of the chest. This imaging modality is, however, associated with high doses of ionizing radiation that represent significant carcinogenic risk for pediatric patients. The aim of the present investigation was to define the incidence of TVI among blunt pediatric trauma patients in an effort to better elucidate the usefulness of computed tomographic angiography use in this population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including all blunt pediatric (age blunt trauma victims, 119,821patients were younger than 14 years. Twelve (0.0001%, 12/119821) of these children were diagnosed with TVI. The most common mechanism in this group was pedestrian hit by a car. Mortality was 41.7% (5/12). Thoracic vascular injury is exceptionally rare among pediatric blunt trauma victims but does contribute to the high morbidity and mortality seen with blunt chest trauma. Computed tomographic angiography, with its associated radiation exposure risk, should not be used as a standard tool after trauma in injured children. Clinical protocols are needed in this population to minimize radiation risk while allowing prompt identification of life-threatening injuries.

  14. Bone densitometry with the computer tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, T.

    1978-01-01

    This work tests the usefulness of the EMI head scanner MARK I for a quantitative detection of ossary mineral content. Twenty-three concentration levels of a aqueous K 2 HPO 4 -solution were positioned by means of a special clamping device at the EMI-scanner and examined at tubevoltages of 100, 120 and 140 kV. This produces an almost linear dependence between CT-unit and sample concentration, whereby it shows that the measured special element densities of samples with the same densities vary in dependence with the voltage. The examination of an anotomical fore-arm preperate served as a statement for the reproductability of computer tomographic densitometry at non-moving biological objects. The test of reproductability of bone densitometry measurements under clinical conditions was made on the occation of the six time examinations of the right hand fore-arm bone of a young dummy. Furthermore densitometric examination were made at the fore-arm shelton of 40 long-time dialysis patients in the age levels between 17 and 67 years. The reproductability of the technique presented here is at least not better with the EMI-head-scanner MARK I used here. A change is possible by using the new whole body tomographs. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  16. Axial tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An axial tomographic system is described comprising axial tomographic means for collecting sets of data corresponding to the transmission or absorption of a number of beams of penetrating radiation through a planar slice of an object. It includes means to locate an object to be analyzed, a source and detector for directing one or more beams of penetrating radiation through the object from the source to the detector, and means to rotate (and optionally translate) the source as well as means to process the collected sets of data. Data collection, data processing, and data display can each be conducted independently of each other. An additional advantage of the system described is that the raw data (i.e., the originally collected data) are not destroyed by the data processing but instead are retained intact for further reference or use, if needed

  17. Computational characterization of HPGe detectors usable for a wide variety of source geometries by using Monte Carlo simulation and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, J.G., E-mail: jglezg2002@gmail.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Rubiano, J.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Estudios Ambientales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Winter, G. [Instituto Universitario de Sistemas Inteligentes y Aplicaciones Numéricas en la Ingeniería, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Guerra, A.G.; Alonso, H.; Arnedo, M.A.; Tejera, A.; Martel, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Estudios Ambientales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Bolivar, J.P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2017-06-21

    In this work, we have developed a computational methodology for characterizing HPGe detectors by implementing in parallel a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, together with a Monte Carlo simulation code. The evolutionary algorithm is used for searching the geometrical parameters of a model of detector by minimizing the differences between the efficiencies calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and two reference sets of Full Energy Peak Efficiencies (FEPEs) corresponding to two given sample geometries, a beaker of small diameter laid over the detector window and a beaker of large capacity which wrap the detector. This methodology is a generalization of a previously published work, which was limited to beakers placed over the window of the detector with a diameter equal or smaller than the crystal diameter, so that the crystal mount cap (which surround the lateral surface of the crystal), was not considered in the detector model. The generalization has been accomplished not only by including such a mount cap in the model, but also using multi-objective optimization instead of mono-objective, with the aim of building a model sufficiently accurate for a wider variety of beakers commonly used for the measurement of environmental samples by gamma spectrometry, like for instance, Marinellis, Petris, or any other beaker with a diameter larger than the crystal diameter, for which part of the detected radiation have to pass through the mount cap. The proposed methodology has been applied to an HPGe XtRa detector, providing a model of detector which has been successfully verificated for different source-detector geometries and materials and experimentally validated using CRMs. - Highlights: • A computational method for characterizing HPGe detectors has been generalized. • The new version is usable for a wider range of sample geometries. • It starts from reference FEPEs obtained through a standard calibration procedure. • A model of an HPGe XtRa detector has been

  18. Computational characterization of HPGe detectors usable for a wide variety of source geometries by using Monte Carlo simulation and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.G.; Rubiano, J.G.; Winter, G.; Guerra, A.G.; Alonso, H.; Arnedo, M.A.; Tejera, A.; Martel, P.; Bolivar, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a computational methodology for characterizing HPGe detectors by implementing in parallel a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, together with a Monte Carlo simulation code. The evolutionary algorithm is used for searching the geometrical parameters of a model of detector by minimizing the differences between the efficiencies calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and two reference sets of Full Energy Peak Efficiencies (FEPEs) corresponding to two given sample geometries, a beaker of small diameter laid over the detector window and a beaker of large capacity which wrap the detector. This methodology is a generalization of a previously published work, which was limited to beakers placed over the window of the detector with a diameter equal or smaller than the crystal diameter, so that the crystal mount cap (which surround the lateral surface of the crystal), was not considered in the detector model. The generalization has been accomplished not only by including such a mount cap in the model, but also using multi-objective optimization instead of mono-objective, with the aim of building a model sufficiently accurate for a wider variety of beakers commonly used for the measurement of environmental samples by gamma spectrometry, like for instance, Marinellis, Petris, or any other beaker with a diameter larger than the crystal diameter, for which part of the detected radiation have to pass through the mount cap. The proposed methodology has been applied to an HPGe XtRa detector, providing a model of detector which has been successfully verificated for different source-detector geometries and materials and experimentally validated using CRMs. - Highlights: • A computational method for characterizing HPGe detectors has been generalized. • The new version is usable for a wider range of sample geometries. • It starts from reference FEPEs obtained through a standard calibration procedure. • A model of an HPGe XtRa detector has been

  19. Computer tomographic investigation of ancient Egyptian mummies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K H; Pahl, W M

    1981-08-01

    Radiological and computer tomographic examinations of Egyptian mummies have been carried out at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics from 1975 to 1978. These have demonstrated the value of CT in medical archaeology. It enables one to study the soft tissues, the skin (if bandaged), the muscles and any organs retained in situ for magical or religious reason. Measurements of attenuation values indicate the materials which were used for mummifying the skin and organs. Characteristic examples are described and the early results of these examinations are discussed.

  20. Computer tomographic investigation of ancient Egyptian mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.H.; Pahl, W.M.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological and computer tomographic examinations of Egyptian mummies have been carried out at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics from 1975 to 1978. These have demonstrated the value of CT in medical archaeology. It enables one to study the soft tissues, the skin (if bandaged), the muscles and any organs retained in situ for magical or religious reason. Measurements of attenuation values indicate the materials which were used for mummifying the skin and organs. Characteristic examples are described and the early results of these examinations are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. High performance pseudo-analytical simulation of multi-object adaptive optics over multi-GPU systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Gendron, É ric; Gratadour, Damien; Keyes, David E.; Ltaief, Hatem; Sevin, Arnaud; Vidal, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is a novel adaptive optics (AO) technique dedicated to the special case of wide-field multi-object spectrographs (MOS). It applies dedicated wavefront corrections to numerous independent tiny patches spread over a large field of view (FOV). The control of each deformable mirror (DM) is done individually using a tomographic reconstruction of the phase based on measurements from a number of wavefront sensors (WFS) pointing at natural and artificial guide stars in the field. The output of this study helps the design of a new instrument called MOSAIC, a multi-object spectrograph proposed for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). We have developed a novel hybrid pseudo-analytical simulation scheme that allows us to accurately simulate in detail the tomographic problem. The main challenge resides in the computation of the tomographic reconstructor, which involves pseudo-inversion of a large dense symmetric matrix. The pseudo-inverse is computed using an eigenvalue decomposition, based on the divide and conquer algorithm, on multicore systems with multi-GPUs. Thanks to a new symmetric matrix-vector product (SYMV) multi-GPU kernel, our overall implementation scores significant speedups over standard numerical libraries on multicore, like Intel MKL, and up to 60% speedups over the standard MAGMA implementation on 8 Kepler K20c GPUs. At 40,000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale tomographic AO matrix solver submitted to computation, to date, to our knowledge and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  2. Intensive-care unit lung infections: The role of imaging with special emphasis on multi-detector row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Luigia; Pinto, Antonio; Merola, Stefanella; Gagliardi, Nicola; Tortora, Giovanni; Scaglione, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is the most frequent hospital-acquired infection. In mechanically ventilated patients admitted to an intensive-care unit as many as 7-41% may develop pneumonia. The role of imaging is to identify the presence, location and extent of pulmonary infection and the presence of complications. However, the poor resolution of bedside plain film frequently limits the value of radiography as an accurate diagnostic tool. To date, multi-detector row computed tomography with its excellent contrast resolution is the most sensitive modality for evaluating lung parenchyma infections

  3. E-learn Computed Tomographic Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...... occlusion and "spot sign" in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that an e-learning program enhances reading skills in physicians of varying experience. METHODS: We developed an HTML-based program with a teaching segment and 2 matching test segments. Tests were taken before and after...... sign correctly 69% before versus 92% after teaching (P = .009) and reported a median self-perceived diagnostic certainty of 50% versus 75% (P = .030). Self-perceived diagnostic certainty revealed no significant increase for vascular occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The e-learning program is a useful educational...

  4. Prospective electrocardiogram-gated axial 64-detector computed tomographic angiography vs retrospective gated helical technique to assess coronary artery bypass graft anastomosis. Comparison of image quality and patient radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Haruhiko; Masukawa, Ai; Tanaka, Isao; Fukui, Rika; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Ueno, Eiko; Kodera, Kojiro; Nakano, Kiyoharu; Shen, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study the effective dose and image quality at distal anastomoses were retrospectively compared between prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated axial and retrospective ECG-gated helical techniques on 64-detector computed tomographic (CT) angiography following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Following bypass surgery, 52 patients with a heart rate <65 beats/min underwent CT angiography: 26 patients each with prospective and retrospective ECG gating techniques. The effective dose was compared between the 2 groups using a 4-point scale (4, excellent; 1, poor) to grade the quality of curved multiplanar reformation images at distal anastomoses. Patient characteristics of the 2 groups were well matched, and the same CT scan parameters were used for both, except for the interval between surgery and CT examination, tube current, and image noise index. Image quality scores did not differ significantly (3.26±0.95 vs 3.35±0.87; P=0.63), but the effective dose was significantly lower in the prospective (7.3±1.8 mSv) than in the retrospective gating group (23.6±4.5 mSv) (P<0.0001). Following bypass surgery, 64-detector CT angiography using prospective ECG gating is superior to retrospective gating in limiting the radiation dose and maintaining the image quality of distal anastomoses. (author)

  5. Study on children patient dose in single-detector and multi-detector row helical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Heqing; Zhu Guoying; Zhuo Weihai; Liu Haikuan; Guo Changyi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study and evaluate the radiation dose of children patient in single-detector and multi-detector row helical CT scan. Methods: The head and body CT dose index of 21 CT scanners were tested. Then the values of CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP were calculated combining with the parameters of routine head and chest scan for children of 0-1 year old group, 5 years old group, 10 years old group and adults. The effective doses of children of every age group and adults in routine head and chest scan were subsequently estimated from effective dose per DLP by age and the calculated values of DLP. Results: CTDI per mAs is greater in the head than that in the body. In head routine scan, the effective doses of 0-1 year old group,5 years old group and 10 year old group were 2.2, 1.3 and 1.1 mSv, respectively. In chest routine scan, the effective doses of 0-1 year old group,5 years old group and 10 years old group were 5.3, 3.1 and 3.4 mSv, respectively. Effective doses to children per mAs are equally 1.8 times higher than corresponding values for adults. The CTDI vol , DLP and effective dose to children in head routine scan for MDCT were greater those that for single-detector CT and dual- detector CT. The CTDI vol , DLP and effective dose to children in chest routine scan for MDCT and dual-detector row CT were smaller than that for single-detector row CT. Conclusions: Children me more radiation risk in CT examination as compared with adults. So we should strictly abide by justification of children CT examination, and optimize the parameters of CT scan rationally in order to reduce the radiation dose to children patient as much as possible. (authors)

  6. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, D.; Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F.; Oels, M.; Grotemeyer, D.; Baldus, S.E.; Rump, L.C.; Sandmann, W.; Voiculescu, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  7. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F. [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Oels, M. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Grotemeyer, D. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Baldus, S.E. [Institute of Pathology (Germany); Rump, L.C. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Sandmann, W. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Voiculescu, A. [Department of Nephrology (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  8. Evaluation of paranasal sinus mucosa in coal worker's pneumoconiosis - A computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, H.; Altin, R.; Mahmutyazicioglu, K.; Kart, L.; Uzun, L.; Savranlar, A.; Davcanci, H.; Gundogdu, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2004-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate by computed tomographic scanning the paranasal mucosal changes of coal workers with and without pneumoconiosis. Methods: Examination of images and scores from paranasal computed tomographic scans. The study participants were 26 coal workers with pneumoconiosis, 29 coal workers without pneumoconiosis, and 20 controls. All were men. The extent and patterns of inflamatory paranasal sinus disease were evaluated on computed, tomographic scans by 2 radiologists using the terminology and definitions of Newman and associates. Results: Interobserver agreement for the presence of abnormalities was from good to excellent (K, 0.63-0.89). The mucosal scores of individuals and groups were higher for coal workers than for control subjects. Both scores were significantly higher in the pneumoconiosis group than in the 2 other groups. Conclusions: This study shows that paranasal sinuses were affected more severely in coal workers than in control subjects. In coal workers with pneumoconiosis, the affection was most severe. The relationship between coal dust exposure and paranasal mucosal changes needs further study.

  9. Photon emission tomographic apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Tomographic imaging system employs large area, collimated scintillation detector rotated around radiation emitting subject. Detector support rotates with an inner ring inside a stationary outer ring. Counterbalanced detector support arm is forced by spring action to cause collimator face to follow body contour as detector rotates around the body, thereby reducing collimator to subject distance to improve system resolution. Includes adjustable subject support system

  10. Availability, Indications, and Technical Performance of Computed Tomographic Colonography: A National Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, V.; Hellstroem, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the availability, indications, and technique of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in Sweden and to investigate opinions on its future role in colon imaging. Material and Methods: In May 2004, a questionnaire on CTC was mailed to all Departments of Radiology in Sweden, and one year later a telephone interview was conducted with the departments that intended to start a CTC service. Results: Ninety-nine departments (83%) answered the questionnaire, indicating that 23/99 (23.2%) offered a CTC service. Reasons for non-implementation of CTC were lack of CTC training in 34/73 (46.6%) and non-availability of multi-detector row CT scanners in 33/73 (45.2%), while 26% were awaiting further scientific documentation on CTC. Incomplete colonoscopy was the main indication for CTC in 21/23 (91.3%) departments performing CTC. Dual positioning, room air insufflation, and thin-slice collimation were used in all the responding departments. The number of CTC studies performed varied from 1-5 (26.1%) to more than 200 (17.4%). Intravenous contrast material was routinely administered by 9/23 (39.1%) departments. Out of 30 (39.5%) departments that in 2004 intended to start CTC, 9 (30%) had done so by June 2005. A total of 32/99 (32.3%) departments had therefore started CTC by June 2005. Half of the departments that replied believed that CTC would absolutely or probably replace barium enema in the future. Conclusion: The survey shows relatively limited diffusion of CTC practice in Sweden, with approximately one-third of radiology departments offering a CTC service, mostly on a small scale. A wider dissemination of CTC requires further scientific documentation of its capability, intensified educational efforts, and additional funding

  11. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerhaus, Bernhard; Goebbels, Juergen; Onel, Yener; Sauerwein, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm [de

  12. ULTRASOUND AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF OPTIC NERVE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Saakyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive examination was made in 93 patients, including 18 children, with tumors of the optic nerve (ON. Duplex ultrasound scanning was performed in 39 patients, of them there were 11 patients with ON gliomas and 28 with ON meningiomas. The specific computed tomographic and echographic signs of ON glioma and meningiomas were detected. The studies have shown that duplex ultrasound scanning and structural computed tomography of orbital sockets are highly informative complementary imaging procedures for ON tumors, which permits one to make their correct diagnosis, to specify surgical volume, and to plan adequate treatment.

  13. Tomographic and analog 3-D simulations using NORA. [Non-Overlapping Redundant Image Array formed by multiple pinholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.; Trombka, J. I.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The results of two computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of using the nonoverlapping redundant array (NORA) to form three-dimensional images of objects with X-rays. Pinholes admit the X-rays to nonoverlapping points on a detector. The object is reconstructed in the analog mode by optical correlation and in the digital mode by tomographic computations. Trials were run with a stick-figure pyramid and extended objects with out-of-focus backgrounds. Substitution of spherical optical lenses for the pinholes increased the light transmission sufficiently that objects could be easily viewed in a dark room. Out-of-focus aberrations in tomographic reconstruction could be eliminated using Chang's (1976) algorithm.

  14. A multi-channel photometric detector for multi-component analysis in flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A; Huang, J; Geng, L; Xu, J; Zhao, X

    1994-01-01

    The detector, a multi-channel photometric detector, described in this paper was developed using multi-wavelength LEDs (light emitting diode) and phototransistors for absorbance measurement controlled by an Intel 8031 8-bit single chip microcomputer. Up to four flow cells can be attached to the detector. The LEDs and phototransistors are both inexpensive, and reliable. The results given by the detector for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cobalt and cadmium in zinc sulphate electrolyte are reported. Because of the newly developed detector, this approach employs much less hardware apparatus than by employing conventional photometric detectors.

  15. Double Chooz Improved Multi-Detector Measurements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment (DC) is a reactor neutrino oscillation experiment running at Chooz nuclear power plant (2 reactors) in France. In 2011, DC first reported indication of non-zero θ13 with the far detector (FD) located at the maximum of oscillation effects (i.e. disappearance), thus challenging the CHOOZ non-observation limit. A robust observation of θ13 followed in 2012 by the Daya Bay experiments with multiple detector configurations. Since 2015 DC runs in a multi-detector configuration making thus the impact of several otherwise dominating systematics reduce strongly. DC’s unique almost "iso-flux" site, allows the near detector (ND) to become a direct accurate non-oscillation reference to the FD. Our first multi-detector results at MORIOND-2016 showed an intriguing deviation of θ13 with respect to the world average. We will address this issue in this seminar. The combined "reactor-θ13" measurement is expected to ...

  16. Computational characterization of HPGe detectors usable for a wide variety of source geometries by using Monte Carlo simulation and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J. G.; Rubiano, J. G.; Winter, G.; Guerra, A. G.; Alonso, H.; Arnedo, M. A.; Tejera, A.; Martel, P.; Bolivar, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we have developed a computational methodology for characterizing HPGe detectors by implementing in parallel a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, together with a Monte Carlo simulation code. The evolutionary algorithm is used for searching the geometrical parameters of a model of detector by minimizing the differences between the efficiencies calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and two reference sets of Full Energy Peak Efficiencies (FEPEs) corresponding to two given sample geometries, a beaker of small diameter laid over the detector window and a beaker of large capacity which wrap the detector. This methodology is a generalization of a previously published work, which was limited to beakers placed over the window of the detector with a diameter equal or smaller than the crystal diameter, so that the crystal mount cap (which surround the lateral surface of the crystal), was not considered in the detector model. The generalization has been accomplished not only by including such a mount cap in the model, but also using multi-objective optimization instead of mono-objective, with the aim of building a model sufficiently accurate for a wider variety of beakers commonly used for the measurement of environmental samples by gamma spectrometry, like for instance, Marinellis, Petris, or any other beaker with a diameter larger than the crystal diameter, for which part of the detected radiation have to pass through the mount cap. The proposed methodology has been applied to an HPGe XtRa detector, providing a model of detector which has been successfully verificated for different source-detector geometries and materials and experimentally validated using CRMs.

  17. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the means of adjusting the apparent gain of the signal processing means for receiving output signals from the detectors, to compensate for drift in the gain characteristics, including means for passing a reference signal. (U.K.)

  18. Computed tomography with thermal neutrons and gaseous position sensitive detector; Tomografia computadorizada com neutrons termicos e detetor a gas sensivel a posicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Maria Ines Silvani

    2001-12-01

    A third generation tomographic system using a parallel thermal neutron beam and gaseous position sensitive detector has been developed along three discrete phases. At the first one, X-ray tomographic images of several objects, using a position sensitive detector designed and constructed for this purpose have been obtained. The second phase involved the conversion of that detector for thermal neutron detection, by using materials capable to convert neutrons into detectable charged particles, testing afterwards its performance in a tomographic system by evaluation the quality of the image arising from several test-objects containing materials applicable in the engineering field. High enriched {sup 3} He, replacing the argon-methane otherwise used as filling gas for the X-ray detection, as well as, a gadolinium foil, have been utilized as converters. Besides the pure enriched {sup 3} He, its mixture with argon-methane and later on with propane, have been also tested, in order to evaluate the detector efficiency and resolution. After each gas change, the overall performance of the tomographic system using the modified detector, has been analyzed through measurements of the related parameters. This was done by analyzing the images produced by test-objects containing several materials having well known attenuation coefficients for both thermal neutrons and X-rays. In order to compare the performance of the position sensitive detector as modified to detect thermal neutrons, with that of a conventional BF{sub 3} detector, additional tomographs have been conducted using the last one. The results have been compared in terms of advantages, handicaps and complementary aspects for different kinds of radiation and materials. (author)

  19. Multi Detector Computed Tomography Fistulography In Patients of Fistula-in-Ano: An Imaging Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Shuchi; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Singh, Vikas Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano, or perianal fistula, is a challenging clinical condition for both diagnosis and treatment. Imaging modalities such as fistulography, anal endosonography, perineal sonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) are available for its evaluation. MRI is considered as the modality of choice for an accurate delineation of the tract in relation to the sphincter complex and for the detection of associated complications. However, its availability and affordability is always an issue. Moreover, the requirement to obtain multiple sequences to depict the fistula in detail is cumbersome and confusing for the clinicians to interpret. The inability to show the fistula in relation to normal anatomical structures in a single image is also a limitation. Multi detector computed tomography fistulography ( MDCTF ) is an underutilized technique for defining perianal fistulas. Acquisition of iso-volumetric data sets with instillation of contrast into the fistula delineates the tract and its components. Post-processing with thin sections allows for a generation of good quality images for presentation in various planes (multi-planar reconstructions) and formats (volume rendered technique, maximum intensity projection). MDCTF demonstrates the type of fistula, its extent, whether it is simple or complex, and shows the site of internal opening and associated complications; all in easy to understand images that can be used by the surgeons. Its capability to represent the entire pathology in relation to normal anatomical structures in few images is a definite advantage. MDCTF can be utilized when MRI is contraindicated or not feasible. This pictorial review shares our initial experience with MDCT fistulography in evaluating fistula-in-ano, demonstrates various components of fistulas, and discusses the types of fistulas according to the standard Parks classification.

  20. Muon borehole detector development for use in four-dimensional tomographic density monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Joshua

    The increase of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the correlated temperature rise has initiated research into methods of carbon sequestration. One promising possibility is to store CO2 in subsurface reservoirs of porous rock. After injection, the monitoring of the injected CO2 is of paramount importance because the CO2 plume, if escaped, poses health and environmental risks. Traditionally, seismic reflection methods are the chosen method of determining changes in the reservoir density due to CO2 injection, but this is expensive and not continuous. A potential and promising alternative is to use cosmic muon tomography to determine density changes in the reservoir over a period of time. The work I have completed was the development of a muon detector that will be capable of being deployed in boreholes and perform long-term tomography of the reservoir of interest. The detector has the required dimensions, an angular resolution of approximately 2 degrees, and is robust enough to survive the caustic nature of the fluids in boreholes, as well as temperature and pressure fluctuations. The detector design is based on polystyrene scintillating rods arrayed in alternating layers. The layers, as arranged, can provide four-dimensional (4D) tomographic data to detect small changes in density at depths up to approximately 2 kilometers. Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation code, was used to develop and optimize the detector design. Additionally, I developed a method of determining the muon flux at depth, including CO2 saturation changes in subsurface reservoirs. Preliminary experiments were performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This thesis will show the simulations I performed to determine the angular resolution and background discrimination required of the detector, the experiments to determine light transport through the polystyrene scintillating rods and fibers, and the method developed to predict muon flux changes at depth expected after injection.

  1. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 180 0 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  2. Computer tomographic evaluation of digestive tract non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupescu, Ioana G; Grasu, Mugur; Goldis, Gheorghe; Popa, Gelu; Gheorghe, Cristian; Vasilescu, Catalin; Moicean, Andreea; Herlea, Vlad; Georgescu, Serban A

    2007-09-01

    Computer Tomographic (CT) study is crucial for defining distribution, characteristics and staging of primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. The presence of multifocal sites, the wall thickening with diffuse infiltration of the affected gastrointestinal (GI) segment in association with regional adenopathies, permit the orientation of the CT diagnosis for primary GI lymphomas. The gold standard for diagnosis remains, in all cases of digestive tract non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), the histological examination, which allows a tissue diagnosis, performed preferably by transmural biopsy.

  3. Computed tomographic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, In Su; Jong, Woo Yung; Lee, Jong Yul; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Ki

    1987-01-01

    With Development of Computed Tomography, detection of the Hepatocellular Carcinoma are easily performed and frequently used in the world. During 15 months, from December 1985 to February 1987, 59 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were evaluated with computed tomography in department of radiology at Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital. The results were as follow: 1. The most prevalent age group was 5th to 7th decades, male to female ratio was 4.9:1. 2. Classification with incidence of computed tomographic appearance of the hepatocellular carcinoma were solitary type 28 cases (48%), multinodular type 24 cases (40%), and diffuse type 7 cases (12%), Association with liver cirrhosis was noted in 22 cases (38%). 3. Inhomogenous internal consistency of hepatocellular carcinoma due to central necrosis were 35 cases (60%). Portal vein invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma was noted in 15 cases (25%), and particularly most common in diffuse type 4 cases (55%). 4. On precontrast scan, all hepatocellular carcinoma were seen as area of low density except for 3 cases(0.5%) of near isodensity which turned out to be remarkable low density on postcontrast scan. 5. In solitary type, posterior segment of right lobe was most common site of involvement 12 cases (43%). In diffuse type, bilobar involvement was most common, 6 cases (85%)

  4. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver - computed tomographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, E.; Usadel, S.; Vogel, J.; Kern, P.; Friedrich, J.M.; Brambs, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to ascertain the typical computed tomographic findings of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, 24 computed tomograms of 19 patients were evaluated. The liver was involved in all cases whereas the diaphragma was infiltrated in 32%, and the retroperioteneal area in 42%. The right liver lobe was affected in 65%. Both before and after intravenous bolus contrast medium administration, the lesions were mainly inhomogeneous and of low density; a masking of the lesions due to the contrast medium administration was not observed; the enhancement pattern was irregular. Calcifications were detected in 96% of the cases, cystic structures in 50%, and cholestasis in 54%. On the basis of the crucial finding of calcifications in combination with the other typical observations, CT seems to be very suitable for the evaluation of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. (orig.) [de

  5. Spiral Computed Tomographic Imaging Related to Computerized Ultrasonographic Images of Carotid Plaque Morphology and Histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Wagner, Aase; Wiebe, Britt M.

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  6. Tomographical properties of uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work in coded aperture imaging has shown that the uniformly redundant array (URA) can image distant planar radioactive sources with no artifacts. The performance of two URA apertures when used in a close-up tomographic imaging system is investigated. It is shown that a URA based on m sequences is superior to one based on quadratic residues. The m sequence array not only produces less obnoxious artifacts in tomographic imaging, but is also more resilient to some described detrimental effects of close-up imaging. It is shown that in spite of these close-up effects, tomographic depth resolution increases as the source is moved closer to the detector

  7. Computed tomographic study of hormone-secreting microadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemminghytt, S.; Kalkhoff, R.K.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Grogan, J.P.; Haughton, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    A review was made of the computed tomographic (CT) studies of 33 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas that had been verified by transsphenoidal surgery and endocrinologic evaluation. In previous studies in small series of patients, the CT appearance of pituitary microadenomas has been reported as hypodense, isodense, and hyperdense. In this study, CT showed a region of diminished enhancement and ususally an enlarged pituitary gland in cases of prolactin-secreting adenomas. HGH- or ACTH-secreting adenomas were less consistently hypodense. It is concluded that hypodensity and enlargement in the pituitary gland are the most useful criteria for identification of microadenomas. Some technical factors that may affect the CT appearance of microadenomas and lead to conflicting reports are discussed

  8. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral arterial ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Ko, Young Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1987-01-01

    The computed tomographic findings of cerebral arterial ectasia in 8 patients, of which 5 cases were angiographically documented, are reported. The ecstatic arteries, located predominantly in the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns, appeared as serpignous, tubular structures on the unenhanced scan. The enhanced CT scan demonstrated dense, sharply defined, homogeneous intraluminal enhancement. Until recently, the diagnosis of cerebral arterial ectasia was usually established by angiography. With introduction of CT it has become possible to noninvasively identify and characterize this vascular disorder and its associated intracranial complications. The vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia may be diagnosed by CT as an extra-axial lesion in the cerebellopontine angle. It enhances in a tubular fashion after intravenous injection of contrast.

  9. A positron emission tomograph designed for 3/4 mm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInytre, J.A.; Allen, R.D.; Aguiar, J.; Paulson, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    Two factors of the design for a positron tomograph affect the magnitude of the tomograph spatial resolution: the gamma ray detector width and the analogue measurement of the scintillator location. In the tomograph design reported here the analogue measurement is eliminated and the detector transaxial width factor is reduced to 3/4 mm. The analogue measurement is eliminated by transmitting the scintillation light from each individual scintillator through optical fibers to four photo-multipliers (PMT's); the identities of the PMT's then provide a digital address for the scintillation location. Plastic scintillators are used to provide enough scintillation light for transmission through the optical fibers. Bonuses from the use of plastic scintillators are first, the reduction of the scintillator dead time to about 10 nsec, second, a large reduction of cross-talk between neighboring scintillators, third, the reduction of resolution loss from off-axis gamma rays and, fourth, the ability to sample the axial image at one-eighth the axial resolution distance of 2.5 mm. The designed tomograph incorporates 20 rings. Two of the 32 tomograph 20-ring modules have been constructed to measure the resolution and other characteristics of the tomographs

  10. Computed tomographic diagnosis of calcified inferior vena cava thrombus in a child with Wilm's tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirks, D R; Ponzi, J W; Korobkin, M

    1980-01-01

    A calcified thrombus in the inferior vena cava of infants and children may be imaged by computed tomography. The precise location of the calcification within the inferior vena cava may be confirmed by computed tomographic scanning during injection of intravenous contrast material.

  11. Feasibility of photon-counting K-edge imaging in X-ray and computed tomographic systems: Monte Carlo simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2011-01-01

    Conventional X-ray systems and X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems, which use detectors operated in the integrating mode, are not able to reflect spectral information because the detector output is proportional to the energy fluence integrated over the whole spectrum. Photon-counting detectors have been considered as alternative devices. These detectors can measure the photon energy deposited by each event and improve the image quality. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of K-edge imaging using a photon-counting detector and evaluated the capability of material decomposition in X-ray images. The geometries of X-ray imaging systems equipped with cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors and phantoms consisting of different materials were designed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) version 6.0. To observe the effect of a discontinuity in the attenuation due to the K-edge of a high atomic number material, we chose the energy windows to be one below and one above the K-edge absorption energy of the target material. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the target materials were increased at selective energy levels above the K-edge absorption energy because the attenuation is more dramatically increased at energies above the K-edge absorption energy of the material than at energies below that. The CNRs for the target materials in the K-edge image were proportional to the material concentration. The results of this study show that K-edge imaging can be carried out in conventional X-ray systems and X-ray CT systems using CdTe photon-counting detectors and that the target materials can be separated from background materials by using K-edge imaging. The photon-counting detector has potential to provide improved image quality, and this study will be used as a basis for future studies on photon-counting X-ray imaging.

  12. Multi-detector row CT colonography: effect of collimation, pitch, and orientation on polyp detection in a human colectomy specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart A; Halligan, Steve; Bartram, Clive I; Morgan, Paul R; Talbot, Ian C; Fry, Nicola; Saunders, Brian P; Khosraviani, Kirosh; Atkin, Wendy

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the effects of orientation, collimation, pitch, and tube current setting on polyp detection at multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT) colonography and to determine the optimal combination of scanning parameters for screening. A colectomy specimen containing 117 polyps of different sizes was insufflated and imaged with a multi-detector row CT scanner at various collimation (1.25 and 2.5 mm), pitch (3 and 6), and tube current (50, 100, and 150 mA) settings. Two-dimensional multiplanar reformatted images and three-dimensional endoluminal surface renderings from the 12 resultant data sets were examined by one observer for the presence and conspicuity of polyps. The results were analyzed with Poisson regression and logistic regression to determine the effects of scanning parameters and of specimen orientation on polyp detection. The percentage of polyps that were detected significantly increased when collimation (P =.008) and table feed (P =.03) were decreased. Increased tube current resulted in improved detection only of polyps with a diameter of less than 5 mm. Polyps of less than 5 mm were optimally depicted with a collimation of 1.25 mm, a pitch of 3, and a tube current setting of 150 mA; polyps with a diameter greater than 5 mm were adequately depicted with 1.25-mm collimation and with either pitch setting and any of the three tube current settings. Small polyps in the transverse segment (positioned at a 90 degrees angle to the z axis of scanning) were significantly less visible than those in parallel or oblique orientations (P detector row CT is highly dependent on collimation, pitch, and, to a lesser extent, tube current. Collimation of 1.25 mm, combined with pitch of 6 and tube current of 50 mA, provides for reliable detection of polyps 5 mm or larger while limiting the effective radiation dose. Polyps smaller than 5 mm, however, may be poorly depicted with use of these settings in the transverse colon. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  13. Use of computed tomography and computed tomographic myelography for assessment of spinal tumoral calcinosis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, L.M. van; Bree, H.J. van; Tshamala, M.; Thoonen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Spinal tumoral calcinosis is reported in a Berner sennenhund puppy. The condition was manifested clinically as a non-ambulatory tetraparesis associated with neck pain. On survey radiographs there was a focal calcified mass at the atlantoaxial articulation. Computed tomography and computed tomographic myelography gave additional information on the extent of the mass and on the degree of spinal cord compression. The mass was removed surgically and the dog made a complete recovery

  14. Clinical perspective of coronary computed tomographic angiography in diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chung, Namsik

    2011-01-01

    Since a 4-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was launched in 1998, CCTA has experienced rapid improvement of imaging qualities with the ongoing evolution of computed tomography (CT) technology. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA to detect coronary artery stenosis is well established, whereas improvements are still needed to reduce the overestimation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and assess plaque composition. CCTA has been used to evaluate CAD in various clinical settings. For example, CCTA could be an efficient initial triage tool at emergency departments for patients with acute chest pain with low-to-intermediate risk because of its high negative predictive value. In patients with suspected CAD, CCTA could be a cost-effective alternative to myocardial perfusion imaging and exercise electrocardiogram for the initial coronary evaluation of patients with intermediate pre-test likelihood suspected CAD. However, in asymptomatic populations, there is a lack of studies that show an improved prognostic power of CCTA over other modalities. Therefore, the clinical use of CCTA to detect CAD for purposes of risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals should be discouraged. As CT technology evolves, CCTA will provide better quality coronary imaging and non-coronary information with lower radiation exposure. Future studies should cover these ongoing technical improvements and evaluate the prognostic power of CCTA in various clinical settings of CAD in large, well-designed, randomized trials. (author)

  15. Development of a tomographic system adapted to 3D measurement of contaminated wounds based on the Cacao concept (Computer aided collimation Gamma Camera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douiri, A.

    2002-03-01

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) is a gamma camera using a collimator with large holes, a supplementary linear scanning motion during the acquisition and a dedicated reconstruction program taking full account of the source depth. The CACAO system was introduced to improve both the sensitivity and the resolution in nuclear medicine. This thesis focuses on the design of a fast and robust reconstruction algorithm in the CACAO project. We start by an overview of tomographic imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. After modelling the physical CACAO system, we present the complete reconstruction program which involves three steps: 1) shift and sum 2) deconvolution and filtering 3) rotation and sum. The deconvolution is the critical step that decreases the signal to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. We propose a regularized multi-channel algorithm to solve the deconvolution problem. We also present a fast algorithm based on Splines functions and preserving the high quality of the reconstructed images for the shift and the rotation steps. Comparisons of simulated reconstructed images in 2D and 3D for the conventional system (CPHC) and CACAO demonstrate the ability of CACAO system to increase the quality of the SPECT images. Finally, this study concludes with an experimental approach with a pixellated detector conceived for a 3D measurement of contaminated wounds. This experimentation proves the possible advantages of coupling the CACAO project with pixellated detectors. Moreover, a variety of applications could fully benefit from the CACAO system, such as low activity imaging, the use of high-energy gamma isotopes and the visualization of deep organs. Moreover the combination of the CACAO system with a pixels detector may open up further possibilities for the future of nuclear medicine. (author)

  16. Multi-sensor radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.G.; Cyboron, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is a multi-sensor radiation detection system including a self-powered detector and an ion or fission chamber, preferably joined as a unitary structure, for removable insertion into a nuclear reactor. The detector and chamber are connected electrically in parallel, requiring but two conductors extending out of the reactor to external electrical circuitry which includes a load impedance, a voltage source, and switch means. The switch means are employed to alternately connect the detector and chamber either with th load impedance or with the load impedance and the voltage source. In the former orientation, current through the load impedance indicates flux intensity at the self-powered detector and in the latter orientation, the current indicates flux intensity at the detector and fission chamber, though almost all of the current is contributed by the fission chamber. (auth)

  17. Physics properties of non-helical scan using 320-row multi detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urikura, Atsushi; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Kawatani, Keisuke; Kawashima, Ippei; Goto, Hironori; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, clinical applications utilizing 320-row multi detector computed tomography (320MDCT) have increased, and the physical image properties of 320MDCT have been more concerned. We evaluated the spatial resolution in scan plane and z-direction, image noise and low-contrast sensitivity of non-helical mode (320NH), 640 slices mode by a double slice reconstruction technology (640DS), and 64-row helical mode (64HE) by using a 320MDCT. The spatial resolution in z-direction was evaluated by the section sensitivity profile (SSP) measurement with the micro coin phantom and the contrast transfer ratio (CTR) with the 0.5-mm comb phantom. The in-plane spatial resolution of 320NH was uniform over all the slice positions. The spatial resolution in z-direction decreased from the cathode side toward the anode side. The image noise of the anode side was higher than that of the cathode side. The contrast to noise ratio as index of the low contrast sensitivity was uniform over all the slice position. The CTR of 320NH fluctuated in the z-position, and the fluctuation was improved by 640DS except for the center of rotation. (author)

  18. Progress in multi-element silicon detectors for synchrotron XRF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Rossington, C.; Kipnis, I.; Krieger, B.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon and high purity germanium detectors for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. We have been developing these types of detectors specifically for low noise synchrotron applications, such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, microprobe x-ray fluorescence and total reflection x-ray fluorescence. The current version of the 192-element detector and integrated circuit preamplifier, cooled to -25 degrees C with a single-stage thermoelectric cooler, achieves an energy resolution of <200 eV full width of half maximum (FWHM) per channel (at 5.9 keV, 2 μs peaking time), and each detector element is designed to handle ∼20 kHz count rate. The detector system will soon be completed to 64 channels using new application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) amplifier chips, new CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control standard) analog-to-digital converters recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), CAMAC histogramming modules, and Macintosh-based data acquisition software. We report on the characteristics of this detector system, and the work in progress towards the next generation system

  19. Relationship of Hypertension to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Events in Patients With Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Rine; Baskaran, Lohendran; Gransar, Heidi; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; DeLago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Cury, Ricardo; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Bax, Jeroen; Jones, Erica; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is an atherosclerosis factor and is associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the relationship between hypertension and the presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in coronary computed tomographic angiography and cardiac events risk. Of 17 181 patients enrolled in the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter Registry) who underwent ≥64-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography, we identified 14 803 patients without known coronary artery disease. Of these, 1434 hypertensive patients were matched to 1434 patients without hypertension. Major adverse cardiac events risk of hypertension and non-hypertensive patients was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards models. The prognostic associations between hypertension and no-hypertension with increasing degree of coronary stenosis severity (nonobstructive or obstructive ≥50%) and extent of coronary artery disease (segment involvement score of 1-5, >5) was also assessed. Hypertension patients less commonly had no coronary atherosclerosis and more commonly had nonobstructive and 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease than the no-hypertension group. During a mean follow-up of 5.2±1.2 years, 180 patients experienced cardiac events, with 104 (2.0%) occurring in the hypertension group and 76 (1.5%) occurring in the no-hypertension group (hazard ratios, 1.4; 95% confidence intervals, 1.0-1.9). Compared with no-hypertension patients without coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension patients with no coronary atherosclerosis and obstructive coronary disease tended to have higher risk of cardiac events. Similar trends were observed with respect to extent of coronary artery disease. Compared with no-hypertension patients, hypertensive patients have increased presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and tend to have an increase in major adverse cardiac events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. A single photon emission computed tomograph based on a limited dumber of detectors for fluid flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legoupil, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present in this work a method for fluid flow visualization in a system using radioactive tracers. The method is based on single photon emission computed tomography techniques, applied to a limited number of discrete detectors. We propose in this work a method for the estimation of the transport matrix of photons, associated to the acquisition system. This method is based on the modelization of profiles acquired for a set of point sources located in the imaged volume. Monte Carlo simulations allow to separate scattered photons from those directly collected by the system. The influence of the energy tracer is exposed. The reconstruction method is based on the maximum likelihood - expectation maximization algorithm. An experimental device, based on 36 detectors was realised for the visualization of water circulation in a vessel. A video monitoring allows to visualize the dye water tracer. Dye and radioactive tracers are injected simultaneously in a water flow circulating in the vessel. Reconstructed and video images are compared. Quantitative and qualitative analysis show that fluid flow visualization is feasible with a limited number of detectors. This method can be applied for system involving circulations of fluids. (author)

  1. Multi-detector CT knee arthrography - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.Z.; Fallon, M.; Breidahl, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Traditional plain film arthrography can achieve reasonable accuracy and is an accepted method of investigation of patients with knee pain and possible meniscal tear. Multi-detector CT can potentially provide a more detailed and accurate examination due to its high-resolution crosssectional and multi-planar capabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of our technique. All patients who underwent a multi-detector CT knee arthrogram in an initial 8 month period were identified. Initially the referring clinician was contacted. If the patient was referred to an orthopaedic surgeon the outcome of orthopaedic review was recorded using clinical, arthroscopic and / or MRI follow-up of the patient population. One hundred and twelve patients had a Multi-detector CT knee arthrogram performed within and 8 month period. Follow-up information was received in 69.7% of patients. Of these 68.9% had orthopaedic assessment - of which 69.2% underwent a knee arthroscopy.There was total agreement of findings in 67%, agreement of meniscal findings in 67% and chondral findings in 100%. Overall, orthopaedic opinion agreed with CT findings in 76.9%. At this stage, all meniscal tears not described in the initial CT arthrogram report have in retrospect been visible. Multi-detector CT knee arthrography is an accurate and elegant technique for investigation of knee pain, providing information in a format familiar to those reporting knee MRI. There is an initial learning curve. The technique is particularly useful in chondral assessment. It is accurate for meniscal pathology, although caution and recognition of potential pitfalls is required. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Cost-effectiveness of computed tomographic colonography screening for colorectal cancer in the medicare population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Knudsen (Amy); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); C.M. Rutter (Carolyn); J.E. Savarino (James); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A. Zauber (Ann)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) considered whether to reimburse computed tomographic colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening of Medicare enrollees. To help inform its decision, we evaluated the reimbursement rate at which CTC screening could be

  3. Blunt oesophageal perforation: treatment with surgical exclusion and percutaneous drainage under computed tomographic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauthey, J.N.; Lerut, J.; Laube, M.; Gertsch, P.

