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Sample records for multi-channel polymethyl methacrylate

  1. Phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for the fabrication of complex computer-generated phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by means of partial-exposure e-beam lithography and subsequent carefully controlled partial development. Following the development, the pattern appears (rendered in relief) in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 3 mm square, and consisted of up to 10 millions of 0.3-2.0-micron square pixels. Data files were up to 60 Mb-long, and the exposure times ranged to several hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated with a diffraction-limited optical performance of 83-percent efficiency.

  2. Retention of krypton on polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciric, M.M.; Cvjeticanin, N.M.; Radak, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Retention of krypton on polymethyl methacrylate was studied as a function of kryptonation pressure (P), temperature (T) and time (t). It was found that the dependence of the retained quantity on P, T, and t is in accordance with the diffusion theory. The optimum results (i.e., the maximum retained quantity and the best stability of the kryptonate) were obtained at elevated kryptonation temperatures (200 0 C). The diffusion coefficients of krypton in polymethyl methacrylate, determined from the dekryptonation process, vary from 1 x 10 -10 cm 2 /s to 0.2 x 10 -10 cm 2 /s for samples kryptonated at 20 0 C and 200 0 C respectively. The results have been discussed from the viewpoint of radiation and thermal stability of kryptonated polymethyl methacrylate. Inadequate radiation stability could be the main obstacle for practical purposes. (U.S.)

  3. Tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate coated natural fabric Sterculia urens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available stress, Young's modulus and % elongation at break were determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The effect of alkali treatment and the polymethyl methacrylate coating on tensile properties of the fabric was studied. The morphology of the fabric...

  4. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Guilherme F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-ZL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C{sub 2}F{sub 4} after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  5. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Guilherme F.; Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C 2 F 4 ) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C 2 F 4 after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  6. Methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay and its poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaoxia; Jiang, David D.; Wilkie, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    A methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay was used to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate) clay nanocomposites by melt blending and the effect of the clay loading level on the modified clay and corresponding nanocomposite was studied. These nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimetry. The results show a mixed intercalated/delaminated morphology with good nanodispersion. The compatibility between the methylacrylate-subsituted clay and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are greatly improved compared to other oligomerically-modified clays

  7. Microindentation of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA Based Bone Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zivic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA based bone cement subjected to cyclical loading using microindentation technique is presented in this paper. Indentation technique represents flexible mechanical testing due to its simplicity, minimal specimen preparation and short time needed for tests. The mechanical response of bone cement samples was studied. Realised microindentation enabled determination of the indentation testing hardness HIT and indentation modulus EIT of the observed bone cement. Analysis of optical photographs of the imprints showed that this technique can be effectively used for characterization of bone cements.

  8. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup −1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  9. Thermal Properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate Composite Containing Copper Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Xie, Huaqing; Xin, Sha; Yin, Junshan; Jiang, Yitong; Wang, Mingzhu

    2015-04-01

    Thermal functional Materials have wide applications in thermal management fields, and inserting highly thermal conductive materials is effective in enhancing thermal conductivity of matrix. In this paper, copper nanoparticles were selected as the additive to prepare polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposite with enhanced thermal properties. Uniform copper nanoparticles with pure face-centered lattice were prepared by liquid phase reduction method. Then, they were added into PMMA/N, N-Dimethylmethanamide (DMF) solution according to the different mass fraction for uniform dispersion. After DMF was evaporated, Cu-PMMA nanocomposites were gained. The thermal analysis measurement results showed that the decomposition temperature of nanocomposites decreased gradually with the increasing particle loadings. The thermal conductivity of the Cu-PMMA nanocomposites rose with the increasing contents of copper nanoparticles. With a 20 vol.% addition, the thermal conductivity was up to 1.2 W/m · K, a 380.5% increase compared to the pure PMMA. The results demonstrate that copper nanoparticles have great potential in enhancing thermal transport properties of polymer.

  10. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T g ) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  11. Poly(methyl methacrylate) films for organic vapour sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Capan, R; Hassan, A K; Tanrisever, T

    2003-01-01

    Optical constants and fabrication parameters are investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies on spun films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) derivatives in contact with two different dielectric media. A value of 1.503 for the refractive index of PMMA films produced from a solution having concentration of 1 mg ml sup - sup 1 at the speed of 3000 rpm is in close agreement with the data obtained from ellipsometric measurements. The film thickness shows a power-law dependence on the spin speed but the thickness increases almost linearly with the concentration of the spreading solution. These results are in good agreement with the hydrodynamic theory for a low-viscosity and highly volatile liquid. On the basis of SPR measurements under dynamic conditions, room temperature response of PMMA films to benzene vapours is found to be fast, highly sensitive and reversible. The sensitivity of detection of toluene, ethyl benzene and m-xylene is much smaller than that of benzene.

  12. Radiolytic stabilization of industrial poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterilisable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its physical properties. Therefore, radiolytic stabilization of PMMA is important for to become it commercially radio sterilisable. In this work we investigated the radiolytic stabilization of PMMA by using HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer) additive, commercially used for photo and thermo oxidative stabilization of polymers. The investigation of the radiation-induced main chain scissions was carried out by viscometric method. The additive added to the polymer system at 0.3 % w/w promotes a molecular radioprotection of 61%. That means a reduction of G value (scissions/100 eV) from 2.6 to 1.0. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (Tg) of PMMA (no additive), significantly changed by radiation, does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. TGA analysis showed that the additive promotes thermal stability to the system, increasing decomposition temperature of PMMA. Spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and RMN ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector additive added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. Analysis on mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and optical (yellowness index and refractive index) properties showed a good influence of the additive on polymer system. (author)

  13. Composite poly(methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) latex for immunoassay. The case of plasminogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksa, B; Wilczynska, M; Cierniewski, C; Basinska, T; Slomkowski, S

    1995-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) latex (ACRYLAT) was synthesized by radical precipitation polymerization. The mass median diameter (MMD) and the geometrical standard deviation (GSD) of the ACRYLAT particles were 138 nm and 1.2, respectively. The concentration of the titrable carboxylic groups in the surface layer of latex particles was equal to 8.41 x 10(-6) mol m-2. Latex was able to bind up to 2.82 x 10(-7) mol of 1-aminopyrene per 1 m2 of the surface of the latex particles due to the ionic interactions between carboxylate anions and ammonium cations of protonated 1-aminopyrene. ACRYLAT was able to immobilize covalently human serum albumin in amounts up to 0.23 mg m-2. Aggregation of ACRYLAT with immobilized HSA, induced with specific antibodies (anti-HSA), was investigated turbidimetrically. The results indicated that in the model turbidimetric immunoassay, ACRYLAT coated with HSA can be used for the detection of anti-HSA in the goat anti-HSA serum diluted from 50 to 7000-fold. Immobilization of rabbit antibodies to plasminogen (anti-Plg) to ACRYLAT via the epsilon-aminocaproic acid linkers provided particles which were used for the development of the turbidimetric immunoassay for plasminogen. In this assay plasminogen could be detected in concentration ranging from 0.75 to 75 micrograms ml-1 in the blood plasma.

  14. Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before and after ion beam modification. D R S SOMAYAJULU, C N MURTHY†, D K AWASTHI‡, N V PATEL and M SARKAR. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India. †Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty ...

  15. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Adam, Nurul Ilham [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, KampusTapah, 35400 Tapah Road, Tapah, Perak (Malaysia); Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan [Faculty of Defence Sciences and Technology, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ali, Ab Malik Marwan [Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in {sup 1}HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  16. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1 HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF 3 SO 3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF 3 SO 3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  17. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF3SO3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF3SO3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR).

  18. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate as Denture Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang E. Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA to poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA. A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp. measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P<.05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA.

  19. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    functional PDMS microspheres were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spin coating with different concentrations of PMMA solutions. The quality of the resulting PMMA shell is investigated using rheological measurements at 50 8C with a timesweep procedure. The results strongly suggest that PMMA-coated...... PDMS microspheres react around 20 times slower than the uncoated ones, and that the PMMA shell significantly hinders the reaction between the PDMS microsphere and cross-linker. Thus the thin PMMA shells are very efficient in protecting the reactive PDMS microspheres, since the PMMA shell forms...

  20. Determination of trace elements in poly(methyl methacrylate) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1979-01-01

    The results are reported of the neutron activation analysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymerized with a redox system of chromium (II) acetate and p-chlorobenzyl peroxide in dimethylformamide at 30 0 C. Since the polymer was originally synthesized in experiments for kinetic studies, the results indicate an arbitrary background of purity of polymers obtained in a laboratory. Samples were irradiated for 28m and gamma spectra detected trace amounts of chlorine, aluminum, vanadium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, copper, zinc, sodium, bromine, lanthanum, gold, and chromium. 2 figures, 1 table

  1. Fracture resistance of Kevlar-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) resin: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrong, J M; Weed, R M; Young, J M

    1990-01-01

    The reinforcing effect of Kevlar fibers incorporated in processed poly(methyl methacrylate) resin samples was studied using 0% (controls), 0.5%, 1%, and 2% by weight of the added fibers. The samples were subjected to impact testing to determine fracture resistance, and sample groups were statistically compared using an ANOVA. Each reinforced sample had significantly greater fracture resistance (P less than 0.05) than the control, and no difference was found either within or between control groups. The use of reinforcing Kevlar fibers appears to enhance the fracture resistance of acrylic resin denture base materials.

  2. Reduction of space charge breakdown in e-beam irradiated nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Feihu; Zhang Yewen; An Zhenlian; Dong Jianxing; Lei Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    Fast discharge of numerous space charges in dielectric materials can cause space charge breakdown. This letter reports the role of nanoparticles in affecting space charge breakdown of nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites. Space charge distributions in the composites, implanted by electron beam irradiation, were measured by pressure wave propagation method. The results show that the nanoparticles have significant effects on the isothermal charge decay and space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites. The resistance to space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites is attributed to the combined action of the introduction of deep trapping states and the scattering effect by the added nanoparticles.

  3. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite with poly(methyl methacrylate) via surface-initiated ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Xi; Yan Jinliang; Xiao Yan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lang Meidong, E-mail: mdlang@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-05-01

    This article describes the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out from hydroxyapatite particles derivatized with ATRP initiators. The structure and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, and contact angle analyses. TGA was used to estimate the grafting density of ATRP initiators (0.49 initiator/nm{sup 2}) and the amount of grafted PMMA on the HAP surface. The contact angle analyses indicated that grafting PMMA onto the HAP surface dramatically increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. Moreover, the HAP nanocomposites showed excellent dispersibility in both aqueous solution and organic solvent.

  4. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite with poly(methyl methacrylate) via surface-initiated ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Xi; Yan Jinliang; Xiao Yan; Lang Meidong

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out from hydroxyapatite particles derivatized with ATRP initiators. The structure and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, and contact angle analyses. TGA was used to estimate the grafting density of ATRP initiators (0.49 initiator/nm 2 ) and the amount of grafted PMMA on the HAP surface. The contact angle analyses indicated that grafting PMMA onto the HAP surface dramatically increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. Moreover, the HAP nanocomposites showed excellent dispersibility in both aqueous solution and organic solvent.

  5. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events.

  6. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/grafted onto leather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/ in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium/III/. 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds is discussed

  7. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted onto leather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium (III). 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantitative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds are discussed. (author)

  8. An effective approach to synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)/silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xuefeng; Wang Zichen; Han Dongxue; Zhang Yuanjian; Shen Yanfei; Wang Zhijuan; Niu Li

    2006-01-01

    A novel synthetic route for nearly monodispersed poly(methyl methacrylate)/SiO 2 composite particles (PMSCP) is reported. Silica nanoparticles modified with oleic acid were used as 'seeds'. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer was copolymerized with oleic acid via in situ emulsion polymerization, in the presence of an initiator; it resulted finally in the formation of composites with core-shell morphology. The composite particles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The number of silica particles inside the composite particles increases with an increase in the silica concentration. The effect of grafted silica concentration on the morphology of PMSCP is also reported in detail. It was found by thermogravimetric analysis that PMSCP show a potential application for fire retardance

  9. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) diblock copolymer as a self-embrittling strippable coating for radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Renlong; Zhang Huiyan; Li Yintao; Zhou Yuanlin; Zhang Quanping; Zheng Jian; Wang Shanqiang

    2016-01-01

    The poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) diblock copolymer with different monomer compositions was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Meanwhile, a novel self-embrittling strippable coating was prepared using the diblock copolymers, which is proposed to be used as radioactive decontamination agents without manual operation. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies of self-embrittling strippable coatings for radioactive contamination on glass, marble, and stainless steel surfaces were studied. (author)

  10. MALDI-TOF MS coupled with collision-induced dissociation (CID) measurements of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgaertel, A.; Becer, C.R.; Gottschaldt, M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was chosen for an in-detail analysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in order to determine the possible fragmentation mechanism with the help of collision-induced dissociation (CID). All experiments were

  11. Cellulose nanocrystals as a reinforcing material for electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fibers: formation, properties and nanomechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Dong; Kenneth E. Strawhecker; James A. Snyder; Joshua A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    Uniform fibers composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) reinforced with progressively increasing contents of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), up to 41 wt% CNCs, have been successfully produced by electrospinning. The morphological, thermal and nanomechanical properties of the composite sub-micron fibers were investigated. The CNCs derived from wood pulp by sulfuric...

  12. Tuning Surface Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Film Using Poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s with Short Perfluorinated Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun-Ho; Ha, Jong-Wook; Lee, Soo-Bok; Park, In Jun

    2016-09-27

    To control the surface properties of a commonly used polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s (PFMMAs) with short perfluorinated side groups (i.e., -CF3, -CF2CF3, -(CF3)2, -CF2CF2CF3) were used as blend components because of their good solubility in organic solvents, low surface energies, and high optical transmittance. The surface energies of the blend films of PFMMA with the -CF3 group and PMMA increased continuously with increasing PMMA contents from 17.6 to 26.0 mN/m, whereas those of the other polymer blend films remained at very low levels (10.2-12.6 mN/m), similar to those of pure PFMMAs, even when the blends contained 90 wt %PMMA. Surface morphology and composition measurements revealed that this result originated from the different blend structures, such as lateral and vertical phase separations. We expect that these PFMMAs will be useful in widening the applicable window of PMMA.

  13. Si+ and N+ ion implantation for improving blood compatibility of medical poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.J.; Cui, F.Z; Cui, F.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Si + and N + ion implantation into medical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were performed at an energy of 80 keV with fluences ranging from 5x10 12 to 5x10 15 ions/cm 2 at room temperature to improve blood compatibility. The results of the blood contacting measurements in vitro showed that the anticoagulability and anticalcific behaviour on the surface morphology were enhanced after ion implantation. No appreciable change in the surface morphology was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that ion implantation broke some original chemical bonds on the surface to form some new Si- and N-containing groups. These results were considered responsible for the enhancement in the blood compatibility of PMMA. (author)

  14. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO3 Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Sebastian; Lacoul, Srijan; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.

    2014-01-01

    As-received BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV. PMID:28788468

  15. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO₃ Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Sebastian; Lacoul, Srijan; Strzhemechny, Yuri M

    2014-01-16

    As-received BaTiO₃ nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO₃ powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV.

  16. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO3 Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Requena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As-received BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV.

  17. Surface modification of polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses by plasma for improvement of antithrombogenicity and transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lihua; Wu Di; Chen Yashao; Wang Xiaoli; Zhao Guowei; Wan Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Chang' an South Road 199, Xi' an 710062 (China); Huang Changzheng [Able Eye Device Co. Ltd, Zhengzhou 450008 (China)

    2009-05-15

    To improve antithrombogenicity and reduce ultraviolet transmittance, polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses (PMMA IOLs) were pretreated with Ar plasma and combined with heparin (Hp), with polyglycol (PEG) and with both Hp and PEG in a plasma atmosphere. The resulting modified PMMA IOLs denoted as PEG-PMMA, Hp-PMMA and Hp-PEG-PMMA were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), contact angle (CA) and platelet adhesion experiments. The results indicated that Hp and PEG had been successfully immobilized onto the surfaces of PMMA IOLs. Antithrombogenicity was improved remarkably and ultraviolet transmittance was reduced as well.

  18. Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Minggang [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Center on Experimental Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China)

    2012-09-15

    The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

  19. Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Xia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

  20. Flexible poly(methyl methacrylate)-based neural probe: An affordable implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemi, Pejman; Veladi, Hadi; Shahabi, Parviz; Khalilzadeh, Emad

    2018-03-01

    This research presents a novel technique used to fabricate a deep brain stimulation probe based on a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. This technique is developed to overcome the high cost of available probes crucial for chronic stimulation and recording in neural disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. The probe is made of PMMA and its mechanical properties have been customized by controlling the reaction conditions. The polymer is adjusted to be stiff enough to be easily inserted and, on the other hand, soft enough to perform required movements. As cost is one of the issues in the use of neural probes, a simple process is proposed for the production of PMMA neural probes without using expensive equipment and operations, and without compromising performance and quality. An in vivo animal test was conducted to observe the recording capability of a PMMA probe.

  1. Mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Oyama, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    ESR and gel permeation chromatographic measurements of poly(methyl methacrylate) γ-irradiated between 77 K and 300 K have been carried out to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of the polymer. It is revealed that the scission of the main chain is not taken place immediately after the absorption of radiation energy but is induced by the intramolecular radical conversion of the side-chain -COOCH 2 radical to the tertiary -CH 2 -C(CH 3 )- radical followed by the main-chain β-scission of the latter radical. The degradation is not taken place below 190 K, because the side-chain radical starts to convert only above 190 K. The residual monomer in the polymer reacts with the side-chain radical below 190 K to generate the stable propagating-type radical, so that the degradation is suppressed even after warming the polymer to the ambient temperature. (author)

  2. Effect of lithium salt concentrations on blended 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber and poly(methyl methacrylate) based solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su’ait, M.S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H.; Rahman, M.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF 4 and lithium perchlorate, LiClO 4 ) as doping salts in rubber-polymer blends, 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film for electrochemical devices application was investigated. The electrolyte films were prepared via the solution casting technique using 0–25 wt.% lithium salt. The effect of the lithium salts on chemical interaction, ionic conductivity and structural and morphological studies of (70:30) MG49-PMMA films was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Infrared analysis showed that the interactions between lithium ions and oxygen atoms occur at the ether group (C–O–C) (1500–1100 cm −1 ) on the MMA structure in both MG49 and PMMA. The oxygen atoms in the structure of the polymer host act as electron donor atoms and form a coordinate bond with the lithium ions from the doping salt to form polymer–salt complexes. The ionic conductivity was investigated at room temperature as well as at a temperature range from 303 K to 373 K. The ionic conductivity without the addition of salt was 1.1 × 10 −12 S cm −1 . The highest conductivity at room temperature for (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiBF 4 was 8.6 × 10 −6 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiBF 4 . The ionic conductivity of (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiClO 4 was 1.5 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiClO 4 . However, both electrolyte systems do not exhibit Arrhenius-like behavior. Systems with LiBF 4 salt have higher ionic conductivity than those with LiClO 4 salt because of the differences in anionic size and lattice energy of the appropriate salt. The observations from structural and morphology studies showed that complexation and re-crystallization occur in the system. The XRD studies showed a reduction of the MMA peak

  3. Polyol mediated nano size zinc oxide and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic nano ZnO particles have been synthesized in various diols (ethylene glycol – EG, 1,2 propane diol – PD, 1,4 butane diol – BD and tetra(ethylene glycol – TEG in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, p-TsOH, as an end capping agent. The addition of p-TsOH reduces the ZnO particle size and increases its crystallite size. With increasing diol main chain length the ZnO particle size increases (EG (32 nm < PD (33 nm < BD (72 nm < TEG (86 nm. Using the assynthesized and unmodified ZnO nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, matrix have been prepared by the in-situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate, MMA. The addition of surface modifiers is avoided which is an advantage for the application since they can influence other properties of the material. ZnO particles, especially those with smaller particle sizes (EG – 32 nm, PD – 33 nm showed enhanced effect on the thermal stability of PMMA, ultraviolet, UV, absorption and transparency for visible light. Transparent materials with high UV absorption and with enhanced resistance to sunlight were obtained by optimizing the nanocomposite preparation procedure using ZnO particles of about 30 nm size in concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1 wt%. The reported nanocomposite preparation procedure is compatible with the industrial process of PMMA sheet production.

  4. Synthesis of polymer gel electrolyte with high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, Paulo; Qutubuddin, Syed; Webber, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite gel electrolytes consisting of high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA-clay nanocomposite, ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizer, and LiClO 4 electrolyte are reported. Montmorillonite clay was ion exchanged with a zwitterionic surfactant (octadecyl dimethyl betaine) and dispersed in methyl methacrylate, which was then polymerized to synthesize PMMA-clay nanocomposites. The nanocomposite was dissolved in a mixture of EC/PC with LiClO 4 , heated and pressed to obtain polymer gel electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the gels indicated intercalated clay structure with d-spacings of 2.85 and 1.40 nm. In the gel containing plasticizer, the clay galleries shrink suggesting intercalation rather than partial exfoliation observed in the PMMA-clay nanocomposite. Ionic conductivity varied slightly and exhibited a maximum value of 8 x 10 -4 S/cm at clay content of 1.5 wt.%. The activation energy was determined by modeling the conductivity with a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher expression. The clay layers are primarily trapped inside the polymer matrix. Consequently, the polymer does not interact significantly with LiClO 4 electrolyte as shown by FTIR. The presence of the clay increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the gel as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The PMMA nanocomposite gel electrolyte shows a stable lithium interfacial resistance over time, which is a key factor for use in electrochemical applications

  5. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-phenothiazinium dye hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ru; Lu, Yue-Ting; Yan, Bao-Long; Lu, Jian-Mei; Wu, Xing-Zhi; Song, Ying-Lin; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with charge flowable 3,7-di(piperidinyl)phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, which tested by Z-scan method with nanosecond laser beam at 532 nm, are reported. Large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (up to 10 −7 esu) and high second hyperpolarizabilities (up to 10 −27 esu) are found. The third-order nonlinear absorptions change from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with different percentage of the phenothiazinium dye in the poly(methyl methacrylate) films, which can be explained by the accumulation phenomenon of the phenothiazinium. The results suggest that the phenothiazinium salt is a promising material for third order non-linear applications. - Highlights: • Phenothiazinium containing optical films • Strong third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption • Large third-order NLO susceptibilities

  6. Bonding at Compatible and Incompatible Amorphous Interfaces of Polystyrene and Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Below the Glass Transition Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Films of high-molecular-weight amorphous polystyrene (PS, M-w = 225 kg/mol, M-w/M-n = 3, T-g-bulk = 97degreesC, where T-g-bulk is the glass transition temperature of the bulk sample) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, M-w = 87 kg/mol, M-w/M-n = 2, Tg-bulk = 109degreesC) were brought into contact...

  7. Fundamental study on dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) by quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiations such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and electron beam (EB) are the most promising exposure source for next-generation lithographic technology. In the realization of high resolution lithography, it is necessary for resist materials to improve the trade-off relationship among sensitivity, resolution, and line width roughness (LWR). In order to overcome them, it is essential to understand basic chemistry of resist matrices in resist processes. In particular, the dissolution process of resist materials is a key process. Therefore, it is essential for next-generation resist design for ionizing radiation to clarify the dissolution behavior of the resist film into developer. However, the details in dissolution process of EUV and EB resist films have not been investigated thus far. In this study, main chain scission and dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as main chain scission type resist was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in order to understand the relationship between the degree of PMMA degradation and dissolution behavior. The relationship between the molecular weight after irradiation and the swelling behavior was clarified.

  8. A simplified technique for polymethyl methacrylate cranioplasty: combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most frequently used cranioplasty materials. However, limitations exist with PMMA cranioplasty including longer operative time, greater blood loss and a higher infection rate. To reduce these disadvantages, it is proposed to introduce a new surgical method for PMMA cranioplasty. Retrospective review of nine patients who received nine PMMA implants using combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method from January 2008 to July 2011. The definitive height of skull defect was quantified by computer-based image analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans. Aesthetic outcomes as measured by post-reduction radiographs and cranial index of symmetry (CIS), cranial nerve V and VII function and complications (wound infection, hardware extrusions, meningitis, osteomyelitis and brain abscess) were evaluated. The mean operation time for implant moulding was 24.56 ± 4.6 minutes and 178.0 ± 53 minutes for skin-to-skin. Average blood loss was 169 mL. All post-operative radiographs revealed excellent reduction. The mean CIS score was 95.86 ± 1.36%, indicating excellent symmetry. These results indicate the safety, practicability, excellent cosmesis, craniofacial symmetry and stability of this new surgical technique.

  9. Dehydrogenation mechanism of LiBH{sub 4} by Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yan, Yurong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ouyang, Liuzhang, E-mail: meouyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory for Fuel Cell Technology in Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Min, E-mail: memzhu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • LiBH{sub 4} is amorphous after modified with PMMA. • Dehydrogenation temperature of LiBH{sub 4} decreases by 120 °C after modifying with PMMA. • The LiBH{sub 4}@PMMA composite releases 10 wt.% hydrogen at 360 °C within 1 h. • C=O group of PMMA weakens the B−H bonds to lower dehydrogenation temperature. - Abstract: We investigated the dehydrogenation properties and mechanism of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) confined LiBH{sub 4}. Thermal stability of LiBH{sub 4} was reduced by PMMA, with a decrease in dehydrogenation temperature by 120 °C. At 360 °C, the composite showed fast dehydrogenation kinetics with 10 wt.% of hydrogen released within 1 h. The improved dehydrogenation performance was mainly attributed to the reaction between LiBH{sub 4} and PMMA forming Li{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as a final product. Furthermore, the presence of electrostatic interaction between B atom of LiBH{sub 4} and O atom in the carbonyl group of PMMA may weaken the B−H bonding of [BH{sub 4}]{sup −} and lower the hydrogen desorption temperature.

  10. Dynamic mechanical analysis of single walled carbon nanotubes/polymethyl methacrylate nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Ali; Al Hosiny, N.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical properties of nanocomposite films with different ratios of single walled carbon nanotubes/polymethyl methacrylate (SWCNTs/PMMA) are studied. Nanocomposite films of different ratios (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 weight percent (wt%)) of SWCNTs/PMMA are fabricated by using a casting technique. The morphological and structural properties of both SWCNT powder and SWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposite films are investigated by using a high resolution transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer respectively. The mechanical properties including the storage modulus, loss modulus, loss factor (tan δ) and stiffness of the nanocomposite film as a function of temperature are recorded by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer at a frequency of 1 Hz. Compared with pure PMMA film, the nanocomposite films with different ratios of SWCNTs/PMMA are observed to have enhanced storage moduli, loss moduli and high stiffness, each of which is a function of temperature. The intensity of the tan δ peak for pure PMMA film is larger than those of the nanocomposite films. The glass transition temperature (T g ) of SWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposite film shifts towards the higher temperature side with respect to pure PMMA film from 91.2 °C to 99.5 °C as the ratio of SWCNTs/PMMA increases from 0 to 2.0 wt%. (paper)

  11. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); Chen Xinhua [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Kang Yingke; Yang Guangbin; Yu Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); Zhang Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO{sub 2} (coded as PMMA-SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162{sup o}, showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  12. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinyan; Chen Xinhua; Kang Yingke; Yang Guangbin; Yu Laigui; Zhang Pingyu

    2010-01-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO 2 (coded as PMMA-SiO 2 ) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO 2 ) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO 2 nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162 o , showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  13. Enhancement of mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride with polymethyl methacrylate-grafted halloysite nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes(HNTs grafted with Polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA were synthesized via radical polymerization. The properties of PMMA-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results showed that PMMA grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then, PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding. The morphology, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. PMMA-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the toughness, strength and modulus of PVC. The glass transition and thermal decomposition temperatures of PVC phase in PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites are shifted toward slightly higher temperatures. The grafted HNTs were uniformly dispersed in PVC matrix as revealed by TEM photos. The fracture surfaces of the nanocomposites exhibited plastic deformation feature indicating ductile fracture behaviors. The improvement of toughness of PVC by PMMA-grafted HNTs was attributed to the improved interfacial bonding by grafting and the toughening mechanism was explained according to the cavitation mechanism.

  14. Effects of sterilization on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) based personalized medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münker, T J A G; van de Vijfeijken, S E C M; Mulder, C S; Vespasiano, V; Becking, A G; Kleverlaan, C J; Becking, A G; Dubois, L; Karssemakers, L H E; Milstein, D M J; van de Vijfeijken, S E C M; Depauw, P R A M; Hoefnagels, F W A; Vandertop, W P; Kleverlaan, C J; Münker, T J A G; Maal, T J J; Nout, E; Riool, M; Zaat, S A J

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, personalized medical devices are frequently used for patients. Due to the manufacturing procedure sterilization is required. How different sterilization methods affect the mechanical behavior of these devices is largely unknown. Three poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based materials (Vertex Self-Curing, Palacos R+G, and NextDent C&B MFH) were sterilized with different sterilization methods: ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, autoclavation, and γ-irradiation. Mechanical properties were determined by testing the flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and impact strength. The flexural strength of all materials was significantly higher after γ-irradiation compared to the control and other sterilization methods, as tested in a wet environment. NextDent C&B MFH showed the highest flexural and impact strength, Palacos R+G showed the highest maximum stress intensity factor and total fracture work. Autoclave sterilization is not suitable for the sterilization of PMMA-based materials. Ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, and γ-irradiation appear to be suitable techniques to sterilize PMMA-based personalized medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical and mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate/cadmium sulphide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajdeep; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2018-06-01

    In the present investigation, electrical and mechanical behavior of cadmium sulphide (CdS) doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been studied using different techniques. Dip casting technique was used for preparing free standing films of pristine and CdS doped PMMA at different compositions (i.e. 1 and 5 wt%). Optical absorbance as a function of wavelength was studied, by UV-visible spectroscopy, to find the impact of CdS doping on the optical band gap of synthesized PMMA/CdS composite. DC and AC conductivities were measured as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. Considerable increase in electrical conductivity was observed with the increase of CdS contents in polymer matrix. Overall electrical conduction mechanism in PMMA/CdS composites was attributed to movement of electrons through the uniformly distributed CdS aggregates within the matrix of PMMA. Mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation and ductility, of PMMA/CdS composites were determined and relevant responsible phenomena were discussed.

  16. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  17. A novel bonding method for large scale poly(methyl methacrylate) micro- and nanofluidic chip fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingtian; Li, Jinlai; Yin, Zhifu

    2018-04-01

    Micro- and nanofluidic chips are becoming increasing significance for biological and medical applications. Future advances in micro- and nanofluidics and its utilization in commercial applications depend on the development and fabrication of low cost and high fidelity large scale plastic micro- and nanofluidic chips. However, the majority of the present fabrication methods suffer from a low bonding rate of the chip during thermal bonding process due to air trapping between the substrate and the cover plate. In the present work, a novel bonding technique based on Ar plasma and water treatment was proposed to fully bond the large scale micro- and nanofluidic chips. The influence of Ar plasma parameters on the water contact angle and the effect of bonding conditions on the bonding rate and the bonding strength of the chip were studied. The fluorescence tests demonstrate that the 5 × 5 cm2 poly(methyl methacrylate) chip with 180 nm wide and 180 nm deep nanochannels can be fabricated without any block and leakage by our newly developed method.

  18. Graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) composite laminates on flexible substrates for volatile organic compound detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabut, Chanoknan; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Muangrat, Worawut; Bunjongpru, Win; Phonyiem, Mayuree; Song, Young Jae

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a gas sensor for volatile organic compound (VOC) detection based on graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (GR/PMMA) composite laminates fabricated using CVD-grown graphene. Graphene was transferred to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by PMMA-supported wet transfer process without PMMA removal in order to achieve the deposition of GR/PMMA composite laminates on PET. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors show completely different sensitivities to VOC vapors. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors showed the highest sensitivities to dichloromethane (DCM). The response of the GR/PMMA sensor to DCM was 3 times higher than that of the graphene sensor but the GR/PMMA sensor hardly responded to acetone, chloroform, or benzene. The sensing mechanism of the graphene sensor can be based on the dielectric constant of VOCs, the size of VOC molecule, and electron hopping effects on defect graphene, while that of the GR/PMMA sensor can be explained in terms of the polymer swelling owing to the Hansen solubility parameter.

  19. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Utsumi, Yuichi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the processing depth of PMMA from the total exposure energy in deep X-ray lithography. (author)

  20. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaozong; Cui Naiyi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA micro-beads were processed using a rotary air plasma reactor. ► Surface chemistry and surface texture of PMMA micro-beads were characterised. ► Surface wettability was evaluated using “floating” water contact angle method. ► Surface oxidation and texture changes induced by air plasma attributed to the improvement of surface wettability. - Abstract: This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  1. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 06530 (Turkey)], E-mail: tamer@inano.dk, E-mail: tamer@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2009-03-25

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: {alpha}-CD, {beta}-CD, and {gamma}-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order {alpha}-CD<{beta}-CD<{gamma}-CD, the thermal evolution of menthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order {gamma}-CD>{beta}-CD>{alpha}-CD.

  2. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CD β-CD>α-CD.

  3. Lithography exposure characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for carbon, helium and hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaraksa, Nitipon; Norarat, Rattanaporn; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Singkarat, Somsorn; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2012-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) is a common polymer used as a lithographic resist for all forms of particle (photon, ion and electron) beam writing. Faithful lithographic reproduction requires that the exposure dose, Θ, lies in the window Θ0⩽ΘChiang Mai and Jyväskylä to determine the exposure characteristics in terms of fluence for 2 MeV protons, 3 MeV 4He and 6 MeV 12C ions, respectively. After exposure the samples were developed in 7:3 by volume propan-2-ol:de-ionised water mixture. At low fluences, where the fluence is below the clearing fluence, the exposed regions were characterised by rough regions, particularly for He with holes around the ion tracks. As the fluence (dose) increases so that the dose exceeds the clearing dose, the PMMA is uniformly removed with sharp vertical walls. When Θ exceeds the cross-linking onset fluence, the bottom of the exposed regions show undissolved PMMA.

  4. Photoluminescence and reflectivity studies of high energy light ions irradiated polymethyl methacrylate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Madhu Lata; Singh, Fouran; Ramola, R. C.; Joshi, Veena

    2017-11-01

    The self-standing films of non-conducting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were irradiated in vacuum using high energy light ions (HELIs) of 50 MeV Lithium (Li+3) and 80 MeV Carbon (C+5) at various ion dose to induce the optical changes in the films. Upon HELI irradiation, films exhibit a significant enhancement in optical reflectivity at the highest dose. Interestingly, the photoluminescence (PL) emission band with green light at (514.5 nm) shows a noticeable increase in the intensity with increasing ion dose for both ions. However, the rate of increase in PL intensity is different for both HELI and can be correlated with the linear energy transfer by these ions in the films. Origin of PL is attributed to the formation of carbon cluster and hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the polymer films. HAC clusters act as PL active centres with optical reflectivity. Most of the harmful radiation like UV are absorbed by the material and is becoming opaque after irradiation and this PL active material are useful in fabrication of optoelectronic devices, UV-filter, back-lit components in liquid crystal display systems, micro-components for integrate optical circuits, diffractive elements, advanced materials and are also applicable to the post irradiation laser treatment by means of ion irradiation.

  5. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  6. A sol-gel-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) electrophoresis microchip with a hydrophilic channel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was approximately 27.4 degrees compared with approximately 66.3 degrees for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13x10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86x10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74,882.3 m(-1) compared with 14,730.5 m(-1) for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  7. Customized Polymethyl Methacrylate Implants for the Reconstruction of Craniofacial Osseous Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Fernandes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects represent alterations in the anatomy and morphology of the cranial vault and the facial bones that potentially affect an individual’s psychological and social well-being. Although a variety of techniques and restorative procedures have been described for the reconstruction of the affected area, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, a biocompatible and nondegradable acrylic resin-based implant, is the most widely used alloplastic material for such craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe a technique for aesthetic and functional preoperative customized reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects from a small series of patients offered by the Brazilian public health system. Three adult male patients attended consultation with chief complaints directly related to their individual craniofacial bone defects. With the aid of multislice computed tomography scans and subsequent fabrication of the three-dimensional craniofacial prototype, custom-made PMMA implants were fabricated preoperatively. Under general anesthesia, with access to the craniofacial defects with a coronal approach, the PMMA implants were adapted and fixated to the facial skeleton with titanium plates and screws. Postoperative evaluation demonstrated uneventful recovery and an excellent aesthetic result. Customized prefabricated PMMA implants manufactured over the rapid prototyping models proved to be effective and feasible.

  8. An angled nano-tunnel fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) by a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her, Eun Kyu; Chung, Hee-Suk; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Angled nano-scale tunnels with high aspect ratio were fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a focused ion beam (FIB). The fabrication parameters such as ion fluence, incidence angle, and acceleration voltage of the Ga + ion beam were first studied on the PMMA surface to explore the formation of the nano-scale configurations such as nano-holes and cones with diameter in the range of 50-150 nm at an ion beam acceleration voltage of 5-20 kV. It was also found that the PMMA surface exposed to FIB was changed into an amorphous graphitic structure. Angled nano-scale tunnels were fabricated with high aspect ratio of 700-1500 nm in depth and 60 nm in mean diameter at an ion beam acceleration voltage of 5 kV and under a specific ion beam current. The angle of the nano-tunnels was found to follow the incident angle of the ion beam tilted from 0 0 to 85 0 , which has the potential for creating a mold for anisotropic adhesives by mimicking the hairs on a gecko's feet.

  9. Self-assembly and omniphobic property of fluorinated unit end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyan, Liang; Pingdi, Xu; Jingxian, Bao; Ling, He; Nan, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    The self-assembly behavior of fluorinated unit end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PDFHM-ef-PMMA) in solution and its influence on the surface microstructure, elemental composition and omniphobic property of cast film was investigated in this work. Specifically, three mixed solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF)/methanol (MeOH), THF/H2O and THF/H2O/MeOH in various compositions were employed separately as the selective solvents. In THF/MeOH solution, the aggregate morphologies of PDFHM-ef-PMMA changed gradually from core-shell spheres to worm, and then to elliptical vesicles as MeOH content increased. In THF/H2O solution, spherical and bowl-shaped aggregates with significantly larger sizes than those in THF/MeOH solution were favored despite lower H2O content. The further addition of MeOH to THF/H2O mixture could reduce the size of aggregate but hardly change original aggregate morphology. During the film formation process, those self-assembled aggregates in THF/MeOH solution fused with one another to form a smooth surface. When such surface was fully covered by fluorinated segments, the outstanding hexadecane and water slide-off properties and ink-resistant property required for antifouling application were demonstrated. Instead, the aggregates formed in THF/H2O/MeOH mixture were subjected to secondary aggregation of PDFHM-ef-PMMA chains during solvent evaporation, leading to the formation of a particulate film with poor adhesion towards glass plate and hexadecane-repellent property.

  10. Characterization and electrolytic cleaning of poly(methyl methacrylate) residues on transferred chemical vapor deposited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianbo; Finklea, Harry O.; Liu, Yuxin

    2017-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue has long been a critical challenge for practical applications of the transferred chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. Thermal annealing is empirically used for the removal of the PMMA residue; however experiments imply that there are still small amounts of residues left after thermal annealing which are hard to remove with conventional methods. In this paper, the thermal degradation of the PMMA residue upon annealing was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The study reveals that post-annealing residues are generated by the elimination of methoxycarbonyl side chains in PMMA and are believed to be absorbed on graphene via the π-π interaction between the conjugated unsaturated carbon segments and graphene. The post-annealing residues are difficult to remove by further annealing in a non-oxidative atmosphere due to their thermal and chemical stability. An electrolytic cleaning method was shown to be effective in removing these post-annealing residues while preserving the underlying graphene lattice based on Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. Additionally, a solution-gated field effect transistor was used to study the transport properties of the transferred CVD graphene before thermal annealing, after thermal annealing, and after electrolytic cleaning, respectively. The results show that the carrier mobility was significantly improved, and that the p-doping was reduced by removing PMMA residues and post-annealing residues. These studies provide a more in-depth understanding on the thermal annealing process for the removal of the PMMA residues from transferred CVD graphene and a new approach to remove the post-annealing residues, resulting in a residue-free graphene.

  11. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) in blends with polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    2002-04-01

    In this work the radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) was analyzed by three radioprotective agents: polystyrene (PS) and hindered amine light stabilizers (HEALS), respectively, PMMA/PS systems, so a called polymeric blends were prepared with different compositions, where the miscibility of these blends were studied using viscometric, microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The results show that PMMA/PS blends in the compositions below 10 wt% of PS are miscible, on films casting from solution of toluene and methyl-ethyl-ketone (1;1) mixture. On the other hand, in the composition above 10 wt% of PS, PMMA/PS blends show imminiscibility behavior. These polymer solutions were irradiated with gamma rays ( 60 Co) and viscometric, microscopic and spectroscopic experiments show gamma radiation-induced compatibilization on PMMA/PS blends on proportion 50/50 and 30/70 take place. Viscometric interaction parameters of miscible and compatibilized PMMA/PS bends were calculated in the range of - 50 kGy, with the goal to find out the polymeric interactions after irradiation of the films. G values of PMMA, PMMA/PS and PMMA+St systems were calculated in order to analyze the radioprotection of PS and St into PMMA matrix. The results show that (90/10) PMMA/PS and PMMA+1,5%St systems promote protection against the gamma the radiation-induced scissions, effect that leads to polymer degradation. Moreover, a small amount of crosslinking observed in irradiated blends has contributed to stabilize mechanical properties of PMMA films. PMMA+0,3% HALS system irradiated in doses above 60 kGy showed little stabilization of the mechanical properties of PMMA, since it was observed mechanical degradation this system. Based on these results, PS and St showed to be the best radioprotective agents to PMMA. (author)

  12. Fabrication of 3D Microfluidic Devices by Thermal Bonding of Thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Paul

    2012-07-01

    The use of thin-film techniques for the fabrication of microfluidic devices has gained attention over the last decade, particularly for three-dimensional channel structures. The reasons for this include effective use of chip volume, mechanical flexibility, dead volume reduction, enhanced design capabilities, integration of passive elements, and scalability. Several fabrication techniques have been adapted for use on thin films: laser ablation and hot embossing are popular for channel fabrication, and lamination is widely used for channel enclosure. However, none of the previous studies have been able to achieve a strong bond that is reliable under moderate positive pressures. The present work aims to develop a thin-film process that provides design versatility, speed, channel profile homogeneity, and the reliability that others fail to achieve. The three building blocks of the proposed baseline were fifty-micron poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films as substrates, channel patterning by laser ablation, and device assembly by thermal-fusion bonding. Channel fabrication was characterized and tuned to produce the desired dimensions and surface roughness. Thermal bonding was performed using an adapted mechanical testing device and optimized to produce the maximum bonding strength without significant channel deformation. Bonding multilayered devices, incorporating conduction lines, and integrating various types of membranes as passive elements demonstrated the versatility of the process. Finally, this baseline was used to fabricate a droplet generator and a DNA detection chip based on micro-bead agglomeration. It was found that a combination of low laser power and scanning speed produced channel surfaces with better uniformity than those obtained with higher values. In addition, the implemented bonding technique provided the process with the most reliable bond strength reported, so far, for thin-film microfluidics. Overall, the present work proved to be versatile

  13. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa de Medeiros Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA. Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=10 according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing, NF (Nealon technique and finishing, NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing, MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing, and MP (3 : 1 ratio and manual polishing. For each group, five specimens were submitted to bacterial adhesion tests and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two additional specimens were subjected to surface topography analysis by SEM and the remaining three specimens were subjected to surface roughness measurements. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA. The mean bacterial counts were as follows: NF, 19.6±3.05; MP, 5.36±2.08; NP, 4.96±1.93; MF, 7.36±2.45; and LP, 1.56±0.62 (CFU. The mean surface roughness values were as follows: NF, 3.23±0.15; MP, 0.52±0.05; NP, 0.60±0.08; MF, 2.69±0.12; and LP, 0.07±0.02 (μm. A reduction in the surface roughness was observed to be directly related to a decrease in bacterial adhesion. It was verified that the laboratory processing of PMMA might decrease the surface roughness and consequently the adhesion of S. sanguinis to this material.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)/OMMT nanocomposites by γ-ray irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weian; Shen Xiaofeng; Li Yu; Fang Yuee

    2003-01-01

    Organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) was synthesized by cationic exchange between Na-MMT and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in an aqueous solution. Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)/(OMMT) nanocomposites was prepared by γ-ray irradiation polymerization. The dispersion degree and the intercalation spacing of these nanocomposites were investigated with the X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the samples were studied by the thermal gravimetric analysis. The nanocomposites had higher storage modulus and higher glass transition temperature (T g ) than the pure PMMA, which were measured by dynamic mechanical analysis

  15. Water-enhanced adhesion at interface in immiscible bilayer film of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M; Koga, T; Fukumori, K; Sugiyama, J; Geue, T

    2014-01-01

    From nano-scratch tests, strong interfacial adhesion has been found for polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bilayer films prepared by a water floating (WF) method, while a PS layer on a PMMA film produced by a spin coating (SC) method peels off easily at the interface. Neutron reflectivity measurements demonstrated a clear difference in the interfacial width (σ) between the two bilayers; σ = 9 nm for the film obtained by the WF method, whereas σ = 5 nm for that by the SC method. Plasticization of the films by water would be responsible for broadening of the interface to enhance adhesion strength.

  16. Performance comparison of four kinds of flat nonimaging Fresnel lenses made of polycarbonates and polymethyl methacrylate for concentrated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languy, Fabian; Habraken, Serge

    2011-07-15

    Solar concentrators made of a single refractive primary optics are limited to a concentration ratio of about 1000× [Opt. Express 19, A280 (2011)], due only to longitudinal chromatic aberration, while mirrors are limited to ∼46,000× by the angular size of the Sun. To reduce the chromatic aberration while keeping cost-effective systems for concentrated photovoltaics, a study of four different kinds of flat Fresnel doublets made of polycarbonates and polymethyl methacrylate is presented. It reveals that Fresnel doublets may have fewer optical losses than non-Fresnel doublets, with a lower lateral chromatic split allowing for even higher concentration ratio. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Quaternized poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-vinylbenzyl chloride) membrane for alkaline fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yanting; Guo, Juchen; Wang, Chunsheng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Chu, Deryn [Sensors and Electron Device Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Instead of modification of pre-existing polymers, a new route of preparation of polyelectrolyte OH{sup -} conductive membranes via copolymerization of selected functional monomers was reported in this study. A random copolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-vinylbenzyl chloride) was synthesized via copolymerization, which was followed by quaternization and membrane casting. The intrinsic OH{sup -} conductivity of the free-standing polyelectrolyte membranes can reach 8.2 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 80 C. The alkaline fuel cells using copolymer polyelectrolytes demonstrated the feasibility of the preparation concept of these membranes. (author)

  18. Photosensitivity mechanism of undoped poly(methyl methacrylate) under UV radiation at 325 nm and its spatial resolution limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    that increasing strain during photo-inscription leads to an increased photosensitivity, which is evidence of photodegradation. Likewise, refractive index change in the fiber was measured to be positive, which provides evidence for further polymerization of the material. Finally, we relate the data obtained......In this Letter, we provide evidence suggesting that the main photosensitive mechanism of an undoped poly(methyl methacrylate)-based microstructured optical fiber under UV radiation at 325 nm is a competitive process of both photodegradation and polymerization. We found experimentally...