    1992-01-01

    We report a patient with a left thoracic contusion and rupture of the distal oesophagus. Persistent sepsis developed after oesophageal exclusion without closure. Two collection were drained percutaneously under computed tomographic guidance and the sepsis resolved. (11 refs., 1 fig.)

  4. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  5. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Computed Tomographic Characteristics and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimara de la Caridad Vergara Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: strokes are the third leading cause of death among adults and 10-15 % of them are due to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Objective: to characterize spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage through computed tomography scan and its outcome. Methods: a case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital in Villa Clara from January 2009 to January 2010. Tomographic variables of interest were derived from evaluation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. Results: fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were studied, 23 were located in lobar regions, 4 had severe midline shift, and 2 showed volume greater than 80 ml. Eight out of eleven with extension into the ventricular system had an unfavorable outcome. Among those with thalamic hemorrhage, patients with diameter larger than 4cm and extension into the ventricular system died. Patients with putaminal hemorrhage larger than 4 cm and posterior fossa hematoma with hydrocephalus had a poor outcome, as well as most individuals (55 with other mass effects. Most lobar hematomas (14 out of 23 had a satisfactory outcome, unlike cerebellar and brainstem hematomas. Conclusions: tomographic variables that had a negative impact on the outcome were: volume greater than 80 ml, severe midline shift, diameter larger than 4 cm, extension into the ventricular system, hydrocephalus, other signs of mass effect and brainstem location.

  6. Gamma Ray Tomographic Scan Method for Large Scale Industrial Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Ho; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Park, Jang Geun

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray tomography systems have been used to investigate a chemical process for last decade. There have been many cases of gamma ray tomography for laboratory scale work but not many cases for industrial scale work. Non-tomographic equipment with gamma-ray sources is often used in process diagnosis. Gamma radiography, gamma column scanning and the radioisotope tracer technique are examples of gamma ray application in industries. In spite of many outdoor non-gamma ray tomographic equipment, the most of gamma ray tomographic systems still remained as indoor equipment. But, as the gamma tomography has developed, the demand on gamma tomography for real scale plants also increased. To develop the industrial scale system, we introduced the gamma-ray tomographic system with fixed detectors and rotating source. The general system configuration is similar to 4 th generation geometry. But the main effort has been made to actualize the instant installation of the system for real scale industrial plant. This work would be a first attempt to apply the 4th generation industrial gamma tomographic scanning by experimental method. The individual 0.5-inch NaI detector was used for gamma ray detection by configuring circular shape around industrial plant. This tomographic scan method can reduce mechanical complexity and require a much smaller space than a conventional CT. Those properties make it easy to get measurement data for a real scale plant

  7. Low-dose computed tomographic imaging in orbital trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, A.; Whitehouse, R.W. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1993-08-01

    The authors review findings in 75 computed tomographic (CT) examinations of 66 patients with orbital trauma who were imaged using a low-radiation-dose CT technique. Imaging was performed using a dynamic scan mode and exposure factors of 120 kVp and 80 mAs resulting in a skin dose of 11 mGy with an effective dose-equivalent of 0.22 mSv. Image quality was diagnostic in all cases and excellent in 73 examinations. Soft-tissue abnormalities within the orbit including muscle adhesions were well demonstrated both on primary axial and reconstructed multiplanar images. The benefits of multiplanar reconstructions are stressed and the contribution of soft-tissue injuries to symptomatic diplopia examined. (author).

  8. Permeability Surface of Deep Middle Cerebral Artery Territory on Computed Tomographic Perfusion Predicts Hemorrhagic Transformation After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Gao, Xinyi; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; He, Huijin; Xue, Jing; Gao, Peiyi; Yang, Lumeng; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Weijian; Yang, Yunjun

    2017-09-01

    Permeability surface (PS) on computed tomographic perfusion reflects blood-brain barrier permeability and is related to hemorrhagic transformation (HT). HT of deep middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory can occur after recanalization of proximal large-vessel occlusion. We aimed to determine the relationship between HT and PS of deep MCA territory. We retrospectively reviewed 70 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients presenting with occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery or M1 segment of the MCA. All patients underwent computed tomographic perfusion within 6 hours after symptom onset. Computed tomographic perfusion data were postprocessed to generate maps of different perfusion parameters. Risk factors were identified for increased deep MCA territory PS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal PS threshold to predict HT of deep MCA territory. Increased PS was associated with HT of deep MCA territory. After adjustments for age, sex, onset time to computed tomographic perfusion, and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, poor collateral status (odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-37.14; P =0.009) and proximal MCA-M1 occlusion (odds ratio, 4.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-16.52; P =0.045) were independently associated with increased deep MCA territory PS. Relative PS most accurately predicted HT of deep MCA territory (area under curve, 0.94; optimal threshold, 2.89). Increased PS can predict HT of deep MCA territory after recanalization therapy for cerebral proximal large-vessel occlusion. Proximal MCA-M1 complete occlusion and distal internal carotid artery occlusion in conjunction with poor collaterals elevate deep MCA territory PS. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Correlation of computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in cerebral infartion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, Chizuko; Chuda, Moriyoshi; Taka, Toshihiko

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated neurological findings in 75 patients of cerebral infarction, and correlated computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MRI was found to have the advantage when the lesion were multiple, or in the posterior fossa. MRI demonstrates the anatomical details, and lacks the bony artifact, so it is an excellent method for identification of cerebral infarction. (author)

  10. Comparison between computed tomographic and surgical findings in nine large-breed dogs with lumbosacral stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.C.; Sorjonen, D.C.; Simpson, S.T.; Coates, J.R.; Lenz, S.D.; Hathcock, J.T.; Agee, M.W.; Bartels, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    In a three-year prospective study, computed tomographic (CT) and surgical findings were compared for nine large breed dogs with lumbosacral stenosis. Surgically-excised tissue was examined histologically in seven dogs and additional necropsy evaluation was performed in one dog. The CT abnormalities observed at sites of confirmed cauda equina compression were: loss of epidural fat, increased soft tissue opacity, bulging of the intervertebral disc margin, spondylosis, thecal sac displacement, narrowed intervertebral foramen, narrowed vertebral canal, thickened articular process, articular process subluxation, articular process osteophyte, and telescoped sacral lamina. The CT characteristics of lumbosacral degenerative disease and discospondylitis were similar to those described in humans. In three dogs, CT findings at the site of cauda equina compression were consistent with congenital or developmental spinal stenosis, but the method of surgical exposure precluded confirmation. Epidural fibrosis (eight dogs) and multi-level CT abnormalities (six dogs) were identified but the cause(s) and significance were unknown

  11. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooley, Robert P.; Cameron, James D.; Soon, Jennifer; Loi, Duncan; Chitale, Gauri; Syeda, Rifath; Meredith, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  12. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooley, Robert P., E-mail: robert.gooley@monashhealth.org [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Cameron, James D., E-mail: james.cameron@monash.edu [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Soon, Jennifer, E-mail: jenn.sa@gmail.com [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Loi, Duncan, E-mail: dloi2@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Chitale, Gauri, E-mail: gchi21@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Syeda, Rifath, E-mail: rssye1@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Meredith, Ian T., E-mail: ian.meredith@myheart.id.au [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  13. Flat-detector computed tomography in the assessment of intracranial stents: comparison with multi detector CT and conventional angiography in a new animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, Tobias; Ott, Sabine; Adamek, Edyta; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Doerfler, Arnd; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Careful follow up is necessary after intracranial stenting because in-stent restenosis (ISR) or residual stenosis (RS) is not rare. A minimally invasive follow-up imaging technique is desirable. The objective was to compare the visualisation of stents in Flat Detector-CT Angiography (FD-CTA) after intravenous contrast medium injection (i.v.) with Multi Detector Computed Tomography Angiography (MD-CTA) and Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA) in an animal model. Stents were implanted in the carotid artery of 12 rabbits. In 6 a residual stenosis (RS) was surgically created. Imaging was performed using FD-CTA, MD-CTA and DSA. Measurements of the inner and outer diameter and cross-section area of the stents were performed. Stenosis grade was calculated. In subjective evaluation FD-CTA was superior to MD-CTA. FD-CTA was more accurate compared with DSA than MD-CTA. Cross-sectional area of the stent lumen was significantly larger (p < 0.05) in FD-CTA in comparison to MD-CTA. Accurate evaluation of stenosis was impossible in MD-CTA. There was no statistically significant difference in the stenosis grade of DSA and FD-CTA. Our results show that visualisation of stent and stenosis using intravenous FD-CTA compares favourably with DSA and may replace DSA in the follow-up of patients treated with intracranial stents. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokochi, Kenji; Horie, Masayo; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Kito, Hideyuki; Shimabukuro, Satoshi; Kodama, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patiens. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severer motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. (author)

  15. Method for optimizing side shielding in positron-emission tomographs and for comparing detector materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents analytical formulas for the image-forming and background event rates seen by circular positron-emission tomographs with parallel side shielding. These formulas include deadtime losses, detector efficiency, coincidence resolving time, amount of activity, patient port diameter, shielding gap, and shielding depth. A figure of merit, defined in terms of these quantities, describes the signal-to-noise ratio in the reconstructed image of a 20-cm cylinder of water with uniformly dispersed activity. Results are presented for the scintillators NaI(TI), bismuth germanate (BGO), CsF, and plastic; and for Ge(Li) and wire chambers with converters. In these examples, BGO provided the best signal-to-noise for activity levels below 1000 μCi per cm, and CsF had the advantage for higher activity levels

  16. Computed tomographic spectrum of intracranial mycosis: correlation with histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.A.; Stern, J.; deNapoli, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of intracerebral fungal infection are reviewed. The clinical course is outlined, and the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics are analyzed in light of known pathological data. The CT appearance of intracranial mycosis is dependent on the type of fungus as well as the dominant infecting form, i.e., yeast or hyphae. The hyphal form leads predominantly to a CT pattern consistent with vascular occlusion and secondary abscess formation; the yeast form generally results in noncaseating granulomas, which appear on CT scan as nodular enhancing lesions. If the patient survives the acute infective process, these fungal lesions undergo a prolonged subacute phase, and may eventually calcify

  17. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: detection of source and etiology with multi-detector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, Hans; Pfammatter, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Wildi, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauerfeind, Peter [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Gastroenterology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the ability of multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) to identify the source and etiology of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eighteen patients with acute upper (n = 10) and lower (n = 8) gastrointestinal bleeding underwent 4-detector-row CT (n = 6), 16-detector-row CT (n = 11), and 64-slice CT (n = 1) with an arterial and portal venous phase of contrast enhancement. Unenhanced scans were performed in nine patients. CT scans were reviewed to determine conspicuity of bleeding source, underlying etiology, and for potential causes of false-negative prospective interpretations. Bleeding sources were prospectively identified with CT in 15 (83%) patients, and three (17%) bleeding sources were visualized in retrospect, allowing the characterization of all sources of bleeding with CT. Contrast extravasation was demonstrated with CT in all 11 patients with severe bleeding, but only in 1 of 7 patients with mild bleeding. The etiology could not be identified on unenhanced CT scans in any patient, whereas arterial-phase and portal venous-phase CT depicted etiology in 15 (83%) patients. Underlying etiology was correctly identified in all eight patients with mild GI bleeding. Multi-detector-row CT enables the identification of bleeding source and precise etiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  18. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: detection of source and etiology with multi-detector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, Hans; Pfammatter, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem; Wildi, Stefan; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the ability of multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) to identify the source and etiology of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eighteen patients with acute upper (n = 10) and lower (n = 8) gastrointestinal bleeding underwent 4-detector-row CT (n = 6), 16-detector-row CT (n = 11), and 64-slice CT (n = 1) with an arterial and portal venous phase of contrast enhancement. Unenhanced scans were performed in nine patients. CT scans were reviewed to determine conspicuity of bleeding source, underlying etiology, and for potential causes of false-negative prospective interpretations. Bleeding sources were prospectively identified with CT in 15 (83%) patients, and three (17%) bleeding sources were visualized in retrospect, allowing the characterization of all sources of bleeding with CT. Contrast extravasation was demonstrated with CT in all 11 patients with severe bleeding, but only in 1 of 7 patients with mild bleeding. The etiology could not be identified on unenhanced CT scans in any patient, whereas arterial-phase and portal venous-phase CT depicted etiology in 15 (83%) patients. Underlying etiology was correctly identified in all eight patients with mild GI bleeding. Multi-detector-row CT enables the identification of bleeding source and precise etiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  19. Computed tomographic findings of progressive supranuclear palsy compared with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki, Nobuhiro; Sato, Shuzo; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Ito, Jusuke; Miyatake, Tadashi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1990-10-01

    We investigated computed tomographic (CT) films of 4 pathologically documented cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) in which the clinical presentations were atypical and compared the findings with those of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Dilatation of the third ventricle, atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum, and enlargement of the interpeduncular cistern toward the aqueduct were found to be the characteristic findings in PSP. Thus, radiological findings can be useful when the differential diagnosis between PSP and PD is clinically difficult. (author).

  20. Computer tomographic and angiographic studies of histologically confirmed intrahepatic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janson, R.; Lackner, K.; Paquet, K.J.; Thelen, M.; Thurn, P.

    1980-01-01

    The computer tomographic and angiographic findings in 53 patients with intrahepatic masses were compared. The histological findings show that 17 were due to echinococcus, 12 were due to hepatic carcinoma, ten were metastases, five patients had focal nodular hyperplasia, three an alveolar echinococcus and there were three cases with an haemangioma of the liver and a further three liver abscesses. Computer tomography proved superior in peripherally situated lesions, and in those in the left lobe of the liver. Arteriography was better at demonstrating lesions below 2 cm in size, particularly vascular tumours. As a pre-operative measure, angiography is to be preferred since it is able to demonstrate anatomic anomalies and variations in the blood supply, as well as invasion of the portal vein or of the inferior vena cava. (orig.) [de

  1. Computer tomographic and angiographic studies of histologically confirmed intrahepatic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, R.; Lackner, K.; Paquet, K.J.; Thelen, M.; Thurn, P.

    1980-06-01

    The computer tomographic and angiographic findings in 53 patients with intrahepatic masses were compared. The histological findings show that 17 were due to echinococcus, 12 were due to hepatic carcinoma, ten were metastases, five patients had focal nodular hyperplasia, three an alveolar echinococcus and there were three cases with an haemangioma of the liver and a further three liver abscesses. Computer tomography proved superior in peripherally situated lesions, and in those in the left lobe of the liver. Arteriography was better at demonstrating lesions below 2 cm in size, particularly vascular tumours. As a pre-operative measure, angiography is to be preferred since it is able to demonstrate anatomic anomalies and variations in the blood supply, as well as invasion of the portal vein or of the inferior vena cava.

  2. Results of work of neurological clinic in first year of computer tomograph application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volejnik, V; Nettl, S; Heger, L [Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta

    1980-11-01

    The results are analyzed of one year's use of a computer tomograph (CT) by a department of neurology. Detailed comparisons with corresponding PEG and CT findings showed the accuracy of CT examinations in the descriptions of the width of the subarachnoid spaces and of the ventricular system. The advantages of CT are assessed from the medical, economic, and ethical points of view.

  3. Results of work of neurological clinic in first year of computer tomograph application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volejnik, V.; Nettl, S.; Heger, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results are analyzed of one year's use of a computer tomograph (CT) by a department of neurology. Detailed comparisons with corresponding PEG and CT findings showed the accuracy of CT examinations in the descriptions of the width of the subarachnoid spaces and of the ventricular system. The advantages of CT are assessed from the medical, economic, and ethical points of view. (author)

  4. Multi-energy x-ray detectors to improve air-cargo security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Caroline; Moulin, Vincent; Perion, Didier; Radisson, Patrick; Verger, Loïck

    2017-05-01

    X-ray based systems have been used for decades to screen luggage or cargo to detect illicit material. The advent of energy-sensitive photon-counting x-ray detectors mainly based on Cd(Zn)Te semi-conductor technology enables to improve discrimination between materials compared to single or dual energy technology. The presented work is part of the EUROSKY European project to develop a Single European Secure Air-Cargo Space. "Cargo" context implies the presence of relatively heavy objects and with potentially high atomic number. All the study is conducted on simulations with three different detectors: a typical dual energy sandwich detector, a realistic model of the commercial ME100 multi-energy detector marketed by MULTIX, and a ME100 "Cargo": a not yet existing modified multi-energy version of the ME100 more suited to air freight cargo inspection. Firstly, a comparison on simulated measurements shows the performances improvement of the new multi-energy detectors compared to the current dual-energy one. The relative performances are evaluated according to different criteria of separability or contrast-to-noise ratio and the impact of different parameters is studied (influence of channel number, type of materials and tube voltage). Secondly, performances of multi-energy detectors for overlaps processing in a dual-view system is accessed: the case of orthogonal projections has been studied, one giving dimensional values, the other one providing spectral data to assess effective atomic number. A method of overlap correction has been proposed and extended to multi-layer objects case. Therefore, Calibration and processing based on bi-material decomposition have been adapted for this purpose.

  5. Processing optimization with parallel computing for the J-PET scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzemień Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph (J-PET collaboration is developing a prototype time of flight (TOF-positron emission tomograph (PET detector based on long polymer scintillators. This novel approach exploits the excellent time properties of the plastic scintillators, which permit very precise time measurements. The very fast field programmable gate array (FPGA-based front-end electronics and the data acquisition system, as well as low- and high-level reconstruction algorithms were specially developed to be used with the J-PET scanner. The TOF-PET data processing and reconstruction are time and resource demanding operations, especially in the case of a large acceptance detector that works in triggerless data acquisition mode. In this article, we discuss the parallel computing methods applied to optimize the data processing for the J-PET detector. We begin with general concepts of parallel computing and then we discuss several applications of those techniques in the J-PET data processing.

  6. Testing 144- and 256-crystal BGO block detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.G.; Nutt, R.; Andreaco, M.; Williams, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    New block detectors have been fabricated incorporating large numbers of small crystals. The authors evaluate and compare the performance of the new detectors with a standard 64-crystal block detector from Siemens-CTI. The new detectors demonstrate greatly improved imaging capability for 511 keV gamma rays. Future PET tomographs incorporating such detectors should produce substantially better volume images with little increase in tomograph manufacturing costs. The detectors will require a new type of automatic calibration procedure. Various such procedures have been tested and are discussed. A technique using higher energy gamma rays has shown special promise

  7. MCPT: A Monte Carlo code for simulation of photon transport in tomographic scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Gardner, R.P.; Verghese, K.

    1990-01-01

    MCPT is a special-purpose Monte Carlo code designed to simulate photon transport in tomographic scanners. Variance reduction schemes and sampling games present in MCPT were selected to characterize features common to most tomographic scanners. Combined splitting and biasing (CSB) games are used to systematically sample important detection pathways. An efficient splitting game is used to tally particle energy deposition in detection zones. The pulse height distribution of each detector can be found by convolving the calculated energy deposition distribution with the detector's resolution function. A general geometric modelling package, HERMETOR, is used to describe the geometry of the tomographic scanners and provide MCPT information needed for particle tracking. MCPT's modelling capabilites are described and preliminary experimental validation is presented. (orig.)

  8. Implementation of Japanese male and female tomographic phantoms to multi-particle Monte Carlo code for ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-01-01

    Japanese male and female tomographic phantoms, which have been developed for radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry, were implemented into multi-particle Monte Carlo transport code to evaluate realistic dose distribution in human body exposed to radiation field. Japanese tomographic phantoms, which were developed from the whole body magnetic resonance images of Japanese average adult male and female, were processed as follows to be implemented into general purpose multi-particle Monte Carlo code, MCNPX2.5. Original array size of Japanese male and female phantoms, 320 x 160 x 866 voxels and 320 x 160 x 804 voxels, respectively, were reduced into 320 x 160 x 433 voxels and 320 x 160 x 402 voxels due to the limitation of memory use in MCNPX2.5. The 3D voxel array of the phantoms were processed by using the built-in repeated structure algorithm, where the human anatomy was described by the repeated lattice of tiny cube containing the information of material composition and organ index number. Original phantom data were converted into ASCII file, which can be directly ported into the lattice card of MCNPX2.5 input deck by using in-house code. A total of 30 material compositions obtained from International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) report 46 were assigned to 54 and 55 organs and tissues in the male and female phantoms, respectively, and imported into the material card of MCNPX2.5 along with the corresponding cross section data. Illustrative calculation of absorbed doses for 26 internal organs and effective dose were performed for idealized broad parallel photon and neutron beams in anterior-posterior irradiation geometry, which is typical for workers at nuclear power plant. The results were compared with the data from other Japanese and Caucasian tomographic phantom, and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report 74. The further investigation of the difference in organ dose and effective dose among tomographic

  9. Accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) with iotroxate in the detection of choledocholithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Robert N.; Vincent, Janette M.; Speer, Tony; Noack, Keith; Collier, Neil A.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) for detection of choledocholithiasis. Sixty-five patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) underwent CT-IVC prior to ERC, using a single detector helical CT following intravenous infusion of 100 ml iotroxate. Patients with bilirubin levels >3 times normal were excluded. ERC was indeterminate in three patients (4.7%) and CT-IVC in four (6.3%). Twenty-three patients had ductal calculi at ERC, and CT-IVC was positive in 22, with two false positives and one false negative: sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 94.3%. Stones were multiple in nine and solitary in 14. Of the 14 solitary stones, ten were ≤5 mm and eight were ≤4 mm. The bilirubin level in positive cases was within normal in 20. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats showed stones in only 27% of cases and surface rendered (SR) reformats in none. CT-IVC is highly accurate for detection of ductal calculi, including single small calculi, with a normal or near normal serum bilirubin. Axial images should be used for interpretation rather than MIP or SR reformats. (orig.)

  10. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered

  11. Detectability in the presence of computed tomographic reconstruction noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The multitude of commercial computed tomographic (CT) scanners which have recently been introduced for use in diagnostic radiology has given rise to a need to compare these different machines in terms of image quality and dose to the patient. It is therefore desirable to arrive at a figure of merit for a CT image which gives a measure of the diagnostic efficacy of that image. This figure of merit may well be dependent upon the specific visual task being performed. It is clearly important that the capabilities and deficiencies of the human observer as well as the interface between man and machine, namely the viewing system, be taken into account in formulating the figure of merit. Since the CT reconstruction is the result of computer processing, it is possible to use this processing to alter the characteristics of the displayed images. This image processing may improve or degrade the figure of merit

  12. First experience with a mobile computed tomograph in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Utilization experience of mobile computerized tomograph mounted in the bus is presented. Problems concerning staff, selection of medical base institutes etc are considered. Efficiency of mobile computerized tomographes in revealing different diseases is pointed out

  13. Identifying the most infectious lesions in pulmonary tuberculosis by high-resolution multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Jun Jun; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Teng, Wen-Bao; Chou, Chun-Hsiung; Hsieh, Shih-Peng; Lee, Tsung-Lung; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether characteristics detected by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) were predictive of highly infectious, smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Among 124 patients with active PTB, 84 had positive (group 1) and 40 had negative (group 2) smear results for acid-fast bacilli. Multiplanar MDCT, axial conventional CT and chest X-ray images were analysed retrospectively for morphology, number, and segmental (lobe) distribution of lesions. By multivariate analysis, consolidation over any segment of the upper, middle, or lingual lobes, cavitations, and clusters of nodules were associated with group 1, while centrilobular nodules were predictive of group 2. Using five independent variables associated with risk in group 1, a prediction model was created to distinguish between group 1 and group 2. ROC curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.951 ± 0.021 for this prediction model. With the ideal cutoff point score of 1, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were 84.5%, 97.5%, and 98.0%, respectively. A model to predict smear-positive active PTB on the basis of findings from MDCT may be a useful tool for clinical decisions about isolating patients pending sputum smear results. (orig.)

  14. Identifying the most infectious lesions in pulmonary tuberculosis by high-resolution multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Jun Jun [Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Mei-Ho Institute of Technology, Pingtung (China); China Medical University, Taichung (China); Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng [Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); National Taiwan University, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, Taipei (China); Teng, Wen-Bao; Chou, Chun-Hsiung; Hsieh, Shih-Peng; Lee, Tsung-Lung [Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Thoracic and Circulation Imaging, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-09-15

    This study aimed to determine whether characteristics detected by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) were predictive of highly infectious, smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Among 124 patients with active PTB, 84 had positive (group 1) and 40 had negative (group 2) smear results for acid-fast bacilli. Multiplanar MDCT, axial conventional CT and chest X-ray images were analysed retrospectively for morphology, number, and segmental (lobe) distribution of lesions. By multivariate analysis, consolidation over any segment of the upper, middle, or lingual lobes, cavitations, and clusters of nodules were associated with group 1, while centrilobular nodules were predictive of group 2. Using five independent variables associated with risk in group 1, a prediction model was created to distinguish between group 1 and group 2. ROC curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.951 {+-} 0.021 for this prediction model. With the ideal cutoff point score of 1, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were 84.5%, 97.5%, and 98.0%, respectively. A model to predict smear-positive active PTB on the basis of findings from MDCT may be a useful tool for clinical decisions about isolating patients pending sputum smear results. (orig.)

  15. Multi-detector CT assessment of traumatic renal lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Samir Shaaban

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Aim of the work: To demonstrate different traumatic lesions of the kidneys using multi-detector. CT, and its use in ... sis and staging of renal trauma and guiding management. © 2015 The ... Emotion 6 (Siemens, Germany), and 16 detectors PHILIPS .... with active bleeding within the hematoma and was man-.

  16. A Weibull distribution accrual failure detector for cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxi; Wu, Zhibo; Wu, Jin; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Yao; Wen, Dongxin

    2017-01-01

    Failure detectors are used to build high availability distributed systems as the fundamental component. To meet the requirement of a complicated large-scale distributed system, accrual failure detectors that can adapt to multiple applications have been studied extensively. However, several implementations of accrual failure detectors do not adapt well to the cloud service environment. To solve this problem, a new accrual failure detector based on Weibull Distribution, called the Weibull Distribution Failure Detector, has been proposed specifically for cloud computing. It can adapt to the dynamic and unexpected network conditions in cloud computing. The performance of the Weibull Distribution Failure Detector is evaluated and compared based on public classical experiment data and cloud computing experiment data. The results show that the Weibull Distribution Failure Detector has better performance in terms of speed and accuracy in unstable scenarios, especially in cloud computing.

  17. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  18. Position-Sensitive Detector with Depth-of-Interaction Determination for Small Animal PET

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, A; Kholmetsky, A L; Korzhik, M V; Lecoq, P; Lobko, A S; Missevitch, O V; Tkatchev, A

    2002-01-01

    Crystal arrays made of LSO and LuAP crystals 2x2x10 mm pixels were manufactured for evaluation of detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) determination capability intended for small animal positron emission tomograph. Position-sensitive LSO/LuAP phoswich DOI detector based on crystal 8x8 arrays and HAMAMATSU R5900-00-M64 position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier tube was developed and evaluated. Time resolution was found to be not worse than 1.0 ns FWHM for both layers, and spatial resolution mean value was 1.5 mm FWHM for the center of field-of-view.

  19. A Novel Quantitative Computed Tomographic Analysis Suggests How Sirolimus Stabilizes Progressive Air Trapping in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argula, Rahul G; Kokosi, Maria; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J; Ravenel, James G; Meyer, Cristopher; Goldin, Jonathan; Lee, Hye-Seung; Strange, Charlie; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-03-01

    The Multicenter International Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Efficacy and Safety of Sirolimus (MILES) trial demonstrated that sirolimus stabilized lung function and improved measures of functional performance and quality of life in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis. The physiologic mechanisms of these beneficial actions of sirolimus are incompletely understood. To prospectively determine the longitudinal computed tomographic lung imaging correlates of lung function change in MILES patients treated with placebo or sirolimus. We determined the baseline to 12-month change in computed tomographic image-derived lung volumes and the volume of the lung occupied by cysts in the 31 MILES participants (17 in sirolimus group, 14 in placebo group) with baseline and 12-month scans. There was a trend toward an increase in median expiratory cyst volume percentage in the placebo group and a reduction in the sirolimus group (+2.68% vs. +0.97%, respectively; P = 0.10). The computed tomographic image-derived residual volume and the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased more in the placebo group than in the sirolimus group (+214.4 ml vs. +2.9 ml [P = 0.054] and +0.05 ml vs. -0.01 ml [P = 0.0498], respectively). A Markov transition chain analysis of respiratory cycle cyst volume changes revealed greater dynamic variation in the sirolimus group than in the placebo group at the 12-month time point. Collectively, these data suggest that sirolimus attenuates progressive gas trapping in lymphangioleiomyomatosis, consistent with a beneficial effect of the drug on airflow obstruction. We speculate that a reduction in lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell burden around small airways and cyst walls alleviates progressive airflow limitation and facilitates cyst emptying.

  20. Engineering developments on the UBC-TRIUMF modified PETT VI positron emission tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, B.; Harrop, R.; Heywood, D.

    1982-10-01

    A tomograph with the PETT VI geometry has been built with improvements generally applicable to such devices. In addition to improved temperature control, the gantry features commercial CsF detectors with the newer Amperex photomultiplier tubes. Much of the coincidence support circuitry is of an original design, utilizing new 'fast' TTL family devices. A local DEC 11/23 microprocessor provides for routine diagnostic and reliability checking, gantry control, and acquisition of single detector counting rates. Image reconstruction and display is performed by a medium size VAX 11/780 computer, operating in a time-sharing environment. Some preliminary performance characteristics of the machine have been measured. The reconstructed resolution in-slice, as well as the reconstructed slice thickness, has been measured as a function of radius for both 'straight' and 'cross' slices

  1. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Annual technical report for program renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O.C.

    1993-05-01

    This progress report details the theoretical development, numerical results, experimental design (mechanical), experimental design (electronic), and experimental results for the research program for the development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flow analyzer.

  2. Computer controlled drifting of Si(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Wong, Y.K.; Walton, J.T.; Goulding, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    A relatively inexpensive computer-controlled system for performing the drift process used in fabricating Si(Li) detectors is described. The system employs a small computer to monitor the leakage current, applied voltage and temperature on eight individual drift stations. The associated computer program initializes the drift process, monitors the drift progress and then terminates the drift when an operator set drift time has elapsed. The improved control of the drift with this system has been well demonstrated over the past three years in the fabrication of a variety of Si(Li) detectors. A few representative system responses to detector behavior during the drift process are described

  3. Tomographic extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs: TESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Stephan, A; Cook, T; Vickers, J; Taylor, V; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-08-01

    We describe the system of Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) SpectrographS (TESS) that are the primary instruments for the Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) satellite. The spectrographs were designed to make high-sensitivity {80 counts/s)/Rayleigh [one Rayleigh is equivalent to 10(6) photons/(4pi str cm(2)s)}, line-of-sight measurements of the oi 135.6- and 91.1-nm emissions suitable for tomographic inversion. The system consists of five spectrographs, four identical nightglow instruments (for redundancy and added sensitivity), and one instrument with a smaller aperture to reduce sensitivity and increase spectral resolution for daytime operation. Each instrument has a bandpass of 80-140 nm with approximately 2- and 1-nm resolution for the night and day instruments, respectively. They utilize microchannel-plate-based two-dimensional imaging detectors with wedge-and-strip anode readouts. The instruments were designed, fabricated, and calibrated at Boston University, and the TERRIERS satellite was launched on 18 May 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  4. On the computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yuuichirou

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to examine 53 pulmonary nodules which were considered not definitely calcified on plain radiographs or conventional tomograms. An average CT number was calculate for each lesion. For the primary lung cancers, the average CT number was 36 HU with a standard deviation of 6.6 HU, while the benign lesions had the mean CT number of 69 HU, with a standard deviation of 42.8 HU. The mean CT number separating lung malignancies from benign lesions was 78.8 HU. To evaluate the attenuation values within each nodule, iso-CT value map was obtained by using Siemens therapy planning system, MEVAPLAN. Nodules were classified into five categories, Type I to V. All of three nodules classified as Type IV were benign. Iso-CT value map was effective in establishing the benignancy of nodules. The quantitative computed tomographic analysis of pulmonary nodules was evaluated by dual-energy CT. Dual-energy CT has the potential to eliminate the effect of spectral hardening by use of monoenergic images derived from dual-kV data and to separate high CT numbers due to calcium from those due to high density organic material. (author)

  5. Experimental response function of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for gamma photons and tomographic measurements for defect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    The response function of gamma detector is an important factor for spectrum analysis because some photons and secondary electrons may escape the detector volume before fully depositing their energy, of course destroys the ideal delta function response. An inverse matrix approach, for unfolding of observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon spectrum, is used for construction of experimental response function by formulating a 40 x 40 matrix with bin mesh (E 1/2 ) of 0.025 (MeV) 1/2 for the present measurements. A tomographic scanner system, operating in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, is also presented for inspection of density variation in any object. The incoherent scattered intensity of 662 keV gamma photons, obtained by unfolding (deconvolution) the experimental pulse-height distribution of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, provides the desired information. The method is quite sensitive, for showing inclusion of medium Z (atomic number) material (iron) in low Z material (aluminium) and detecting a void of ∼2 mm in size for iron block, to investigate the inhomogeneities in the object. Also, the grey scale images (using 'MATLAB') are shown to visualise the presence of defects/inclusion in metal samples.

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Domínguez, Pablo; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman; Manson, David E

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children.

  7. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J. S.; Fraser, G. W.; Miller, G. M.; Ashton, T. J. R.; Jarron, P.; Despeisse, M.; Powolny, F.; Howorth, J.; Milnes, J.

    2009-06-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchannel plate devices with very high time resolution, and high-speed multi-channel ASIC electronics developed for the LHC at CERN, provides the necessary building blocks for a high-throughput detector system with up to 1024 parallel counting channels and 20 ps time resolution. We describe the detector and electronic design, discuss the current status of the HiContent project and present the results from a 64-channel prototype system. In the absence of an operational detector, we present measurements of the electronics performance using a pulse generator to simulate detector events. Event timing results from the NINO high-speed front-end ASIC captured using a fast digital oscilloscope are compared with data taken with the proposed electronic configuration which uses the multi-channel HPTDC timing ASIC.

  8. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapington, J.S.; Fraser, G.W.; Miller, G.M.; Ashton, T.J.R.; Jarron, P.; Despeisse, M.; Powolny, F.; Howorth, J.; Milnes, J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchannel plate devices with very high time resolution, and high-speed multi-channel ASIC electronics developed for the LHC at CERN, provides the necessary building blocks for a high-throughput detector system with up to 1024 parallel counting channels and 20 ps time resolution. We describe the detector and electronic design, discuss the current status of the HiContent project and present the results from a 64-channel prototype system. In the absence of an operational detector, we present measurements of the electronics performance using a pulse generator to simulate detector events. Event timing results from the NINO high-speed front-end ASIC captured using a fast digital oscilloscope are compared with data taken with the proposed electronic configuration which uses the multi-channel HPTDC timing ASIC.

  9. Design of a volume-imaging positron emission tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, R.; Rogers, J.G.; Coombes, G.H.; Wilkinson, N.A.; Pate, B.D.; Morrison, K.S.; Stazyk, M.; Dykstra, C.J.; Barney, J.S.; Atkins, M.S.; Doherty, P.W.; Saylor, D.P.

    1988-11-01

    Progress is reported in several areas of design of a positron volume imaging tomograph. As a means of increasing the volume imaged and the detector packing fraction, a lens system of detector light coupling is considered. A prototype layered scintillator detector demonstrates improved spatial resolution due to a unique Compton rejection capability. The conceptual design of a new mechanism for measuring scattered radiation during emission scans has been tested by Monte Carlo simulation. The problem of how to use effectively the resulting sampled scattered radiation projections is presented and discussed

  10. Utility of cervical spinal and abdominal computed tomography in diagnosing occult pneumothorax in patients with blunt trauma: Computed tomographic imaging protocol matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Haldun; Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Evman, Serdar; Akoglu, Tayfun; Denizbasi, Arzu; Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge; Onur, Ender

    2012-10-01

    Small pneumothoraces (PXs), which are not initially recognized with a chest x-ray film and diagnosed by a thoracic computed tomography (CT), are described as occult PX (OCPX). The objective of this study was to evaluate cervival spine (C-spine) and abdominal CT (ACT) for diagnosing OCPX and overt PX (OVPX). All patients with blunt trauma who presented consecutively to the emergency department during a 26-months period were included. Among all the chest CTs (CCTs) (6,155 patients) conducted during that period, 254 scans were confirmed to have a true PX. The findings in their C-spine CT and ACT were compared with the findings in CCTs. Among these patients, 254 had a diagnosis of PX confirmed with CCT. OCPXs were identified on the chest computed tomographic scan of 128 patients (70.3%), whereas OVPXs were evident in 54 patients (29.7%). Computed tomographic imaging of the C-spine was performed in 74% of patients with OCPX and 66.7% of patients with OVPX trauma. Only 45 (35.2%) cases of OCPX and 42 (77.8%) cases of OVPX were detected by C-spine CT. ACT was performed in almost all patients, and 121 (95.3%) of 127 of these correctly identified an existing OCPX. Sensitivity of C-spine CT and ACT was 35.1% and 96.5%, respectively; specificity was 100% and 100%, respectively. Almost all OCPXs, regardless of intrathoracic location, could be detected by ACT or by combining C-spine and abdominal computed tomographic screening for patients. If the junction of the first and second vertebra is used as the caudad extent, C-spine CT does not have sufficient power to diagnose more than a third of the cases. Diagnostic study, level III.

  11. Thoracic Injuries in earthquake-related versus non-earthquake-related trauma patients: differentiation via Multi-detector Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hui Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Massive earthquakes are harmful to humankind. This study of a historical cohort aimed to investigate the difference between earthquake-related crush thoracic traumas and thoracic traumas unrelated to earthquakes using a multi-detector Computed Tomography (CT. METHODS: We retrospectively compared an earthquake-exposed cohort of 215 thoracic trauma crush victims of the Sichuan earthquake to a cohort of 215 non-earthquake-related thoracic trauma patients, focusing on the lesions and coexisting injuries to the thoracic cage and the pulmonary parenchyma and pleura using a multi-detector CT. RESULTS: The incidence of rib fracture was elevated in the earthquake-exposed cohort (143 vs. 66 patients in the non-earthquake-exposed cohort, Risk Ratio (RR = 2.2; p<0.001. Among these patients, those with more than 3 fractured ribs (106/143 vs. 41/66 patients, RR=1.2; p<0.05 or flail chest (45/143 vs. 11/66 patients, RR=1.9; p<0.05 were more frequently seen in the earthquake cohort. Earthquake-related crush injuries more frequently resulted in bilateral rib fractures (66/143 vs. 18/66 patients, RR= 1.7; p<0.01. Additionally, the incidence of non-rib fracture was higher in the earthquake cohort (85 vs. 60 patients, RR= 1.4; p<0.01. Pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries were more frequently seen in earthquake-related crush injuries (117 vs. 80 patients, RR=1.5 for parenchymal and 146 vs. 74 patients, RR = 2.0 for pleural injuries; p<0.001. Non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries had significant positive correlation with rib fractures in these two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic crush traumas resulting from the earthquake were life threatening with a high incidence of bony thoracic fractures. The ribs were frequently involved in bilateral and severe types of fractures, which were accompanied by non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries.

  12. Computed tomography apparatus with detector sensilivity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltham, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    In a rotary fan beam computed tomography apparatus using recurrent relative displacement between the source and detectors (e.g. a deflected spot X-ray tube) for the recalibration of detectors in chain-like sequences across the detector array by successive pairwise common-path sensitivity comparisons starting from a terminal detector each sequence normally involves or more successive comparisons, and consistent but unpredictable errors are found to occur, leading to incorrect Houndsfield values in the computed image matrix. The improvement comprises locating at least one radiation transparent detector of high stability in front of the array at an intermediate point and using the output to further correct the chain-corrected detector sensitivity values. A detector comprising a plastics scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier is described, whose output pulses are counted during a rotational scan and compared with the mean corresponding measurement from detectors lying behind the detector, to form a sensitivity ratio. From a corresponding ratio and data derived during calibration, a measured sensitivity value for detectors is determined for each scan and is compared with the corresponding chain-corrected sensitivity value to generate a further sensitivity correction value which is then distributed among the detectors of the comparison sequence

  13. Investigating the impact of LSO on the count rate of wholebody PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.L.; Moisan, C.; Rogers, J.G.

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the impact of using detectors made of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) on the count rate performances of wholebody PET tomographs. To that end, we used a single computational model that predicts the prompt and random contributions to the total event rate in septaless PET tomographs. Dead time factors at all stages of a typical event acquisition stream are calculated from specified values of their respective processing clock cycle. We validated our approach by fitting the true, random and multiple count rates measured with the ECAT-953B and the EXACT HR PLUS scanners for a standard 20 x 20 cm cylindrical phantom. We then investigated the implications of using position encoding detectors made of LSO in the EXACT HR PLUS scanner geometry. The results in indicate that only replacing BGO by the faster LSO incurs no appreciable change in the maximum noise-equivalent-count (NEC) rate of the scanner. However, one could realistically increase the NEC by a factor 2.5 using a 4 nsec coincidence window width with the detector processing front-end operating on a 128 nsec clock cycle. Further reducing the coincidence window width to 600 psec and the front-end clock cycle to 64 nsec leads to an increase of the NEC by a factor 7.5. To sustain the operation of an HR Plus with these specifications, the saturation bandwidth of the data acquisition system would have to be increased to no more than 4.5 MHz. (authors)

  14. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) performance: one-year clinical follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, S.E.; Murray, D.; Rate, A.J.; Richards, D.M.; Kumar, N.A. Mahesh

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) represents a valuable advance in imaging technology for patients with colonic symptoms who are unfit for or fail to complete investigation with conventional techniques of colonoscopy or barium enema. The aim of this study was to examine whether CTC was sufficient to exclude colorectal cancer in such a population. As our patients were unfit for or unable to complete conventional investigations, we used 1 year clinical follow-up to exclude colonic malignancy. Materials and Methods: CTC examination was performed using multi-slice CT in patients fitting pre-determined criteria. All patients who had completed 12 months of follow-up after CTC were included. Data were extracted from patient records and lack of presentation within the 12 months following a negative CTC was assumed to equate to lack of colorectal cancer at initial investigation. Results: One hundred and twelve patients underwent CTC with a median age of 78 years (range 39-95) and median follow-up of 18 months (range 12-26). CTC detected 7 colorectal cancers, with 3 false positives and 1 false negative, giving a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 97.1% for the detection of colorectal cancer. Conclusions: CTC is a good imaging tool for the exclusion of colorectal cancer in a population unfit for or unable to complete colonoscopy or barium enema, with reasonable sensitivity and specificity for detection of colorectal cancer. However, the optimum investigative strategy for fitter symptomatic individuals is still debated and should be clarified by the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials

  15. Computed Tomographic Analysis of Ventral Atlantoaxial Optimal Safe Implantation Corridors in 27 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Guillaume; Gaitero, Luis; Moens, Noel M M; Zur Linden, Alex; James, Fiona M K; Monteith, Gabrielle J; Runciman, John

    2017-11-01

    Objectives  Ventral atlantoaxial stabilization techniques are challenging surgical procedures in dogs. Available surgical guidelines are based upon subjective anatomical landmarks, and limited radiographic and computed tomographic data. The aims of this study were (1) to provide detailed anatomical descriptions of atlantoaxial optimal safe implantation corridors to generate objective recommendations for optimal implant placements and (2) to compare anatomical data obtained in non-affected Toy breed dogs, affected Toy breed dogs suffering from atlantoaxial instability and non-affected Beagle dogs. Methods  Anatomical data were collected from a prospectively recruited population of 27 dogs using a previously validated method of optimal safe implantation corridor analysis using computed tomographic images. Results  Optimal implant positions and three-dimensional numerical data were generated successfully in all cases. Anatomical landmarks could be used to generate objective definitions of optimal insertion points which were applicable across all three groups. Overall the geometrical distribution of all implant sites was similar in all three groups with a few exceptions. Clinical Significance  This study provides extensive anatomical data available to facilitate surgical planning of implant placement for atlantoaxial stabilization. Our data suggest that non-affected Toy breed dogs and non-affected Beagle dogs constitute reasonable research models to study atlantoaxial stabilization constructs. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  16. Effect of the sensitivity of a detector on the accuracy of radionuclide kidney examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkevich, B.Ya.; Sorokin, A.I.; Dmitrieva, G.D.; Gel'fand, I.N.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of both kidney gammachronography with an isolated detector and kidney scintigraphy with a gamma camera the detector volume sensitivity is calculated. Mathematical model of the kidney is described as a set of superimposed linear-circular cylinders. Based on the computer tomographic examinations a cylinder radius and a thickness of soft tissues attenuating gamma radiation are derived. The detector volume sensitivity is found to change up to 34% in kidney gammachronography and up to 22% in kidney scintigraphy when using 99m Tc and 131 I isotopes

  17. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E.; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  18. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E. [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Compton, Gregory [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Epworth Hospital, Epworth Medical Imaging, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Humpl, Tilman [University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  19. Optical Computed-Tomographic Microscope for Three-Dimensional Quantitative Histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravil Chamgoulov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optical computed‐tomographic microscope has been developed allowing quantitative three‐dimensional (3D imaging and analysis of fixed pathological material. Rather than a conventional two‐dimensional (2D image, the instrument produces a 3D representation of fixed absorption‐stained material, from which quantitative histopathological features can be measured more accurately. The accurate quantification of these features is critically important in disease diagnosis and the clinical classification of cancer. The system consists of two high NA objective lenses, a light source, a digital spatial light modulator (DMD, by Texas Instrument, an x–y stage, and a CCD detector. The DMD, positioned at the back pupil‐plane of the illumination objective, is employed to illuminate the specimen with parallel rays at any desired angle. The system uses a modification of the convolution backprojection algorithm for reconstruction. In contrast to fluorescent images acquired by a confocal microscope, this instrument produces 3D images of absorption stained material. Microscopic 3D volume reconstructions of absorption‐stained cells have been demonstrated. Reconstructed 3D images of individual cells and tissue can be cut virtually with the distance between the axial slices less than 0.5 μm.

  20. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthukoti, Ameet J; Sharma, Pranjal; Swamy, Dinesh Francis; Shashidara, R; Swamy, Elaine Barretto

    2015-01-01

    Need for the study: The most important procedure for a successful endodontic treatment is the cleaning and shaping of the canal system. Understanding the internal anatomy of teeth provides valuable information to the clinician that would help him achieve higher clinical success during endodontic therapy. To evaluate by computed tomography-the internal anatomy of mandibular second primary molars with respect to the number of canals, cross-sectional shape of canals, cross-sectional area of canals and the root dentin thickness. A total of 31 mandibular second primary molars were subjected to computed-tomographic evaluation in the transverse plane, after mounting them in a prefabricated template. The images, thus, obtained were analyzed using De-winter Bio-wizard® software. All the samples demonstrated two canals in the mesial root, while majority of the samples (65.48%) demonstrated two canals in the distal root. The cross-sectional images of the mesial canals demonstrated a round shape, while the distal canals demonstrated an irregular shape. The root dentin thickness was highly reduced on the distal aspect of mesial and mesial aspect of distal canals. The mandibular second primary molars demonstrated wide variation and complexities in their internal anatomy. A thorough understanding of the complexity of the root canal system is essential for understanding the principles and problems of shaping and cleaning, determining the apical limits and dimensions of canal preparations, and for performing successful endodontic procedures. How to cite this article: Kurthukoti AJ, Sharma P, Swamy DF, Shashidara R, Swamy EB. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):202-207.

  1. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Report of a case using computed tomographic scan diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Diwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibro-osseous lesions are benign mesenchymal tumors in which mineralized tissue, blood vessels, and giant cells, in varying proportions, replace normal bone. Although this group of lesions includes reactive lesions, harmatomas, and neoplasms, they cannot be distinguished only on the basis of the histopathology which can only confirm their common fibro-osseous nature. Definitive diagnosis requires thorough radiological evaluation. Computed tomographic images of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia on bone windows may be helpful and allow precise pre-operative diagnosis and surgical planning.

  2. Multi-detector CT (MDCT in bowel and mesenteric injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajjalla Ravikumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate multi-detector CT (MDCT findings in bowel and mesenteric injury due to blunt abdominal trauma.Method: Retrospective evaluation of MDCT scan reports of patients admitted in Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar with bowel and mesenteric injury during the period of January 2005 to April 2008.Results: MDCT, without using oral contrast, clearly demonstrated various specific and less specific findings of bowel and mesenteric injury.Conclusion: Multi-detector CT is an excellent diagnostic modality in bowel and mesenteric injury. Routine administration of oral contrast agent is not mandatory for initial evaluation of these patients.

  3. Circular-detector array hybrid emission computed tomograph, HEADTOME-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Kazuo; Kanno, Iwao; Miura, Yuko; Miura, Syuichi [Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Hattori, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihumi

    1982-08-01

    The HEADTOME-II is a successor of the original hybrid ECT, the HEADTOME-I, which was built and used in Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita. The new machine has three detector rings comprising 64 Nal crystals each, the axial length of which is 30 mm, 100 mm in total for three rings including 5 mm lead shield between the rings, and is long enough to examine most of the brain at a given time. The system sensitivity for positrons is 27.5 kcps/..mu..Ci/ml for intra-ring coincidence and 36.5 kcps for inter-ring coincidence. Spatial resolution is 10 mm FWHM at the center of the field of view. For single photon ECT study, new ''Turbofan'' rotating collimators, high sensitivity H.S. and high resolution H.R., are adopted. The collimators for single photons and positrons can be selected by manual operation. The system sensitivity for sup(99m)Tc is, 52.5 kcps/..mu..Ci/ml by H.S. and 13.8 kcps by H.R. collimator. Spatial resolution at the center of the field of view is 20 mm for H.S. and 11 mm for H.R. respectively. High quality images have been obtained by sup(99m)Tc, /sup 81/mKr, /sup 111/In and /sup 11/C. The regional cerebral blood flow study by /sup 133/Xe inhalation or intra-venous injection has been tried and good results are obtained.

  4. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  5. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak Kwan; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Churl Min; Eun, Chung Kie; Lee, Sun Wha

    1983-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is widely distributed in Far East and Southeast Asia, particularly in Korea. The central nervous system is the most frequent location for paragonimiasis outside the lungs. We analyzed the computed tomographic findings of 17 cases which were diagnosed pathologically and clinically as cerebral paragonimiasis. The results were as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female was 10 : 7 and about 88% of cases were under the age of 40 years. 2. The common locations of cerebral paragonimiasis were the occipital (12 cases) and temporal (11 cases) lobes. 3. Precontrast CT findings of cerebral paragonimiasis were low density with calcifications in 6 cases, low and isodensities in 4 cases, mixed densities in 3 cases, only low density in 2 cases and only calcification in 2 cases. Hydrocephalus (7 cases), mass effect (6 cases), atrophic change (6 cases) and cyst formation (3 cases) were associated. 4. The shape of calcifications in CT scan were soap-bubble or ring in 6 cases, nodular or oval in 6 cases, stipple in 4 cases and amorphous conglomerated in 2 cases. 5. The contrast -enhanced 8 cases were 5 ring or rim like, 2 nodular and 1 irregular enhancements, while 9 cases were not enhanced

  6. Implementation of 3D tomographic visualisation through planar ICT data from experimental gamma-ray tomographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umesh Kumar; Singh, Gursharan; Ravindran, V.R.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) is one of the latest methods of non-destructive testing and examination. Different prototypes of Computed Industrial Tomographic Imaging System (CITIS) have been developed and experimental data have been generated in Isotope Applications Division. The experimental gamma-rays based tomographic imaging system comprises of beam generator containing approx. 220 GBq (6 Curies) of 137 Cs, a single NaI(Tl) -PMT integral assembly in a thick shielding and associated electronics, stepper motor controlled mechanical manipulator, collimators and required software. CITIS data is normally acquired in one orientation of the sample. It may be sometimes required to view a tomographic plane in a different orientation. Also, 3D visualization may be required with the available 2D data set. All these can be achieved by processing the available data. We have customized some of the routines for this purpose provided IDL (Integrated Data Language) package to suit our requirements. The present paper discusses methodology adopted for this purpose with an illustrative example. (author)

  7. Highway traffic simulation on multi-processor computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Doss, E.; Tentner, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate highway traffic for various degrees of automation with a high level of fidelity in regard to driver control and vehicle characteristics. The model simulates vehicle maneuvering in a multi-lane highway traffic system and allows for the use of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies such as an Automated Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC). The structure of the computer model facilitates the use of parallel computers for the highway traffic simulation, since domain decomposition techniques can be applied in a straight forward fashion. In this model, the highway system (i.e. a network of road links) is divided into multiple regions; each region is controlled by a separate link manager residing on an individual processor. A graphical user interface augments the computer model kv allowing for real-time interactive simulation control and interaction with each individual vehicle and road side infrastructure element on each link. Average speed and traffic volume data is collected at user-specified loop detector locations. Further, as a measure of safety the so- called Time To Collision (TTC) parameter is being recorded.

  8. The CDD system in computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease; Das CDD-System in der computertomografischen Diagnostik der Divertikelkrankheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustelnik, Daniel; Elsholtz, Fabian Henry Juergen; Hamm, Bernd; Niehues, Stefan Markus [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Bojarski, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Div. of Gastroenterology, Infectiology and Rheumatology

    2017-08-15

    Purpose cation in computed tomographic diagnosis and briefly recapitulates its targeted advantages over preliminary systems. Primarily, application of the CDD in computed tomography diagnostics is described. Differences with respect to the categories of the older systems are pointed out on the level of each CDD type using imaging examples. The presented images are derived from our institute according to the S2k criteria. Literature was researched on PubMed. Results The CDD constitutes an improvement compared to older systems for categorizing the stages of diverticular disease. It provides more discriminatory power on the descriptive-morphological level and defines as well as differentiates more courses of the disease. Furthermore, the categories translate more directly into state-of-the-art decision-making concerning hospitalization and therapy. The CDD should be applied routinely in the computed tomographic diagnosis of diverticular disease. Typical imaging patterns are presented.

  9. Performance Enhancement of Multi-Cyclic Detector for Cognitive Radios with an OFDM Primary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseok; Po, Kimtho; Takada, Jun-Ichi

    Spectrum sensing, a key technical challenge in cognitive radios (CR) technology, is a technique that enables the spectrum of licensed systems to be accessed without causing undue interference. It is well known that cyclostationarity detectors have great advantages over energy detectors in terms of the robustness to noise uncertainty that significantly degrades the performance as well as the capability to distinguish the signal of interest from the other interferences and noise. The generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) is a recognized sensing technique that utilizes the inherent cyclostationarity of the signal and has been intensively studied. However, no comprehensive evaluation on its performance enhancement has been published to date. Moreover high computational complexity is still a significant problem for its realization. This paper proposes a maximum ratio combining multi-cyclic detector which uses multiple cyclic frequencies for performance enhancement with reduced computational complexity. An orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal based on the ISDB-T (integrated services digital broadcasting terrestrial), a Japanese digital television broadcasting standard, was used in the evaluation assuming this as a primary system in WRAN (wireless regional area network) applications like IEEE 802.22.

  10. Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland: Computed Tomographic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.; Xiao, J.; Pui, M.H.; Gong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of the parotid gland is rare, even in endemic regions. Approximately 100 cases have been reported in the English literature. The computed tomographic (CT) features, however, have seldom been studied. Purpose: To determine the diagnostic CT features of tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Material and Methods: CT studies of four histologically proven cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 15 enlarged lymph nodes were found in the superficial lobes of the parotid glands. The nodes were arranged linearly within the gland. Enhancement patterns included homogeneous enhancement (9/15, 60%), homogeneous enhancement with eccentric microcysts (3/15, 20%), and thick-walled rim enhancement with central lucency (3/15, 20%). Thickened adjacent fascial plane and platysma were seen in two patients. Ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in all patients. Conclusion: In patients presenting with unilateral parotid nodules, TB should be considered when linearly arranged enhancing nodules are demonstrated in the superficial lobes of the glands on CT scan

  11. Image quality on dual-source computed-tomographic coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rixe, Johannes; Rolf, Andreas; Conradi, Guido; Elsaesser, Albrecht; Moellmann, Helge; Nef, Holger M.; Hamm, Christian W.; Dill, Thorsten; Bachmann, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Multi-detector CT reliably permits visualization of coronary arteries, but due to the occurrence of motion artefacts at heart rates >65 bpm caused by a temporal resolution of 165 ms, its utilisation has so far been limited to patients with a preferably low heart rate. We investigated the assessment of image quality on computed tomography of coronary arteries in a large series of patients without additional heart rate control using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). DSCT (Siemens Somatom Definition, 83-ms temporal resolution) was performed in 165 consecutive patients (mean age 64±11.4 years) after injection of 60-80 ml of contrast. Data sets were reconstructed in 5% intervals of the cardiac cycle and evaluated by two readers in consensus concerning evaluability of the coronary arteries and presence of motion and beam-hardening artefacts using the AHA 16-segment coronary model. Mean heart rate during CT was 65±10.5 bpm; visualisation without artefacts was possible in 98.7% of 2,541 coronary segments. Only two segments were considered unevaluable due to cardiac motion; 30 segments were unassessable due to poor signal-to-noise ratio or coronary calcifications (both n=15). Data reconstruction at 65-70% of the cardiac cycle provided for the best image quality. For heart rates >85 bpm, a systolic reconstruction at 45% revealed satisfactory results. Compared with earlier CT generations, DSCT provides for non-invasive coronary angiography with diagnostic image quality even at heart rates >65 bpm and thus may broaden the spectrum of patients that can be investigated non-invasively. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of K x-ray escape and crosstalk in CdTe detectors and multi-channel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuchi, Tetsuro; Ohmori, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Baba, Sueki

    1995-01-01

    The simple structure of CdTe semiconductor detectors facilitates their downsizing, and their possible application to radiographic sensors has been studied. The escape of K X-rays from these detectors increases with reduction of their dimensions and affects the measurements of X- and gamma-ray spectra. K X-rays also produce crosstalk in multi-channel detectors with adjacent channels. Therefore, K X-rays which escape from the detector elements degrade both the precision of energy spectra and spatial resolution. The ratios of escape peak integrated counts to total photon counts for various sizes of CdTe single detectors were calculated for gamma rays using the Monte Carlo method. Also, escape and crosstalk ratios were simulated for the CdTe multi-channel detectors. The theoretical results were tested experimentally for 59.54-keV gamma rays from a 241 Am radioactive source. Results showed that escape ratios for single detectors were strongly dependent on element size and thickness. The escape and crosstalk ratios increased with closer channel pitch. The calculated results showed a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculations made it clear that K X-rays which escaped to neighboring channels induced crosstalk more frequently at smaller channel pitch in multichannel detectors. A radiation shielding grid which blocked incident photons between the boundary channels was also tested by experiment and by calculation. It was effective in reducing the probability of escape and crosstalk

  13. Study of the renal segmental arterial anatomy with contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Francesco; Cozzi, Luigi Alberto; Cozzi, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    To use triphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to study the renal segmental arterial anatomy and its relationship with the urinary tract to plan nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT. We evaluated renal arteries and parenchymal vasculature. In 61 patients, the arteries and the urinary tract were represented simultaneously. 86.60% presented a single renal artery; 13.4%, multiple arteries. All single renal arteries divided into anterior and posterior branch before the hilum. The anterior artery branched into a superior, middle, and inferior branch. In 43.14%, the inferior artery arose before the others; in 45.75%, the superior artery arose before the others; in 9.80%, the branches shared a common trunk. In 26.80%, the posterior artery supplies the entire posterior surface; in 73.20%, it ends along the inferior calyx. In 96.73%, the upper pole was vascularized by the anterior superior branch and the posterior artery: the "tuning fork". MDCT showed four vascular segments in 96.73% and five in 3.27%. MDCT showed two avascular areas: the first along the projection of the inferior calyx on the posterior aspect, the second between the branches of the "tuning fork". The arterial phase provides the arterial tree representation; the delayed phase shows arteries and urinary tract simultaneously. MDCT provides a useful representation of the renal anatomy prior to intervascular-intrarenal NSS.

  14. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic

  15. Development of a portable computed tomographic scanner for on-line imaging of industrial piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Mohd Soyapi Mohd Yusof; Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Fadil IsmaiI; Rasif Mohd Zain

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) technology is being increasingly developed for industrial application. This paper presents the development of a portable computed tomographic scanner for on?line imaging of industrial piping systems. The theoretical approach, the system hardware, the data acquisition system and the adopted algorithm for image reconstruction are discussed. The scanner has large potential to be used to determine the extent of corrosion under insulation (CUI), to detect blockages, to measure the thickness of deposit/materials built-up on the walls and to improve understanding of material flow in pipelines. (Author)

  16. Clinical significance of computed tomographic arteriography for minute hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, H; Matsui, O; Suzuki, M; Ida, M; Kitagawa, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    Computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) can clearly demonstrate minute hepatocellular carcinoma (H.C.C.) more than 2 cm in diameter as an enhanced mass lesion. In this case the precise localization of H.C.C. becomes so obvious that CTA plays an important role to evaluate its resectability. However, H.C.C. of the size from 2 cm to 1 cm indiameter, which is visualized with celiac and infusion hepatic angiography, becomes more difficult in detection, and particularly H.C.C. of less than 1 cm in diameter can hardly be recognized, nor be diagnosed as a malignant nodule by CTA, therefore it appears that in these sizes of H.C.C. the detectability of CTA is not superior to the hepatic angiography.

  17. Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography: a potentially useful tool for safer free tissue transfer to complicated regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Cifci, Mehmet; Kelahmetoglu, Osman

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer to compli......Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer...... be kept in mind, especially inthe patients with peripheral vascular disease. 3D-MSCTA has the potential to replace digital subtraction angiography for planning of microvascular reconstructions and newer devices with higher resolutions will probably increase the reliability of this technique. (c) 2009...

  18. Reproducibility of multi-detector spiral computed tomography in detection of sub-segmental acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunot, S.; Corneloup, O.; Latrabe, V.; Montaudon, M.; Laurent, F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer and intra-observer agreement of the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in an inpatient population explored by 16 slice multi-detector spiral computed tomography (MDCT). Four hundred consecutive inpatients were referred for MDCT for the clinical suspicion of acute PE. One hundred and seventy seven (44.2%) had a known cardio-respiratory disease at the time of examination. Inter-observer and intra-observer agreements for the diagnosis of acute PE and of sub-segmental acute PE were assessed blind and independently by three experienced readers and by kappa statistics. Seventy-five patients were diagnosed as having acute PE findings (19.5%), and clots were located exclusively within sub-segmental arteries in nine patients (12%). When clots were limited to sub-segmental or more distal branches of the pulmonary arteries, kappa values were found to be moderate (0.56) to very good (0.85) for the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute PE, whereas for the diagnosis of acute PE in the whole population, kappa values ranged from 0.84 to 0.97. Intra-observer agreement was found to be perfect (kappa=1). MDCT is a reproducible technique for the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute PE as well as for acute PE. In this inpatient population, sub-segmental acute PE was not a rare event. (orig.)

  19. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-01-01

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm 3 for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and

  20. Computerized operation of a multi detector spectrometry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, S; Messing, M; Gilad, Y; Ballon, I; Peled, O; German, U [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    A spectrometry System consisting of a PCA-II (Personal Computer Analyzer) and a DEAR (Digital Mixer Router) of Nucleus Inc. is operated to collect spectra from 8 NaI(Tl) detectors. As most of the functions including calibration, counting and data handling are similar for all the detectors, the option of automatic tasks is a natural choice. An external computer program which controls tile operation and data handling of tile 8 spectrometer system was developed (authors).

  1. Impact of Collateral Status Evaluated by Dynamic Computed Tomographic Angiography on Clinical Outcome in Patients With Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, Ido R.; Boiten, Jelis; Holswilder, Ghislaine; Algra, Ale; Dippel, Diederik W J; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Wermer, Marieke J H; van Walderveen, Marianne A A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE—: Status of collateral circulation is a strong predictor of outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Our aim was to compare the predictive value of strategies for collateral blood flow assessment with dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and conventional single-phase CT

  2. [Computed tomography of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature...... that compares the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector row computed tomography with that of coronary angiography Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4/6...

  3. Multi-Grid detector for neutron spectroscopy: results obtained on time-of-flight spectrometer CNCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, M.; Bebb, R.; Berry, K.; Birch, J.; Bryś, T.; Buffet, J.-C.; Clergeau, J.-F.; Deen, P. P.; Ehlers, G.; van Esch, P.; Everett, S. M.; Guerard, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herwig, K.; Hultman, L.; Höglund, C.; Iruretagoiena, I.; Issa, F.; Jensen, J.; Khaplanov, A.; Kirstein, O.; Lopez Higuera, I.; Piscitelli, F.; Robinson, L.; Schmidt, S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2017-04-01

    The Multi-Grid detector technology has evolved from the proof-of-principle and characterisation stages. Here we report on the performance of the Multi-Grid detector, the MG.CNCS prototype, which has been installed and tested at the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer, CNCS at SNS. This has allowed a side-by-side comparison to the performance of 3He detectors on an operational instrument. The demonstrator has an active area of 0.2 m2. It is specifically tailored to the specifications of CNCS. The detector was installed in June 2016 and has operated since then, collecting neutron scattering data in parallel to the He-3 detectors of CNCS. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of this data, in particular on instrument energy resolution, rate capability, background and relative efficiency. Stability, gamma-ray and fast neutron sensitivity have also been investigated. The effect of scattering in the detector components has been measured and provides input to comparison for Monte Carlo simulations. All data is presented in comparison to that measured by the 3He detectors simultaneously, showing that all features recorded by one detector are also recorded by the other. The energy resolution matches closely. We find that the Multi-Grid is able to match the data collected by 3He, and see an indication of a considerable advantage in the count rate capability. Based on these results, we are confident that the Multi-Grid detector will be capable of producing high quality scientific data on chopper spectrometers utilising the unprecedented neutron flux of the ESS.

  4. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Miller, G M; Ashton, T J R; Jarron, P; Despeisse, M; Powolny, F; Howorth, J; Milnes, J

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchanne...

  5. Clinico-statistical study of preoperative examination for the dental implant using multi-detector row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Keiko; Mori, Shintaro; Sekiya, Kotaro

    2008-01-01

    In April 2006, a new affiliated hospital opened at Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, and the latest model was introduced into the department of radiology. CT examinations for preoperative dental implant going on 64 multi-detector row CT, the number of cases has increased. CT examination is useful for preoperative dental implant, and many studies of concerning clinical studies using CT images have been reported. The purpose of this study was to the clinico-statistical studies of preoperative CT examinations for dental implant at our radiology department using 64 multi-detector row CT. The subjects consisted of 5174 regions in 1312 cases of preoperative CT examinations, between April 2006 and December 2007. CT machine used was the Aquilion TM 64 (Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan), and the workstation used was the ZIOSTATION (ZIOSOFT, Japan). All of CT examinations were performed the position of implant placement and disease examined from CT findings. The following results were obtained: The 1312 cases consisted of 426 males and 886 females. Patient age ranged from 16 yrs to 86 yrs old, the average age were 55.5 yrs old. Six hundred and seventy four cases were ordered at another private dental office not our hospital, and 638 cases were ordered at our hospital. The numbers of implant placement were on the average of 3.9, and the rate got higher with age. The lesions which detected by preoperative CT examination were maxillary sinusitis, periodontitis, ectopic calcification, and mucous retention cyst. (author)

  6. Computational steering of GEM based detector simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheharyar, Ali; Bouhali, Othmane

    2017-10-01

    Gas based detector R&D relies heavily on full simulation of detectors and their optimization before final prototypes can be built and tested. These simulations in particular those with complex scenarios such as those involving high detector voltages or gas with larger gains are computationally intensive may take several days or weeks to complete. These long-running simulations usually run on the high-performance computers in batch mode. If the results lead to unexpected behavior, then the simulation might be rerun with different parameters. However, the simulations (or jobs) may have to wait in a queue until they get a chance to run again because the supercomputer is a shared resource that maintains a queue of other user programs as well and executes them as time and priorities permit. It may result in inefficient resource utilization and increase in the turnaround time for the scientific experiment. To overcome this issue, the monitoring of the behavior of a simulation, while it is running (or live), is essential. In this work, we employ the computational steering technique by coupling the detector simulations with a visualization package named VisIt to enable the exploration of the live data as it is produced by the simulation.

  7. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  8. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic imaging in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, W C; Azevedo, B; Toghyani, S; Farman, A G

    2017-03-01

    Over the last 15 years, cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has emerged as an important supplemental radiographic technique for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, especially in situations which require an understanding of the complex anatomic relationships and surrounding structures of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT imaging provides unique features and advantages to enhance orthodontic practice over conventional extraoral radiographic imaging. While it is the responsibility of each practitioner to make a decision, in tandem with the patient/family, consensus-derived, evidence-based clinical guidelines are available to assist the clinician in the decision-making process. Specific recommendations provide selection guidance based on variables such as phase of treatment, clinically-assessed treatment difficulty, the presence of dental and/or skeletal modifying conditions, and pathology. CBCT imaging in orthodontics should always be considered wisely as children have conservatively, on average, a three to five times greater radiation risk compared with adults for the same exposure. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the operation of CBCT equipment as it relates to image quality and dose, highlight the benefits of the technique in orthodontic practice, and provide guidance on appropriate clinical use with respect to radiation dose and relative risk, particularly for the paediatric patient. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  9. True tracheal bronchus: Classification and anatomical relationship on multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Lee, Woong Hee

    2017-01-01

    To propose the imaging classification of true tracheal bronchus (TTB) on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and to evaluate its anatomical relationship with surrounding structures. This study included 44 patients who were diagnosed with TTB on MDCT for 6 years. We classified TTB into five types, based on the existence of the right upper lobe bronchus originating from the right main bronchus and the number of segmental bronchi of TTB. We analyzed the site of origin and the running direction of TTB based on its anatomical relationship with surrounding structures and some ancillary findings. The imaging classification of TTB included Type I (47.7%), Type II (13.6%), Type III (11.4%), Type IV (25.0%), and Type V (2.0%). According to the site of origin of TTB, below the aortic arch (52.3%) and at the level of the aortic arch (43.1%) were the two main sites of origin, whereas the frequency of the site of origin above the azygos arch, at the level of the azygos arch, and below the azygos arch was 27.3%, 38.6%, and 34.1%, respectively. Considering both aortic and azygos arches, below the aortic arch and below the azygos arch were the most common sites of origin (27.3%). With respect to the running direction of TTB, in all cases, TTB passed below the azygos arch to the right upper lobe. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference in age or sex between types of TTB. Ancillary findings included tracheal stenosis (n = 2), narrowing of the right main bronchus (n = 2), luminal narrowing of TTB and bronchiectasis at the distal portion (n = 1), and a highly located azygos arch above the aortic arch (n = 2). The proposed imaging classification of TTB and its anatomical relationship with surrounding structures will improve our understanding of various imaging features and embryological development of TTB. Radiologists should pay careful attention to evaluation of the airway including the trachea on thoracic imaging

  10. True tracheal bronchus: Classification and anatomical relationship on multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Lee, Woong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To propose the imaging classification of true tracheal bronchus (TTB) on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and to evaluate its anatomical relationship with surrounding structures. This study included 44 patients who were diagnosed with TTB on MDCT for 6 years. We classified TTB into five types, based on the existence of the right upper lobe bronchus originating from the right main bronchus and the number of segmental bronchi of TTB. We analyzed the site of origin and the running direction of TTB based on its anatomical relationship with surrounding structures and some ancillary findings. The imaging classification of TTB included Type I (47.7%), Type II (13.6%), Type III (11.4%), Type IV (25.0%), and Type V (2.0%). According to the site of origin of TTB, below the aortic arch (52.3%) and at the level of the aortic arch (43.1%) were the two main sites of origin, whereas the frequency of the site of origin above the azygos arch, at the level of the azygos arch, and below the azygos arch was 27.3%, 38.6%, and 34.1%, respectively. Considering both aortic and azygos arches, below the aortic arch and below the azygos arch were the most common sites of origin (27.3%). With respect to the running direction of TTB, in all cases, TTB passed below the azygos arch to the right upper lobe. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference in age or sex between types of TTB. Ancillary findings included tracheal stenosis (n = 2), narrowing of the right main bronchus (n = 2), luminal narrowing of TTB and bronchiectasis at the distal portion (n = 1), and a highly located azygos arch above the aortic arch (n = 2). The proposed imaging classification of TTB and its anatomical relationship with surrounding structures will improve our understanding of various imaging features and embryological development of TTB. Radiologists should pay careful attention to evaluation of the airway including the trachea on thoracic imaging.

  11. Nasal and skull base anatomy of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery with multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuzo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Murai, Hisayuki; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Okamoto, Miyoshi; Yanagawa, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    The endoscope is a new and highly useful instrument for transphenoidal surgery (TSS), and is generally used because of its minimally invasiveness. In addition, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgey (eTSS) has a potential for more radical tumor removal at the pituitary and the parasellar regions by wider visualization and more powerful illumination. To operate these regions safely, we need to know nasal and skull base anatomy under the endoscope which looks different from images under a microscope. In this paper, we demonstrated nasal and skull base anatomy with multi-detector computed tomography, which was performed in 23 recent patients with pituitary and parasellar legions. In the nasal legion, deviation of nasal septum and deviation of sphenoid ostium are important for endonasal approach of eTSS, and often determine the difficulty of surgery in the nasal cavity. Our study showed that deviation of nasal septum was seen in 26% of patients. Deviation of sphenoid ostium was 5.5±1.5 mm from the midline. The anatomy of sphenoid sinus plays a key role in our determination of the safety of a bony opening of the sella. In addition to sellar, presellar, and concha types, carotid prominence and optic prominence are important to determine the midline orientation. Development of carotid prominence was significantly related to the extent of lateral pneumatization of sphenoid sinus (P=0.0016). Reconstructed 3D-image of sphenoid sinus was very useful in visual understanding skull base anatomy. (author)

  12. A detailed comparison of single-camera light-field PIV and tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengxian; Ding, Junfei; Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio; New, T. H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper conducts a comprehensive study between the single-camera light-field particle image velocimetry (LF-PIV) and the multi-camera tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV). Simulation studies were first performed using synthetic light-field and tomographic particle images, which extensively examine the difference between these two techniques by varying key parameters such as pixel to microlens ratio (PMR), light-field camera Tomo-camera pixel ratio (LTPR), particle seeding density and tomographic camera number. Simulation results indicate that the single LF-PIV can achieve accuracy consistent with that of multi-camera Tomo-PIV, but requires the use of overall greater number of pixels. Experimental studies were then conducted by simultaneously measuring low-speed jet flow with single-camera LF-PIV and four-camera Tomo-PIV systems. Experiments confirm that given a sufficiently high pixel resolution, a single-camera LF-PIV system can indeed deliver volumetric velocity field measurements for an equivalent field of view with a spatial resolution commensurate with those of multi-camera Tomo-PIV system, enabling accurate 3D measurements in applications where optical access is limited.

  13. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]. E-mail: woody@bnl.gov; Vaska, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schlyer, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Pratte, J.-F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Junnarkar, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Park, S.-J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Stoll, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Purschke, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Southekal, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kriplani, A. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Krishnamoorthy, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Maramraju, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lee, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schiffer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Dewey, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Neill, J. [Long Island University, Brookville, NY (United States); Kandasamy, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Fontaine, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada); Lecomte, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of {approx}14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  14. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-01-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ∼14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18 F-FDG and 11 C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP

  15. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  16. Terahertz detectors for long wavelength multi-spectral imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a wavelength tunable detector for Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging. Our approach was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays. When this work began, grating-gate gate detectors, while having many promising characteristics, had a noise-equivalent power (NEP) of only 10{sup -5} W/{radical}Hz. Over the duration of this project, we have obtained a true NEP of 10{sup -8} W/{radical}Hz and a scaled NEP of 10{sup -9}W/{radical}Hz. The ultimate goal for these detectors is to reach a NEP in the 10{sup -9{yields}-10}W/{radical}Hz range; we have not yet seen a roadblock to continued improvement.

  17. A circular-detector array hybrid emission computed tomograph, HEADTOME-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Kazuo; Kanno, Iwao; Miura, Yuko; Miura, Syuichi; Hattori, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihumi.

    1982-01-01

    The HEADTOME-II is a successor of the original hybrid ECT, the HEADTOME-I, which was built and used in Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita. The new machine has three detector rings comprising 64 Nal crystals each, the axial length of which is 30 mm, 100 mm in total for three rings including 5 mm lead shield between the rings, and is long enought to examine the most part of the brain at a time. The system sensitivity for positrons is 27.5 kcps/μCi/ml for intra-ring coincidence and 36.5 kcps for inter-ring coincidence. Spatial resolution is 10 mm FWHM at the center of the field of view. For single photon ECT study, new ''Turbofan'' rotaing collimators, high sensitivity H.S. and high resolution H.R., are adopted. The collimators for single photons and positrons can be selected by manual operation. The system sensitivity for sup(99m)Tc is, 52.5 kcps/μCi/ml by H.S. and 13.8 kcps by H.R. collimator. Spatial resolution at the center of the field of view is 20 mm for H.S. and 11 mm for H.R. respectively. High quality images have been obtained by sup(99m)Tc, 81 mKr, 111 In and 11 C. The regional cerebral blood flow study by 133 Xe inhalation or intra-venous injection has been tried and good results are obtained. (author)

  18. Accuracy Improvement of Boron Meter Adopting New Fitting Function and Multi-Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidong Kong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a boron meter with improved accuracy compared with other commercially available boron meters. Its design includes a new fitting function and a multi-detector. In pressurized water reactors (PWRs in Korea, many boron meters have been used to continuously monitor boron concentration in reactor coolant. However, it is difficult to use the boron meters in practice because the measurement uncertainty is high. For this reason, there has been a strong demand for improvement in their accuracy. In this work, a boron meter evaluation model was developed, and two approaches were considered to improve the boron meter accuracy: the first approach uses a new fitting function and the second approach uses a multi-detector. With the new fitting function, the boron concentration error was decreased from 3.30 ppm to 0.73 ppm. With the multi-detector, the count signals were contaminated with noise such as field measurement data, and analyses were repeated 1,000 times to obtain average and standard deviations of the boron concentration errors. Finally, using the new fitting formulation and multi-detector together, the average error was decreased from 5.95 ppm to 1.83 ppm and its standard deviation was decreased from 0.64 ppm to 0.26 ppm. This result represents a great improvement of the boron meter accuracy.

  19. Accuracy improvement of boron meter adopting new fitting function and multi-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Chidong; Lee, Hyun Suk; Tak, Tae Woo; Lee, Deok Jung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); KIm, Si Hwan; Lyou, Seok Jean [Users Incorporated Company, Hansin S-MECA, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper introduces a boron meter with improved accuracy compared with other commercially available boron meters. Its design includes a new fitting function and a multi-detector. In pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in Korea, many boron meters have been used to continuously monitor boron concentration in reactor coolant. However, it is difficult to use the boron meters in practice because the measurement uncertainty is high. For this reason, there has been a strong demand for improvement in their accuracy. In this work, a boron meter evaluation model was developed, and two approaches were considered to improve the boron meter accuracy: the first approach uses a new fitting function and the second approach uses a multi-detector. With the new fitting function, the boron concentration error was decreased from 3.30 ppm to 0.73 ppm. With the multi-detector, the count signals were contaminated with noise such as field measurement data, and analyses were repeated 1,000 times to obtain average and standard deviations of the boron concentration errors. Finally, using the new fitting formulation and multi-detector together, the average error was decreased from 5.95 ppm to 1.83 ppm and its standard deviation was decreased from 0.64 ppm to 0.26 ppm. This result represents a great improvement of the boron meter accuracy.

  20. Novel ultrahigh resolution data acquisition and image reconstruction for multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohr, T. G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Suess, C.; Schmidt, B.; Primak, A. N.; McCollough, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    We present and evaluate a special ultrahigh resolution mode providing considerably enhanced spatial resolution both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction for a routine medical multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) system. Data acquisition is performed by using a flying focal spot both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction in combination with tantalum grids that are inserted in front of the multi-row detector to reduce the aperture of the detector elements both in-plane and in the z-axis direction. The dose utilization of the system for standard applications is not affected, since the grids are moved into place only when needed and are removed for standard scanning. By means of this technique, image slices with a nominal section width of 0.4 mm (measured full width at half maximum=0.45 mm) can be reconstructed in spiral mode on a CT system with a detector configuration of 32x0.6 mm. The measured 2% value of the in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) is 20.4 lp/cm, the measured 2% value of the longitudinal (z axis) MTF is 21.5 lp/cm. In a resolution phantom with metal line pair test patterns, spatial resolution of 20 lp/cm can be demonstrated both in the scan plane and along the z axis. This corresponds to an object size of 0.25 mm that can be resolved. The new mode is intended for ultrahigh resolution bone imaging, in particular for wrists, joints, and inner ear studies, where a higher level of image noise due to the reduced aperture is an acceptable trade-off for the clinical benefit brought about by the improved spatial resolution

  1. Research on multi-spectrum detector in high-energy dual-energy X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qinghua; Wang Xuewu; Li Jianmin; Kang Kejun; Li Yuanjing; Zhong Huaqiang

    2008-01-01

    The high-energy dual-energy X-ray imaging system can discriminate the material of the objects inspected, but when the objects are too thin, the discrimination becomes very difficult. This paper proposes the use of multi-spectrum detector to improve the ability to discriminate thin material, and a series of simulation were done with the Monte Carlo method. Firstly the X-ray depositions in the detectors with different thickness were calculated, and then the discrimination effects with different detector structure and parameters were calculated. The simulation results validated that using appropriate multi-spectrum detector can improve the discrimination accuracy of thin material, particularly thin high-Z material. (authors)

  2. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non

  3. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Results: Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. Conclusions: BSCTA is

  4. Off-line data processing and display for computed tomographic images (EMI brain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Maruyama, Kiyoshi; Yano, Kesato; Takenaka, Eiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Processing and multi-format display for the CT (EMI) scan data have been tried by using an off-line small computer and an analog memory. Four or six CT images after processing are displayed on the CRT by a small computer with a 16 kilo-words core memory and an analog memory. Multi-format display of the CT image can be selected as follows; multi-slice display, continuative multi-window display, separate multi-window display, and multi-window level display. Electronic zooming for the real size viewing can give magnified CT image with one of displayed images if necessary. Image substraction, edge enhancement, smoothing, non-linear gray scale display, and synthesized image for the plane tomography reconstracted by the normal CT scan data, have been tried by the off-line data processing. A possibility for an effective application of the data base with CT image was obtained by these trials. (auth.)