  19. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite solar cells added with MnCl2, YCl3 or poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masaya; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Oku, Takeo

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite-type CH3NH3PbI3-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated and characterized. Effects of manganese (Mn), yttrium (Y) compounds addition into the perovskite crystal on the photovoltaic properties were investigated. Also, the effects of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) addition on perovskite layer on the photovoltaic properties were investigated. When 3 % MnCl2 was added, the short circuit current density and conversion efficiency were improved by promoting the crystal growth of perovskite phase. The photoelectric conversion efficiency for 0.9 mg mL-1 PMMA added was 7.36 %. Open circuit voltage and fill factor were improved by 5 % YCl3 addition.

  20. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) microcapsules by in situ polymerization on the surface of calcium carbonate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Tatsuya; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microcapsules were prepared by the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide on the surface of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) particles, followed by the dissolution of the CaCO(3) core in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. The microcapsules were characterized using fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average sizes of the CaCO(3) particles and PMMA capsules were 3.8±0.6 and 4.0±0.6 μm, respectively. A copolymer consisting of MMA and rhodamine B-bearing MMA was also used to prepare microcapsules for fluorescent microscopy observations. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin was enclosed in the PMMA microcapsules and its release properties were studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongo, S., E-mail: sidiki@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kerasidou, A.P. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Sone, B.T.; Diallo, A. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Iliopoulos, K. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504 Patras (Greece); Nkosi, M. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We studied the linear and nonlinear optical properties of hybrid Bixa Orellana dye doped PMMA thin film. • We investigated the linear optical properties by means of UV/Vis, FTIR and Fluorescence. • We used Tauc - Lorentz model to evaluate linear optical parameters (n &k) with relative maximum of 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm for n is observed while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080. • We evaluated nonlinear third order susceptibility which was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. - Abstract: Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  2. Mammography dosimetry using an in-house developed polymethyl methacrylate phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Sharma, S. D.; Mayya, Y. S.; Chourasiya, G.

    2012-01-01

    Phantom-based measurements in mammography are well-established for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures involving equipment performance and comparisons of X-ray machines. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is among the best suitable materials for simulation of the breast. For carrying out QA/QC exercises in India, a mammographic PMMA phantom with engraved slots for keeping thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) has been developed. The radiation transmission property of the developed phantom was compared with the commercially available phantoms for verifying its suitability for mammography dosimetry. The breast entrance exposure (BEE), mean glandular dose (MGD), percentage depth dose (PDD), percentage surface dose distribution (PSDD), calibration testing of automatic exposure control (AEC) and density control function of a mammography machine were measured using this phantom. MGD was derived from the measured BEE following two different methodologies and the results were compared. The PDD and PSDD measurements were carried out using LiF: Mg, Cu, P chips. The in-house phantom was found comparable with the commercially available phantoms. The difference in the MGD values derived using two different methods were found in the range of 17.5-32.6 %. Measured depth ranges in the phantom lie between 0.32 and 0.40 cm for 75 % depth dose, 0.73 and 0.92 cm for 50 % depth dose, and 1.54 and 1.78 cm for 25 % depth dose. Higher PSDD value was observed towards chest wall edge side of the phantom, which is due to the orientation of cathode-anode axis along the chest wall to the nipple direction. Results obtained for AEC configuration testing shows that the observed mean optical density (O.D) of the phantom image was 1.59 and O.D difference for every successive increase in thickness of the phantom was within ±0.15 O.D. Under density control function testing, at -2 and -1 density settings, the variation in film image O.D was within ±0.15 O.D of the normal density

  3. Novel transparent ternary nanocomposite films of trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania with incorporating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuan; Zhang Dengsong; Shi Liyi; Li Li; Zhang Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Novel ternary nanocomposite trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania optical films were successfully prepared through a nonaqueous in situ sol-gel method. The acrylic monomers used were methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MSMA). PMMA/ZrO 2 -TiO 2 incorporating networks formed from alcoholysis of poly(MMA-co-MSMA), zirconium n-butoxide and titanium isoproproxide. The structure, morphology and property of the obtained nanocomposite films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, UV-vis spectrum and spectro-ellipsometer. The nanoparticle size, roughness, thermal stability, UV-shielding property, and refractive index of nanocomposite films increase with the increasing of inorganic contents. The formation mechanism and reason of such improvements were examined and interpreted in a theoretical model. The nanocomposite films possess interesting properties in thermal stability and optical response due to the uniform incorporating networks between organic polymer chains and inorganic clusters

  4. Novel transparent ternary nanocomposite films of trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania with incorporating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuan [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang Dengsong [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)], E-mail: dszhang@shu.edu.cn; Shi Liyi [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)], E-mail: sly0726@163.com; Li Li; Zhang Jianping [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Novel ternary nanocomposite trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania optical films were successfully prepared through a nonaqueous in situ sol-gel method. The acrylic monomers used were methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MSMA). PMMA/ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} incorporating networks formed from alcoholysis of poly(MMA-co-MSMA), zirconium n-butoxide and titanium isoproproxide. The structure, morphology and property of the obtained nanocomposite films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, UV-vis spectrum and spectro-ellipsometer. The nanoparticle size, roughness, thermal stability, UV-shielding property, and refractive index of nanocomposite films increase with the increasing of inorganic contents. The formation mechanism and reason of such improvements were examined and interpreted in a theoretical model. The nanocomposite films possess interesting properties in thermal stability and optical response due to the uniform incorporating networks between organic polymer chains and inorganic clusters.

  5. Micro/nanoencapsulated n-nonadecane with poly(methyl methacrylate) shell for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Biçer, Alper; Altuntaş, Ayşe; Bilgin, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determinate of thermal energy storage properties of PMMA/C19 micro/nanocapsules as a novel encapsulated phase change material (M/N-EPCM). The chemical structure of the prepared M/N-EPCM was verified using FTIR spectroscopy method. The analysis results obtained from POM and SEM indicated that the synthesized capsules had virtually spherical-shape. The PSD analysis indicated that the M/N-EPCM capsules had mean diameter of 8.18 μm and the percentage of the capsules with nanosize was 4.90 (v/v). The DSC results showed that the synthesized M/N-PCM had a melting temperature and total latent heat value as 31.23 °C and 139.20 J/g, respectively. It can be also deduced from all results that the synthesized M/N-EPCM had promising thermal energy storage potential due to its good latent heat thermal energy storage properties, thermal durability, thermal reliability, chemical stability, thermal conductivity and phase change reversibility properties. - Highlights: • The chemical structure of the prepared M/N-EPCM was verified using FTIR spectroscopy method. • POM and SEM results indicated that the M/N-EPCM had virtually spherical shape-appearance. • The M/N-EPCM had mean diameter of 8.18 μm and the percentage of the capsules with nanosize was 4.90 (v/v). • The M/N-PCM had a melting temperature and total latent heat value as 31.23 °C and 139.20 J/g, respectively. • The M/N-EPCM had promising thermal energy storage potential. - Abstract: This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the thermal energy storage properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/n-nonadecane (C19) capsules as a novel micro/nanoencapsulated phase change material (M/N-EPCM). The M/N-EPCM was fabricated via emulsion polymerization reaction of methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer occurred around C19 used as core material. The chemical structure of the prepared M/N-EPCM was verified using Fourier transform infrared

  6. Controlled Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes on Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Powders by Surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhaoqi; LI Wei; LIU Lanqin; HUANG Lei; ZHOU Jin; YU Haiyin

    2009-01-01

    Controlled grafting of well-defined polymer brushes of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powders was carded out by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The ATRP initiator was anchored on the PVDF surface by alkaline treatment, followed by UV-induced bromination; then methyl methacrylate (MMA) was grafted onto the brominated PVDF by the ATRP technique. The chemical composition changes of PVDF were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FT-IR and XPS results clearly indicated the successful graft of poly(methyl methacrylate) onto the PVDF surface.

  7. Periodic nanostructures formed on a poly-methyl methacrylate surface with a femtosecond laser for biocompatibility improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Keisuke; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Sato, Yuji; Ooga, Takahiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Kensuke

    2018-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used as a biomaterial. The formation of periodic nanostructures on the surface is necessary to improve the biocompatibility. A method was proposed and developed to form periodic nanostructures on a PMMA surface. A PMMA plate was placed on titanium (Ti) plate, and then the Ti plate was irradiated with a laser through the PMMA plate. We try to effectively produce periodic nanostructures on PMMA with a femtosecond laser at a fundamental wavelength by increasing the contact pressure and using titanium (Ti) plate. The contact pressure between PMMA and Ti required to form a periodic nanostructure is 300 kPa, and for a contact pressure of 2400 kPa, periodic nanostructures are formed in 62% of the laser-irradiated area on the PMMA surface. These results suggest that the formation efficiency of the periodic nanostructure depends on the laser conditions and the contact pressure.

  8. Fluorescence enhancement of samarium complex co-doped with terbium complex in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiu Hongfang; Zhang Lixin; Liu Guode; Fan Tao

    2009-01-01

    The fluorescence property of Sm(DBM) 3 phen- (DBM-dibenzoylmethide, phen-1,10-phenanthroline) and Tb(DBM) 3 phen-co-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated. The excitation, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the co-doped samples were examined. In the co-doped samples, the luminescence intensities of Sm 3+ enhance with an increase of the Tb(DBM) 3 phen content and with a decrease of the Sm(DBM) 3 phen content. The reason for the fluorescence enhancement effect in the co-doped polymer is the intermolecular energy transfer. To give a vivid picture for this co-doped system, a model for the fluorescence enhancement of Sm(DBM) 3 phen- and Tb(DBM) 3 phen-co-doped PMMA is presented

  9. Biconvex intraocular lenses and Nd:YAG capsulotomy: Experimental comparison of surface damage with different poly(methyl methacrylate) formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, J.E.; Alberhasky, M.T. (Greenview Hospital, Bowling Green, KY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Biconvex posterior chamber lenses have optical advantages and decrease the risk of capsular opacification, but they are more likely to be pitted during ND:YAG capsulotomy because of apposition of the lens to the capsule. This study reports the likelihood of surface damage to different formulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) at the energy levels required to open posterior capsules. Molded lenses are more easily damaged than higher molecular weight lathe-cut materials (P less than .01), as expected. However, by keeping energy output low, even injection-molded lenses showed minimal damage, with mean pit size 39 +/- 39 microns at 1 mJ. By using a converging contact lens, low power, and keeping the focus behind the capsule, damage to all materials tested should be clinically insignificant.

  10. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smithwick, Quinn [Disney Research, 521 Circle Seven Drive, Glendale, Los Angeles, California 91201 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  11. Effect of nanosized silica in poly(methyl methacrylate)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S.; Lu, Soon-Chien [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2008-12-01

    The effect of nanosized silica when incorporated in polymer electrolytes is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, conductivity and thermal properties. Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes are synthesized by the dispersion of nanosized silica (SiO{sub 2}), up to 10 wt.% maximum, into a matrix formed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The highest conductivity is 2.44 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature, with 4 wt.% of silica added. The FTIR spectra show evidence of complexation between PMMA, LiTFSI and SiO{sub 2}. The addition of silica to the polymer electrolytes also improves the thermal stability and the ability to retain conductivity over time. (author)

  12. Electrical bistabilities and memory stabilities of nonvolatile bistable devices fabricated utilizing C60 molecules embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Dong Ik; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/fullerene (C 60 ) molecules embedded in polymethyl methacrylate/Al devices at 300 K showed a current bistability due to the existence of the C 60 molecules. The on/off ratio of the current bistability for the memory devices was as large as 10 3 . The retention time of the devices was above 2.5 x 10 4 s at room temperature, and cycling endurance tests on these devices indicated that the ON and OFF currents showed no degradation until 50 000 cycles. Carrier transport mechanisms for the nonvolatile bistable devices are described on the basis of the I-V experimental and fitting results.

  13. The formation of hollow poly(methyl methacrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite cylinders by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huan; Hu Xijun; Ka Ming Ng; Feng Jiyun

    2009-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite particles with 1, 2 and 4 wt% of MWCNTs were prepared by mechanical grinding of PMMA and MWCNT powders in a mortar at room temperature. Both scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering characterizations revealed that these nanocomposite particles consist of a PMMA core and a MWCNT shell. The PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite particles were used to fabricate the corresponding nanocomposites in the form of a hollow cylinder with various diameters and heights under 700 W microwave irradiation within 1 min. A mechanism for the fast microwave assisted forming process is proposed. These experimental results may lead to a new technology for forming hollow polymeric articles that is different from the conventional injection and blowing process.

  14. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botan, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Telma R.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Wypych, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the quality of cyanoacrylate adhesive joints using the example of poly(methyl methacrylate and polycarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mazur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive bonding is one of the simplest and most common methods used for joining materials. It is applied in both production and repair works. The most commonly used adhesives are cyanoacrylates, due to the possibility of combining various materials and short curing time. One of the ways to assess the quality of the adhesive used is testing the shear strength of bonded joints. Three adhesives commonly available on the Polish market, from various manufacturers and with different prices per gram of product were tested. The polymer materials bonded were poly(methyl methacrylate and polycabonate, since they are broadly used in the automotive industry and household equipment. The study revealed significant differences in bonding strength, reaching as much as 38% The adhesive’s price was not commensurate with the quality of the product tested in all cases.

  16. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-01-01

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO x thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm 2 , exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively

  17. Organic inorganic hybrid coating (poly(methyl methacrylate)/monodisperse silica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, E.; Almaral, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castaño, V.; Rodríguez, V.

    2005-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-silica hybrid coatings were prepared from methyl methacrylate and monodisperse colloidal silica prepared by the Stöber method. The surfaces of the spheres were successfully modified by chemical reaction with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) to compatibilise the organic and inorganic components of the precursor solution mixture. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on glass substrates. They result with good properties of homogeneity, optical transparence, hardness and adhesion.

  18. Surface modification of magnesium aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via one-pot in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaojun, E-mail: guoxj6906@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhao Leihua; Zhang Li; Li Jing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Hydrophobic magnesium aluminum hydroxide composite particles (PMMA-MAH) were obtained by means of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of magnesium aluminum hydroxide(MAH) nanoparticles after a novel type of phosphate coupling agent (DN-27) modification. The introduction of functional double bonds was firstly conducted on the surface of nanoparticles by DN-27 modification, followed by one-pot in situ polymerization on the particles surface using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer, azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as stabilizer to graft PMMA on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH particles. The obtained composite particles were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results show that the organic macromolecule PMMA could be successfully grafted on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH nanoparticles and the thermal stability of the PMMA-MAH composite particles had been improved. Compared with unmodified blank MAH sample, the product obtained with this method possesses better hydrophobic properties such as a higher water contact angle of 108 Degree-Sign and a well dispersion.

  19. Influence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber on recyclability of blends prepared from poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sunil S; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    The current investigation deals with the recycling possibilities of poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Recycled blends of poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(methyl methacrylate) are successfully formed from the plastic constituents, those are recovered from waste computer products. However, lower impact performance of the blend and lower stability of the poly(vinyl chloride) phase in the recycled blend restricts its further usage in industrial purposes. Therefore, effective utilisation acrylonitrile butadiene rubber in a recycled blend was considered for improving mechanical and thermal performance. Incorporation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber resulted in the improvement in impact performance as well as elongation-at-break of the recycled blend. The optimum impact performance was found in the blend with 9 wt% acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, which shows 363% of enhancement as compared with its parent blend. Moreover, incorporated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber also stabilises the poly(vinyl chloride) phase present in the recycled blend, similarly Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the interactions of various functionalities present in the recycled blend and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. In addition to this, thermogravimetric analysis indicates the improvement in the thermal stability of the recycled blend after the addition of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber into it. The existence of partial miscibility in the recycled blend was identified using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Refractive microlenses produced by excimer laser machining of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Frøhling; Krühne, Ulrich; H., L.

    2005-01-01

    A method has been developed whereby refractive microlenses can be produced in poly (methyl methacrylate) by excimer laser irradiation at λ = 248 nm. The lenses are formed by a combined photochemical and thermal process. The lenses are formed as depressions in the substrate material (negative foca...

  1. Mechanical and thermal properties of hydroxyapatite filled poly(methyl methacrylate) heat processed denture base material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.H.; Arifin, A.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.; Nizam, A.; Samsudin, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powder-to-liquid ratio on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the tensile properties of denture base material prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) previously treated with 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (γ-MPS). Specimens for, mechanical testing were prepared by adding composites powder (PMMA, BPO and RA) to the monomer (MMA and EGDMA) followed by hand mixing as in dental laboratory description usage. The glass transition temperature was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSQ. It was observed that the tensile properties and the Tg were affected by the powder-to-liquid ratio. The mechanical characterization of the materials were performed by using single edge notch-tension (SEN-T) specimens; the fracture toughness was slightly higher in formulation which contained RA filler compared to commercial denture base material. (Author)

  2. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted titanate nanotubes by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Zhou Yongfeng; Yan Deyue; Gao Xueping

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the successful preparation of core-shell hybrid nanocomposites by a 'grafting from' approach based on in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from titanate nanotubes (TNTs). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the products provide direct evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure, possessing a hard core of TNTs and a soft shell of poly-MMA (PMMA). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine the chemical structure, morphology, and the grafted PMMA quantities of the resulting products. The grafted PMMA content was well controlled and increased with increasing monomer/initiator ratio. Further copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with PMMA-coated TNTs as initiators was realized, illustrating the 'living' characteristics of the ATRP method used in this paper.

  3. PREPARATION OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)/LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES NANOCOMPOSITES via in situ SOLUTION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An exfoliated layered double hydroxides/poly(methyl methacrylate) (LDHs/PMMA) nanocomposite was prepared by in situ solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate intercalated LDHs(MgAl-VBS LDHs). MgAl-VBS LDHs was prepared by the ion exchange method, and the structure and composition of the MgAl-VBS LDHs were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to examine the structure of LDHs/PMMA nanocomposite. It was indicated that the LDHs layers were well exfoliated and dispersed in the PMMA matrix. The grafting of PMMA onto LDHs was confirmed by the extraction result and the weight fraction of grafted PMMA increased as the weight fraction of LDHs in the nanocomposites increased.

  4. Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement

    OpenAIRE

    Jammalamadaka U; Tappa K; Weisman JA; Nicholson JC; Mills DK

    2017-01-01

    Uday Jammalamadaka,1 Karthik Tappa,1 Jeffery A Weisman,1 James Connor Nicholson,2 David K Mills1,3 1Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science, 2Nanosystems Engineering, 3The School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase ...

  5. Process Development for Reactive-Ion Etching of Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) Utilizing a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Etch Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Nichols, Matthew L Chin, Sina Najmaei, Eugene Zakar, and Madan Dubey Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Approved for public...EBL; Vistec EBPG5000+) with an exposure dose of 850 μC/cm2 and development in 25 mL of isopropyl alcohol (IPA): 10 mL methyl isobutyl ketone for...deposition EBL electron beam lithography IPA isopropyl alcohol MoS2 molybdenum disulfide O2 oxygen PMMA poly(methyl methacrylate) RIE reactive

  6. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanocomposite: low loss and high dielectric constant materials with perceptible magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Mohaseen S; Palei, Prakash K; Patil, Santosh S; Kulkarni, Milind V; Maldar, Noormahmad N; Kale, Bharat B

    2014-09-21

    Herein, poly(methyl methacrylate)-bismuth ferrite (PMMA-BFO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in situ polymerization method for the first time. Initially, the as prepared bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were dispersed in the monomer, (methyl methacrylate) by sonication. Benzoyl peroxide was used to initiate the polymerization reaction in ethyl acetate medium. The nanocomposite films were subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), (1)H NMR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), dielectric and magnetic characterizations. The dielectric measurement of the nanocomposites was investigated at a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. It was found that the nanocomposites not only showed a significantly increased value of the dielectric constant with an increase in the loading percentage of BFO as compared to pure PMMA, but also exhibited low dielectric loss values over a wide range of frequencies. The values of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the PMMA-BFO5 (5% BFO loading) sample at 1 kHz frequency was found be ~14 and 0.037. The variation of the ferromagnetic response of the nanocomposite was consistent with the varying volume percentage of the nanoparticles. The remnant magnetization (Mr) and saturation magnetization (Ms) values of the composites were found to be enhanced by increasing the loading percentage of BFO. The value of Ms for PMMA-BFO5 was found to be ~6 emu g(-1). The prima facie observations suggest that the nanocomposite is a potential candidate for application in high dielectric constant capacitors. Significantly, based on its magnetic properties the composite will also be useful for use in hard disk components.

  7. Crosslinked superhydrophobic films fabricated by simply casting poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiufang; Ye, Chao; Cai, Zhiqi; Xu, Shouping; Pi, Pihui; Cheng, Jiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Qian, Yu

    2015-06-01

    This study focuses on the preparation of superhydrophobic films by crosslinkable polymer material-Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-b-Poly(perfluorohexylethyl methacrylate) (P (MMA-BA-HEMA)-b-PFMA) with a simple one-step casting process. Nanoscale micelle particles with core-shell structure was obtained by dissolving the polymer and curing agent in the mixture of acetone and 1H, 1H, 5H octafluoropentyl-1,1,2,2 tetrafluoroethyl ether (FHT). Superhydrophobic films were fabricated by casting the micelle solution on the glass slides. By controlling the polymer concentration and acetone/FHT volume ratio, superhydrophobic polymer film with water contact angle of 153.2 ± 2.1° and sliding angle of 4° was obtained. By introducing a curing agent into the micelle solution, mechanical properties of the films can be improved. The adhension grade and hardness of the crosslinked superhydrophobic films reached 2 grade and 3H, respectively. The hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness by nanoscale micelle particles and low surface energy of fluoropolymer. This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  8. Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composites with Size-selected Silver Nanoparticles Fabricated Using Cluster Beam Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammad, Hanif; Juluri, Raghavendra R.; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    based on cluster beam technique allowing the formation of monocrystalline size-selected silver nanoparticles with a ±5–7% precision of diameter and controllable embedment into poly (methyl methacrylate). It is shown that the soft-landed silver clusters preserve almost spherical shape with a slight...... tendency to flattening upon impact. By controlling the polymer hardness (from viscous to soft state) prior the cluster deposition and annealing conditions after the deposition the degree of immersion of the nanoparticles into polymer can be tuned, thus, making it possible to create composites with either...

  9. Mineralogical and Thermal Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Alite Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.R.; El-Fass, M.M.; Abd-El-Rahman, H.A.; El-Miligy, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) characteristics and thermal stability of PMMA alite composite have been studied. The dried alite samples were impregnated by methyl methacrylate monomer and then subjected to gamma irradiation. The mineralogical and thermal properties of the PMMA alite composite materials were investigated by using XRD, DTA, and TGA techniques. The results indicate that, a markedly reduction of the peaks intensities of XRD for tricalcium silicate and calcium hydroxide. TGA data showed that PMMA alite composite has a high thermal stability as compared to PMMA

  10. Studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated with gamma photons from cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Hajer

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is radiation able to deposit enough energy in the material through which they pass to create ionization. These ionizing radiations, when mastered, have many practical uses beneficial (areas of health, industry ...). Gamma rays are emitted by radioactive nuclei. The objective of our work is the study of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated by gamma photons from cobalt-60. To study the technique of radio spectroscopy (9 to 10Hz) electron paramagnetic resonance EPR is used. This technique is specific to characterize transient free radicals involved in chemical reactions such as oxidation, combustion, polymerization reactions ... We analyzed the EPR spectra three batch KS, EB, and JF our dosimeter according to the dose (high and low) and showed that the dosimetric response can be represented in exponential form (high dose) and linear form (low dose). We also studied the kinetics of decay of the EPR signal as a function of time (fading) and showed that the responses relating to stabilize after 20 min of irradiation.

  11. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid presenting cell uptake mediated by endocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (Brazil); Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Clinical Analyses (Brazil); Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin [Federal University of Paraná, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Brazil); Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia dos [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Clinical Analyses (Brazil); Sayer, Claudia; Araújo, Pedro H. Hermes de, E-mail: pedro.h.araujo@ufsc.br [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with modified surfaces can improve targeted delivery and induce cell death by hyperthermia. The goals of this study were to synthesize and characterize surface modified superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) with folic acid (FA) prepared by miniemulsion polymerization (MNPsPMMA-FA) and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in non-tumor cells, murine fibroblast (L929) cells and tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR) β, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells in blast crisis (K562). Lastly, hemolysis assays were performed on human red blood cells. MNPsPMMA-FA presented an average mean diameter of 135 nm and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 37 emu/g of iron oxide, as well as superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPsPMMA-FA did not present cytotoxicity in L929 and K562 cells. Cellular uptake assays showed a higher uptake of MNPsPMMA-FA than MNPsPMMA in K562 cells when incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, MNPsPMMA-FA showed a low uptake when endocytosis mechanisms were blocked at low temperature (4 °C), suggesting that the MNPsPMMA-FA uptake was mediated by endocytosis. High concentrations of MNPsPMMA-FA showed hemocompatibility when incubated for 24 h in human red blood cells. Therefore, our results suggest that these carrier systems can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery via FR.

  12. A Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Acrylic Dental Resin Surface Bound with a Photoreactive Polymer Inhibits Accumulation of Bacterial Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Miya; Inoue, Yuuki; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    The aim of this study was to examine the ability of a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloyloxyethyloxy-p-azidobenzoate) (PMBPAz) coating on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin to inhibit bacterial plaque formation, as well as the polymer's durability against water soaking and chemical exposure. Successful application of PMBPAz on PMMA surfaces was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and measuring the static air contact angle in water. The anti-adhesive effects to bacterial plaque were evaluated using Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation assay. The mechanical and chemical durabilities of the PMBPAz coating on the PMMA surfaces were examined using soaking and immersion tests, respectively. XPS signals for phosphorus and nitrogen atoms and hydrophilic status on PMMA surfaces treated with PMBPAz were observed, indicating the presence of the polymer on the substrates. The treated PMMA surfaces showed significant inhibition of S mutans biofilm formation compared to untreated surfaces. The PMBPAz coating was preserved after water soaking and chemical exposure. In addition, water soaking did not decrease the ability of treated PMMA to inhibit biofilm formation compared to treated PMMA specimens not subjected to water soaking. This study suggests that PMBPAz coating may represent a useful modification to PMMA surfaces for inhibiting denture plaque accumulation.

  13. Potassium diperiodatocuprate-mediated preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate/organo-montmorillonite composites via in situ grafting copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, potassium diperiodatocuprate (Cu3+ was selected as an initiator to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate/organo-montmorillonite composites (OMMT-g-PMMA by in situ graft copolymerization. Three synthetic parameters were systematically evaluated as a function of the temperature, the concentration of initiator, pH and the ratio of MMA to OMMT. It was found that Cu3+ was a highly efficient initiator for the preparation of OMMT-g-PMMA i.e., monomer conversion and grafting efficiency were as higher as 95%. The X-ray diffraction measurement showed the intercalation of PMMA chains into OMMT layers on base of an increasing basal spacing after polymerization. FTIR analysis also suggested that the PMMA chains were effectively grafted onto OMMT substrate. The enhanced thermal stabilities of OMMT-g-PMMA composites were confirmed by the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Finally, a single-electron-transfer mechanism was proposed to illustrate the formation of radicals and the preparation process of OMMT-g-PMMA composites. Cu3+ can be used as an effective and practical initiator in preparing the organic/inorganic composite due to its high grafting efficiency and the milder reaction condition.

  14. Self-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate)-based gel electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.H.; Zhou, D.Y.; Rao, M.M.; Cai, Z.P.; Liang, Y. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, W.S.; Tan, C.L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Lab of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-04-01

    Self-supported gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was prepared based on copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate) (P(MMA-AN-VAc)). The copolymer P(MMA-AN-VAc) was synthesized by emulsion polymerization and the copolymer membrane was prepared through phase inversion. The structure and the performance of the copolymer, the membrane and the GPE were characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEM, XRD, DSC/TG, LSV, CA, and EIS. It is found that the copolymer was formed through the breaking of double bond C=C in each monomer. The membrane has low crystallinity and has low glass transition temperature, 39.1 C, its thermal stability is as high as 310 C, and its mechanical strength is improved compared with P(MMA-AN). The GPE is electrochemically stable up to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) and its conductivity is 3.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature. The lithium ion transference number in the GPE is 0.51 and the conductivity model of the GPE is found to obey the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) equation. (author)

  15. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure for memory device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Sachin M.; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-07

    Combination of two dimensional graphene and semi-conducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) is of great interest for various electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a hybridized structure with the chemical vapor deposited graphene and MoS{sub 2} crystals to configure a memory device. Elongated hexagonal and rhombus shaped MoS{sub 2} crystals are synthesized by sulfurization of thermally evaporated molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) thin film. Scanning transmission electron microscope studies reveal atomic level structure of the synthesized high quality MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the prospect of a memory device fabrication, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as an insulating dielectric material as well as a supporting layer to transfer the MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the fabricated device, PMMA-MoS{sub 2} and graphene layers act as the functional and electrode materials, respectively. Distinctive bistable electrical switching and nonvolatile rewritable memory effect is observed in the fabricated PMMA-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure. The developed material system and demonstrated memory device fabrication can be significant for next generation data storage applications.

  16. Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites based on TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals: Tailoring material properties towards sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convertino, A., E-mail: annalisa.convertino@ismn.cnr.i [ISMN-CNR Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00016 Roma (Italy); Tamborra, M., E-mail: m.tamborra@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Striccoli, M., E-mail: m.striccoli@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Leo, G., E-mail: gabriella.leo@ismn.cnr.i [ISMN-CNR Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00016 Roma (Italy); Agostiano, A., E-mail: a.agostiano@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica., Universita di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curri, M.L., E-mail: lucia.curri@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-03-31

    Nanocomposite materials have been obtained by dispersing organic capped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals (NCs) with different shape and surface chemistry in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a host medium. Films of the prepared nanocomposites based on TiO{sub 2} NCs have been fabricated by spin coating and morphologically characterized as a function of the preparative conditions. The organic vapor absorption ability of the PMMA/TiO{sub 2} NC based nanocomposites has been then investigated both for spherical and rod-like NCs, and the chemical nature of the coordinating organic molecules has been also varied. The results of the investigation have demonstrated that NC geometry and surface chemistry can modulate the specific absorption characteristics of the modified PMMA in order to absorb different solvent molecules (i.e. acetone, ethanol, propan-2-ol and water). Such features, due to specific interactions between the potential analyte vapors and the functionalized surface of NCs, can effectively be addressed in a controlled and reproducible way, thus offering original opportunities for designing innovative chemical sensors.

  17. Properties of polymethyl methacrylate-based nanocomposites: Reinforced with ultra-long chitin nanofiber extracted from crab shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuchu; Li, Dagang; Hu, Qinqin; Wang, Ru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using waste crab shells to develop high-performance composites by simple method. • Combining the anatomic analysis of crab shell with the design of composite. • Introducing a 4-step all-mechanical treatment to prepare ultra-long chitin fiber. • Incorporation of chitin nanofiber improves properties of PMMA/Chitin composite. - Abstract: Ultra-long chitin nanofibers were incorporated into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin to prepared PMMA/Chitin nanocomposites with improved properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that through the introduced 4-step all-mechanical treatment, the average aspect ratio of the obtained chitin fiber was up to 1000 with the length at dozens of micron range. Due to the laminated structure formed by “layer-by-layer” effect, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the prepared composite were significantly enhanced after the filling of chitin nanofibers, as compared with neat PMMA. Light transmittance test indicated that increasing the fiber content causes little light scattering because the nano-scalar network which is smaller enough than the visible wavelength could well preserve the original transparency of PMMA. Furthermore, chitin nanofiber film with extremely low thermal expansion improved the thermal stability of PMMA in a great degree. This could lead to various commercial applications including flexible electronic printing, organic thin-film photovoltaic devices, and is a significantly environmental move towards the sustainable utilization of marine-river crab shell wastes

  18. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Dinari, Mohammad; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  19. Enhanced electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) filled with graphene and in situ synthesized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fragouli, Despina

    2018-06-01

    The improvement of the electrical conductivity of polymers by incorporating graphene has been intensively studied in recent years. To further boost the electrical conductivity, blending third-party additives into the polymer/graphene systems has been demonstrated as a viable strategy. Herein, we propose a simple route to increase the electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene nanoplatelet (GnP) composites, by the in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles directly into the solid film. In particular, PMMA, GnPs and a gold precursor are solution blended to form the composite films. The subsequent heat-induced formation of gold nanoparticles directly in the solid state film, cause the significant decrease of the percolation threshold of GnPs loading, from 3% to 1% by weight in the composite. This is attributed to the preferential formation of the gold nanoparticles onto the GnPs, with synergistic effects beneficial for the improvement of the electrical conductivity. The formation procedure of the gold nanoparticles, and their arrangement into the composite matrix are studied. We demonstrate that following this straightforward process it is possible to form nanocomposites able to conduct efficiently electric current even at low graphene loadings preserving at the same time the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix.

  20. Mechanical properties and antibiotic release characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement formulated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchmanan, Kumaran; Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Kingshuk, Poddar; Shi, Zhilong; Wang, Wilson; Tan, Reginald B H

    2017-08-01

    The influence of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with antibiotics on the mechanical properties of functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-(PMMA) based bone cements is investigated. The incorporation of MSNs to the bone cements (8.15wt%) shows no detrimental effects on the biomechanical properties of the freshly solidified bone cements. Importantly, there are no significant changes in the compression strength and bending modulus up to 6 months of aging in PBS buffer solution. The preserved mechanical properties of MSN-functionalized bone cements is attributed to the unchanged microstructures of the cements, as more than 96% of MSNs remains in the bone cement matrix to support the cement structures after 6 months of aging. In addition, the MSN-functionalized bone cements are able to increase the drug release of gentamicin (GTMC) significantly as compared with commercially available antibiotic-loaded bone cements. It can be attributed to the loaded nano-sized MSNs with uniform pore channels which build up an effective nano-network path enable the diffusion and extended release of GTMC. The combination of excellent mechanical properties and sustainable drug delivery efficiency demonstrates the potential applicability of MSN-functionalized PMMA bone cements for orthopedic surgery to prevent post-surgery infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes for volatile organic compound discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangrat, Worawut; Chodjarusawad, Thanawee; Maolanon, Rungroj; Pratontep, Sirapat; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were fabricated for use in volatile organic compound (VOC) detection. Pristine SWNTs were separately coated with PMMA (PMMA/SWNTs) and thiophene (thiophene/SWNTs) by spin-coating. Pristine SWNTs showed the highest response to methanol, while PMMA/SWNTs enabled 5.4-fold improved dichloromethane detection and thiophene/SWNTs enabled 1.4-fold improved acetone detection compared with pristine SWNTs. The sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and that of thiophene/SWNTs to acetone can be attributed to the Hildebrand solubility parameter (HSP). The more similar the HSP, the higher the sensor response. The sensor response of pristine SWNTs to methanol is related to the diffusion coefficient and molecular size. The relationships between the vapor concentration and sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and thiophene/SWNTs to acetone are based on Henry’s adsorption isotherm, while that of pristine SWNTs to methanol is based on the Henry-clustering model. Principal component analysis (PCA) results show that dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol were successfully discriminated.

  2. Reaction mechanism for radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) as studied by ESR and ESE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Ichikawa, T.

    1991-01-01

    Reaction mechanism for the radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) has been studied based on the ESR and electron spin echo observations of the free radicals in the polymer irradiated with γ-rays. It is indicated that the side-chain radical, -CH 2 -CCH 3 (COOC-radicalH 2 )-, is the precursor for the main-chain scission. This radical transforms into the propagating-type radical, a fingerprint of the main-chain scission, without loss of the total radical concentration. UV illumination converts the side-chain radical into the acyl-type radical, -CH 2 -CCH 3 (-C-radical=O)-, which thermally transforms into the propagating-type radical. The radical of the type, -CH 2 -C-radicalCH 3 -CH 2 -, is suggested as a common, immediate precursor for the main-chain scission with and without the UV illumination, though it has not been detected because of its short life-time. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (∼130 °C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k = 3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

  4. Recent Advances and Future Perspectives for Reinforcement of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Materials: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdulrazzaq Naji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA is the most common material used to fabricate complete and partial dentures. Despite its desirable properties, it cannot fulfill all mechanical requirements of prosthesis. Flexural fatigue due to repeated masticatory and high-impact forces caused by dropping are the main causes of denture fractures. In the past, different reinforcing agents such as rubbers, macro fibers, and fillers have been employed to improve the mechanical properties of denture base resins. Development of Nano dentistry has introduced new approaches for reinforcement of dental materials. Interest in nanostructure materials is driven by their high surface area to volume ratio, which enhances interfacial interaction and specific new biological, physical, and chemical properties. Researchers to reinforce PMMA resins have used Nanoparticles (Nps which were comprised of silver, Titania (TiO2, zirconia (ZrO2, alumina, and ceramic. Although different reports describe the use of nanofiber and nanotubes in dental composites, few studies have evaluated the reinforcement potential of nanofiber and nanotubes in PMMA denture base resins. The current article aims to review the different attempts to enhance the mechanical properties of denture base materials. We also focus on recent advances and potential future developments for reinforcement of the PMMA acrylic resins.

  5. Sonochemical synthesis of copper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2011-01-01

    Copper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Cu S crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing CuS nanoparticles (PMMA/Cu) at concentrations of 0.15; 0.30; 0.45 and 0.60 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) was measured for PMMA systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PMMA matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 50% in PMMA matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PMMA systems. Changes in the infrared spectra of PMMA systems indicate that polymer molecules interact with CuS nanoparticles. Improvement of mechanical properties was found for PMMA/Cu films. An increase of 38% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 22% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PMMA/Cu films exposed to gamma irradiation. (author)

  6. Sonochemical synthesis of copper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: aquino@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Copper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Cu S crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing CuS nanoparticles (PMMA/Cu) at concentrations of 0.15; 0.30; 0.45 and 0.60 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) was measured for PMMA systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PMMA matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 50% in PMMA matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PMMA systems. Changes in the infrared spectra of PMMA systems indicate that polymer molecules interact with CuS nanoparticles. Improvement of mechanical properties was found for PMMA/Cu films. An increase of 38% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 22% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PMMA/Cu films exposed to gamma irradiation. (author)

  7. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (Kd of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti, stainless steel (SUS, zirconia (ZrO2 and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the Kd value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface.

  8. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid presenting cell uptake mediated by endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia dos; Sayer, Claudia; Araújo, Pedro H. Hermes de

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with modified surfaces can improve targeted delivery and induce cell death by hyperthermia. The goals of this study were to synthesize and characterize surface modified superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) with folic acid (FA) prepared by miniemulsion polymerization (MNPsPMMA-FA) and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in non-tumor cells, murine fibroblast (L929) cells and tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR) β, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells in blast crisis (K562). Lastly, hemolysis assays were performed on human red blood cells. MNPsPMMA-FA presented an average mean diameter of 135 nm and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 37 emu/g of iron oxide, as well as superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPsPMMA-FA did not present cytotoxicity in L929 and K562 cells. Cellular uptake assays showed a higher uptake of MNPsPMMA-FA than MNPsPMMA in K562 cells when incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, MNPsPMMA-FA showed a low uptake when endocytosis mechanisms were blocked at low temperature (4 °C), suggesting that the MNPsPMMA-FA uptake was mediated by endocytosis. High concentrations of MNPsPMMA-FA showed hemocompatibility when incubated for 24 h in human red blood cells. Therefore, our results suggest that these carrier systems can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery via FR.

  9. Segmental dynamics in poly(methyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) sequential interpenetrating polymer networks: structural relaxation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribelles, J L Gomez; Duenas, J M Meseguer; Cabanilles, C Torregrosa; Pradas, M Monleon

    2003-01-01

    The miscibility of poly(methyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) has been studied by probing the conformational mobility of the component polymer chains. These IPNs exhibit the phenomenon of forced compatibilization. In a conventional heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, the highly cross-linked IPN shows a single glass transition which covers a temperature interval of around 100 d eg C; in contrast, loosely cross-linked IPNs show two glass transitions. The conformational mobility in these IPNs is studied by subjecting them to isothermal annealings at temperatures in the region of the glass transition and below it. The DSC scans measured after these treatments allow one to determine the temperature interval in which the sample is out of thermodynamic equilibrium but keeps enough conformational mobility to relax during the isothermal annealing in such a way that the enthalpy loss is measurable with the sensitivity of a conventional DSC. The results allow one to reach some conclusions about the compositional distribution of the IPN on the nanometre scale

  10. Radiolytic stabilization of industrial poly(methyl methacrylate); Estabilizacao radiolitica do poli(metacrilato de metila) industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2005-03-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterilisable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its physical properties. Therefore, radiolytic stabilization of PMMA is important for to become it commercially radio sterilisable. In this work we investigated the radiolytic stabilization of PMMA by using HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer) additive, commercially used for photo and thermo oxidative stabilization of polymers. The investigation of the radiation-induced main chain scissions was carried out by viscometric method. The additive added to the polymer system at 0.3 % w/w promotes a molecular radioprotection of 61%. That means a reduction of G value (scissions/100 eV) from 2.6 to 1.0. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (Tg) of PMMA (no additive), significantly changed by radiation, does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. TGA analysis showed that the additive promotes thermal stability to the system, increasing decomposition temperature of PMMA. Spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and RMN ({sup 1}H), showed that the radioprotector additive added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. Analysis on mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and optical (yellowness index and refractive index) properties showed a good influence of the additive on polymer system. (author)

  11. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid presenting cell uptake mediated by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; dos Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia; Sayer, Claudia; de Araújo, Pedro H. Hermes

    2016-04-01

    The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with modified surfaces can improve targeted delivery and induce cell death by hyperthermia. The goals of this study were to synthesize and characterize surface modified superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) with folic acid (FA) prepared by miniemulsion polymerization (MNPsPMMA-FA) and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in non-tumor cells, murine fibroblast (L929) cells and tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR) β, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells in blast crisis (K562). Lastly, hemolysis assays were performed on human red blood cells. MNPsPMMA-FA presented an average mean diameter of 135 nm and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 37 emu/g of iron oxide, as well as superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPsPMMA-FA did not present cytotoxicity in L929 and K562 cells. Cellular uptake assays showed a higher uptake of MNPsPMMA-FA than MNPsPMMA in K562 cells when incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, MNPsPMMA-FA showed a low uptake when endocytosis mechanisms were blocked at low temperature (4 °C), suggesting that the MNPsPMMA-FA uptake was mediated by endocytosis. High concentrations of MNPsPMMA-FA showed hemocompatibility when incubated for 24 h in human red blood cells. Therefore, our results suggest that these carrier systems can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery via FR.

  12. Supercritical CO2 drying of poly(methyl methacrylate) photoresist for deep x-ray lithography: a brief note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Abhinandan, Lala; Sharma, Shivdutt

    2017-07-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is an extensively used positive photoresist for deep x-ray lithography. The post-development release of the microstructures of PMMA becomes very critical for high aspect ratio fragile and freestanding microstructures. Release of high aspect ratio comb-drive microstructure of PMMA made by one-step x-ray lithography (OXL) is studied. The effect of low-surface tension Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) over water is investigated for release of the high aspect ratio microstructures using conventional and supercritical (SC) CO2 drying. The results of conventional drying are also compared for the samples released or dried in both in-house developed and commercial SC CO2 dryer. It is found that in all cases the microstructures of PMMA are permanently deformed and damaged while using SC CO2 for drying. For free-standing high aspect ratio microstructures of PMMA made by OXL, it is advised to use low-surface tension IPA over DI water. However, this brings a limitation on the design of the microstructure.

  13. Unique effects of microwave heating on polymerization kinetics of poly(methyl methacrylate) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasojević, Pavle [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, Jelena, E-mail: jelenaj@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Adnadjevic, Borivoj [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-09-16

    The effects of heating mode (conventional and microwave) on the kinetics of isothermal polymerization of MMA composite materials were investigated. Isothermal kinetics curves at temperature range from 343 K to 363 K for both conventional (CH) and microwave heating (MWH) were determined. It was found that the polymerization of MMA composite materials was kinetically elementary reaction for both CH and MWH. The kinetics of CH polymerization can be described by the model of phase-boundary controlled process (contracting volume), whereas the kinetics of MWH polymerization can be described by the model of first-order chemical reaction. The kinetics parameters (E{sub a} and ln A) of the polymerization under microwave heating are lower than for conventional heating. The established decreases in the activation energy and pre-exponential factor under the MWH compared to the CH is explained with the increase in the energy of ground vibrational level of the C–O valence vibrations (ν = 987 cm{sup −1}) in methyl methacrylate molecule and with the decrease in its anharmonicity factor which is caused with the selective resonant transfer of energy from the energetic reservoir to the oscillators in methyl methacrylate molecules. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The MWH speeds the MMA material polymerization and changes the kinetics model. • A novel concept of MWH action based on activation complexes formation is presented. • The Selective Energy Transfer model is used to explain the effects of MWH. • The kinetics parameters under MWH are lower than for CH. • The activation energy for both MWH and CH polymerization is quantized.

  14. Surface Roughening of Polystyrene and Poly(methyl methacrylate in Ar/O2 Plasma Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Wendt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selectively plasma-etched polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate (PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymer masks present a promising alternative for subsequent nanoscale patterning of underlying films. Because mask roughness can be detrimental to pattern transfer, this study examines roughness formation, with a focus on the role of cross-linking, during plasma etching of PS and PMMA. Variables include ion bombardment energy, polymer molecular weight and etch gas mixture. Roughness data support a proposed model in which surface roughness is attributed to polymer aggregation associated with cross-linking induced by energetic ion bombardment. In this model, RMS roughness peaks when cross-linking rates are comparable to chain scissioning rates, and drop to negligible levels for either very low or very high rates of cross-linking. Aggregation is minimal for very low rates of cross-linking, while very high rates produce a continuous cross-linked surface layer with low roughness. Molecular weight shows a negligible effect on roughness, while the introduction of H and F atoms suppresses roughness, apparently by terminating dangling bonds. For PS etched in Ar/O2 plasmas, roughness decreases with increasing ion energy are tentatively attributed to the formation of a continuous cross-linked layer, while roughness increases with ion energy for PMMA are attributed to increases in cross-linking from negligible to moderate levels.

  15. Laminin-Coated Poly(Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA Nanofiber Scaffold Facilitates the Enrichment of Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Kamalia Zahari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoblasts, the contractile cells of skeletal muscle, have been invaluable for fundamental studies of muscle development and clinical applications for muscle loss. A major limitation to the myoblast-based therapeutic approach is contamination with non-contractile fibroblasts, which overgrow during cell expansion. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to establish a 3D culture environment using nanofiber scaffolds to enrich the myoblast population during construct formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanofiber (PM scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning techniques and coated with extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, such as collagen or laminin, in the presence or absence of genipin. A mixed population of myoblasts and fibroblasts was isolated from human skeletal muscle tissues and cultured on plain surfaces, as well as coated and non-coated PM scaffolds. PMMA can produce smooth fibers with an average diameter of 360 ± 50 nm. Adsorption of collagen and laminin on PM scaffolds is significantly enhanced in the presence of genipin, which introduces roughness to the nanofiber surface without affecting fiber diameter and mechanical properties. It was also demonstrated that laminin-coated PM scaffolds significantly enhance myoblast proliferation (0.0081 ± 0.0007 h−1 and migration (0.26 ± 0.04 μm/min, while collagen-coated PM scaffolds favors fibroblasts proliferation (0.0097 ± 0.0009 h−1 and migration (0.23 ± 0.03 μm/min. Consequently, the myoblast population was enriched on laminin-coated PM scaffolds throughout the culture process. Therefore, laminin coating of nanofiber scaffolds could be a potential scaffold for the development of a tissue-engineered muscle substitute.