  5. Tomographs based on non-conventional radiation sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuzza, R.; Fresno, M. del; Venere, Marcelo J.; Clausse, Alejandro; Moreno, C.

    2000-01-01

    Computer techniques for tomographic reconstruction of objects X-rayed with a compact plasma focus (PF) are presented. The implemented reconstruction algorithms are based on stochastic searching of solutions of Radon equation, using Genetic Algorithms and Monte Carlo methods. Numerical experiments using actual projections were performed concluding the feasibility of the application of both methods in tomographic reconstruction problem. (author)

  6. Computed tomographic analysis of temporal maxillary stability and pterygomaxillary generate formation following pediatric Le Fort III distraction advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Richard A; Sandercoe, Gavin; Woo, Albert; Watts, Robyn; Kelley, Patrick; Ettinger, Russell E; Saltzman, Babette

    2010-11-01

    Le Fort III distraction requires generation of bone in the pterygomaxillary region. The authors performed retrospective digital analysis on temporal fine-cut computed tomographic images to quantify both radiographic evidence of pterygomaxillary region bone formation and relative maxillary stability. Fifteen patients with syndromic midface hypoplasia were included in the study. The average age of the patients was 8.7 years; 11 had either Crouzon or Apert syndrome. The average displacement of the maxilla during distraction was 16.2 mm (range, 7 to 31 mm). Digital analysis was performed on fine-cut computed tomographic scans before surgery, at device removal, and at annual follow-up. Seven patients also had mid-consolidation computed tomographic scans. Relative maxillary stability and density of radiographic bone in the pterygomaxillary region were calculated between each scan. There was no evidence of clinically significant maxillary relapse, rotation, or growth between the end of consolidation and 1-year follow-up, other than a relatively small 2-mm subnasal maxillary vertical growth. There was an average radiographic ossification of 0.5 mm/mm advancement at the time of device removal, with a 25th percentile value of 0.3 mm/mm. The time during consolidation that each patient reached the 25th percentile of pterygomaxillary region bone density observed in this series of clinically stable advancements ranged from 1.3 to 9.8 weeks (average, 3.7 weeks). There was high variability in the amount of bone formed in the pterygomaxillary region associated with clinical stability of the advanced Le Fort III segment. These data suggest that a subsection of patients generate the minimal amount of pterygomaxillary region bone formation associated with advancement stability as early as 4 weeks into consolidation.

  7. Initial results from the Donner 600 crystal positron tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.; Uber, D.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1986-10-01

    We describe a positron tomograph using a single ring of 600 close-packed 3 mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled to 14 mm phototubes. The phototube preamplifier circuit derives a timing pulse from the first photoelectron, and sends it to address and coincidence circuits only if the integrated pulse height is within a pre-set window. The timing delays and pulse height windows for all 600 detectors and the coincidence timing windows are computer adjustable. An orbiting positron source is used for transmission measurements and a look-up table is used to reject scattered and random coincidences that do not pass through the source. Data can be acquired using a stationary mode for 1.57 mm lateral sampling or the two-position clam sampling mode for 0.79 mm lateral sampling. High maximum data rates are provided by 45 parallel coincidence circuits and 4 parallel histogram memory units. With two-position sampling and 1.57 mm bins, the reconstructed point spread function (PSF) of a 0.35 mm diam 22 Na wire source at the center of the tomograph is circular with 2.9 mm full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) and the PSF at a distance of 8 cm from the center is elliptical with a radial fwhm of 4.0 mm and tangential fwhm of 3.0 mm. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Double Colorectal Cancer Only Diagnosed by Computed Tomographic Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Nagata

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old woman presented to her physician with rectal bleeding and intermittent diarrhea. Optical colonoscopy revealed a bulky tumor which was diagnosed as rectal cancer. She was referred to our institution for further evaluation and treatment. Slim optical colonoscopy showed an obstructive cancer in the rectosigmoid junction and no information of the proximal side of the obstruction. The patient then underwent computed tomographic (CT colonography for further evaluation of the proximal side. Three-dimensional endoluminal ‘fly-through’ images revealed another protruded lesion in the proximal side of the obstruction. Diagnosis of synchronous double cancer was made by CT colonography. This CT data was not only used to create three-dimensional images but also to decide on a preoperative clinical staging. Laparoscopy-assisted high anterior resection was performed and T3 rectal cancer and T1 sigmoid colon cancer were confirmed in the resected specimen. Follow-up optical colonoscopy revealed no other tumors. CT colonography has recently become a popular preoperative examination tool with significant improvement in quality of image due to a rapid progress in computer technology. CT colonography correctly showed synchronous double cancer in our case and provided crucial information for planning surgery. We recommend that CT colonography should be used for evaluating the proximal side of obstructive colorectal cancer.

  9. Accessory oral cavity associated with duplication of the tongue and the mandible in a newborn: a rare case of Diprosopus. Multi-row detector computed tomography diagnostic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Rosa; Colonna, Michele R; Mormina, Enricomaria; Stagno d'Alcontres, Ferdinando; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Blandino, Alfredo; Longo, Marcello; Granata, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial duplication is a very rare malformation. The phenotype comprises a wide spectrum, ranging from partial duplication of few facial structures to complete dicephalus. We report the case of a newborn with an accessory oral cavity associated to duplication of the tongue and the mandible diagnosed by multi-row detector Computed Tomography, few days after her birth. Our case of partial craniofacial duplication can be considered as Type II of Gorlin classification or as an intermediate form between Type I and Type II of Sun classification. Our experience demonstrates that CT scan, using appropriate reconstruction algorithms, permits a detailed evaluation of the different structures in an anatomical region. Multi-row CT scan is also the more accurate diagnostic procedure for the pre-surgical evaluation of craniofacial malformations. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconstruction of computed tomographic image from a few x-ray projections by means of accelerative gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Fujio; Yamaguchi, Shoichiro

    1982-01-01

    A method of the reconstruction of computed tomographic images was proposed to reduce the exposure dose to X-ray. The method is the small number of X-ray projection method by accelerative gradient method. The procedures of computation are described. The algorithm of these procedures is simple, the convergence of the computation is fast, and the required memory capacity is small. Numerical simulation was carried out to conform the validity of this method. A sample of simple shape was considered, projection data were given, and the images were reconstructed from 6 views. Good results were obtained, and the method is considered to be useful. (Kato, T.)

  11. A new liquid xenon scintillation detector for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepel, V.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    A new positron-sensitive detector of annihilation photons filled with liquid xenon is proposed for positron emission tomography. Simultaneous detection of both liquid xenon scintillation and ionization current produces a time resolution of < 1 ns and a position resolution in the tangential direction of the tomograph ring is ∼ 1 mm and in the radial direction is ∼ 5 mm. The advantages of a tomograph with new detectors are discussed. New algorithms of Compton scattering can be used. (author)

  12. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood; Estudo de 50 casos por tomografia computadorizada de lesoes hipodensas hepaticas fundamentais na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Baracat, Jamal; Martins, Daniel Lahan [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: iminniti@fcm.unicamp.br; Pereira, Ricardo Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2006-03-15

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  13. Tomographic apparatus for reconstructing planar slices from non-absorbed and non-scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus which can be used in computerized tomographic systems for producing a fan shaped beam, detectors to be used in conjunction with the source and equipment for rotating the source supports are described. (U.K.)

  14. Influence of using a single facial vein as outflow in full-face transplantation: A three-dimensional computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Andres; Audolfsson, Thorir; Wong, Corrine; Cheng, Angela; Arbique, Gary; Nowinski, Daniel; Rozen, Shai

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a single unilateral facial vein in the venous outflow of total-face allograft using three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging techniques to further elucidate the mechanisms of venous complications following total-face transplant. Full-face soft-tissue flaps were harvested from fresh adult human cadavers. A single facial vein was identified and injected distally to the submandibular gland with a radiopaque contrast (barium sulfate/gelatin mixture) in every specimen. Following vascular injections, three-dimensional computed tomographic venographies of the faces were performed. Images were viewed using TeraRecon Software (Teracon, Inc., San Mateo, CA, USA) allowing analysis of the venous anatomy and perfusion in different facial subunits by observing radiopaque filling venous patterns. Three-dimensional computed tomographic venographies demonstrated a venous network with different degrees of perfusion in subunits of the face in relation to the facial vein injection side: 100% of ipsilateral and contralateral forehead units, 100% of ipsilateral and 75% of contralateral periorbital units, 100% of ipsilateral and 25% of contralateral cheek units, 100% of ipsilateral and 75% of contralateral nose units, 100% of ipsilateral and 75% of contralateral upper lip units, 100% of ipsilateral and 25% of contralateral lower lip units, and 50% of ipsilateral and 25% of contralateral chin units. Venographies of the full-face grafts revealed better perfusion in the ipsilateral hemifaces from the facial vein in comparison with the contralateral hemifaces. Reduced perfusion was observed mostly in the contralateral cheek unit and contralateral lower face including the lower lip and chin units. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-file Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe R; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Dixit, Kratika; Naik, Saraswathi V

    2016-01-01

    Primary root canals are considered to be most challenging due to their complex anatomy. "Wave one" and "one shape" are single-file systems with reciprocating and rotary motion respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation time of wave one and one shape files in primary root canals using a cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. This is an experimental, in vitro study comparing the two groups. A total of 24 extracted human primary teeth with minimum 7 mm root length were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomographic images were taken before and after the instrumentation for each group. Dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation times were evaluated for each group. A significant difference was found in instrumentation time and canal transportation measures between the two groups. Wave one showed less canal transportation as compared with one shape, and the mean instrumentation time of wave one was significantly less than one shape. Reciprocating single-file systems was found to be faster with much less procedural errors and can hence be recommended for shaping the root canals of primary teeth. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Dixit K, Naik SV. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-File Systems. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):45-49.

  16. The robustness of two tomography reconstructing techniques with heavily noisy dynamical experimental data from a high speed gamma-ray tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Geovane Vitor; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Moreira, Icaro Malta; Johansen, Geira; Maad, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The PSIRT (Particle Systems Iterative Reconstructive Technique) is, just like the ART method, an iterative tomographic reconstruction technique with the recommended use in the reconstruction of catalytic density distribution in the refining process of oil in the FCC-type riser. The PSIRT is based upon computer graphics' particle systems, where the reconstructing material is initially represented as composed of particles subject to a force field emanating from the beams, whose intensities are parameterized by the differences between the experimental readings of a given beam trajectory, and the values corresponding to the current amount of particles landed in this trajectory. A dynamical process is set as the beams fields of attracting forces dispute the particles. At the end, with the equilibrium established, the particles are replaced by the corresponding regions of pixels. The High Speed Gamma-ray Tomograph is a 5-source-fan-beam device with a 17-detector deck per source, capable of producing up to a thousand complete sinograms per second. Around 70.000 experimental sinograms from this tomograph were produced simulating the move of gas bubbles in different angular speeds immersed in oil within the vessel, through the use of a two-hole-polypropylene phantom. The sinogram frames were set with several different detector integration times. This article studies and compares the robustness of both ART and PSIRT methods in this heavily noisy scenario, where this noise comes not only from limitations in the dynamical sampling, but also from to the underlying apparatus that produces the counting in the tomograph. These experiments suggest that PSIRT is a more robust method than ART for noisy data. Visual inspection on the resulting images suggests that PSIRT is a more robust method than ART for noisy data, since it almost never presents globally scattered noise. (author)

  17. Sensitivity of photodiode detector for industrial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Chen Jiaoze; Chen Xufeng; Tan Hui

    2012-01-01

    Studying on sensitivity of detector has most guiding significance for the selecting of X-ray Energy, the designing of detector and matching between X-ray source and detector. Several major factors of sensitivity and their quantitative relation were studied. First, factors such as energy deposition rate, absolute scintillation efficiency, light collection efficiency and photoelectrical conversion efficiency were analyzed. Then, a simulation for energy deposition rate of scintillation crystal and light collection efficiency was carried out by Monte Carlo method. The fluorescence conversion efficiency of the CsI (Tl) scintillator and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the photoelectric diode were computed. The concept of matching between the scintillator and the photoelectric diode was defined. Finally, the sensitivity expression with universal meaning of the detector was obtained. The maximum error between theoretical value and practical measurement result is less than 20.4%. The experiments show the validity and the accuracy of the computing method of the sensitivity. (authors)

  18. Computerized tomographic in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    The process of computerized tomography has been developed for medical imaging purposes using tomographs with X-ray, and little attention has been given to others possibles applications of technique, because of its cost. As an alternative for the problem, we constructed a Tomographic System (STAC-1), using gamma-rays, for nonmedical applications. In this work we summarize the basic theory of reconstructing images using computerized tomography and we describe the considerations leading to the development of the experimental system. The method of reconstruction image implanted in the system is the filtered backprojection or convolution, with a digital filters system to carried on a pre-filtering in the projections. The experimental system is described, with details of control and the data processing. An alternative and a complementary system, using film as a detector is shown in preliminary form . This thesis discuss and shows the theorical and practical aspects, considered in the construction of the STAC-1, and also its limitations and apllications [pt

  19. Brain computed tomographic findings in post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuguharu; Yoshinaga, Kazumasa; Horibe, Takashi; Kokubu, Kiyokazu; Kokura, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Konosuke; Inamoto, Kazuo.

    1986-01-01

    We retrospectively assessed the brain computed tomographic (CT) findings in 22 post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) patients excluding neonatal cases. On the basis of the CT findings, the patients were divided into two groups. Eight patients (36.4 %) had bilateral abnormal lowdensity areas in the basal ganglia (Group I). The remaining 14 patients (63.6 %) had no abnormalities in that area (Group II). In Group I, the incidence of primary cardiac arrest and duration of advanced life support (ALS) was significantly different (p < 0.05) from Group II. Sex, age, duration of basic life support (BLS), time elapsed from initiation of BLS to initial CT and from initiation of ALS to initial CT was not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome was very poor in both groups and no significant difference was noted between them. We conclude that primary cardiac arrest and long duration of ALS were predictors of abnormal bilateral low-density areas in the basal ganglia in post-CPR patients. However, their appearance was not related to outcome. (author)

  20. 2-D response mapping of multi-linear silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Hartmann, R.; Mezza, D.; Strueder, L.; Tassan Garofolo, F.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-linear silicon drift detectors (MLSDDs) are good candidates to fulfill simultaneous requirements for 2-D position-sensing and spectroscopy applications. The optimization of their design and performance as 2-D imagers requires a detailed study of timing properties of the charge cloud in the MLSDD architecture. In particular it is important to experimentally determine the dependence of the measured amplitude and time-of-arrival on the photon position of interaction so as to derive the 2D detector response. In this paper we will present a detailed experimental characterization aimed at measuring the detector amplitude response and its timing response. The dependence of charge cloud drift time on precise position of interaction has been measured as a function of detector biasing conditions.

  1. The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) of the collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovatyuk, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kolesnikov, V.; Rogachevsky, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Sorin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The project NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) is aimed to study dense baryonic matter in heavy-ion collisions in the energy range up to √(s{sub NN}) = 11 GeV with average luminosity of L = 10{sup 27} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (for {sup 197}Au{sup 79}). The experimental program at the NICA collider will be performed with the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD). We report on the main physics objectives of the NICA heavy-ion program and present the main detector components. (orig.)

  2. Noncontrast computed tomographic Hounsfield unit evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis: a quantitative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besachio, David A. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City (United States); United States Navy, Bethesda, MD (United States); Quigley, Edward P.; Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Our objective is to determine the utility of noncontrast Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit values corrected for the patient's hematocrit, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit difference measurements in the identification of intracranial venous thrombosis on noncontrast head computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed noncontrast head computed tomography exams performed in both normal patients and those with cerebral venous thrombosis, acquiring Hounsfield unit values in normal and thrombosed cerebral venous structures. Also, we acquired Hounsfield unit values in the internal carotid artery for comparison to thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures and compared the venous Hounsfield unit values to the patient's hematocrit. A significant difference is identified between Hounsfield unit values in thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures. Applying Hounsfield unit threshold values of greater than 65, a Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratio of greater than 1.7, and venoarterial difference values greater than 15 alone and in combination, the majority of cases of venous thrombosis are identifiable on noncontrast head computed tomography. Absolute Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratios, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit value differences are a useful adjunct in noncontrast head computed tomographic evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  3. Noncontrast computed tomographic Hounsfield unit evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis: a quantitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besachio, David A.; Quigley, Edward P.; Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective is to determine the utility of noncontrast Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit values corrected for the patient's hematocrit, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit difference measurements in the identification of intracranial venous thrombosis on noncontrast head computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed noncontrast head computed tomography exams performed in both normal patients and those with cerebral venous thrombosis, acquiring Hounsfield unit values in normal and thrombosed cerebral venous structures. Also, we acquired Hounsfield unit values in the internal carotid artery for comparison to thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures and compared the venous Hounsfield unit values to the patient's hematocrit. A significant difference is identified between Hounsfield unit values in thrombosed and nonthrombosed venous structures. Applying Hounsfield unit threshold values of greater than 65, a Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratio of greater than 1.7, and venoarterial difference values greater than 15 alone and in combination, the majority of cases of venous thrombosis are identifiable on noncontrast head computed tomography. Absolute Hounsfield unit values, Hounsfield unit to hematocrit ratios, and venoarterial Hounsfield unit value differences are a useful adjunct in noncontrast head computed tomographic evaluation of cerebral venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of computed tomographic manifestations of primary lung cancer by histologic types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo Yeoun; Choe, Kyu Ok

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies in Korea. With respect to the histologic type, primary lung carcinoma manifests itself in a number of different ways. The authors analyzed the computed tomographic (C-T) findings of 183 cases of pathologically confirmed primary lung cancer from 1983 to Aug. 1987 without prior information of histologic types. The results are as follows. 1. The distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancer was as follows: epidermoid carcinoma, 96 cases (52.5%); adenocarcinoma, 43 cases (23.5%); undifferentiated large cell carcinoma, 17 cases (9.2%) and undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, 27 cases (14.8%). 2. The male to female ratio was 3.9:1, the highest ratio occurring in undifferentiated small cell carcinoma 12.5:1 and the lowest ratio in adenocarcinoma 1.1:1 where there was no significant difference in the male to female ratio. 3. Chest computed tomographic findings by histologic type were as follows: (a) Epidermoid carcinoma (96 cases): The central type was the most prevalent (52 cases) with an incidence of 54%. Major air way obstruction was most frequently encountered in this type and was complete in 60% of the cases and partial in 25%. The incidence of cavitating malignancy was 10%, more common than other histologica types. (b) Adenocarcinoma (43 cases): The peripheral type was the most prevalent (28 cases) with an incidence of 63%. Lung to lung metastasis was 23%, more common than other histologic types. (c) Undifferentiated large cell carcinoma (17 cases): The highest incidence occurred in the peripheral type, 9 cases (53%). Chest wall involvement was 12%, more common than other histologic types. (d) Undifferentiated small cell carcinoma (27 cases): The central type (19 cases) presented the highest incidence (70%). Major air way obstruction was noted less severe than epidermoid carcinoma: complete 33%, partial 63%. The incidence of pericardial effusion and/or thickening was 18

  5. Axial tomographic system for radiation diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The axial tomographic scanner consists of a source of hard radiation passing a fan shaped beam through a plane layer of the body under examination, a detector, and driving systems for the sequential displacement and rotation of the radiation source and the detector. The diagnosis is made by means of a data processing system offering extensive time overlap capability of the individual system functions. The data sets from transmission or absorption are processed in three independent subsystems, i.e., the scanning system, the processing system and the display system. The systems are made up of well-known modules, e.g., Nova 1200 or Eclipse 5200. Hence, as a result of the independent design of the data system, raw data will not be lost in case of faults in some subsystem. (DG) [de

  6. Giessen polarization facility. III. Multi-detector analyzing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H H; Stock, R; Arnold, W; Berg, H; Huttel, E; Ulbricht, J; Clausnitzer, G [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum

    1977-06-15

    An analyzing system with a PDP 11 computer and a digital multiplexer is described. It allows to accept signals from 16 detectors with individual ADCs simultaneously. For measurements of analyzing powers the polarization of the ion beam can be switched to zero with a frequency of 1 kHz. The switching operation additionally controls the handling of the detector pulses. The software contains special programs for the analysis of polarization experiments.

  7. Tomographic examination table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redington, R.W.; Henkes, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Equipment is described for positioning and supporting patients during tomographic mammography using X-rays. The equipment consists of a table and fabric slings which permit the examination of a downward, pendant breast of a prone patient by allowing the breast to pass through a aperture in the table into a fluid filled container. The fluid has an X-ray absorption coefficient similar to that of soft human tissue allowing high density resolution radiography and permitting accurate detection of breast tumours. The shape of the equipment and the positioning of the patient allow the detector and X-ray source to rotate 360 0 about a vertical axis through the breast. This permits the use of relatively simple image reconstruction algorithms and a divergent X-ray geometry. (UK)

  8. An Anomaly Detector Based on Multi-aperture Mapping for Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Min

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the correlationship of spectral content between anomaly and clutter background, inaccurate selection of background pixels induced estimation error of background model. In order to solve the above problems, a multi-aperture mapping based anomaly detector was proposed in this paper. Firstly, differing from background model which focused on feature extraction of background, multi-aperture mapping of hyperspectral data characterized the feature of whole hyperspectral data. According to constructed basis set of multi-aperture mapping, anomaly salience index of every test pixel was proposed to measure the relative statistic difference. Secondly, in order to analysis the moderate salience anomaly precisely, membership value was constructed to identify anomaly salience of test pixels continuously based on fuzzy logical theory. At same time, weighted iterative estimation of multi-aperture mapping was expected to converge adaptively with membership value as weight. Thirdly, classical defuzzification was proposed to fuse different detection results. Hyperspectral data was used in the experiments, and the robustness and sensitivity to anomaly with lower silence of proposed detector were tested.

  9. An energy-efficient failure detector for vehicular cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxi; Wu, Zhibo; Dong, Jian; Wu, Jin; Wen, Dongxin

    2018-01-01

    Failure detectors are one of the fundamental components for maintaining the high availability of vehicular cloud computing. In vehicular cloud computing, lots of RSUs are deployed along the road to improve the connectivity. Many of them are equipped with solar battery due to the unavailability or excess expense of wired electrical power. So it is important to reduce the battery consumption of RSU. However, the existing failure detection algorithms are not designed to save battery consumption RSU. To solve this problem, a new energy-efficient failure detector 2E-FD has been proposed specifically for vehicular cloud computing. 2E-FD does not only provide acceptable failure detection service, but also saves the battery consumption of RSU. Through the comparative experiments, the results show that our failure detector has better performance in terms of speed, accuracy and battery consumption.

  10. Computed tomographic and cross-sectional anatomy of the normal pacu (Colossoma macroponum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alaina; Weber, E P Scott; Murphy, Chris J; Zwingenberger, Alison

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and define the normal cross-sectional gross and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy for a species of boney fish to better gain insight into the use of advanced diagnostic imaging for future clinical cases. The pacu (Colossoma macropomum) was used because of its widespread presence in the aquarium trade, its relatively large body size, and its importance in the research and aquaculture settings. Transverse 0.6-mm CT images of three cadaver fish were obtained and compared to corresponding frozen cross sections of the fish. Relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level; the Hounsfield unit density of major organs was established. The images presented good anatomic detail and provide a reference for future research and clinical investigation.

  11. Computed tomographic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Chung Kie [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    It is well known that CT is very useful in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma. The computed tomographic findings of 56 patients diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma were reviewed and analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio was 3 : 1 and the age ranged from 31 to 73 years with average age of 54 years. 2. Alpha-fetoprotein was positive in 19 out of 38 cases (50%). HBsAg was positive in 8 out of 33 cases (24%). 3. All lesions were seen as areas of low density except 1 case (0%) of isodensity, and 40 cases (72%) appeared to be solitary while 15 (26%) were multifocal. The low density was homogenous in 13 cases (24%) and inhomogenous in 42 cases (76%), and 18 cases out of 42 cases inhomogenous low density showed peripheal and/or central nodular enhancement. The additional findings were contour changes in 37 cases (66%), metastasis in 35 cases (63%), splenomegaly in 23 cases (42%) and ascities in 22 cases (39%). 4. In postcontrast scans, 41 cases (80%) out of 51 cases showed the change of density after contrast infusion. The presence and extent of tumors were better seen after contrast infusion in 30 cases (59%), better seen before contrast infusion in 11 cases (21%) and no significant difference before and after contrast infusion in 10 cases (20%). 5. The sites of involved lobe were right lobe in 38 cases (68%), left lobe in 5 cases (9%) and both lobes in 13 cases (23%). 6. 35 cases (63%) showed evidence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes, organ or tissues.

  12. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Weon Tae; Jung, Min Ki; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyon De

    1988-01-01

    Authors analyzed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 19 cases pathologically and clinically proven cerebral paragonimiasis that were performed at Chonnam University Hospital from April 1983 through March 1987. The results were as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was 15:4 and the most prevalent age group was 3rd decade (7 cases). The common symptoms were epileptic seizure (16 cases) and headache (12 cases). 2. The multiplicity of cerebral paragonimiasis was 7 of 19 cases and the distributions of lesion were occipital (11 cases), temporal (6 cases), frontal (5 cases) and parietal (5 cases) lobe. 3. The calcification on CT scan were single (7 cases) or multiple (7 cases) and the shape of calcification were nodular (10 cases), soap babble of ring (8 cases), and stippled (6 cases). The pattern of contrast enhancement were ring (5 cases) or nodular (1 case), and along the basal cistern (1 case with arachnoiditis). 4. 12 out of 13 cases, had long clinical symptoms over 3 years with calcifications, could be analyzed according to Valentine's vascular territory; 6 cases in PCA territory, 3 in MCA and 3 in ACA. 5. CT findings were noted according to the duration of symptoms; 5 cases, had symptoms less than 1 year, showed abscess (5 cases) and arachnoiditis (1 case) with brain edema, mass effect, hydrocephalus and contrast enhancement but no calcification in all. One case, had symptom of 1 year and 2 months, showed partially calcified granulomatous lesion with perifocal edema and contrast enhancement, 13 cases, had symptoms over 3 years, showed multiple calcification with brain atrophy (10 cases), but no contrast enhancement in all cases.

  13. Simultaneous acquisition of X-ray spectra using a multi-wire, position-sensitive gas flow detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaven, Peter A.; Marmotti, Mauro; Kampmann, Reinhard; Knoth, Joachim; Schwenke, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    A multi-wire, gas-filled position-sensitive detector has been developed for the simultaneous recording of wavelength-dispersed X-ray signals that enables X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a limited multi-element capability in the low Z element range. Details of the modular construction of the detector are given. The detector performance was characterized using Al-Kα radiation and a variable slit system. The detector has been applied in a laboratory spectrometer equipped with an electron source and a double multilayer mirror device as the wavelength-dispersing element. Spectra from Al and Si obtained in the simultaneous acquisition mode show good agreement with calculations performed using a ray-tracing model

  14. Computed tomographic reconstruction of beam profiles with a multi-wire chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Tobias, C.A.; Chu, W.T.

    1979-03-01

    MEDUSA (MEdical Dose Uniformity SAmpler), a 16 plane multi-wire proportional chamber, has been built to accurately measure beam profiles. The large number of planes allows for reconstruction of highly detailed beam intensity structures by means of Fourier convolution reconstruction techniques. This instrument is being used for verification and tuning of the Bevalac radiotherapy beams, but has potential applications in many beam profile monitoring situations

  15. Characterization of HPGe detectors using Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, A., E-mail: Angelica.Hedman@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-90182 Umeå (Sweden); Umeå University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, SE-90187 Umeå (Sweden); Bahar Gogani, J.; Granström, M. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-90182 Umeå (Sweden); Johansson, L.; Andersson, J.S. [Umeå University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, SE-90187 Umeå (Sweden); Ramebäck, H. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-90182 Umeå (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2015-06-11

    Computed Tomography (CT) high-resolution imaging have been used to investigate if there is a significant change in the crystal-to-window distance, i.e. the air gap thickness, in a small n-type detector cooled to 77 K, and in a medium sized p-type HPGe detector when cooled to 100 K. The findings were compared to detector dimension data made available by the manufacturer. The air gap thickness increased by (0.38±0.07) mm for the n-type detector and by (0.40±0.15) mm for the p-type detector when the detectors were cooled to 77 resp. 100 K compared to at room temperature. Monte Carlo calculations indicate that these differences have a significant impact on the efficiency in close geometries (<5 cm). In the energy range of 40–700 keV with a source placed directly on endcap, the change in detector efficiency with temperature is 1.9–2.9% for the n-type detector and 0.3–2.1% for the p-type detector. The measured air gap thickness when cooling the detector was 1.1 mm thicker than manufacturer data for the n-type detector and 0.2 mm thicker for the p-type detector. In the energy range of 40–700 keV and with a source on endcap, this result in a change in detector efficiency of 5.2–7.1% for the n-type detector and 0.2–1.0% for the p-type detector, i.e. the detector efficiency is overestimated using data available by the manufacturer.

  16. Multi-party Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2001-01-01

    We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any multi-party quantu...

  17. The high-precision x-ray tomograph for quality control of the ATLAS MDT muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Drakoulakos, D G; Maugain, J M; Rohrbach, F; Sedykh, Yu

    1997-01-01

    For the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the next millennium, a large general-purpose high-energy physics experiment, the ATLAS project, is being designed by a world-wide collaboration. One of its detectors, the ATLAS muon tracking detector, the MDT project, is on the scale of a very large industrial project: the design, the construction and assembly of twelve hundred large muon drift chambers are aimed at producing an exceptional quality in terms of accuracy, material reliability, assembly, and monitoring. This detector, based on the concept of very high mechanical precision required by the physics goals, will use tomography as a quality control platform. An X-ray tomograph prototype, monitored by a set of interferometers, has been developed at CERN to provide high-quality control of the MDT chambers which will be built in the collaborating institutes of the ATLAS project. First results have been obtained on MDT prototypes showing the validity of the X-ray tomograph approach for mechanical control of the detec...

  18. Contribution to data acquisition software of Eurogram and Diamant multi detectors in an Unix/VXWorks environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diarra, C.

    1994-06-01

    Questions on nuclear matter, need to have new performant equipments. Eurogram is a 4 PI gamma radiations multi detector and a precious tool in gamma spectroscopy, but it is necessary to use a charged particles detector and in this aim Diamant is an Eurogram partner. These two multi detectors needed special software data acquisition systems. The whole of acquisition control and management is based on sun stations with unix system. 56 figs., 64 refs

  19. Computed tomographic findings of liver injury in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Deok Gi; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Lee, Won Jae; Oh, Yeon Hee; Lee, Sung Hee; Yun, Jee Yeong; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Sung Woo; Park, Soo Soung

    1994-01-01

    We studied to compare computed tomographic(CT) findings of liver injury with management method in adults and, moreover, to present the CT basis for the management. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans of 43 adults diagnosed as liver injury during a 66 month period. Thirty-eight patients were hemodynamically stable. Thirty-two of them were managed conservatively, whereas six managed operatively. Five unstable patients underwent emergency operation. We classified CT findings according to the severity of liver injuries(ie, hematoma, laceration, and periportal tracking) and hemoperitoneum, ranging from grade 1 to 5 and from 0 to 3 +. respectively. Thus, we compared the CT classifications with their management(ie, operation rate), especially hemodynamically stable patients. Operation rates of all patients and hemodynamically stable patients were 26% and 16%, respectively. Operation rate at each grade of liver injury was low, especially in hemodynamically stable, despite relatively high operation rate in grade 4. Operation rate of 3+ homoperitoneum was 100%, including hemodynamically stable patients, in contrast to otherwise low operation rate of others. Most liver injury in adults, including grade 4, were managed conservatively, especially hemodynamically stable. Though large amount of hemoperitoneum(ie, 3+) required operation, most hemooperitoeum were managed conservatively. Thus, CT findings of liver injury is helpful in the decision for the management method

  20. Computed tomographic mammography using a conventional body scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C H; Nesbit, D E; Fisher, D R; Fritz, S L; Dwyer, S J; Templeton, A W; Lin, F; Jewell, W R

    1982-03-01

    The technique for computed tomographic (CT) examination of the breasts using a conventional body scanner is described, and experience with 67 patients is reported. In the diagnosis of both malignant and benign breast lesions, the results with a body scanner were equal to those of a dedicated CT/M mammographic unit. Although the CT study of the breast cannot replace conventional mammography in screening or in routine diagnostic workup, the unique capability of demonstrating both anatomic changes and increased iodide concentration in a cancer provides many advantages over conventional mammography. CT mammography appears to have the capability to detect breast cancers that are occult to other methods. Indications for a CT study of the breasts are: (1) clinically suspected breast cancer, especially with a mammographically occult lesion; (2) questionable mammographic findings, including microcalcifications, tumor shape, architectural distortion, and uncertain lesion location; and (3) evaluation of postbiopsy or postlumpectomy breast cancers when a primary irradiation therapy is contemplated. Breast CT also appears to be a valuable diagnostic tool in searching for a second primary breast cancer, follow-up study of postirradiation of breast cancer, followup study for postmastectomy patients, and screening procedure for genetically high-risk patients, especially those with dense breasts.

  1. Computed tomographic criteria for differential diagnosis between exacerbation of focal chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma located in the head of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Tonchev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 126 patients with CT-finding of tumor mass in the head of the pancreas is studied. Signs of acute exacerbation of focal chronic pancreatitis are found in 28 of them. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas is diagnosed in 98 patients. Surgical and histological verification is performed in 84 (86%) patients with carcinoma of the pancreas. In 77 (92%) cases the computed tomographic diagnosis coincides with the histological one, while in the remaining 7 (8%) it fails to coincide. The morphological and densitometric changes were analyzed with respect to their frequency. On account of the nonspecific character of the computed tomographic signs a symptom constellation is developed which facilitates the differential diagnosis of the acute exacerbation of focal pancreatitis and the carcinoma. The changes in density of lesions observed after application of contrast media were found to be of significant value. 16 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  2. Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

  3. Computer tomographic detection of an intraspinal arachnoidal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckein, D; Walter, K; Paal, G

    1981-03-01

    A 46 year old female patient who after 3-4 weeks of influenza suffered from strong headaches, vomiting and rotatory vertigo was subjected to a myelograph and then to a computerized tomographic investigation due to suspect cerebrospinal fluid. The computerized tomography is better than the myelography in diagnosing intraspinal arachnoidal cysts, however this should be preceded by most accurate possible segment location.

  4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF POSTERIOR REVERSIBLE ENCEPHALOPATHY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwaprem Raj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES is a neurotoxic state that occurs secondary to the inability of posterior circulation to autoregulate. The clinical spectrum and the underlying pathophysiology are still poorly defined. No conclusive evidence has been put forward regarding the relationship between clinical conditions and specific imaging findings of severity or location of oedema. PURPOSE To assess the role of computed tomography in evaluation of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS 55 patients referred to the Department of Radio-Diagnosis, with a history of neurological abnormalities, including altered mental function, visual loss, stupor with a predisposing history favouring PRES and followed up for a period of 10 – 30 days. RESULTS 21 patients (38.2% were females. 32 patients (58.1% were in the age group between 21 to 30 years. Predisposing condition; 16 (29.1% presented with pre-eclampsia, 12 (21.8% with post-partum status in altered sensorium, 9 (16.4% with seizures, 7 (12.7% with hypertension, 6 (10.9% with visual disturbances, 4 (7.3% with eclampsia and 1 (1.8% with uraemia. 20 cases (36.4% showed findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome on initial computed tomography examination. 35 cases showed no initial radiological evidence suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Of the 20 cases which showed computed tomographic evidence of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, recovery was noted in 5 cases (9.1%. Persistence of findings detected on first CT was noted in 13 patients (23.6%. Regional predominance of the lesions was as follows. Frontal lobe (39%, Parietal lobe (32%, Temporal lobe (15% and occipital lobe (15%. CONCLUSION Varied clinical manifestations are associated with anatomical findings recognisable by neuro-imaging as PRES. Prompt imaging is necessary for the recognition of the condition and appropriate

  5. Development of a proton Computed Tomography Detector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimuddin, Md. [Delhi U.; Coutrakon, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Blazey, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Boi, S. [Northern Illinois U.; Dyshkant, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Erdelyi, B. [Northern Illinois U.; Hedin, D. [Northern Illinois U.; Johnson, E. [Northern Illinois U.; Krider, J. [Northern Illinois U.; Rukalin, V. [Northern Illinois U.; Uzunyan, S. A. [Northern Illinois U.; Zutshi, V. [Northern Illinois U.; Fordt, R. [Fermilab; Sellberg, G. [Fermilab; Rauch, J. E. [Fermilab; Roman, M. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Wilson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-02-04

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantegeous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  6. The development of a compact positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Qi, Jinyi; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2002-12-17

    We give design details and expected image results of a compact positron tomograph designed for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair of external curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis). The bottom bank is fixed below the patient bed, and the top bank moves upward for patient access and downward for maximum sensitivity. Each bank is composed of two rows (axially) of 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors, forming two arcs that can be tilted to minimize attenuation. Compared to a conventional PET system, our camera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and has almost two times higher solid angle coverage for a central point source, because the detectors are close to the patient. The detectors are read out by modified CTI HRRT data acquisition electronics. The individual detectors are angled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize reso

  7. Expediting model-based optoacoustic reconstructions with tomographic symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzweiler, Christian; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Image quantification in optoacoustic tomography implies the use of accurate forward models of excitation, propagation, and detection of optoacoustic signals while inversions with high spatial resolution usually involve very large matrices, leading to unreasonably long computation times. The development of fast and memory efficient model-based approaches represents then an important challenge to advance on the quantitative and dynamic imaging capabilities of tomographic optoacoustic imaging. Methods: Herein, a method for simplification and acceleration of model-based inversions, relying on inherent symmetries present in common tomographic acquisition geometries, has been introduced. The method is showcased for the case of cylindrical symmetries by using polar image discretization of the time-domain optoacoustic forward model combined with efficient storage and inversion strategies. Results: The suggested methodology is shown to render fast and accurate model-based inversions in both numerical simulations andpost mortem small animal experiments. In case of a full-view detection scheme, the memory requirements are reduced by one order of magnitude while high-resolution reconstructions are achieved at video rate. Conclusions: By considering the rotational symmetry present in many tomographic optoacoustic imaging systems, the proposed methodology allows exploiting the advantages of model-based algorithms with feasible computational requirements and fast reconstruction times, so that its convenience and general applicability in optoacoustic imaging systems with tomographic symmetries is anticipated

  8. Congenital heart diseases: post-operative appearance on multi-detector CT - a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasian, Anderanik; Malik, Sachin; Shamsa, Kamran; Krishnam, Mayil S. [UCLA Medical Center, Department of Radiological Science, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Echocardiography is considered as an initial imaging modality of choice in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is preferred for detailed functional information. Multi-detector computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in clinical practice in assessing post-operative morphological and functional information of patients with complex CHD when echocardiography and MR imaging are not contributory. Radiologists should understand and become familiar with the complex morphology and physiology of CHD, as well as with various palliative and corrective surgical procedures performed in these patients, to obtain CT angiograms with diagnostic quality and promptly recognise imaging features of normal post-operative anatomy and complications of these complex surgeries. (orig.)

  9. The great imitator: IgG4 periaortitis masquerading as an acute aortic syndrome on computed tomographic angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Drew W.; Hansen, Neil J.; DiMaio, Dominick J.; Harrison, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with chest and neck pain. Initial cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging shows an abnormal flow void in the left vertebral artery, which prompted a computed tomographic angiogram. This demonstrated a hyperdense thickened ascending aortic wall, which extended into the great vessel origins. Clinically and radiographically interpreted as an acute aortic syndrome and/or intramural hematoma, the patient underwe...

  10. Computer tomographic detection of an intraspinal arachnoidal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckein, D.; Walter, K.; Paal, G.; Staedtisches Krankenhaus Harlaching, Muenchen

    1981-01-01

    A 46 year old female patient who after 3-4 weeks of influenza suffered from strong headaches, vomiting and rotatory vertigo was subjected to a myelograph and then to a computerized tomographic investigation due to suspect cerebrospinal fluid. The computerized tomography is better than the myelography in diagnosing intraspinal arachnoidal cysts, however this should be preceded by most accurate possible segment location. (MG) [de

  11. Tomographic Small-Animal Imaging Using a High-Resolution Semiconductor Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastis, GA; Wu, MC; Balzer, SJ; Wilson, DW; Furenlid, LR; Stevenson, G; Barber, HB; Barrett, HH; Woolfenden, JM; Kelly, P; Appleby, M

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution, compact semiconductor camera for nuclear medicine applications. The modular unit has been used to obtain tomographic images of phantoms and mice. The system consists of a 64 x 64 CdZnTe detector array and a parallel-hole tungsten collimator mounted inside a 17 cm x 5.3 cm x 3.7 cm tungsten-aluminum housing. The detector is a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm x 0.15 cm slab of CdZnTe connected to a 64 x 64 multiplexer readout via indium-bump bonding. The collimator is 7 mm thick, with a 0.38 mm pitch that matches the detector pixel pitch. We obtained a series of projections by rotating the object in front of the camera. The axis of rotation was vertical and about 1.5 cm away from the collimator face. Mouse holders were made out of acrylic plastic tubing to facilitate rotation and the administration of gas anesthetic. Acquisition times were varied from 60 sec to 90 sec per image for a total of 60 projections at an equal spacing of 6 degrees between projections. We present tomographic images of a line phantom and mouse bone scan and assess the properties of the system. The reconstructed images demonstrate spatial resolution on the order of 1–2 mm. PMID:26568676

  12. Denver screening protocol for blunt cerebrovascular injury reduces the use of multi-detector computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, Andrei M; Barber, P Alan; Marshall, Roger J; Civil, Ian

    2014-06-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) occurs in 0.2-2.7% of blunt trauma patients and has up to 30% mortality. Conventional screening does not recognize up to 20% of BCVI patients. To improve diagnosis of BCVI, both an expanded battery of screening criteria and a multi-detector computed tomography angiography (CTA) have been suggested. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the use of CTA restricted to the Denver protocol screen-positive patients would reduce the unnecessary use of CTA as a pre-emptive screening tool. This is a registry-based study of blunt trauma patients admitted to Auckland City Hospital from 1998 to 2012. The diagnosis of BCVI was confirmed or excluded with CTA, magnetic resonance angiography and, if these imaging were non-conclusive, four-vessel digital subtraction angiography. Thirty (61%) BCVI and 19 (39%) non-BCVI patients met eligibility criteria. The Denver protocol applied to our cohort of patients had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval (CI): 83-100%) and a specificity of 42% (95% CI: 20-67%). With a prevalence of BCVI in blunt trauma patients of 0.2% and 2.7%, post-test odds of a screen-positive test were 0.03 (95% CI: 0.002-0.005) and 0.046 (95% CI: 0.314-0.068), respectively. Application of the CTA to the Denver protocol screen-positive trauma patients can decrease the use of CTA as a pre-emptive screening tool by 95-97% and reduces its hazards. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) of the aortic root; ECG-gated verses non-ECG-gated examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Joanna; Guenther, Anne; Aalokken, Trond Mogens; Andersen, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Motion artifacts may degrade a conventional CT examination of the ascending aorta and hinder accurate diagnosis. We quantitatively compared retrospectively electrocardiographic (ECG) -gated multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) with non-ECG-gated MDCT in order to demonstrate whether or not one of the methods should be preferred. Method: The study included seventeen patients with surgically reconstructed aortic root and reimplanted coronary arteries. All patients had undergone both non-gated MDCT and retrospectively ECG-gated MDCT employing a stringently modulated tube current with single phase image reconstruction. The incidence of motion artifacts in the left main coronary artery (LM), proximal right coronary artery (RCA), and aortic root and ascending aorta were rated using a four point scale. The effective dose for each scan was calculated and normalized to a 15 cm scan length. Statistical analysis of motion artifacts and radiation dose was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test. Results: A significant reduction in motion artifacts was found in all three vessels in images from the retrospectively ECG-gated scans (LM: P = 0.005, RCA: P = 0.015, aorta: P = 0.003). The mean normalized effective radiation dose was 3.69 mSv (±1.03) for the non-ECG-gated scans and 16.37 mSv (±2.53) for the ECG-gated scans. Conclusion: Retrospective ECG-gating with single phase reconstruction significantly reduces the incidence of motion artifacts in the aortic root and the proximal portion of the coronary arteries but at the expense of a fourfold increase in radiation dose.

  14. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  15. Collimator trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved collimator is provided for a scintillation camera system that employs a detector head for transaxial tomographic scanning. One object of this invention is to significantly reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Another is to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a radiation source of known strength without sacrificing spatial resolution. A further object is to reduce the necessary scanning time without degrading the images obtained. The collimator described has apertures defined by septa of different radiation transparency. The septa are aligned to provide greater radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and less radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within other planes. Septa may also define apertures such that the collimator provides high spatial resolution of gamma rays traveling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and directed at the detector and high radiation sensitivity to gamma radiation travelling other planes and indicated at the detector. (LL)

  16. Study of CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe detectors for medical multi-slices X-ray Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricq, St.

    1999-01-01

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors to medical X-ray Computed Tomography have been investigated. Different electrodes (Au, Pt, In) have been deposited on CdZnTe HPBM and on CdTe:ClTHM. Their injection properties have been determined with Current-Voltage characteristics. Under X-ray in CT conditions, injection currents measurements reveal trapped carriers space-charges formation. The same way, the comparisons of the responses to X-beam cut-off with various injection possibilities enable to follow the space-charges evolutions and then to determine the predominant traps types. Nevertheless, both hole and electron traps are responsible for the memory effect e.g. the currents levels dependence with irradiation history. This effect is noticed in particular on responses to fast flux variations that simulate scanner's conditions. Trap levels probably corresponding to native defects are responsible for these limitations. In order to make such detectors suitable for X-ray Computed Tomography, significant progresses in CdTe for CdZnTe crystal growth with an important defects densities reduction (factor 10), or possibly counting mode operation, seem necessary. (author)

  17. Detective studies of soft X-ray tomography on controlled thermonuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linzhong; Su Fei

    2004-01-01

    In is necessary to design tomographic detective system with very high accuracy and high quality. It is such a detective system that its five resolutions are all very high quality. The five resolutions are: the radial resolution, the angular resolution, the spatial resolution of detector, the resolution of detector array, and the time resolution. The radial resolution is decided by the number of detectors in detector array. The angular resolutions depend on the number of detector arrays. According to the concrete condition of controlled device, through making special rectangular detector the optimum spatial resolution of detector and the optimum spatial resolution of detector array can be obtained. The high time resolution can be got by making wide-band ampli-filter circuit system. The tomographic system with high quality can use the multi-angle multi-array mode or perfect single array mode. The soft X-ray tomographic system with high sensitivity can measure the stable signal and perform the tomography under the conditions of Te ∼150 eV, ne ∼1013 cm-3 on the small Tokamak devices. (authors)

  18. Automating the segmentation of medical images for the production of voxel tomographic computational models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for the diagnostic medical imaging procedures performed on humans requires anatomically accurate, computational models. These may be constructed from medical images as voxel-based tomographic models. However, they are time consuming to produce and as a consequence, there are few available. This paper discusses the emergence of semi-automatic segmentation techniques and describes an application (iRAD) written in Microsoft Visual Basic that allows the bitmap of a medical image to be segmented interactively and semi-automatically while displayed in Microsoft Excel. iRAD will decrease the time required to construct voxel models. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  19. A frame simulator for data produced by 'multi-accumulation' readout detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Giro, Enrico; Corcione, Leonardo; Ligori, Sebastiano; Nicastro, Luciano

    2010-07-01

    A simulator of data frames produced by 'multi-accumulation' readout detectors has been developed during the feasibility study for the NIS spectrograph, part of the European Euclid mission. The software can emulate various readout strategies, allowing to compare the efficiency of different sampling techniques. Special care is given to two crucial aspects: the minimization of the noise and the effects produced by cosmic hits. The resulting readout noise is analyzed as a function of the background sources, detector native characteristics and readout strategy, while the image deterioration by cosmic rays covers the simulation of hits and their correction efficiency varying the readout modalities. Simulated "multi-accumulation" frames, typical of multiplexer based detectors, are an ideal tool for testing the efficiency of cosmic ray rejection techniques. In the present case cosmic rays are added to each raw frame conforming to the rates and energy expected in the operational L2 region and in the chosen exposure time. Procedures efficiency for cosmic ray identification and correction can also be easily tested in terms of memory occupancy and telemetry rates.

  20. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moselewski, Fabian; Ferencik, Maros; Achenbach, Stephan; Abbara, Suhny; Cury, Ricardo C.; Booth, Sarah L.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Brady, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM]) at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 ± 68.7 HU versus 295 ± 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT

  1. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moselewski, Fabian [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ferencik, Maros [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Achenbach, Stephan [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Internal Medicine II (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cury, Ricardo C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Booth, Sarah L. [Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 711 Washington St., Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jang, Ik-Kyung [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: uhoffman@partners.org

    2006-03-15

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM] at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 {+-} 68.7 HU versus 295 {+-} 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT.

  2. Leveraging multi-layer imager detector design to improve low-dose performance for megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Houng; Rottmann, Joerg; Fueglistaller, Rony; Myronakis, Marios; Wang, Adam; Huber, Pascal; Shedlock, Daniel; Morf, Daniel; Baturin, Paul; Star-Lack, Josh; Berbeco, Ross

    2018-02-01

    While megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) provides many advantages over kilovoltage (kV) CBCT, clinical adoption is limited by its high doses. Multi-layer imager (MLI) EPIDs increase DQE(0) while maintaining high resolution. However, even well-designed, high-performance MLIs suffer from increased electronic noise from each readout, degrading low-dose image quality. To improve low-dose performance, shift-and-bin addition (ShiBA) imaging is proposed, leveraging the unique architecture of the MLI. ShiBA combines hardware readout-binning and super-resolution concepts, reducing electronic noise while maintaining native image sampling. The imaging performance of full-resolution (FR); standard, aligned binned (BIN); and ShiBA images in terms of noise power spectrum (NPS), electronic NPS, modulation transfer function (MTF), and the ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)—the detectability index (d‧)—are compared. The FR 4-layer readout of the prototype MLI exhibits an electronic NPS magnitude 6-times higher than a state-of-the-art single layer (SLI) EPID. Although the MLI is built on the same readout platform as the SLI, with each layer exhibiting equivalent electronic noise, the multi-stage readout of the MLI results in electronic noise 50% higher than simple summation. Electronic noise is mitigated in both BIN and ShiBA imaging, reducing its total by ~12 times. ShiBA further reduces the NPS, effectively upsampling the image, resulting in a multiplication by a sinc2 function. Normalized NPS show that neither ShiBA nor BIN otherwise affects image noise. The LSF shows that ShiBA removes the pixilation artifact of BIN images and mitigates the effect of detector shift, but does not quantifiably improve the MTF. ShiBA provides a pre-sampled representation of the images, mitigating phase dependence. Hardware binning strategies lower the quantum noise floor, with 2  ×  2 implementation reducing the

  3. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N.; Helsby, W. I.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  4. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsby, W. I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  5. Tomographic apparatus and method for reconstructing planar slices from non-absorbed and non-scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus is described which can be used in computerized tomographic systems for constructing a representation of an object and which uses a fan-shaped beam source, detectors and a convolution method of data reconstruction. (U.K.)

  6. Characterizing multi-photon quantum interference with practical light sources and threshold single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Álvaro; Wang, Wenyuan; Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos

    2018-04-01

    The experimental characterization of multi-photon quantum interference effects in optical networks is essential in many applications of photonic quantum technologies, which include quantum computing and quantum communication as two prominent examples. However, such characterization often requires technologies which are beyond our current experimental capabilities, and today's methods suffer from errors due to the use of imperfect sources and photodetectors. In this paper, we introduce a simple experimental technique to characterize multi-photon quantum interference by means of practical laser sources and threshold single-photon detectors. Our technique is based on well-known methods in quantum cryptography which use decoy settings to tightly estimate the statistics provided by perfect devices. As an illustration of its practicality, we use this technique to obtain a tight estimation of both the generalized Hong‑Ou‑Mandel dip in a beamsplitter with six input photons and the three-photon coincidence probability at the output of a tritter.

  7. Multi-channel imaging cytometry with a single detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locknar, Sarah; Barton, John; Entwistle, Mark; Carver, Gary; Johnson, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Multi-channel microscopy and multi-channel flow cytometry generate high bit data streams. Multiple channels (both spectral and spatial) are important in diagnosing diseased tissue and identifying individual cells. Omega Optical has developed techniques for mapping multiple channels into the time domain for detection by a single high gain, high bandwidth detector. This approach is based on pulsed laser excitation and a serial array of optical fibers coated with spectral reflectors such that up to 15 wavelength bins are sequentially detected by a single-element detector within 2.5 μs. Our multichannel microscopy system uses firmware running on dedicated DSP and FPGA chips to synchronize the laser, scanning mirrors, and sampling clock. The signals are digitized by an NI board into 14 bits at 60MHz - allowing for 232 by 174 pixel fields in up to 15 channels with 10x over sampling. Our multi-channel imaging cytometry design adds channels for forward scattering and back scattering to the fluorescence spectral channels. All channels are detected within the 2.5 μs - which is compatible with fast cytometry. Going forward, we plan to digitize at 16 bits with an A-toD chip attached to a custom board. Processing these digital signals in custom firmware would allow an on-board graphics processing unit to display imaging flow cytometry data over configurable scanning line lengths. The scatter channels can be used to trigger data buffering when a cell is present in the beam. This approach enables a low cost mechanically robust imaging cytometer.

  8. Measurement of the multi-jet cross-sections with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zinonos, Zinonas

    Inclusive multi-jet production is studied using the ATLAS detector for proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.4~pb$^{-1}$, using the first proton-proton data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2010. Results on multi-jet cross sections are presented and compared to both leading-order plus parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations.

  9. Visual computed tomographic scoring of emphysema and its correlation with its diagnostic electrocardiographic sign: the frontal P vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Lovely; Sareen, Pooja; Gandagule, Amit; Spodick, David H

    2012-03-01

    Verticalization of the frontal P vector in patients older than 45 years is virtually diagnostic of pulmonary emphysema (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 87%). We investigated the correlation of P vector and the computed tomographic visual score of emphysema (VSE) in patients with established diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema. High-resolution computed tomographic scans of 26 patients with emphysema (age, >45 years) were reviewed to assess the type and extent of emphysema using the subjective visual scoring. Electrocardiograms were independently reviewed to determine the frontal P vector. The P vector and VSE were compared for statistical correlation. Both P vector and VSE were also directly compared with the forced expiratory volume at 1 second. The VSE and the orientation of the P vector (ÂP) had an overall significant positive correlation (r = +0.68; P = .0001) in all patients, but the correlation was very strong in patients with predominant lower-lobe emphysema (r = +0.88; P = .0004). Forced expiratory volume at 1 second and ÂP had almost a linear inverse correlation in predominant lower-lobe emphysema (r = -0.92; P vertical ÂP and predominant lower-lobe emphysema reflects severe obstructive lung dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of NaI detector in positron imaging device HEADTOME employing circular ring array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Shuichi; Kanno, Iwao; Aizawa, Yasuo; Murakami, Matsutaro; Uemura, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    In positron emission computed tomographs employing circular ring arrays of detectors, the performance of the imaging device has been specified ultimately by the characteristics of the detector. The responses of NaI detector were studied when detecting positron annihilation photon (511 keV). The study was mainly by using the NaI detector used in hybrid emission computed tomography (CT) ''HEADTOME'' we had developed. A series of measurements were carried out positioning two detectors with 40 cm distance and scanning 22 Na point source in water. Both detectors was inclined from 0 0 through 30 0 to change incident angle of positron annihilation toward crystal face. Energy window was set from 100 to 700 keV. The results were presented as follows; 1 Shortening the crystal length from 7 to 5 cm made sensitivity decrease about 10% and resolution deteriorate about 1 mm (FWHM). 2 As the results of varying the width of the crystal, 20 mm width was optimal at any incident angle. 3 The lead septum between the detectors was the thickness of 4 mm enough to reject multiple detector interactions (crosstalk). 4 Beam mask which was made of lead in order to improve spatial resolution and placed on crystal face worked effectively for incident angles from 0 0 to 15 0 but degraded uniformity of spatial resolution from 0 0 to through 30 0 . (author)

  11. Anatomical variation of thyroid veins on contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hayato, E-mail: m04149@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Yamada, Takayuki; Murakami, Kenji; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Tazawa, Yoko; Kumano, Reiko [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This is the first study to demonstrate the anatomy of thyroid veins on contrasted-enhanced MDCT. • Identifying the thyroid vein on MDCT prior to selective venous sampling of parathyroid hormone provides clinical information to interventional radiologist. • Detecting especially the inferior thyroid veins with individual variability in numbers, locations, and lengths may have an effect on SVS for HPT and decrease the difficulty and time of the procedure. - Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the anatomical variation of thyroid veins into the systemic vein using contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT). Design and methods: : The subjects were 80 patients (34 males and 46 females; mean age, 50.1 years; age range, 15–92 years) with neck diseases who underwent MDCT. The number and location of inflow points of the thyroid veins into the systemic vein, and the length from the junction of bilateral brachiocephalic veins to the orifice of inferior thyroid vein were investigated by reviewing the axial and coronal images. Results: All superior thyroid veins were detected. Right and left middle thyroid veins were identified in 39 and 29 patients, respectively. Right inferior thyroid veins, left inferior thyroid veins, and common trunks were detected in 43, 46, and 39 patients, respectively; in five patients, two left thyroid veins were identified. All left inferior thyroid veins and 34 common trunks flowed into the innominate vein, while right ones had some variations in inflow sites. Mean lengths were 3.01 ± 1.30 cm (range, 0.5–6.19) and 2.04 ± 0.91 cm (0.5–4.4) in the left inferior thyroid vein and common trunk, and 1.96 ± 1.05 cm (0.81–4.8) and 1.65 ± 0.69 cm (0.63–2.94) in the right one flowing into the right internal jugular vein and the innominate vein, respectively. Conclusions: The numbers and orifices of thyroid veins were identified at high rates on contrast-enhanced MDCT. This

  12. The role of multi-detector CT angiography in surgical planning for congenital cervicothoracic kyphoscoliosis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Choi, Won Gyu; Shin, Ho Dong; Hwang, Byeong Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Ho [Busan Wooridul Spine Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Surgical correction of a cervicothoracic deformity is difficult with a potential risk of vascular injury. Comprehensive preoperative vascular evaluation is important for safe and successful surgery. The use of multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) allows a combined display of vascular and osseous structures of the musculoskeletal system. However, no clinical reports have described the use of MDCTA for surgical planning of anterior cervicothoracic surgery in patients with vascular malformation. The case of a 7-year-old girl with congenital cervicothoracic kyphoscoliosis who underwent preoperative MDCTA evaluation and successful correction is presented in this report.

  13. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a positron annihilation imaging device comprising two or more coaxial circular arrays of detectors (2,2'), with the detectors in one array angularly offset with respect to the detectors in the adjacent array to detect more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient. (author)

  14. Radiation dose of digital tomosynthesis for sinonasal examination: comparison with multi-detector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yuhara, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Mieko; Numano, Tomokazu; Abe, Shinji; Sabol, John M; Suzuki, Shigeru; Ueno, Eiko

    2012-06-01

    Using an anthropomorphic phantom, we have investigated the feasibility of digital tomosynthesis (DT) of flat-panel detector (FPD) radiography to reduce radiation dose for sinonasal examination compared to multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). A female Rando phantom was scanned covering frontal to maxillary sinus using the clinically routine protocol by both 64-detector CT (120 kV, 200 mAs, and 1.375-pitch) and DT radiography (80 kV, 1.0 mAs per projection, 60 projections, 40° sweep, and posterior-anterior projections). Glass dosimeters were used to measure the radiation dose to internal organs including the thyroid gland, brain, submandibular gland, and the surface dose at various sites including the eyes during those scans. We compared the radiation dose to those anatomies between both modalities. In DT radiography, the doses of the thyroid gland, brain, submandibular gland, skin, and eyes were 230 ± 90 μGy, 1770 ± 560 μGy, 1400 ± 80 μGy, 1160 ± 2100 μGy, and 112 ± 6 μGy, respectively. These doses were reduced to approximately 1/5, 1/8, 1/12, 1/17, and 1/290 of the respective MDCT dose. For sinonasal examinations, DT radiography enables dramatic reduction in radiation exposure and dose to the head and neck region, particularly to the lens of the eye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tomographic methods in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a review of the various approaches to tomographic imaging that have been pursued in nuclear medicine. The evolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is discussed in detail, and the major classes of instrumentation are represented. A section on positron emission tomography is also included, but is rather brief and may serve only as a general introduction

  16. Three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography using a conventional ultrasound linear detector array: whole-body tomographic system for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Jerome; Caballero, Miguel Angel Araque; Dima, Alexander; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging relies on the detection of ultrasonic waves induced by laser pulse excitations to map optical absorption in biological tissue. A tomographic geometry employing a conventional ultrasound linear detector array for volumetric optoacoustic imaging is reported. The geometry is based on a translate-rotate scanning motion of the detector array, and capitalizes on the geometrical characteristics of the transducer assembly to provide a large solid angular detection aperture. A system for three-dimensional whole-body optoacoustic tomography of small animals is implemented. The detection geometry was tested using a 128-element linear array (5.0∕7.0 MHz, Acuson L7, Siemens), moved by steps with a rotation∕translation stage assembly. Translation and rotation range of 13.5 mm and 180°, respectively, were implemented. Optoacoustic emissions were induced in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo mice using a pulsed laser operating in the near-IR spectral range at 760 nm. Volumetric images were formed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. The resolution of the optoacoustic tomography system was measured to be better than 130 μm in-plane and 330 μm in elevation (full width half maximum), and to be homogenous along a 15 mm diameter cross section due to the translate-rotate scanning geometry. Whole-body volumetric optoacoustic images of mice were performed ex vivo, and imaged organs and blood vessels through the intact abdominal and head regions were correlated to the mouse anatomy. Overall, the feasibility of three-dimensional and high-resolution whole-body optoacoustic imaging of small animal using a conventional linear array was demonstrated. Furthermore, the scanning geometry may be used for other linear arrays and is therefore expected to be of great interest for optoacoustic tomography at macroscopic and mesoscopic scale. Specifically, conventional detector arrays with higher central frequencies may be investigated.

  17. Multi-Detector CT Findings of Palpable Chest Wall Masses in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Young Tong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    A wide variety of diseases manifest as palpable chest wall masses in children. These include normal variation, congenital anomalies, trauma, infection, axillary lymphadenopathies, soft tissue tumors and bone tumors. Given that most of these diseases are associated with chest wall deformity, diagnosis is difficult by physical examination or ultrasonography alone. However, multi-detector CT with three dimensional reconstruction is useful in the characterization and differential diagnosis of palpable chest wall lesions. In this article, we review the spectrum of palpable chest wall diseases and illustrate their multi-detector CT presentation.

  18. Development of multi-channel gated integrator and PXI-DAQ system for nuclear detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jie; Su Hong; Chen Zhiqiang; Dong Chengfu; Qian Yi; Gao Shanshan; Zhou Chaoyang; Lu Wan; Ye Ruiping; Ma Junbing

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel gated integrator and PXI based data acquisition system have been developed for nuclear detector arrays with hundreds of detector units. The multi-channel gated integrator can be controlled by a programmable GI controller. The PXI-DAQ system consists of NI PXI-1033 chassis with several PXI-DAQ cards. The system software has a user-friendly GUI which is written in C language using LabWindows/CVI under Windows XP operating system. The performance of the PXI-DAQ system is very reliable and capable of handling event rate up to 40 kHz.

  19. Joint image reconstruction method with correlative multi-channel prior for x-ray spectral computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Jørgensen, Jakob S.; Andersen, Martin S.; Lionheart, William R. B.; Lee, Peter D.; Withers, Philip J.

    2018-06-01

    Rapid developments in photon-counting and energy-discriminating detectors have the potential to provide an additional spectral dimension to conventional x-ray grayscale imaging. Reconstructed spectroscopic tomographic data can be used to distinguish individual materials by characteristic absorption peaks. The acquired energy-binned data, however, suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio, acquisition artifacts, and frequently angular undersampled conditions. New regularized iterative reconstruction methods have the potential to produce higher quality images and since energy channels are mutually correlated it can be advantageous to exploit this additional knowledge. In this paper, we propose a novel method which jointly reconstructs all energy channels while imposing a strong structural correlation. The core of the proposed algorithm is to employ a variational framework of parallel level sets to encourage joint smoothing directions. In particular, the method selects reference channels from which to propagate structure in an adaptive and stochastic way while preferring channels with a high data signal-to-noise ratio. The method is compared with current state-of-the-art multi-channel reconstruction techniques including channel-wise total variation and correlative total nuclear variation regularization. Realistic simulation experiments demonstrate the performance improvements achievable by using correlative regularization methods.

  20. Reconstruction of tomographic image from x-ray projections of a few views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Fujio; Yamaguchi, Shoichiro

    1982-01-01

    Computer tomographs have progressed rapidly, and in the latest high performance types, the photographing time has been shortened to less than 5 sec, but the clear images of hearts have not yet been obtained. The X-ray tomographs used so far irradiate X-ray from many directions and measure the projected data, but by limiting projection direction to a small number, it was planned to shorter the X-ray photographing time and to reduce X-ray exposure as the objective of this study. In this paper, a method is proposed, by which tomographic images are reconstructed from projected data in a small number of direction by generalized inverse matrix penalty method. This method is the calculation method newly devised by the authors for this purpose. It is a kind of the nonlinear planning method added with the restrictive condition using a generalized inverse matrix, and it is characterized by the simple calculation procedure and rapid convergence. Moreover, the effect on reconstructed images when errors are included in projected data was examined. Also, the simple computer simulation to reconstruct tomographic images using the projected data in four directions was performed, and the usefulness of this method was confirmed. It contributes to the development of superhigh speed tomographs in future. (Kako, I.)

  1. Role of enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography before urgent endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Youichi; Amano, Yuji; Ueno, Sayaka; Izumi, Daisuke; Mikami, Hironobu; Yazaki, Tomotaka; Okimoto, Eiko; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Imaoka, Tomonori

    2014-04-01

    Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has been reported to be a potentially useful modality for detection of the bleeding origin in patients with acute upper massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of MDCT as a routine method for detecting the origin of acute upper GI bleeding prior to urgent endoscopy. Five hundred seventy-seven patients with acute upper GI bleeding (514 nonvariceal patients, 63 variceal patients) who underwent urgent upper GI endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: enhanced MDCT, unenhanced MDCT, and no MDCT before endoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for detection of the bleeding origin was evaluated, and the average procedure times needed to endoscopically identify the bleeding origin were compared between groups. Diagnostic accuracy among endoscopists was 55.3% and 14.7% for the enhanced MDCT and unenhanced MDCT groups, respectively. Among nonvariceal patients, accuracy was 50.2% in the enhanced MDCT group, which was significantly better than that in the unenhanced MDCT group (16.5%). In variceal patients, accuracy was significantly better in the enhanced MDCT group (96.4%) than in the unenhanced MDCT group (0.0%). These accuracies were similar to those achieved by expert radiologists. The average procedure time to endoscopic detection of the bleeding origin in the enhanced MDCT group was significantly faster than that in the unenhanced MDCT and no-MDCT groups. Enhanced MDCT preceding urgent endoscopy may be an effective modality for the detection of bleeding origin in patients with acute upper GI bleeding. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multi-detector compact binary coalescences Search

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, K; Pai, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we revisit the problem of coherent multi-detector search of gravitational wave from compact binary coalescence with Neutron stars and Black Holes using advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of optimal multi-detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio(MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this ...

  3. Initial results from the Donner 600-crystal positron tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    These results show the 3-mm BGO crystals can improve the resolution in positron tomography by a substantial factor. This measured crystal-pair resolution of 2.4 mm FWHM and the reconstructed image resolution of 2.9 mm FWHM at the center of the tomograph are in good agreement with expected values. The most serious limitation of the detector design is that only a single section can be imaged. 4 refs., 4 figs

  4. Tomographic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, T.; Horiba, I.; Kohno, H.; Nakaya, C.; Sekihara, K.; Shiono, H.; Tomura, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yanaka, S.

    1980-01-01

    A tomographic imaging system comprising: irradiating means for irradating a cross-section of an object under consideration with radiation rays from plural directions; detector means for detecting the radiation rays transmitted through the cross-section of said object to produce an output signal; first memory means for storing the output signal of said detector means; and an image jreconstructing section for performing a convolution integral operation on the contents of said first memory means by means of a first weighting function to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of the cross-section of said object, said image reconstructing section including (I) second memory means for storing a second weighting function, said second weighting function being provided with a predetermined positive and negative (N-1)th order when the output signal of said detector means produced by the irradiation of the cross-section of said object from one of said plural directions is sampled by N points, the value of the (N-1)th order of said second weighting function being an integration of said first weighting function from the (N-1)th order to positive infinity and the value of -(N-1)th order of said second weighting function being an integration of said first weighting function from the -(N-1)th order to negative infinity, (II) control means for successively reading out the contents of said first and second memory means, and (III) operational means for performing multiplying and summing operations on the read-out contents of said first and second memory means, said operational means producing the product of the values fo the (N-1)th and -(N-1)th orders of said second weighting function and a component of the output signal of said detector means relating to the radiation rays free from the absorption thereof by said object

  5. NEULAND at R{sup 3}B: Multi-neutron response and resolution of the novel neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresan, Dmytro; Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Bertini, Denis; Heil, Michael; Rossi, Dominic; Simon, Haik [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    NEULAND (New Large Area Neutron Detector) will serve for the detection of fast neutrons (200 - 1000 MeV) in the R3B experiment at the future FAIR. A high detection efficiency (> 90%), a high resolution (down to 20 keV) and a large multi-neutron-hit resolving power ({>=}5 neutrons) are demanded. The detector concept foresees a fully active and highly granular design of plastic scintillators. We present the detector capabilities, based on simulations performed within the FairRoot framework. The relevance of calorimetric properties for the multi-hit recognition is discussed, and exemplarily the performance for specific physics cases is presented.

  6. Recent technologic advances in multi-detector row cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliburton, Sandra Simon

    2009-11-01

    Recent technical advances in multi-detector row CT have resulted in lower radiation dose, improved temporal and spatial resolution, decreased scan time, and improved tissue differentiation. Lower radiation doses have resulted from the use of pre-patient z collimators, the availability of thin-slice axial data acquisition, the increased efficiency of ECG-based tube current modulation, and the implementation of iterative reconstruction algorithms. Faster gantry rotation and the simultaneous use of two x-ray sources have led to improvements in temporal resolution, and gains in spatial resolution have been achieved through application of the flying x-ray focal-spot technique in the z-direction. Shorter scan times have resulted from the design of detector arrays with increasing numbers of detector rows and through the simultaneous use of two x-ray sources to allow higher helical pitch. Some improvement in tissue differentiation has been achieved with dual energy CT. This article discusses these recent technical advances in detail.

  7. Correctness of multi-detector-row computed tomography for diagnosing mechanical prosthetic heart valve disorders using operative findings as a gold standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, I.Chen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Lin, Yung-Kai; Chang, Yen; Wang, Chung-Chi; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wei, Hao-Ji; Tsai, Hung-Wen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Fu, Yun-Ching; Jan, Sheng-Ling [Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Taichung (China); Wang, Kuo-Yang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of General Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Chung-Shan Medical University, Department of Medicine, Taichung (China); Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiological Technology, Taichung (China)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose was to compare the findings of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in prosthetic valve disorders using the operative findings as a gold standard. In a 3-year period, we prospectively enrolled 25 patients with 31 prosthetic heart valves. MDCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were done to evaluate pannus formation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, suture loosening (paravalvular leak) and pseudoaneurysm formation. Patients indicated for surgery received an operation within 1 week. The MDCT findings were compared with the operative findings. One patient with a Bjoerk-Shiley valve could not be evaluated by MDCT due to a severe beam-hardening artifact; thus, the exclusion rate for MDCT was 3.2% (1/31). Prosthetic valve disorders were suspected in 12 patients by either MDCT or TTE. Six patients received an operation that included three redo aortic valve replacements, two redo mitral replacements and one Amplatzer ductal occluder occlusion of a mitral paravalvular leak. The concordance of MDCT for diagnosing and localizing prosthetic valve disorders and the surgical findings was 100%. Except for images impaired by severe beam-hardening artifacts, MDCT provides excellent delineation of prosthetic valve disorders. (orig.)

  8. Transient ischemic attacks with and without a relevant infarct on computed tomographic scans cannot be distinguished clinically. Dutch Transient Ischemic Attack Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, P. J.; van Gijn, J.; Lodder, J.; Frenken, W. G.; Vermeulen, M.; Franke, C. L.; Hijdra, A.; Bulens, C.

    1991-01-01

    We prospectively studied clinical and computed tomographic (CT) scan findings in 79 patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and a relevant cerebral infarction on CT, also known as cerebral infarction with transient signs (CITS). We compared the results with those of 527 concurrent patients

  9. Right atrial volume calculated by multi-detector computed tomography. Useful predictor of atrial fibrillation recurrence after pulmonary vein catheter ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kyouichi; Akutsu, Yasushi; Kodama, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether right atrial (RA) volume could be used to predict the recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after pulmonary vein catheter ablation (CA). We evaluated 65 patients with paroxysmal AF (mean age, 60+10 years, 81.5% male) and normal volunteers (57±14 years, 41.7% male). Sixty-four-slice multi-detector computed tomography was performed for left atrial (LA) and RA volume estimations before CA. The recurrence of AF was assessed for 6 months after the ablation. Both left and right atrial volumes were larger in the AF patients than the normal volunteers (LA: 99.7+33.2 ml vs. 59.7+17.4 ml; RA: 82.9+35.7 ml vs. 43.9+12 ml; P 100 ml) for predicting the recurrence of AF was 81.3% in 13 of 16 patients with AF recurrence, and the specificity was 69.4% in 34 of 49 patients without recurrence. The sensitivity with large RA volumes (>87 ml) was 81.3% in 13 of 16 patients with AF recurrence, and the specificity was 75.5% in 37 of 49 patients without recurrence. RA volume is a useful predictor of the recurrence of AF, similar to LA volume. (author)

  10. Volumetric analysis of coronary plaque characterization in patients with metabolic syndrome using 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kosuke; Ishii, Hideki; Amano, Tetasuya

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with adverse cardiovascular events and mortality, where acute coronary syndrome significantly impacts on mortality and morbidity. In contrast, evidences have accumulated that the lipid-rich plaque might play a critical role in acute coronary syndrome. The study population consisted of 94 patients with suspected angina pectoris who underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Of those, we identified 41 with MetS. In MDCT analysis, low-density plaque volume (LDPV) (42±28 vs 24±18 mm 3 , P=0.0003), moderate-density plaque volume (105±41 vs 82±33 mm(3), P=0.003), total plaque volume (164±70 vs 118±59 mm 3 ), P=0.0008) and %LDPV (24.2±10.0 vs 18.3±7.1%, P=0.01) were significantly increased in the MetS group compared to the non-MetS group. Multivariate linear regression analysis after adjusting for confounding variables revealed that MetS was significantly correlated with an increase in %LDPV (β=0.48, P=0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis for lipid-rich plaque after adjusting for confounding variables indicated that MetS was significantly associated with lipid-rich plaque (odds ratio: 5.99, 95% confidence intervals: 1.94-18.6, P=0.002). Patients with MetS were strongly related to having a lipid-rich composition in their coronary plaque, as detected by MDCT. (author)

  11. Validation of multi-detector computed tomography as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeryl C; Appt, Susan E; Werre, Stephen R; Tan, Joshua C; Kaplan, Jay R

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate low radiation dose, contrast-enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques. Computed tomography scans of four known-volume phantoms and nine mature female cynomolgus macaques were acquired using a previously described, low radiation dose scanning protocol, intravenous contrast enhancement, and a 32-slice MDCT scanner. Immediately following MDCT, ovaries were surgically removed and the ovarian weights were measured. The ovarian volumes were determined using water displacement. A veterinary radiologist who was unaware of actual volumes measured ovarian CT volumes three times, using a laptop computer, pen display tablet, hand-traced regions of interest, and free image analysis software. A statistician selected and performed all tests comparing the actual and CT data. Ovaries were successfully located in all MDCT scans. The iliac arteries and veins, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ureters, urinary bladder, rectum, and colon were also consistently visualized. Large antral follicles were detected in six ovaries. Phantom mean CT volume was 0.702+/-SD 0.504 cc and the mean actual volume was 0.743+/-SD 0.526 cc. Ovary mean CT volume was 0.258+/-SD 0.159 cc and mean water displacement volume was 0.257+/-SD 0.145 cc. For phantoms, the mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 2.5%. For ovaries, the least squares mean coefficient of variation for CT volumes was 5.4%. The ovarian CT volume was significantly associated with actual ovarian volume (ICC coefficient 0.79, regression coefficient 0.5, P=0.0006) and the actual ovarian weight (ICC coefficient 0.62, regression coefficient 0.6, P=0.015). There was no association between the CT volume accuracy and mean ovarian CT density (degree of intravenous contrast enhancement), and there was no proportional or fixed bias in the CT volume measurements. Findings from this study indicate that MDCT is a valid non

  12. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prakashini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP rate of CAD software was calculated. Observations and Results: Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2% and 202 (91.4% by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4% and nodules in hilar (100% and central (96.5% location when compared to RAD′s performance. Conclusion: CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD′s performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  13. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashini, K; Babu, Satish; Rajgopal, K V; Kokila, K Raja

    2016-01-01

    To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT) in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD) and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP) rate of CAD software was calculated. Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2%) and 202 (91.4%) by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4%) and nodules in hilar (100%) and central (96.5%) location when compared to RAD's performance. CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD's performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  14. X-ray Tomographic Microscopy at TOMCAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marone, F; Hintermueller, C; McDonald, S; Abela, R; Mikuljan, G; Isenegger, A; Stampanoni, M, E-mail: federica.marone@psi.c [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-09-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy is a powerful technique for fast non-destructive, high resolution quantitative volumetric investigations on diverse samples. At the TOMCAT (TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs) beamline at the Swiss Light Source, synchrotron light is delivered by a 2.9 T superbend. The main optical component, a Double Crystal Multilayer Monochromator, covers an energy range between 8 and 45 keV. The standard TOMCAT detector offers field of views ranging from 0.75x0.75 mm{sup 2} up to 12.1x12.1 mm{sup 2} with a pixel size of 0.37 {mu}m and 5.92 {mu}m, respectively. In addition to routine measurements, which exploit the absorption contrast, the high coherence of the source also enables phase contrast tomography, implemented with two complementary techniques (Modified Transport of Intensity approach and Grating Interferometry). Typical acquisition times for a tomogram are in the order of few minutes, ensuring high throughput and allowing for semi-dynamical investigations. Raw data are automatically post-processed online and full reconstructed volumes are available shortly after a scan with minimal user intervention.

  15. Three-dimensional computed tomographic volumetry precisely predicts the postoperative pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Saeki, Yusuke; Kitazawa, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Sakai, Mitsuaki; Sato, Yukio

    2017-11-01

    It is important to accurately predict the patient's postoperative pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of predictions of the postoperative residual pulmonary function obtained with three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D-CT) volumetry with that of predictions obtained with the conventional segment-counting method. Fifty-three patients scheduled to undergo lung cancer resection, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography were enrolled in this study. The postoperative residual pulmonary function was predicted based on the segment-counting and 3D-CT volumetry methods. The predicted postoperative values were compared with the results of postoperative pulmonary function tests. Regarding the linear correlation coefficients between the predicted postoperative values and the measured values, those obtained using the 3D-CT volumetry method tended to be higher than those acquired using the segment-counting method. In addition, the variations between the predicted and measured values were smaller with the 3D-CT volumetry method than with the segment-counting method. These results were more obvious in COPD patients than in non-COPD patients. Our findings suggested that the 3D-CT volumetry was able to predict the residual pulmonary function more accurately than the segment-counting method, especially in patients with COPD. This method might lead to the selection of appropriate candidates for surgery among patients with a marginal pulmonary function.

  16. Design and Construction of Detector and Data Acquisition Elements for Proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermi Research Alliance; Northern Illinois University

    2015-01-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) offers an alternative to x-ray imaging with potential for three-dimensional imaging, reduced radiation exposure, and in-situ imaging. Northern Illinois University (NIU) is developing a second-generation proton computed tomography system with a goal of demonstrating the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging within clinically realistic imaging times. The second-generation pCT system is comprised of a tracking system, a calorimeter, data acquisition, a computing farm, and software algorithms. The proton beam encounters the upstream tracking detectors, the patient or phantom, the downstream tracking detectors, and a calorimeter. The schematic layout of the PCT system is shown. The data acquisition sends the proton scattering information to an offline computing farm. Major innovations of the second generation pCT project involve an increased data acquisition rate ( MHz range) and development of three-dimensional imaging algorithms. The Fermilab Particle Physics Division and Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development at Northern Illinois University worked together to design and construct the tracking detectors, calorimeter, readout electronics and detector mounting system.