  16. Laminin-Coated Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Nanofiber Scaffold Facilitates the Enrichment of Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nor Kamalia; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy

    2017-10-30

    Myoblasts, the contractile cells of skeletal muscle, have been invaluable for fundamental studies of muscle development and clinical applications for muscle loss. A major limitation to the myoblast-based therapeutic approach is contamination with non-contractile fibroblasts, which overgrow during cell expansion. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to establish a 3D culture environment using nanofiber scaffolds to enrich the myoblast population during construct formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber (PM) scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning techniques and coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen or laminin, in the presence or absence of genipin. A mixed population of myoblasts and fibroblasts was isolated from human skeletal muscle tissues and cultured on plain surfaces, as well as coated and non-coated PM scaffolds. PMMA can produce smooth fibers with an average diameter of 360 ± 50 nm. Adsorption of collagen and laminin on PM scaffolds is significantly enhanced in the presence of genipin, which introduces roughness to the nanofiber surface without affecting fiber diameter and mechanical properties. It was also demonstrated that laminin-coated PM scaffolds significantly enhance myoblast proliferation (0.0081 ± 0.0007 h -1 ) and migration (0.26 ± 0.04 μm/min), while collagen-coated PM scaffolds favors fibroblasts proliferation (0.0097 ± 0.0009 h -1 ) and migration (0.23 ± 0.03 μm/min). Consequently, the myoblast population was enriched on laminin-coated PM scaffolds throughout the culture process. Therefore, laminin coating of nanofiber scaffolds could be a potential scaffold for the development of a tissue-engineered muscle substitute.

  17. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein, E-mail: mohammadnezhad@cc.iut.ac.ir; Dinari, Mohammad, E-mail: dinari@cc.iut.ac.ir; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  18. One-Pot Hybrid SnO2 /Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Formation through Pulsed Laser Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Gianvito; Scarpellini, Alice; Palazon, Francisco; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-06-20

    The localized in situ formation of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films is presented. This is achieved by the photoinduced conversion of the tin acetate precursor included in polymeric films, through controlled UV or visible pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm, respectively. The evolution of the formation of nanoparticles is followed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and shows that their growth is affected in different ways by the laser pulses at the two applied wavelengths. This, in combination with electron microscopy analysis, reveals that, depending on the irradiation wavelength, the size of the nanoparticles in the final nanocomposites differs. This difference is attributed to distinct mechanistic pathways that lead to the synthesis of small nanoparticles (from 1.5 to 4.5 nm) at λ=355 nm, whereas bigger ones (from 5 to 16 nm) are formed at λ=532 nm. At the same time, structural studies with both X-ray and electron diffraction measurements demonstrate the crystallinity of SnO 2 nanoparticles in both cases, whereas XPS analysis confirms the light-induced oxidation of tin acetate into SnO 2 . Taken all together, it is demonstrated that the pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm leads to the formation of SnO 2 nanoparticles with defined features highly dispersed in PMMA solid matrices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Dinari, Mohammad; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA

  20. Influence of a hindered amine stabilizer (HAS) and inorganic salt mixture on degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Williams B. da; Vasconcelos, Henrique M. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da S.; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as medical supplies, which is sterilized by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy dose. However, when the PMMA is exposed to gamma rays it undergoes main chain scissions with changes in its properties. Samples of commercial PMMA containing a Hindered Amine Stabilizer (PMMA-HAS) and samples containing a salt mixture of CuCl 2 /KI (PMMA-salt) both at 0.3wt% concentration were investigated. The PMMA samples were purified by re-precipitation in methanol. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature in air at dose range of 15-100 kGy. The viscosity- average molecular weight (M v ) was analyzed by viscosity technique. Comparison of viscosity results obtained before and after irradiation of PMMA showed a decrease in Mv values on irradiated samples with the increase in dose, reflecting the random scissions that occurred in the main chain. However the decrease on M v is less in PMMA-HAS samples than control PMMA. The G value (scissions/100 eV of energy transferred to the system) obtained by viscosity analysis were used to calculated the protection value of HAS on PMMA matrix. The HAS showed a protection of 61% on PMMA molecules exposed to gamma irradiation. No efficiency action of salt mixture was observed on radiolytic degradation of PMMA. On the other hand the CuCl 2 /KI mixture influenced the mechanical behavior of PMMA and the HAS additive increased the maximum thermal degradation temperature of PMMA matrix. (author)

  1. Heats of adsorption of Pb on pristine and electron-irradiated poly(methyl methacrylate) by microcalorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, S. F.; Zhu, J. F.; Harris, J. J. W.; Goetsch, P.; Merte, L. R.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2005-12-01

    The heat of adsorption and sticking probability were measured for Pb gas atoms adsorbing onto clean poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and electron-irradiated PMMA. The Pb atoms interact very weakly with the outgassed pristine PMMA surface, with a sticking probability of 0.02 ± 0.02. They deposit a heat into the PMMA of 12.7 ± 0.7 kJ/mol of dosed Pb, independent of Pb exposure up to 10 ML. This is slightly less than would be expected even if no Pb atoms stuck to the PMMA, but if they completely thermally accommodated to the substrate temperature during their collision with the surface. This proves that thermal accommodation is incomplete, highlighting the weakness of the Pb-PMMA interaction. Damaging the PMMA surface with electrons causes an increase in reactivity with Pb, as shown by increases in the initial heat of adsorption up to 134.0 ± 0.7 kJ/mol and the initial sticking probability up to 0.51 ± 0.01. These both increase with increasing coverage toward the values expected for Pb adsorption onto a bulk Pb surface with coverage dependences suggesting that metal islands nucleate at electron-induced defects, and grow into large 3D islands of low number density. This is the first calorimetric measurement of any metal adsorption energy onto any polymer surface wherein the sticking probability of the metal also was measured. The PMMA film was spin coated directly onto the heat detector, a pyroelectric polymer foil (polyvinylidene fluoride—PVDF) precoated on both sides with thin metal electrodes. It provides a detector sensitivity of ˜450 V/J with a pulse-to-pulse standard deviation of 1.2 kJ/mol and absolute accuracy within 2%.

  2. Development of form stable Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coated thermal phase change material for solar water heater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Y.; Shanmugam, S.; Shi-Ying, Kee

    2018-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used thermal energy storage material in solar water heater because it able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. However the practical application of PCM is limited by two major issues; 1) leakage which leads to material loss and corrosion of tank and 2) large volume change during phase change process which cause pressure build up in the tank. In this work, form-stable PCM was prepared by coating myristic acid with Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to prevent leakage of PCM. PMMA was mixed with different weight percentage (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 wt%) of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The purpose of adding DCP to PMMA is to crosslink the polymer and to increase the mechanical strength of PMMA to hold the myristic acid content inside the coating during the phase change process. Leakage test results showed that PMMA mixed with 0.1% DCP exhibit 0% leakage. This result is further supported by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results, where a compact and uniform coating without cracks were formed for PCM coated with PMMA with 0.1% DCP. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results shows that the melting point of form-stable PCM is 55°C, freezing point is 50°C, the latent heat of melting and freezing is 67.59 J/g.

  3. A novel process for separation of polycarbonate, polyvinyl chloride and polymethyl methacrylate waste plastics by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Luo-Luo

    2017-07-01

    A novel process was proposed for separation of ternary waste plastics by froth flotation. Pretreatment of plastics with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution was conducted to aid flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plastics. The effect of pretreatment parameters including KMnO 4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate on flotation recovery were investigated by single factor experiments. Surface treatment with KMnO 4 changes selectively the flotation behavior of PC, PVC and PMMA, enabling separation of the plastics by froth flotation. Mechanism of surface treatment was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). Effect of frother concentration and flotation time on flotation behavior of plastic mixtures was further studied for flotation separation. The optimized conditions for separation of PC are KMnO 4 concentration 2mmolL -1 , treatment time 10min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300rpm, flotation time 1min and frother concentration 17.5mgL -1 . Under optimum conditions, PVC and PMMA mixtures are also separated efficiently by froth flotation associated with KMnO 4 treatment. The purity of PC, PVC and PMMA is up to 100%, 98.41% and 98.68%, while the recovery reaches 96.82%, 98.71% and 98.38%, respectively. Economic analysis manifests remarkable profits of the developed process. Reusing KMnO 4 solution is feasible, enabling the process greener. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between molecular structure and self healing in a series of anthraquinone derivatives doped in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Prabodh

    Using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy as a probe, we studied photodegradation and recovery of a series of anthraquinone derivatives doped in (poly)methyl methacrylate (PMMA) thin films. We observed that many anthraquinone derivatives recover their optical properties after they are photodamaged. The mechanism that is responsible for their recovery is not well understood. Previous research, which uses non-linear methods such as Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), two photon absorption, and indirect linear methods such as transmittance imaging, have focussed on one of the derivatives of the anthraquinone class named dispersed orange 11 (DO11) dye doped in PMMA. Since no direct measurements have yet been reported on a variety of anthraquinone derivatives, we have extended our research on a series of anthraquinone derivatives using direct measurement techniques such as linear absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and photochroism measurements as a function of dye concentration and sample temperature. The data obtained from temperature-dependent photodecay and recovery as well as concentration-dependent photodecay are found to be in qualitative agreement with the Correlated Chromophore Domain Model (CCrDM). We also applied the depth dependent absorption model to estimate the degree of self-absorption of the fluorescence signal emitted by the sample. This analysis allows us to determine the depth dependent damage profile and time dependence of the damage profile. Our results show that damage decreases as a function of depth into the sample and increases as a function of time of exposure of the pump beam. The degree of self-absorption is found to increase with sample thickness. We also did a numerical analysis to find the intensity dependent decay rate constant alpha and the recovery rate beta for fluorescence. We then used the data to test the CCrDM to find the average number of molecules in a domain, number density of molecules and

  5. Increased cellular uptake of lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles due to surface modification with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Junior, Enio Lima; Rossi, Gustavo Rodrigues; da Silva Trindade, Edvaldo; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia; Sayer, Claudia; de Araújo, Pedro H Hermes

    2016-12-01

    Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization in just one step. In vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity assays on L929 (murine fibroblast), human red blood, and HeLa (uterine colon cancer) cells were performed. The effect of folic acid at the nanoparticles surface was evaluated through cellular uptake assays in HeLa cells. Results showed that the presence of folic acid did not affect substantially the polymer particle size (~120 nm), the superparamagnetic behavior, the encapsulation efficiency of lauryl gallate (~87 %), the Zeta potential (~38 mV) of the polymeric nanoparticles or the release profile of lauryl gallate. The release profile of lauryl gallate from superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles presented an initial burst effect (0-1 h) followed by a slow and sustained release, indicating a biphasic release system. Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles with folic acid did not present cytotoxicity effects on L929 and human red blood cells. However, free lauryl gallate presented significant cytotoxic effects on L929 and human red blood cells at all tested concentrations. The presence of folic acid increased the cytotoxicity of lauryl gallate loaded in nanoparticles on HeLa cells due to a higher cellular uptake when HeLa cells were incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, when the nanoparticles were incubated at low temperature (4 °C) cellular uptake was not observed, suggesting that the uptake occurred by folate receptor mediated energy-dependent endocytosis. Based on presented results our work suggests that this carrier system can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery by folate receptor.

  6. Utilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) – carbon nanotube and polystyrene – carbon nanotube in situ polymerized composites as masterbatches for melt mixing

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lahelin; M. Annala; J. Seppala

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were melt mixed directly or by using an in situ polymerized masterbatch into a matrix polymer, polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The mechanical properties of the composites were mostly determined by the amount of CNTs, and not by the use of directly melt mixed CNTs or the use of the masterbatch. In contrast, the electrical resistivity of the composites was dependent on the manner in which the CNTs were added to the matrix polymer. When there was inc...

  7. Fluorescence-based Sensing of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Using a Multi-channeled Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Microimmunosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    monoclonalframesethtm) for NRL. 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) were obtained from Sigma...prepared via hot-embossing and tri- solvent annealing (see Experimental section). Microchannels were coated with a sol-gel film using a previously...PMMA substrate that was tri- solvent bonded to a 1.0 mm thick PMMA coverslip. The footprint of the microfluidic device is 76 × 25 × 25 mm. The

  8. Evidence on unusual way of cocaine smuggling: cocaine-polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solid solution--study of clandestine laboratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostic, T; Klemenc, S

    2007-07-04

    An abandoned clandestine laboratory was seized in Slovenia. All confiscated exhibits were analysed in a forensic laboratory, where the following analytical methods were applied: capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined also by solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) and pyrolysis (Py) technique, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX). The most interesting analytical findings can be summarised as follows: at the crime scene some plastic pieces, which contained cocaine dissolved (as solid solution) in polymethyl methacrylate-plexiglass (PMMA), were found. The highest cocaine concentration measured in the plastic sample was about 15% by weight. Two larger lumps of material (12 and 3 kg) were composed mainly of PMMA and CaCO3 and contained only 0.4 and 0.5% of cocaine, respectively. As for the low cocaine concentration, we assume that those two lumps of material represent discarded waste product--residue after the isolation of cocaine from plastic. Higher quantities of pure solvents (41 l) and solvent mixtures (87 l) were seized. We identified three types of pure solvents (acetone, gasoline and benzine) and two different types of solvent mixtures (benzine/acetone and gasoline/acetone). The total seized volume (87 l) of solvent mixtures holds approximately 395 g of solid residue formed mainly of PMMA and cocaine. Obviously solvent mixtures were used for isolation of cocaine from the plastic. Small quantities of relatively pure cocaine base were identified on different objects. There were two cotton sheets, most probably used for filtration. One sheet had traces of cocaine base (76% purity) on the surface, while cocaine in hydrochloride form (96%) was identified on the other sheet. GC-MS analyses of micro traces isolated from analytical balances showed the presence of cocaine and some common adulterants: phenacetine, lidocaine and procaine. A cocaine

  9. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed M; Abualsaud, Reem; Rahoma, Ahmed; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Al-Abidi, Khalid S; Akhtar, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for the fabrication of removable prostheses. Recently, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO 2 ) have been added to improve some properties of PMMA, but their effect on the optical properties and tensile strength are neglected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-ZrO 2 addition on the translucency and tensile strength of the PMMA denture base material. Eighty specimens (40 dumbbell-shaped and 40 discs) were prepared out of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and divided into four groups per test (n=10). The control group for each test included unreinforced acrylic, while the test groups were reinforced with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt% nano-ZrO 2 . Acrylic resin was mixed according to manufacturer's instructions, packed, and processed by conventional method. After polymerization, all specimens were finished, polished, and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48±2 hours. Tensile strength (MPa) was evaluated using the universal testing machine while the specimens' translucency was examined using a spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using the paired sample t -test ( p ≤0.05). A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the morphological changes and topography of the fractured surfaces. This study showed that the mean tensile strength of the PMMA in the test groups of 2.5%NZ, 5%NZ, and 7.5%NZ was significantly higher than the control group. The tensile strength increased significantly after nano-ZrO 2 addition, and the maximum increase seen was in the 7.5%NZ group. The translucency values of the experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the control group. Within the reinforced groups, the 2.5%NZ group had significantly higher translucency values when compared to the 5%NZ and 7.5%NZ groups. The addition of nano-ZrO 2 increased the tensile strength of the denture base acrylic. The increase was directly proportional to the nano-ZrO 2 concentration. The

  10. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthethwa, T.P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: mmoloto@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P. [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: {yields} TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. {yields} The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. {yields} The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. {yields} Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the

  11. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mthethwa, T.P.; Moloto, M.J.; De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: → TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. → The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. → The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. → Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the polymer fibres at low

  12. Preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposites via melt intercalation: Effect of organoclay on thermal, mechanical and flammability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, Lakshmi; Mohanty, Smita [Laboratory for Advanced Research in Polymeric Materials (LARPM), Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Nayak, Sanjay K., E-mail: drsknayak@gmail.com [Laboratory for Advanced Research in Polymeric Materials (LARPM), Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Ali, Anwar [Laboratory for Advanced Research in Polymeric Materials (LARPM), Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The present work deals with preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites via melt intercalation technique. {yields} The effect of various modified nanoclays on the properties of base matrix has been investigated. {yields} It was observed that compatibilization using maleic anhydride improved the performance characteristics of PMMA/layered silicate nanocomposites. - Abstract: The PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing method. The influence of organoclay loading on extent of intercalation, thermal, mechanical and flammability properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-clay nanocomposites were studied. Three different organoclay modifiers with varying hydrophobicity (single tallow vs. ditallow) were investigated. The nanocomposites were characterized by using wide angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. The intercalation of polymer chain within the silicate galleries was confirmed by WAXD and TEM. Mechanical properties such as tensile modulus (E), tensile strength, percentage elongation at break and impact strength were determined for nanocomposites at various clay loadings. Overall thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by 16-17 deg. C. The enhancement in T{sub g} of nanocomposite is merely by 2-4 deg. C. The incorporation of maleic anhydride as compatibilizer further enhanced all the properties indicating improved interface between PMMA and clay. The flammability characteristics were studied by determining the rate of burning and LOI.

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposites via melt intercalation: Effect of organoclay on thermal, mechanical and flammability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, Lakshmi; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K.; Ali, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The present work deals with preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites via melt intercalation technique. → The effect of various modified nanoclays on the properties of base matrix has been investigated. → It was observed that compatibilization using maleic anhydride improved the performance characteristics of PMMA/layered silicate nanocomposites. - Abstract: The PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing method. The influence of organoclay loading on extent of intercalation, thermal, mechanical and flammability properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-clay nanocomposites were studied. Three different organoclay modifiers with varying hydrophobicity (single tallow vs. ditallow) were investigated. The nanocomposites were characterized by using wide angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. The intercalation of polymer chain within the silicate galleries was confirmed by WAXD and TEM. Mechanical properties such as tensile modulus (E), tensile strength, percentage elongation at break and impact strength were determined for nanocomposites at various clay loadings. Overall thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by 16-17 deg. C. The enhancement in T g of nanocomposite is merely by 2-4 deg. C. The incorporation of maleic anhydride as compatibilizer further enhanced all the properties indicating improved interface between PMMA and clay. The flammability characteristics were studied by determining the rate of burning and LOI.

  14. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible boronic acid-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles at sub-100 nm scale for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalak, Huseyin [Selcuk University, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Turkey); Ulasan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Emine [Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center (Turkey); Camli, Sevket Tolga, E-mail: tolgacamli@gmail.com [Biyotez Machinery Chemistry R& D Co. Ltd. (Turkey); Yavuz, Mustafa Selman, E-mail: selmanyavuz@selcuk.edu.tr [Selcuk University, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles containing 4-vinylphenyl boronic acid were synthesized in one pot by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Boron content in the nanoparticles was confirmed by electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In polymerization process, several co-monomer ratios were studied in order to obtain optimum nanoparticle size. Average hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index of nanoparticles versus variation of acetone percentage in the solvent mixture and total monomer concentration were investigated. The effect of boronic acid concentration in the monomer mixture on nanoparticle size and size distribution was also reported. Without further functionalization to the nanoparticles, the catechol dye, alizarin red S, was bound to boronic acid-containing nanoparticles. These nanoparticles behave as a nanosensor by which glucose or fructose can be easily detected. Dye-containing nanoparticles were undertaken displacement reaction by glucose or fructose. The glucose or fructose content was also monitored by UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of boronic acid-carrying poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles were carried out in 3T3 cells, which showed no toxicity effect on the cells.

  15. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible boronic acid-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles at sub-100 nm scale for glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakalak, Huseyin; Ulasan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Emine; Camli, Sevket Tolga; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2014-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles containing 4-vinylphenyl boronic acid were synthesized in one pot by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Boron content in the nanoparticles was confirmed by electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In polymerization process, several co-monomer ratios were studied in order to obtain optimum nanoparticle size. Average hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index of nanoparticles versus variation of acetone percentage in the solvent mixture and total monomer concentration were investigated. The effect of boronic acid concentration in the monomer mixture on nanoparticle size and size distribution was also reported. Without further functionalization to the nanoparticles, the catechol dye, alizarin red S, was bound to boronic acid-containing nanoparticles. These nanoparticles behave as a nanosensor by which glucose or fructose can be easily detected. Dye-containing nanoparticles were undertaken displacement reaction by glucose or fructose. The glucose or fructose content was also monitored by UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of boronic acid-carrying poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles were carried out in 3T3 cells, which showed no toxicity effect on the cells

  16. Influence of incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the repair strength of polymethyl methacrylate denture bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad MM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed M Gad,1 Ahmed Rahoma,2,3 Ahmad M Al-Thobity,1 Aws S ArRejaie4 1Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt; 4Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Repeated fracture of the denture base is a common problem in prosthodontics, and it represents a nuisance and a time sink for the clinician. Therefore, the possibility of increasing repair strength using new reinforcement materials is of great interest to prosthodontists.Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of incorporation of zirconia nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2 on the flexural strength and impact strength of repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA denture bases.Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated (90 for each test and divided into three main groups: one control group (intact specimens and two groups divided according to surface design (45° bevels and butt joints, in which specimens were prepared in pairs to create 2.5 mm gaps. Nano-ZrO2 was added to repair resin in 2.5 wt%, 5 wt%, and 7.5 wt% concentrations of acrylic powder. A three-point bending test was used to measure flexural strength, and a Charpy-type test was used to measure impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fracture surfaces and nano-ZrO2 distribution. The results were analyzed with a paired sample t-test and an unpaired t-test, with a P-value of ≤0.05 being significant.Results: Incorporation of nano-ZrO2 into the repair resin significantly increased flexural strength (P<0.05. The highest value was found in the bevel group reinforced with 7.5% nano-ZrO2, whereas the lowest value was found in the butt group reinforced with 2.5% nano

  17. The primary report of percutaneous polymethyl methacrylate cementoplasty in osteolytic metastases of the pelvis and peripheral bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Jin Peng; Yi Yuhai; Xie Zhiyong; Zhang Xuping; Li Guoying

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To propose a technique and treatment of percutaneous polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty for painful metastatic lesions of the pelvis, humerus, and tibia. Methods: Percutaneous PMMA cementoplasty was performed in 24 cases, including the lesions of S1 in 9 cases, acetabulum in 7 cases, ischium in 5 cases, humerus in 2 cases, and tibia in 1 case. There were 26 local lesions. The puncture approach was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. The S1 vertebral body puncture was performed with lateral transsacroiliac joint approach. The needle progression was controlled in the anteroposterior projection with a needle course above the level of the S1 foramen. With the needle adjacent to the S1 vertebral body edge, the needle tip should center just in front of the spinal canal in the lateral fluoroscopic projection. The acetabular roof puncture was performed with lateral approach. The needle progression was controlled in the anteroposterior and lateral projections alternately with a needle course parallel to the body axial plane. The puncture needle arrived directly at the lesions. The puncture to the ischium was from ischium tubercle to the lesions. The puncture progression to the internal compartment of the acetabulum was with the trajectory of the needle from the ischium tubercle to the lesion. The puncture progression to the humerus should avoid conflicting with the radial nerve and upper extremity vessels. The needle course should be from the dorsal upper arm to the lesions. As for the lesions of the tibia, the needle was punctured from the front of tibia to the lesion. After the needle tip placement in the lesions, PMMA in paste condition was injected with the precession injector pressure device under continuous visual control with adequate filling and avoidance of important PMMA leakage. Results: Partial or complete pain relief was obtained in all 24 patients (CR in 10 cases, PR in 14 cases) within 7 days after the operation. Clinical improvement

  18. The polymer gel electrolyte based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and its application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxun; Huang Miaoliang; Wu Jihuai; Lan Zhang; Hao Sancun; Lin Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Using poly(methyl methacrylate) as polymer host, ethylene carbonate, 1,2-propanediol carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as organic mixture solvents, sodium iodide and iodine as source of I - /I 3 - , a polymer gel electrolyte PMMA-EC/PC/DMC-NaI/I 2 with ionic conductivity of 6.89 mS cm -1 was prepared. Based on the polymer gel electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated. The quasi-solid-state DSSC possessed a good long-term stability and a light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 4.78% under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 simulated sunlight, which is almost equal to that of DSSC with a liquid electrolyte

  19. Ionogels Based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Metal-Containing Ionic Liquids: Correlation between Structure and Mechanical and Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehbe, Kerstin; Kollosche, Matthias; Lardong, Sebastian; Kelling, Alexandra; Schilde, Uwe; Taubert, Andreas

    2016-03-16

    Ionogels (IGs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II), tetrachloride cobaltate(II), and tetrachlorido manganate(II) have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show a decreasing stability in stress-strain experiments on increasing IL fractions. The conductivities of the current IGs are lower than those observed in similar examples in the literature. Both effects are caused by a two-phase structure with micrometer-sized IL-rich domains homogeneously dispersed an IL-deficient continuous PMMA phase. This study demonstrates that the IL-polymer miscibility and the morphology of the IGs are key parameters to control the (macroscopic) properties of IGs.

  20. Ionogels Based on Poly(methyl methacrylate and Metal-Containing Ionic Liquids: Correlation between Structure and Mechanical and Electrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Zehbe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionogels (IGs based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II, tetrachloride cobaltate(II, and tetrachlorido manganate(II have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show a decreasing stability in stress-strain experiments on increasing IL fractions. The conductivities of the current IGs are lower than those observed in similar examples in the literature. Both effects are caused by a two-phase structure with micrometer-sized IL-rich domains homogeneously dispersed an IL-deficient continuous PMMA phase. This study demonstrates that the IL-polymer miscibility and the morphology of the IGs are key parameters to control the (macroscopic properties of IGs.

  1. Carrier transport in flexible organic bistable devices of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    The bistable effects of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer single layer by using flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that ZnO nanoparticles were formed inside the PMMA polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating PMMA polymer layer/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the ZnO nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing, and emission of charges in the electronic states of the ZnO nanoparticles. The carrier transport mechanism of the bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results by analyzing the effect of space charge.

  2. Effect of mixing mode and emulsifying agents on micro/nanoencapsulation of low viscosity self-healing agents in polymethyl methacrylate shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Fatemeh; Navarchian, Amir H.; Hayaty, Mehran; Esmailpour, Karim

    2016-09-01

    In this study, epoxy prepolymer (EC 157) and pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) as hardener were encapsulated separately in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) shells through an internal phase separation method. Chemical structures, morphologies, and thermal properties of healing agent micro/nanocapsules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The effects of encapsulation processing conditions such as mechanical mixing rate, ultrasonication, emulsifier type, and co-emulsifier concentration on encapsulation yield, capsule mean diameter and core content were studied using the Taguchi experimental design approach. The results indicated that the main significant factors affecting the yield of encapsulation are emulsifier type and ultrasonication. The most important factors which affect the mean diameter of capsules are emulsifier type and mechanical mixing rate. The core content was influenced by ultrasonication and mechanical mixing rate. The relative optimum condition of encapsulation was also determined using overall evaluation criteria.

  3. Synthesis of block copolymers derived from N-trityl-(S)-serine and pyrene end-labeled poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) via ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruiana, Emil C., E-mail: emilbur@icmpp.ro [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley 700487, Iasi (Romania); Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Tinca [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley 700487, Iasi (Romania)

    2012-10-15

    A new monomer bearing N-trityl-L-serine methyl ester in structure, methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine (MTS), was prepared to be further polymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with pyrene-endcapped poly(methyl methacrylate) (Py-PMMA-Br) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Py-PNIPA-Br). The resulting block copolymers, poly(methyl methacrylate-block-methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine) (Py-PMMA-b-PMTS) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-block-methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine (Py-PNIPA-b-PMTS) were characterized by {sup 1}H ({sup 13}C) NMR, ultraviolet, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. The chemical composition in Py-PMMA-b-PMTS was estimated from the {sup 1}H NMR analysis that indicated a ratio of the repeating units of 46:19 (MMA:MTS). For the Py-PNIPA-b-PMTS the composition rate in the copolymer was 61:25 (NIPA:MTS). Quenching of the pyrene species with N,N-diethylaniline, nitrobenzene, nitrophenol, potassium iodide, p-nitrotoluene and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in DMF solution excited at 348 nm was evidenced, more efficiently being nitrophenol and TCNQ. In this case, the monomer emission at 388-409 nm underwent a significant decrease caused of an electron transfer from the electron-reach photoexcited pyrene molecule to the electron-deficient quenchers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diblock copolymers combine the fluorescence of pyrene-PMMA (PNIPA) with the characteristics of PMTS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such copolymers could be used for nitroderivatives detecting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV/vis and fluorescence measurements give a good correlation for LCST of Py-PNIPA-Br.

  4. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buga, Mihaela-Ramona [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICIT Rm. Valcea, 240050 Rm. Valcea, Uzinei 4, CP7, Raureni, Valcea (Romania); Zaharia, Cătălin, E-mail: zaharia.catalin@gmail.com [Advanced Polymer Materials Group, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1-7, Gh. Polizu Street, Sector 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Bălan, Mihai [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICIT Rm. Valcea, 240050 Rm. Valcea, Uzinei 4, CP7, Raureni, Valcea (Romania); Bressy, Christine [Université de Toulon, MAPIEM, EA 4323, 83957 La Garde (France); Ziarelli, Fabio [Fédération des Sciences Chimiques de Marseille, CNRS-FR1739, Spectropole, 13397 Marseille (France); Margaillan, André [Université de Toulon, MAPIEM, EA 4323, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2015-06-01

    In this study, silk fibroin surface containing hydroxyl and aminogroups was firstly modified using a polymerizable coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS), in order to induce vinyl groups onto the fiber surface. The reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tributylsilyl methacrylate (TBSiMA) through the immobilized vinyl bond on the silk fibroin surface in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain-transfer agent and 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator was conducted in toluene solution at 70 °C for 24 h. The structure and properties of the modified fiber were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 13}C, {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confirming the presence of the coupling molecule and the methacrylate groups onto the silk fibroin fiber surface. Molecular weight distributions were assessed by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC) in order to verify the livingness of the polymerization. - Highlights: • SF surface containing hydroxyl and amino groups was firstly modified with MPS. • RAFT polymerizations of MMA and TBSiMA were studied. • TD-SEC was used to verify the livingness of the RAFT polymerization. • The grafted polymer chains enhance the thermal stability of the SF fibers. • The grafted fibers could be potentially promising candidates as antifouling agents.

  5. Surface modification of silk fibroin fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(tributylsilyl methacrylate) via RAFT polymerization for marine antifouling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buga, Mihaela-Ramona; Zaharia, Cătălin; Bălan, Mihai; Bressy, Christine; Ziarelli, Fabio; Margaillan, André

    2015-01-01

    In this study, silk fibroin surface containing hydroxyl and aminogroups was firstly modified using a polymerizable coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS), in order to induce vinyl groups onto the fiber surface. The reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tributylsilyl methacrylate (TBSiMA) through the immobilized vinyl bond on the silk fibroin surface in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain-transfer agent and 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator was conducted in toluene solution at 70 °C for 24 h. The structure and properties of the modified fiber were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 13 C, 29 Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confirming the presence of the coupling molecule and the methacrylate groups onto the silk fibroin fiber surface. Molecular weight distributions were assessed by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC) in order to verify the livingness of the polymerization. - Highlights: • SF surface containing hydroxyl and amino groups was firstly modified with MPS. • RAFT polymerizations of MMA and TBSiMA were studied. • TD-SEC was used to verify the livingness of the RAFT polymerization. • The grafted polymer chains enhance the thermal stability of the SF fibers. • The grafted fibers could be potentially promising candidates as antifouling agents

  6. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Keqing; Jiang, Saihua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Yongqian [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Wang, Bibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gui, Zhou, E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide.

  7. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Keqing; Jiang, Saihua; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Bibo; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide

  8. Preparation and its drug release property of radiation-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) capsule including potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1979-01-01

    Porous flat circular capsules including KCl as a drug were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate at room temperature in the presence of polyethylene glycol No. 600. The porous structure can be controlled by the methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol No. 600 composition. The amount of drug released was linearly related to the square root of time. The magnitude of drug release increased roughly in proportional to the water content of capsule, which can be related to porosity in the capsule. (author)

  9. Biocompatible and Biodegradable Ultrafine Nanoparticles of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate-co-Methacrylic Acid Prepared via Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization: Kinetics and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henned Saade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine nanoparticles, less than 10 nm in mean diameter, of the FDA approved copolymer methyl methacrylate- (MMA- co-methacrylic acid (MAA, 2/1 (mol/mol, were prepared. The method used for the preparation of these particles stabilized in a latex containing around 11% solids includes the dosing of the monomers mixture on a micellar solution preserving monomer starved conditions. It is thought that the operation at these conditions combined with the hydrophilicity of MMA and MAA units favors the formation of ultrafine particles; the propagation reaction carried out within so small compartments renders copolymer chains rich in syndiotactic units very likely as consequence of the restricted movements of the end propagation of the chains. Because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their extremely small size these nanoparticles could be used as vehicles for improved drug delivery in the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases.

  10. Synthesis of block copolymers derived from N-trityl-(S)-serine and pyrene end-labeled poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) via ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buruiana, Emil C.; Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Tinca

    2012-01-01

    A new monomer bearing N-trityl-L-serine methyl ester in structure, methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine (MTS), was prepared to be further polymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with pyrene-endcapped poly(methyl methacrylate) (Py–PMMA–Br) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Py–PNIPA–Br). The resulting block copolymers, poly(methyl methacrylate–block–methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine) (Py–PMMA–b–PMTS) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide–block–methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine (Py–PNIPA–b–PMTS) were characterized by 1 H ( 13 C) NMR, ultraviolet, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. The chemical composition in Py–PMMA–b–PMTS was estimated from the 1 H NMR analysis that indicated a ratio of the repeating units of 46:19 (MMA:MTS). For the Py–PNIPA–b–PMTS the composition rate in the copolymer was 61:25 (NIPA:MTS). Quenching of the pyrene species with N,N-diethylaniline, nitrobenzene, nitrophenol, potassium iodide, p-nitrotoluene and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in DMF solution excited at 348 nm was evidenced, more efficiently being nitrophenol and TCNQ. In this case, the monomer emission at 388–409 nm underwent a significant decrease caused of an electron transfer from the electron-reach photoexcited pyrene molecule to the electron-deficient quenchers. - Highlights: ► Diblock copolymers combine the fluorescence of pyrene–PMMA (PNIPA) with the characteristics of PMTS. ► Such copolymers could be used for nitroderivatives detecting. ► UV/vis and fluorescence measurements give a good correlation for LCST of Py–PNIPA–Br.

  11. Rheological, mechanical and morphological properties of poly(methyl methacrylate/poly(ethylene terephthalate blend with dual reactive interfacial compatibilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciklécia da Silva Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, the rheological, mechanical and morphological behavior of immiscible blend poly (methyl methacrylate with elastomeric particles (PMMAelast and post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate (PET with and without the use of the interfacial compatibilizer poly (methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate (MGE was studied. The significant increase in torque presented in rheological analyses has shown a indication of chemical reactions between the epoxy group of MGE with end groups of PET chains and also with the elastomeric phase of PMMAelast. The increased concentration of PET yielded an increase in maximum strength and elasticity modulus and a decrease in elongation at break. The PMMAelast/PET binary blend (50/50 wt% and PMMAelast/PET/MGE compatibilized blend (65/30/5 wt% showed pronounced results in elongation at break compared to PMMAelast, whereas, in the first results were due to the evidence of a co-continuous morphological structure and in the second, due to the efficiency of the dual reactive interfacial compatibilization of PMMAelast/PET blends. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses showed that PMMAelast/PET/MGE blends exhibit complex phase morphology due to the presence of elastomeric particles in the PMMAelast copolymer and in the use of MGE terpolymer.

  12. Effect of the different chain transfer agents on molecular weight and optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Onur; Demirci, Gökhan; Mergo, Paweł

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of molecular weight and optical properties of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) polymerized in house with different chain transfer agents was studied. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), n-butyl mercaptan (nBMC) and pentamethyl disilane (PMDS) were used as chain transfer agents. The molecular weight (Mw) of PMMA samples were measured by Ostwald viscometer. Mw of bulk polymer samples were decreased with increase the concentration of chain transfer agents (CTA). Since reactivity of used CTAs is not same, molecular weights of samples which were produced with different type of CTA but same concentration of CTA was varied. Higher concentration of n-BMC showed higher scattering. Transmission of samples could not be correlated with different concentration of CTA. Refractive index of samples was not affected by concentration of CTA nevertheless higher molecular weight of CTA showed higher refractive index.

  13. Effect of Storage in Distilled Water for Three Months on the Antimicrobial Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Material Doped with Inorganic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA denture base materials by pathogenic microorganisms is a major problem associated with the use of prostheses, and the incorporation of antimicrobial fillers is a method of improving the antimicrobial properties of these materials. Numerous studies have demonstrated the initial in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of this type of material; however, reports demonstrating the stability of these fillers over longer periods are not available. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate was introduced into the powder component of a PMMA denture base material at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/w. The survival rates of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast-type fungus Candida albicans were established after fungal or bacterial suspensions were incubated with samples that had been previously stored in distilled water. Storage over a three-month period led to the progressive reduction of the initial antimicrobial properties. The results of this study suggest that additional microbiological tests should be conducted for materials that are treated with antimicrobial fillers and intended for long-term use. Future long-term studies of the migration of silver ions from the polymer matrix and the influence of different media on this ion emission are required.

  14. Synthesis of Isotactic-block-Syndiotactic Poly(methyl Methacrylate via Stereospecific Living Anionic Polymerizations in Combination with Metal-Halogen Exchange, Halogenation, and Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Usuki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Isotactic (it- and syndiotactic (st- poly(methyl methacrylates (PMMAs form unique crystalline stereocomplexes, which are attractive from both fundamental and application viewpoints. This study is directed at the efficient synthesis of it- and st-stereoblock (it-b-st- PMMAs via stereospecific living anionic polymerizations in combination with metal-halogen exchange, halogenation, and click reactions. The azide-capped it-PMMA was prepared by living anionic polymerization of MMA, which was initiated with t-BuMgBr in toluene at –78 °C, and was followed by termination using CCl4 as the halogenating agent in the presence of a strong Lewis base and subsequent azidation with NaN3. The alkyne-capped st-PMMA was obtained by living anionic polymerization of MMA, which was initiated via an in situ metal-halogen exchange reaction between 1,1-diphenylhexyl lithium and an α-bromoester bearing a pendent silyl-protected alkyne group. Finally, copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC between these complimentary pairs of polymers resulted in a high yield of it-b-st-PMMAs, with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. The stereocomplexation was evaluated in CH3CN and was affected by the block lengths and ratios.

  15. Effects of alumina nanoparticles on the microstructure, strength and wear resistance of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based nanocomposites prepared by friction stir processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani Derazkola, Hamed; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2018-03-01

    In this study, alumina-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites (PMMA/Al 2 O 3 ) containing up to 20vol% nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50nm were prepared by friction stir processing. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction on the microstructural features and mechanical properties of PMMA were studied. It is shown that by using a frustum pin tool and employing an appropriate processing condition, i.e. a rotational speed of 1600rpm/min and transverse velocity of 120mm/min, defect free nanocomposites at microscale with fine distribution of the nanoparticles can successfully been prepared. Mechanical evaluations including tensile, flexural, hardness and impact tests indicate that the strength and toughness of the material gradually increases with the nanoparticle concentration and reach to a flexural strength of 129MPa, hardness of 101 Shore D, and impact energy 2kJ/m 2 for the nanocomposite containing 20vol% alumina. These values are about 10% and 20% better than untreated and FSP-treated PMMA (without alumina addition). Fractographic studies indicate typical brittle features with crack deflection around the nanoparticles. More interestingly, the sliding wear rate in a pin-on-disk configuration and the friction coefficient are reduced up to 50% by addition of alumina nanoparticles. The worn surfaces exhibit typical sliding and ploughing features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw-bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw-bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability.

  17. Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Uday; Tappa, Karthik; Weisman, Jeffery A; Nicholson, James Connor; Mills, David K

    2017-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase the mechanical properties of various polymer matrices, in stark contrast to other fillers such as barium sulfate that provide opacity but also decrease mechanical strength. The present work describes a dry deposition method for successively fabricating barium sulfate nanoparticles onto the exterior surface of HNTs. A sintering process was used to coat the HNTs in barium sulfate. Barium sulfate-coated HNTs were then added to PMMA bone cement and the samples were tested for mechanical strength and tailored opacity correlated with the fabrication ratio and the amount of barium sulfate-coated HNTs added. The potential cytotoxic effect of barium-coated HNTs in PMMA cement was also tested on osteosarcoma cells. Barium-coated HNTs were found to be completely cytocompatible, and cell proliferation was not inhibited after exposure to the barium-coated HNTs embedded in PMMA cement. We demonstrate a simple method for the creation of barium-coated nanoparticles that imparted improved contrast and material properties to native PMMA. An easy and efficient method for coating clay nanotubes offers the potential for enhanced imaging by radiologists or orthopedic surgeons.

  18. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and the testing of three different adhesives for bonding bovine teeth with optical poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshuhn, K; Berg, I; Tinner, D; Kunz, C; Bornstein, M M; Steineck, M; Hille, K; Goldblum, D

    2014-07-01

    Preparation of the lamina during osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) design is complex, and its longevity and watertightness important. To date, only acrylic bone cements have been used for bonding the optical cylinder to the tooth dentine. Our aim was to evaluate different dental adhesives for OOKP preparation. Specimens of bovine teeth were produced by preparing 1.5-mm thick dentine slices with holes having a diameter of 3.5 mm. Each group (n=10 per group) was luted with either classic poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, universal resin cement or glass ionomer cement. All specimens underwent force measurement using a uniaxial traction machine. The highest mean force required to break the bond was measured for PMMA bone cement (128.2 N) followed by universal resin cement (127.9 N), with no statistically significant difference. Glass ionomer cement showed significantly lower force resistance (78.1 N). Excellent bonding strength combined with easy application was found for universal resin cement, and thus, it is a potential alternative to acrylic bone cement in OOKP preparation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The antifungal effects and mechanical properties of silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite-modified Poly-methyl methacrylate-based dental resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yin-Yan; Huang, Li; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Li-Juan; Xiao, Yu-Hong

    2017-05-08

    Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resins with strong and long-lasting antifungal properties are critical for the prevention of denture stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal effects on Candida albicans ATCC90028, the cytotoxicity toward human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), and the mechanical properties of a silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite (AgBr/NPVP)-modified PMMA-based dental resin. AgBr/NPVP was added to the PMMA resin at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt%, and PMMA resin without AgBr/NPVP served as the control. Fungal growth was inhibited on the AgBr/NPVP-modified PMMA resin compared to the control (P  0.05) between the experimental and control groups. These data indicate that the incorporation of AgBr/NPVP conferred strong and long-lasting antifungal effects against Candida albicans to the PMMA resin, and it has low toxicity toward HDPCs, and its mechanical properties were not significantly affected.

  20. Color formation on irradiated polymethyl methacrylate by electrons beam; Formacao de cor no polimetil metacrilato (PMMA) irradiado com feixes de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, Daniela T.; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: smguedes@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The color formation on national and commercial polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated by electrons beam was investigated in function of dose (0-150 kGy), post-irradiation time (0-31 days) and heating (110 deg C/1 h) by colorimetry (CIELab), electron spectroscopy resonance (RPE) and photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy (FTIRPAS). The irradiation promoted the formation of unstable color centers responsible by changing of colorimetric and optical properties. Visually or by colorimetric parameters the radiation became the PMMAS yellow and darkening which intensified by increase the dose and disappeared after the post-irradiation time. The yellow color disappeared and darkening increased when the irradiated PMMA (150 kGy) was heated. It was impossible to see the green and red colors however the colorimetric parameters showed a little decreasing of the Da value in function of the increased dose and a little increasing in function of post-irradiation time. The FTIR-PAS spectra did not show the presence of different functional groups after irradiation however the correlation among the Db values and RPE spectra suggested that the radicals could be responsible by unstable and yellow color centers. The radiosterilized PMMA (25 kGy) showed significant colorimetric changes that decreased but continued visible yet after 31 days. (author)

  1. Low-loss integrated electrical surface plasmon source with ultra-smooth metal film fabricated by polymethyl methacrylate ‘bond and peel’ method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Hu, Xiaolong; Zou, Qiushun; Wu, Shaoying; Jin, Chongjun

    2018-06-01

    External light sources are mostly employed to functionalize the plasmonic components, resulting in a bulky footprint. Electrically driven integrated plasmonic devices, combining ultra-compact critical feature sizes with extremely high transmission speeds and low power consumption, can link plasmonics with the present-day electronic world. In an effort to achieve this prospect, suppressing the losses in the plasmonic devices becomes a pressing issue. In this work, we developed a novel polymethyl methacrylate ‘bond and peel’ method to fabricate metal films with sub-nanometer smooth surfaces on semiconductor wafers. Based on this method, we further fabricated a compact plasmonic source containing a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide with an ultra-smooth metal surface on a GaAs-based light-emitting diode wafer. An increase in propagation length of the SPP mode by a factor of 2.95 was achieved as compared with the conventional device containing a relatively rough metal surface. Numerical calculations further confirmed that the propagation length is comparable to the theoretical prediction on the MIM waveguide with perfectly smooth metal surfaces. This method facilitates low-loss and high-integration of electrically driven plasmonic devices, thus provides an immediate opportunity for the practical application of on-chip integrated plasmonic circuits.

  2. Rheo-optical near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy study of partially miscible polymer blend of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2018-03-01

    Tensile deformations of a partially miscible blend of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is studied by a rheo-optical characterization near-infrared (NIR) technique to probe deformation behavior during tensile deformation. Sets of NIR spectra of the polymer samples were collected by using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectrometer coupled with a tensile testing machine as an excitation device. While deformations of the samples were readily captured as strain-dependent NIR spectra, the entire feature of the spectra was overwhelmed with the baseline fluctuation induced by the decrease in the sample thickness and subsequent change in the light scattering. Several pretreatment techniques, including multiplicative scatter collection (MSC) and null-space projection, are subjected to the NIR spectra prior to the determination of the sequential order of the spectral intensity changes by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. The comparison of the MSC and null-space projection provided an interesting insight into the system, especially deformation-induced variation of light scattering observed during the tensile testing of the polymer sample. In addition, the sequential order determined with the 2D correlation spectra revealed that orientation of a specific part of PMMA chain occurs before that of the others because of the interaction between Cdbnd O group of PMMA and terminal sbnd OH group of PEG.

  3. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives; Estabilizacao radiolitica do poli(metacrilato de metila) usando aditivos comerciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T{sub g}) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ({sup 1}H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  4. Random laser based on Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available Random laser based on Rh6G doped PMMA thin films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by a simple hydrothermal oxidation method has been demonstrated. This kind of random laser medium is based on waveguide structure consisting of ZnO nanorods, Rh6G doped PMMA film and air. By controlling the time of hydrothermal oxidation reaction, wheat-like and hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods have been successfully fabricated. The emission spectra of these gain mediums based on different ZnO nanorods are different. The one based on wheat-like ZnO nanorods mainly exhibits amplified spontaneous emission, and the other one based on hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods shows random laser emission. The threshold of the random laser medium is about 73.8 μJ/pulse, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM is around 2.1 nm. The emission spectra measured at different detecting angles reveal that the output direction is strongly confined in ±30° by the waveguide effect. Our experiments demonstrate a promising method to achieve organic random laser medium. Keywords: Random laser, ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal oxidation, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G, Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA

  5. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  6. Custom CAD-CAM healing abutment and impression coping milled from a poly(methyl methacrylate) block and bonded to a titanium insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussaefs, Periklis

    2016-11-01

    This article describes a technique in which a custom-made computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) healing abutment milled from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block is fabricated and bonded to a titanium metal insert. An impression is made during dental implant surgery, and the CAD-CAM custom-made healing abutment is fabricated before second-stage surgery while appropriate healing time is allowed for the dental implant to osseointegrate. The contours of the healing abutment are based on the contours of a tentatively designed definitive prosthesis. The healing tissue obtains contours that will be compatible with the contours of the definitive prosthesis. After the milling process is complete, a titanium metal insert is bonded to the healing abutment. Placement of the custom-made CAD-CAM healing abutment at second-stage surgery allows the tissue to obtain contours similar to those of the definitive prosthesis. A custom-made CAD-CAM impression coping milled from a PMMA block and with a titanium insert is used for the definitive impression after the soft tissue has healed. This technique allows guided soft tissue healing by using a custom-made CAD-CAM healing abutment and impression coping. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  8. Encapsulation of Piper cabralanum (Piperaceae) nonpolar extract in poly(methyl methacrylate) by miniemulsion and evaluation of increase in the effectiveness of antileukemic activity in K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Filgueiras, Lívia Alves; Siqueira, Monica Regina Pimentel; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Holandino, Carla; de Lima Moreira, Davyson; Pinto, José Carlos; Nele, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesize and characterize nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and evaluate their ability to incorporate plant extracts with antitumor activity and low dissolution in aqueous media. The extract used was n -hexane partition of the methanol extract of Piper cabralanum (PCA-HEX). PMMA NPs were obtained using the mini-emulsion method, which was able to encapsulate almost 100% of PCA-HEX. The synthesized polymeric particles presented with a size of 200 nm and a negative charge. Cytotoxicity tests by MTT and trypan blue assays showed that NPs without PCA-HEX did not kill leukemic cells (K562 cells). NPs containing PCA-HEX were able to enhance cell death when compared to pure extract. The results showed that PMMA NPs could be useful as a drug delivery system as they can enhance the antitumor activity of the PCA-HEX extract by more than 20-fold. PMMA NPs containing plant extracts with antitumor activities may be an alternative to control the evolution of diseases such as leukemia.