  17. The research of clinical application of computed tomographic virtual gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Pan Zhenyu; Zhai Xiaoli; Gu Hua; Wang Yajie; Ding Yi; Wang Li; Liang Ying; Zhai Renyou

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the values, methods and findings of computed tomographic virtual gastroscopy (CTVG). Methods: Sixty-nine patients underwent the examination of spiral CT after charged air into stomachs in different cubage. The CT scan conditions were collimating width 3 mm, pitch 1.2 - 2.5, scanning speed 0.8 s/360 degree, the raw data of CT volume scan was reconstructed in overlapping rate 33% - 67%. Then the images of CTVG were built using navigator software (GE AG, USA). Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CTVG were 92.8%, 96.4%, and 78.6%, respectively. CTVG corresponded well with fibrous gastroscopy and specimens in demonstrating the gastric lesions. CTVG was provided with the ability of revealing the tiny lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis, chronic erosive gastritis, chronic proliferative gastritis, and acute hemorrhagic gastritis in some degree. The high quality imaging of CTVG could be obtained in condition of collimating width 3 mm, pitch 1.2 - 1.5, overlapping 50% - 67%, well hold-breath, gastric cubage in full and feasible scan positions. Conclusion: CTVG is a rising means of gastric examination and has great value in clinic applications

  18. Influence of Heat Treatment of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Apical Preparation: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Bernardo Corrêa; Ormiga, Fabíola; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inayá Corrêa Barbosa; dos Santos, Bernardo Camargo; Gusman, Heloisa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make a 3-dimensional comparison of the canal transportation and changes in apical geometry using micro-computed tomographic imaging after canal preparation with K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and K3XF (SybronEndo) file systems. Twenty-eight mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the rotary system used in instrumentation: K3 or K3XF. The specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after instrumentation. Images before and after instrumentation from each group were compared with regard to canal volume, surface area, and structure model index (SMI) (paired t test, P instrumentation, the canals from each group were compared regarding the changes in volume, surface area, SMI, and canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (t test, P Instrumentation with the 2 rotary systems significantly changed the canal volume, surface area, and SMI (P instrument types concerning these parameters (P > .05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (P > .05). Both rotary systems showed adequate canal preparations with reduced values of canal transportation. Heat treatment did not influence changes in root canal geometry in the apical region. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary A ampersand PCT multiple detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Camp, D.C.; Decman, D.J.; Johansson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation, multi-detector active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand PCT) scanner will be optimized for speed and accuracy. At the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) we have demonstrated the trade-offs between different A ampersand PCT design parameters that affect the speed and quality of the assay results. These fundamental parameters govern the optimum system design. Although the multi-detector scanner design has priority put on speed to increase waste drum throughput, higher speed should not compromise assay accuracy. One way to increase the speed of the A ampersand PCT technology is to use multiple detectors. This yields a linear speedup by a factor approximately equal to the number of detectors used without a compromise in system accuracy. There are many different design scenarios that can be developed using multiple detectors. Here we describe four different scenarios and discuss the trade-offs between them. Also, some considerations are given in this design description for the implementation of a multiple detector technology in a field- deployable mobile trailer system

  20. Prediction of Clinical Outcome After Acute Ischemic Stroke: The Value of Repeated Noncontrast Computed Tomography, Computed Tomographic Angiography, and Computed Tomographic Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Jan W; Horsch, Alexander D; van den Hoven, Andor F; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Schaaf, Irene C; van Seeters, Tom; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2017-09-01

    Early prediction of outcome in acute ischemic stroke is important for clinical management. This study aimed to compare the relationship between early follow-up multimodality computed tomographic (CT) imaging and clinical outcome at 90 days in a large multicenter stroke study. From the DUST study (Dutch Acute Stroke Study), patients were selected with (1) anterior circulation occlusion on CT angiography (CTA) and ischemic deficit on CT perfusion (CTP) on admission, and (2) day 3 follow-up noncontrast CT, CTP, and CTA. Follow-up infarct volume on noncontrast CT, poor recanalization on CTA, and poor reperfusion on CTP (mean transit time index ≤75%) were related to unfavorable outcome after 90 days defined as modified Rankin Scale 3 to 6. Four multivariable models were constructed: (1) only baseline variables (model 1), (2) model 1 with addition of infarct volume, (3) model 1 with addition of recanalization, and (4) model 1 with addition of reperfusion. Area under the curves of the receiver operating characteristic curves of the models were compared using the DeLong test. A total of 242 patients were included. Poor recanalization was found in 21%, poor reperfusion in 37%, and unfavorable outcome in 44%. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve without follow-up imaging was 0.81, with follow-up noncontrast CT 0.85 ( P =0.02), CTA 0.86 ( P =0.01), and CTP 0.86 ( P =0.01). All 3 follow-up imaging modalities improved outcome prediction compared with no imaging. There was no difference between the imaging models. Follow-up imaging after 3 days improves outcome prediction compared with prediction based on baseline variables alone. CTA recanalization and CTP reperfusion do not outperform noncontrast CT at this time point. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00880113. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. A multi-view face recognition system based on cascade face detector and improved Dlib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongjun; Chen, Pei; Shen, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In this research, we present a framework for multi-view face detect and recognition system based on cascade face detector and improved Dlib. This method is aimed to solve the problems of low efficiency and low accuracy in multi-view face recognition, to build a multi-view face recognition system, and to discover a suitable monitoring scheme. For face detection, the cascade face detector is used to extracted the Haar-like feature from the training samples, and Haar-like feature is used to train a cascade classifier by combining Adaboost algorithm. Next, for face recognition, we proposed an improved distance model based on Dlib to improve the accuracy of multiview face recognition. Furthermore, we applied this proposed method into recognizing face images taken from different viewing directions, including horizontal view, overlooks view, and looking-up view, and researched a suitable monitoring scheme. This method works well for multi-view face recognition, and it is also simulated and tested, showing satisfactory experimental results.

  2. A prototype high-resolution animal positron tomograph with avalanche photodiode arrays and LSO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.J.; Rafecas, M.; Schwaiger, M.

    2001-01-01

    To fully utilize positron emission tomography (PET) as a non-invasive tool for tissue characterization, dedicated instrumentation is being developed which is specially suited for imaging mice and rats. Semiconductor detectors, such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs), may offer an alternative to photomultiplier tubes for the readout of scintillation crystals. Since the scintillation characteristics of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) are well matched to APDs, the combination of LSO and APDs seems favourable, and the goal of this study was to build a positron tomograph with LSO-APD modules to prove the feasibility of such an approach. A prototype PET scanner based on APD readout of small, individual LSO crystals was developed for tracer studies in mice and rats. The tomograph consists of two sectors (86 mm distance), each comprising three LSO-APD modules, which can be rotated for the acquisition of complete projections. In each module, small LSO crystals (3.7 x 3.7 x 12 mm 3 ) are individually coupled to one channel within matrices containing 2 x 8 square APDs (2.6 x 2.6 mm 2 sensitive area per channel). The list-mode data are reconstructed with a penalized weighted least squares algorithm which includes the spatially dependent line spread function of the tomograph. Basic performance parameters were measured with phantoms and first experiments with rats and mice were conducted to introduce this methodology for biomedical imaging. The reconstructed field of view covers 68 mm, which is 80% of the total detector diameter. Image resolution was shown to be 2.4 mm within the whole reconstructed field of view. Using a lower energy threshold of 450 keV, the system sensitivity was 350 Hz/MBq for a line source in air in the centre of the field of view. In a water-filled cylinder of 4.6 cm diameter, the scatter fraction at the centre of the field of view was 16% (450 keV threshold). The count rate was linear up to 700 coincidence counts per second. In vivo studies of anaesthetized

  3. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles.

  4. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles

  5. Reduction of thoracic aorta motion artifact with high-pitch 128-slice dual-source computed tomographic angiography: a historical control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Junichiro; Tasaki, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Azuma, Takeo; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Ukai, Isao; Tahara, Kenichi; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram-gated imaging combined with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) has reduced cardiac motion artifacts, but it was not practical in the emergency setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a high-pitch, 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner to reduce motion artifacts in patients admitted to the emergency room. This study comprised 100 patients suspected of having thoracic aorta lesions. We examined 47 patients with the 128-slice DSCT scanner (DSCT group), and 53 patients were examined with a 64-slice MDCT scanner (MDCT group). Six anatomic areas in the thoracic aorta were evaluated. Computed tomography images in the DSCT group were distinct, and significant differences were observed in images of all areas between the 2 groups except for the descending aorta. The high-pitch DSCT scanner can reduce motion artifacts of the thoracic aorta and enable radiological diagnosis even in patients with tachycardia and without breath hold.

  6. A study of the decoding of multiple pinhole coded aperture RI tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Kobayashi, Akitoshi; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Akagi, Kiyoshi; Uehata, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain a radioisotope (RI) tomographic image, there are various, methods, including the RCT method, Time Modulate method, and Multiple Pinhole Coded Aperture (MPCA) method and others. The MPCA method has several advantages. Using the MPCA method, there is no need to move either the detector or the patient, Furthermore, the generally used γ-camera may be used without any alterations. Due to certain problems in reconstructing the tomographic image, the use of the MPCA method in clinical practice is limited to representation of small organs (e.g. heart) using the 7-Pinhole collimator. This research presents an experimental approach to overcome the problems in reconstruction of tomographic images of large organs (organs other than the heart, such as the brain, liver, lung etc.) by introducing a reconstruction algorithm and correction software into the MPCA method. There are 2 main problems in MPCA image reconstruction: (1) Due to the rounding-off procedure, there is both point omission and shifting of point coordinates. (2) The central portion is characterized by high-counts. Both of these problems were solved by incorporating a reconstruction algorithm and a correction function. The resultant corrected tomographic image was processed using a filter derived from subjecting a PSF to a Fourier transform. Thus, it has become possible to obtain a high-quality tomographic image of large organs for clinical use. (author)

  7. Data displays for multi-detector monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.C.M.

    1978-03-01

    Extensive installations of sensors are used for environmental surveillance of radiological hazards, fire, etc. The data from such arrays of detectors can be collected by data processing systems which generate appropriate supervisory displays and records. This paper reviews facilities and physical configurations of computer-based display systems, with particular reference to radiological protection schemes. The general principles are relevant to other fields of application. (author)

  8. Inspiratory and expiratory computed tomographic volumetry for lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Yuki; Chen, Fengshi; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of thoracic surgery, and a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry provides useful data on regional pulmonary function as well as the volume of individual lung lobes. We report herein a case of a 62-year-old man with severe emphysema who had undergone lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) to assess this technique as a tool for the evaluation of regional lung function and volume before and after LVRS. His postoperative pulmonary function was maintained in good condition despite a gradual slight decrease 2 years after LVRS. This trend was also confirmed by a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry. We confirm that a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry might be effective for the preoperative assessment of LVRS in order to determine the amount of lung tissue to be resected as well as for postoperative evaluation. This novel technique could, therefore, be used more widely to assess local lung function.

  9. Accessory Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Are These Correlated? Evaluation Using Multidetector-Row Computed Tomographic Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, L.; Sanfilippo, R.; Montisci, R.; Conti, M.; Mallarini, G. (Dept. of Imaging Science and Dept. of Vascular Surgery, Policlinico Universitario, Cagliari (Italy))

    2008-04-15

    Background: Renal artery stenosis may produce hypertension, and this condition is referred to as renovascular hypertension (RVH). Purpose: To evaluate, by using multidetector-row spiral computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA), whether a relationship between accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension may be hypothesized. Material and Methods: 214 patients (142 males, 72 females; mean age 66 years) who had previously undergone an MDCTA to study the abdominal vasculature were retrospectively studied. Patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) were excluded from this analysis. The patients were studied by means of a four-detector-row CT, and scans were obtained after intravenous bolus administration of 110-140 ml of a nonionic contrast material with a 3-6 ml/s flow rate. As a second step, by means of statistical analysis, hypertension data were compared with findings of accessory artery stenosis. Two radiologists first independently reviewed the MDCTA images and then, in case of disagreement, in consensus. Interobserver agreement was calculated for all measurements. Results: The overall number of detected accessory renal arteries was 74 in 56 of the 214 patients. Accessory renal artery stenosis was detected in 21 of the 56 patients. There was a difference in the prevalence of hypertension between patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 35) accessory renal artery stenosis (P = 0.0187). Interobserver agreement was good (kappa value 0.733). Conclusion: Any statistical association between the presence of accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension could not be disclosed. However, accessory renal artery stenosis, detected by MDCTA, is an important pathological sign that the radiologist has to assess in the light of its possible association with hypertension

  10. Accessory Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Are These Correlated? Evaluation Using Multidetector-Row Computed Tomographic Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, L.; Sanfilippo, R.; Montisci, R.; Conti, M.; Mallarini, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Renal artery stenosis may produce hypertension, and this condition is referred to as renovascular hypertension (RVH). Purpose: To evaluate, by using multidetector-row spiral computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA), whether a relationship between accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension may be hypothesized. Material and Methods: 214 patients (142 males, 72 females; mean age 66 years) who had previously undergone an MDCTA to study the abdominal vasculature were retrospectively studied. Patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) were excluded from this analysis. The patients were studied by means of a four-detector-row CT, and scans were obtained after intravenous bolus administration of 110-140 ml of a nonionic contrast material with a 3-6 ml/s flow rate. As a second step, by means of statistical analysis, hypertension data were compared with findings of accessory artery stenosis. Two radiologists first independently reviewed the MDCTA images and then, in case of disagreement, in consensus. Interobserver agreement was calculated for all measurements. Results: The overall number of detected accessory renal arteries was 74 in 56 of the 214 patients. Accessory renal artery stenosis was detected in 21 of the 56 patients. There was a difference in the prevalence of hypertension between patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 35) accessory renal artery stenosis (P = 0.0187). Interobserver agreement was good (kappa value 0.733). Conclusion: Any statistical association between the presence of accessory renal artery stenosis and hypertension could not be disclosed. However, accessory renal artery stenosis, detected by MDCTA, is an important pathological sign that the radiologist has to assess in the light of its possible association with hypertension

  11. Construction of tomographic head model using sectioned photographic images of cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Sik; Lee, Jai Ki; Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk

    2004-01-01

    Tomographic models are currently the most complete, developed and realistic models of the human anatomy. They have been used to estimate organ doses for diagnostic radiation examination and radiotherapy treatment planning, and radiation protection. The quality of original anatomic images is a key factor to build a quality tomographic model. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, from which most of current tomographic models are constructed, have their inherent shortcomings. In this study, a tomographic model of Korean adult male head was constructed by using serially sectioned photographs of cadaver. The cadaver was embedded, frozen, serially sectioned and photographed by high resolution digital camera at 0.2 mm interval. The contours of organs and tissues in photographs were segmented by several trained anatomists. The 120 segmented images of head at 2mm interval were converted into binary files and ported into Monte Carlo code to perform an example calculation of organ dose. Whole body tomographic model will be constructed by using the procedure developed in this study

  12. Preexisting Dentinal Microcracks in Nonendodontically Treated Teeth: An Ex Vivo Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PradeepKumar, Angambakkam Rajasekaran; Shemesh, Hagay; Chang, Jeffrey Wen-Wei; Bhowmik, Ahendita; Sibi, Swamy; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Lakshmi-Narayanan, Lakshmikanthanbharathi; Kishen, Anil

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence, location, and pattern of preexisting dentinal microcracks in roots of extracted teeth without endodontic treatment in patients from 2 age groups using micro-computed tomographic imaging. Six hundred thirty-three nonendodontically treated teeth extracted using an atraumatic procedure because of reasons unrelated to this study were collected and divided based on the patient age. Teeth were scanned with micro-computed tomographic imaging (resolution of 26.7 μm) to examine the presence of preexisting dentinal microcracks in roots. The characteristic features of preexisting dentinal microcracks determined were location, extent, length, and coronoapical distribution. Chi-square bivariate analysis was performed to assess the association between various parameters. Forty-five of 633 nonendodontically treated teeth exhibited preexisting microcracks in roots with a prevalence of 7.1%. The prevalence of preexisting microcracks was found to be 8.3% in older patients (40-70 years) compared with 3.7% in younger patients (20-39 years) (P < .050). A significant association was found between the preexisting microcracks in mandibular teeth (10.3%) when compared with maxillary teeth (2.9%) (P < .001). All preexisting microcracks were located mesiodistally; 66% occurred in the cervical and middle thirds of root. Only 33% of the preexisting microcracks were complete in nature, showing canal involvement. Complete dentinal microcracks exhibited a mean length of 6.9 mm, whereas incomplete cracks had a mean length of 3.75 mm (P < .001). Preexisting dentinal microcracks in roots of nonendodontically treated teeth occurred more often in older patients (40-70 years) in the mesiodistal direction. They were predominantly found in the cervical and middle thirds of root and were more likely to be incomplete in nature. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of multi-channel readout ASIC and its discrete module for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Fan Lei; Zhang Shengjun; Li Xian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout systems, it is the key part for the whole system. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detectors. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured and tested. The discrete modules work well, and the 6-channel chip NPRE 6 is ready for test in some particle detection system. (authors)

  14. A Prototype RICH Detector Using Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes and Hybrid Photo-Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Doucas, G; Duane, A; Easo, S; Eklund, L; French, M; Gibson, V; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Simmons, B; Smale, N J; Teixeira-Dias, P; Toudup, L W; Websdale, David M; Wilkinson, G R; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector is studied using a charged particle beam. The detector performance, using CF4 and air as radiators, is described. Cherenkov angle precision and photoelectron yield using hybrid photo-diodes and multi-anode PMTs agree with simulations and are assessed in terms of the requirements of the LHCb experiment.

  15. Seeing is believing: video classification for computed tomographic colonography using multiple-instance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; McKenna, Matthew T; Nguyen, Tan B; Burns, Joseph E; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present development and testing results for a novel colonic polyp classification method for use as part of a computed tomographic colonography (CTC) computer-aided detection (CAD) system. Inspired by the interpretative methodology of radiologists using 3-D fly-through mode in CTC reading, we have developed an algorithm which utilizes sequences of images (referred to here as videos) for classification of CAD marks. For each CAD mark, we created a video composed of a series of intraluminal, volume-rendered images visualizing the detection from multiple viewpoints. We then framed the video classification question as a multiple-instance learning (MIL) problem. Since a positive (negative) bag may contain negative (positive) instances, which in our case depends on the viewing angles and camera distance to the target, we developed a novel MIL paradigm to accommodate this class of problems. We solved the new MIL problem by maximizing a L2-norm soft margin using semidefinite programming, which can optimize relevant parameters automatically. We tested our method by analyzing a CTC data set obtained from 50 patients from three medical centers. Our proposed method showed significantly better performance compared with several traditional MIL methods.

  16. SXR measurement and W transport survey using GEM tomographic system on WEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, D.; Jardin, A.; Malard, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Coston, C.; Malard, P.; O'Mullane, M.; Czarski, T.; Malinowski, K.; Faisse, F.; Ferlay, F.; Verger, J. M.; Bec, A.; Larroque, S.; Kasprowicz, G.; Wojenski, A.; Pozniak, K.

    2017-11-01

    Measuring Soft X-Ray (SXR) radiation (0.1-20 keV) of fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport. Since heavy impurities like tungsten (W) could degrade plasma core performances and cause radiative collapses, it is necessary to develop new diagnostics to be able to monitor the impurity distribution in harsh fusion environments like ITER. A gaseous detector with energy discrimination would be a very good candidate for this purpose. The design and implementation of a new SXR diagnostic developed for the WEST project, based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is presented. This detector works in photon counting mode and presents energy discrimination capabilities. The SXR system is composed of two 1D cameras (vertical and horizontal views respectively), located in the same poloidal cross-section to allow for tomographic reconstruction. An array (20 cm × 2 cm) consists of up to 128 detectors in front of a beryllium pinhole (equipped with a 1 mm diameter diaphragm) inserted at about 50 cm depth inside a cooled thimble in order to retrieve a wide plasma view. Acquisition of low energy spectrum is insured by a helium buffer installed between the pinhole and the detector. Complementary cooling systems (water) are used to maintain a constant temperature (25oC) inside the thimble. Finally a real-time automatic extraction system has been developed to protect the diagnostic during baking phases or any overheating unwanted events. Preliminary simulations of plasma emissivity and W distribution have been performed for WEST using a recently developed synthetic diagnostic coupled to a tomographic algorithm based on the minimum Fisher information (MFI) inversion method. First GEM acquisitions are presented as well as estimation of transport effect in presence of ICRH on W density reconstruction capabilities of the GEM.

  17. [X-ray computed tomographic aspects of benign primary cerebral melanomas. Apropos of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P; Alberge, Y; Espagno, C; Bouzigues, J Y

    1986-02-01

    Benign primitive melanomas are rare tumours usually involving the leptomeninges. Four cranial localizations are reported: 2 tumours of the foramen magnum, 1 of the cerebellopontine angle and 1 supratentorial. The clinical symptomatology is variable according to the level. Slow medullary compression is frequent. One can emphasize the special and difficult problem of foramen magnum tumours that present with a very variable clinical status frequently simulating a non surgical disease of the central nervous system. The benign and primitive appearance of these tumours is evocated by the slow and favourable evolution and by the absence of extraneurologic melanotic tumour. Our purpose is essentially to emphasize the radiological and particularly the computed tomographic (CT) findings poorly described in the literature. Benign melanomas have resemblance with meningiomas: osseous or meningeal relationship, homogeneity and high density. On the other hand the angiography shows poor vascularization. One can think that a tumor simulating a meningioma by CT but not by angiography is perhaps a benign melanoma. The special problem of the radiological diagnosis of foramen magnum tumours is evocated: Computed myelography, tridimensional imaging by NMR.

  18. An original emission tomograph for in vivo brain imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, A.V.; Ploux, L.; Mastrippolito, R.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of a new tomograph TOHR dedicated for small volume analysis with very high resolution is presented in this paper. We use uncorrelated multi-photons (X or gamma rays) radioisotopes and a large solid angle focusing collimator to make tomographic imaging without reconstruction algorithm. With this original device, detection efficiency and resolution are independent and submillimetric resolution can be achieved. A feasibility study shows that, made achieve the predicted performances of TOHR. We discuss its potential in rat brain tomography by simulating a realistic neuropharmacological experiment using a 1.4 mm resolution prototype of TOHR under development

  19. Detectors, sampling, shielding, and electronics for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1981-08-01

    A brief discussion of the important design elements for positron emission tomographs is presented. The conclusions are that the instrumentation can be improved by the use of larger numbers of small, efficient detectors closely packed in many rings, the development of new detector materials, and novel electronic designs to reduce the deadtime and increase maximum event rates

  20. Tomographic images of cerebral blood flow using a slant hole collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wraight, E.P.; Barber, R.W.; Crossland, P.; Maltby, P.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using a rotating slant hole (RSH) collimator on simple tomographic equipment such as a standard gamma camera interfaced to a general purpose Nuclear Medicine computer is reported for producing images of cerebral blood flow following the administration of 123 I-iodoamphetamine to patients. Initial studies produced satisfactory images, thus opening the possibility of tomographic cerebral blood flow imaging to centres not possessing sophisticated tomographic equipment. Planar resolution is superior to that reported for a 25 0 RSH collimator. Axial resolution is not as good at small source distances but is comparable at distances beyond 10 cm. Sensitivity is comparable to other RSH collimators and is similar to Technicare's parallel hole general all purpose collimator. (UK)

  1. Assessment of coronary arteries in infants by 64-detector-row multislice spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Masahiro; Waki, Chiaki; Komatsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomoyasu

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate is one of the most important factors for optimal visualization of cardiac CT. We investigated the relation between heart rate and visibility of the coronary arteries with 64-detector row multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). Three simulated coronary artery stenosis models (3, 4, and 5 mm) were attached to a moving heart phantom and scanned using 64-detector row MSCT. The heart rate of the phantom was varied between 60 and 150 beats per minutes (bpm). The visibility of simulated coronary arteries was assessed in comparison between cardiac half reconstruction (CHR) and multi-sector reconstruction (MSR). Then contrast-enhanced 64-detector row MSCT was performed in 16 patients under 3 years of age with congenital heart disease and Kawasaki disease without heart rate control. The visibility of coronary artery segments was graded on a three-point scale. The simulated coronary artery patency was detected in the moving phantom at maximum heart rate (150 bpm) with MSR. Minimum lumen diameter was 0.75 mm. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiac CT was performed in 9 patients, and non-ECG-gated cardiac CT was performed in 7 patients. The origin and proximal course of coronary arteries in all 9 patients with ECG-gated acquisition were visually evaluated. 64-detector row MSCT with ECG-gated acquisition is able to visualize the origin and proximal course of coronary arteries in infants under 3 years of age. (author)

  2. On the feasibility of tomographic-PIV with low pulse energy illumination in a lifted turbulent jet flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxx, I.; Carter, C. D.; Meier, W.

    2014-08-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomographic-PIV) is a recently developed measurement technique used to acquire volumetric velocity field data in liquid and gaseous flows. The technique relies on line-of-sight reconstruction of the rays between a 3D particle distribution and a multi-camera imaging system. In a turbulent flame, however, index-of-refraction variations resulting from local heat-release may inhibit reconstruction and thereby render the technique infeasible. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of tomographic-PIV in a turbulent flame. An additional goal was to determine the feasibility of acquiring usable tomographic-PIV measurements in a turbulent flame at multi-kHz acquisition rates with current-generation laser and camera technology. To this end, a setup consisting of four complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras and a dual-cavity Nd:YAG laser was implemented to test the technique in a lifted turbulent jet flame. While the cameras were capable of kHz-rate image acquisition, the laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of only 10 Hz. However, use of this laser allowed exploration of the required pulse energy and thus power for a kHz-rate system. The imaged region was 29 × 28 × 2.7 mm in size. The tomographic reconstruction of the 3D particle distributions was accomplished using the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique. The results indicate that volumetric velocimetry via tomographic-PIV is feasible with pulse energies of 25 mJ, which is within the capability of current-generation kHz-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

  3. Method for calibration of an axial tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The method of calibrating an axial tomographic scanner including frame means having an opening therein in which an object to be examined is to be placed, source and detector means mounted on the frame means for directing one or more beams of penetrating radiation through the object from the source to the detector means, and means to rotate the scanner including the source and detector means about the object whereby a plurality of sets of data corresponding to the transmission or absorption by the object of a plurality of beams of penetrating radiation are collected; the calibration method comprising mounting calibration means supporting an adjustable centering member onto the frame means, positioning the adjustable centering member at approximately the center of rotation of the scanner, placing position-sensitive indicator means adjacent the approximately centered member, rotating the scanner and the calibration means mounted thereon at least one time and, if necessary, adjusting the positioning of the centering member until the centering member is coincident with the center of rotation of the scanner as determined by minimum deflection of the position-sensitive indicator means, rotating and translating the source and detector means and determining for each angular orientation of the frame means supporting the source and detector means the central position of each translational scan relative to the centered member and/or if a plurality of detectors are utilized with the detector means for each planar slice of the object being examined, the central position of each translational scan for each detector relative to the centered member

  4. Computing facility at SSC for detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, P.; Scipiono, B.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the RISC-based distributed computing facility for detector simulaiton being developed at the SSC Laboratory is discussed. The first phase of this facility is scheduled for completion in early 1991. Included is the status of the project, overview of the concepts used to model and define system architecture, networking capabilities for user access, plans for support of physics codes and related topics concerning the implementation of this facility

  5. Computer-based multi-channel analyzer based on internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinzhi; Ning Jiaoxian

    2001-01-01

    Combined the technology of Internet with computer-based multi-channel analyzer, a new kind of computer-based multi-channel analyzer system which is based on browser is presented. Its framework and principle as well as its implementation are discussed

  6. A novel APD-based detector module for multi-modality PET/SPECT/CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoudi, A.; Lecomte, R.

    1999-01-01

    The lack of anatomical information in SPECT and PET images is one of the major factors limiting the ability to localize and accurately quantify radionuclide uptake in small regions of interest. This problem could be resolved by using multi-modality scanners having the capability to acquire anatomical and functional images simultaneously. The feasibility of a novel detector suitable for measuring high-energy annihilation radiation in PET, medium-energy γ-rays in SPECT and low-energy X-rays in transmission CT is demonstrated and its performance is evaluated for potential use in multi-modality PET/SPECT/CT imaging. The proposed detector consists of a thin CsI(Tl) scintillator sitting on top of a deep GSO/LSO pair read out by an avalanche photodiode. The GSO/LOS pair provides depth-of-interaction information for 511 keV detection in PET, while the thin CsI(Tl) that is essentially transparent to annihilation radiation is used for detecting lower energy X- and γ-rays. The detector performance is compared to that of an LSO/YSO phoswich. Although the implementation of the proposed GSO/LSO/CsI(Tl) detector raises special problems that increase complexity, it generally outperforms the LSO/YSO phoswich for simultaneous PET, SPECT and CT imaging

  7. Design of a muonic tomographic detector to scan travelling containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliatti, C; Bandieramonte, M; Blancato, A A; Bonanno, D L; Indelicato, V; Rocca, P La; Presti, D Lo; Antonuccio, V; Becciani, U; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Bonanno, G; Costa, A; Garozzo, S; Massimino, P; Belluomo, F; Fallica, G; Leonora, E; Longhitano, F; Longo, S

    2014-01-01

    The Muon Portal Project aims at the construction of a large volume detector to inspect the content of travelling containers for the identification of high-Z hidden materials (U, Pu or other fissile samples), exploiting the secondary cosmic-ray muon radiation. An image of these materials is achieved reconstructing the deviations of the muons from their original trajectories inside the detector volume, by means of two particle trackers, placed one below and one above the container. The scan is performed without adding any external radiation, in a few minutes and with a high spatial and angular resolution. The detector consists of 4800 scintillating strips with two wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers inside each strip, coupled to Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). A smart strategy for the read out system allows a considerable reduction of the number of the read-out channels. Actually, an intense measurement campaign is in progress to carefully characterize any single component of the detector. A prototype of one of the 48 detection modules (1 × 3 m 2 ) is actually under construction. This paper presents the detector architecture and the preliminary results

  8. Impact of Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings on Planning of Cancer Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Structural Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad N. Daher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exclusion of underlying coronary artery disease (CAD is essential in the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Presence and severity of CAD can also impact the choice of therapy in cancer patients. The value of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA in this setting has not been reported. Methods. We collected data on the clinical presentation and indications for CCTA performed from January to December 2008 at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC. All examinations were performed using a 64-detector scanner. CCTA results and subsequent treatment decisions were examined. Results. A total of 80 patients underwent CCTA during the study period for the following indications (not mutually exclusive: cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology in 33 pts (41.3%, chest pain in 32 (40.0%, abnormal stress test in 16 (20.0%, abnormal cardiac markers in 8 (10.0%, suspected cardiac mass or thrombus in 7 (8.8%. Chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 18 pts (22.5%. Severe CAD was detected in 22 pts (27.5%; due to concomitant advanced cancer or patient refusal, only 12 underwent coronary angiogram. Of these, 4 pts (5% of total underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 41 pts (51.3% had their cancer management altered based on CCTA findings. Conclusion. CCTA is useful in evaluating cancer pts with structural heart disease and can have an impact on the management of cancer and cardiac disease.

  9. Quantitative assessment of lung volumes using multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Min; Hur, Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Hyung Jung

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of the multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in the quantitative assessment of lung volumes and to assess the relationship between the MDCT results and disease severity as determined by a pulmonary function test (PFT) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. We performed a PFT and MDCT on 39 COPD patients. Using the GOLD classifications, we divided the patients into three groups according to disease severity; stage I (mild, n = 10), stage II (moderate, n = 15), and stage III (severe, n = 14). Using the pulmo-CT software program, we measured the proportion of lung volumes with attenuation values below -910 and -950 HU. The mean FEV1 (% of predicted) and FEV1/FVC was 82.2 ± 2% and 66.2 ± 3% in stage I, 53.5 ± 11% and 52 ± 6% in stage II, and 32.3 ± 7% and 44.2% ± 13% in stage III, respectively. Differences in lung volume percentage at each of the thresholds (-910 and -950 HU) among the 3 stages were statistically significant (ρ < 0.01, ρ < 0.01) and correlated well with the FEV1 and FEV1/FVC (r = -0.803, r -0.766, r = -0.817, and r = -0.795, respectively). The volumetric measurement obtained by MDCT provides an accurate means of quantifying pulmonary emphysema

  10. Estimation of effectiveness of automatic exposure control in computed tomograph scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhilesh, Philomina; Sharma, S.D.; Datta, D.; Kulkarni, Arti

    2018-01-01

    With the advent of multiple detector array technology, the use of Computed Tomography (CT) scanning has increase tremendously. Computed Tomography examinations deliver relatively high radiation dose to patients in comparison with conventional radiography. It is therefore required to reduce the dose delivered in CT scans without compromising the image quality. Several parameters like applied potential, tube current, scan length, pitch etc. influence the dose delivered in CT scans. For optimization of patient dose and image quality, all modern CT scanners are enabled with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) systems. The aim of this work is to compare the dose delivered during CT scans performed with and without AEC in order to estimate the effectiveness of AEC techniques used in CT scanners of various manufacturer

  11. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  12. Evaluation and optimization of the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoess, C.

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging technique used in medicine to determine qualitative and quantitative metabolic parameters in vivo. The High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a new high resolution tomograph that was designed for brain studies (312 mm transaxial field-of-view (FOV), 252 mm axial FOV). The detector blocks are arranged in a quadrant sharing design and consist of two crystal layers with dimensions of 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm x 7.5 mm. The main detector material is the newly developed scintillator lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO). Events from the different crystal layers are distinguished by Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) to gain Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. This will improve the spatial resolution, especially at the edges of the FOV. A prototype of the tomograph was installed at the Max-Planck Institute for Neurological Research in Cologne, Germany in 1999 and was evaluated with respect to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and count rate behavior. These performance measurements showed that this prototype provided a spatial resolution of around 2.5 mm in a volume big enough to contain the human brain. A comparison with a single layer HRRT prototype showed a 10% worsening of the resolution, despite the fact that DOI was used. Without DOI, the resolution decreased considerably. The sensitivity, as measured with a 22 Na point source, was 46.5 cps/kBq for an energy window of 350-650 keV and 37.9 cps/kBq for an energy window of 400-650 keV, while the scatter fractions were 56% for 350-650 keV and 51% for 400-650 keV, respectively. A daily quality check was developed and implemented that uses the uniform, natural radioactive background of the scintillator material LSO. In 2001, the manufacturer decided to build a series of additional HRRT scanners to try to improve the design (detector electronics, transmission source design, and shielding against out-of-FOV activity) and to eliminate problems (difficult detector

  13. Cochlear Implant Electrode Localization Using an Ultra-High Resolution Scan Mode on Conventional 64-Slice and New Generation 192-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Leng, Shuai; Diehn, Felix E; Witte, Robert J; Krecke, Karl N; Grimes, Josh; Koeller, Kelly K; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Lane, John I

    2017-08-01

    A new generation 192-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) clinical scanner provides enhanced image quality and superior electrode localization over conventional MDCT. Currently, accurate and reliable cochlear implant electrode localization using conventional MDCT scanners remains elusive. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric temporal bones were implanted with full-length cochlear implant electrodes. Specimens were subsequently scanned with conventional 64-slice and new generation 192-slice MDCT scanners utilizing ultra-high resolution modes. Additionally, all specimens were scanned with micro-CT to provide a reference criterion for electrode position. Images were reconstructed according to routine temporal bone clinical protocols. Three neuroradiologists, blinded to scanner type, reviewed images independently to assess resolution of individual electrodes, scalar localization, and severity of image artifact. Serving as the reference standard, micro-CT identified scalar crossover in one specimen; imaging of all remaining cochleae demonstrated complete scala tympani insertions. The 192-slice MDCT scanner exhibited improved resolution of individual electrodes (p implant imaging compared with conventional MDCT. This technology provides important feedback regarding electrode position and course, which may help in future optimization of surgical technique and electrode design.

  14. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A means is provided for recording more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient, using positron emission tomography. Separate rings of detectors are used to construct every odd-numbered slice, and coincident events that occur between adjacent rings of detectors provide a center or even-numbered slice. Detector rings are offset with respect to one another by half the angular separation of the detectors, allowing an image to be reconstructed from the central slice without the necessity of physically rotating the detector array while accumulating data

  15. Design and construction of the gamma ray transmission tomographer g-TAC-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon Hernandez, Noriel; Ravelo Sanchez, Alberto; Idel, Pedro; Macias Perez, Rafael; Garcia Trapaga, Cesar; Campos Montenegro, Augusto

    2000-01-01

    An equipment for gamma ray transmission tomographer was designed and constructed in the Higher Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology. It was the g-TAC-01, based on a nuclear instrumentation, a mechanic instrumentation, and the control of the system from a personal computer. This first version permitted to obtain the know how of the technology of construction of equipment for tomography. The present work describes the second version of the gamma ray transmission tomographer: the g-TAC-02, with very important upgrading in the control session. Now the control system is a microcontroller based, electronic control system, designed to work in multiples forms: manual, automatic and with the computer

  16. Linear analysis of rotationally invariant, radially variant tomographic imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesmann, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method to analyze the linear imaging characteristics of rotationally invariant, radially variant tomographic imaging systems using singular value decomposition (SVD). When the projection measurements from such a system are assumed to be samples from independent and identically distributed multi-normal random variables, the best estimate of the emission intensity is given by the unweighted least squares estimator. The noise amplification of this estimator is inversely proportional to the singular values of the normal matrix used to model projection and backprojection. After choosing an acceptable noise amplification, the new method can determine the number of parameters and hence the number of pixels that should be estimated from data acquired from an existing system with a fixed number of angles and projection bins. Conversely, for the design of a new system, the number of angles and projection bins necessary for a given number of pixels and noise amplification can be determined. In general, computing the SVD of the projection normal matrix has cubic computational complexity. However, the projection normal matrix for this class of rotationally invariant, radially variant systems has a block circulant form. A fast parallel algorithm to compute the SVD of this block circulant matrix makes the singular value analysis practical by asymptotically reducing the computation complexity of the method by a multiplicative factor equal to the number of angles squared

  17. The use of tomographic techniques in the mineral processing Industry. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witika, L.K.; Jere, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    Process tomographic techniques may be used to analyse the internal state of most of the multiphase process engineering systems such as material segregation in a reactor multiphase flow in pipes and the spatial resolution of mineral grains in multiphase particles. These techniques include radiation computed tomography (X-ray or ray), electrical methods(capacitance, impedance and inductive tomography) positron emission tomography,optical tomography, microwave tomography, acoustic tomographical methods and many more. Many potential applications exist for process tomographic instrumentation for quantitative analysis and fault-detection purposes. Amongst these, electrical methods are widely used for those mineral processes deserving particular attention such as dense-medium separation, hydro cyclones, flotation cells and columns, gas-liquid absorbers, solvent extraction and other liquid-liquid processes, filtration and other solid-liquid processes, grinding mills (both dry and wet, conveyors and hoppers). Development in on-line measurement instrumentation now allow direct observation of the behaviour of fluids inside mineral separation equipment. This offers the possibility to acquire process data to enable models to be devised, to verify theoretical computational fluid dynamics predictions and control of various unit processes. In this review, the most important tomographic sensing methods are reviewed. Examples of the implementation of some electrical methods are illustrated. (authors)

  18. Dark matter sensitivity of multi-ton liquid xenon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Marc; Bütikofer, Lukas; Baudis, Laura; Kish, Alexander; Selvi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of multi ton-scale time projection chambers using a liquid xenon target, e.g., the proposed DARWIN instrument, to spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering interactions. Taking into account realistic backgrounds from the detector itself as well as from neutrinos, we examine the impact of exposure, energy threshold, background rejection efficiency and energy resolution on the dark matter sensitivity. With an exposure of 200 t × y and assuming detector parameters which have been already demonstrated experimentally, spin-independent cross sections as low as 2.5 × 10 −49 cm 2 can be probed for WIMP masses around 40 GeV/c 2 . Additional improvements in terms of background rejection and exposure will further increase the sensitivity, while the ultimate WIMP science reach will be limited by neutrinos scattering coherently off the xenon nuclei

  19. Identification of High-Risk Plaques Destined to Cause Acute Coronary Syndrome Using Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography and Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Myung; Choi, Gilwoo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Tong, Yaliang; Kim, Hyun Jin; Grady, Leo; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Cho, Young-Seok; Choi, Su-Yeon; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Jin-Ho; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Christiansen, Evald H; Niemen, Koen; Otake, Hiromasa; Penicka, Martin; de Bruyne, Bernard; Kubo, Takashi; Akasaka, Takashi; Narula, Jagat; Douglas, Pamela S; Taylor, Charles A; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2018-03-14

    We investigated the utility of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment in the identification of high-risk plaques that caused subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS is a critical event that impacts the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, the role of hemodynamic factors in the development of ACS is not well-known. Seventy-two patients with clearly documented ACS and available coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) acquired between 1 month and 2 years before the development of ACS were included. In 66 culprit and 150 nonculprit lesions as a case-control design, the presence of adverse plaque characteristics (APC) was assessed and hemodynamic parameters (fractional flow reserve derived by coronary computed tomographic angiography [FFR CT ], change in FFR CT across the lesion [△FFR CT ], wall shear stress [WSS], and axial plaque stress) were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The best cut-off values for FFR CT , △FFR CT , WSS, and axial plaque stress were used to define the presence of adverse hemodynamic characteristics (AHC). The incremental discriminant and reclassification abilities for ACS prediction were compared among 3 models (model 1: percent diameter stenosis [%DS] and lesion length, model 2: model 1 + APC, and model 3: model 2 + AHC). The culprit lesions showed higher %DS (55.5 ± 15.4% vs. 43.1 ± 15.0%; p stress than nonculprit lesions (all p values statistic [c-index] 0.789 vs. 0.747; p = 0.014) and reclassification abilities (category-free net reclassification index 0.287; p = 0.047; relative integrated discrimination improvement 0.368; p < 0.001) than model 2. Lesions with both APC and AHC showed significantly higher risk of the culprit for subsequent ACS than those with no APC/AHC (hazard ratio: 11.75; 95% confidence interval: 2.85 to 48.51; p = 0.001) and with either APC or AHC (hazard ratio: 3.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.86 to 5.55; p < 0.001). Noninvasive hemodynamic assessment enhanced

  20. Conceptual design of a compact positron tomograph for prostateimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.S.; Derenzo, S.E.; Qi, J.; Moses, W.W.; Huesman, R.H.; Budinger, T.F.

    2000-11-04

    We present a conceptual design of a compact positron tomograph for prostate imaging using a pair of external curved detector banks, one placed above and one below the patient. The lower detector bank is fixed below the patient bed, and the top bank adjusts vertically for maximum sensitivity and patient access. Each bank is composed of 40conventional block detectors, forming two arcs (44 cm minor, 60 cm major axis) that are tilted to minimize attenuation and positioned as close as possible to the patient to improve sensitivity. The individual detectors are angled to point towards the prostate to minimize resolution degradation in that region. Inter-plane septa extend 5 cm beyond the scintillator crystals to reduce random and scatter backgrounds. A patient is not fully encircled by detector rings in order to minimize cost,causing incomplete sampling due to the side gaps. Monte Carlo simulation (including random and scatter) demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a spherical tumor of 2.5 cm diameter with a tumor to background ratio of2:1, utilizing the number of events that should be achievable with a6-minute scan after a 10 mCi injection (e.g., carbon-11 choline or fluorine-18 fluorocholine).