  9. External Electric Field Effects on Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in 4'-N,N-Dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Hino, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Norifumi; Awasthi, Kamlesh; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2015-09-17

    The external electric field effects on the steady-state electronic spectra and excited-state dynamics were investigated for 4'-N,N-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone (DMHF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film. In the steady-state spectrum, dual emission was observed from the excited states of the normal (N*) and tautomer (T*) forms. Application of an external electric field of 1.0 MV·cm(-1) enhanced the N* emission and reduced the T* emission, indicating that the external electric field suppressed the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The fluorescence decay profiles were measured for the N* and T* forms. The change in the emission intensity ratio N*/T* induced by the external electric field is dominated by ESIPT from the Franck-Condon excited state of the N* form and vibrational cooling in potential wells of the N* and T* forms occurring within tens of picoseconds. Three manifolds of fluorescent states were identified for both the N* and T* forms. The excited-state dynamics of DMHF in PMMA films has been found to be very different from that in solution due to intermolecular interactions in a rigid environment.

  10. Utilization of poly(methyl methacrylate – carbon nanotube and polystyrene – carbon nanotube in situ polymerized composites as masterbatches for melt mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lahelin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were melt mixed directly or by using an in situ polymerized masterbatch into a matrix polymer, polystyrene (PS or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The mechanical properties of the composites were mostly determined by the amount of CNTs, and not by the use of directly melt mixed CNTs or the use of the masterbatch. In contrast, the electrical resistivity of the composites was dependent on the manner in which the CNTs were added to the matrix polymer. When there was increased interfacial adhesion between the components, as for PS and the CNTs, the use of directly melt mixed CNTs gave better resistivity results. Without strong interactions between the CNTs and the matrix, as with PMMA and CNTs, the use of a tailored masterbatch had a significant effect on properties of the final composites. The molecular weight and viscosity of masterbatches can be varied and when the PMMA-masterbatch had optimized viscosity with respect to the PMMA matrix, electrical resistivity of the final composites decreased noticeably.

  11. Cranioplasty using presurgically fabricated presterilised polymethyl methacrylate plate by a simple, cost-effective technique on patients with and without original bone flap: study on 29 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharavanan, G M; Jayabalan, Suresh; Rajasukumaran, K; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Sathya, G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of presurgically fabricated pre-sterilized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate as a cranioplasty material. The study group consisted of 29 patients with skull defect following decompressive craniectomy. Some patients had their original bone flap preserved and some were without it. In either group pre-sterilized prefabricated PMMA plate was used. On each visit, patients were clinically assessed; CT scans were taken in immediate follow up period but if needed more films were taken in subsequent follow ups. Post-op complications that include infection, post-op hematoma, chronic pain, aesthetic, biocompatibility, post-op dimensional changes of prosthesis were evaluated. Mean follow up was 7 1/2 months. Five patients developed swelling and pain in the subsequent follow ups. One patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics. Tapping was performed in couple of patients. Surgical evacuation of hematoma was performed in one patient. Of the five infected plates, one demanded removal from the patient. One complained of chronic pain. Post-op follow up assessed clinically and by CT scan confirmed good aesthetic result, biocompatibility and dimensional stability of prosthesis. The result of this study support the view that the use of prefabricated pre-sterilized PMMA plate as cranioplasty material is a simple, reliable, convenient way that brings acceptable function and aesthetics to patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy, in an inexpensive way.

  12. Synthesis of polymer hybrid latex poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) with organo montmorillonite via miniemulsion polymerization method for barrier paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanra, J.; Budianto, E.; Soegijono, B.

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid polymer latex based on combination of organic-inorganic materials, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (PMMBA) and organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) were synthesized via miniemulsion polymerization technique. Modification of montmorillonite (MMT) through the incorporation of myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) into the clay’s interlayer spaces were investigated by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Barrier property and thermal stability of polymer latex film sample were investigated through its Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The results indicated that addition of OMMT as filler in PMMBA increased the barrier property and thermal stability of the latex film. Addition of 8.0% (wt) OMMT increased the barrier property and thermal stability. Miniemusion polymerization process with higher addition (>8.0 wt%) of OMMT resulting in high latex viscosity, particle size, and high amount of coagulum. The utilization of this hybrid polymer could benefits paper and board industries to produce high quality barrier paper for food packaging.

  13. Thermal, Mechanical and UV-Shielding Properties of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate/Cerium Dioxide Hybrid Systems Obtained by Melt Compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Reyes-Acosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thick and homogeneous hybrid film systems based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using the melt compounding method to improve thermal stability, mechanical and UV-shielding properties, as well as to propose them for use in the multifunctional materials industry. The effect of the inorganic phase on these properties was assessed by using two different weight percentages of synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5 and 1.0 wt % with the sol–gel method and thermal treatment at different temperatures (120, 235, 400, 600 and 800 °C. Thereafter, the nanoceria powders were added to the polymer matrix by single screw extrusion. The absorption in the UV region was increased with the crystallite size of the CeO2 nanoparticles and the PMMA/CeO2 weight ratio. Due to the crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles, the thermal, mechanical and UV-shielding properties of the PMMA matrix were improved. The presence of CeO2 nanostructures exerts an influence on the mobility of PMMA chain segments, leading to a different glass transition temperature.

  14. Microfluidic Fabrication of Morphology-Controlled Polymeric Microspheres of Blends of Poly(4-butyltriphenylamine and Poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Yoshida

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multicomponent polymer particles with specific morphology are promising materials exhibiting novel functionality which cannot be obtained with single-component polymer particles. Particularly, the preparation of such kinds of polymer particles involving electrically or optically active conjugated polymers with uniform size is a challenging subject due to their intense demands. Here, microspheres of binary polymer blend consisting of poly(4-butyltriphenylamine (PBTPA/poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA (1:1 in weight were produced via a microfluidic emulsification with a Y-shaped microreactor, and a subsequent solvent evaporation method. The flow rate of the dispersed phase (polymer solution was fixed to 7 µL/min, and 140 or 700 µL/min of the flow rate of the continuous phase (aqueous 0.6 wt % of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA solution was utilized to produce the dispersion with different diameter. The concentration of dispersed phase was adjusted to 0.1 or 1.0 w/v%. Core-shell, Janus and dumbbell type microspheres were obtained dependent on the flow rate of continuous phase. Incomplete core-shell type microspheres were produced for the blend involving low molecular weight PMMA. Complex Janus and core-shell type microspheres were fabricated by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS to continuous phase. It is found that final morphologies are strongly dependent on the initial conditions of dispersion including the particle size suggesting that the morphologies are governed by the kinetical factors together with the conventionally accepted thermodynamic ones.

  15. Influence of the way of synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate in the presence of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles on the properties of obtained nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džunuzović Enis S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles can significantly affect the properties of the polymer matrix. The properties of polymer nanocomposites depend on the type of incorporated nanoparticles, their size and shape, their concentration, and interactions with the polymer matrix. Homogeneity of polymer nanocomposites is influenced very much by the preparation method. In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles surface modified with 6-palmitate ascorbic acid (6-PAA were incapsulated in poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA by in situ radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN. The surface modification of the TiO2 nanoparticles was achieved by the formation of a charge transfer complex between TiO2 nanoparticles and 6-palmitate ascorbic acid. The radical polymerization of MMA in the presence of TiO2-PAA nanoparticles was conducted in solution (PMMA/TiO2-PAA-R, in bulk (PMMA/TiO2-PAA-M or in suspension (PMMA/TiO2-PAA-S. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the preparation method on the molar masses and thermal properties of PMMA/TiO2-PAA nanocomposite. It was obtained that molar masses of PMMA extracted from the composites had smaller values compared to molar masses of pure PMMA synthesized in the same manner, which indicated that TiO2-PAA nanoparticles affected the reaction of termination. Thermal properties were investigated by DSC and TGA. The values of glass transition temperature, Tg, were influenced by the way the radical polymerization was conducted, even in the case of the pure PMMA. The Tg of composite samples was always smaller than the value of the corresponding PMMA sample and the smallest value was obtained for PMMA/TiO2-PAA-M since they contained the largest amount of low molar mass residue. The TGA results showed that thermal and thermooxidative stability of polymer composites obtained in solution and in suspension was better than for the pure PMMA obtained in the same way.

  16. A novel functionalisation process for glucose oxidase immobilisation in poly(methyl methacrylate) microchannels in a flow system for amperometric determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Marcos Rodrigues Facchini; Grasseschi, Daniel; Matos, Renato Camargo; Angnes, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    Different materials like glass, silicon and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are being used to immobilise enzymes in microchannels. PMMA shows advantages such as its low price, biocompatibility and attractive mechanical and chemical properties. Despite this, the introduction of reactive functional groups on PMMA is still problematic, either because of the complex chemistry or extended reaction time involved. In this paper, a new methodology was developed to immobilise glucose oxidase (GOx) in PMMA microchannels, with the benefit of a rapid immobilisation process and a very simple route. The new procedure involves only two steps, based on the reaction of 5.0% (w/w) polyethyleneimine (PEI) with PMMA in a dimethyl sulphoxide medium, followed by the immobilisation of glucose oxidase using a solution containing 100U enzymes and 1.0% (v/v) glutaraldehyde. The reactors prepared in this way were evaluated by a flowing system with amperometric detection (+0.60V) based on the oxidation of the H2O2 produced by the reactor. The microreactor proposed here was able to work with high bioconversion and a frequency of 60 samples h(-1), with detection and quantification limits of 0.50 and 1.66µmol L(-1), respectively. Michaelis-Menten parameters (Vmax and KM) were calculated as 449±47.7nmol min(-1) and 7.79±0.98mmol. Statistical evaluations were done to validate the proposed methodology. The content of glucose in natural and commercial coconut water samples was evaluated using the developed method. Comparison with spectrophotometric measurements showed that both methodologies have a very good correlation (tcalculated, 0.05, 4=1.35

  17. Dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in a blend with poly(methyl methacrylate): A quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genix, A.-C.; Arbe, A.; Alvarez, F.; Colmenero, J.; Willner, L.; Richter, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we have addressed the question of the dynamic miscibility in a blend characterized by very different glass-transition temperatures, T g , for the components: poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA). The combination of quasielastic neutron scattering with isotopic labeling and fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations has allowed us to selectively investigate the dynamics of the two components in the picosecond--10 nanoseconds scale at temperatures close and above the T g of the blend. The main focus was on the PEO component, i.e., that of the lowest T g , but first we have characterized the dynamics of the other component in the blend and of the pure PEO homopolymer as reference. In the region investigated, the dynamics of PMMA in the blend is strongly affected by the α-methyl rotation; an additional process detected in the experimental window 65 K above the blend-T g can be identified as the merged αβ process of this component that shows strong deviations from Gaussian behavior. On the other hand, pure PEO displays entropy driven dynamics up to very large momentum transfers. Such kind of motion seems to freeze when the PEO chains are in the blend. There, we have directly observed a very heterogeneous and moreover confined dynamics for the PEO component. The presence of the hardly moving PMMA matrix leads to the creation of little pockets of mobility where PEO can move. The characteristic size of such confined islands of mobility might be estimated to be of ≅1 nm. These findings are corroborated by the simulation study, which has been an essential support and guide in our data analysis procedure

  18. Thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement of graphite nanoplatelets on form-stable polyethylene glycol/polymethyl methacrylate composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GnPs), obtained by sonicating the expanded graphite, were employed to simultaneously enhance the thermal (k) and electrical (σ) conductivity of organic form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs). Using the method of in situ polymerization upon ultrasonic irradiation, GnPs serving as the conductive fillers and polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the phase change material (PCM) were uniformly dispersed and embedded inside the network structure of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which contributed to the well package and self-supporting properties of composite FSPCMs. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that the GnPs were physically combined with PEG/PMMA matrix and did not participate in the polymerization. The GnPs additives were able to effectively enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCM. When the mass ratio of GnP was 8%, the k and σ of FSPCM changed up to 9 times and 8 orders of magnitude over that of PEG/PMMA matrix, respectively. The improvements in both k and σ were mainly attributed to the well dispersion and large aspect ratio of GnPs, which were endowed with benefit of forming conducting network in polymer matrix. It was also confirmed that all the prepared specimens possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability. -- Highlights: ► GnPs were employed to simultaneously enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCMs. ► PEG/PMMA/GnPs composite FSPCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The composite FSPCMs exhibited well package and self-supporting properties. ► GnPs additives effectively enhanced the k and σ of composite FSPCMs. ► All the composites possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability.

  19. Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jammalamadaka U

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Uday Jammalamadaka,1 Karthik Tappa,1 Jeffery A Weisman,1 James Connor Nicholson,2 David K Mills1,3 1Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science, 2Nanosystems Engineering, 3The School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase the mechanical properties of various polymer matrices, in stark contrast to other fillers such as barium sulfate that provide opacity but also decrease mechanical strength. The present work describes a dry deposition method for successively fabricating barium sulfate nanoparticles onto the exterior surface of HNTs. A sintering process was used to coat the HNTs in barium sulfate. Barium sulfate-coated HNTs were then added to PMMA bone cement and the samples were tested for mechanical strength and tailored opacity correlated with the fabrication ratio and the amount of barium sulfate-coated HNTs added. The potential cytotoxic effect of barium-coated HNTs in PMMA cement was also tested on osteosarcoma cells. Barium-coated HNTs were found to be completely cytocompatible, and cell proliferation was not inhibited after exposure to the barium-coated HNTs embedded in PMMA cement. We demonstrate a simple method for the creation of barium-coated nanoparticles that imparted improved contrast and material properties to native PMMA. An easy and efficient method for coating clay nanotubes offers the potential for enhanced imaging by radiologists or orthopedic surgeons. Keywords: barium, bone cement, halloysite, imaging, PMMA, sintering

  20. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) in blends with polystyrene; Estabilizacao radiolitica do poli(metacrilato de metila) em misturas fisicas com poliestireno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    2002-04-01

    In this work the radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) was analyzed by three radioprotective agents: polystyrene (PS) and hindered amine light stabilizers (HEALS), respectively, PMMA/PS systems, so a called polymeric blends were prepared with different compositions, where the miscibility of these blends were studied using viscometric, microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The results show that PMMA/PS blends in the compositions below 10 wt% of PS are miscible, on films casting from solution of toluene and methyl-ethyl-ketone (1;1) mixture. On the other hand, in the composition above 10 wt% of PS, PMMA/PS blends show imminiscibility behavior. These polymer solutions were irradiated with gamma rays ({sup 60} Co) and viscometric, microscopic and spectroscopic experiments show gamma radiation-induced compatibilization on PMMA/PS blends on proportion 50/50 and 30/70 take place. Viscometric interaction parameters of miscible and compatibilized PMMA/PS bends were calculated in the range of - 50 kGy, with the goal to find out the polymeric interactions after irradiation of the films. G values of PMMA, PMMA/PS and PMMA+St systems were calculated in order to analyze the radioprotection of PS and St into PMMA matrix. The results show that (90/10) PMMA/PS and PMMA+1,5%St systems promote protection against the gamma the radiation-induced scissions, effect that leads to polymer degradation. Moreover, a small amount of crosslinking observed in irradiated blends has contributed to stabilize mechanical properties of PMMA films. PMMA+0,3% HALS system irradiated in doses above 60 kGy showed little stabilization of the mechanical properties of PMMA, since it was observed mechanical degradation this system. Based on these results, PS and St showed to be the best radioprotective agents to PMMA. (author)

  1. Efficacy of citric acid denture cleanser on the Candida albicans biofilm formed on poly(methyl methacrylate): effects on residual biofilm and recolonization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faot, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Mendonça e Bertolini, Martinna de; Pinto, Luciana de Rezende; da Silva, Wander José; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel

    2014-06-23

    It is well known that the use of denture cleansers can reduce Candida albicans biofilm accumulation; however, the efficacy of citric acid denture cleansers is uncertain. In addition, the long-term efficacy of this denture cleanser is not well established, and their effect on residual biofilms is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of citric acid denture cleanser treatment on C. albicans biofilm recolonization on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface. C. albicans biofilms were developed for 72 h on PMMA resin specimens (n = 168), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 cleansing treatments (CTs) overnight (8 h). CTs included purified water as a control (CTC) and two experimental groups that used either a 1:5 dilution of citric acid denture cleanser (CT5) or a 1:8 dilution of citric acid denture cleanser (CT8). Residual biofilms adhering to the specimens were collected and quantified at two time points: immediately after CTs (ICT) and after cleaning and residual biofilm recolonization (RT). Residual biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the viable cells (CFU/mL), and biofilm architecture was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Denture cleanser treatments and evaluation periods were considered study factors. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). Immediately after treatments, citric acid denture cleansing solutions (CT5 and CT8) reduced the number of viable cells as compared with the control (p recolonization (p recolonization was also detected by CLSM and SEM analysis, which revealed a higher biomass and average biofilm thickness for the CT8 group (p recolonization.

  2. Controlling Foam Morphology of Poly(methyl methacrylate via Surface Chemistry and Concentration of Silica Nanoparticles and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Rende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposite foams have received considerable attention because of their potential use in advanced applications such as bone scaffolds, food packaging, and transportation materials due to their low density and enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties compared to traditional polymer foams. In this study, silica nanofillers were used as nucleating agents and supercritical carbon dioxide as the foaming agent. The use of nanofillers provides an interface upon which CO2 nucleates and leads to remarkably low average cell sizes while improving cell density (number of cells per unit volume. In this study, the effect of concentration, the extent of surface modification of silica nanofillers with CO2-philic chemical groups, and supercritical carbon dioxide process conditions on the foam morphology of poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, were systematically investigated to shed light on the relative importance of material and process parameters. The silica nanoparticles were chemically modified with tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl triethoxysilane leading to three different surface chemistries. The silica concentration was varied from 0.85 to 3.2% (by weight. The supercritical CO2 foaming was performed at four different temperatures (40, 65, 75, and 85°C and between 8.97 and 17.93 MPa. By altering the surface chemistry of the silica nanofiller and manipulating the process conditions, the average cell diameter was decreased from 9.62±5.22 to 1.06±0.32 μm, whereas, the cell density was increased from 7.5±0.5×108 to 4.8±0.3×1011 cells/cm3. Our findings indicate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles with CO2-philic surfactants has the strongest effect on foam morphology.

  3. Multi-channel and porous SiO@N-doped C rods as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Li, Mingqi

    2018-05-01

    To improve the cycling stability and rate capability of SiO electrodes, multi-channel and porous SiO@N-doped C (mp-SiO@N-doped C) rods are fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and heat treatment with the assistance of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). During annealing, in-situ PMMA degradation and gasification lead to the formation of multi-channel structure and more pores. As anodes for lithium ion batteries, the mp-SiO@N-doped C rods exhibit excellent cycling stability. At a current density of 400 mA g-1, a discharge capacity of 806 mAh g-1 can be kept after 250 cycles, the retention of which is over than 100% versus the initial reversible capacity. Compared with the SiO@N-doped C rods synthesized without the help of PMMA, the mp-SiO@N-doped C rods exhibit more excellent rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the special structure of the mp-SiO@N-doped C rods. In addition to the conductivity improved by carbon fibers, the multi-channel and porous structures not only make ions/electrons transfer and electrolyte diffusion easier, but also contribute to the structural stability of the electrodes.

  4. Inhibitory effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles on Candida albicans adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate denture bases and interim removable prostheses: a new approach for denture stomatitis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed M; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Shahin, Suliman Y; Alsaqer, Badar T; Ali, Aiman A

    2017-01-01

    addition of zirconia nanoparticles to cold-cured acrylic resin is an effective method for reducing Candida adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture bases and cold-cured removable prosthesis. Based on the results of the current study, zirconia nanoparticles have an antifungal effect, which could be incorporated in the repair material for repairing denture bases and in PMMA removable prostheses as a possible approach for denture stomatitis prevention.

  5. Photoluminescence spectral study of single cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide colloidal nanocrystals in poly(methyl methacrylate) and quantum dots molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaoming

    Quantum dots (QDs)and Nano-crystals (NCs) have been studies for decades. Because of the nanoscale quantum confinement, delta shape like energy density states and narrowband emitters properties, they hold great promise for numerous optoelectronics and photonics applications. They could be used for tunable lasers, white LED, Nano-OLED, non-volatile memory and solar cells. They are also the most promising candidates for the quantum computing. The benefits for NCs over QDs is that NCs can be incorporated into a variety of polymers as well as thin films of bulk semiconductors. These exceptional flexibility and structural control distinguish NCs from the more traditional QD structures fabricated using epitaxial growth techniques. In my research of work, I studied the photoluminescence (PL) and absorption character of ensemble NCs incorporated in Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). To understand the behavior of the NCs in PMMA, it is important to measure a singe NC to avoid the inhomogenous broading of many NCs. So I particularly studied the behavior of a single NC in PMMA matrix. A microphotoluminescence setup to optically isolate a single nanocrystal is used. Random spectral shift and blinking behavior (on and off) are found. Addition to that, two color spectral shifting, is a major phenomena found in the system. Other interesting results such as PL intensity changes (decreasing or increasing with time) and quenching effect are observed and explained too. From the correlation function, we can distinguish the phonon replicas. The energy of these phonons can be calculated very accurately from the experiment result. The Huang-Rhys factors can be estimated too. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), from highly strained-layer heteroepitaxy in the Stranski-Krastanow (S-K) growth mode, have been intensively studied because of the delta-function-like density of states, which is significant for optoelectronic applications. Spontaneous formation of semiconductor quantum

  6. Toward the treatment for Alzheimer's disease: adsorption is primary mechanism of removing amyloid β protein with hollow-fiber dialyzers of the suitable materials, polysulfone and polymethyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kazunori; Saigusa, Akira; Yamada, Shinji; Gotoh, Takehiro; Nakai, Shigeru; Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Midori; Yuzawa, Yukio; Kitaguchi, Nobuya

    2016-06-01

    The accumulation of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the brain reflects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that the rapid removal of Aβ from the blood by an extracorporeal system may act as a peripheral Aβ sink from the brain. The present study aimed to determine the optimal materials and modality for Aβ removal by hemodialyzers. In a batch analysis, hollow-fiber fragments of polysulfone (PSf) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) showed greater removal efficiency of Aβ than did other materials, such as cellulose-triacetates and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (PSf:PMMA at 30 min, 98.6 ± 2.4 %:97.8 ± 0.4 % for Aβ1-40 and 96.6 ± 0.3 %:99.0 ± 1.0 % for Aβ1-42). In a modality study, the Aβ solution was applied to PSf dialyzers and circulated in the dialysis and Air-filled adsorption-mode (i.e., the outer space of the hollow fibers was filled with air) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-filled adsorption modes. The Aβ1-40 removal efficiency of the pre/post dialyzer in the Air-filled adsorption-mode was the highest (62.4 ± 12.6 %, p = 0.007). In a flow rate study in the Air-filled adsorption-mode, 200 mL/min showed the highest Aβ1-40 reduction rate of pool solution (97.3 ± 0.8 % at 15 min) compared with 20 mL/min (p = 0.00001) and 50 mL/min (p = 0.00382). PMMA dialyzers showed similar high reduction rates. Thus, the optimal modality for Aβ removal was the adsorption-mode with PSf or PMMA hollow fibers at around 50 mL/min flow rate, which seems to be suitable for clinical use.

  7. In Situ Synthesis of Poly(methyl methacrylate/SiO2 Hybrid Nanocomposites via “Grafting Onto” Strategy Based on UV Irradiation in the Presence of Iron Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate/SiO2 (PMMA/SiO2 hybrid composites were prepared via “grafting onto” strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution. Two steps were used to graft polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA onto the surface of nanosilica, anchoring 3-(methacryloxy propyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS onto the surface of nanosilica to modify it with double bonds, and then grafting PMMA onto the surface of nanosilica with FeCl3 as photoinitiator. The products were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, TEM, DLS, and XPS. The results showed that it is easy to graft PMMA onto the surface of nanosilica under UV irradiation, and the hybrid particles are monodisperse and have core-shell structure with nanosilica as the core and PMMA layers as the shell. Furthermore, the products initiated by FeCl3 have higher monomer conversion, percent grafting, and better monodispersion compared with the products initiated by traditional photoinitiator such as 2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy-2-methyl-propiophenone (Irgacure 2959.

  8. Radiation treatment of polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnik, E.I.; Onisko, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    The well-known methods of radiation treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) are reviewed. Described is a new method of the production of decorative articles with the drawing inside the volume. This method permits to obtain the original ''dendritic'' drawing by electron treatment of PMMA. Presented are the technique which permits to obtain the drawing with the increased density of lines and the ways of changing the deposition depth, the drawing volume and the treatment duration. Shown is the possibility of the radiation treatment application for the increase of the specific volume resistance of PMMA

  9. and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials forming electrets. Thermally stimulated discharge. (TSD) is a conventional technique for investigation of charge storage and transport processes in high resistivity materi- als and devices. For the standard TSD experiment, which is comparable to a dielectric loss measurement, the low equi- valent frequency (≈ 10.

  10. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties; Nanocompositos de polimetacrilato de metila e poliestireno com hidroxido duplo lamelar: sintese in situ, morfologia e propriedades termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinyl acetate) and its evaluation as filtrate reducer; Sintese e caracterizacao de poli(metacrilato de metila-co-acetato de vinila) e sua avaliacao como redutor de filtrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Rita de Cassia P.; Pires, Renata V.; Segtovich, Iuri V.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: repires@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The drilling of petroleum well is extremely important and requires the use of suitable drilling fluids in order to ensure an efficient operation without causing rock damage. Specific polymers have been used in controlling infiltration during drilling, ensuring the operation success. In this work, spherical microparticles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinyl acetate) (PMMA-VAc), prepared by suspension polymerization, were evaluated in terms of their performance in controlling filtrate loss of aqueous fluids. A filter press test with ceramic disc, simulating the rock, was used. The performance of the synthesized materials was compared to that of commercial polymers. It was observed that the performance of the material is directly associated to the relation between particle size and pore size of rock specimen. Furthermore, when the particle size is suitable, the rubbery characteristic of the material produces a more efficient filter cake, for filtrate control. (author)

  12. A highly selective sorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum nanocomposite: Optimization by experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Susan, E-mail: ssadeghi@birjand.ac.ir; Rad, Fatemeh Alavi; Moghaddam, Ali Zeraatkar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (P(MMA)-g-TG-MNs) were developed for the selective removal of Cr(VI) species from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cr(III). The sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). A screening study on operational variables was performed using a two-level full factorial design. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limit, the significant variables were found. The central composite design (CCD) has also been employed for statistical modeling and analysis of the effects and interactions of significant variables dealing with the Cr(VI) uptake process by the developed sorbent. The predicted optimal conditions were situated at a pH of 5.5, contact time of 3.4 h, and 3.0 g L{sup −1} dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used to describe the equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) by the absorbent, and the Langmuir isotherm showed the best concordance as an equilibrium model. The adsorption process was followed by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. - Highlights: • Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified with Poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum • P(MMA)-g-TG -MNPs can preferentially adsorb Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III) • The effects of operational parameters on Cr(VI) removal were evaluated by RSM • Adsorption mechanism, kinetics, and isotherm have been explored • The sorbent was successfully used to remove Cr(VI) from different water samples.

  13. A highly selective sorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions based on Fe3O4/poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum nanocomposite: Optimization by experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Rad, Fatemeh Alavi; Moghaddam, Ali Zeraatkar

    2014-01-01

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (P(MMA)-g-TG-MNs) were developed for the selective removal of Cr(VI) species from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cr(III). The sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). A screening study on operational variables was performed using a two-level full factorial design. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limit, the significant variables were found. The central composite design (CCD) has also been employed for statistical modeling and analysis of the effects and interactions of significant variables dealing with the Cr(VI) uptake process by the developed sorbent. The predicted optimal conditions were situated at a pH of 5.5, contact time of 3.4 h, and 3.0 g L −1 dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used to describe the equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) by the absorbent, and the Langmuir isotherm showed the best concordance as an equilibrium model. The adsorption process was followed by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. - Highlights: • Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified with Poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum • P(MMA)-g-TG -MNPs can preferentially adsorb Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III) • The effects of operational parameters on Cr(VI) removal were evaluated by RSM • Adsorption mechanism, kinetics, and isotherm have been explored • The sorbent was successfully used to remove Cr(VI) from different water samples

  14. Redox-Initiated Poly(methyl methacrylate) Emulsion Polymerizations Stabilized with Block Copolymers Based on Methoxy-Poly(ethylene glycol), epsilon-Caprolactone, and Linoleic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Boonhua; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  15. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, P.; Kee Haeyoung.

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach's Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins τ J , j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig

  16. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazekas, P; Haeyoung, Kee

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach`s Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins {tau}{sub J}, j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig.

  17. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  18. Study of castor oil polyurethane - poly(methyl methacrylate semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN reaction parameters using a 2³ factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira Vieira da Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work was employed a 2³ factorial experiment design to evaluate the castor oil polyurethane-poly(methyl methacrylate semi-IPN synthesis. The reaction parameters used as independent variables were NCO/OH molar ratio, polyurethane polymerization time and methyl methacrylate (MMA content. The semi-IPNs were cured over 28 h using two thermal treatments. The polymers were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis and swelling profiles in n-hexane. The glass transition temperature (Tg and the swelling were more affect by the NCO/OH molar ratio variation. The semi-IPNs showed Tg from - 27 to - 6 °C and the swelling range was from 3 to 22%, according to the crosslink density. The IPN mechanical properties were dependent on the cure temperature and MMA content in it. Lower elastic modulus values were observed in IPNs cured at room temperature.

  19. Synthesis of hydrophilic carbon nanotubes by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) via click reaction and its effect on poly(vinylidene fluoride)-carbon nanotube composite membrane properties1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Zhao, Yuchen; Li, Yuxue; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Zheng; Yang, Haicun; Liu, Chunlin; Tao, Guoliang; Gong, Fanghong; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2018-03-01

    Surface modification of azide-decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with well-defined alkyne-terminated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains was accomplished via the combination of reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) and "click" chemistry. Successful attachment of PMMA onto MWCNT was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The highest grafting percentage (GP) of the PMMA chains (GP = 23.3%) was calculated using TGA. The effect of the PMMA-grafted-MWCNTs (MWCNTs-g-PMMA) content on the performance of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-MWCNTs-g-PMMA composite membrane was studied. The MWCNTs-g-PMMA was found to be well dispersed in the PVDF composite membrane matrix because of the excellent compatibility between the PMMA and PVDF chains. The composite membranes showed improved porosity, hydrophilicity, water flux, β-PVDF content, and mechanical properties at an optimal amount of 2 wt% MWCNTs-g-PMMA incorporated in the PVDF membrane matrix. In contrast, the hydroxyl functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH) showed limited enhancement in the water flux and mechanical strength, which is mainly due to the poor dispersion of MWCNT because of the weak interaction between the MWCNT and PVDF chains. This study reveals the excellent prospect of the MWCNT-based ultrafiltration membrane with enhanced properties in water treatment applications.

  20. Electrical double layer capacitor using poly(methyl methacrylate)–C4BO8Li gel polymer electrolyte and carbonaceous material from shells of mata kucing (Dimocarpus longan) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arof, A.K.; Kufian, M.Z.; Syukur, M.F.; Aziz, M.F.; Abdelrahman, A.E.; Majid, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) containing immobilized lithium bis(oxalato)borate, C 4 BO 8 Li or LiBOB dissolved in a propylene carbonate–ethylene carbonate binary solvent were prepared by heating the cast solution between 70 and 80 °C for 20 min. The electrolyte composition with 5 wt.% PMMA exhibited the highest conductivity of 3.27 and 7.46 mS cm −1 at 298 and 343 K respectively. Cyclic voltammetry studies on the GPE containing 15 wt.% PMMA and 85 wt.% (0.6 M LiBOB) dissolved in equal weight of ethylene and propylene carbonates showed that the electrochemical potential stability window of the electrolyte lies in the range between −1.7 to +1.7 V. Linear sweep voltammetry indicates the gel polymer electrolyte is stable up to 1.7 V. The electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) using the highest conducting GPE and activated carbon derived from shells of the mata kucing (Dimocarpus longan) fruit has capacitance of ∼685 mF g −1 on the first cycle. The EDLC performance was also characterized using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge processes at constant current.

  1. Grafting of poly[(methyl methacrylate)-block-styrene] onto cellulose via nitroxide-mediated polymerization, and its polymer/clay nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaj-Abad, Saber Ghasemi; Abbasian, Mojtaba; Jaymand, Mehdi

    2016-11-05

    For the first time, nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) was used for synthesis of graft and block copolymers using cellulose (Cell) as a backbone, and polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) as the branches. For this purpose, Cell was acetylated by 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BrBiB), and then the bromine group was converted to 4-oxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl group by a substitution nucleophilic reaction to afford a macroinitiator (Cell-TEMPOL). The macroinitiator obtained was subsequently used in controlled graft and block copolymerizations of St and MMA monomers to yield Cell-g-PSt and Cell-g-(PMMA-b-PSt). The chemical structures of all samples as representatives were characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. In addition, Cell-g-(PMMA-b-PSt)/organophilic montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared through a solution intercalation method. TEM was used to evaluate the morphological behavior of the polymer-clay system. It was demonstrated that the addition of small percent of organophilic montmorillonite (O-MMT; 3wt.%) was enough to improve the thermal stability of the nanocomposite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes induced by gamma radiation in nanocomposites based on copper II and antimony sulfides in commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M.C.C. de; Garcia, O.P.; Aquino, K.A.S.; Araujo, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a polymer with wide application in the manufacture of medical devices that is exposed to gamma irradiation. Currently the use of composite materials has been disseminated and PMMA is an excellent polymer matrix to package various materials. This study aimed to analyze the changes induced by gamma irradiation (25 kGy) on the properties of PMMA nanocomposites with nanoparticles of copper II sulfide (250nm-900nm) and antimony sulfite (300-500 nm). The nanoparticles were added to the polymer in different concentrations and synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from the corresponding chlorides with thioacetamide. Viscometric results showed a good radioprotective effect of nanoparticles of copper and antimony. It was found a good protection of nanoparticles on PMMA matrix in the concentration of 0.3% wt. The protections of 75% and 50% were calculated for nanoparticles of antimony and copper II, respectively. (author)

  3. Well-defined 4-arm stars with hydroxy-terminated polyethylene, polyethylene-b-polycaprolactone and polyethylene-b-(polymethyl methacrylate) 2 arms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2016-07-20

    Bis-boron-thexyl-silaboracycle was prepared by hydroboration of 1,4-bis(methyldivinylsilyl)butane with thexylborane and used to initiate the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide to afford well-defined hydroxy-terminated 4-arm polyethylene (PE) stars. The synthesized PE stars were transformed to (PE-b-PCL)4 starblock copolymers via the ring-opening polymerization of ϵ-caprolactone (CL) initiated by the hydroxyl end groups of (PE-OH)4 in the presence of P2-tBu phosphazene base. Esterification of the hydroxyl groups of the OH-terminated PE star with 2,2-dichloroacetyl chloride led to (PE-Cl2)4 which was used as initiator (eight initiating atom transfer radical polymerization, ATRP, sites) for the synthesis of (PE-b-PMMA2)4 dendrimer-like stars by the ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA). All intermediates and final products were characterized by high temperature gel permeation chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Espectro Vibracional no Infravermelho Próximo dos Polímeros Poliestireno, Poli(Metacrilato de Metila e Policarbonato Near-Infrared Spectra of Polystyrene, Poly(Methyl Methacrylate and Polycarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio C. de Araújo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os espectros no infravermelho próximo (NIR dos polímeros amorfos poliestireno (PS, poli(metacrilato de metila (PMMA e policarbonato (PC foram estudados. A tentativa de atribuição das bandas harmônicas e de combinação dos modos vibracionais do PS, PMMA e PC foi realizada baseando-se na teoria de modos locais e pelo uso do método matemático de ajuste de curvas. A correção de anarmonicidade e freqüência mecânica foi determinada em um gráfico de Birge-Sponer. Uma correção de anarmonicidade de 57 e 58 cm-1 foi obtida para os modos de estiramento dos grupos CH2 e CH do PS; 59 e 9 cm-1 para os modos de estiramento dos grupos CH3 e CO do PMMA e 53, 59 e 10 cm-1 para os modos de estiramento dos grupos CH, CH3 e CO do PC, respectivamente.The near-infrared (NIR spectra of the amorphous polymers polystyrene (PS, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, and polycarbonate (PC have been studied. The tentative assignment of the overtone and combination frequencies is made using the curve fitting calculations and the local mode theory. Anharmonicity correction and mechanical frequency were determined from a Birge-Sponer plot. A tentative assignment of stretch overtone frequency of CH2 and CH functional groups of PS; CH3 and CO functional groups of PMMA and CH, CH3 and CO functional groups of PC has been made. An anharmonicity correction of 57 and 58 cm-1 was obtained for CH2 and CH stretch modes of PS; 59 and 9 cm-1 for CH3 and CO stretch modes of PMMA and 53, 59 and 10 cm-1 for CH, CH3 and CO stretch modes of PC, respectively.

  5. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  6. 蓄热调温纤维用DA@PMMA相变微胶囊的制备及表征%Preparation and characterization of n-dodecyl alcohol/polymethyl methacrylate phase change microencapsules used in thermo-regulating fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明; 罗艳; 钟毅; 肖敏; 胡剑灿

    2017-01-01

    Due to the phase change temperature (about 22 ℃) of n- dodecyl alcohol (DA) was in the com?fortable temperature range (18~28 ℃) of human body, it was selected as the core material, and polymethyl?methacrylate (PMMA) as wall material, DA@PMMA phase change microcapsules was prepared by in- situ po?lymerization method. The morphologies, particle size distribution, chemical composition, thermal and compres?sive properties of resulted microcapsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser parti?cle size analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and compression ma?chine, respectively. It was found that the mean particle size of microcapsules was about 1.232 μm. The sur?face of DA@PMMA microcapsules was smooth and compact. The range of phase change temperature of DA@PMMA microcapsules was 18.7~25 ℃. In addition, their phase change enthalpy was up to 92.3 J/g and the encapsulation efficiency was 84.7%. DA@PMMA microcapsules had good resistance to pressure, which was suitable to prepare thermo- regulating fibre.%基于正十二醇(DA)相变温度(约22℃)处于人体最佳舒适温度18~28℃范围内,采用DA为相变芯材,聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)为包封壁材,通过原位聚合法制备蓄热调温纺织品纤维用DA@PMMA相变微胶囊,并对相变微胶囊的形貌、粒径分布、热性能及抗压性进行表征.结果表明:DA@PMMA相变微胶囊粒径分布集中于1.232μm附近;壁材表面光滑致密;相变温度为18.7~25℃,热焓值为92.3 J/g,芯材包封率为84.7%,且具有较好的抗压性;可用于制备蓄热调温纺织品纤维.

  7. Investigation on polyethylene-supported and nano-SiO2 doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) based gel polymer electrolyte for high voltage lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Huili; Liao, Youhao; Sun, Ping; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based GPE was developed for high voltage lithium ion battery. • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE has uniform and interconnected pore structure. • The GPE exhibits improved ionic conductivity and compatibility with electrodes. • 5 V battery using the GPE presents excellent cyclic stability. - Abstract: Nano-SiO 2 as dopant was used for preparing polyethylene-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (P(MMA-co-BA)/PE) based membrane and corresponding gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is applied to improve the cyclic stability of high voltage lithium ion battery. P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based membranes and corresponding GPEs were characterized with scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mechanical test, thermogravimetric analysis, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the GPE with 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 shows the best performance. Compared to the undoped membrane, the 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 doped membrane has a better pore structure and higher electrolyte uptake, leading to the enhancement in ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE from 1.23 × 10 −3 to 2.26 × 10 −3 S.cm −1 at room temperature. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the doped membrane is increased from 300 to 320 °C while its decomposition potential of GPE is from 5.0 to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li + ). The cyclic stability of Li/GPE/Li(Li 0.13 Ni 0.30 Mn 0.57 )O 2 cell at the high voltage range of 3.5 V ∼ 5.0 V is consequently improved, the capacity retention of the cell using the doped membrane is 92.8% after 50 cycles while only 88.9% for the cell using undoped membrane and 66.9% for the cell using liquid electrolyte

  8. Research of Polylactic Acid Modiifed by Polymethyl Acrylate-Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer%聚丙烯酸甲酯-甲基丙烯酸甲酯共聚物改性聚乳酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏桂仙; 李光辉; 和芹; 李德玲

    2015-01-01

    为了提高聚乳酸(PLA)的韧性,采用聚丙烯酸甲酯-甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMA-MMA)对PLA进行共混改性。采用悬浮聚合法,以丙烯酸甲酯(MA)、甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)为共聚单体,制备珠粒状的PMA-MMA共聚物。通过熔融共混法,分别以PMA-MMA共聚物为增韧剂,聚乙二醇为增塑剂,聚乙烯蜡为润滑剂,对PLA进行改性,对改性后的PLA复合材料的热性能和力学性能进行研究。结果表明,随着PMA-MMA共聚物用量的增加,PLA复合材料的拉伸强度呈先增大后减小的趋势,而断裂伸长率和冲击强度不断增大。当PMA-MMA共聚物用量为15份时, PLA复合材料的拉伸强度达到最大值,为52.2 MPa;当PMA-MMA共聚物用量为25份时,PLA复合材料冲击强度为53.26 kJ/m2,是纯PLA的4.4倍,断裂伸长率为54.9%。PMA-MMA共聚物与PLA的相容性好,有明显的增韧作用。PMA-MMA共聚物的加入并未降低PLA复合材料的热性能。%In order to improve the toughness of poly(lactic acid)(PLA),polymethyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate(PMA-MMA) copolymer was used to mix with PLA. Methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate(MMA) were used as the monomers for the preparation of PMA-MMA copolymer by means of suspention polymerization. PLA and PMA-MMA copolymer were melt-blended with polyethylene glycol(PEG) as a plasticizer and polyethylene as a lubricant. The modified PLA composites were studied by means of heat resistance and mechanical properties. The results show that with the increase of PMA-MMA copolymer content, the elongation at break and impact strength of the composites are improved,and its tensile strength increases first and then decreases. While the content of PMA-MMA copolymer is 15 phr,the tensile strength of the composite has the best tensile strength of 52.2 MPa. While the content of PMA-MMA copolymer is 25 phr,the impact strength of the composite is 53.26 kJ/m2,which is the 4.4 times of the pure PLA

  9. polyvinylchloride and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    The current was measured by applying d.c. voltage in the range 25–800 V at various ... Chloro group in PVC acts as an electron-withdrawing group, which pulls ... Nature of the graph ln(σ) vs √(E) indicates that the lines are almost parallel to E.

  10. The thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA G. POPOVIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-oxidative thermal degradation of poly(iso-butyl methacrylate and poly(sec-butyl methacrylate was investigated by studying changes in the polymer residue. Due to the different number of b-hydrogens in their ester substituents, these two polymeric isomers behave differently when subjected to elevated temperatures. Poly(iso-butyl methacrylate degrades quantitatively by depolymerisation with zip lengths of the same order of magnitude as those of poly(methyl methacrylate. Poly(sec-butyl methacrylate degrades by a combined degradation mechanism of depolymerisation and de-esterification. De-esterification becomes a significant thermolysis route at temperatures higher than 240°C.

  11. Multi-channel software defined radio experimental evaluation and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel software-defined radios (SDRs) can be utilised as inexpensive prototyping platforms for transceiver arrays. The application for multi-channel prototyping is discussed and measured results of coherent channels for both receiver...

  12. Modelling customer behaviour in multi-channel service distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinhuis, D.; de Vries, E.J.; Kundisch, D.; Veit, D.J.; Weitzel, T.; Weinhardt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Financial service providers are innovating their distribution strategy into multi-channel strategies. The success of a multi-channel approach and the high investments made in information systems and enterprise architectures depends on the adoption and multi-channel usage behaviour of consumers. We

  13. Marine bacterial prodigiosin as dye for rubber latex, polymethyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prodigiosin is known for its immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antimycotic, antimalarial, algicidal and anticancer activities. Here, we reported the evaluation of prodigiosin pigment as a dyeing agent in rubber latex, paper and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) so that it can be considered as an alternative to synthetic pigments.

  14. A multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.; Zane, R.

    1973-01-01

    We describe a new multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer system, presently being installed at Mees Solar Observatory, Mount Haleakala, Maui. The apparatus is designed to record and interpret intensities from many sections of the visible and near-visible spectral regions simultaneously, with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The detector, a thermoelectrically cooled silicon vidicon camera tube, has its central target area divided into a rectangular array of about 100,000 pixels and is read out in a slow-scan (about 2 sec/frame) mode. Instrument functioning is entirely under PDP 11/45 computer control, and interfacing is via the CAMAC system.

  15. A low power Multi-Channel Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.A.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1993-06-01

    The instrumentation used in nuclear spectroscopy is generally large, is not portable, and requires a lot of power. Key components of these counting systems are the computer and the Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA). To assist in performing measurements requiring portable systems, a small, very low power MCA has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This MCA is interfaced with a Hewlett Packard palm top computer for portable applications. The MCA can also be connected to an IBM/PC for data storage and analysis. In addition, a real-time time display mode allows the user to view the spectra as they are collected

  16. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping

    2016-05-18

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  17. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  18. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping; Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  19. Skyrmion-based multi-channel racetrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengkun; Jin, Chendong; Wang, Jinshuai; Xia, Haiyan; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are promising for the application of racetrack memories, logic gates, and other nano-devices, owing to their topologically protected stability, small size, and low driving current. In this work, we propose a skyrmion-based multi-channel racetrack memory where the skyrmion moves in the selected channel by applying voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy gates. It is demonstrated numerically that a current-dependent skyrmion Hall effect can be restrained by the additional potential of the voltage-controlled region, and the skyrmion velocity and moving channel in the racetrack can be operated by tuning the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy, gate position, and current density. Our results offer a potential application of racetrack memory based on skyrmions.

  20. Multi-channel data acquisition system for CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fuqiang; He Bin; Liu Guohua; Xu Minjian

    2009-01-01

    The architecture design and realization of a data acquisition system for multi-channel CT is described. The article introduces the conversion of analog signal to digital signal, the data cache and transmission. This data acquisition system can be widely used in the system which requires the multi-channel, weak current signal detection. (authors)

  1. Computer-based multi-channel analyzer based on internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinzhi; Ning Jiaoxian

    2001-01-01

    Combined the technology of Internet with computer-based multi-channel analyzer, a new kind of computer-based multi-channel analyzer system which is based on browser is presented. Its framework and principle as well as its implementation are discussed

  2. Multi-channel mechanical test machine for HANARO (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.

    2004-01-01

    Design and fabrication of multi-channel mechanical test machine is useful and important for the study of in-pile test of nuclear materials in HANARO. The dimension and shape of the multi-channel mechanical test machine should be fixed to a test reactor and their objectives. KAERI successfully developed a non-instrumented multi-channel mechanical test machine for material irradiation tests in a domestic research reactor, HANARO. This results in strongly stimulating and accelerating irradiation tests of materials in domestic industry and research fields with HANARO. Although various types of in-pile creep capsule were made for well installation in each test reactor, there is no in-pile creep multi-channel mechanical test machine for HANARO. Hence, the objectives of this study are to fabricate and test a multi-channel mechanical test machine of HANARO

  3. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingnan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved.

  4. Multi-channel phase-equivalent transformation and supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Shirokov, A. M.; Sidorenko, V. N.

    2000-01-01

    Phase-equivalent transformation of local interaction is generalized to the multi-channel case. Generally, the transformation does not change the number of the bound states in the system and their energies. However, with a special choice of the parameters, the transformation removes one of the bound states and is equivalent to the multi-channel supersymmetry transformation recently suggested by Sparenberg and Baye. Using the transformation, it is also possible to add a bound state to the discr...

  5. Essays on Online and Multi-Channel Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Firms increasingly adopt online and multi-channel marketing strategies to reach and persuade consumers. Therefore, designing an effective marketing mix is critical to their success. The aim of my dissertation is to understand the strategy behind firms’ channel choices and assess marketing effectiveness. It consists of three large-scale empirical studies examining several important aspects of online and multi-channel marketing. My first essay focuses on the business-to-business (B2B) inte...

  6. NMR measurement of identical polymer samples by round robin method. 4. Analysis of composition and monomer sequence distribution in poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) leading to determinations of monomer reactivity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Koichi; Kitayama, Tatsuki; Terawaki, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of NMR measurement of polymers, 1 H and 13 C NMR data for three copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) prepared with AIBN were collected from 46 spectrometers whose resonance frequencies for 1 H NMR measurements ranging from 90 to 500 MHz. 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were measured in nitrobenzene-d 5 at 110degC and acetonitrile-d 3 at 70degC, respectively. Standard deviations (σ's) for chemical shift measurements of the 1 H and 13 C NMR signals were 0.003-0.008 ppm and 0.03-0.05 ppm, respectively. Compositions of the copolymers were determined from the relative intensities of the signals due to the OCH 3 (MMA) and CH (AN) protons, and the σ values for the determinations were 3.7-9.5%. The compositions determined from 13 C NMR (C = O for MMA unit, CN for AN unit) agreed well with those obtained from 1 H NMR. Monomer reactivity ratios r ij (i,j = 1 or 2) for a penultimate model were determined from monomer feed ratios and triad fractions obtained from the C = O (MMA) and CH (AN) carbon signals. Most of the σ values for r ij determinations were 5-14%. While r 22 and r 12 are nearly equivalent, r 11 and r 21 are significantly different from each other, indicating a possible existence of the penultimate-unit effect in the copolymerization of MMA and AN. Terminal model reactivity ratios, r 1 and r 2 , determined formally from the compositions of three samples by Fineman-Ross method showed large σ values (22-24%). (author)

  7. Separação de fases induzida por meio de reação química no sistema éter diglicidílico do bisfenol A e piperidina com poli(metacrilato de metila Phase separation induced by chemical reaction in the system of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and piperidine with poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento da separação de fases e da gelificação do sistema epoxídico, constituído pelo éter diglicidílico do bisfenol A (DGEBA e a piperidina, modificado com poli(metacrilato de metila (PMMA, foi estudado na faixa de temperatura de 60 °C - 120 °C. A concentração de PMMA e a temperatura de cura causam mudanças significativas na morfologia gerada. A massa molecular de PMMA provoca ligeiras mudanças para a observação da separação de fases e não afeta a velocidade da reação. O sistema modificado com PMMA mostra o efeito de retardação cinético e a velocidade de separação de fases é maior que a velocidade de polimerização.The phase separation and gelification behavior of epoxy system based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA and piperidine modified with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA were studied in the range between 60 °C and 120 °C. The morphology is influenced by the PMMA content in the blend and also by the cure temperature. The molecular weight of PMMA provokes slight changes on cloud point and does not affect the reaction rate. The systems modified by PMMA exhibited kinetic retardation effect but the cloud point rate was higher than the polymerization rate.

  8. Compósitos Bioativos Obtidos a Partir da Inserção de Vidro Bioativo em Matriz de Poli(Metacrilato de Metila Bioactive Composites Obtained from Bioactive Glass Particles into Poly(Methyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. Silva Junior

    2001-09-01

    materials in a wider range of applications. The goal of this research is to synthesize and characterize polymer matrices reinforced with bioactive glass particles that potentially can combine ability to bond to tissues (bioactivity, with mechanical properties comparable to damage tissues. The composites were produced by bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of bioactive glass particles and an initiator at 60ºC. Bioactive glass particles were added to the monomer in several concentrations to modify the mechanical properties and bioactivity of the composites. The bioactivity of the materials was evaluated by in vitro tests performed at 37ºC in a simulated body fluid for periods of time ranging from 1 hour to 30 days. The composites submitted to in vitro tests were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed the deposition of a hidroxy-carbonate-apatite layer on the surface of the composites, confirming their bioactivity. It was also observed that the fraction of the bioactive phase in the composites can be used to control the overall kinetics of the bioactivity process.

  9. The Buywell Way: seven essential practices of a highly successful multi-channel e-tailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Tate

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available After the dot-com bust there is considerable evidence that multi-channel retailers are more successful than purely on-line retailers. Multi-channel retailing is becoming mainstream and considerable research exists on successful multi-channel strategies. Despite this, some organisations are having more success than others with their multi-channel approach. We talked to the management of one of Australasia’s most successful multi-channel apparel and home-ware retailers about the theory and practice of multi-channel retailing, with the aim of building on existing theory in multi-channel e-commerce.

  10. Research on digital multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuyun; Wei Yixiang; Ai Xianyun; Ao Qi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques are developing in the direction of digitalization. Based on digital signal processing techniques, digital multi-channel analyzers are characterized by powerful pulse processing ability, high throughput, improved stability and flexibility. This paper analyzes key techniques of digital nuclear pulse processing. With MATLAB software, main algorithms are simulated, such as trapezoidal shaping, digital baseline estimation, digital pole-zero/zero-pole compensation, poles and zeros identification. The preliminary general scheme of digital MCA is discussed, as well as some other important techniques about its engineering design. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade digital nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  11. Multi-channel electronically scanned cryogenic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Kruse, Nancy M. H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature, multi-channel, electronically scanned pressure measuring device uses electrostatically bonded silicon dies in a multielement array. These dies are bonded at specific sites on a glass, prepatterned substrate. Thermal data is multiplexed and recorded on each individual pressure measuring diaphragm. The device functions in a cryogenic environment without the need of heaters to keep the sensor at constant temperatures.

  12. Online purchase intentions: A multi-channel store image perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; van Dolen, W.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of the bricks-and-clicks retail format in the battle for the online customer has been widely discussed but empirical research on it has been limited. We applied a multi-channel store image perspective to assess its influence on online purchase intentions. Drawing on a sample of 630

  13. A high-speed interface for multi-channel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Zheng Zhong; Qiao Chong; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Ye Zhenyu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a high-speed computer interface for multi-channel analyzer based on DMA technique. Its essential principle and operating procedure are introduced. By the detecting of γ spectrum of 137 Cs with the interface, it's proved that the interface can meet the requirements of high-speed data acquisition

  14. Dense Clustered Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Sivakumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dense Wireless Sensor Network Clouds have an inherent issue of latency and packet drops with regards to data collection. Though there is extensive literature that tries to address these issues through either scheduling, channel contention or a combination of the two, the problem still largely exists. In this paper, a Clustered Multi-Channel Scheduling Protocol (CMSP is designed that creates a Voronoi partition of a dense network. Each partition is assigned a channel, and a scheduling scheme is adopted to collect data within the Voronoi partitions. This scheme collects data from the partitions concurrently and then passes it to the base station. CMSP is compared using simulation with other multi-channel protocols like Tree-based Multi-Channel, Multi-Channel MAC and Multi-frequency Media Access Control for wireless sensor networks. Results indicate CMSP has higher throughput and data delivery ratio at a lower power consumption due to network partitioning and hierarchical scheduling that minimizes load on the network.

  15. Salt Intrusion, Tides and Mixing in Multi-channel Estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel estuaries, such as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Scheldt in the Netherlands, have characteristics of both the river and the sea, forming a unique environment influenced by tidal movements of the sea and freshwater flow of the river. This study addresses a number of knowledge gaps

  16. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  17. [Multi-channel cochlear implants in patients with Mondini malformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-xin; Han, De-min; Zhao, Xiao-tian; Chen, Xue-qing; Kong, Ying; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Bo; Liu, Sha; Mo, Ling-yan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Shuo

    2004-02-01

    To describe clinical experiences with multi-channel cochlear implantation in patients with Mondini malformation. Among 300 patients who received multi-channel cochlear implants from 1996 to 2002 in Beijing Tongren Hospital, 15 patients were diagnosed with Mondini malformation. A retrospective analysis was performed dealing with the surgical techniques, mapping and rehabilitations characteristics after surgery. 15 patients with normal cochlear structure are consider as control group. Gusher is found more common than the normal cochlear implantation, most of them are serious. The electrodes are inserted in the "cochleostomy" in full length of 13 Patients, 2 pairs of electrodes remains outside of "cochleostomy" in 2 patients. No serious complications occurred after implantation. All patients have auditory sensations. The impedance of the electrodes, the T level, C level and the hearing threshold are similar with the normal cochlear implantation group. The results have no significant difference in compare with normal cochlear group(P > 0.05). Multi-channel cochlear implantation could be performed safely in patients with Mondini malformation. The primary outcome for patients with Mondini malformation are similar to those with normal cochlear structure following the multi-channel cochlear implantation.

  18. The Art of Multi-channel Hypermedia Application Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synodinos, Dionysios G.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2003-01-01

    The plethora of networked devices and platforms that continuously come to light, as well as the emergence of alternative ways to access the internet, have increased the demand for multi-channel access to hypermedia applications. Researchers and practitioners nowadays not only have to deal with the

  19. Recent advances in Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataglidis, S.; Fraser, P. R.; Amos, K.; Canton, L.; Pisent, G.; Svenne, J. P.; Knijff, D. van der

    2011-01-01

    For coupled-channel descriptions of low-energy nucleon-induced interactions involving nuclei with particle-unstable exited states, it is necessary to include the widths of the target states. How those widths may affect the elastic scattering cross sections is examined within the framework of the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) method.

  20. Multi-channel service concept design and prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperling, C.P.; Simons, L.P.A.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Designing e-services which have to function in a multi-channel context has proved to be challenging for organizations. Previous research has shown that structured design methods are useful to structure the design process. In this paper we proceed from an existing method (which identifies

  1. Ion-induced redistribution of palladium in polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Mueller, M.; Nakao, Y.; Hirata, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Behar, M.; Kaschny, J.R.; Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.

    2000-01-01

    Pd atoms are released into PMMA by thermal decomposition of a suitable organometallic compound dissolved in the polymer beforehand. These atoms eventually precipitate in ion-irradiated polymer regions. After Ar + ion implantation, metallic enrichment by up to a factor 4.5 in concentration could be achieved. We tend to attribute this Pd enrichment to gettering at the Ar gas bubbles

  2. Dynamic void behavior in polymerizing polymethyl methacrylate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Scott D; McCaskie, Andrew W

    2006-02-01

    Cement mantle voids remain controversial with respect to survival of total hip arthroplasty. Void evolution is poorly understood, and attempts at void manipulation can only be empirical. We induced voids in a cement model simulating the constraints of the proximal femur. Intravoid pressure and temperature were recorded throughout polymerization, and the initial and final void volumes were measured. Temperature-dependent peak intravoid pressures and void volume increases were observed. After solidification, subatmospheric intravoid pressures were observed. The magnitude of these observations could not be explained by the ideal gas law. Partial pressures of the void gas at peak pressures demonstrated a dominant effect of gaseous monomer, thereby suggesting that void growth is a pressure-driven phenomenon resulting from temperature-dependent evaporation of monomer into existing trapped air voids.

  3. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.

  4. Multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limodehi, Hamid E.; Mozafari, Morteza; Amiri, Hesam; Légaré, François

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we introduce a multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor which works using a novel method based on relation between surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and water vapor condensation. The proposed sensor can instantly detect moisture or dew formation through its fiber optic channels, separately situated in different places. It enables to simultaneously measure the ambient Relative Humidity (RH) and dew point temperature of several environments with accuracy of 5%.

  5. Mimicking multi-channel scattering with single-channel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkevich, Sergey; Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Vanne, Yulian V.; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The collision of two atoms is an intrinsic multi-channel (MC) problem as becomes especially obvious in the presence of Feshbach resonances. Due to its complexity, however, single-channel (SC) approximations, which reproduce the long-range behavior of the open channel, are often applied in calculations. In this work the complete MC problem is solved numerically for the magnetic Feshbach resonances (MFRs) in collisions between generic ultracold 6Li and 87Rb atoms in the ground state and in the ...

  6. Multi-channel imaging cytometry with a single detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locknar, Sarah; Barton, John; Entwistle, Mark; Carver, Gary; Johnson, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Multi-channel microscopy and multi-channel flow cytometry generate high bit data streams. Multiple channels (both spectral and spatial) are important in diagnosing diseased tissue and identifying individual cells. Omega Optical has developed techniques for mapping multiple channels into the time domain for detection by a single high gain, high bandwidth detector. This approach is based on pulsed laser excitation and a serial array of optical fibers coated with spectral reflectors such that up to 15 wavelength bins are sequentially detected by a single-element detector within 2.5 μs. Our multichannel microscopy system uses firmware running on dedicated DSP and FPGA chips to synchronize the laser, scanning mirrors, and sampling clock. The signals are digitized by an NI board into 14 bits at 60MHz - allowing for 232 by 174 pixel fields in up to 15 channels with 10x over sampling. Our multi-channel imaging cytometry design adds channels for forward scattering and back scattering to the fluorescence spectral channels. All channels are detected within the 2.5 μs - which is compatible with fast cytometry. Going forward, we plan to digitize at 16 bits with an A-toD chip attached to a custom board. Processing these digital signals in custom firmware would allow an on-board graphics processing unit to display imaging flow cytometry data over configurable scanning line lengths. The scatter channels can be used to trigger data buffering when a cell is present in the beam. This approach enables a low cost mechanically robust imaging cytometer.

  7. Coordinating Multi-Channel Pricing of Seasonal Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Preetam Basu

    2012-01-01

    Advancement in information technology has opened new avenues for traditional retailers to expand their operations. Pricing, which has been a critical issue, is more important than ever before as traditional retailers pursue multi-channel sales. In this paper the author studies the pricing problem of a retailer selling a seasonal product simultaneously in a ‘brick and mortar’ store as well as online. Optimal prices are derived and different product-market conditions are determined under wh...

  8. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, F; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  9. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  10. Empirical Study on Multi-Channel Service Quality and Customer Loyalty of Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Yong-zhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of offline RSSQ (retailing store service quality), online store ESQ (E-service quality) and O2O MCISQ (multi-channel integration service quality) on traditional retailers' customer loyalty as well as the relation of them three in multi-channel retailing. 380 customers with both offline and online shopping experience at the same retailer's store are investigated. Through the structural equation model, we find out that in multi-channel retailing, RSSQ and MCISQ ...

  11. Multi-channel grouping techniques for conducting reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    In conducting safety studies for postulated unprotected accidents in an LMFBR system, it is common practice to employ multi-channel coupled neutronics, thermal hydraulics computer programs such as SAS3A or MELT-III. The multichannel feature of such code systems is important if the natural fuel failure incoherencies and the resulting sodium void/fuel motion reactivity feedbacks--which have strong spatial variations--are to be properly modeled. Because of the large amounts of computer time associated with many channel runs, however, there is a strong incentive to conduct parametric studies with as few channels as possible. The paper presented is focused on methods successfully employed to accomplish this end for a study of the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident conducted for the FFTF

  12. Multi-channel bolometer system on JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hiroshi; Maeno, Masaki; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Matoba, Tohru

    1988-07-01

    Multi-channel bolometer system is designed and installed to observe the radiation profile on JFT-2M tokamak. Sensor head is made of Thinistor, which is a kind of semiconductor, because it has the advantage of higher sensitivity of about one order of magnitude than the conventional metal foil bolometer and is suitable for the profile measurement in which the signal from the plasma is relatively small. The response and cooling characteristics of the bolometer sensor are suitable for the condition of JFT-2M tokamak plasma. Low noise circuit of bridge and differentiator is developed to optimize the signal to noise ratio in the JFT-2M operating condition. With use of the bolometer system, the radiation profile in joule heating plasma as well as additional heating plasma especially in H-mode plasma is successfully observed. (author)

  13. Multi-channel unidirectional transmission of phononic crystal heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen

    2018-02-01

    Two square steel columns are arranged in air to form two-dimensional square lattice phononic crystals (PNCs). Two PNCs can be combined into a non-orthogonal 45∘ heterojunction when the difference in the directional band gaps of the two PNC types is utilized. The finite element method is used to calculate the acoustic band structure, the heterogeneous junction transmission characteristics, acoustic field distribution, and many others. Results show that a non-orthogonal PNC heterojunction can produce a multi-channel unidirectional transmission of acoustic waves. With the square scatterer rotated, the heterojunction can select a frequency band for unidirectional transmission performance. This capability is particularly useful for constructing acoustic diodes with wide-bands and high-efficiency unidirectional transmission characteristics.

  14. New ultra small battery operated portable multi-channel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    A newly designed portable multi-channel analyzer (MCA) has been developd at Los Alamos that has much improved physical and performance characteristics over previous designs. Namely, the instrument is very compact (25 cm wide x 14 cm deep x 21 cm high) and has a mass of 4.2 Kg (9.2 lb). The device has 1024 channels and is microprocessor controlled. The instrument has most of the standard features of present laboratory-based pulse height analyzers, including CRT display, region of interest integration, etc. Battery life of the MCA is nearly eight hours, with full charging over night. An accessory case carries a small audio cassette recorder for data storage. The case also contains two different NaI(Tl) detectors

  15. Miniaturized multi channel infrared optical gas sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Eberhardt, Andre; Rademacher, Sven; Schmitt, Katrin

    2011-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy uses the characteristic absorption of the molecules in the mid infrared and allows the determination of the gases and their concentration. Especially by the absorption at longer wavelengths between 8 μm and 12 μm, the so called "fingerprint" region, the molecules can be measured with highest selectivity. We present an infrared optical filter photometer for the analytical determination of trace gases in the air. The challenge in developing the filter photometer was the construction of a multi-channel system using a novel filter wheel concept - which acts as a chopper too- in order to measure simultaneously four gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. The system consists of a broadband infrared emitter, a long path cell with 1.7m optical path length, a filter wheel and analogue and digital signal processing. Multi channel filter photometers normally need one filter and one detector per target gas. There are small detection units with one, two or more detectors with integrated filters available on the market. One filter is normally used as reference at a wavelength without any cross-sensitivities to possible interfering gases (e.g. at 3.95 μm is an "atmospheric window" - a small spectral band without absorbing gases in the atmosphere). The advantage of a filter-wheel set-up is that a single IR-detector can be used, which reduces the signal drift enormously. Pyroelectric and thermopile detectors are often integrated in these kinds of spectrometers. For both detector types a modulation of the light is required and can be done - without an additional chopper - with the filter wheel.

  16. Determination of optimum "multi-channel surface wave method" field parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Multi-channel surface wave methods (especially the multi-channel analyses of surface wave method; MASW) are routinely used to : determine the shear-wave velocity of the subsurface to depths of 100 feet for site classification purposes. Users are awar...

  17. Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Cheng, F. Mr; Xu, Z.; Wang, L.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Mi, B.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend in modernization of human society. In the end of 2013 the Chinese Central Government launched a national urbanization plan—"Three 100 Million People", which aggressively and steadily pushes forward urbanization. Based on the plan, by 2020, approximately 100 million people from rural areas will permanently settle in towns, dwelling conditions of about 100 million people in towns and villages will be improved, and about 100 million people in the central and western China will permanently settle in towns. China's urbanization process will run at the highest speed in the urbanization history of China. Environmentally friendly, non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical assessment method has played an important role in the urbanization process in China. Because human noise and electromagnetic field due to industrial life, geophysical methods already used in urban environments (gravity, magnetics, electricity, seismic) face great challenges. But humanity activity provides an effective source of passive seismic methods. Claerbout pointed out that wavefileds that are received at one point with excitation at the other point can be reconstructed by calculating the cross-correlation of noise records at two surface points. Based on this idea (cross-correlation of two noise records) and the virtual source method, we proposed Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS). MAPS mainly uses traffic noise recorded with a linear receiver array. Because Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves can produces a shear (S) wave velocity model with high resolution in shallow part of the model, MPAS combines acquisition and processing of active source and passive source data in a same flow, which does not require to distinguish them. MAPS is also of ability of real-time quality control of noise recording that is important for near-surface applications in urban environment. The numerical and real-world examples demonstrated that MAPS can be

  18. Microcontroller based multi-channel ultrasonic level monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambastha, K.P.; Chaudhari, Y.V.; Singh, Inder Jeet; Chadda, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Microcontroller based Multi-channel Ultrasonic Level Monitoring System developed by Computer Division is based on echo ranging techniques to monitor level. The transmitter directs an ultrasonic burst towards the liquid, which gets reflected from the top of the liquid surface. The time taken for ultrasound to travel from the transmitter to the top of liquid surface is measured and used to calculate the liquid level. The system provides for temperature compensation for accurate measurement as the ultrasound velocity depends on the ambient temperature. It can measure liquid level up to 5 meters. A single monitor can be used to measure level in 6 tanks. PC connectivity has been provided via RS 232 and RS 485 for remote operation and data logging of level. A GUI program developed using LABVIEW package displays level on PC monitor. The program provides for pictorial as well as numerical display for level and temperature in the front panel on the PC monitor. A user can monitor level for any or all tanks from the PC. One unit is installed at CIRUS for measuring level in Acid/ Alkali tanks and one is installed at APSARA for measuring water level in the reactor pool. (author)

  19. Dynamic multi-channel TMS with reconfigurable coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruoli; Jansen, Ben H; Sheth, Bhavin R; Chen, Ji

    2013-05-01

    Investigations of the causal involvement of particular brain areas and interconnections in behavior require an external stimulation system with reasonable spatio-temporal resolution. Current transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology is limited to stimulating a single brain area once in a given trial. Here, we present a feasibility study for a novel TMS system based on multi-channel reconfigurable coils. With this hardware, researchers will be able to stimulate multiple brain sites in any temporal order in a trial. The system employs a wire-mesh coil, constructed using x- and y-directional wires. By varying the current direction and/or strength on each wire, we can configure the proposed mesh-wire coil into a standard loop coil and figure-eight coil of varying size. This provides maximum flexibility to the experimenter in that the location and extent of stimulation on the brain surface can be modified depending on experimental requirement. Moreover, one can dynamically and automatically modify the site(s) of stimulation several times within the span of seconds. By pre-storing various sequences of excitation patterns inside a control unit, one can explore the effect of dynamic TMS on behavior, in associative learning, and as rehabilitative therapy. Here, we present a computer simulation and bench experiments that show the feasibility of the dynamically-reconfigurable coil.

  20. A multi-channel AC power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hong; Li Xiaogang; Ma Xiaoli; Zhou Bo; Yin Weiwei

    2003-01-01

    A multi-channel ac power supply controller developed recently by authors is introduced briefly in this paper. This controller is a computer controlled multi-electronic-switch device. This controller was developed for the automatic control and monitoring system of a 220 V ac power supply system, it is a key front-end device of the automatic control and monitoring system. There is an electronic switch in each channel, the rated load power is ≤1 kW/each channel. Another function is to sample the 220 V ac output voltage so that computer can monitor the operation state of each electronic switch. Through these switches, the 220 V ac power supply is applied to some device or apparatus that need to be powered by 220 V ac power supply. In the design, a solid-state relay was employed as an electronic switch. This controller can be connected in cascade mode. There are 8 boxes at most can be connected in cascade mode. The length of control word is 8 bit, which contains addressing information and electronic switch state setting information. The sampling output of the controller is multiplexed. It is only one bit that indicates the operating state of an electronic switch. This controller has been used in an automatic control and monitoring system for 220 V ac power supply system

  1. A multi-channel stakeholder consultation process for transmission deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Robin; Fischhoff, Baruch; Thorne, Sarah; Butte, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Deregulating Ontario's energy market required designing a rate structure for transmission costs that previously had been bundled with other electricity services. The Ontario Hydro Networks Company (now called Hydro One Networks, or 'Hydro One') owns and operates the transmission lines. It sought input from a full spectrum of stakeholders in preparing a proposed rate structure for submission to the regulator, the Ontario Energy Board (OEB). Securing that input meant accommodating great differences in stakeholders' familiarity with the (often highly technical) issues of rate setting. Hydro One drew on recent developments in stakeholder processes, integrated assessment, and risk communication to create a multi-channel process for eliciting and responding to stakeholder input. That process included (a) detailed background documents, (b) dedicated briefings and workshops, (c) mental models interviews, (d) focused meetings, and (e) mail (and email) boxes. The process was coordinated with a formal expert model, summarizing the factors determining the multiple impacts of the rate structure and the regulatory process producing it. The model analyzed these impacts, structured communications, and organized inputs, in a comprehensive and coherent way. This process facilitated developing proposals that were both technically sound and widely accepted by stakeholders, including the OEB. The case study provides a model for addressing other problems requiring stakeholder input on complex technical issues. It contrasts with other consultative processes with a less formal structure for eliciting concerns, less ability to encourage learning, and greater emphasis on achieving consensus

  2. Multi-Channel Data Recording of Marx switch closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Ziska, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the optical signals associated with switch closure on the Demon marx at Sandia National Laboratories. Using the High Speed Multi-Channel Data Recorder(HSMCDR), they have recorded the time histories of the optical signals from the thirty switches in the marx generator. All thirty switches were fiber connected to the HSMCDR. The HSMCDR consists of a high speed streak camera, and a microcomputer-based video digitizing system. Since the thirty signals are recorded on a single streak, the time sequence can be determined with great accuracy. The appearance of a given signal can be determined to within two samples of the 256 samples that make up the time streak. The authors have found that the light intensity and time history of any given switch varied over a large range from shot to shot. Thus, the ability to record the entire optical signal as a function of time for each switch on every shot is necessary if accurate timing results are required

  3. Allylthioketone Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable TPPT radicals at the end of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA are detected in the polymerization of MMA using TPPT and AIBN as the control agent and initiator. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra are used to identify terminal groups of the resultant poly(glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA, and major component of the obtained polymer has the structure, (CH32(CNC-PGMA-C7H9O3. Chain extension reaction tests ascertain formation of the dead polymers during the polymer storage and purification process of the polymers. Owing to very slow fragmentation reaction of the TPPT-terminated polymethacrylate radical and addition reaction of this radical with a primary radical, the growing chain radicals are difficult to be regenerated, leading to an unobvious change of the molecular weight with monomer conversion. The molecular weights of polymers can be controlled by the ratios of monomer/initiator and TPPT/initiator. However, the first order kinetics of the polymerization and the polymers with narrow polydispersity are obtained, and these phenomena are discussed. This study provides useful information on how to design a better controlling agent.

  4. Use of trapezoidal shaping algorithm in the digital multi-channel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jihong; Wang Lianghou; Fang Zongliang

    2011-01-01

    It discusses one kind of digital filter technology-trapezoidal algorithm based on actual need of studying the digital multi-channel. Firstly, demonstrating the feasibility of the arithmetic with theoretical analysis; secondly, predigesting the process of the arithmetic; thirdly, simulating with MATLAB; lastly, using the arithmetic to measure data. The result of testing indicates trapezoidal shaping algorithm accords with the need of digital multi-channel shaping extraordinary. The best filter can be obtained by means of setting parameter due to superiority of digital multi-channel. (authors)

  5. Integrated multi-channel vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-roadside communications for ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This research describes a medium access control (MAC) protocol to Enable multi-channel operation for dedicated short-range communication (DSRC). In particular, we focus on the challenge of supporting potentially high-bandwidth commercial or infotainm...

  6. EDMC: An enhanced distributed multi-channel anti-collision algorithm for RFID reader system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YuJing; Cui, Yinghua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we proposes an enhanced distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments which is based on the distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments (called DiMCA). We proposes a monitor method to decide whether reader receive the latest control news after it selected the data channel. The simulation result shows that it improves interrogation delay.

  7. JADSPE, Multi-Channel Gamma Spectra Unfolding Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikovska, J.; Stejskalova, E.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: JADSPE is a package of eight programs to process multi-channel gamma-ray spectra. The programs can be used to: - locate automatically spectral peaks and calculate their positions, areas, and full widths at half maximum (FWHM); - plot the spectra on a CALCOMP plotter, TEKTRONIX terminal or a line printer; - add or subtract several spectra with the possibility of adjusting either their start and end channels or the maxima of the chosen corresponding peaks. The JADSPE package comprises the following programs: - SPECTF: automatic location of peaks and calculation of their positions, areas and FWHMS. The standard deviations of peak parameters are also determined, and each evaluated region is plotted on the line printer. - SPECT1: The areas and FWHMs are calculated for peaks whose positions are known beforehand. The standard deviations of calculated parameters are also determined, and each evaluated region is plotted on the line printer. - PLOCHA: The peak net area is calculated by summing the channel contents in specified regions and by subtracting a linear background. - GRAPH: Spectrum plotting on the line printer. - PLTNEW: Spectrum plotting on CALCOMP plotter or on TEKTRONIX terminal. - SUMDIF: The channel contents of several gamma-ray spectra are added or subtracted. - SSPFP: The channel contents of several gamma-ray spectra are added with adjustment of the maxima of specified peaks. - SOUCET: The channel contents of several gamma-ray spectra are added with the adjustment of start and end channels of the spectra. 2 - Method of solution: Non-linear least-square fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The full energy peaks are approximated by a symmetrical Gaussian function and the underlying background is approximated by a first-order polynomial. A fixed spectrum length of 4096 channels is assumed. Maxima of: - number of peaks in one multiplet: 9; - number of peaks identified by the automatic search procedure

  8. Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by -ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months

  9. Changes induced by gamma radiation in nanocomposites based on copper II and antimony sulfides in commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix; Alteracoes induzidas pela radiacao gama em nanocompositos a base dos sulfetos de cobre II e de antimonio na matriz de poli(metacrilato de metila) comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.C.C. de; Garcia, O.P.; Aquino, K.A.S.; Araujo, E.S., E-mail: esa@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2010-07-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a polymer with wide application in the manufacture of medical devices that is exposed to gamma irradiation. Currently the use of composite materials has been disseminated and PMMA is an excellent polymer matrix to package various materials. This study aimed to analyze the changes induced by gamma irradiation (25 kGy) on the properties of PMMA nanocomposites with nanoparticles of copper II sulfide (250nm-900nm) and antimony sulfite (300-500 nm). The nanoparticles were added to the polymer in different concentrations and synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from the corresponding chlorides with thioacetamide. Viscometric results showed a good radioprotective effect of nanoparticles of copper and antimony. It was found a good protection of nanoparticles on PMMA matrix in the concentration of 0.3% wt. The protections of 75% and 50% were calculated for nanoparticles of antimony and copper II, respectively. (author)

  10. Multi-channel motor evoked potential monitoring during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objectives: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF surgery is the most common surgical procedure for the cervical spine with low complication rate. Despite the potential prognostic benefit, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM, a method for detecting impending neurological compromise, is not routinely used in ACDF surgery. The present study aimed to identify the potential benefits of monitoring multi-channel motor evoked potentials (MEPs during ACDF surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive patients who received IONM with multi-channel MEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs. On average, 9.2 muscles per patient were evaluated under MEP monitoring. Results: The rate of MEP change during surgery in the multi-level ACDF group was significantly higher than the single-level group. Two patients from the single-level ACDF group (1.7% and four patients from the multi-level ACDF group (4.9% experienced post-operative motor deficits. Multi-channel MEPs monitoring during single and multi-level ACDF surgery demonstrated higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value than SSEP monitoring. Conclusions: Multi-channel MEP monitoring might be beneficial for the detection of segmental injury as well as long tract injury during single- and multi-level ACDF surgery. Significance: This is first large scale study to identify the usefulness of multi-channel MEPs in monitoring ACDF surgery. Keywords: Disc disease, Somatosensory evoked potentials, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor evoked potentials, Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

  11. The Time Division Multi-Channel Communication Model and the Correlative Protocol Based on Quantum Time Division Multi-Channel Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Hui; Pei Chang-Xing; Nie Min

    2010-01-01

    Based on the classical time division multi-channel communication theory, we present a scheme of quantum time-division multi-channel communication (QTDMC). Moreover, the model of quantum time division switch (QTDS) and correlative protocol of QTDMC are proposed. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) is analyzed and the QBER simulation test is performed. The scheme shows that the QTDS can carry out multi-user communication through quantum channel, the QBER can also reach the reliability requirement of communication, and the protocol of QTDMC has high practicability and transplantable. The scheme of QTDS may play an important role in the establishment of quantum communication in a large scale in the future. (general)

  12. Software filtering method to suppress spike pulse interference in multi-channel scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shun; Zhao Xiuliang; Li Zhiqiang; Zhao Yanhui

    2008-01-01

    In the test on anti-jamming function of a multi-channel scaler, we found that the spike pulse interference on the second level counter caused by the motor start-stop operations brings a major count error. There are resolvable characteristics between effective signal and spike pulse interference, and multi-channel hardware filtering circuit is too huge and can't filter thoroughly, therefore we designed a software filtering method. In this method based on C8051F020 MCU, we dynamically store sampling values of one channel in only a one-byte variable and distinguish the rise-trail edge of a signal and spike pulse interference because of value changes of the variable. Test showed that the filtering software method can solve the error counting problem of the multi-channel scaler caused by the motor start-stop operations. The flow chart and source codes of the method were detailed in this paper. (authors)

  13. A multi-channel isolated power supply in non-equipotential circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yan-Chi; Xie, Da

    2018-04-01

    A multi-channel isolation power supply is designed for the problems of different MOSFET or IGBT in the non-equipotential circuit in this paper. It mainly includes the square wave generation circuit, the high-frequency transformer and the three-terminal stabilized circuit. The first part is used to generate the 24V square wave, and as the input of the magnetic ring transformer. In the second part, the magnetic ring transformer consists of one input and three outputs to realize multi-channel isolation output. The third part can output different potential and realize non-equal potential function through the three-terminal stabilized chip. In addition, the multi-channel isolation power source proposed in this paper is Small size, high reliability and low price, and it is convenient for power electronic switches that operate on multiple different potentials. Therefore, the research on power supply of power electronic circuit has practical significance.

  14. Multi-channel distributed coordinated function over single radio in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carlene E-A; Loo, Kok-Keong Jonathan; Gemikonakli, Orhan; Khan, Shafiullah; Singh, Dhananjay

    2011-01-01

    Multi-channel assignments are becoming the solution of choice to improve performance in single radio for wireless networks. Multi-channel allows wireless networks to assign different channels to different nodes in real-time transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach, Multi-channel Distributed Coordinated Function (MC-DCF) which takes advantage of multi-channel assignment. The backoff algorithm of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) was modified to invoke channel switching, based on threshold criteria in order to improve the overall throughput for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) over 802.11 networks. We presented simulation experiments in order to investigate the characteristics of multi-channel communication in wireless sensor networks using an NS2 platform. Nodes only use a single radio and perform channel switching only after specified threshold is reached. Single radio can only work on one channel at any given time. All nodes initiate constant bit rate streams towards the receiving nodes. In this work, we studied the impact of non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 frequency band on: constant bit rate (CBR) streams, node density, source nodes sending data directly to sink and signal strength by varying distances between the sensor nodes and operating frequencies of the radios with different data rates. We showed that multi-channel enhancement using our proposed algorithm provides significant improvement in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay. This technique can be considered for WSNs future use in 802.11 networks especially when the IEEE 802.11n becomes popular thereby may prevent the 802.15.4 network from operating effectively in the 2.4 GHz frequency band.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Sulfides Nanoparticles/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibade, Peter A.; Mbese, Johannes Z.

    2014-01-01

    Metal sulfides nanoparticles in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices were prepared and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FTIR confirms the dispersion of the nanoparticles in PMMA matrices with the C=O and C–O–C bonds of the PMMA shifting slightly which may be attributed to the interactions between the nanoparticles and PMMA. The ZnS nanoparticles in PMM...

  16. Development of multi-channel gated integrator and PXI-DAQ system for nuclear detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jie; Su Hong; Chen Zhiqiang; Dong Chengfu; Qian Yi; Gao Shanshan; Zhou Chaoyang; Lu Wan; Ye Ruiping; Ma Junbing

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel gated integrator and PXI based data acquisition system have been developed for nuclear detector arrays with hundreds of detector units. The multi-channel gated integrator can be controlled by a programmable GI controller. The PXI-DAQ system consists of NI PXI-1033 chassis with several PXI-DAQ cards. The system software has a user-friendly GUI which is written in C language using LabWindows/CVI under Windows XP operating system. The performance of the PXI-DAQ system is very reliable and capable of handling event rate up to 40 kHz.

  17. A multi-channel humidity control system based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aiwu; Xie Yuguang; Liu Hongbang; Liu Yingbiao; Cai Xiao; Yu Boxiang; Lu Junguang; Zhou Li

    2011-01-01

    A real time multi-channel humidity control system was designed based on LabVIEW, using the dry air branch of BESⅢ drying system. The hardware of this control system consist of mini humidity and temperature sensors, intelligent collection module, switch quantity controller and electromagnetic valves. The humidity can be controlled at arbitrary value from air humidity to 3% with accuracy better than 2%. Multi microenvironment with different humidity can be easily controlled and monitored in real time by this system. It can also be extended to hybrid control of multi channel humidity and temperature. (authors)

  18. Multi-channel spintronic transistor design based on magnetoelectric barriers and spin-orbital effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G

    2008-01-01

    We present a spin transistor design based on spin-orbital interactions in a two-dimensional electron gas, with magnetic barriers induced by a patterned ferromagnetic gate. The proposed device overcomes certain shortcomings of previous spin transistor designs such as long device length and degradation of conductance modulation for multi-channel transport. The robustness of our device for multi-channel transport is unique in spin transistor designs based on spin-orbit coupling. The device is more practical in fabrication and experimental respects compared to previously conceived single-mode spin transistors

  19. The design and implementation of a PC based multi-channel scaler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin Dapeng; Liu Zhen'an; Zhao Dixin

    2007-01-01

    A multi-channel scaler system is designed for the system check and status monitoring of the BESIII trigger system. It is composed of a PC, two PCI interface multi-channel scaler cards, the corresponding drivers and user programs. Total 64 signals can be scaled and monitored in real time. The scaled data are recorded locally and some of them are distributed to the online system. In this paper, the hardware structure, software development and long time running stability of the system are introduced. (authors)

  20. The development of 128 ch fast multi channel pulse height analyzer for a tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hisato; Matoba, Tohru; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawakami, Tomohide

    1985-02-01

    A high counting rate multi channel pulse height analyzer was developed and tested to measure the detailed time evolution of X-ray energy spectrun radiated from a tokamak plasmas. Main developing objects of this analyzer are as follows. 1. The maximum counting rate and the minimum time resolution are 4 Mcps and 10 ms, respectively. 2. The energy resolution has ability to distinguish the characterisitic X-ray line. 3. Computer has to be used for operating system. This fast multi channel analyzer is using to measure the Soft X-ray spectrum on JFT-2M tokamak, and is confirmed to be useful for a practical measuring system. (author)

  1. New-fashioned Multi-channel Analyzer Based on Bipartition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingjian; Zhang Yan; Yan Xuekun; Chen Ying

    2009-01-01

    A new-fashioned digital-analog converter (DAC) which can find the pulse-signal amplitude through dichotomy is devised. With this new DAC method, a 256-channel multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer (MCA) is designed successfully, and its hardware and software are introduced in detail. This provides a new method for designing MCA. (authors)

  2. Personalized multi-channel headphone sound reproduction based on active noise cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schobben, D.W.E.; Aarts, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    A system for headphone signal processing is discussed which gives a listener the same impression as listening to a multi-channel loudspeaker set-up. It is important that this processing is optimized for each individual listener. If this is not the case, large localization errors may occur. In the

  3. Autonomous transmission power adaptation for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in WMNs. Previous studies have emphasized through- put maximization in such systems as the main design challenge and transmission power control treated as a secondary issue...

  4. Autonomous transmission power adaptation for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in WMNs. Previous studies have emphasized throughput maximization in such systems as the main design challenge and transmission power control treated as a secondary issue...

  5. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  6. E-Fulfillment and Multi-Channel Distribution – A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); M. Fleischmann (Moritz); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis review addresses the specific supply chain management issues of Internet fulfillment in a multi-channel environment. It provides a systematic overview of managerial planning tasks and reviews corresponding quantitative models. In this way, we aim to enhance the understanding of

  7. Exploiting the opportunities of Internet and multi-channel pricing : An exploratory research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotgiu, Francesca; Ancarani, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    Smart firms are not worried about the impact of the Internet on pricing, but realise that they have the unique opportunity to exploit new options and improve their marketing performance. Multi-channel pricing is one of the most interesting opportunities firms can exploit in the digital economy.

  8. Range based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). In this paper, researchers present a range based dynamic power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint Unified...

  9. A multi-channel data acquisition system with high resolution based on microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qi; Wang Yanfang; Xing Tao

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces the principle of a multi-channel data acquisition system with high resolution based on the microcomputer.The system consists of five parts.They are analog-to-digital converter, data buffer area, trigger logic circuit, control circuit, and digital-to-analog converter

  10. The design of multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer based on ARM micro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hai; Li Xiang; Liu Caixue

    2010-01-01

    It introduces the design of multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer based on embedded ARM micro-controller. The embedded and real-time system μC/OS-II builds up the real-time and stability of the system and advances the integration. (authors)

  11. Multi-Channel Deconvolution for Forward-Looking Phase Array Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cross-range resolution of forward-looking phase array radar (PAR is limited by the effective antenna beamwidth since the azimuth echo is the convolution of antenna pattern and targets’ backscattering coefficients. Therefore, deconvolution algorithms are proposed to improve the imaging resolution under the limited antenna beamwidth. However, as a typical inverse problem, deconvolution is essentially a highly ill-posed problem which is sensitive to noise and cannot ensure a reliable and robust estimation. In this paper, multi-channel deconvolution is proposed for improving the performance of deconvolution, which intends to considerably alleviate the ill-posed problem of single-channel deconvolution. To depict the performance improvement obtained by multi-channel more effectively, evaluation parameters are generalized to characterize the angular spectrum of antenna pattern or singular value distribution of observation matrix, which are conducted to compare different deconvolution systems. Here we present two multi-channel deconvolution algorithms which improve upon the traditional deconvolution algorithms via combining with multi-channel technique. Extensive simulations and experimental results based on real data are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed imaging methods.

  12. On the relationship between multi-channel envelope and temporal fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; Decorsiere, Remi Julien Blaise; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is broadly defined as the slow changes in time of the signal, where as the temporal fine structure (TFS) are the fast changes in time, i.e. the carrier wave(s) of the signal. The focus of this paper is on envelope and TFS in multi-channel systems. We discuss the differenc...

  13. A novel portable multi-channel analyzer based on high-speed microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Xinghua; Yi Hongchang; Wang Yuemin

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel portable multi-channel analyzer (MCA) based on high-speed microcontroller. The hardware implementation and the software scenario of the MCA are discussed. The MCA has features of high speed, small size and better performances. (authors)

  14. A Receiver-Initiated Collision-Avoidance Protocol for Multi-Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    00-00-2001 to 00-00-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Receiver-Initiated Collision-Avoidance Protocol for Multi-Channel Netowrks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 10 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  15. An optimal multi-channel memory controller for real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomony, M.D.; Akesson, K.B.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal utilization of a multi-channel memory, such as Wide IO DRAM, as shared memory in multi-processor platforms depends on the mapping of memory clients to the memory channels, the granularity at which the memory requests are interleaved in each channel, and the bandwidth and memory capacity

  16. Objective ARX Model Order Selection for Multi-Channel Human Operator Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggenkämper, N; Pool, D.M.; Drop, F.M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    In manual control, the human operator primarily responds to visual inputs but may elect to make use of other available feedback paths such as physical motion, adopting a multi-channel control strategy. Hu- man operator identification procedures generally require a priori selection of the model

  17. Observations of crystallization and melting in poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends by hot-stage atomic-force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, R.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    1998-01-01

    The binary blend of poly(ethylene oxide)/atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) is examined using hot-stage atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. It was found possible to follow in real time the melting process, which reveals itself to

  18. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND CHEMOSENSING APPLICATION OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE-CO-HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE WITH DANSYL SIDE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç DOĞANCI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel dansyl side-functional polymer (P2 was prepared and employed as the metal cation sensing chemical probe. The synthesis of P2 was performed via free radical polymerization and esterification reactions in a two-step reaction sequence. P2 showed characteristic UV-vis and fluorescence emission bands for the dansyl unit. The fluorescence emission intensity of P2 gradually decreased as the concentrations of the added metal ions were increased. The highest quenching efficiencies (QE were observed for Pb2+ (84.56% and Co2+ (83.69%. Besides, the responses of P2 to the addition of Pb2+ cation were quite linear up to 50 equivalent. The presence of Cd2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ cations did not pose significant interferences. Thus, P2 is a potential candidate for the fluorescence chemical sensor for Pb2+ cation.

  19. Digital baseline estimation method for multi-channel pulse height analyzing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuyun; Wei Yixiang; Ai Xianyun

    2005-01-01

    The basic features of digital baseline estimation for multi-channel pulse height analysis are introduced. The weight-function of minimum-noise baseline filter is deduced with functional variational calculus. The frequency response of this filter is also deduced with Fourier transformation, and the influence of parameters on amplitude frequency response characteristics is discussed. With MATLAB software, the noise voltage signal from the charge sensitive preamplifier is simulated, and the processing effect of minimum-noise digital baseline estimation is verified. According to the results of this research, digital baseline estimation method can estimate baseline optimally, and it is very suitable to be used in digital multi-channel pulse height analysis. (authors)

  20. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-01-01

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction. PMID:26287193

  1. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-08-13

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction.

  2. Regret of Multi-Channel Bandit Game in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of how to evaluate the rate of convergence to Nash equilibrium solutions in the process of channel selection under incomplete information is studied. In this paper, the definition of regret is used to reflect the convergence rates of online algorithms. The process of selecting an idle channel for each secondary user is modeled as a multi-channel bandit game. The definition of the maximal averaged regret is given. Two existing online learning algorithms are used to obtain the Nash equilibrium for each SU. The maximal averaged regrets are used to evaluate the performances of online algorithms. When there is a pure strategy Nash equilibrium in the multi-channel bandit game, the maximal averaged regrets are finite. A cooperation mechanism is also needed in the process of calculating the maximal averaged regrets. Simulation results show the maximal averaged regrets are finite and the online algorithm with greater convergence rate has less maximal averaged regrets.