  1. Construction of Korean male tomographic model segmented from PET-CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Sik; Park, Sang Kyun; Lee, Jai Ki

    2004-01-01

    Tomographic human models provide currently the most realistic representation of human anatomy for radiation dosimetry calculation. Most of the models have been constructed by using computed tomographic (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from a single individual. Each scan has its inherent advantages and disadvantages. CT scan gives a considerable radiation dose to a subject, and MR scan takes too long time to get clear images of an immobile subject. An emerging source of medical images for the construction of tomographic models is PET-CT, which is performed when looking for cancer. In this study, a tomographic model of Korean adult male was developed by processing whole-body CT images of a PET-CT-scanned healthy volunteer. The 343 slices of the CT images were semi-automatically segmented layer by layer using a graphic software and screen digitizer. The 3rd Korean tomographic model, named KRMAN-2, consisting of 300x150x344 voxels of a size of 2x2x5mm 3 , was constructed. Examples of application to Monte Carlo radiation dosimetry calculation in idealized whole-body irradiations were given and discussed

  2. Current status of multi-detector row helical CT in imaging of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of multi-detector row helical CT in imaging of adult acquired pancreatic diseases and assessing surgical neoplastic resectability. ... The presence of inflammation, masses, and vascular invasion was evaluated and interpreted images were obtained during each phase. Results were compared with surgery, ...

  3. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  4. In situ characterization of delamination and crack growth of a CGO–LSM multi-layer ceramic sample investigated by X-ray tomographic microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2014-01-01

    The densification, delamination and crack growth behavior in a Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) and (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) multi-layer ceramic sample was studied using in situ X-ray tomographic microscopy (microtomography) to investigate the critical dynamics of crack propagation and delamination...... in a multilayered sample. Naturally occurring defects, caused by the sample preparation process, are shown not to be critical in sample degradation. Instead defects are nucleated during the debinding step. Crack growth is significantly faster along the material layers than perpendicular to them, and crack growth...

  5. Central tarsal bone fractures in horses not used for racing: Computed tomographic configuration and long-term outcome of lag screw fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Gunst, S; Del Chicca, Francesca; Fürst, Anton; Kuemmerle, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There are no reports on the configuration of equine central tarsal bone fractures based on cross-sectional imaging and clinical and radiographic long-term outcome after internal fixation. OBJECTIVES: To report clinical, radiographic and computed tomographic findings of equine central tarsal bone fractures and to evaluate the long-term outcome of internal fixation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: All horses diagnosed with a central tarsa...

  6. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  7. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  8. Development of a tomographic system adapted to 3D measurement of contaminated wounds based on the Cacao concept (Computer aided collimation Gamma Camera); Developpement a partir du concept CACAO (Camera A Collimation Assistee par Ordinateur) d'un systeme tomographique adapte a la mesure 3D de plaies contaminees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douiri, A

    2002-03-01

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) is a gamma camera using a collimator with large holes, a supplementary linear scanning motion during the acquisition and a dedicated reconstruction program taking full account of the source depth. The CACAO system was introduced to improve both the sensitivity and the resolution in nuclear medicine. This thesis focuses on the design of a fast and robust reconstruction algorithm in the CACAO project. We start by an overview of tomographic imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. After modelling the physical CACAO system, we present the complete reconstruction program which involves three steps: 1) shift and sum 2) deconvolution and filtering 3) rotation and sum. The deconvolution is the critical step that decreases the signal to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. We propose a regularized multi-channel algorithm to solve the deconvolution problem. We also present a fast algorithm based on Splines functions and preserving the high quality of the reconstructed images for the shift and the rotation steps. Comparisons of simulated reconstructed images in 2D and 3D for the conventional system (CPHC) and CACAO demonstrate the ability of CACAO system to increase the quality of the SPECT images. Finally, this study concludes with an experimental approach with a pixellated detector conceived for a 3D measurement of contaminated wounds. This experimentation proves the possible advantages of coupling the CACAO project with pixellated detectors. Moreover, a variety of applications could fully benefit from the CACAO system, such as low activity imaging, the use of high-energy gamma isotopes and the visualization of deep organs. Moreover the combination of the CACAO system with a pixels detector may open up further possibilities for the future of nuclear medicine. (author)

  9. A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauchelle, Philippe; Freud, Nicolas; Kaftandjian, Valerie; Babot, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to the detector, can be defined. Geometric unsharpness, for example, can be easily taken into account, even in complex configurations. Automatic translations or rotations of the object can be performed to simulate radioscopic or tomographic image acquisition. Simulations can be carried out with monochromatic or polychromatic beam spectra. This feature enables, for example, the beam hardening phenomenon to be dealt with or dual energy imaging techniques to be studied. The simulation principle is completely deterministic and consequently the computed images present no photon noise. Nevertheless, the variance of the signal associated with each pixel of the detector can be determined, which enables contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) maps to be computed, in order to predict quantitatively the detectability of defects in the inspected object. The CNR is a relevant indicator for optimizing the experimental parameters. This paper provides several examples of simulated images that illustrate some of the rich possibilities offered by our software. Depending on the simulation type, the computation time order of magnitude can vary from 0.1 s (simple radiographic projection) up to several hours (3D tomography) on a PC, with a 400 MHz microprocessor. Our simulation tool proves to be useful in developing new specific applications, in choosing the most suitable components when designing a new testing chain, and in saving time by reducing the number of experimental tests

  10. A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvauchelle, Philippe E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr; Freud, Nicolas; Kaftandjian, Valerie; Babot, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to the detector, can be defined. Geometric unsharpness, for example, can be easily taken into account, even in complex configurations. Automatic translations or rotations of the object can be performed to simulate radioscopic or tomographic image acquisition. Simulations can be carried out with monochromatic or polychromatic beam spectra. This feature enables, for example, the beam hardening phenomenon to be dealt with or dual energy imaging techniques to be studied. The simulation principle is completely deterministic and consequently the computed images present no photon noise. Nevertheless, the variance of the signal associated with each pixel of the detector can be determined, which enables contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) maps to be computed, in order to predict quantitatively the detectability of defects in the inspected object. The CNR is a relevant indicator for optimizing the experimental parameters. This paper provides several examples of simulated images that illustrate some of the rich possibilities offered by our software. Depending on the simulation type, the computation time order of magnitude can vary from 0.1 s (simple radiographic projection) up to several hours (3D tomography) on a PC, with a 400 MHz microprocessor. Our simulation tool proves to be useful in developing new specific applications, in choosing the most suitable components when designing a new testing chain, and in saving time by reducing the number of experimental tests.

  11. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi?GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-05-04

    European Extreme Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a high priority project in ground based astronomy that aims at constructing the largest telescope ever built. MOSAIC is an instrument proposed for E-ELT using Multi- Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique for astronomical telescopes, which compensates for effects of atmospheric turbulence on image quality, and operates on patches across a large FoV.

  12. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi?GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali; Ltaief, Hatem; Gratadour, Damien; Keyes, David E.; Sevin, Arnaud; Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Gendron, Eric; Morel, Carine; Vidal, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    European Extreme Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a high priority project in ground based astronomy that aims at constructing the largest telescope ever built. MOSAIC is an instrument proposed for E-ELT using Multi- Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique for astronomical telescopes, which compensates for effects of atmospheric turbulence on image quality, and operates on patches across a large FoV.

  13. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hui; Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto; Sato, Yoko; Shinzato, Takashi; Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro; Li, Huiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  14. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Sato, Yoko [Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Shinzato, Takashi [Nakagami General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Fujita, Jiro, E-mail: fujita@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Li, Huiping [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  15. Middle east respiratory syndrome-corona virus infection: A case report of sieral computed tomographic findings in a young male patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jin; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Hyuck [Dong A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Radiologic findings of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), a novel coronavirus infection, have been rarely reported. We report a 30-year-old male presented with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, who was diagnosed with MERS. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed rapidly developed multifocal nodular consolidations with ground-glass opacity halo and mixed consolidation, mainly in the dependent and peripheral areas. After treatment, follow-up imaging showed that these abnormalities markedly decreased but fibrotic changes developed.

  16. Efficient Multi-Party Computation over Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge; Ishai, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented by ...... the usefulness of the above results by presenting a novel application of MPC over (non-field) rings to the round-efficient secure computation of the maximum function. Basic Research in Computer Science (www.brics.dk), funded by the Danish National Research Foundation.......Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented...... by (boolean or arithmetic) circuits over finite fields. We are motivated by two limitations of these techniques: – Generality. Existing protocols do not apply to computation over more general algebraic structures (except via a brute-force simulation of computation in these structures). – Efficiency. The best...

  17. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  18. MEGHNAD – A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When heavy ion beam available from such machines fall on a target and undergo collision, very rich and often pristine fields of research open up. In order to carry on such activities, we have taken up a project to build a multi element gamma, heavy ion and neutron array of detectors (MEGHNAD) to detect and study the ...

  19. Performance comparison of multi-detector detection statistics in targeted compact binary coalescence GW search

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, K; Pai, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global network of advanced Interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors are expected to be on-line soon. Coherent observation of GW from a distant compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of interferometers located in different continents give crucial information about the source such as source location and polarization information. In this paper we compare different multi-detector network detection statistics for CBC search. In maximum likelihood ratio (MLR) based detection appro...

  20. Searches for $CP$ violation in multi-body charm decays and studies of radiation damage in the LHCb VELO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shanzhen; Gersabeck, Marco

    This thesis presents two searches for direct charge-parity ($CP$) violation in multi-body decays in the charm-sector at LHCb, the development of techniques for performing model-independent searches for direct $CP$ violation in multi-body decays, and the development of studies of radiation damage effects in the LHCb vertex detector. LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision vertex detector surrounding the $pp$ interaction region made with silicon strip sensors. Studies of the effects of radiation damage in LHC run-2 for the operation of this detector are presented and the determination of the operational bias voltages of the silicon strip sensors is discussed. An unbinned model independent technique for $CP$ violation searches in multi-body decays called the energy test is used for the first time. The selection and treatment of the coordinates used to describe the phase-space of the de...

  1. Assessment of temporal resolution of multi-detector row computed tomography in helical acquisition mode using the impulse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Takata, Tadanori; Ohashi, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a method for assessing the temporal resolution (TR) of multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) (MDCT) in the helical acquisition mode using temporal impulse signals generated by a metal ball passing through the acquisition plane. An 11-mm diameter metal ball was shot along the central axis at approximately 5 m/s during a helical acquisition, and the temporal sensitivity profile (TSP) was measured from the streak image intensities in the reconstructed helical CT images. To assess the validity, we compared the measured and theoretical TSPs for the 4-channel modes of two MDCT systems. A 64-channel MDCT system was used to compare TSPs and image quality of a motion phantom for the pitch factors P of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 with a rotation time R of 0.5 s, and for two R/P combinations of 0.5/1.2 and 0.33/0.8. Moreover, the temporal transfer functions (TFs) were calculated from the obtained TSPs. The measured and theoretical TSPs showed perfect agreement. The TSP narrowed with an increase in the pitch factor. The image sharpness of the 0.33/0.8 combination was inferior to that of the 0.5/1.2 combination, despite their almost identical full width at tenth maximum values. The temporal TFs quantitatively confirmed these differences. The TSP results demonstrated that the TR in the helical acquisition mode significantly depended on the pitch factor as well as the rotation time, and the pitch factor and reconstruction algorithm affected the TSP shape. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved vessel morphology measurements in contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography with non-linear post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencik, Maros; Lisauskas, Jennifer B.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Hoffmann, Udo; Abbara, Suhny; Achenbach, Stephan; Karl, W. Clem; Brady, Thomas J.; Chan, Raymond C.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits detection of coronary plaque. However, noise and blurring impair accuracy and precision of plaque measurements. The aim of the study was to evaluate MDCT post-processing based on non-linear image deblurring and edge-preserving noise suppression for measurements of plaque size. Contrast-enhanced MDCT coronary angiography was performed in four subjects (mean age 55 ± 5 years, mean heart rate 54 ± 5 bpm) using a 16-slice scanner (Siemens Sensation 16, collimation 16 x 0.75 mm, gantry rotation 420 ms, tube voltage 120 kV, tube current 550 mAs, 80 mL of contrast). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS; 40 MHz probe) was performed in one vessel in each patient and served as a reference standard. MDCT vessel cross-sectional images (1 mm thickness) were created perpendicular to centerline and aligned with corresponding IVUS images. MDCT images were processed using a deblurring and edge-preserving noise suppression algorithm. Then, three independent blinded observers segmented lumen and outer vessel boundaries in each modality to obtain vessel cross-sectional area and wall area in the unprocessed MDCT cross-sections, post-processed MDCT cross-sections and corresponding IVUS. The wall area measurement difference for unprocessed and post-processed MDCT images relative to IVUS was 0.4 ± 3.8 mm 2 and -0.2 ± 2.2 mm 2 (p 2 , respectively. In conclusion, MDCT permitted accurate in vivo measurement of wall area and vessel cross-sectional area as compared to IVUS. Post-processing to reduce blurring and noise reduced variability of wall area measurements and reduced measurement bias for both wall area and vessel cross-sectional area

  3. Multi-detector CT features of acute intestinal ischemia and their prognostic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-05-28

    Acute intestinal ischemia is an abdominal emergency occurring in nearly 1% of patients presenting with acute abdomen. The causes can be occlusive or non occlusive. Early diagnosis is important to improve survival rates. In most cases of late or missed diagnosis, the mortality rate from intestinal infarction is very high, with a reported value ranging from 60% to 90%. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a fundamental imaging technique that must be promptly performed in all patients with suspected bowel ischemia. Thanks to the new dedicated reconstruction program, its diagnostic potential is much improved compared to the past and currently it is superior to that of any other noninvasive technique. The increased spatial and temporal resolution, high-quality multi-planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, vessel probe, surface-shaded volume rending and tissue transition projections make MDCT the gold standard for the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, with reported sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 64%-93%, 92%-100%, 90%-100% and 94%-98%, respectively. MDCT contributes to appropriate treatment planning and provides important prognostic information thanks to its ability to define the nature and extent of the disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the diagnostic and prognostic role of MDCT in bowel ischemia with special regard to the state of art new reconstruction software.

  4. Development of continuous detectors for a high resolution animal PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, S.; Cherry, S.R.; Ricci, A.R.; Shao, Y.; Phelps, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose a design for a high resolution, gamma-camera style detector that is suitable for use in a positron emission tomograph dedicated to small animal research. Through Monte Carlo simulation the authors modeled the performance of a detector composed of one 76.2 x 76.2 x 8 mm thick LSO crystal coupled to a 3 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT). The authors investigated the effect of optical coupling compounds, surface treatment and dept of interaction on the quantity (efficiency) and distribution (spread) of scintillation photons reaching the photocathode. They also investigated linearization of the position response. The authors propose a PET system consisting of fourteen of these detectors in 2 rings, yielding a 16 cm diameter by 15 cm long tomograph. It would operate in 3-D mode subtending a 68% solid angle to the center. The expected spatial resolution is (≤2 mm), with a system efficiency of ∼ 10% at the center (200 keV lower threshold) and a singles count rate capability of approximately 10 6 cps per detector

  5. Hepatic Rupture Caused by Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzyme, and Low Platelet Count Syndrome: A Case Report with Computed Tomographic and Conventional Angiographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheong Bok; Ahn, Jae Hong; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Foundation, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The authors recently obtained successful clinical outcome after embolization of the hepatic artery and right inferior phrenic artery in a pregnant patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome causing hepatic rupture. We report the computed tomographic and conventional angiographic findings in a case of HELLP syndrome, resulting in hepatic infarction and rupture with active bleeding.

  6. Multi-Detector Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques in Arterial Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Adler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional imaging has become a critical aspect in the evaluation of arterial injuries. In particular, angiography using computed tomography (CT is the imaging of choice. A variety of techniques and options are available when evaluating for arterial injuries. Techniques involve contrast bolus, various phases of contrast enhancement, multiplanar reconstruction, volume rendering, and maximum intensity projection. After the images are rendered, a variety of features may be seen that diagnose the injury. This article provides a general overview of the techniques, important findings, and pitfalls in cross sectional imaging of arterial imaging, particularly in relation to computed tomography. In addition, the future directions of computed tomography, including a few techniques in the process of development, is also discussed.

  7. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT IN 1018 ASYMPTOMATIC HORSES: A MULTI-INSTITUTION STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Kneissl, Sibylle; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Zwick, Timo; Zekas, Lisa; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Published descriptions of nonseptic arthritis of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare and large studies investigating variations in the TMJ for asymptomatic horses are lacking. The objectives of this cross-sectional, retrospective, multi-institutional study were to describe anatomical variations in the TMJ detected using computed tomography (CT) in an equid population asymptomatic for TMJ disease and determine whether these variations were associated with patient signalment, reason for CT examination, or CT slice width. Medical records at eight hospitals were searched for horses that had head/neck CT scans and no clinical signs of TMJ disease. Age, breed, sex, clinical presentation, and CT slice width data were recorded. Alterations in CT contour and density of the mandibular condyles, mandibular fossae, and TMJ intra-articular discs were described for each horse. Generalized logistic regression was used to test associations between anatomical variations and horse age. A total of 1018 horses were sampled. Anatomical variations were found in TMJ CT images for 40% of horses and 29% of joints. These were dichotomous with regard to age. Horses horses commonly had spherical hypodensities within the mandibular condyles consistent with bone cysts; and hyperdense regions of the intra-articular disc consistent with dystrophic mineralization. Findings indicated that TMJ anatomic variations were common in CT images of younger and older horses asymptomatic for TMJ disease. Future studies are needed to more definitively characterize these CT variations using gross pathology and histopathology. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. Rapid tomographic reconstruction based on machine learning for time-resolved combustion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Yingzheng

    2018-04-01

    Optical tomography has attracted surged research efforts recently due to the progress in both the imaging concepts and the sensor and laser technologies. The high spatial and temporal resolutions achievable by these methods provide unprecedented opportunity for diagnosis of complicated turbulent combustion. However, due to the high data throughput and the inefficiency of the prevailing iterative methods, the tomographic reconstructions which are typically conducted off-line are computationally formidable. In this work, we propose an efficient inversion method based on a machine learning algorithm, which can extract useful information from the previous reconstructions and build efficient neural networks to serve as a surrogate model to rapidly predict the reconstructions. Extreme learning machine is cited here as an example for demonstrative purpose simply due to its ease of implementation, fast learning speed, and good generalization performance. Extensive numerical studies were performed, and the results show that the new method can dramatically reduce the computational time compared with the classical iterative methods. This technique is expected to be an alternative to existing methods when sufficient training data are available. Although this work is discussed under the context of tomographic absorption spectroscopy, we expect it to be useful also to other high speed tomographic modalities such as volumetric laser-induced fluorescence and tomographic laser-induced incandescence which have been demonstrated for combustion diagnostics.

  9. Positron computed tomography. Present and future design alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Sung-Cheng Huang; Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    There are six commercial companies in the United States of America, Canada, Europe and Asia that have or are developing PCT programs. Although positron computed tomography (PCT) system designs are still evolving and all the complex issues of system optimization are still not completely defined, some design concepts have achieved general acceptance. Circumferential designs employing hexagonal, octagonal or circular geometries are preferred since they maximize the tomographic plane efficiency. Bismuth germanate has become the detector of choice because of its high efficiency (intrinsic photopeak and geometric through high packing densities) when the small detectors required for high spatial resolution are used. Caesium fluoride detectors are also being investigated because of their short coincidence time resolution and potential for time of flight measurements. Multiplane systems, consisting of stacked single plane geometries, have been developed to provide higher overall organ efficiency, with some compromise in image quality compared with a single plane system. The most poorly characterized aspect of multiplane systems is the slit and septa shielding design that has a large impact on random and scatter coincidences, count-rate capability, efficiency and uniformity of spatial resolution. Present PCT systems have spatial resolutions in the tomographic plane of about 8 to 17 mm and axial resolution of about 12 to 18 mm. PCT systems that have been or are now being developed are providing the means to demonstrate the unique capability of PCT to provide quantitative measurements of local biochemical and functional processes in man

  10. [Computed tomographic semiotics of respiratory tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, P V; Lazareva, A S; Malashenkov, E A

    2013-01-01

    to study the computed tomographic (CT) semiotics of respiratory tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in relation to the degree of immunosuppression. The study enrolled 74 patients with verified respiratory tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection. According to the degree of immunosuppression and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention classification (Atlanta, USA, 1993), the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) CD4 > or = 500 cells/microl (n = 10); 2) CD4 200-499 cells/microl (n = 28); (3) CD4 <200 cells/microl (n = 36). With spiral CT, focal changes with a predominance of clear-cut foci are visualized at a high frequency in the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection. In progressive immunosuppression, the CT pattern displays atypical syndromes (frosted glass-type foci, interstitial infiltration, and thin-walled cavities) with the lower rate of alveolar infiltration with confluent foci, as well as lung tissue decay. Enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes are characteristic of 70.0% of the patients with HIV infection and tuberculosis regardless of the level of CD4 cells. As immunosuppression progresses, the CT pattern of respiratory tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection shows as atypical syndromes (unclearly defined frosted glass-type focal changes, interstitial infiltrations, and thin-walled cavernous masses). A marked polymorphism in changes and a high rate of lymph node involvement are characteristic.

  11. A Compute Environment of ABC95 Array Computer Based on Multi-FPGA Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ABC95 array computer is a multi-function network's computer based on FPGA technology, The multi-function network supports processors conflict-free access data from memory and supports processors access data from processors based on enhanced MESH network.ABC95 instruction's system includes control instructions, scalar instructions, vectors instructions.Mostly net-work instructions are introduced.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer assemble language is designed.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer for VC++ is advanced.It includes load function of ABC95 array computer program and data, store function, run function and so on.Specially, The data type of ABC95 array computer conflict-free access is defined.The results show that these technologies can develop programmer of ABC95 array computer effectively.

  12. Modelling physics detectors in a computer aided design system for simulation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahvenainen, J.; Oksakivi, T.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of transferring physics detector models from computer aided design systems into physics simulation packages like GEANT is receiving increasing attention. The problem of exporting detector models constructed in CAD systems into GEANT is well known. We discuss the problem and describe an application, called DDT, which allows one to design detector models in a CAD system and then transfer the models into GEANT for simulation purposes. (orig.)

  13. Computer-assisted lung nodule volumetry from multi-detector row CT: Influence of image reconstruction parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Osamu; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Johkoh, Takeshi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Mihara, Naoki; Inoue, Atsuo; Tsubamoto, Mitsuko; Natsag, Javzandulam; Hamada, Seiki; Nakamura, Hironobu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate differences in volumetric measurement of pulmonary nodules caused by changing the reconstruction parameters for multi-detector row CT. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine pulmonary nodules less than 2 cm in diameter were examined by multi-slice CT. All nodules were solid, and located in the peripheral part of the lungs. The resultant 48 parameters images were reconstructed by changing slice thickness (1.25, 2.5, 3.75, or 5 mm), field of view (FOV: 10, 20, or 30 cm), algorithm (high-spatial frequency algorithm or low-spatial frequency algorithm) and reconstruction interval (reconstruction with 50% overlapping of the reconstructed slices or non-overlapping reconstruction). Volumetric measurements were calculated using commercially available software. The differences between nodule volumes were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test. Results: The diameter of the nodules was 8.7 ± 2.7 mm on average, ranging from 4.3 to 16.4 mm. Pulmonary nodule volume did not change significantly with changes in slice thickness or FOV (p > 0.05), but was significantly larger with the high-spatial frequency algorithm than the low-spatial frequency algorithm (p < 0.05), except for one reconstruction parameter. The volumes determined by non-overlapping reconstruction were significantly larger than those of overlapping reconstruction (p < 0.05), except for a 1.25 mm thickness with 10 cm FOV with the high-spatial frequency algorithm, and 5 mm thickness. The maximum difference in measured volume was 16% on average between the 1.25 mm slice thickness/10 cm FOV/high-spatial frequency algorithm parameters and overlapping reconstruction. Conclusion: Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules differ with changes in the reconstruction parameters, with a tendency toward larger volumes in high-spatial frequency algorithm and non-overlapping reconstruction compared to the low-spatial frequency algorithm and overlapping reconstruction

  14. Time-of-flight positron emission tomography and associated detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacher, J.; Allemand, R.; Campagnolo, R.

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the timing capabilities of the detectors (scintillators and photomultipliers) in time-of-flight positron emission tomography is presented. The advantages of BaF 2 compared with CsF for the futur tomographs are evaluated [fr

  15. Characterization of electronics devices for computed tomography dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Cinthia Marques Magalhaes

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an examination of high diagnostic capability that delivers high doses of radiation compared with other diagnostic radiological examinations. The current CT dosimetry is mainly made by using a 100 mm long ionization chamber. However, it was verified that this extension, which is intended to collect ali scattered radiation of the single slice dose profile in CT, is not enough. An alternative dosimetry has been suggested by translating smaller detectors. In this work, commercial electronics devices of small dimensions were characterized for CT dosimetry. The project can be divided in five parts: a) pre-selection of devices; b) electrical characterization of selected devices; e) dosimetric characterization in Iaboratory, using radiation qualities specific to CT, and in a tomograph; d) evaluation of the dose profile in CT scanner (free in air and in head and body dosimetric phantom); e) evaluation of the new MSAD detector in a tomograph. The selected devices were OP520 and OP521 phototransistors and BPW34FS photodiode. Before the dosimetric characterization, three configurations of detectors, with 4, 2 and 1 OP520 phototransistor working as a single detector, were evaluated and the configuration with only one device was the most adequate. Hence, the following tests, for all devices, were made using the configuration with only one device. The tests of dosimetric characterization in laboratory and in a tomograph were: energy dependence, response as a function of air kerma (laboratory) and CTDI 100 (scanner), sensitivity variation and angular dependence. In both characterizations, the devices showed some energy dependence, indicating the need of correction factors depending on the beam energy; their response was linear with the air kerma and the CTDI 100 ; the OP520 phototransistor showed the largest variation in sensitivity with the irradiation and the photodiode was the most stable; the angular dependence was significant in the laboratory and

  16. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  17. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Han, Seung Ho

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  18. Image matrix processor for fast multi-dimensional computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, George P.; Skeate, Michael F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for multi-dimensional computation which comprises a computation engine, including a plurality of processing modules. The processing modules are configured in parallel and compute respective contributions to a computed multi-dimensional image of respective two dimensional data sets. A high-speed, parallel access storage system is provided which stores the multi-dimensional data sets, and a switching circuit routes the data among the processing modules in the computation engine and the storage system. A data acquisition port receives the two dimensional data sets representing projections through an image, for reconstruction algorithms such as encountered in computerized tomography. The processing modules include a programmable local host, by which they may be configured to execute a plurality of different types of multi-dimensional algorithms. The processing modules thus include an image manipulation processor, which includes a source cache, a target cache, a coefficient table, and control software for executing image transformation routines using data in the source cache and the coefficient table and loading resulting data in the target cache. The local host processor operates to load the source cache with a two dimensional data set, loads the coefficient table, and transfers resulting data out of the target cache to the storage system, or to another destination.

  19. Towards quantum computation with multi-particle interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamma, Vincenzo; Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Shih, Yanhua [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    One of the main challenges in quantum computation is the realization of entangled states with a large number of particles. We have experimentally demonstrated a novel factoring algorithm which relies only on optical multi-path interference and on the periodicity properties of Gauss sums with continuous arguments. An interesting implementation of such a method can, in principle, take advantage of matter-wave interferometers characterized by long-time evolution of a BEC in microgravity. A more recent approach to factorization aims to achieve an exponential speed-up without entanglement by exploiting multi-particle m-order interference. In this case, the basic requirement for quantum computation is interference of an exponentially large number of multi-particle amplitudes.

  20. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, R.; Zankl, M.; Petoussi, N.; Mannweiler, E.; Drexler, G.; Williams, G.

    1989-01-01

    The first generation of heterogenoeous anthropomorphic mathematical models to be used in dose calculations was the MIRD-5 adult phantom, followed by the pediatric MIRD-type phantoms and by the GSF sex-specific phantoms ADAM and EVA. A new generation of realistic anthropomorphic models is now introduced. The organs and tissues of these models consist of a well defined number of volume elements (voxels), derived from computer tomographic (CT) data; consequently, these models were named voxel or tomographic models. So far two voxel models of real patients are available: one of an 8 week old baby and of a 7 year old child. For simplicity, the model of the baby will be referred to as BABY and that of the child as CHILD. In chapter 1 a brief literature review is given on the existing mathematical models and their applications. The reasons that lead to the construction of the new CT models is discussed. In chapter 2 the technique is described which allows to convert any physical object into computer files to be used for dose calculations. The technique which produces three dimensional reconstructions of high resolution is discussed. In chapter 3 the main characteristics of the models of the baby and child are given. Tables of organ masses and volumes are presented together with three dimensional images of some organs and tissues. A special mention is given to the assessment of bone marrow distribution. Chapter 4 gives a short description of the Monte Carlo code used in conjunction with the models to calculate organ and tissue doses resulting from photon exposures. Some technical details concerning the computer files which describe the models are also given. (orig./HP)

  1. Radiation dosimetry and its influencing factors for the multi-detector/slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Mei; Zheng Junzheng

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Detector/Slice Spiral Computed Tomography (MDCT/MSCT)reflects the new progress in equipment and technology for radiology. Its popularized application demonstrates its advantages for clinical diagnosis. With the continuous development and growing uses of the MDCT/MSCT, the medical exposure of the patients and public has also been increasing. Therefore, assessment of the radiation dose and radiation risk from X-CT has become an increasingly important concern that should be addressed. Thus, this paper summarizes the main characteristics of the MDCT/MSCT emphasizing particularly on the radiation dosimetry, and reviews the expressions and measures of radiation dose in the MDCT/MSCT. In addition, main factors that influence radiation dose from the MDCT/MSCT are also discussed. A proper grasp of its radiation dosimetry and assessment method can significantly help radiologists, health physicists, medical physicists, X-CT engineers and manufacturers improve the management of radiation dose while optimizing the image quality in the MDCT/MSCT. (authors)

  2. Gross, computed tomographic and histological findings in mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis due to apical infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M B; Pearson, G R; Perkins, J D; Tremaine, W H

    2015-09-01

    The most prevalent type of equine dental pulpitis due to apical infection is not associated with coronal fractures or periodontal disease. The pathogenesis of this type of pulpitis is not fully understood. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to investigate equine dental disorders. However, gross, tomographic and histopathological changes in equine dental pulpitis have not been compared previously. To compare gross, CT and histological appearances of sectioned mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis without coronal fractures or periodontal disease. To contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of equine dental pulpitis. Descriptive study using diseased and healthy teeth. Mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis (cases), and from cadavers with no history of dental disease (controls), were compared using CT in the transverse plane at 1 mm intervals. Teeth were then sectioned transversely, photographed and processed for histopathological examination. Tomographs were compared with corresponding gross and histological sections. Cement, dentine and bone had similar ranges of attenuation (550-2000 Hounsfield Units, HU) in tomographs but could be differentiated from pulp (-400 to 500 HU) and enamel (> 2500 HU). Twelve discrete dental lesions were identified grossly, 10 of which were characterised histologically. Reactive and reparative dentinogenesis and extensive pulpar mineralisation, previously undescribed, were identified. Pulpar oedema, neutrophilic inflammation, cement and enamel defects, and reactive cemental deposition were also observed. The CT and pathological findings corresponded well where there was mineralised tissue deposited, defects in mineralised tissue, or food material in the pulpar area. Pulpar and dentinal necrosis and cement destruction, evident grossly and histologically, did not correspond to CT changes. Computed tomography is useful for identifying deposition and

  3. Neutrino-4 experiment on search for sterile neutrino with multi-section model of detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Samoilov, R.; Fomin, A.; Polyushkin, A.; Zinoviev, V.; Neustroev, P.; Golovtsov, V.; Chernyj, A.; Zherebtsov, O.; Martemyanov, V.; Tarasenkov, V.; Aleshin, V.; Petelin, A.; Izhutov, A.; Tuzov, A.; Sazontov, S.; Ryazanov, D.; Gromov, M.; Afanasiev, V.; Zaytsev, M.; Chaikovskii, M.

    2017-09-01

    In order to carry out research in the field of possible existence of a sterile neutrino the laboratory based on SM-3 reactor (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) was created to search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino. The prototype of a multi-section neutrino detector with liquid scintillator volume of 350 l was installed in the middle of 2015. It is a moveable inside the passive shielding detector, which can be set at distance range from 6 to 11 meters from the reactor core. Measurements of antineutrino flux at such small distances from the reactor core are carried out with moveable detector for the first time. The measurements carried out with detector prototype demonstrated a possibility of measuring a reactor antineutrino flux in difficult conditions of cosmic background at Earth surface.

  4. Computed tomographic features of apical infection of equine maxillary cheek teeth: a retrospective study of 49 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, M; Fürst, A; Lewis, F I; Kummer, M; Ohlerth, S

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies evaluating the relevance of individual CT features of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth are lacking. To study the prevalence and relationship of single CT features in horses with and without clinical evidence of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. Retrospective case-control study. Multislice CT scans of the head of 49 horses were evaluated retrospectively. Changes of the infundibulum, pulp, root, lamina dura, periodontal space and alveolar bone in maxillary cheek teeth were recorded. Single CT changes were much more prevalent in the 28 horses with clinical signs. However, infundibular changes and a nondetectable lamina dura were also common in the 21 horses without clinical evidence of apical infection. Computed tomographic abnormalities of the pulp, root, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture were significantly related. Infundibular changes were not associated with other CT signs of apical infection. Although nondetectable lamina dura was the most frequent CT change in all teeth in both studied groups, it was most commonly a solitary feature in otherwise normal teeth. Apical infections, defined as ≥3 CT changes, occurred mainly in the 108/208, 109/209 and 110/210 (Triadan numbers) and were found only in horses with clinical evidence of apical infection, except in one horse without clinical signs that had one affected root. Combined CT changes of the pulp, root, lamina dura, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture appear to be reliable features to diagnose apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. As a solitary feature, a nondetectable lamina dura should be interpreted cautiously and may even be considered normal due to its minor thickness and/or too low resolution of the imaging modality. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Preliminary study on X-ray fluorescence computed tomography imaging of gold nanoparticles: Acceleration of data acquisition by multiple pinholes scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaya, Tenta; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Seo, Seung-Jum; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Kim, Jong-Ki; Yuasa, Tetsuya

    2018-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have recently attracted attention in nanomedicine as novel contrast agents for cancer imaging. A decisive tomographic imaging technique has not yet been established to depict the 3-D distribution of GNPs in an object. An imaging technique known as pinhole-based X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) is a promising method that can be used to reconstruct the distribution of GNPs from the X-ray fluorescence emitted by GNPs. We address the acceleration of data acquisition in pinhole-based XFCT for preclinical use using a multiple pinhole scheme. In this scheme, multiple projections are simultaneously acquired through a multi-pinhole collimator with a 2-D detector and full-field volumetric beam to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the projections; this enables fast data acquisition. To demonstrate the efficacy of this method, we performed an imaging experiment using a physical phantom with an actual multi-pinhole XFCT system that was constructed using the beamline AR-NE7A at KEK. The preliminary study showed that the multi-pinhole XFCT achieved a data acquisition time of 20 min at a theoretical detection limit of approximately 0.1 Au mg/ml and at a spatial resolution of 0.4 mm.

  6. Morphologic analysis of Japanese adult sacroiliac joint using computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xuanchao; Takayama, Akinori; Shibata, Yasuaki; Ito, Hiromoto

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the relationship of angles in adult sacroiliac joints (SJ) with laterality, age, gender, degeneration, childbearing in different locations. The study was performed in 92 healthy Japanese adult volunteers (46 males and 46 females, aged 21∼86 years) who had no low back complaints. Axial computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained using an X-VIGOR apparatus (Toshiba Medical Inc. Japan). The angle measurements were taken directly using soft National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image 1.61 (Scion Inc. USA). We examined possible factors. Statistical evaluation was calculated using t-test by soft SPSS (SPSS Inc. Japan). Our findings indicated that SJ angles had no relationships with laterality, gender. But from upper part to lower part, the average of SJ angle was 7.61 deg±8.7 deg, 5.16 deg±7.3 deg, -0.85 deg±7.3 deg respectively in the left and 6.56 deg±9.4 deg, 4.10 deg±7.2 deg, -2.30 deg±7.0 deg in the right. The difference is significant between lower part and upper-middle part (P<0.05). Our results provided new anatomic and morphological data for better understandings of SJ in the clinic work. (author)

  7. Soil structure restoration by wet/dry cycles assessed by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Some studies have shown that soil structures can be restored through the sequence of wetting and drying cycles. These cycles causes changes in the soil pore system, which is very important to agriculture, because directly affect plant growth by root penetration, retention and movement of water and gases. The aim of this study was to follow by gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) the effect of soil wetting/drying process on the soil structure repairing of samples collected in cylinders. A first-generation tomograph with an {sup 241}Am source and a 7.62 x 7.62 cm NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube was employed. Image analysis and tomographic unit profiles show that CT can provide an insight to sample structure restoration, which helps to have a better comprehension of soil physical hydraulic phenomena. (author)

  8. Soil structure restoration by wet/dry cycles assessed by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Some studies have shown that soil structures can be restored through the sequence of wetting and drying cycles. These cycles causes changes in the soil pore system, which is very important to agriculture, because directly affect plant growth by root penetration, retention and movement of water and gases. The aim of this study was to follow by gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) the effect of soil wetting/drying process on the soil structure repairing of samples collected in cylinders. A first-generation tomograph with an 241 Am source and a 7.62 x 7.62 cm NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube was employed. Image analysis and tomographic unit profiles show that CT can provide an insight to sample structure restoration, which helps to have a better comprehension of soil physical hydraulic phenomena. (author)

  9. A prototype detector using the neutron image intensifier and multi-anode type photomultiplier tube for pulsed neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hirotaku; Sato, Hirotaka; Hara, Kaoru Y.; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a neutron two-dimensional (2-D) detector for pulsed neutron imaging as a prototype detector, which was composed of a neutron image intensifier and a multi-anode type photomultiplier tube. A neutron transmission spectrum of α-Fe plate was measured by the prototype detector, and compared with the one measured by a typical neutron 2-D detector. The spectrum was in reasonable agreement with the one measured by the typical detector in the neutron wavelength region above 0.15 nm. In addition, a neutron transmission image of a cadmium indicator was obtained by the prototype detector. The usefulness of the prototype detector for pulsed neutron imaging was demonstrated. (author)

  10. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  11. Biomorphic Multi-Agent Architecture for Persistent Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodding, Kenneth N.; Brewster, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A multi-agent software/hardware architecture, inspired by the multicellular nature of living organisms, has been proposed as the basis of design of a robust, reliable, persistent computing system. Just as a multicellular organism can adapt to changing environmental conditions and can survive despite the failure of individual cells, a multi-agent computing system, as envisioned, could adapt to changing hardware, software, and environmental conditions. In particular, the computing system could continue to function (perhaps at a reduced but still reasonable level of performance) if one or more component( s) of the system were to fail. One of the defining characteristics of a multicellular organism is unity of purpose. In biology, the purpose is survival of the organism. The purpose of the proposed multi-agent architecture is to provide a persistent computing environment in harsh conditions in which repair is difficult or impossible. A multi-agent, organism-like computing system would be a single entity built from agents or cells. Each agent or cell would be a discrete hardware processing unit that would include a data processor with local memory, an internal clock, and a suite of communication equipment capable of both local line-of-sight communications and global broadcast communications. Some cells, denoted specialist cells, could contain such additional hardware as sensors and emitters. Each cell would be independent in the sense that there would be no global clock, no global (shared) memory, no pre-assigned cell identifiers, no pre-defined network topology, and no centralized brain or control structure. Like each cell in a living organism, each agent or cell of the computing system would contain a full description of the system encoded as genes, but in this case, the genes would be components of a software genome.

  12. Registration of synthetic tomographic projection data sets using cross-correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitchard, E.E.; Aldridge, J.S.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Mackie, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    Tomographic registration, a method that makes possible accurate patient registration directly from projection data, consists of three processing steps: (i) manual coarse positioning, (ii) tomographic projection set acquisition, and (iii) computer mediated refined positioning. In the coarse positioning stage, the degree of patient alignment is comparable with that achieved with the standard radiotherapy set-up. However, the accuracy requirements are somewhat more relaxed in that meticulous alignment of the patient using external laser indicators is not necessary. Instead, tomographic projection sets are compared with planning CTs in order to achieve improved patient set-up. The projection sets are cross-correlated to obtain the best-fit translation and rotation offsets. The algorithm has been tested on synthetic data with the incorporation of varying amounts of Gaussian pseudo-random noise. These tests demonstrate the algorithm's stability and also confirm that alignment can be achieved with an accuracy of less than one projection pixel. (author)

  13. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, 3 He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using 3 He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m 2 . As a result of the so-called ' 3 He shortage crisis , the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B 4 C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard equipment. Prototypes of

  14. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerard, Bruno [ILL-ESS-LiU collaboration, CRISP project, Institut Laue Langevin - ILL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, {sup 3}He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using {sup 3}He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m{sup 2}. As a result of the so-called '{sup 3}He shortage crisis{sup ,} the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B{sub 4}C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard

  15. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The principal problem in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning is the length of time required to obtain meaningful data. Patient movement and radioisotope migration during the scanning period can cause distortion of the image. The object of this invention is to reduce the scanning time without degrading the images obtained. A system is described in which a scintillation camera detector is moved to an orbit about the cranial-caudal axis relative to the patient. A collimator is used in which lead septa are arranged so as to admit gamma rays travelling perpendicular to this axis with high spatial resolution and those travelling in the direction of the axis with low spatial resolution, thus increasing the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable without sacrificing spatial resolution. (author)

  17. Timing characteristics of a two-dimensional multi-wire cathode strip detector for fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vind, R.P.; Joshi, B.N.; Jangale, R.V.; Inkar, A.L.; Prajapati, G.K.; John, B.V.; Biswas, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    In the recent past, a gas filled two-dimensional multi-wire cathode strip detector (MCSD) was developed for the detection of fission fragments (FFs). The position resolution was found to be about 1.0 and 1.5 mm in X and Y directions respectively. The detector has three electrode planes consisting of cathode strip (X-plane), anode wires and split-cathode wires (Y-plane). Each thin wire of the anode plane placed between the two cathode planes is essentially independent and behaves like a proportional counter. The construction of the detector in detail has been given in our earlier paper. The position information has been obtained by employing high impedance discrete delay line read out method for extracting position information in X and Y-directions. In this work, the timing characteristics of MCSD detector are reported to explore the possible use of this detector for the measurement of the mass of the fission fragments produced in heavy ion induced fission reactions

  18. Computed Tomographic Findings and Mortality in Patients With Pneumomediastinum From Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wayne S; Chong, Vincent E; Victorino, Gregory P

    2015-08-01

    The care of most patients with pneumomediastinum (PNM) due to trauma can be managed conservatively; however, owing to aerodigestive tract injury and other associated injuries, there is a subset of patients with PNM who are at higher risk of mortality but can be difficult to identify. To characterize computed tomographic (CT) findings associated with mortality in patients with PNM due to blunt trauma. A retrospective review of medical records from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2011, was conducted at a university-based urban trauma center. The patients evaluated were those injured by blunt trauma and found to have PNM on initial chest CT scanning. Data analysis was performed July 2, 2013, to June 18, 2014. In-hospital mortality. During the study period, 3327 patients with blunt trauma underwent chest CT. Of these, 72 patients (2.2%) had PNM. Patients with PNM had higher Injury Severity Scores (P blunt trauma; however, CT findings of posterior PNM, air in all mediastinal compartments, and concurrent hemothorax are associated with increased mortality. These CT findings could be used as a triage tool to alert the trauma surgeon to a potentially lethal injury.

  19. Results of computer-tomographic examination in different forms and course of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojchev, R.

    1991-01-01

    Data are reported of a clinical and computer-tomographic study of 103 schizophrenic patients. Those with simple form of the disease had most pronounced evidence of dilated III and lateral ventricles (41.8% of the cases for the III ventricle and 72.4% for the lateral ventricles). All patients with circular, simple and catatonic form had signs of pathology of the cortical sulci. Regarding the ventricular system evidences of pathology prevailed in cases of impetus-progredient and constantly progredient course, whereas in respect to cortical pathology, the results were almost identical in all three types of psychosis - 95.2% of cases of constantly progredient and 95.6% - of impetus-progredient course. Attention was called to the 'surprising' data of organic brain injury in patients with paranoid and circular form of the disease, as well as in the most benign (from clinical point of view) impetus course. It is assumed that morphologic changes in the brain of schizophrenic patients are a natural phenomenon, but so far have not been a subject of comprehensive studies, maybe because of prejudice or lack of appropriate methods for examination of the brain during life's time. 6 figs., 15 refs

  20. Computed tomographic fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Takashi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Machida, Suguru; Tominaga, Keigo; Yokoi, Kohei; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomographic (CT) fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) with an 18-gauge automatic biopsy gun for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Between March 1996 and January 1998, 50 patients in whom pulmonary lesions could not be diagnosed cytopathologically with fiberoptic bronchoscopy or were not clearly visualized with fluoroscopy underwent CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB. Final pathological diagnoses were 23 lung carcinomas, five pulmonary metastases and 22 benign lesions. Sufficient tissue for analysis was obtained from 48 of the 50 lesions (96%). The overall diagnostic yield of CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB was 90%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for malignancy were 89%, 100% and 94%, respectively. In 20 of the 22 cases (91%) of benign lesions, histological analysis yielded correct and specific diagnoses. Complications occurred in 22 of the 50 cases (44%). The most common complication was pneumothorax, which occurred in 21 of the 50 cases (42%). Chest tube insertion was required in 6 (12%). Although CT fluoroscopy could not decrease the complication rate, CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB with an automatic biopsy gun appears to be a promising technique for diagnosing pulmonary lesions, particularly benign lesions. (author)

  1. Tomographic Image Reconstruction Using Training Images with Matrix and Tensor Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Sara

    the image resolution compared to a classical reconstruction method such as Filtered Back Projection (FBP). Some priors for the tomographic reconstruction take the form of cross-section images of similar objects, providing a set of the so-called training images, that hold the key to the structural......Reducing X-ray exposure while maintaining the image quality is a major challenge in computed tomography (CT); since the imperfect data produced from the few view and/or low intensity projections results in low-quality images that are suffering from severe artifacts when using conventional...... information about the solution. The training images must be reliable and application-specific. This PhD project aims at providing a mathematical and computational framework for the use of training sets as non-parametric priors for the solution in tomographic image reconstruction. Through an unsupervised...

  2. A multi-panel direction-sensitive gamma-ray detector for low-altitude radiological searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, E.M.; Farsoni, A.T.

    2016-11-11

    A lightweight, low-cost multi-panel direction-sensitive radiation detector prototype has been developed at Oregon State University that is designed to be mounted on a small unmanned aerial system to autonomously search for radiation sources while flying close to the ground. The detection system comprises sixteen BGO-SiPM detector panels with an adjustable view angle, and signal outputs are processed in parallel in an FPGA. The minimum detectable activity was calculated to be 1.3 μCi of {sup 137}Cs at 1 m in under 60 s. The counting response of the detector panels were characterized and found to have 4.7% relative standard deviation, indicating good uniformity in overall design and assembly. The detector was also able to estimate the direction of a 12.3 μCi {sup 137}Cs source 100 cm from the device center with 2.3° accuracy in a 95% confidence width of 10.8° in 60 s.

  3. Optical readout in a multi-module system test for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Nderitu Kirichu, Simon; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. It consists of detector modules, optoboards, optical fibres, Back of Crate cards, Readout Drivers, and control computers. In this paper, the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain are described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: retrospective analysis of the computer-tomographic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupescu, Ioana G; Grasu, Mugur; Boros, Mirela; Gheorghe, Cristian; Ionescu, Mihnea; Popescu, Irinel; Herlea, Vlad; Georgescu, Serban A

    2007-06-01

    To describe the computer-tomographic (CT) aspects of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in correlation to their histology. The medical records of all patients at our hospital with a histologic diagnosis of GIST between January 2002 and June 2006, and investigated before surgery by CT, were reviewed. Two radiologists with knowledge of the diagnosis reviewed the CT findings. Amongst 15 cases of GISTs, 9 cases involved the stomach and 4 cases the small intestine. Location of the primary tumor could not be determined for 2 of 15 tumors, because of the presence of extensive peritoneal metastases. Most primary tumors were predominantly extraluminal (13 cases) while two were clearly endoluminal. The mean diameter of the primary tumor was 8 cm. The tumor margin was well defined in 12 patients and irregular in 3 cases. Central fluid attenuation was present in 11 tumors, while central gas was seen in two cases. Metastases were seen in 2 cases at presentation and in another 2 patients during follow-up. Spread was exclusive to the liver or peritoneum. Visceral obstruction was absent even in extensive peritoneal metastatic disease. Ascites was an unusual finding. CT plays an important role not only in the detection and the localization but also in the evaluation of the extension and follow-up of theses tumors. Using only CT aspects, we can only suspect the diagnosis to GISTs. Often other soft-tissue tumors with gastrointestinal involvement can mimic GISTs. In all cases histological diagnosis is essential.

  5. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC); colorectal cancer diagnosis with CTC in an Auckland population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Helen; Dodd, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in the detection of colorectal cancer in our population and evaluate the reasons why these lesions may be missed on CTC. All patients who underwent CTC in the 65-month period from 1 January 2004 to 1 July 2009 were included in the analysis. Demographic data and CTC findings were recorded, according to the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System. Data were cross-matched with the National Cancer Registry results for colorectal cancer cases between 1 January 2004 and 1 October 2009, 3 months longer to include any delayed diagnoses. There were 2026 consecutive CTC patients, comprising 52.6% female, average age of 60 years; range 19–87. Approximately 84% were symptomatic. There were 45 confirmed colorectal cancers among this patient group in the National Cancer Registry during the relevant time period compared with 43 suspected cancers on CTC, giving a miss rate of 2 of 45, or 4.4%. The sensitivity of 95% for CTC in the detection of colorectal cancer compares favourably with the published national and international data.

  6. Multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post peta-scale computing, on the road to exa-scale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the 'K' and 'Hooper' ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm. (authors)

  7. Coronary dual source multi detector computed tomography in patients suspected of coronary artery disease: Prevalence of incidental extra-cardiac findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendix, K.; Jensen, J.M.; Poulsen, S.; Mygind, N.; Norgaard, B.L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To establish the prevalence of incidental extra-cardiac findings (ECFs) in coronary multi detector computed tomography (CCT) performed in a large, homogeneous cohort of patients suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD). (2) To examine whether any association can be established between ECFs and pretest risk as determined by conventional risk factors for CAD, the Diamond-Forrester risk model or coronary artery calcium scores. (3) To assess cost related to extra-cardiac examinations. Design: Retrospective study of consecutive patients who had CCT performed. A large field of view was recreated from the non-enhanced CT scan and evaluated by a radiologist for incidental ECFs. Subjects: Patients with chest pain referred to CTA by a cardiologist. Results: In 1383 patients a total of 481 ECFs were indentified, 378 minor (meaning no follow-up was needed) and 103 major ECFs (ECF followed up clinically and/or with additional imaging), in a total of 393 (28%) patients. 85 (6%) patients had one major ECF and 9 (0.7%) patients had two major ECFs. In 19 (4 cases of malignancy) patients the major ECF had therapeutic consequences. Significant positive associations were found between age and smoking, respectively and the presence of ECFs. The cost estimate of saving one life from malignant disease based on ECF examinations is 40,190 Euro . Conclusion: Incidental extra-cardiac findings are common, sometimes revealing serious, even malignant disease. Diagnostic follow-up of major ECFs seems to be cost-effective in a Danish clinical setting. We recommend investigating a large field of view for incidental ECFs following CCT.

  8. Reducing image noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography: effect of an integrated circuit CT detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; Michalak, Gregory J; Vrieze, Thomas J; Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Shiung, Maria M; McCollough, Cynthia H; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the integrated circuit (IC) detector results in reduced noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography (CTC). Three hundred sixty-six consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated CTC using the same CT scanner system, except for a difference in CT detectors (IC or conventional). Image noise, patient size, and scanner radiation output (volume CT dose index) were quantitatively compared between patient cohorts using each detector system, with separate comparisons for the abdomen and pelvis. For the abdomen and pelvis, despite significantly larger patient sizes in the IC detector cohort (both P 0.18). Based on the observed image noise reduction, radiation dose could alternatively be reduced by approximately 20% to result in similar levels of image noise. Computed tomography colonography images acquired using the IC detector had significantly lower noise than images acquired using the conventional detector. This noise reduction can permit further radiation dose reduction in CTC.

  9. Terahertz computed tomography in three-dimensional using a pyroelectric array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Rong, Lu; Huang, Haochong; Wan, Min; Wang, Yunxin

    2017-05-01

    Terahertz frequency range spans from 0.1 to 10 THz. Terahertz radiation can penetrate nonpolar materials and nonmetallic materials, such as plastics, wood, and clothes. Then the feature makes the terahertz imaging have important research value. Terahertz computed tomography makes use of the penetrability of terahertz radiation and obtains three-dimensional object projection data. In the paper, continuous-wave terahertz computed tomography with a pyroelectric array detectoris presented. Compared with scanning terahertz computed tomography, a pyroelectric array detector can obtain a large number of projection data in a short time, as the acquisition mode of the array pyroelectric detector omit the projection process on the vertical and horizontal direction. With the two-dimensional cross-sectional images of the object are obtained by the filtered back projection algorithm. The two side distance of the straw wall account for 80 pixels, so it multiplied by the pixel size is equal to the diameter of the straw about 6.4 mm. Compared with the actual diameter of the straw, the relative error is 6%. In order to reconstruct the three-dimensional internal structure image of the straw, the y direction range from 70 to 150 are selected on the array pyroelectric detector and are reconstructed by the filtered back projection algorithm. As the pixel size is 80 μm, the height of three-dimensional internal structure image of the straw is 6.48 mm. The presented system can rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional object by using a pyroelectric array detector and explores the feasibility of on non-destructive evaluation and security testing.

  10. Advances in tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novara, M.

    2013-01-01

    This research deals with advanced developments in 3D particle image velocimetry based on the tomographic PIV technique (Tomo-PIV). The latter is a relatively recent measurement technique introduced by Elsinga et al. in 2005, which is based on the tomographic reconstruction of particle tracers in

  11. Organization of the secure distributed computing based on multi-agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khovanskov, Sergey; Rumyantsev, Konstantin; Khovanskova, Vera

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays developing methods for distributed computing is received much attention. One of the methods of distributed computing is using of multi-agent systems. The organization of distributed computing based on the conventional network computers can experience security threats performed by computational processes. Authors have developed the unified agent algorithm of control system of computing network nodes operation. Network PCs is used as computing nodes. The proposed multi-agent control system for the implementation of distributed computing allows in a short time to organize using of the processing power of computers any existing network to solve large-task by creating a distributed computing. Agents based on a computer network can: configure a distributed computing system; to distribute the computational load among computers operated agents; perform optimization distributed computing system according to the computing power of computers on the network. The number of computers connected to the network can be increased by connecting computers to the new computer system, which leads to an increase in overall processing power. Adding multi-agent system in the central agent increases the security of distributed computing. This organization of the distributed computing system reduces the problem solving time and increase fault tolerance (vitality) of computing processes in a changing computing environment (dynamic change of the number of computers on the network). Developed a multi-agent system detects cases of falsification of the results of a distributed system, which may lead to wrong decisions. In addition, the system checks and corrects wrong results.

  12. Computed tomography of the sacrum: 1. normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.A.; Gold, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The sacrum of a disarticulated pelvis was scanned with a Pfizer 0450 computed tomographic scanner using contiguous 5 mm sections to display the normal computed tomographic anatomy of the sacrum. These anatomic sections were then compared with normal sacrums. In analyzing the computed tomographic anatomy, emphasis was placed on the central canal and sacral foramina, in that these landmarks are important in determining not only the presence but also the type of pathology involving the sacrum

  13. Research for obtaining a detection system with high spatial and temporal resolution for a tomograph with positron emission (PET-Tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruceru, Ilie; Bartos, Daniel; Stanescu, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a new type of detector for a tomograph system with positron emission. The detector has a new design with detection characteristics better than other detectors used currently in tomographic systems. We have in view the detectors like NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), BGO and others. The new detector is based on discharge in gases and the interaction of gamma radiation - generated in the annihilation processes of positrons - with the mixture of gases within detector. The main novelty is the structure of electrodes with central readout microstrip plate. This structure is composed from two identical chambers. Each of these chambers have two glass resistive electrodes and one metallic electrode (cathode). One of the glass electrodes is separated from the metallic electrode while the other one is in contact with the central readout microstrip plate. In this way to gaps of 0.3 mm are generated. The gas mixture flows between these gaps. The electric charges generated in this gas are collected on the strips under the influence of the electric field applied between cathode and the anode of the detector.The arrangement of electrodes is shown. The structure of electrodes is mounted into a metallic box of special construction which allows the gas to flow through the detector and collects the electric charges generated in the detector. At present the detector is in the stage of a laboratory model and the tests carried out led to the following detection parameters: detection efficiency, 95%; spatial resolution, 3 mm; time resolution, 82 ps. The measurements were performed in coincidence using two similar detectors and the source of positrons was located between detectors. In the next stage of research will be defined the final constructive solution of the experimental model, built and tested for this positron source. The mixture of gases used for tests contained 85%C 2 H 2 F 4 + 10%SF 6 + 5%C 4 H 10 (isobutane). (authors)

  14. Computer modelling of position-sensitive scintillator detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelten, J.; Kurz, R.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1983-01-01

    The essential properties of a two-dimensional PSD consisting of 7 x 7 circular PMs of diameter D = 68 mm, optically coupled to a glass block disperser of thickness H, and of a thin glass scintillator which is optically decoupled from the disperser are analyzed by computer-simulation of the detector geometry which determines the light distribution on rows and columns of PMs for a neutron capture event and the electronic signal handling which leads to the response function Q(x,y). The computer simulations were performed in order to investigate geometrical variations, such as PMs with a square photo-cathode, a hexagonal arrangement, the effect of the disperser thickness and of conical condensers in front of the PMs and edge-effects due to the finite size of the disperser. The linearity of the detector can be optimised by adjusting three smoothing parameters S, S' and S''. These parameters can be introduced if the signal processing, which determines a neutron event, is based on a course selection of three PM columns and three rows followed by a weighted pulse height division for a final determination of the x and y coordinates. This paper briefly describes the simulations and presents the calculated results which refer closely to the two-dimensional PSD which is being built in the Laboratory. (author)

  15. Tomographic PIV: principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, F

    2013-01-01

    A survey is given of the major developments in three-dimensional velocity field measurements using the tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The appearance of tomo-PIV dates back seven years from the present review (Elsinga et al 2005a 6th Int. Symp. PIV (Pasadena, CA)) and this approach has rapidly spread as a versatile, robust and accurate technique to investigate three-dimensional flows (Arroyo and Hinsch 2008 Topics in Applied Physics vol 112 ed A Schröder and C E Willert (Berlin: Springer) pp 127–54) and turbulence physics in particular. A considerable number of applications have been achieved over a wide range of flow problems, which requires the current status and capabilities of tomographic PIV to be reviewed. The fundamental aspects of the technique are discussed beginning from hardware considerations for volume illumination, imaging systems, their configurations and system calibration. The data processing aspects are of uppermost importance: image pre-processing, 3D object reconstruction and particle motion analysis are presented with their fundamental aspects along with the most advanced approaches. Reconstruction and cross-correlation algorithms, attaining higher measurement precision, spatial resolution or higher computational efficiency, are also discussed. The exploitation of 3D and time-resolved (4D) tomographic PIV data includes the evaluation of flow field pressure on the basis of the flow governing equation. The discussion also covers a-posteriori error analysis techniques. The most relevant applications of tomo-PIV in fluid mechanics are surveyed, covering experiments in air and water flows. In measurements in flow regimes from low-speed to supersonic, most emphasis is given to the complex 3D organization of turbulent coherent structures. (topical review)

  16. Position sensitive X-ray or X-ray detector and 3-D-tomography using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A fan-shaped beam of penetrating radiation, such as X-ray or γ-ray radiation, is directed through a slice of the body to be analyzed into a position sensitive detector for deriving a shadowgraph of transmission or absorption of the penetrating radiation by the body. A number of such shadowgraphs are obtained for different angles of rotation of the fan-shaped beam relative to the center of the slice being analyzed. The detected fan beam shadowgraph data is reordered into shadowgraph data corresponding to sets of parallel paths of radiation through the body. The reordered parallel path shadowgraph data is then convoluted in accordance with a 3-D reconstruction method by convolution in a computer to derive a 3-D reconstructed tomograph of the body under analysis. In a preferred embodiment, the position sensitive detector comprises a multiwire detector wherein the wires are arrayed parallel to the direction of the divergent penetrating rays to be detected. A focussed grid collimator is interposed between the body and the position sensitive detector for collimating the penetrating rays to be detected. The source of penetrating radiation is preferably a monochromatic source

  17. Performance of A Compact Multi-crystal High-purity Germanium Detector Array for Measuring Coincident Gamma-ray Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Daigle, Stephen [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Buckner, Matt [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Erikson, Luke E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, Sean C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Champagne, Art [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Cooper, Andrew [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Downen, Lori [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Keegan [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Sallaska, Anne [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-02-18

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the 14N(p,γ)15O* reaction for several transition energies at an effective center of mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the segmented nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within the uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance will be presented.

  18. Performance of a compact multi-crystal high-purity germanium detector array for measuring coincident gamma-ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris; Daigle, Stephen; Buckner, Matt [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Erikson, Luke E.; Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Stave, Sean C., E-mail: Sean.Stave@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Champagne, Arthur E.; Cooper, Andrew; Downen, Lori [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kelly, Keegan; Sallaska, Anne [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O{sup ⁎} reaction for several transition energies at an effective center-of-mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the granular nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within their uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance are presented.

  19. The color of X-rays: Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schioppa, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray

  20. Position sensitivity of the first SmartPET HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Turk, G. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Boston, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mather, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hall, C.J. [CCLRC Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Berry, A. [School of Physics and materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Beveridge, T. [School of Physics and materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Gillam, J. [School of Physics and materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Lewis, R.A. [School of Physics and materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we discuss the Smart Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging system being developed by University of Liverpool in conjunction with CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory. We describe the motivation for the development of a semiconductor-based PET system and the advantages it will offer over current tomographs. Details of the detectors and associated electronics are discussed and results of high precision scans are presented. Analysis of this scan data has facilitated full characterization of the detector response function and calibration of the three-dimensional position sensitivity. This work presents the analysis of the depth sensitivity of the detector.

  1. Computed tomographic analysis of vegetable during far infrared radiation drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneechot, P.; Tojo, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    Far Infrared Radiation (FIR) technology is widely used in the automotive industry to cure painted finishes during manufacturing. FIR drying is used not only in manufacturing but also in agricultural processing such as rice drying. At the present time, FIR drying technology has rarely been used for fruits and vegetables except in research laboratories. In this study, FIR drying and hot air convection drying were compared with respect to energy consumption and time requirement. The internal changes of the agricultural product were also observed during the FIR drying process. A Computed Tomographic (CT) scanner was employed for the observation of the tested material, carrot, and was used to analyze the structural deformation and the internal moisture distribution of the test material. CT data and the hardness of the sample were recorded at regular intervals during the drying experiment. For 200, 400 and 600W FIR drying, the maximum drying rates were 173, 459 and 724%d.b./hr respectively, and the required drying times were 26, 12 and 4.5 hours, respectively. The structure of the carrot sample shrank in accordance with the reduction of moisture content in 200W FIR drying as well as in hot air drying, whereas in 400W and 600W FIR drying the sample was dried without so much deformation

  2. Evaluation of computed tomographic and radiographic myelography in normal miniature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M.H.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, M.E.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, N.S.; Chang, J.H.; Jung, J.H.; Choi, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the myelography was studied in miniature pigs. Radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images of the whole spine were obtained at clinically healthy twelve miniature pigs of 4 (8.7-10 kg) and 12 (26-31 kg) months. The assessments of the spinal cord were made in accordance with the Pavlov's method and compared area ratio [at spinal cord (SC), vertebral canal (VC) and vertebral body (VB)]. The Pavlov's ratio in the cervical spine was significant larger than that of thoracolumbar in radiographic myelography. On CT myelography, the area of the spinal cord had a significant difference between the cervical and thoracolumbar spine. Among the cervical spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB), vertebral canal and vertebral body (VC : VB) were minimum at the level of 4th cervical spine in both ages, while maximum at the level of 6th cervical spine in both months. In case of lumbar spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) were the largest at the level of 4th lumbar spine in 4 months and at the level of 3rd lumbar spine in 12 months. In addition, the ratio of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) of the cervical spinal cord was significant lower at 4 months but the lumbar spinal cord showed lower pattern at 12 months old miniature pigs

  3. A novel clinical multimodal multiphoton tomograph for AF, SHG, CARS imaging, and FLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    We report on a flexible nonlinear medical tomograph with multiple miniaturized detectors for simultaneous acquisition of two-photon autofluorescence (AF), second harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) images. The simultaneous visualization of the distribution of endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, melanin and elastin, SHG-active collagen and as well as non-fluorescent lipids within human skin in vivo is possible. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) can be generated using time-correlated single photon counting.

  4. Simulation of a multi-detector gamma camera for validation protocols of quantification the activity from SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano Sanchez, A.; Calderon Marin, C.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, J.

    2015-01-01

    The main sources that decreasing accuracy in the estimation of internal absorbed dose has been identified in the methods for the quantification of cumulated activity from scintigraphic imaging, likes the corrections required by the physical and instrumental phenomena related to the formation of those images. The results of the simulation of a dual detector gamma camera E.cam SIEMENS using the Monte Carlo code SIMIND to obtain tomographic SPECT projections are presented here. SIMIND will allow dealing with the contribution of physical interactions and instrumental effects during simulations. Energy resolution, spatial resolution and sensitivity planar were determined with real and simulated systems. The relative differences did not exceed 10%. Energy spectra simulated under different conditions (source in air and water) with the inclusion of interactions in the collimator and phantom were compared. The tomographic sensitivity of a volumetric phantom containing radioactive solutions of 99m Tc and 131 I were determined from real and simulated SPECT images. Two processing protocols were considered: with scatter correction ( 99m Tc dual energy window method and 131 I were calculated after corrections. The results, expressed in terms of the differences relative to the well-know activity value in the phantom inserts improves when attenuation and scattering corrections are applied, obtaining good agreement between the results for real and simulated systems. (Author)

  5. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

  6. Effective sensitivity in 3D PET: The impact of detector dead time on 3D system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.L.; Jones, T.; Meikle, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    3D PET has higher sensitivity than 2D PET. Sensitivity is determined by two components: the geometric solid angle for detection, and the fractional dead time, i.e., the time for which the detector is unavailable for accepting events. The loss in overall sensitivity as a function of radioactivity concentration due to these factors for 3D PET has been characterized by a parameter, the effective sensitivity, which combines absolute sensitivity and noise equivalent count rates. This parameter includes scatter, system sensitivity, dead time, and random coincidence rates, and permits comparisons between different tomographs as well as the same tomograph under different conditions. Effective sensitivity decreases most rapidly for larger, open 3D tomographs. The loss in effective sensitivity with increasing count rate suggests that new faster scintillation detectors will be needed to realize the sensitivity gain of 3D PET over a wide dynamic range of radioactivity concentrations

  7. Multi-detector system approach for unattended uranium enrichment monitoring at gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favalli, A.; Lombardi, M.; MacArthur, D. W.; McCluskey, C.; Moss, C. E.

    2017-01-01

    Improving the quality of safeguards measurements at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants while reducing the inspection effort is an important objective given the number of existing and new plants that need to be safeguarded. A useful tool in many safeguards approaches is the on-line monitoring of enrichment in process pipes. One requirement of such a monitor is a simple, reliable and precise passive measurement of the 186-keV line from 235 U. The other information required is the amount of gas in the pipe, which can be obtained by a transmission or pressure measurement. Here, we describe our research to develop such a passive measurement system. Unfortunately, a complication arises in the interpretation of the gamma measurements, from the contribution of uranium deposits on the wall of the pipe to the 186-keV peak. A multi-detector approach to address this complication is presented where two measurements, one with signal primarily from gas and one with signal primarily from deposits, are performed simultaneously with different detectors and geometries. This allows a correction to be made to the 186-keV peak for the contribution from the deposit. Finally, we present the design of the multi-detector system and the results of the experimental calibration of the proof-of-principle prototype built at LANL.

  8. Multi-detector system approach for unattended uranium enrichment monitoring at gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Lombardi, M.; MacArthur, D. W.; McCluskey, C.; Moss, C. E.; Paffett, M. T.; Ianakiev, K. D.

    2018-01-01

    Improving the quality of safeguards measurements at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants while reducing the inspection effort is an important objective given the number of existing and new plants that need to be safeguarded. A useful tool in many safeguards approaches is the on-line monitoring of enrichment in process pipes. One requirement of such a monitor is a simple, reliable and precise passive measurement of the 186-keV line from 235U. The other information required is the amount of gas in the pipe, which can be obtained by a transmission or pressure measurement. We describe our research to develop such a passive measurement system. Unfortunately, a complication arises in the interpretation of the gamma measurements, from the contribution of uranium deposits on the wall of the pipe to the 186-keV peak. A multi-detector approach to address this complication is presented where two measurements, one with signal primarily from gas and one with signal primarily from deposits, are performed simultaneously with different detectors and geometries. This allows a correction to be made to the 186-keV peak for the contribution from the deposit. We present the design of the multi-detector system and the results of the experimental calibration of the proof-of-principle prototype built at LANL.

  9. Multi-anode photon-multiplier readout electronics for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smale, N J

    2004-01-01

    A readout system for the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detectors of the LHCb experiment has been developed. Two detector technologies for the measurement of Cherenkov photons are considered, the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier Tube (MAPMT) and the Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD), both of which meet the RICH requirements. The properties of the MAPMT are evaluated using a controlled single-photon source; a pixel-to-pixel gain variation of ~3 and a typical signal to noise of ~20 is measured. The relative tube efficiency is found to be reduced by ~26 % due to the detailed focusing structure of the MAPMT device. A radiation hard application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip, the Beetle1.2MA0, has been developed to capture and store signals from a pair of MAPMTs. The Beetle1.2MA0 is built on the architecture of the Beetle family that was designed for silicon strip detectors, the difference being a modified front-end amplifier. The 128 input-channels of the Beetle1.2MA0 have a charge-sensitive pre-amplifier followed...

  10. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  11. Quantitative EDXS: Influence of geometry on a four detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraxner, Johanna; Schäfer, Margit; Röschel, Otto; Kothleitner, Gerald; Haberfehlner, Georg; Paller, Manuel; Grogger, Werner

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the geometry on quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) analysis is determined for a ChemiSTEM system (Super-X) in combination with a low-background double-tilt specimen holder. For the first time a combination of experimental measurements with simulations is used to determine the positions of the individual detectors of a Super-X system. These positions allow us to calculate the detector's solid angles and estimate the amount of detector shadowing and its influence on quantitative EDXS analysis, including absorption correction using the ζ-factor method. Both shadowing by the brass portions and the beryllium specimen carrier of the holder severely affect the quantification of low to medium atomic number elements. A multi-detector system is discussed in terms of practical consequences of the described effects, and a quantitative evaluation of a Fayalit sample is demonstrated. Corrections and suggestions for minimizing systematic errors are discussed to improve quantitative methods for a multi-detector system. - Highlights: • Geometrical issues for EDXS quantification on a Super-X system. • Realistic model of a specimen holder using X-ray computed tomography. • Determination of the exact detector positions of a Super-X system. • Influence of detector shadowing and Be specimen carrier on quantitative EDXS.

  12. Usefulness of multiplanar reformatted images of multi-detector row helical CT in assessment of biliary stent patency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Suk; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Tae Hong; Choo, Ki Seok; Koo, Young Baek; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, Suk Hong

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of multi-detector row helical CT (MDCT), multiplanar reformatted images for the noninvasive assessment of biliary stent patency, and for the planning for management in patients with a sele-expandable metallic stent due to malignant biliary obstruction. Among 90 consecutive patients, from August 1999 to July 2003, 26 cases in 23 patients with malignant biliary obstruction who underwent self-expandable metaIlic stent insertion in the biliary system and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage within 7 days after CT were enrolled in this study. On CT images, the complete and functional obstruction of the stent and the precise level of obstruction were evaluated. The presence of an enhancing intraluminal mass or wall thickening around stent was determined, and the causes of obstruction were evaluated. These findings were then compared with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Multi-detector row helical CT correctly demonstrated the patency of a stent in 24 cases (92.3%). It was adequate in helping to depict the precise level of stent occlusion in 23 cases (88.5%). Multi-detector row helical CT also revealed the extent of tumor that represented as an enhancing intraluminal mass or wall thickening around the stent in 23 cases, and this was represented as complete obstruction on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. In the case of functional obstruction, MDCT predicted the possible cause of the obstruction. Multiplanar reformatted images of multi-detector row helical CT is a useful imaging modality for the noninvasive assessment of stent patency and the precise level of obstruction when stent obstruction is suspected in the patients with self-expandable metallic stent due to malignant biliary obstruction. It can also predict the possible cause of the obstruction and allows adequate planning for the medical management of such cases

  13. Usefulness of multiplanar reformatted images of multi-detector row helical CT in assessment of biliary stent patency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Suk; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Tae Hong; Choo, Ki Seok; Koo, Young Baek; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, Suk Hong [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of multi-detector row helical CT (MDCT), multiplanar reformatted images for the noninvasive assessment of biliary stent patency, and for the planning for management in patients with a sele-expandable metallic stent due to malignant biliary obstruction. Among 90 consecutive patients, from August 1999 to July 2003, 26 cases in 23 patients with malignant biliary obstruction who underwent self-expandable metaIlic stent insertion in the biliary system and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage within 7 days after CT were enrolled in this study. On CT images, the complete and functional obstruction of the stent and the precise level of obstruction were evaluated. The presence of an enhancing intraluminal mass or wall thickening around stent was determined, and the causes of obstruction were evaluated. These findings were then compared with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Multi-detector row helical CT correctly demonstrated the patency of a stent in 24 cases (92.3%). It was adequate in helping to depict the precise level of stent occlusion in 23 cases (88.5%). Multi-detector row helical CT also revealed the extent of tumor that represented as an enhancing intraluminal mass or wall thickening around the stent in 23 cases, and this was represented as complete obstruction on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. In the case of functional obstruction, MDCT predicted the possible cause of the obstruction. Multiplanar reformatted images of multi-detector row helical CT is a useful imaging modality for the noninvasive assessment of stent patency and the precise level of obstruction when stent obstruction is suspected in the patients with self-expandable metallic stent due to malignant biliary obstruction. It can also predict the possible cause of the obstruction and allows adequate planning for the medical management of such cases.

  14. Advanced real time radioscopy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, Ch.; Nuding, W.; Grimm, R.; Wiacker, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes three x-ray inspection systems. One radioscopic system is designed for the inspection of castings. The next integrates a radioscopic and a tomographic mode. The radioscopy has a high resolution camera and real time image processor. Radiation sources are a 450 kV industrial and a 200 kV microfocus tube. The third system is a tomographic system with 30 scintillation detectors for the inspection of nuclear waste containers. (author)

  15. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana), common tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Selleri, Paolo; Veladiano, Irene A; Martin, Andrea; Zanetti, Emanuele; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-05-11

    Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of: 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (-20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any imaging modality involving these

  16. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  17. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  18. Regrowth patterns of supratentorial gliomas: estimation from computed tomographic scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Maki, Y.

    1986-01-01

    To clarify the regrowth patterns of benign and malignant gliomas, we chose 27 intervals (between two operations or between an operation and autopsy) from 21 patients with pathologically verified recurrent supratentorial gliomas. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of these cases were analyzed to determine the doubling time (Td) calculated from the change in volume of enhanced and low density areas, the enhancement effect graded from 0 to 4 according to the Hounsfield number, and the presence of dissemination and contralateral extension. We studied 5 benign gliomas (including 1 case of radiation necrosis), 8 malignant astrocytomas, and 8 glioblastomas. The Td's of enhanced areas on CT scans of benign gliomas, malignant astrocytomas, and glioblastomas were 937 +/- 66.5 days, 65.1 +/- 29.4 days, and 48.1 +/- 20.9 days, respectively. The Td's of low density areas were 895 +/- 130.6 days, 70.8 +/- 22.2 days, and 50.5 +/- 14.7 days. There was a significant correlation between the Td's of the enhanced and low density areas (0.97). The enhancement effect increased at recurrence in 55% of the cases, with an average increase of 1.1 grades. The increase in enhancement effect at recurrence showed a tendency to become smaller as the tumor's degree of anaplasia increased. Radiotherapy was effective in significantly retarding the growth rate of malignant gliomas, whose Td's were doubled. Although the Td's of both enhanced and low density areas of benign gliomas were significantly longer than those of malignant gliomas, there was no significant difference in the Td's of enhanced areas between malignant astrocytomas and glioblastomas

  19. Orthopedic applications of single photon emission computed Tomographic bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    When compared with planar bone scanning, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has technical advantages of potential diagnostic significance. Planar imaging often superimposes substantial underlying or overlying activity on the bony structure of medical interest. SPECT, however, can be used to remove such unwanted activity. For example, in the hip the acetabulum extends downwards behind the femoral head. Therefore when using planar bone scanning techniques, the photon-deficient defect typical of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral had may be obscured by activity originating in the underlying acetabulum. By using SPECT, underlying and overlying distributions of activity can be separated into sequential tomographic planes. For this reason SPECT facilitates the detection of AVN of the femoral head. When referring a patient without a history of malignancy for bone scanning, the orthopaedic surgeon usually has a specific clinical question involving a limited portion of the skeleton. Orthopaedic surgeons at their institution commonly use bone scanning to clarify the cause of back, hip or knee pain; to determine with a physiological test the significance of radiographic findings; and to establish the extent of disease at symptomatic skeletal sites such as the three compartments of the knee. In instances such as these, when clinical concern is limited to a specific anatomical region, a bone scan procedure that includes SPECT imaging of only a portion of the skeleton is appropriate. To date, SPECT of the skeletal system has most frequently been used to evaluate patients with pain the larger joints and bony structures such as the lumbar spine, hips, knees, or temporomandibular joints (TMJ)

  20. Computed tomographic features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Evaluation in 138 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobino, Kazunori, E-mail: tobino@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshiomachi, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-0018 (Japan); Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Kurumazuka 3-1, Itami, Hyogo 664-0872 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University Hospital, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Arakawa, Hiroaki [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kumasaka, Toshio [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 150-0012 (Japan); Koike, Kengo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •In our series, the frequency of pulmonary nodules was higher than in the previous reports. •Our sporadic LAM patients had a lower frequency of renal AML than in that of previous reports. •LAM patients may have a high incidence of renal and hepatic cysts. •LAM cells may originate in the pelvis then spread via the axial lymphatic system. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim was to characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings from Japanese patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Materials and methods: CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis from 124 patients with sporadic LAM (S-LAM, mean age, 37.4 years) and 14 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-LAM (mean age, 35.6 years) were analyzed. Results: Pulmonary nodules (18.8%) and hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML, 24.3%) were more common in our patients than those in previous reports. Compared with TSC-LAM, S-LAM group had a higher frequency of pulmonary nodules (28.6% vs 32.3%, P < 0.01) and lower frequencies of air-space consolidation (21.4% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01), pneumothorax (28.6% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02), pulmonary hilar lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 0.8%, P < 0.01), renal AML (85.7% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), hepatic AML (71.4% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), and retrocrural lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 1.4%, P = 0.04). Axial lymphatic abnormalities (i.e., thoracic duct dilatation, lymphadenopathy, and lymphangioleiomyoma) were most common in the pelvis and tended to decrease in incidence with increased distance from the pelvis. Conclusion: The incidence of some CT findings in Japanese patients differed from those in previous reports. Axial lymphatic abnormalities noted here suggest that the origin of LAM cells may be the pelvis.

  1. SEDRX: A computer program for the simulation Si(Li) and Ge(Hp) x-ray detectors efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, M.A.; Benouali, A.; Tchantchane, A.; Azbouche, A.; Tobbeche, S. Centre de Developpement des Techniques Nucleaires, Algiers; Labo. des Techniques Nucleaires)

    1992-12-01

    The difficulties encountered in measuring the x-ray detectors efficiency has motivated to develop a computer program to simulate this parameter. this program computes the efficiency of detectors as a function of energy. the computation of this parameter is based on the fitting coefficients of absorption in the case of photoelectric, coherent and incoherent factors. These coefficients are given by Mc Master library or may be determined by the interpolation based on cubic splines

  2. Contrast enhancement by arterial perfusion during computed tomography (computed tomographic arteriography) of the pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Yukiari

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) was performed on 52 cases of pancreatic disease in which was suspected clinically, and in which other method failed to yield a definitive diagnosis. For CTA, 65% meglumine diatrizoate 20 ml, diluted 1:3, was injected via a catherter inserted in an artery connected with the pancreas and the change with time of the pacreas CT number was studied. The normal pancreas stains deeply and the best contrast enhancement was obtained between 17 to 21 seconds after instillation of contrast medium. In the CTA findings in pancreatic cancer, low density areas with irregular internal structures are characteristic, and these characteristics were seen even in minute pancreatic cancers which could not be recognized by CT or the intravenous bolus injection method. On the other hand, in chronic pancreatitis, even when differentiation from pancreatic cancer is difficult with arterial and venous encasement in angiography, as long as the chronic pancreatitis is not very advanced ischemic changes are not seen, and this permits differentiation form normal pancreas. This also facilitates differentiation between pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In the intravenous bolus injection method, the chronological change of contrast enhancement in the pancreas was studied and the best contrast enhancement was obtained after 60 to 120 seconds. This method revealed no findings peculiar to pancreatic cancer. Based on the above, CTA was found to be useful for making in contributing to establishing a definitive diagnosis, detecting minute pancreatic cancer and to differentiate pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis. (author)

  3. BPF-type region-of-interest reconstruction for parallel translational computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwen; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Shaoyu; Liu, Fenglin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present and test a new ultra-low-cost linear scan based tomography architecture. Similar to linear tomosynthesis, the source and detector are translated in opposite directions and the data acquisition system targets on a region-of-interest (ROI) to acquire data for image reconstruction. This kind of tomographic architecture was named parallel translational computed tomography (PTCT). In previous studies, filtered backprojection (FBP)-type algorithms were developed to reconstruct images from PTCT. However, the reconstructed ROI images from truncated projections have severe truncation artefact. In order to overcome this limitation, we in this study proposed two backprojection filtering (BPF)-type algorithms named MP-BPF and MZ-BPF to reconstruct ROI images from truncated PTCT data. A weight function is constructed to deal with data redundancy for multi-linear translations modes. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the proposed MP-BPF and MZ-BPF algorithms for PTCT in fan-beam geometry. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that the proposed BPF-type algorithms cannot only more accurately reconstruct ROI images from truncated projections but also generate high-quality images for the entire image support in some circumstances.

  4. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  5. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  6. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  7. Assessment in dogs tympanic bulla, through virtual tomographic endoscopy; Avaliacao de bulas timpanicas em caes, por meio da endoscopia tomografica virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Sabino, Emanuelle Guidugli, E-mail: lucianacarandina@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Dogs usually have problems related to the auditory canal. For the diagnosis of these pathologies, it is necessary a physical examination and, in some cases radiographic examination and computed tomography. The tympanic bulla is not easily visualized radiographically, since there is many structures of the brain overlaying the image obtained. The computed tomography has been the technique of choice to assess this structure faithfully. A new alternative assessment of the tympanic bulla is tomographic virtual endoscopy, which allows an improvement of the image obtained through the virtual tomographic technique. This paper provides information on the use of computed tomography, and a new technique, tomographic virtual endoscopy, in order to make the improvement of these techniques, and prove the reliability of these changes in the diagnosis of ear canals of dogs. Therefore, we performed the