  3. Multi-Channel Electronically Scanned Cryogenic Pressure Sensor And Method For Making Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature, multi-channel, electronically scanned pressure measuring device uses electrostatically bonded silicon dies in a multi-element array. These dies are bonded at specific sites on a glass, pre-patterned substrate. Thermal data is multiplexed and recorded on each individual pressure measuring diaphragm. The device functions in a cryogenic environment without the need of heaters to keep the sensor at constant temperatures.

  4. Asymptotically exact solution of the multi-channel resonant-level model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu.

    1994-01-01

    An asymptotically exact partition function of the multi-channel resonant-level model is obtained through Tomonaga-Luttinger bosonization. A Fermi-liquid vs. non-Fermi-liquid transition, resulting from a competition between the Kondo and X-ray edge physics, is elucidated explicitly via the renormalization group theory. In the strong-coupling limit, the model is renormalized to the Toulouse limit. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig

  5. Design of multi-channel amplitude analyzer base on LonWorks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Zhao Lihong; Chen Aihua

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces the multi-channel analyzer which adopts LonWorks technology. The system detects the pulse peak by hardware circuits and controls data acquisition and network communication by Micro Controller and Unit and Neuron chip. SCM is programmed by Keil C51; the communication between SCM and nerve cell is realized by Neron C language, and the computer program is written by VB language. Test results show that this analyzer is with fast conversion speed and low power consumption. (authors)

  6. An integrated analog O/E/O link for multi-channel laser neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmias, Mitchell A., E-mail: mnahmias@princeton.edu; Tait, Alexander N.; Tolias, Leonidas; Chang, Matthew P.; Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Prucnal, Paul R. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, 41 Olden St, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-04-11

    We demonstrate an analog O/E/O electronic link to allow integrated laser neurons to accept many distinguishable, high bandwidth input signals simultaneously. This device utilizes wavelength division multiplexing to achieve multi-channel fan-in, a photodetector to sum signals together, and a laser cavity to perform a nonlinear operation. Its speed outpaces accelerated-time neuromorphic electronics, and it represents a viable direction towards scalable networking approaches.

  7. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. ...

  8. Interference-aware power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available are well known in [9], [6]. The operation of multi-radio multi-channel (MRMC) WMNs generally requires sustainable energy supply. Substantial deployments of WMNs have recently been witnessed in rural and remote communities [4]. In such applications...]. Power resources are dynamically adjusted by each NIC using intra and inter-subsystem (channel) states. Due to the decentralized nature, each MP assumes imperfect knowledge about the global network. Further we assume that there exists...

  9. The software for the USB-based multi-channel analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tong; Wei Yixiang

    2002-01-01

    A new type of multi-channel analyzer system is introduced, which takes advantage of Universal Serial Bus to communicate with computer and gets the merit of fast speed, universality and Plug and Play. The authors discussed the framework of the system, primary functions, display of spectrum date and the way of communication with hardware. The environment of the program is Visual Basic 6.0

  10. Study and realization of a multi channel analyzer for a per operator probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahyaoui, Sarra; Brini, Borhen

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this project is to study and produce a Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA) prototype based on a microcontroller PIC 16F877. This prototype comprises an amplification and a peak detection parts. The microcontroller provide the analog to numeric conversion and ensures the communication with PC. This MCA will be connected to a per operator probe containing a semiconductor detector CdTe. (author). 7 refs

  11. Research on development of multi-channel analyzer used for monitoring and warning radiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Sy; Dang Quang Thieu; Nguyen Thi Bao My

    2015-01-01

    The subject assigned to this paper presents research on development of multi-channel analyzer used for monitoring and warning environmental radiation equipment under the project KC.05.16/11-15 Research on manufacturing equipment monitoring and warning radiation. In this thematic we have two subjects that need to be resolved such as: i) Designing spectroscopy amplifier block (AMP) duty pulse signals obtained about few hundred millivolts output from scintillation detector preamplifier, amplified as a few volts and the standard Gaussian pulses shaped to connect to the analog-to-digital converter. The spectroscopy amplifier block can change the gain by digital control to respond to the problem of automatic spectrum stability for multi-channel analyzer systems. ii) Designing analog-to-digital converter block (ADC) in accordance with the actual conditions, such as high stability, fast conversion time, high throughput, and it consumes low energy. Selecting suitable microprocessor for fast connection ability, to operate reliably paired with the analog-to-digital converter into a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) serving analysis. (author)

  12. Development of refined MCNPX-PARET multi-channel model for transient analysis in research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E. [SCK-CEN, BR2 Reactor Dept., Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Olson, A. P. [RERTR Program, Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne National Laboratory, Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Reactivity insertion transients are often analyzed (RELAP, PARET) using a two-channel model, representing the hot assembly with specified power distribution and an average assembly representing the remainder of the core. For the analysis of protected by the reactor safety system transients and zero reactivity feedback coefficients this approximation proves to give adequate results. However, a more refined multi-channel model representing the various assemblies, coupled through the reactivity feedback effects to the whole reactor core is needed for the analysis of unprotected transients with excluded over power and period trips. In the present paper a detailed multi-channel PARET model has been developed which describes the reactor core in different clusters representing typical BR2 fuel assemblies. The distribution of power and reactivity feedback in each cluster of the reactor core is obtained from a best-estimate MCNPX calculation using the whole core geometry model of the BR2 reactor. The sensitivity of the reactor response to power, temperature and energy distributions is studied for protected and unprotected reactivity insertion transients, with zero and non-zero reactivity feedback coefficients. The detailed multi-channel model is compared vs. simplified fewer-channel models. The sensitivities of transient characteristics derived from the different models are tested on a few reactivity insertion transients with reactivity feedback from coolant temperature and density change. (authors)

  13. Simulation study on vertically distributed multi-channel tangential interferometry for KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y U; Juhn, J W

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is powerful and reliable diagnostics which measures line-integrated electron density. Since this technique only measures an averaged value over whole probing line, a multi-channel scheme is used for an analysis for spatial distribution and variation of electron density. Typical setups of the multi-channel measurement are schemes of radially distributed vertical lines, vertically distributed horizontal lines and horizontally distributed tangential lines. In Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research, a vertically distributed multi-channel tangential interferometry is planned instead of above typical schemes due to limitation of complex in-vessel geometry and narrow diagnostics port through cryostat. Total 5-channels will be vertically placed as symmetric with the mid-plain. One of the characteristic features of the vertically distributed channels is that each channel is viewing different poloidal angle, while the horizontally distributed channels are viewing different toroidal angle. This scheme also can be used on an investigation of the up-down asymmetry and the vertical oscillation of plasma. Simulation has been performed and the result will be discussed to verify the possibility and the estimated effectiveness of the scheme on this paper.

  14. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC. The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  15. An interactive visualization tool for multi-channel confocal microscopy data in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Yong Wan,

    2009-11-01

    Confocal microscopy is widely used in neurobiology for studying the three-dimensional structure of the nervous system. Confocal image data are often multi-channel, with each channel resulting from a different fluorescent dye or fluorescent protein; one channel may have dense data, while another has sparse; and there are often structures at several spatial scales: subneuronal domains, neurons, and large groups of neurons (brain regions). Even qualitative analysis can therefore require visualization using techniques and parameters fine-tuned to a particular dataset. Despite the plethora of volume rendering techniques that have been available for many years, the techniques standardly used in neurobiological research are somewhat rudimentary, such as looking at image slices or maximal intensity projections. Thus there is a real demand from neurobiologists, and biologists in general, for a flexible visualization tool that allows interactive visualization of multi-channel confocal data, with rapid fine-tuning of parameters to reveal the three-dimensional relationships of structures of interest. Together with neurobiologists, we have designed such a tool, choosing visualization methods to suit the characteristics of confocal data and a typical biologist\\'s workflow. We use interactive volume rendering with intuitive settings for multidimensional transfer functions, multiple render modes and multi-views for multi-channel volume data, and embedding of polygon data into volume data for rendering and editing. As an example, we apply this tool to visualize confocal microscopy datasets of the developing zebrafish visual system.

  16. Energy reduction using multi-channels optical wireless communication based OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwesh, Laialy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of data center networks (DCNs) have been built to provide various cloud applications. Major challenges in the design of next generation DC networks include reduction of the energy consumption, high flexibility and scalability, high data rates, minimum latency and high cyber security. Use of optical wireless communication (OWC) to augment the DC network could help to confront some of these challenges. In this paper we present an OWC multi channels communication method that could lead to significant energy reduction of the communication equipment. The method is to convert a high speed serial data stream to many slower and parallel streams and vies versa at the receiver. We implement this concept of multi channels using optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (O-OFDM) method. In our scheme, we use asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM). Our results show that the realization of multi channels OFDM (ACO-OFDM) methods reduces the total energy consumption exponentially, as the number of channels transmitted through them rises.

  17. Evaluation of Multi-Channel ADCs for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Walby, Mark D.; Breus, Dimitry; Harris, Jackson

    2013-04-01

    As nuclear physicists increasingly design large scale experiments with hundreds or thousands of detector channels, there are growing needs for high density readout electronics with good timing and energy resolution that at the same time offer lower cost per channel compared to existing commercial solutions. Recent improvements in the design of commercial analog to digital converters (ADCs) have resulted in a variety of multi-channel ADCs that are natural choice for designing such high density readout modules. However, multi-channel ADCs typically are designed for medical imaging/ultrasound applications and therefore are not rated for their spectroscopic characteristics. In this work, we evaluated the gamma-ray spectroscopic performance of several multi-channel ADCs, including their energy resolution, nonlinearity, and timing resolution. Some of these ADCs demonstrated excellent energy resolution, 2.66% FWHM at 662 keV with a LaBr3 or 1.78 keV FWHM at 1332.5 keV with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and sub-nanosecond timing resolution with LaBr 3. We present results from these measurements to illustrate their suitability for gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  18. Advanced Modular, Multi-Channel, High Speed Fiber Optic Sensing System for Acoustic Emissions Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes to prove the feasibility of innovations based on ultra-light-weight, ultra-high-speed, multi-channel,...

  19. The impact of the multi-channel retail mix on online store choice: Does online experience matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Kristina; Campo, Katia; Breugelmans, Els; Lamey, Lien

    2015-01-01

    More and more grocery retailers are becoming multi-channel retailers, as they are opening an online alternative next to their traditional offline supermarkets. While the number of multi-channel grocery shoppers is also expanding at a fast growth rate, there are still large differences in online shopping frequency, and as a result, in the levels of experience with buying in the online grocery channel. This study wants to (i) identify the underlying drivers of online store choice and (ii) explo...

  20. Phase behavior for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+supercritical CO2+DME mixture at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Chio, Sang-Won; Byun, Hun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The phase behavior curves of binary and ternary system were measured for poly(alkyl methacrylate) in supercritical CO 2 , as well as for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+dimethyl ether (DME) (or 1-butene) in CO 2 . The solubility curves are reported for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+DME in supercritical CO 2 at temperature from (300 to 465) K and a pressure from (3.66 to 248) MPa. Also, The high-pressure static-type apparatus of cloud-point curve was tested by comparing the measured phase behavior data of the poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA]+CO 2 +20.0 and 30.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA) system with literature data of 10.4, 28.8 and 48.4 wt% MMA concentration. The phase behavior data for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+CO 2 +DME mixture were measured in changes of the pressure-temperature (p, T) slope and with DME concentrations. Also, the cloud-point pressure for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+1- butene solution containing supercritical CO 2 shows from upper critical solution temperature (UCST) region to lower critical solution temperature (LCST) region at concentration range from (0.0 to 95) wt% 1-butene at below 455 K and at below 245MPa.

  1. Phase behavior for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+supercritical CO{sub 2}+DME mixture at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Chio, Sang-Won; Byun, Hun-Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The phase behavior curves of binary and ternary system were measured for poly(alkyl methacrylate) in supercritical CO{sub 2}, as well as for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+dimethyl ether (DME) (or 1-butene) in CO{sub 2}. The solubility curves are reported for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+DME in supercritical CO{sub 2} at temperature from (300 to 465) K and a pressure from (3.66 to 248) MPa. Also, The high-pressure static-type apparatus of cloud-point curve was tested by comparing the measured phase behavior data of the poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA]+CO{sub 2}+20.0 and 30.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA) system with literature data of 10.4, 28.8 and 48.4 wt% MMA concentration. The phase behavior data for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+CO{sub 2}+DME mixture were measured in changes of the pressure-temperature (p, T) slope and with DME concentrations. Also, the cloud-point pressure for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+1- butene solution containing supercritical CO{sub 2} shows from upper critical solution temperature (UCST) region to lower critical solution temperature (LCST) region at concentration range from (0.0 to 95) wt% 1-butene at below 455 K and at below 245MPa.

  2. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J. S.; Fraser, G. W.; Miller, G. M.; Ashton, T. J. R.; Jarron, P.; Despeisse, M.; Powolny, F.; Howorth, J.; Milnes, J.

    2009-06-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchannel plate devices with very high time resolution, and high-speed multi-channel ASIC electronics developed for the LHC at CERN, provides the necessary building blocks for a high-throughput detector system with up to 1024 parallel counting channels and 20 ps time resolution. We describe the detector and electronic design, discuss the current status of the HiContent project and present the results from a 64-channel prototype system. In the absence of an operational detector, we present measurements of the electronics performance using a pulse generator to simulate detector events. Event timing results from the NINO high-speed front-end ASIC captured using a fast digital oscilloscope are compared with data taken with the proposed electronic configuration which uses the multi-channel HPTDC timing ASIC.

  3. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapington, J.S.; Fraser, G.W.; Miller, G.M.; Ashton, T.J.R.; Jarron, P.; Despeisse, M.; Powolny, F.; Howorth, J.; Milnes, J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchannel plate devices with very high time resolution, and high-speed multi-channel ASIC electronics developed for the LHC at CERN, provides the necessary building blocks for a high-throughput detector system with up to 1024 parallel counting channels and 20 ps time resolution. We describe the detector and electronic design, discuss the current status of the HiContent project and present the results from a 64-channel prototype system. In the absence of an operational detector, we present measurements of the electronics performance using a pulse generator to simulate detector events. Event timing results from the NINO high-speed front-end ASIC captured using a fast digital oscilloscope are compared with data taken with the proposed electronic configuration which uses the multi-channel HPTDC timing ASIC.

  4. Analysis of flow distribution instability in parallel thin rectangular multi-channel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, G.L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an City 710049 (China); Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin City 150001 (China); Su, G.H., E-mail: ghsu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an City 710049 (China); Peng, M.J. [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin City 150001 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Flow distribution instability in parallel thin rectangular multi-channel system is studied using RELAP5 codes. • Flow excursion may bring parallel heating channel into the density wave oscillations region. • Flow distribution instability is more likely to happen at low power/flow ratio conditions. • The increase of channel number will not affect the flow distribution instability boundary. • Asymmetry inlet throttling and heating will make system more unstable. - Abstract: The flow distribution instability in parallel thin rectangular multi-channel system has been researched in the present study. The research model of parallel channel system is established by using RELAP5/MOD3.4 codes. The transient process of flow distribution instability is studied at imposed inlet mass flow rate and imposed pressure drop conditions. The influence of heating power, mass flow rate, system pressure and channel number on flow distribution instability are analyzed. Furthermore, the flow distribution instability of parallel two-channel system under asymmetric inlet throttling and heating power is studied. The results show that, if multi-channel system operates at the negative slope region of channel ΔP–G curve, small disturbance in pressure drop will lead to flow redistribution between parallel channels. Flow excursion may bring the operating point of heating channel into the density-wave oscillations region, this will result in out-phase or in-phase flow oscillations. Flow distribution instability is more likely to happen at low power/flow ratio conditions, the stability of parallel channel system increases with system pressure, the channel number has a little effect on system stability, but the asymmetry inlet throttling or heating power will make the system more unstable.

  5. Multi-channel electrical impedance tomography for regional tissue hydration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Ashe, Jeffrey M; Boverman, Gregory; Sabatini, James E; Davenport, David M

    2014-06-01

    Poor assessment of hydration status during hemodialysis can lead to under- or over-hydration in patients with consequences of increased morbidity and mortality. In current practice, fluid management is largely based on clinical assessments to estimate dry weight (normal hydration body weight). However, hemodialysis patients usually have co-morbidities that can make the signs of fluid status ambiguous. Therefore, achieving normal hydration status remains a major challenge for hemodialysis therapy. Electrical impedance technology has emerged as a promising method for hydration monitoring due to its non-invasive nature, low cost and ease-of-use. Conventional electrical impedance-based hydration monitoring systems employ single-channel current excitation (either 2-electrode or 4-electrode methods) to perturb and extract averaged impedance from bulk tissue and use generalized models from large populations to derive hydration estimates. In the present study, a prototype, single-frequency electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system with simultaneous multi-channel current excitation was used to enable regional hydration change detection. We demonstrated the capability to detect a difference in daily impedance change between left leg and right leg in healthy human subjects, who wore a compression sock only on one leg to reduce daily gravitational fluid accumulation. The impedance difference corresponded well with the difference of lower leg volume change between left leg and right leg measured by volumetry, which on average is ~35 ml, accounting for 0.7% of the lower leg volume. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using multi-channel EIT to extract hydration information in different tissue layers with minimal skin interference. Our simultaneous, multi-channel current excitation approach provides an effective method to separate electrode contact impedance and skin condition artifacts from hydration signals. The prototype system has the potential to be used in clinical

  6. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zongo, S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes with highly delocalized p-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended p-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes...

  7. Low Temperature Graphene Synthesis from Poly(methyl methacrylate) Using Microwave Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2013-11-01

    A graphene film having low sheet resistance (600 Ω/sq.) was synthesized at low temperatures of 280 °C. Utilizing microwave plasma treatment, graphene films were synthesized from a solid phase on a copper surface. The full width at half maximum of the 2D-band in the Raman spectrum indicated that a high quality graphene film was formed. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the deposited graphene films consisted of single- or double-layer graphene flakes of nanometer order on the Cu surface, which agrees with the estimated number of layers from an average optical transmittance of 96%.

  8. Catalytic effects of poly(methyl methacrylate)-supported β-diketone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plexes on refluxing with olefins at 70°C in methanol–water medium for 10 h afforded carbonyl ... The course of the reaction was found to be influenced by the ..... CuCl2 is reduced to Cu(I), which is reoxidised to Cu(II) by air so that it is the.

  9. Bosch-like method for creating high aspect ratio poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) structures

    KAUST Repository

    Haiducu, Marius; Sameoto, Dan E.; Foulds, Ian G.; Johnstone, Robert W.; Parameswaran, M. Ash

    2012-01-01

    and by rotating the latter using a direct current (DC) motor-driven stage. By using an extremely affordable set-up and non-toxic, environmentally friendly materials and substances, this process represents an excellent alternative to microfabricating microfluidic

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres are prepared by mixing homogeneous dispersions of vinyl-functional PDMS and a curing agent using mechanical stirring in a series of aqueous solutions, and curing at 80 8C for 2 h. In order to verify the experimental diameter and size distributions of the PDMS microspheres, the Hinze-Kolmogorov theory is applied to predict the mean diameter, and a population balance model as well as the maximum entropy formalism are used to describe the size distributio...

  11. Structure and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-fullerene (C60) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropka, Jamie; Green, Peter

    2006-03-01

    We examined the rheological and dynamical mechanical (DMA) properties of PMMA-C60 nanocomposite materials with relatively low concentrations of C60, 0.1-5wt%. Decreases of the glass transition temperature (Tg), ˜7 ^oC, were observed in samples with 0.5 and 1 wt% C60. The decreases in Tg are connected to decreases of the longest relaxation time measured for the system. The plateau modulus of the composites was enhanced relative to the homopolymer but did not increase monotonically with C60 concentration. The relative changes of the relaxation time, the plateau modulus and Tg cannot be explained by the Doi-Edwards model and appear to be connected to the distribution of the nanoparticles, as determined by electron microscopy.

  12. The long-term in vivo behavior of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Koji; Yamamuro, Takao; Oonishi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    The long-term success of cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been well established. Improved outcomes, both radiographically and clinically, have resulted mainly from advances in stem design and improvements in operating techniques. However, there is concern about the durability of bone cement in vivo. We evaluated the physical and chemical properties of CMW1 bone cements retrieved from patients undergoing revision THA. CMW1 cements were retrieved from 14 patients who underwent acetabular revision because of aseptic loosening. The time in vivo before revision was 7-30 years. The bending properties of the retrieved bone cement were assessed using the three-point bending method. The molecular weight and chemical structure were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The porosity of the bone cements was evaluated by 3-D microcomputer tomography. The bending strength decreased with increasing time in vivo and depended on the density of the bone cement, which we assume to be determined by the porosity. There was no correlation between molecular weight and time in vivo. The infrared spectra were similar in the retrieved cements and in the control CMW1 cements. Our results indicate that polymer chain scission and significant hydrolysis do not occur in CMW1 cement after implantation in vivo, even in the long term. CMW1 cement was stable through long-term implantation and functional loading.

  13. Energy dependent saturable and reverse saturable absorption in cube-like polyaniline/polymethyl methacrylate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekkayil, Remyamol [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Gopinath, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India)

    2014-08-01

    Solid films of cube-like polyaniline synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization method have been fabricated in a transparent PMMA host by an in situ free radical polymerization technique, and are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties are studied by open aperture Z-scan technique employing 5 ns (532 nm) and 100 fs (800 nm) laser pulses. At the relatively lower laser pulse energy of 5 μJ, the film shows saturable absorption both in the nanosecond and femtosecond excitation domains. An interesting switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed at 532 nm when the energy of the nanosecond laser pulses is increased. The nonlinear absorption coefficient increases with increase in polyaniline concentration, with low optical limiting threshold, as required for a good optical limiter. - Highlights: • Synthesized cube-like polyaniline nanostructures. • Fabricated polyaniline/PMMA nanocomposite films. • At 5 μJ energy, saturable absorption is observed both at ns and fs regime. • Switchover from SA to RSA is observed as energy of laser beam increases. • Film (0.1 wt % polyaniline) shows high β{sub eff} (230 cm GW{sup −1}) and low limiting threshold at 150 μJ.

  14. Use of Almond Shells and Rice Husk as Fillers of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Alessandra; Lanari, Silvia; Santulli, Carlo; Pettinari, Claudio

    2017-07-28

    In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH) with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice husks and 10 or 15% almond shells, since indications provided by reactivity tests and viscosity measurements did not suggest the feasibility of total replacement of ATH. As a matter of fact, the introduction of these contents of wood waste filler in PMMA-based composite did not result in any significant deterioration of its mechanical properties (Charpy impact, Rockwell M hardness and flexural performance). Some reduction of these properties was only observed in the case of introduction of 15% almond shells. A further issue concerned the yellowing of the organic filler under exposure to UV light. On the other hand, a very limited amount of water was absorbed, never exceeding values around 0.6%, despite the significant porosity revealed by the filler's microscopic evaluation. These results are particularly interesting in view of the application envisaged for these composites, i.e., wood replacement boards.

  15. Effect of metal trifluoroacetates on the thermal decomposition of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, G.M.; Gavrilenko, N.A.; Eremina, N.S.; Garber, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal stability of polymethylmethacrylate composition depending on introducing additives of alkali metal trifluoroacetates - Li(TFA), K(TFA), Na(TFA) was studied. Three stages of a mass lost were observed on the curves of thermogravimetry of polymethylmethacrylate modified by lithium, sodium and potassium trifluoroacetates. Activation energies of thermal oxidation destruction of polymethylmethacrylate modified by alkali metal trifluoroacetates were calculated and demonstrated. For lithium the electron donor fragments of competing molecules are constituents of coordination sphere of ion. This is possible on account of its comparatively small polarizing ability and does not lead to essential changing activation energy [ru

  16. Bosch-like method for creating high aspect ratio poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) structures

    KAUST Repository

    Haiducu, Marius

    2012-02-02

    This paper presents a method for etching millimetre-deep trenches in commercial grade PMMA using deep-UV at 254 nm. The method is based on consecutive cycles of irradiation and development of the exposed areas, respectively. The exposure segment is performed using an inexpensive, in-house built irradiation box while the development part is accomplished using an isopropyl alcohol (IPA):H2O developer. The method was tested and characterized by etching various dimension square test structures in commercial grade, mirrored acrylic. The undercut of the sidewalls due to the uncollimated nature of the irradiation light was dramatically alleviated by using a honeycomb metallic grid in between the irradiation source and the acrylic substrate and by rotating the latter using a direct current (DC) motor-driven stage. By using an extremely affordable set-up and non-toxic, environmentally friendly materials and substances, this process represents an excellent alternative to microfabricating microfluidic devices in particular and high aspect ratio structures in general using PMMA as substrate. © 2012 SPIE.

  17. Highly photosensitive polymethyl methacrylate microstructured polymer optical fiber with doped core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2013-01-01

    , providing a grating with a strong transmission rejection of −23  dB with an inscription time of only 13 min. The fabrication method has a big advantage compared to doping step index fiber since it enables doping of the fiber without using extra dopants to compensate for the index reduction in the core...

  18. Three-layer poly(methyl methacrylate) microsystem for analysis of lysosomal enzymes for diagnostic purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Kwapiszewska, Karina; Kutter, Jörg P

    2015-01-01

    by statistical analysis including construction of a Bland-Altman plot. The approach presented can be an alternative for the currently used diagnostic procedures. The method developed has a potential for the implementation into complex microfluidic devices thus becoming a powerful tool for a high...

  19. Fracture toughness of Kevlar 29/poly(methyl methacrylate) composite materials for surgical implantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourdeyhimi, B; Robinson, H H; Schwartz, P; Wagner, H D

    1986-01-01

    A study of the fracture behaviour of Kevlar 29 reinforced dental cement is undertaken using both linear elastic and nonlinear elastic fracture mechanics techniques. Results from both approaches--of which the nonlinear elastic is believed to be more appropriate--indicate that a reinforcing effect is obtained for the fracture toughness even at very low fibre content. The flexural strength and modulus are apparently not improved, however, by the incorporation of Kevlar 29 fibres in the PMMA cement, probably because of the presence of voids, the poor fibre/matrix interfacial bonding and unsatisfying cement mixing practice. When compared to other PMMA composite cements, the present system appears to be probably more effective than carbon/PMMA, for example, in terms of fracture toughness. More experimental and analytical work is needed so as to optimize the mechanical properties with respect to structural parameters and cement preparation technique.

  20. The polymethyl methacrylate cervical cage for treatment of cervical disk disease Part III. Biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyi-Feng; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2006-10-01

    In a previous article, we used the PMMA cervical cage in the treatment of single-level cervical disk disease and the preliminary clinical results were satisfactory. However, the mechanical properties of the PMMA cage were not clear. Therefore, we designed a comparative in vitro biomechanical study to determine the mechanical properties of the PMMA cage. The PMMA cervical cage and the Solis PEEK cervical cage were compressed in a materials testing machine to determine the mechanical properties. The compressive yield strength of the PMMA cage (7030 +/- 637 N) was less than that of the Solis polymer cervical cage (8100 +/- 572 N). The ultimate compressive strength of the PMMA cage (8160 +/- 724 N) was less than that of the Solis cage (9100 +/- 634 N). The stiffness of the PMMA cervical cage (8106 +/- 817 N/mm) was greater than that of the Solis cage (6486 +/- 530 N/mm). The elastic modulus of the PMMA cage (623 +/- 57 MPa) was greater than that of the Solis cage (510 +/- 42 MPa). The elongation of PMMA cage (43.5 +/- 5.7%) was larger than that of the Solis cage (36.1 +/- 4.3%). Although the compressive yield strength and ultimate compressive strength of the PMMA cervical cage were less than those of the Solis polymer cage, the mechanical properties are better than those of the cervical vertebral body. The PMMA cage is strong and safe for use as a spacer for cervical interbody fusion. Compared with other cage materials, the PMMA cage has many advantages and no obvious failings at present. However, the PMMA cervical cage warrants further long-term clinical study.

  1. Polymer PCF Bragg grating sensors based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Ian P; Webb, David J; Kalli, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    mode PCF with a core diameter of 6μm based on TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. Bragg grating inscription was achieved using a 30mW continuous wave 325nm helium cadmium laser. Both TOPAS and PMMA fibre have a large attenuation of around 1dB/cm in the 1550nm spectral region, limiting fibre lengths...

  2. Poly(methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) and Polylactic Acid Nanoparticles as Adjuvants for Peroral Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kreuter, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    .... The nanoparticles contain the antigen in adsorbed or incorporated form. In addition PLA nanoparticles are coated with physiologically active substances - polyvinylalcohol or humane serum albumin...

  3. In Situ Electrosynthesis of Polymethyl Methacrylate Within Ceramic Launch Pad Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Raul; Cardenas, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Electrokinetic deposition of methylmethacrylate is used to mitigate corrosion in reinforced concrete. The methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer deposits in the pores in the concrete where it is converted into its polymer, polymethylmethacrylate, thus creating a barrier that also enhances the mechanical properties of the concrete. Previous to the MMA treatment an Electrokinetic deposition is used to transport calcium, sodium and potassium hydroxide particles through the capillary pores of concrete directly to the concrete reinforcement. The intent is to use these compounds as a sacrificial electrode layer during the electrokinetic deposition of methylmethacrylate monomer. Cylindrical reinforced concrete specimens were subjected to electrokinetic treatment and the specimens were tested to characterize porosity reduction and tensile splitting strength showing an increase in the tensile strength. In addition, nine specimens treated electro-kinetically and in long-term atmospheric exposure testing at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, seaside atmospheric exposure test site were tested to determine their corrosion rate.

  4. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin; Zhang Qi; Zheng Futang

    2000-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images are presented. The software for object separating, mass calculating, 3D positioning, speed determining and cavity reconstruction are described

  5. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin

    2003-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images of terminal ballistics are presented. The software for object separating, profile calculating and 3D cavity reconstruction are described

  6. Design of multi-channel analyzer's monitoring system based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Wei Yixiang

    2007-01-01

    A new Multi-Channel Analyzer's Monitoring system based on ARM9 Embedded system is introduced in this paper. Some solutions to problem are also discussed during the procedure of design, installation and debugging on Linux system. The Monitoring system is developed by using MiniGUI and Linux software system API, with the functions of collecting, displaying and I/O data controlling 1024 channels datum. They are all realized in real time, with the merits of low cost, small size and portability. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade Digital and Portable nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  7. Maximum likelihood based multi-channel isotropic reverberation reduction for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuklasiński, Adam; Doclo, Simon; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    We propose a multi-channel Wiener filter for speech dereverberation in hearing aids. The proposed algorithm uses joint maximum likelihood estimation of the speech and late reverberation spectral variances, under the assumption that the late reverberant sound field is cylindrically isotropic....... The dereverberation performance of the algorithm is evaluated using computer simulations with realistic hearing aid microphone signals including head-related effects. The algorithm is shown to work well with signals reverberated both by synthetic and by measured room impulse responses, achieving improvements...

  8. Multi-channel time-division integrator in HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ji

    2008-01-01

    HL-2A is China's first Tokamak device with divertor configuration (magnetic confinement controlled nuclear fusion device). To find out the details of on-going fusion reaction at different times is of important significance in achieving controlled nuclear fusion. We developed a new type multi-channel time-division integrator for HL-2A. It has functions of automatic cutting off negative pulse of the input signals, optional integrating time division spacing 0.2-1 ms, TTL starting trigger signal, automatic regularly work 20 s, and integrating 10 channel at the same time. (authors)

  9. Independent multi-channel analyzer with the color display and microcomputer in the CAMAC standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, Z.; Elizarov, O.I.; Zhukov, G.P.; Mikhaehlis, B.; Shul'tts, K.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    An independent multi-channel time-of-flight analyzer developed for a spectrometer of polarised neutrons and used in experiments with the IBR-2 pulse reactor is described. Different cyclic modes of measuring are realized in the analyzer, 4 kwords of analyzer momory being assigned for each mode. The spectra are displayed on a colour screen during measurements. Simultaneous displaying of up to 8 spectra is possible. A microcomputer transfers the spectra from the buffer analyzer memory to the microcomputer memory. The accumulated information is transferred to the PDP-11/70 central computer

  10. Spectrum analysis with indoor multi-channels gamma-rays spectrometer (NaI(Tl))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shengli; Fan Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Two calculational methods for analyzing the spectrum which measured by indoor low background multi-channels gamma-rays spectrometer (Na(Tl)) to get the specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K of the sample are discussed, they are the spectrum analysis method and the characteristic energy peak method (inverse matrix method) respectively. The sample spectrum are analyzed with the program designed according to the two methods, and compared with the results by HPGe gamma-rays spectrometer, showing that the relative deviation is ≤10% with the two methods. (authors)

  11. A multi-channel photometric detector for multi-component analysis in flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A; Huang, J; Geng, L; Xu, J; Zhao, X

    1994-01-01

    The detector, a multi-channel photometric detector, described in this paper was developed using multi-wavelength LEDs (light emitting diode) and phototransistors for absorbance measurement controlled by an Intel 8031 8-bit single chip microcomputer. Up to four flow cells can be attached to the detector. The LEDs and phototransistors are both inexpensive, and reliable. The results given by the detector for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cobalt and cadmium in zinc sulphate electrolyte are reported. Because of the newly developed detector, this approach employs much less hardware apparatus than by employing conventional photometric detectors.

  12. Characteristics of crosstalk in the reproduced output of a newly developed multi-channel MR head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, K.; Hayashi, N.; Yoneda, Y.; Numazawa, J.; Kohro, M.; Tanabe, T.

    2001-01-01

    We prepared the multi-channel magnetoresistive head with a simple structural design and it has the advantages of high-density recording and ultra-high transfer rate. Characteristics of crosstalk in the reproduced output of our head have been estimated by a micromagnetic calculation using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, while the specimen head was fabricated and evaluated. As a result, by applying a magnetic field of 40 Oe only between adjacent channels, the crosstalk was much decreased without reducing the reproduced output

  13. Pre-experiment testing of the Multi Channel Systems 16-channel preamplifier CPA16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, J B; Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Friensehner, A V

    2003-01-01

    The 16-channel preamplifier model CPA16 from Multi Channel Systems was studied. The CPA16 preamplifier/amplifier module is a candidate to be used as the preamplifiers and amplifiers for the focal plane detectors of the Mass Analyzer of Super Heavy Atoms (MASHA). The equipment used to test the CPA16, the results of testing the CPA16 with a pulser, a mixed 229 Th/ 148 Gd source and a 252 Cf source, and a summary of the results will be presented

  14. A high resolution 16 k multi-channel analyzer PC add-on card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Paulson, Molly; Vaidya, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the system details of a 16 K channel resolution Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) developed at Electronics Division, BARC, which is used in high resolution nuclear spectroscopy systems for pulse height analysis. The high resolution data acquisition PC add-on card is architectured using a state of the art digital circuit design technology which makes use of a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and some of the most modern and advanced analog counterparts like low power, high speed and high precision comparators, Op-amps, ADCs and DACs etc. The 16 K MCA card gives an economic, compact, and low power alternative for nuclear pulse spectroscopy use. (author)

  15. Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic-reflection data collected in the Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Hart, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Contained on this set of two CD-ROMs are stacked and migrated multi-channel seismic-reflection data for 44 lines recorded in the Chukchi Sea, northern Alaska, by the United States Geological Survey in 1977, 1978, and 1980. All data were reprocessed by the USGS in 2000 using updated methods. The resulting final data have both increased temporal and spatial resolution thus providing improved interpretability. An added benefit of these CD-ROMs is that they are a more stable, long-term archival medium for the data.

  16. Electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter in two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yulan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    An electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal made of barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by an applied voltage or by adjusting the structural parameters. The channel shifts about 30 nm under excitation of an applied voltage of 54.8 V. The influences of the structural disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  17. Flexible Method for the Automated Offline-Detection of Artifacts in Multi-Channel Electroencephalogram Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waser, Markus; Garn, Heinrich; Benke, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    . However, these preprocessing steps do not allow for complete artifact correction. We propose a method for the automated offline-detection of remaining artifacts after preprocessing in multi-channel EEG recordings. In contrast to existing methods it requires neither adaptive parameters varying between...... recordings nor a topography template. It is suited for short EEG segments and is flexible with regard to target applications. The algorithm was developed and tested on 60 clinical EEG samples of 20 seconds each that were recorded both in resting state and during cognitive activation to gain a realistic...

  18. Applying a CPLD for Refurbishment of a Multi-channel Pulse Height Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leetragunpichitchai, Supalerk; Thong-Aram, Decho; Ploykrachang, Kamontip

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This research applied a CPLD for construction of a 100 MHz, 2048 channel, Wilkinson type analog to digital converter (ADC) circuits for refurbishment of an original multi-channel pulse height analyzer (PHA) ADC. Introduction of the CPLD could reduce the complexity of the circuits, equipment size and also the power consumption while the operation speed was increased. The linearity test of the ADC was found to be excellent with an R2 = 0.9995 and a maximum pulse rate of 48.828 k cps could be converted in this system. Therefore the developed system was appropriate for replacing the original ADC

  19. On a multi-channel transportation loss system with controlled input and controlled service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni Dshalalow

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-channel loss queueing system is investigated. The input stream is a controlled point process. The service in each of m parallel channels depends on the state of the system at certain moments of time when input and service may be controlled. To obtain explicitly the limiting distribution of the main process (Zt (the number of busy channels in equilibrium, an auxiliary three dimensional process with two additional components (one of them is a semi-Markov process is treated as semi-regenerative process. An optimization problem is discussed. Simple expressions for an objective function are derived.

  20. Investigation of ultra wideband multi-channel dichroic beamsplitters from 0.3 to 52 microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. Q.; Hunneman, R.; Seeley, J. S.; Hawkins, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a set of multi-channel dichroics which includes a 6 channel dichroic operating over the wavelength region from 0.3 to 52 microns is described. In order to achieve the optimum performance, the optical constraints of PbTe, Ge, and CdTe coatings in the strongly absorptive region have been determined by use of a new iterative method using normal incidence reflectance measurement of the multilayer together with initial values of energy gap and infinite refractive index for the semiconductor model. The design and manufacture of the dichroics is discussed and the final results are presented.

  1. Development of a novel fast frequency modulation scheme for the JET multi-channel reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliyanakis, N.

    1999-10-01

    A novel frequency modulation scheme has been developed for the multi-channel reflectometer used to measure density profiles and density fluctuations on the JET tokamak. This reflectometer normally uses slow frequency sweeping, combined with fixed-frequency operation, to measure the group delay, as well as plasma fluctuations, at 10 different microwave frequencies. The novel scheme uses continuous frequency modulation on a time-scale much faster than that of plasma fluctuations, the main aim being to make the group delay measurement more robust against plasma fluctuations. This paper discusses the theoretical background of the scheme, gives a detailed description of the system, and presents results from plasma measurements. (author)

  2. A Portable Multi-Channel γ Spectrometer Based on Bluetooth and PDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinhua; Lai Wanchang; Zhang Zhen; Chen Xiaoqiang; Wang Guangxi; Yang Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Introduces an embedded GPS portable multi-channel γ spectrometer based on PDA and blue-tooth. PDA use HP iPAQ rx5700, it has GPS and bluetooth, the position accuracy of GPS isn't more than 5 m and the transmission rate of bluetooth can reach 1 MB/s, its communication distance is up to 10 m. The instrument detection limits of U, Th and K are 1.0 ppm. 1.8 ppm. 0.17%, respectively. The result of experiment proves γ spectrometer based on bluetooth and PDA has low-power, strong anti-interference capability and good portable capability. (authors)

  3. Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator in the measurement of the laser scattering light energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Yu Xiaoqi; Hu Yuanfeng

    2005-01-01

    With the method of integration in a limited time, a Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator based on VXI system has been developed for measuring the signals with changeable pulse width in laser scattering light experiment. It has been tested with signal sources in ICF experiment. In tests, the integral nonlinearity between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of an oscilloscope is less than 1%. In the ICF experiments the maximum error between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of oscilloscope is less than 3% of the full scale range of the gated integrator. (authors)

  4. Development of a USB-based multi-channel time division scaler for HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Ping

    2008-01-01

    HL-2A is China's first Tokamak device with divertor configuration. Mastering the process and plasma parameter changes with time are of great significance to achieve controlled nuclear fusion. In the recent upgrading of HL-2A, for which a higher and faster electronic equipment was required, we developed a new type USB multi-channel time division scaler for HL-2A including functions: USB interface, PC graphical user interface, simultaneously calibrating more than five channel signals, optional time division spacing 2-50 ms, count rate up to over 2 MHz, accessing all the information 20 s after a activated signal, and processing data and displaying off-line. (authors)

  5. Study on the dissociative recombination of HeH+ by multi-channel quantum defect theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissociative recombination of HeH+ is studied using multi-channel quantum defect theory. We investigated how the partial waves of incident electrons affect the DR cross section. The DR cross section depends on the position of the center of partial wave expansion for the adiabatic S-matrix of electron scattering. When the Rydberg states correlate with the Rydberg states of the hydrogen atom at large internuclear distances, the center should be on the hydrogen atom for a better convergence of the expansion.

  6. Rayleigh waves ellipticity and mode mis-identification in multi-channel analysis of surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Strobbia, Claudio

    dispersion curve which is then inverted. Typically, single component vertical and multi channel receivers are used. In most cases the inversion of the dispersion properties is carried out assuming that the experimental dispersion curve corresponds to a single mode, mostly the fundamental Rayleigh mode...... to each other reaching similar Rayleigh velocity. It is known ‘osculation’ happens generally in presence of strong velocity contrasts, typically with a fast bedrock underlying loose sediments. The practical limitations of the acquired data affect the spectral and modal resolution, making it often...

  7. On-line gas mixing and multi-channel distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Joshi, Avinash

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe a mass-flow controller based on-line gas mixing unit with the multi-channel distribution system. We highlight different aspects such as requirement, design, calibration, control and operation of this system. This unit has the capability to mix up to four different input gases and distribute over 16 output channels. Output in individual channels is controlled accurately by using capillary-based system. At present, we are using this gas mixing unit for prototype of iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector of India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO).

  8. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lun Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO, and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA. To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction.

  9. Scene text detection by leveraging multi-channel information and local context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runmin; Qian, Shengyou; Yang, Jianfeng; Gao, Changxin

    2018-03-01

    As an important information carrier, texts play significant roles in many applications. However, text detection in unconstrained scenes is a challenging problem due to cluttered backgrounds, various appearances, uneven illumination, etc.. In this paper, an approach based on multi-channel information and local context is proposed to detect texts in natural scenes. According to character candidate detection plays a vital role in text detection system, Maximally Stable Extremal Regions(MSERs) and Graph-cut based method are integrated to obtain the character candidates by leveraging the multi-channel image information. A cascaded false positive elimination mechanism are constructed from the perspective of the character and the text line respectively. Since the local context information is very valuable for us, these information is utilized to retrieve the missing characters for boosting the text detection performance. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets, i.e., the ICDAR 2011 dataset and the ICDAR 2013 dataset, demonstrate that the proposed method have achieved the state-of-the-art performance.

  10. Salt intrusion in multi-channel estuaries: a case study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-tested theory for the computation of salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries that is fully analytical and predictive. The theory uses analytical equations to predict the mixing behaviour of the estuary based on measurable quantities, such as channel topography, river discharge and tidal characteristics. It applies to single-channel topographies and estuaries that demonstrate moderate tidal damping. The Mekong delta is a multi-channel estuary where the tide is damped due to a relatively strong river discharge (in the order of 2000 m3/s, even during the dry season. As a result the Mekong is a strongly riverine estuary. This paper aims to test if the theory can be applied to such a riverine multi-channel estuary, and to see if possible adjustments or generalisations need to be made. The paper presents salt intrusion measurements that were done by moving boat in 2005, to which the salt intrusion model was calibrated. The theory has been expanded to cater for tidal damping. Subsequently the model has been validated with observations made at fixed locations over the years 1998 and 1999. Finally it has been tested whether the Mekong calibration fits the overall predictive equations derived in other estuaries. The test has been successful and led to a slight adjustment of the predictive equation to cater for estuaries that experience a sloping bottom.

  11. SVM-Based Spectral Analysis for Heart Rate from Multi-Channel WPPG Sensor Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiping; Cai, Lisang; Wang, Fei; He, Xiaowei

    2017-03-03

    Although wrist-type photoplethysmographic (hereafter referred to as WPPG) sensor signals can measure heart rate quite conveniently, the subjects' hand movements can cause strong motion artifacts, and then the motion artifacts will heavily contaminate WPPG signals. Hence, it is challenging for us to accurately estimate heart rate from WPPG signals during intense physical activities. The WWPG method has attracted more attention thanks to the popularity of wrist-worn wearable devices. In this paper, a mixed approach called Mix-SVM is proposed, it can use multi-channel WPPG sensor signals and simultaneous acceleration signals to measurement heart rate. Firstly, we combine the principle component analysis and adaptive filter to remove a part of the motion artifacts. Due to the strong relativity between motion artifacts and acceleration signals, the further denoising problem is regarded as a sparse signals reconstruction problem. Then, we use a spectrum subtraction method to eliminate motion artifacts effectively. Finally, the spectral peak corresponding to heart rate is sought by an SVM-based spectral analysis method. Through the public PPG database in the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup, we acquire the experimental results, i.e., the average absolute error was 1.01 beat per minute, and the Pearson correlation was 0.9972. These results also confirm that the proposed Mix-SVM approach has potential for multi-channel WPPG-based heart rate estimation in the presence of intense physical exercise.

  12. Hand Motion Classification Using a Multi-Channel Surface Electromyography Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOF for achieving high-dexterity motions. Identifying and replicating human hand motions are necessary to perform precise and delicate operations in many applications, such as haptic applications. Surface electromyography (sEMG sensors are a low-cost method for identifying hand motions, in addition to the conventional methods that use data gloves and vision detection. The identification of multiple hand motions is challenging because the error rate typically increases significantly with the addition of more hand motions. Thus, the current study proposes two new methods for feature extraction to solve the problem above. The first method is the extraction of the energy ratio features in the time-domain, which are robust and invariant to motion forces and speeds for the same gesture. The second method is the extraction of the concordance correlation features that describe the relationship between every two channels of the multi-channel sEMG sensor system. The concordance correlation features of a multi-channel sEMG sensor system were shown to provide a vast amount of useful information for identification. Furthermore, a new cascaded-structure classifier is also proposed, in which 11 types of hand gestures can be identified accurately using the newly defined features. Experimental results show that the success rate for the identification of the 11 gestures is significantly high.

  13. Hand motion classification using a multi-channel surface electromyography sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueyan; Liu, Yunhui; Lv, Congyi; Sun, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) for achieving high-dexterity motions. Identifying and replicating human hand motions are necessary to perform precise and delicate operations in many applications, such as haptic applications. Surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors are a low-cost method for identifying hand motions, in addition to the conventional methods that use data gloves and vision detection. The identification of multiple hand motions is challenging because the error rate typically increases significantly with the addition of more hand motions. Thus, the current study proposes two new methods for feature extraction to solve the problem above. The first method is the extraction of the energy ratio features in the time-domain, which are robust and invariant to motion forces and speeds for the same gesture. The second method is the extraction of the concordance correlation features that describe the relationship between every two channels of the multi-channel sEMG sensor system. The concordance correlation features of a multi-channel sEMG sensor system were shown to provide a vast amount of useful information for identification. Furthermore, a new cascaded-structure classifier is also proposed, in which 11 types of hand gestures can be identified accurately using the newly defined features. Experimental results show that the success rate for the identification of the 11 gestures is significantly high.

  14. Analysis and compensation of synchronous measurement error for multi-channel laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Shengwu; Hu, Jinchun; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Chuxiong

    2017-01-01

    Dual-frequency laser interferometer has been widely used in precision motion system as a displacement sensor, to achieve nanoscale positioning or synchronization accuracy. In a multi-channel laser interferometer synchronous measurement system, signal delays are different in the different channels, which will cause asynchronous measurement, and then lead to measurement error, synchronous measurement error (SME). Based on signal delay analysis of the measurement system, this paper presents a multi-channel SME framework for synchronous measurement, and establishes the model between SME and motion velocity. Further, a real-time compensation method for SME is proposed. This method has been verified in a self-developed laser interferometer signal processing board (SPB). The experiment result showed that, using this compensation method, at a motion velocity 0.89 m s −1 , the max SME between two measuring channels in the SPB is 1.1 nm. This method is more easily implemented and applied to engineering than the method of directly testing smaller signal delay. (paper)

  15. Wireless acquisition of multi-channel seismic data using the Seismobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakow, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the wireless acquisition of multi-channel seismic data using a specialized mobile system, Seismobile, designed for subsoil diagnostics for transportation routes. The paper presents examples of multi-channel seismic records obtained during system tests in a configuration with 96 channels (4 landstreamers of 24-channel) and various seismic sources. Seismic waves were generated at the same point using different sources: a 5-kg hammer, a Gisco's source with a 90-kg pile-driver, and two other the pile-drivers of 45 and 70 kg. Particular attention is paid to the synchronization of source timing, the measurement of geometry by autonomous GPS systems, and the repeatability of triggering measurements constrained by an accelerometer identifying the seismic waveform. The tests were designed to the registration, reliability, and range of the wireless transmission of survey signals. The effectiveness of the automatic numbering of measuring modules was tested as the system components were arranged and fixed to the streamers. After measurements were completed, the accuracy and speed of data downloading from the internal memory (SDHC 32GB WiFi) was determined. Additionally, the functionality of automatic battery recharging, the maximum survey duration, and the reliability of battery discharge signalling were assessed.

  16. Metasurface for multi-channel terahertz beam splitters and polarization rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, XiaoFei; Gong, HanHong; Li, Zhen; Xie, JingYa; Cheng, QingQing; Chen, Lin; Shkurinov, Alexander P.; Zhu, YiMing; Zhuang, SongLin

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz beam splitters and polarization rotators are two typical devices with wide applications ranging from terahertz communication to system integration. However, they are faced with severe challenges in manipulating THz waves in multiple channels, which is desirable for system integration and device miniaturization. Here, we propose a method to design ultra-thin multi-channel THz beam splitters and polarization rotators simultaneously. The reflected beams are divided into four beams with nearly the same density under illumination of linear-polarized THz waves, while the polarization of reflected beams in each channel is modulated with a rotation angle or invariable with respect to the incident THz waves, leading to the multi-channel polarization rotator (multiple polarization rotation in the reflective channels) and beam splitter, respectively. Reflective metasurfaces, created by patterning metal-rods with different orientations on a polyimide film, were fabricated and measured to demonstrate these characteristics. The proposed approach provides an efficient way of controlling polarization of THz waves in various channels, which significantly simplifies THz functional devices and the experimental system.

  17. Galvanically Decoupled Current Source Modules for Multi-Channel Bioimpedance Measurement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kusche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance measurements have become a useful technique in the past several years in biomedical engineering. Especially, multi-channel measurements facilitate new imaging and patient monitoring techniques. While most instrumentation research has focused on signal acquisition and signal processing, this work proposes the design of an excitation current source module that can be easily implemented in existing or upcoming bioimpedance measurement systems. It is galvanically isolated to enable simultaneous multi-channel bioimpedance measurements with a very low channel-coupling. The system is based on a microcontroller in combination with a voltage-controlled current source circuit. It generates selectable sinusoidal excitation signals between 0.12 and 1.5 mA in a frequency range from 12 to 250 kHz, whereas the voltage compliance range is ±3.2 V. The coupling factor between two current sources, experimentally galvanically connected with each other, is measured to be less than −48 dB over the entire intended frequency range. Finally, suggestions for developments in the future are made.

  18. Opacity annotation of diffuse lung diseases using deep convolutional neural network with multi-channel information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabu, Shingo; Kido, Shoji; Hashimoto, Noriaki; Hirano, Yasushi; Kuremoto, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    This research proposes a multi-channel deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) that classifies normal and abnormal opacities of diffuse lung diseases in Computed Tomography (CT) images. Because CT images are gray scale, DCNN usually uses one channel for inputting image data. On the other hand, this research uses multi-channel DCNN where each channel corresponds to the original raw image or the images transformed by some preprocessing techniques. In fact, the information obtained only from raw images is limited and some conventional research suggested that preprocessing of images contributes to improving the classification accuracy. Thus, the combination of the original and preprocessed images is expected to show higher accuracy. The proposed method realizes region of interest (ROI)-based opacity annotation. We used lung CT images taken in Yamaguchi University Hospital, Japan, and they are divided into 32 × 32 ROI images. The ROIs contain six kinds of opacities: consolidation, ground-glass opacity (GGO), emphysema, honeycombing, nodular, and normal. The aim of the proposed method is to classify each ROI into one of the six opacities (classes). The DCNN structure is based on VGG network that secured the first and second places in ImageNet ILSVRC-2014. From the experimental results, the classification accuracy of the proposed method was better than the conventional method with single channel, and there was a significant difference between them.

  19. A wireless multi-channel bioimpedance measurement system for personalized healthcare and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Javier; Ausín, José Luis; Lorido, Antonio Manuel; Redondo, Francisco; Duque-Carrillo, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Miniaturized, noninvasive, wearable sensors constitute a fundamental prerequisite for pervasive, predictive, and preventive healthcare systems. In this sense, this paper presents the design, realization, and evaluation of a wireless multi-channel measurement system based on a cost-effective high-performance integrated circuit for electrical bioimpedance (EBI) measurements in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The resulting on-chip spectrometer provides high measuring EBI capabilities and together with a low-cost, commercially available radio frequency transceiver device. It provides reliable wireless communication, constitutes the basic node to build EBI wireless sensor networks (EBI-WSNs). The proposed EBI-WSN behaves as a high-performance wireless multi-channel EBI spectrometer, where the number of channels is completely scalable and independently configurable to satisfy specific measurement requirements of each individual. A prototype of the EBI node leads to a very small printed circuit board of approximately 8 cm2 including chip-antenna, which can operate several years on one 3-V coin cell battery and make it suitable for long-term preventive healthcare monitoring.

  20. Analysis and compensation of synchronous measurement error for multi-channel laser interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shengwu; Hu, Jinchun; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Chuxiong

    2017-05-01

    Dual-frequency laser interferometer has been widely used in precision motion system as a displacement sensor, to achieve nanoscale positioning or synchronization accuracy. In a multi-channel laser interferometer synchronous measurement system, signal delays are different in the different channels, which will cause asynchronous measurement, and then lead to measurement error, synchronous measurement error (SME). Based on signal delay analysis of the measurement system, this paper presents a multi-channel SME framework for synchronous measurement, and establishes the model between SME and motion velocity. Further, a real-time compensation method for SME is proposed. This method has been verified in a self-developed laser interferometer signal processing board (SPB). The experiment result showed that, using this compensation method, at a motion velocity 0.89 m s-1, the max SME between two measuring channels in the SPB is 1.1 nm. This method is more easily implemented and applied to engineering than the method of directly testing smaller signal delay.

  1. Application of a multi-channel system for continuous monitoring and an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Song, C H; Kim, B C; Gu, M B

    2006-01-01

    A multi-channel continuous toxicity monitoring system developed in our laboratory, based on two-stage mini-bioreactors, was successfully implemented in the form of computer-based data acquisition. The multi-channel system consists of a series of a two-stage minibioreactor systems connected by a fiber optic probe to a luminometer, and uses genetically engineered bioluminescent bacteria for the detection of the potential toxicity from the soluble chemicals. This system can be stably and continuously operated due to the separation of the culture reactor from the test reactor and accomplish easy and long-term monitoring without system shut down by abrupt inflows of severe polluting chemicals. Four different recombinant bioluminescent bacteria were used in different channels so that the modes of the samples toxicities can be reasonably identified and evaluated based upon the response signature of each channel. The bioluminescent signatures were delivered from four channels by switching one at once, while the data is automatically logged to an IBM compatible computer. We also achieved the enhancement of the system through the manipulation of the dilution rate and the use of thermo-lux fusion strains. Finally, this system is now being implemented to a drinking water reservoir and river for remote sensing as an early warning system.

  2. SVM-Based Spectral Analysis for Heart Rate from Multi-Channel WPPG Sensor Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Xiong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although wrist-type photoplethysmographic (hereafter referred to as WPPG sensor signals can measure heart rate quite conveniently, the subjects’ hand movements can cause strong motion artifacts, and then the motion artifacts will heavily contaminate WPPG signals. Hence, it is challenging for us to accurately estimate heart rate from WPPG signals during intense physical activities. The WWPG method has attracted more attention thanks to the popularity of wrist-worn wearable devices. In this paper, a mixed approach called Mix-SVM is proposed, it can use multi-channel WPPG sensor signals and simultaneous acceleration signals to measurement heart rate. Firstly, we combine the principle component analysis and adaptive filter to remove a part of the motion artifacts. Due to the strong relativity between motion artifacts and acceleration signals, the further denoising problem is regarded as a sparse signals reconstruction problem. Then, we use a spectrum subtraction method to eliminate motion artifacts effectively. Finally, the spectral peak corresponding to heart rate is sought by an SVM-based spectral analysis method. Through the public PPG database in the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup, we acquire the experimental results, i.e., the average absolute error was 1.01 beat per minute, and the Pearson correlation was 0.9972. These results also confirm that the proposed Mix-SVM approach has potential for multi-channel WPPG-based heart rate estimation in the presence of intense physical exercise.

  3. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  4. Graft Copolymerization Of Methyl Methacrylate Onto Agave Cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Afizah Rosli; Ishak Ahmad; Ibrahim Abdullah; Farah Hannan Anuar

    2014-01-01

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Agave cellulose was prepared and the grafting reaction conditions were optimized by varying the reaction time and temperature, and ratio of monomer to cellulose. The resulting graft copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the optimal conditions were at a temperature of 45 degree Celsius for 90 min with ratio monomer to cellulose at 1:1 (g/ g). An additional peak at 1738 cm -1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted cellulose, respectively. Grafting of MMA onto cellulose enhanced its thermal stability and SEM observation further furnished evidence of grafting MMA onto Agave cellulose with increasing cellulose diameter and surface roughness. (author)

  5. The designing principle and implementation of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge based on multifunction card PCI-1710

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Zhao Shujun; Guo Maotian; He Jintian

    2006-01-01

    The designing principle, the constitution of system and the implementation of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge are introduced in the paper in detail, which are based on multifunction card PCI-1710. The paper also discusses the primaryprinciple of isotope thickness gauge, correct factor in measurement and complication of calibration. In the following, the whole frame of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge is given. The functions, the characteristics and the usage of multifunction card PCI-1710 are described. Furthermore, the developing process and the function modules of software are presented. Finally, the real prototype of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge is introduced, using 241 Am as a radioactive element. (authors)

  6. Robust, highly customizable, and economical multi-channel electrode for chronic multi-unit recording in behaving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateyama, Yukina; Oyama, Kei; Shiraishi, Masaru; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-12-01

    Multi-unit recording has been one of the most widely used techniques to investigate the correlation between multiple neuronal activities and behavior. However, a common problem of currently used multi-channel electrodes is their physical weakness. In this study, we developed a novel multi-channel electrode with sufficient physical strength to penetrate a thickened dura mater. This electrode consists of low-cost materials and is easily fabricated, and it enables recording without removing dura mater, thereby reducing the risk of inflammation, infection, or brain herniation. The low-cost multi-channel electrode developed in this study would be a useful tool for chronic recording in behaving animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Chemical structure of chromium(III) crosslinked collagen-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers in radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.

    1991-01-01

    Upon γ-irradiation of aqueous emulsions of methyl methacrylate embedded into chrome tanned skin, the formation of graft copolymers is observed. The number-average molecular weight of the grafted poly(methyl methacrylate) side chains was in the range of 430000 (for a dose of 10 kGy) and practically independent of grafting degree. However, the number of branches per graft copolymer molecule increases from 0.3 to 0.8 when the degree of grafting increases from 32% to 88%. Similarly, the radiation yield, i.e. the number of branches formed per 100 eV of energy absorbed in the substrate polymer increases from 0.75 to 1.94. The value and meaning of molecular weight of graft copolymer is discussed along with the mechanism of polymer chain termination. (author) 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  8. Multi-channel electrical impedance tomography for regional tissue hydration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Ashe, Jeffrey M; Boverman, Gregory; Sabatini, James E; Davenport, David M

    2014-01-01

    Poor assessment of hydration status during hemodialysis can lead to under- or over-hydration in patients with consequences of increased morbidity and mortality. In current practice, fluid management is largely based on clinical assessments to estimate dry weight (normal hydration body weight). However, hemodialysis patients usually have co-morbidities that can make the signs of fluid status ambiguous. Therefore, achieving normal hydration status remains a major challenge for hemodialysis therapy. Electrical impedance technology has emerged as a promising method for hydration monitoring due to its non-invasive nature, low cost and ease-of-use. Conventional electrical impedance-based hydration monitoring systems employ single-channel current excitation (either 2-electrode or 4-electrode methods) to perturb and extract averaged impedance from bulk tissue and use generalized models from large populations to derive hydration estimates. In the present study, a prototype, single-frequency electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system with simultaneous multi-channel current excitation was used to enable regional hydration change detection. We demonstrated the capability to detect a difference in daily impedance change between left leg and right leg in healthy human subjects, who wore a compression sock only on one leg to reduce daily gravitational fluid accumulation. The impedance difference corresponded well with the difference of lower leg volume change between left leg and right leg measured by volumetry, which on average is ∼35 ml, accounting for 0.7% of the lower leg volume. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using multi-channel EIT to extract hydration information in different tissue layers with minimal skin interference. Our simultaneous, multi-channel current excitation approach provides an effective method to separate electrode contact impedance and skin condition artifacts from hydration signals. The prototype system has the potential to be used in

  9. Compact and cost-effective multi-channel optical spectrometer for fine FBG sensing in IoT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Optical fiber sensor networks have attracted much attention in IoT technology and a fiber Bragg grating is one of key sensor devices there because of their advantages in a high affinity for optical fiber networks, compactness, immunity to electromagnetic interference and so on. Nevertheless, its sensitivity is not always satisfactory so as to be usable together with widespread cost-effective multi-channel spectrometers. In this paper, we introduce a new cost-effective approach for a portable multi-channel spectrometer with high spectral resolution and demonstrates some preliminary experimental results for fine FBG sensing.

  10. Automatic pickup of arrival time of channel wave based on multi-channel constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Li

    2018-03-01

    Accurately detecting the arrival time of a channel wave in a coal seam is very important for in-seam seismic data processing. The arrival time greatly affects the accuracy of the channel wave inversion and the computed tomography (CT) result. However, because the signal-to-noise ratio of in-seam seismic data is reduced by the long wavelength and strong frequency dispersion, accurately timing the arrival of channel waves is extremely difficult. For this purpose, we propose a method that automatically picks up the arrival time of channel waves based on multi-channel constraints. We first estimate the Jaccard similarity coefficient of two ray paths, then apply it as a weight coefficient for stacking the multichannel dispersion spectra. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in an actual data application. Most importantly, the method increases the degree of automation and the pickup precision of the channel-wave arrival time.

  11. Research on Intelligent Control System of DC SQUID Magnetometer Parameters for Multi-channel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Yang, Kang; Lu, Li; Kong, Xiangyan; Wang, Hai; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yongliang

    2018-03-01

    In a multi-channel SQUID measurement system, adjusting device parameters to optimal condition for all channels is time-consuming. In this paper, an intelligent control system is presented to determine the optimal working point of devices which is automatic and more efficient comparing to the manual one. An optimal working point searching algorithm is introduced as the core component of the control system. In this algorithm, the bias voltage V_bias is step scanned to obtain the maximal value of the peak-to-peak current value I_pp of the SQUID magnetometer modulation curve. We choose this point as the optimal one. Using the above control system, more than 30 weakly damped SQUID magnetometers with area of 5 × 5 mm^2 or 10 × 10 mm^2 are adjusted and a 36-channel magnetocardiography system perfectly worked in a magnetically shielded room. The average white flux noise is 15 μΦ_0/Hz^{1/2}.

  12. Selecting participants for listening tests of multi-channel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickelmaier, Florian; Choisel, Sylvain

    2005-01-01

    A selection procedure was devised in order to select listeners for experiments in which their main task will be to judge multi-channel reproduced sound. 91 participants filled in a web-based questionnaire. 78 of them took part in an assessment of their hearing thresholds, their spatial hearing......, and their verbal production abilities. The listeners displayed large individual differences in their performance. 40 subjects were selected based on the test results. The self-assessed listening habits and experience in the web questionnaire could not predict the results of the selection procedure. Further......, the hearing thresholds did not correlate with the spatial-hearing test. This leads to the conclusion that task-specific performance tests might be the preferable means of selecting a listening panel....

  13. Investigations of Orchestra Auralizations Using the Multi-Channel Multi-Source Auralization Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2008-01-01

    a multi-channel multi-source auralization technique, involving individual five-channel anechoic recordings of each instrumental part of two symphonies. In the first study, these auralizations were subjectively compared to orchestra auralizations made using (a) a single omni-directional source, (b......) a surface source, and (c) single-channel multi-source method. Results show that the multi-source auralizations were rated to be more realistic than the surface source ones and to have larger source width than the single omni-directional source auralizations. No significant differences were found between......Room acoustics computer modeling is a tool for generating impulse responses and auralizations from modeled spaces. The auralizations are commonly made from a single-channel anechoic recording of solo instruments. For this investigation, auralizations of an entire orchestra were created using...

  14. Design of a novel multi channel photonic crystal fiber polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunyan; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Guangyao; Shi, Min; Wu, Junjun

    2017-10-01

    A kind of multi channel dual-core photonic crystal fiber polarization beam splitter is designed. We analyze the effects of the lattice parameters and the thickness of gold layer on the beam splitting by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thickness of metal layer and the size of the air holes near the fiber cores are closely linked with the nature of the polarization beam splitter. We also obtain that extinction ratio can reach -73.87 dB at 1 . 55 μm wavelength and at 1 . 41 μm, 1 . 65 μm extinction ratio can reach 30.8978 dB and 31.1741 dB, respectively. The comparison of the effect on the characteristic of the photonic crystal fiber with coating no gold is also taken into account.

  15. A customizable multi-channel loudness compensation method based on WDRC for digital hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiebin; Wang, Mingjiang; Ma, Min

    2017-08-01

    Loudness compensation is the most significant signal processing algorithm in digital hearing aids at present. An algorithm of multi-channel loudness compensation for embedded system has been put forward in this paper. The number of channels is customizable in this algorithm. The algorithm can set different number and different width of channels for each patient based on frequency domain wide dynamic range compression. First, according to the requirement of patient to divide the frequency domain into multiple unequal frequency bands. And then calculate the gain of each channel according to the input-output curve of sound pressure level. Finally, the time-domain impulse response of gain is computed from Mel filter banks. It is used in conjunction with speech enhancement processing in hearing aids. Simulation results show that the algorithm can effectively enhance the loudness for different frequencies.

  16. Development of a multi-channel horn mixer array for microwave imaging plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Naoki; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Nagayama, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostics techniques, such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and radiometry, have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. The resultant measurements have clarified several physics issues, including instability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport. Electron cyclotron emission imaging has been an important tool in the investigation of temperature fluctuations, while reflectometry has been employed to measure plasma density profiles and their fluctuations. We have developed a horn-antenna mixer array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1D antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2D array. This article describes an upgrade to the horn mixer array that combines well-characterized mixers, waveguide-to-microstrip line transitions, intermediate frequency amplifiers, and internal local oscillator modules using a monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology to improve system performance. We also report on the use of a multi-channel HMA system. (author)

  17. A low delay transmission method of multi-channel video based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weijian; Wei, Baozhi; Li, Xiaobin; Wang, Quan; Hu, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    In order to guarantee the fluency of multi-channel video transmission in video monitoring scenarios, we designed a kind of video format conversion method based on FPGA and its DMA scheduling for video data, reduces the overall video transmission delay.In order to sace the time in the conversion process, the parallel ability of FPGA is used to video format conversion. In order to improve the direct memory access (DMA) writing transmission rate of PCIe bus, a DMA scheduling method based on asynchronous command buffer is proposed. The experimental results show that this paper designs a low delay transmission method based on FPGA, which increases the DMA writing transmission rate by 34% compared with the existing method, and then the video overall delay is reduced to 23.6ms.

  18. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Miller, G M; Ashton, T J R; Jarron, P; Despeisse, M; Powolny, F; Howorth, J; Milnes, J

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchanne...

  19. [Analysis of the Muscle Fatigue Based on Band Spectrum Entropy of Multi-channel Surface Electromyography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zou, Renling; Zhang, Dongheng; Xu, Xiulin; Hu, Xiufang

    2016-06-01

    Exercise-induced muscle fatigue is a phenomenon that the maximum voluntary contraction force or power output of muscle is temporarily reduced due to muscular movement.If the fatigue is not treated properly,it will bring about a severe injury to the human body.With multi-channel collection of lower limb surface electromyography signals,this article analyzes the muscle fatigue by adoption of band spectrum entropy method which combined electromyographic signal spectral analysis and nonlinear dynamics.The experimental result indicated that with the increase of muscle fatigue,muscle signal spectrum began to move to low frequency,the energy concentrated,the system complexity came down,and the band spectrum entropy which reflected the complexity was also reduced.By monitoring the entropy,we can measure the degree of muscle fatigue,and provide an indicator to judge fatigue degree for the sports training and clinical rehabilitation training.

  20. The interaction between room and musical instruments studied by multi-channel auralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    in the anechoic recording. With this technique the variations in sound radiation from the musical instrument during the performance e.g. due to changes in level or movements can be reproduced with the influence of the surrounding room surfaces. Examples include a grand piano and a clarinet.......The directivity of musical instruments is very complicated and typically changes from one tone to the next. So, instead of measuring the average directivity, a multi-channel auralization method has been developed, which allows a highly accurate and realistic sounding auralization of musical...... instruments in rooms. Anechoic recordings have been made with 5 and 13 evenly distributed microphones around the musical instrument. The reproduction is made with a room acoustics simulation software using a compound source, which is in fact a number of highly directive sources, one for each of the channels...

  1. Multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapiński, Daniel; Krzysztofik, Izabela; Koruba, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for tracking several air targets simultaneously. The developed concept concerns a multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system based on the programmed selection of air targets and an algorithm of simultaneous synchronisation of several modified optical scanning seekers. The above system is supposed to facilitate simultaneous firing of several self-guided infrared rocket missiles at many different air targets. From the available information, it appears that, currently, there are no passive self-guided seekers that fulfil such tasks. This paper contains theoretical discussions and simulations of simultaneous detection and tracking of many air targets by mutually integrated seekers of several rocket missiles. The results of computer simulation research have been presented in a graphical form.

  2. Study of multi-channel readout ASIC and its discrete module for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Fan Lei; Zhang Shengjun; Li Xian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout systems, it is the key part for the whole system. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detectors. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured and tested. The discrete modules work well, and the 6-channel chip NPRE 6 is ready for test in some particle detection system. (authors)

  3. FPGA based high-performance multi-channel analyzer with local histogram memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.

    2004-01-01

    Modern nuclear spectroscopy systems demand for a Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) with higher resolution, faster speed and other advanced features. The MCA described here is targeted for such demanding applications. The MCA has an in-built local histogram memory and a memory management unit integrated in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip. In addition to the integrated low power digital circuitry, the system utilizes state of the art advanced analog circuits like low power, high speed and high precision comparators, op-amps, ADC and DAC. The operating resolution is selectable from 256 channels to 16384 channels for pulse height analysis. It supports high count rate applications (typically 100 KHz) without significant dead time penalty. It can have an USB bus interface with simple changes. In general, the MCA gives a high performance, compact and low power alternative for portable and battery operated systems as well as for high end laboratory instruments. (author)

  4. Estimation of black carbon content for biomass burning aerosols from multi-channel Raman lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talianu, Camelia; Marmureanu, Luminita; Nicolae, Doina

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning due to natural processes (forest fires) or anthropical activities (agriculture, thermal power stations, domestic heating) is an important source of aerosols with a high content of carbon components (black carbon and organic carbon). Multi-channel Raman lidars provide information on the spectral dependence of the backscatter and extinction coefficients, embedding information on the black carbon content. Aerosols with a high content of black carbon have large extinction coefficients and small backscatter coefficients (strong absorption), while aerosols with high content of organic carbon have large backscatter coefficients (weak absorption). This paper presents a method based on radiative calculations to estimate the black carbon content of biomass burning aerosols from 3b+2a+1d lidar signals. Data is collected at Magurele, Romania, at the cross-road of air masses coming from Ukraine, Russia and Greece, where burning events are frequent during both cold and hot seasons. Aerosols are transported in the free troposphere, generally in the 2-4 km altitude range, and reaches the lidar location after 2-3 days. Optical data are collected between 2011-2012 by a multi-channel Raman lidar and follows the quality assurance program of EARLINET. Radiative calculations are made with libRadTran, an open source radiative model developed by ESA. Validation of the retrievals is made by comparison to a co-located C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Keywords: Lidar, aerosols, biomass burning, radiative model, black carbon Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programme for Research- Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project no. 39/2012 - SIAFIM, and by Romanian Partnerships in priority areas PNII implemented with MEN-UEFISCDI support, project no. 309/2014 - MOBBE

  5. Satellite rainfall monitoring over Africa for food security, using multi-channel MSG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, R.; Grimes, D.; Saunders, R.; Blackmore, T.; Francis, P.

    2009-04-01

    Near real-time rainfall estimates are crucial in sub-Saharan Africa for a variety of humanitarian and agricultural purposes. However, for economic and infrastructural reasons, regularly reporting rain-gauges are sparse and precipitation radar networks extremely rare. Satellite rainfall estimates, particularly from geostationary satellites such as Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), present one method of filling this information gap, as they produce data at high temporal and spatial resolution. An algorithm has been developed to produce rainfall estimates for Africa from multi-channel MSG data. The algorithm is calibrated using precipitation radar data collected in Niamey, Niger as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) project in 2006, and is based on an algorithm used operationally over Europe by the UK Met Office. Contingency tables are used to establish a statistical relationship between multi-channel MSG data and probability of rainfall at several different rain-rate magnitudes as sensed by the radar. Rain-rate estimates can then be produced at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, with MSG scan length (15 minutes) and pixel size (3-4km) as the lower limit. Results will be presented of a validation of this algorithm over the Sahel region of Africa. Rainfall estimates from this algorithm, processed for 2004, will be validated against gridded rain-gauge data at a 0.5 degree and 10 day timescale suitable for drought monitoring purposes. A comparison will also be made against rainfall estimates from the TAMSAT algorithm, which uses single channel IR data from MSG, and has been shown to perform well in the Sahel region.

  6. Scale-free brain quartet: artistic filtering of multi-channel brainwave music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    To listen to the brain activities as a piece of music, we proposed the scale-free brainwave music (SFBM) technology, which translated scalp EEGs into music notes according to the power law of both EEG and music. In the present study, the methodology was extended for deriving a quartet from multi-channel EEGs with artistic beat and tonality filtering. EEG data from multiple electrodes were first translated into MIDI sequences by SFBM, respectively. Then, these sequences were processed by a beat filter which adjusted the duration of notes in terms of the characteristic frequency. And the sequences were further filtered from atonal to tonal according to a key defined by the analysis of the original music pieces. Resting EEGs with eyes closed and open of 40 subjects were utilized for music generation. The results revealed that the scale-free exponents of the music before and after filtering were different: the filtered music showed larger variety between the eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) conditions, and the pitch scale exponents of the filtered music were closer to 1 and thus it was more approximate to the classical music. Furthermore, the tempo of the filtered music with eyes closed was significantly slower than that with eyes open. With the original materials obtained from multi-channel EEGs, and a little creative filtering following the composition process of a potential artist, the resulted brainwave quartet opened a new window to look into the brain in an audible musical way. In fact, as the artistic beat and tonal filters were derived from the brainwaves, the filtered music maintained the essential properties of the brain activities in a more musical style. It might harmonically distinguish the different states of the brain activities, and therefore it provided a method to analyze EEGs from a relaxed audio perspective.

  7. Evaluation of the Thermophysical Properties of Poly(MethylMethacrylate): A Reference Material for the Development of a flammability Test for Micro-Gravity Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhaus, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A study has been conducted using PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) as a reference material in the development process of the Forced Flow and flame Spread Test (FIST). This test attempts to establish different criteria for material flammability for micro-gravity environments. The FIST consists of two tests, ignition and flame spread tests, that provide a series of material “fire” properties that jointly provide important information on the flammability of a material. This work de...

  8. Effect of flow rate distribution at the inlet on hydrodynamic mixing in narrow rectangular multi-channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianjun; Chen Bingde; Wang Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    Flow and heat transfer in the narrow rectangular multi-channel is widely en- countered in the engineering application, hydrodynamic mixing in the narrow rectangular multi-channel is one of the important concerns. With the help of the Computational Fluid Dynamics code CFX, the effect of flow rate distribution of the main channel at the inlet on hydrodynamic mixing in the narrow rectangular multi-channel is numerical simulated. The results show that the flow rate distributions at the inlet have a great effect on hydrodynamics mixing in multi-channel, the flow rate in the main channel doesn't change with increasing the axial mixing section when the average flow rate at the inlet is set. Hydrodynamic mixing will arise in the mixing section when the different ratio of the flow rate distribution at the inlet is set, and hydrodynamic mixing increases with the difference of the flow rate distribution at the inlet increase. The trend of the flow rate distribution of the main channel is consistent during the whole axial mixing section, and hydrodynamic mixing in former 4 mixing section is obvious. (authors)

  9. Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques Applied to P-band Multi-Channel SAR Ice Sounder Data from East Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Bekaert, David; Gebert, Nicolas

    ., Lausanne, developed and built the radiator-elements of the enhanced POLARIS. Several datasets were acquired in the multi-channel configuration during the Feb. 2011 campaign over East Antarctica. The POLARIS instrument will be briefly introduced, followed by an overview of the sounding campaign. Finally...

  10. A Novel Spectrally Efficient Asynchronous Multi-Channel MAC Using a Half-Duplex Transceiver for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Devendiran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel medium access control (MAC protocols maximize network performance by enabling concurrent wireless transmissions over non-interfering channels. Despite physical layer advancements, the underlying IEEE 802.11 MAC standard cannot fully exploit features and support high-performance applications. In this work, we propose the novel spectrally efficient asynchronous multi-channel MAC (SA-MMAC protocol for wireless networks using a single half-duplex transceiver. A full-duplex mode of operation on data channels reduces the signaling overhead and boosts the spectrum efficiency. A revamped contention mechanism of IEEE 802.11 addresses the multi-channel hidden terminal problem, and a jamming signal from the receiver addresses the collisions in control signals. Furthermore, the control channel is used for data transmissions to increase the bandwidth utilization but under a restricted half-duplex mode to avoid causing a bottleneck situation. The simulator is tested for correctness. The results suggest that the protocol can work well on 3, 4, or 12 concurrent channels with high node density, providing about 12.5 times more throughput than IEEE 802.11 and 18% to 95% more throughput than its multi-channel variants under saturated traffic conditions.

  11. Feasibility study of applying a multi-channel analysis model to on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, W. K.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, D. H.; Jun, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the effect of implementing a multi-channel analysis model in on-line core monitoring system. A simplified thermal-hydraulic model has been used in the on-line core monitoring system of digital PWR. The design procedure, core thermal margin and computation time were investigated in case of replacing the simplified model with the multi-channel analysis model. For the given ranges of limiting conditions for operation in Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, the minimum DNBR of the simplified thermal-hydraulic code CETOP-D was compared to that of the multi-channel analysis code MATRA. A CETOP-D tuning is additionally required to ensure the accurate and conservative DNBR calculation but the MATRA tuning is not necessary. MATRA appeared to increase the DNBR overpower margin from 2.5% to 6% over the CETOP-D margin. MATRA took approximately 1 second to compute DNBR on the HP9000 workstation system, which is longer than the DNBR computation time of CETOP-D. It is, however, fast enough to perform the on-line monitoring of DNBR. It can be therefore concluded that the application of the multi-channel analysis model MATRA in the on-line core monitoring system is feasible

  12. Analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection and magnetic data along 13 degrees N latitude across the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Murty, G.P.S.; Srinivas, K.; Desa, M.; Reddy, S.I.; Ashalata, B.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Mital, G.S.; Drolia, R.K.; rai, S.N.; Ghosh, S.K.; Singh, R.N.; Majumdar, M.

    Analysis of the multi-channel seismic reflection, magnetic and bathymetric data collected along a transect, 1110 km long parallel to 13 degrees N lat. across the Bay of Bengal was made. The transect is from the continental shelf off Madras...

  13. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N 2 , Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  14. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-07-18

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N{sub 2}, Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  15. EFFICIENCY OF REDUNDANT QUERY EXECUTION IN MULTI-CHANNEL SERVICE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bogatyrev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with analysis of the effectiveness of redundant queries based on untrusted computing in computer systems, represented by multi-channel queuing systems with a common queue. The objective of research is the possibility of increasing the efficiency of service requests while performing redundant copies of requests in different devices of a multi-channel system under conditions of calculations unreliability. The redundant service of requests requires the infallibility of its implementation at least in one of the devices.Method. We have considered estimation of the average time spent in the system with and without the use of redundant requests at the presentation of a simple queuing model of the M / M / n type to analyze the effectiveness of redundant service of requests. Presented evaluation of the average waiting time in the redundant queries is the upper one, since it ignores the possibility of reducing the average waiting time as a result of the spread of the probability of time querying at different devices. The integrated efficiency of redundant service of requests is defined based on the multiplicative index that takes into account the infallibility of calculations and the average time allowance with respect to the maximum tolerated delay of service. Evaluation of error-free computing at reserved queries is received at the requirement of faultless execution of at least one copy of the request. Main Results. We have shown that the reservation of requests gives the gain in efficiency of the system at low demand rate (load. We have defined the boundaries of expediency (efficiency for redundant service of requests. We have shown the possibility of the effectiveness increasing of the adaptive changes in the multiplicity of the reservation of requests, depending on the intensity of the flow of requests. We have found out that the choice of service discipline in information service systems is largely determined by

  16. Optimization of multi-channel neutron focusing guides for extreme sample environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Julio, D D; Lelièvre-Berna, E; Andersen, K H; Bentley, P M; Courtois, P

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present and discuss simulation results for the design of multichannel neutron focusing guides for extreme sample environments. A single focusing guide consists of any number of supermirror-coated curved outer channels surrounding a central channel. Furthermore, a guide is separated into two sections in order to allow for extension into a sample environment. The performance of a guide is evaluated through a Monte-Carlo ray tracing simulation which is further coupled to an optimization algorithm in order to find the best possible guide for a given situation. A number of population-based algorithms have been investigated for this purpose. These include particle-swarm optimization, artificial bee colony, and differential evolution. The performance of each algorithm and preliminary results of the design of a multi-channel neutron focusing guide using these methods are described. We found that a three-channel focusing guide offered the best performance, with a gain factor of 2.4 compared to no focusing guide, for the design scenario investigated in this work.

  17. TRANTHAC-1: transient thermal-hydraulic analysis code for HTGR core of multi-channel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Sadao; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1980-08-01

    The computer program TRANTHAC-1 is for predicting thermal-hydraulic transient behavior in HTGR's core of pin-in-block type fuel elements, taking into consideration of the core flow distribution. The program treats a multi-channel model, each single channel representing the respective column composed of fuel elements. The fuel columns are grouped in flow control regions; each region is provided with an orifice assembly. In the region, all channels are of the same shape except one channel. Core heat is removed by downward flow of the control through the channel. In any transients, for given time-dependent power, total core flow, inlet coolant temperature and coolant pressure, the thermal response of the core can be determined. In the respective channels, the heat conduction in radial and axial direction are represented. And the temperature distribution in each channel with the components is calculated. The model and usage of the program are described. The program is written in FORTRAN-IV for computer FACOM 230-75 and it is composed of about 4,000 cards. The required core memory is about 75 kilowords. (author)

  18. A multi-channel time-to-digital converter chip for drift chamber readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.M.; Chau, A.; DeBusshere, D.; Dow, S.; Flasck, J.; Levi, M.; Kirsten, F.; Su, E.

    1995-12-01

    A complete, multi-channel, timing and amplitude measurement IC for use in drift chamber applications is described. By targeting specific resolutions, i.e. 6-bits of resolution for both time and amplitude, area and power can be minimized while achieving the proper level of measurement accuracy. Time is digitized using one eight channel TDC comprised of a delay locked loop and eight sets of latches and encoders. Amplitude (for dE/dx) is digitized using a dual-range FADC for each channel. Eight bits of dynamic range with six bits of accuracy are achieved with the dual-range. The timing and amplitude information is multiplexed into one DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) trigger latency buffer. Interesting events are then transferred into an SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) readout buffer before the latency time has expired. The design has been optimized to achieve the requisite resolution using the smallest area and lowest power. The circuit has been implemented in a 0.8μ triple metal CMOS process. The TDC sub-element has been measured to have better than 135 ps time resolution and 35 ps jitter. The DRAM has a measured cycle time of 80 MHz

  19. Stochastic geometry model for multi-channel fog radio access networks

    KAUST Repository

    Emara, Mostafa

    2017-06-29

    Cache-enabled base station (BS) densification, denoted as a fog radio access network (F-RAN), is foreseen as a key component of 5G cellular networks. F-RAN enables storing popular files at the network edge (i.e., BS caches), which empowers local communication and alleviates traffic congestions at the core/backhaul network. The hitting probability, which is the probability of successfully transmitting popular files request from the network edge, is a fundamental key performance indicator (KPI) for F-RAN. This paper develops a scheduling aware mathematical framework, based on stochastic geometry, to characterize the hitting probability of F-RAN in a multi-channel environment. To this end, we assess and compare the performance of two caching distribution schemes, namely, uniform caching and Zipf caching. The numerical results show that the commonly used single channel environment leads to pessimistic assessment for the hitting probability of F-RAN. Furthermore, the numerical results manifest the superiority of the Zipf caching scheme and quantify the hitting probability gains in terms of the number of channels and cache size.

  20. A generic EEG artifact removal algorithm based on the multi-channel Wiener filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Ben; Francart, Tom; Bertrand, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an essential neuro-monitoring tool for both clinical and research purposes, but is susceptible to a wide variety of undesired artifacts. Removal of these artifacts is often done using blind source separation techniques, relying on a purely data-driven transformation, which may sometimes fail to sufficiently isolate artifacts in only one or a few components. Furthermore, some algorithms perform well for specific artifacts, but not for others. In this paper, we aim to develop a generic EEG artifact removal algorithm, which allows the user to annotate a few artifact segments in the EEG recordings to inform the algorithm. Approach. We propose an algorithm based on the multi-channel Wiener filter (MWF), in which the artifact covariance matrix is replaced by a low-rank approximation based on the generalized eigenvalue decomposition. The algorithm is validated using both hybrid and real EEG data, and is compared to other algorithms frequently used for artifact removal. Main results. The MWF-based algorithm successfully removes a wide variety of artifacts with better performance than current state-of-the-art methods. Significance. Current EEG artifact removal techniques often have limited applicability due to their specificity to one kind of artifact, their complexity, or simply because they are too ‘blind’. This paper demonstrates a fast, robust and generic algorithm for removal of EEG artifacts of various types, i.e. those that were annotated as unwanted by the user.

  1. Automatic seizure detection based on the combination of newborn multi-channel EEG and HRV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    This article proposes a new method for newborn seizure detection that uses information extracted from both multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) and a single channel electrocardiogram (ECG). The aim of the study is to assess whether additional information extracted from ECG can improve the performance of seizure detectors based solely on EEG. Two different approaches were used to combine this extracted information. The first approach, known as feature fusion, involves combining features extracted from EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) into a single feature vector prior to feeding it to a classifier. The second approach, called classifier or decision fusion, is achieved by combining the independent decisions of the EEG and the HRV-based classifiers. Tested on recordings obtained from eight newborns with identified EEG seizures, the proposed neonatal seizure detection algorithms achieved 95.20% sensitivity and 88.60% specificity for the feature fusion case and 95.20% sensitivity and 94.30% specificity for the classifier fusion case. These results are considerably better than those involving classifiers using EEG only (80.90%, 86.50%) or HRV only (85.70%, 84.60%).

  2. Experimental test results of multi-channel test rig of T1 test section, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Takase, Kazuyuki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1990-09-01

    Channel blockage test on a fuel column of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) has been performed under the helium gas atmosphere at a high temperature and a high pressure in order to obtain safety data on flow rate and temperature distributions in the fuel column with the multi-channel test rig of the fuel stack test section (T 1 ) in HENDEL. In the test, one of 12 fuel channels was blockaded to 90% of flow area at the channel inlet. Experimental results showed that the helium gas flow rate in the blockaded channel was 28%∼33% lower than the average flow rate for Reynolds number from 2300 to 14000 in isothermal flow. When simulated fuel rods were heated, the flow rate in the blockaded channel did not decrease down in comparison with the isothermal flow. This is due to that the heat generated in the fuel rods conducts to the other fuel channels in graphite fuel blocks, so that accelerated pressure losses in the fuel channels change with helium gas temperatures. (author)

  3. Multi-channel non-invasive fetal electrocardiography detection using wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Javier; Ruano, Josué; Corredor, Germán.; Romo-Bucheli, David; Navarro-Vargas, José Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (fECG) has attracted the medical community because of the importance of fetal monitoring. However, its implementation in clinical practice is challenging: the fetal signal has a low Signal- to-Noise-Ratio and several signal sources are present in the maternal abdominal electrocardiography (AECG). This paper presents a novel method to detect the fetal signal from a multi-channel maternal AECG. The method begins by applying filters and signal detrending the AECG signals. Afterwards, the maternal QRS complexes are identified and subtracted. The residual signals are used to detect the fetal QRS complex. Intervals of these signals are analyzed by using a wavelet decomposition. The resulting representation feds a previously trained Random Forest (RF) classifier that identifies signal intervals associated to fetal QRS complex. The method was evaluated on a public available dataset: the Physionet2013 challenge. A set of 50 maternal AECG records were used to train the RF classifier. The evaluation was carried out in signals intervals extracted from additional 25 maternal AECG. The proposed method yielded an 83:77% accuracy in the fetal QRS complex classification task.

  4. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  5. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE. PMID:27255892

  6. A multi-channel model for an α plus {sup 6}He nucleus cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, K.; Karataglidis, S. [University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria (Australia); University of Johannesburg, Department of Physics, Auckland Park (South Africa); Canton, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Fraser, P.R. [Curtin University, Department of Physics, Astronomy and Medical Radiation Sciences, Perth (Australia); Svenne, J.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, and Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Van der Knijff, D. [University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    A multi-channel algebraic scattering (MCAS) method has been used to solve coupled sets of Lippmann-Schwinger equations for the α + {sup 6}He cluster system, so finding a model spectrum for {sup 10}Be to more than 10MeV excitation. Three states of {sup 6}He were included and the resonance character of the two excited states taken into account in finding solutions. A model Hamiltonian has been found that gives very good agreement with the known bound states and with some low-lying resonances of {sup 10}Be. More resonance states are predicted than those which have been observed as yet. The method also yields S-matrices which we have used to evaluate low-energy {sup 6}He-α scattering cross sections. Reasonable reproduction of low-energy differential cross sections and of energy variation of cross sections measured at fixed scattering angles have been found. Enlarging the channel space by including two higher energy states of {sup 6}He, assuming values for their spin-parities, leads to an enlarged spectrum for {sup 10}Be in which the number and distribution of resonances show similarity to the known spectrum. (orig.)

  7. Multi-Channel Amplifier-Discriminator for Highly Time-Resolved Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Lapington, J; Jarron, P

    2011-01-01

    A low-power multi-channel amplifier-discriminator was developed for application in highly time-resolved detection systems. The proposed circuit architecture, so-called Nino, is based on a time-over-threshold approach and shows a high potential for time-resolved readout of solid-state photo-detectors and of detectors based on vacuum technologies. The Irpics circuit was designed in a 250 nm CMOS technology, implementing 32 channels of a Nino version optimized to achieve high-time resolution on the output low-voltage differential signals (LVDS) while keeping a low power consumption of 10 mW per channel. Electrical characterizations of the circuit demonstrate a very low intrinsic time jitter on the output pulse leading edge, measured below 10 ps rms for each channel for high input signal charges (100 fC) and below 25 ps rms for low input signal charges (20-100 fC). The read-out architecture moreover permits to retrieve the input signal charge from the timing measurements, while a calibration procedure was develop...

  8. Superpixel-based segmentation of muscle fibers in multi-channel microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh P; Heemskerk, Hans; So, Peter T C; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa

    2016-12-05

    Confetti fluorescence and other multi-color genetic labelling strategies are useful for observing stem cell regeneration and for other problems of cell lineage tracing. One difficulty of such strategies is segmenting the cell boundaries, which is a very different problem from segmenting color images from the real world. This paper addresses the difficulties and presents a superpixel-based framework for segmentation of regenerated muscle fibers in mice. We propose to integrate an edge detector into a superpixel algorithm and customize the method for multi-channel images. The enhanced superpixel method outperforms the original and another advanced superpixel algorithm in terms of both boundary recall and under-segmentation error. Our framework was applied to cross-section and lateral section images of regenerated muscle fibers from confetti-fluorescent mice. Compared with "ground-truth" segmentations, our framework yielded median Dice similarity coefficients of 0.92 and higher. Our segmentation framework is flexible and provides very good segmentations of multi-color muscle fibers. We anticipate our methods will be useful for segmenting a variety of tissues in confetti fluorecent mice and in mice with similar multi-color labels.

  9. Measurements of void fraction by an improved multi-channel conductance void meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul-Hwa; Chung, Moon Ki; No, Hee Cheon

    1998-01-01

    An improved multi-channel Conductance Void Meter (CVM) was developed to measure a void fraction. Its measuring principle is basically based upon the differences of electrical conductance of a two-phase mixture due to the variation of void fraction around a sensor. The sensor is designed to be flush-mounted to the inner wall of the test section to avoid the flow disturbances. The signal processor with three channels is specially designed so as to minimize the inherent error due to the phase difference between channels. It is emphasized that the guard electrodes are electrically shielded in order not to affect the measurements of two-phase mixture conductance, but to make the electric fields evenly distributed in a measuring volume. Void fraction is measured for bubbly and slug flow regimes in a vertical air-water loop, and statistical signal processing techniques are applied to show that CVM has a good dynamic resolution which is required to investigate the structural developments of bubbly flow and the propagation of void waves in a flow channel. (author)

  10. Concept and Development Status of the Digital Upgrade of the Mini Multi-Channel Analyser (DMCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutscher, J.; Birnbaum, A.; Keubler, J.; Jung, S.; Koestlbauer, M.; Richter, B.; Schwalbach, P.; Zweidorf, A. von

    2010-01-01

    The Mini Multi Channel Analyser (MMCA) is a portable electronics module used for neutron and gamma ray Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. The MMCA is widely used in nuclear safeguards to perform certain classes of verification activities on nuclear material. For more than a decade, an important but non-exclusive area of application has been low- and medium-resolution gamma spectroscopy and attribute testing. To make use of advances in digital technology, communication protocols and standardisation, display technology, and user interaction paradigms, while preserving the main functionality and compatibility with the existing MMCA, a digital upgrade of the MMCA (DMCA) is being developed in the frame of the German Support Programme to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with cooperation of the European Commission. The DMCA is dubbed MCA-527. At the same time, a data acquisition and analysis software interface optimized for in-field use is being developed (''MCAtouch''). In this paper, development status and performance parameters of the digital MCA-527 as well as the software interface MCAtouch are discussed in the context of safeguards requirements for typical in-field applications. (author)

  11. Subjective evaluation of auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings of a talker in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.

    2005-04-01

    A high degree of speech intelligibility is very important in educational environments. When designing such spaces, like classrooms, auralizations can be used to subjectively assess the degree of speech intelligibility and clarity. Auralizations are most commonly made by convolving the impulse response (IR) of an omni-directional source with a single channel anechoic speech recording. This paper explores the idea of using multi-channel recordings to create the auralizations, using a female talker in motion. An omni-directional source is split into quadrants and the IR is calculated for each section. These IR's are convolved with the appropriate channel of the anechoic recording and then the four auralizations are mixed to create one final auralization. The auralizations were made using four-channel anechoic recordings of a person walking on a platform while talking. Subjective tests were conducted to determine the ease with which subjects could identify the direction of the movement of the source in rooms with varying amounts of absorption. This method can be used to create more realistic classroom auralizations, as teachers typically move around the room as they teach. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Multi-channel integrated circuits for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, G.L.; Duggireddi, N.; Vangapally, V.; Elson, J.M.; Sobotka, L.G.; Charity, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Circuits (IC) Design Research Laboratory at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) has collaborated with the Nuclear Reactions Group at Washington University (WU) to develop a family of multi-channel integrated circuits. To date, the collaboration has successfully produced two micro-chips. The first was an analog shaped and peak sensing chip with on-board constant-fraction discriminators and sparsified readout. This chip is known as Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics-16 Channel (HINP16C). The second chip, christened PSD8C, was designed to logically complement (in terms of detector types) the HINP16C chip. Pulse Shape Discrimination-8 Channel (PSD8C), featuring three settable charge integration windows per channel, performs pulse shape discrimination (PSD). This paper summarizes the design, capabilities, and features of the HINP16C and PSD8C ICs. It proceeds to discuss the modifications, made to the ICs and their associated systems, which have attempted to improve ease of use, increase performance, and extend capabilities. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of what may be the next chip (employing a multi-sampling scheme) to be added to our CMOS ASIC 'tool box' for radiation detection instrumentation.

  13. Hyperbolic Positioning with Antenna Arrays and Multi-Channel Pseudolite for Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjirou Fujii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A hyperbolic positioning method with antenna arrays consisting of proximately-located antennas and a multi-channel pseudolite is proposed in order to overcome the problems of indoor positioning with conventional pseudolites (ground-based GPS transmitters. A two-dimensional positioning experiment using actual devices is conducted. The experimental result shows that the positioning accuracy varies centimeter- to meter-level according to the geometric relation between the pseudolite antennas and the receiver. It also shows that the bias error of the carrier-phase difference observables is more serious than their random error. Based on the size of the bias error of carrier-phase difference that is inverse-calculated from the experimental result, three-dimensional positioning performance is evaluated by computer simulation. In addition, in the three-dimensional positioning scenario, an initial value convergence analysis of the non-linear least squares is conducted. Its result shows that initial values that can converge to a right position exist at least under the proposed antenna setup. The simulated values and evaluation methods introduced in this work can be applied to various antenna setups; therefore, by using them, positioning performance can be predicted in advance of installing an actual system.

  14. Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic-reflection data collected in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, W.F.; Lee, Myung W.; Hart, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Contained on this set of two CD-ROMs are stacked and migrated multi-channel seismic-reflection data for 65 lines recorded in the Beaufort Sea by the United States Geological Survey in 1977. All data were reprocessed by the USGS using updated processing methods resulting in improved interpretability. Each of the two CD-ROMs contains the following files: 1) 65 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 65 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each line to cdp numbers and shotpoint numbers; 4) 2 small scale graphic images (stacked and migrated) of a segment of line 722 in Adobe Acrobat (R) PDF format; 5) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file; 6) PlotSeis, an MS-DOS Application that allows PC users to interactively view the SEG-Y files; 7) a PlotSeis documentation file; and 8) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document).

  15. Multi-Channel RF System for MRI-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yak, Nicolas; Asselin, Matthew; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy is an approach to treating localized prostate cancer which targets precise deposition of thermal energy within a confined region of the gland. This treatment requires a system incorporating a heating applicator with multiple planar ultrasound transducers and associated RF electronics to control individual elements independently in order to achieve accurate 3D treatment. We report the design, construction, and characterization of a prototype multi-channel system capable of controlling 16 independent RF signals for a 16-element heating applicator. The main components are a control computer, microcontroller, and a 16-channel signal generator with 16 amplifiers, each incorporating a low-pass filter and transmitted/reflected power detection circuit. Each channel can deliver from 0.5 to 10 W of electrical power and good linearity from 3 to 12 MHz. Harmonic RF signals near the Larmor frequency of a 1.5 T MRI were measured to be below -30 dBm and heating experiments within the 1.5 T MR system showed no significant decrease in SNR of the temperature images. The frequency and power for all 16 channels could be changed in less than 250 ms, which was sufficiently rapid for proper performance of the control algorithms. A common backplane design was chosen which enabled an inexpensive, modular approach for each channel resulting in an overall system with minimal footprint.

  16. A multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for human brain model imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zheng; Luo, Haijun; He, Wei; He, Chuanhong; Song, Xiaodong; Zahng, Zhanglong

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for biological conductivity imaging in a human brain model. A hemispherical glass bowl filled with a salt solution is used as the human brain model; meanwhile, agar blocks of different conductivity are placed in the solution to simulate the intracerebral hemorrhage. The excitation and detection coils are fixed co-axially, and the axial gradiometer is used as the detection coil in order to cancel the primary field. On the outer surface of the glass bowl, 15 sensor units are arrayed in two circles as measurement parts, and a single sensor unit for canceling the phase drift is placed beside the glass bowl. The phase sensitivity of our system is 0.204°/S m −1 with the excitation frequency of 120 kHz and the phase noise is in the range of −0.03° to +0.05°. Only the coaxial detection coil is available for each excitation coil; therefore, 15 phase data are collected in each measurement turn. Finally, the two-dimensional images of conductivity distribution are obtained using an interpolation algorithm. The frequency-varying experiment indicates that the imaging quality becomes better as the excitation frequency is increased

  17. Automated Filtering of Common Mode Artifacts in Multi-Channel Physiological Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.; Smailagic, Asim; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The removal of spatially correlated noise is an important step in processing multi-channel recordings. Here, a technique termed the adaptive common average reference (ACAR) is presented as an effective and simple method for removing this noise. The ACAR is based on a combination of the well-known common average reference (CAR) and an adaptive noise canceling (ANC) filter. In a convergent process, the CAR provides a reference to an ANC filter, which in turn provides feedback to enhance the CAR. This method was effective on both simulated and real data, outperforming the standard CAR when the amplitude or polarity of the noise changes across channels. In many cases the ACAR even outperformed independent component analysis (ICA). On 16 channels of simulated data the ACAR was able to attenuate up to approximately 290 dB of noise and could improve signal quality if the original SNR was as high as 5 dB. With an original SNR of 0 dB, the ACAR improved signal quality with only two data channels and performance improved as the number of channels increased. It also performed well under many different conditions for the structure of the noise and signals. Analysis of contaminated electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings further showed the effectiveness of the ACAR. PMID:23708770

  18. Multi-channel Spiral Twist Extrusion (MCSTE): A Novel Severe Plastic Deformation Technique for Grain Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Garaihy, W. H.; Fouad, D. M.; Salem, H. G.

    2018-04-01

    Multi-channel Spiral Twist Extrusion (MCSTE) is introduced as a novel severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique for producing superior mechanical properties associated with ultrafine grained structure in bulk metals and alloys. The MCSTE design is based on inserting a uniform square cross-sectioned billet within stacked disks that guarantee shear strain accumulation. In an attempt to validate the technique and evaluate its plastic deformation characteristics, a series of experiments were conducted. The influence of the number of MCSTE passes on the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of AA1100 alloy were investigated. Four passes of MCSTE, at a relatively low twisting angle of 30 deg, resulted in increasing the strength and hardness coupled with retention of ductility. Metallographic observations indicated a significant grain size reduction of 72 pct after 4 passes of MCSTE compared with the as-received (AR) condition. Moreover, the structural uniformity increased with the number of passes, which was reflected in the hardness distribution from the peripheries to the center of the extrudates. The current study showed that the MCSTE technique could be an effective, adaptable SPD die design with a promising potential for industrial applications compared to its counterparts.

  19. The Over-Barrier Resonant States and Multi-Channel Scattering in Multiple Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Polupanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation of the scattering matrix and its poles, and apply this method to describe the multi-channel scattering in the multiple quantum-wells structures. The S-matrix is continued analytically to the unphysical region of complex energy values. Results of calculations show that there exist one or more S-matrix poles, corresponding to the over-barrier resonant states critical for the effect of the absolute reflection of holes in the energy range where only the heavy ones may propagate over barriers in a structure. Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonian matrix. In contrast to the single quantum-well case, at some parameters of a multiple quantum-wells structure the number of S-matrix poles may exceed that of the absolute reflection peaks, and at different values of parameters the absolute reflection peak corresponds to different resonant states. The imaginary parts of the S-matrix poles and hence the lifetimes of resonant states as well as the widths of resonant peaks of absolute reflection depend drastically on the quantum-well potential depth. In the case of shallow quantum wells there is in fact a long-living over-barrier resonant hole state.

  20. A multi-channel time-to-digital converter chip for drift chamber readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, A.; DeBusschere, D.; Dow, S.F.; Flasck, J.; Levi, M.E.; Kirsten, F.; Su, E.; Santos, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A complete, multi-channel, timing and amplitude measurement IC for use in drift chamber applications is described. By targeting specific resolutions, i.e., 6-bits of resolution for both time and amplitude, area and power can be minimized while achieving the proper level of measurement accuracy. Time is digitized using an TDC comprised of a delay locked loop, latch and encoder. Amplitude (for dE/dx) is digitized using a dual-range FADC for each channel. Eight bits of dynamic range with six bits of accuracy are achieved with the dual-range. Eight complete channels of timing and amplitude information are multiplexed into one DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) trigger latency buffer. Interesting events are subsequently transferred into an SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) readout buffer before the latency time has expired. The design has been optimized to achieve the requisite resolution using the smallest area and lowest power. The circuit has been implemented in an 0.8 microm triple metal CMOS process. The measured results indicate that the differential non-linearities of the TDC and the FADC are 200 ps and 10 mV, respectively. The integral nonlinearities of the TDC and the FADC are 230 ps and 9 mV, respectively

  1. Development of a Multi-Channel Piezoelectric Acoustic Sensor Based on an Artificial Basilar Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdo Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we have developed a multi-channel piezoelectric acoustic sensor (McPAS that mimics the function of the natural basilar membrane capable of separating incoming acoustic signals mechanically by their frequency and generating corresponding electrical signals. The McPAS operates without an external energy source and signal processing unit with a vibrating piezoelectric thin film membrane. The shape of the vibrating membrane was chosen to be trapezoidal such that different locations of membrane have different local resonance frequencies. The length of the membrane is 28 mm and the width of the membrane varies from 1 mm to 8 mm. Multiphysics finite element analysis (FEA was carried out to predict and design the mechanical behaviors and piezoelectric response of the McPAS model. The designed McPAS was fabricated with a MEMS fabrication process based on the simulated results. The fabricated device was tested with a mouth simulator to measure its mechanical and piezoelectrical frequency response with a laser Doppler vibrometer and acoustic signal analyzer. The experimental results show that the as fabricated McPAS can successfully separate incoming acoustic signals within the 2.5 kHz–13.5 kHz range and the maximum electrical signal output upon acoustic signal input of 94 dBSPL was 6.33 mVpp. The performance of the fabricated McPAS coincided well with the designed parameters.

  2. A wireless multi-channel recording system for freely behaving mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, David; Rich, Dylan; Holtzman, Tahl; Ruther, Patrick; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Lopez, Alberto; Rossi, Mark A; Barter, Joseph W; Salas-Meza, Daniel; Herwik, Stanislav; Holzhammer, Tobias; Morizio, James; Yin, Henry H

    2011-01-01

    To understand the neural basis of behavior, it is necessary to record brain activity in freely moving animals. Advances in implantable multi-electrode array technology have enabled researchers to record the activity of neuronal ensembles from multiple brain regions. The full potential of this approach is currently limited by reliance on cable tethers, with bundles of wires connecting the implanted electrodes to the data acquisition system while impeding the natural behavior of the animal. To overcome these limitations, here we introduce a multi-channel wireless headstage system designed for small animals such as rats and mice. A variety of single unit and local field potential signals were recorded from the dorsal striatum and substantia nigra in mice and the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex simultaneously in rats. This wireless system could be interfaced with commercially available data acquisition systems, and the signals obtained were comparable in quality to those acquired using cable tethers. On account of its small size, light weight, and rechargeable battery, this wireless headstage system is suitable for studying the neural basis of natural behavior, eliminating the need for wires, commutators, and other limitations associated with traditional tethered recording systems.

  3. A wireless multi-channel recording system for freely behaving mice and rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fan

    Full Text Available To understand the neural basis of behavior, it is necessary to record brain activity in freely moving animals. Advances in implantable multi-electrode array technology have enabled researchers to record the activity of neuronal ensembles from multiple brain regions. The full potential of this approach is currently limited by reliance on cable tethers, with bundles of wires connecting the implanted electrodes to the data acquisition system while impeding the natural behavior of the animal. To overcome these limitations, here we introduce a multi-channel wireless headstage system designed for small animals such as rats and mice. A variety of single unit and local field potential signals were recorded from the dorsal striatum and substantia nigra in mice and the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex simultaneously in rats. This wireless system could be interfaced with commercially available data acquisition systems, and the signals obtained were comparable in quality to those acquired using cable tethers. On account of its small size, light weight, and rechargeable battery, this wireless headstage system is suitable for studying the neural basis of natural behavior, eliminating the need for wires, commutators, and other limitations associated with traditional tethered recording systems.

  4. The development of a digital multi-channel pulse height analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shanshan; Sang Ziru; Liang Futian; Chen Lian; Liang Hao; Jin Ge

    2012-01-01

    A kind of digital multi-channel analyzer which was developed for Nuclear and Particle Experiment of Undergraduate Student in university was introduced. The input signal is digitalized with a high speed ADC, and feed to a FPGA for seeking peak, recording, spectrometer processing and displaying automatically. The principle of digital searching peck was given in the paper. In order to improve the capability of anti-noise, a dual digital thresholds and dual buffer memories was designed. Aiming at the influence of nonlinear of ADC to the system, a revised algorithm was designed to ensure the channel width uniformity. Since the huge sampling and storaging data of MCA, a method of parallel work of double memory was used, just separated empty transmit data and stored count, reduced the dead time and data overflowing. The host computer can set up and monitor MCA real-time, read and write data from MCA by an USB interface. Contrasts commercial MCA, the MCA has a good result in function and price. (authors)

  5. Binaural unmasking of multi-channel stimuli in bilateral cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Francart, Tom; Büchner, Andreas; Lenarz, Thomas; Wouters, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Previous work suggests that bilateral cochlear implant users are sensitive to interaural cues if experimental speech processors are used to preserve accurate interaural information in the electrical stimulation pattern. Binaural unmasking occurs in adults and children when an interaural delay is applied to the envelope of a high-rate pulse train. Nevertheless, for speech perception, binaural unmasking benefits have not been demonstrated consistently, even with coordinated stimulation at both ears. The present study aimed at bridging the gap between basic psychophysical performance on binaural signal detection tasks on the one hand and binaural perception of speech in noise on the other hand. Therefore, binaural signal detection was expanded to multi-channel stimulation and biologically relevant interaural delays. A harmonic complex, consisting of three sinusoids (125, 250, and 375 Hz), was added to three 125-Hz-wide noise bands centered on the sinusoids. When an interaural delay of 700 μs was introduced, an average BMLD of 3 dB was established. Outcomes are promising in view of real-life benefits. Future research should investigate the generalization of the observed benefits for signal detection to speech perception in everyday listening situations and determine the importance of coordination of bilateral speech processors and accentuation of envelope cues.

  6. Theoretical Valuation of Multi-Channel Cyclone to Reduce Gas Flow Dustiness in Agressive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contaminated gas cleaning from finely divided solids is carried out using a new generation of multi-channel design cyclones. The application of these devices are separated and precipitated particles with a minimum diameter up to 2 micrometers, reaching up to 95% cleaning efficiency. Cyclones of such constructions are usually used under usual conditions at elevated temperature and low humidity. Under aggressive conditions, these devices can be clogged, and their recovery is not possible. Further studies are research into the application of constructive solutions to adapt the cyclone gas cleaning of the particulate matter under aggressive conditions. This theoretical evaluation has described the characteristics change of gas flow and particulate matters at different aggressive environment. Such conditions were loudly describe the gas-flow high-temperature range of 50–200 °C and gas-vapor stream, the humidity reaches 70–100%. Estimated aggressive conditions on the gas flow dynamics forces – pressure, resistance and centrifugal, and particulate mechanical – gravitational and adhesion strength. All parameters are evaluated in comparison with the values under normal conditions.

  7. Centralized Routing and Scheduling Using Multi-Channel System Single Transceiver in 802.16d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hemyari, A.; Noordin, N. K.; Ng, Chee Kyun; Ismail, A.; Khatun, S.

    This paper proposes a cross-layer optimized strategy that reduces the effect of interferences from neighboring nodes within a mesh networks. This cross-layer design relies on the routing information in network layer and the scheduling table in medium access control (MAC) layer. A proposed routing algorithm in network layer is exploited to find the best route for all subscriber stations (SS). Also, a proposed centralized scheduling algorithm in MAC layer is exploited to assign a time slot for each possible node transmission. The cross-layer optimized strategy is using multi-channel single transceiver and single channel single transceiver systems for WiMAX mesh networks (WMNs). Each node in WMN has a transceiver that can be tuned to any available channel for eliminating the secondary interference. Among the considered parameters in the performance analysis are interference from the neighboring nodes, hop count to the base station (BS), number of children per node, slot reuse, load balancing, quality of services (QoS), and node identifier (ID). Results show that the proposed algorithms significantly improve the system performance in terms of length of scheduling, channel utilization ratio (CUR), system throughput, and average end to end transmission delay.

  8. Multi-channel data acquisition and processing system for moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ge; Yang Yanming

    1987-01-01

    A multi-channel data acquisition and processing system for moessbauer spectroscopy is described, which consists of an intelligent interface and a BC3-80 microcomputer. The system has eight data channels, each channel contains a counting circuit and a memory. A Z80-CPU is used as a main unit for control and access. The microcomputer is used for real-time displaying spectrum, saving the data to disk, printing data and data processing. The system is applicable to a high counting rate multi-wire proportional chamber. It can increase greatly the counting rate for measuring moessbauer spectrum. The signals of each wire in the chamber go through a corresponding amplifier and a differential discriminator and are recorded by a corresponding data channel, the data of each channel is added by the microcomputer. In addition, two channels can be used to measure an absorption and a scattering spectrum at the same time and the internal and the surface information of the sample are obtained simultaneously

  9. Super-pixel extraction based on multi-channel pulse coupled neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, GuangZhu; Hu, Song; Zhang, Liu; Zhao, JingJing; Fu, YunXia; Lei, BangJun

    2018-04-01

    Super-pixel extraction techniques group pixels to form over-segmented image blocks according to the similarity among pixels. Compared with the traditional pixel-based methods, the image descripting method based on super-pixel has advantages of less calculation, being easy to perceive, and has been widely used in image processing and computer vision applications. Pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is a biologically inspired model, which stems from the phenomenon of synchronous pulse release in the visual cortex of cats. Each PCNN neuron can correspond to a pixel of an input image, and the dynamic firing pattern of each neuron contains both the pixel feature information and its context spatial structural information. In this paper, a new color super-pixel extraction algorithm based on multi-channel pulse coupled neural network (MPCNN) was proposed. The algorithm adopted the block dividing idea of SLIC algorithm, and the image was divided into blocks with same size first. Then, for each image block, the adjacent pixels of each seed with similar color were classified as a group, named a super-pixel. At last, post-processing was adopted for those pixels or pixel blocks which had not been grouped. Experiments show that the proposed method can adjust the number of superpixel and segmentation precision by setting parameters, and has good potential for super-pixel extraction.

  10. Process for production of an alkyl methacrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eastham, Graham Ronald; Johnson, David William; Fraaije, Marco; Winter, Remko

    2015-01-01

    A process for the production of an alkyl methacrylate, particularly methyl methacrylate, is provided, in which a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase enzyme is used to convert an alkylisopropenylketone substrate to the relevant alkyl methacrylate by abnormal asymmetric oxygen insertion. The invention

  11. Formation of polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) heteroarm star-like nanogels from complementarily reactive well-defined diblock copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amamoto, Y; Otsuka, H; Takahara, A, E-mail: otsuka@ms.ifoc.kyushu-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0385 (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Formation of star-like nanogels with two different arms via cross-linking reaction of complementarily reactive diblock copolymers was successfully accomplished. The two types of diblock copolymers, consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or polystyrene (PSt) block and alkoxyamine-based cross-linkable block, were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) methods. The cross-linking reactions were carried out by merely heating their mixture, and traced by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and multi-angle light scattering (MALS) measurements. The diblock copolymers were reacted in complementarily reactive systems, showing that all star-like nanogels have necessarily two types of arms as PMMA and PSt chains.

  12. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), and their copolymer prepared by cast polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukame, Takahiro; Kutsuzawa, Michio; Saitoh, Hideki; Shibasaki, Yoshio

    1998-01-01

    Effect of γ-ray irradiation on polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and their copolymer prepared by cast polymerization was studied using size exclusion chromatography. The main chemical reactions in irradiated polymers were crosslinking and scission. Conversion of all irradiated samples increased regardless of the concentration of initiator (AIBN) used for cast polymerization. On γ-ray irradiation, the molecular weight of PS increased and its distribution broadened, whereas the molecular weight of PMMA decreased. These phenomena should be attributable to the competitive occurrence of scission and crosslinking in PS by γ-ray irradiation, whereas scission occurred mainly in PMMA. (author)

  13. A strategy for determination of test intervals of k-out-of-n multi-channel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Jiang, J.

    2007-01-01

    State space models for determination of the optimal test frequencies for k-out-of-n multi channel systems are developed in this paper. The analytic solutions for the optimal surveillance test frequencies are derived using the Markov process technique. The solutions show that an optimal test frequency which maximizes the target probability can be determined by decomposing the system states to 3 states based on the system configuration and success criteria. Examples of quantification of the state probabilities and the optimal test frequencies of a three-channel system and a four-channel system with different success criteria are presented. The strategy for finding the optimal test frequency developed in this paper can generally be applicable to any k-out-of-n multi-channel standby systems that involve complex testing schemes. (author)

  14. Operational Criteria for the Design of Front-Office Processes in Multi-Channel Service Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Rui; Amorim, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies relevant operational factors that affect the design of front-office processes in Multi-Channel Service Delivery Systems. Based on two in-depth case studies in banking and telecommunications, we distinguish four operational factors: i) characteristics of the inputs and outputs of the service activities; ii) characteristics of the transformation taking place; iii) the expected utilization; iv) the economics of developing the activities in the channels. Building on these re...

  15. Distributed capillary adiabatic tissue homogeneity model in parametric multi-channel blind AIF estimation using DCE-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíla, Jiří; Jiřík, Radovan; Bartoš, Michal; Standara, Michal; Starčuk, Zenon; Taxt, Torfinn

    2016-03-01

    One of the main challenges in quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is estimation of the arterial input function (AIF). Usually, the signal from a single artery (ignoring contrast dispersion, partial volume effects and flow artifacts) or a population average of such signals (also ignoring variability between patients) is used. Multi-channel blind deconvolution is an alternative approach avoiding most of these problems. The AIF is estimated directly from the measured tracer concentration curves in several tissues. This contribution extends the published methods of multi-channel blind deconvolution by applying a more realistic model of the impulse residue function, the distributed capillary adiabatic tissue homogeneity model (DCATH). In addition, an alternative AIF model is used and several AIF-scaling methods are tested. The proposed method is evaluated on synthetic data with respect to the number of tissue regions and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Evaluation on clinical data (renal cell carcinoma patients before and after the beginning of the treatment) gave consistent results. An initial evaluation on clinical data indicates more reliable and less noise sensitive perfusion parameter estimates. Blind multi-channel deconvolution using the DCATH model might be a method of choice for AIF estimation in a clinical setup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for the job, production and operating costs. Studies have examined the air flow parameters change in one–, two– and three–levels multichannel cyclone. These constructions differ according to the productivity of cleaned air under the constant peripheral and transitional (50/50 case air flow relations. Accordance with the results of air flow dynamics – velocity distribution of multi-channel cyclone, aerodynamic resistance and efficiency can be judged on the flow turbulence, the flow channel cross-section and select the most appropriate application. Cleaning efficiency studies were carried out using fine granite and wood ashes PM. The maximum cleaning efficiency was 93.3%, at an average of 4.5 g/m3, the aerodynamic resistance was equal to 1525 Pa.

  17. Development of multi-channel optical-fiber feed through for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugie, Tatsuo; Kasai, Satoshi; Toriya, Tomoaki

    1998-08-01

    A multi-channel fiber feed through has been developed for visible and IR transmission lines through secondary vacuum boundary (cryostat boundary) of ITER. In the first phase, a scale down test-module which has ten fiber feed through in the vacuum flange was manufactured and tested. The vacuum seal was realized by soldering gold plated fibers to a vacuum flange with high temperature solder. The capacity to resist inner pressure rise of 5 atm, the acceleration resistant of 15g and the temperature resistant from 20degC-200degC were achieved by the test module. The connecting loss and the uniformity of transmission losses among each channels of the feed through were not well. Concerning the connecting loss, the best value was 2.2 dB and the worst one was 13.5 dB. In the second phase, the full performance test-module which has 57 fiber feed through was manufactured and tested. The feed through was improved in order to achieve a good transmission and the uniformity among each channels by using a optical fiber implanted in a center of a quartz rod very accurately. The capacity to resist inner pressure rise of 5 atm, the acceleration resistant of 15g and the temperature resistant from 40degC-200degC (Temperature ramp rate: >20degC/hr) were achieved by the full performance test-module. The connecting losses of the feed through were less than 3 dB, and the uniformity of transmission losses among each channels of the feed through was larger than 60%. The requirements for an optical-fiber feed through were almost satisfied with the full performance test-module. Further developments will be necessary for the remote handling method. (author)

  18. Time-varying bispectral analysis of visually evoked multi-channel EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Vinod

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical foundations of higher order spectral analysis are revisited to examine the use of time-varying bicoherence on non-stationary signals using a classical short-time Fourier approach. A methodology is developed to apply this to evoked EEG responses where a stimulus-locked time reference is available. Short-time windowed ensembles of the response at the same offset from the reference are considered as ergodic cyclostationary processes within a non-stationary random process. Bicoherence can be estimated reliably with known levels at which it is significantly different from zero and can be tracked as a function of offset from the stimulus. When this methodology is applied to multi-channel EEG, it is possible to obtain information about phase synchronization at different regions of the brain as the neural response develops. The methodology is applied to analyze evoked EEG response to flash visual stimulii to the left and right eye separately. The EEG electrode array is segmented based on bicoherence evolution with time using the mean absolute difference as a measure of dissimilarity. Segment maps confirm the importance of the occipital region in visual processing and demonstrate a link between the frontal and occipital regions during the response. Maps are constructed using bicoherence at bifrequencies that include the alpha band frequency of 8Hz as well as 4 and 20Hz. Differences are observed between responses from the left eye and the right eye, and also between subjects. The methodology shows potential as a neurological functional imaging technique that can be further developed for diagnosis and monitoring using scalp EEG which is less invasive and less expensive than magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. MULTI-CHANNEL VOLUME SPHYGMOGRAPHY IN CARDIOANGIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF THE ADULT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the possibilities of using multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS in prophylactic medical examination of the population.Material and methods. Simultaneous examination of 522 individuals older than 18 years was performed. Along with standard procedures provided by the prophylactic medical examination program synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP on four extremities by MCVS was performed. At that a difference in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm and legs (ΔSBPleg and ankle-brachial index (ABI were automatically calculated. Values of │ΔSBParm│ or │ΔSBPleg│≥15 mm Hg or ABI≤0.9 were considered as markers of atherosclerotic vascular disease.Results. Signs of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic lesions among patients ≥40 years old were found in 14.7% of the cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.7-18.4. Relative risks of atherosclerotic lesions in arteries increase 1.71-fold (95% CI 1.06-2.74 in arterial hypertension, 1.70-fold (95% CI 1.08-2.68 – in obesity, 1.91 fold (95% CI 1.17-3.12 – in diabetes, as well as with the increasing levels of cardiovascular risk. In patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of cerebral stroke MCVS can detect signs of multifocal atherosclerosis in 21% (95% CI 14-32 and 22% (95% CI 9-46 of the cases, respectively.Conclusion. MCVS with the determination of ΔSBParm, ΔSBPleg and ABI may be regarded as the basis for low-cost and efficient system of cardioangiological screening.

  20. MULTI-CHANNEL VOLUME SPHYGMOGRAPHY IN CARDIOANGIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF THE ADULT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the possibilities of using multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS in prophylactic medical examination of the population.Material and methods. Simultaneous examination of 522 individuals older than 18 years was performed. Along with standard procedures provided by the prophylactic medical examination program synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP on four extremities by MCVS was performed. At that a difference in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm and legs (ΔSBPleg and ankle-brachial index (ABI were automatically calculated. Values of │ΔSBParm│ or │ΔSBPleg│≥15 mm Hg or ABI≤0.9 were considered as markers of atherosclerotic vascular disease.Results. Signs of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic lesions among patients ≥40 years old were found in 14.7% of the cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.7-18.4. Relative risks of atherosclerotic lesions in arteries increase 1.71-fold (95% CI 1.06-2.74 in arterial hypertension, 1.70-fold (95% CI 1.08-2.68 – in obesity, 1.91 fold (95% CI 1.17-3.12 – in diabetes, as well as with the increasing levels of cardiovascular risk. In patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of cerebral stroke MCVS can detect signs of multifocal atherosclerosis in 21% (95% CI 14-32 and 22% (95% CI 9-46 of the cases, respectively.Conclusion. MCVS with the determination of ΔSBParm, ΔSBPleg and ABI may be regarded as the basis for low-cost and efficient system of cardioangiological screening.

  1. Morphological study and thermal analysis of surface modified α-FeOOH via in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yaoxing; Ma Xinsheng; Cao Hongming; Zhang Haiying; Wu Qiufang

    2004-01-01

    Considering the interfacial characteristics of goethite (α-FeOOH, iron oxide yellow), the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate was employed to modify the surfaces of α-FeOOH pigments in aqueous slurry. The scanning electron micrographs indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) anchored on the surfaces of the particle homogeneously. From this study, it was found that one of the key requirements in the synthesis of the α-FeOOH-PMMA composite was to enhance interfacial compatibility between inorganic particles and organic monomer. Moreover, polymer-treated α-FeOOH particles were easily dispersed in organic medium to form a stable colloid and the heat resistance of α-FeOOH particles was improved

  2. Take time to make time : What to consider when managing multi-channel sales systems with the objective to increase sales efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    ALM, RAGNAR; KYRÖNLAHTI, RUDY

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sales systems have been disrupted by technological developments. In order to  adapt, companies are changing the way they interact with their customers in business-to-business markets. In the last three decades, multi-channel strategies have spurred the proliferation of different sales channels and new ways of managing sales systems. The purpose of this research was to investigate what should be considered when managing multi-channel sales systems with the objective of increasing s...

  3. Multi-channel programmable power supply with temperature compensation for silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R. A.; Achanta, V. G.; Dugad, S. R.; Kurup, A. M.; Lokhandwala, S. S.; Prabhu, S. S.; Freeman, J.; Los, S.; Garde, C. S.; Khandekar, P. D.; Gupta, S. K.; Rakshe, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are increasingly becoming popular for discrete photon counting applications due to the wealth of advantages they offer over conventional photo-detectors such as photo-multiplier tubes and hybrid photo-diodes. SiPMs are used in variety of applications ranging from high energy physics and nuclear physics experiments to medical diagnostics. The gain of a SiPM is directly proportional to the difference between applied and breakdown voltage of the device. However, the breakdown voltage depends critically on the ambient temperature and has a large temperature co-efficient in the range of 40-60 mV/°C resulting in a typical gain variation of 3%-5%/°C [Dinu et al., in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 17th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (IEEE, 2010), p. 215]. We plan to use the SiPM as a replacement for PMT in the cosmic ray experiment (GRAPES-3) at Ooty [Gupta et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 540, 311 (2005)]. There the SiPMs will be operated in an outdoor environment subjected to temperature variation of about 15 °C over a day. A gain variation of more than 50% was observed for such large variations in the temperature. To stabilize the gain of the SiPM under such operating conditions, a low-cost, multi-channel programmable power supply (0-90 V) was designed that simultaneously provides the bias voltage to 16 SiPMs. The programmable power supply (PPS) was designed to automatically adjust the operating voltage for each channel with a built-in closed loop temperature feedback mechanism. The PPS provides bias voltage with a precision of 6 mV and measures the load current with a precision of 1 nA. Using this PPS, a gain stability of 0.5% for SiPM (Hamamatsu, S10931-050P) has been demonstrated over a wide temperature range of 15 °C. The design methodology of the PPS system, its validation, and the results of the tests carried out on the SiPM is presented in this

  4. Seismarmara experiment: results from reprocessing of selected multi-channel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, S.; Voogd, B.; Carton, H.; Laigle, M.; Becel, A.; Saatcilar, R.; Singh, S.; Hirn, A.

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) has been responsible for the earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999. The occurrence of these earthquakes has drawn scientific attention into the Sea of Marmara since the NAF enters into the Sea of Marmara where the latest Izmit earthquake rupture stopped. The SEISMARMARA-2001 survey is a combined seismic reflection, refraction and earthquake experiment carried out in 2001 in the Marmara Region in Turkey by French-Turkish scientific cooperation. The objectives of this survey were to image the various branches of the NAF and related other fault systems. R/V Le Nadir was equipped with a 4.5 km long streamer with 360 channels and a large airgun source. During Leg 1, a grid of large regional lines encompassing the whole Marmara trough was shot. For part of them a strong 8100 cu.in. source for deepest penetration was used, with a 150 m shot interval giving a 15-fold coverage. Another part was shot for a higher resolution with a 2900 cu. in. array at a 50m or 38 m interval to give a 45 or 60-fold coverage. The latter acquisition parameters were used for Leg 2 that was devoted to a very dense grid of lines in the Cinarcik Basin Reprocessing of the multi-channel seismic data is currently being undertaken in several Institutions using different seismic processing softwares (GeoVecteur, ProMAX, Focus), to take advantage of the diverse acquisitions and cope with their limitations, for instance high fold-order for Leg 2 and strength of signal but loose spatial sampling for the bigger source. The main objectives of the reprocessing of the selected profiles are to do a detailed velocity analysis and stacking after deconvolution, filtering to remove or suppress deep sea bottom multiples and out of plane reflections, and time-migration and depth conversion and thus reveal both the shallow and deeper reflection image of the crust in the Sea of Marmara. We show that choosing an appropriate processing sequence for different sources and acquisition

  5. Multi-channel programmable power supply with temperature compensation for silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R. A.; Achanta, V. G.; Dugad, S. R., E-mail: dugad@cern.ch; Kurup, A. M.; Lokhandwala, S. S.; Prabhu, S. S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Freeman, J.; Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Garde, C. S.; Khandekar, P. D. [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411048 (India); Gupta, S. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); GRAPES-3 Experiment, Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Raj Bhavan, Ooty 643001 (India); Rakshe, P. S. [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411048 (India); GRAPES-3 Experiment, Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Raj Bhavan, Ooty 643001 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are increasingly becoming popular for discrete photon counting applications due to the wealth of advantages they offer over conventional photo-detectors such as photo-multiplier tubes and hybrid photo-diodes. SiPMs are used in variety of applications ranging from high energy physics and nuclear physics experiments to medical diagnostics. The gain of a SiPM is directly proportional to the difference between applied and breakdown voltage of the device. However, the breakdown voltage depends critically on the ambient temperature and has a large temperature co-efficient in the range of 40-60 mV/°C resulting in a typical gain variation of 3%-5%/°C [Dinu et al., in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 17th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (IEEE, 2010), p. 215]. We plan to use the SiPM as a replacement for PMT in the cosmic ray experiment (GRAPES-3) at Ooty [Gupta et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 540, 311 (2005)]. There the SiPMs will be operated in an outdoor environment subjected to temperature variation of about 15 °C over a day. A gain variation of more than 50% was observed for such large variations in the temperature. To stabilize the gain of the SiPM under such operating conditions, a low-cost, multi-channel programmable power supply (0-90 V) was designed that simultaneously provides the bias voltage to 16 SiPMs. The programmable power supply (PPS) was designed to automatically adjust the operating voltage for each channel with a built-in closed loop temperature feedback mechanism. The PPS provides bias voltage with a precision of 6 mV and measures the load current with a precision of 1 nA. Using this PPS, a gain stability of 0.5% for SiPM (Hamamatsu, S10931-050P) has been demonstrated over a wide temperature range of 15 °C. The design methodology of the PPS system, its validation, and the results of the tests carried out on the SiPM is presented in this

  6. Nonlocal atlas-guided multi-channel forest learning for human brain labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Guangkai [Space Control and Inertial Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China and Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong; Wu, Guorong [Department of Computer Science, Department of Radiology, and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Wu, Ligang [Space Control and Inertial Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: It is important for many quantitative brain studies to label meaningful anatomical regions in MR brain images. However, due to high complexity of brain structures and ambiguous boundaries between different anatomical regions, the anatomical labeling of MR brain images is still quite a challenging task. In many existing label fusion methods, appearance information is widely used. However, since local anatomy in the human brain is often complex, the appearance information alone is limited in characterizing each image point, especially for identifying the same anatomical structure across different subjects. Recent progress in computer vision suggests that the context features can be very useful in identifying an object from a complex scene. In light of this, the authors propose a novel learning-based label fusion method by using both low-level appearance features (computed from the target image) and high-level context features (computed from warped atlases or tentative labeling maps of the target image). Methods: In particular, the authors employ a multi-channel random forest to learn the nonlinear relationship between these hybrid features and target labels (i.e., corresponding to certain anatomical structures). Specifically, at each of the iterations, the random forest will output tentative labeling maps of the target image, from which the authors compute spatial label context features and then use in combination with original appearance features of the target image to refine the labeling. Moreover, to accommodate the high inter-subject variations, the authors further extend their learning-based label fusion to a multi-atlas scenario, i.e., they train a random forest for each atlas and then obtain the final labeling result according to the consensus of results from all atlases. Results: The authors have comprehensively evaluated their method on both public LONI-LBPA40 and IXI datasets. To quantitatively evaluate the labeling accuracy, the authors use the

  7. Nonlocal atlas-guided multi-channel forest learning for human brain labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guangkai; Gao, Yaozong; Wu, Guorong; Wu, Ligang; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It is important for many quantitative brain studies to label meaningful anatomical regions in MR brain images. However, due to high complexity of brain structures and ambiguous boundaries between different anatomical regions, the anatomical labeling of MR brain images is still quite a challenging task. In many existing label fusion methods, appearance information is widely used. However, since local anatomy in the human brain is often complex, the appearance information alone is limited in characterizing each image point, especially for identifying the same anatomical structure across different subjects. Recent progress in computer vision suggests that the context features can be very useful in identifying an object from a complex scene. In light of this, the authors propose a novel learning-based label fusion method by using both low-level appearance features (computed from the target image) and high-level context features (computed from warped atlases or tentative labeling maps of the target image). Methods: In particular, the authors employ a multi-channel random forest to learn the nonlinear relationship between these hybrid features and target labels (i.e., corresponding to certain anatomical structures). Specifically, at each of the iterations, the random forest will output tentative labeling maps of the target image, from which the authors compute spatial label context features and then use in combination with original appearance features of the target image to refine the labeling. Moreover, to accommodate the high inter-subject variations, the authors further extend their learning-based label fusion to a multi-atlas scenario, i.e., they train a random forest for each atlas and then obtain the final labeling result according to the consensus of results from all atlases. Results: The authors have comprehensively evaluated their method on both public LONI-LBPA40 and IXI datasets. To quantitatively evaluate the labeling accuracy, the authors use the

  8. Nonlocal atlas-guided multi-channel forest learning for human brain labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guangkai; Gao, Yaozong; Wu, Guorong; Wu, Ligang; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-02-01

    It is important for many quantitative brain studies to label meaningful anatomical regions in MR brain images. However, due to high complexity of brain structures and ambiguous boundaries between different anatomical regions, the anatomical labeling of MR brain images is still quite a challenging task. In many existing label fusion methods, appearance information is widely used. However, since local anatomy in the human brain is often complex, the appearance information alone is limited in characterizing each image point, especially for identifying the same anatomical structure across different subjects. Recent progress in computer vision suggests that the context features can be very useful in identifying an object from a complex scene. In light of this, the authors propose a novel learning-based label fusion method by using both low-level appearance features (computed from the target image) and high-level context features (computed from warped atlases or tentative labeling maps of the target image). In particular, the authors employ a multi-channel random forest to learn the nonlinear relationship between these hybrid features and target labels (i.e., corresponding to certain anatomical structures). Specifically, at each of the iterations, the random forest will output tentative labeling maps of the target image, from which the authors compute spatial label context features and then use in combination with original appearance features of the target image to refine the labeling. Moreover, to accommodate the high inter-subject variations, the authors further extend their learning-based label fusion to a multi-atlas scenario, i.e., they train a random forest for each atlas and then obtain the final labeling result according to the consensus of results from all atlases. The authors have comprehensively evaluated their method on both public LONI_LBPA40 and IXI datasets. To quantitatively evaluate the labeling accuracy, the authors use the dice similarity coefficient

  9. Masses and widths of scalar–isoscalar multi-channel resonances from data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surovtsev, Yurii S; Bydžovský, Petr; Kamiński, Robert; Lyubovitskij, Valery E; Nagy, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The peculiarities of obtaining parameters for broad multi-channel resonances from data are discussed, analyzing the experimental data on processes ππ→ππ,K K-bar in the I G J PC = 0 + 0 ++ channel in a model-independent approach based on analyticity and unitarity, and using an uniformization procedure. We show that it is possible to obtain a good description of the ππ scattering data from the threshold to 1.89 GeV with parameters of resonances cited in the Particle Data Group tables as preferred. However, in this case, first, the representation of the ππ background is unsatisfactory; second, the data on the coupled process ππ→K K-bar are not well described even qualitatively above 1.15 GeV when using the resonance parameters from only the ππ scattering analysis. The combined analysis of these coupled processes is needed, and is carried out satisfactorily. Then, both of the above-indicated issues related to the analysis of ππ scattering only are overcome. The most remarkable change of parameters with respect to the values of the ππ scattering only analysis appears for the mass of the f 0 (600), which is now in some accordance with the Weinberg prediction on the basis of mended symmetry and with an analysis using the large-N c consistency conditions between the unitarization and resonance saturation. The obtained ππ scattering length a 0 0 , in the case where we are restricted to the analysis of the ππ scattering or where we consider the so-called A-solution (with a lower mass and width of f 0 (600) meson), agrees well with the prediction of the chiral perturbation theory and with data extracted at CERN by the NA48/2 collaboration from the analysis of the K e4 decay and by the DIRAC collaboration from the measurement of the π + π − lifetime. (paper)

  10. 3D scaffolds from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites via atom transfer radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebikachew, Behabtu; Magina, Sandra [CICECO, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Mata, Diogo; Oliveira, Filipe J.; Silva, Rui F. [CICECO, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Barros-Timmons, Ana, E-mail: anabarros@ua.pt [CICECO, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) synthesized by Thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition (TCVD) were modified using an Ar:O{sub 2} (97:3) plasma to generate oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface for subsequent modification. X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman analyses confirmed the grafting of those functional groups onto the surface of the nanotubes as well as the removal of amorphous carbon produced and deposited on the VACNT forests during the CVD process. The plasma treated VACNT forests were further modified with 2-bromo-2-methylpropionyl bromide, an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, to grow poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains from the forests via ATRP. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of the ensuing VACNT/PMMA composites confirmed the coating of the nanotube forests with the PMMA polymer. 3D scaffolds of polymeric composites with honeycomb like structure were then obtained. Compressive tests have shown that the VACNT/PMMA composite has higher compressive strength than the pristine forest. - Highlights: • Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were synthesized and plasma modified. • X-ray photo-emission and Raman spectroscopies confirmed the VACNTs modification. • Poly(methyl methacrylate) chains were grown via ATRP from the VACNTs. • STEM of the VACNT/PMMA composites confirmed that PMMA surrounds the nanotubes. • VACNT/PMMA composite has higher compressive strength compared to the pristine forest.

  11. 3D scaffolds from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites via atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tebikachew, Behabtu; Magina, Sandra; Mata, Diogo; Oliveira, Filipe J.; Silva, Rui F.; Barros-Timmons, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) synthesized by Thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition (TCVD) were modified using an Ar:O 2 (97:3) plasma to generate oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface for subsequent modification. X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman analyses confirmed the grafting of those functional groups onto the surface of the nanotubes as well as the removal of amorphous carbon produced and deposited on the VACNT forests during the CVD process. The plasma treated VACNT forests were further modified with 2-bromo-2-methylpropionyl bromide, an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, to grow poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains from the forests via ATRP. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of the ensuing VACNT/PMMA composites confirmed the coating of the nanotube forests with the PMMA polymer. 3D scaffolds of polymeric composites with honeycomb like structure were then obtained. Compressive tests have shown that the VACNT/PMMA composite has higher compressive strength than the pristine forest. - Highlights: • Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were synthesized and plasma modified. • X-ray photo-emission and Raman spectroscopies confirmed the VACNTs modification. • Poly(methyl methacrylate) chains were grown via ATRP from the VACNTs. • STEM of the VACNT/PMMA composites confirmed that PMMA surrounds the nanotubes. • VACNT/PMMA composite has higher compressive strength compared to the pristine forest

  12. Multi-channel counter-current chromatography for high-throughput fractionation of natural products for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shihua; Yang, Lu; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Feiyan

    2008-02-08

    A multi-channel counter-current chromatography (CCC) method has been designed and fabricated for the high-throughput fractionation of natural products without complications sometimes encountered with other conventional chromatographic systems, such as irreversible adsorptive constituent losses and deactivation, tailing of solute peaks and contamination. It has multiple independent CCC channels and each channel connects independent separation column(s) by parallel flow tubes, and thus the multi-channel CCC apparatus can achieve simultaneously two or more independent chromatographic processes. Furthermore, a high-throughput CCC fractionation method for natural products has been developed by a combination of a new three-channel CCC apparatus and conventional parallel chromatographic devices including pumps, sample injectors, effluent detectors and collectors, and its performance has been displayed on the fractionation of ethyl acetate extracts of three natural materials Solidago canadensis, Suillus placidus, and Trichosanthes kirilowii, which are found to be potent cytotoxic to tumor cell lines in the course of screening the antitumor candidates. By combination of biological screening programs and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, 22.8 mg 6 beta-angeloyloxykolavenic acid and 29.4 mg 6 beta-tigloyloxykolavenic acid for S. canadensis, 25.3mg suillin for S. placidus, and 6.8 mg 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin B for T. Kirilowii as their major cytotoxic principles were isolated from each 1000 mg crude ethyl acetate extract. Their chemical structures were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The overall results indicate the multi-channel CCC is very useful for high-throughput fractionation of natural products for drug discovery in spite of the solvent balancing requirement and the lower resolution of the shorter CCC columns.

  13. Multi-channel EEG-based sleep stage classification with joint collaborative representation and multiple kernel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yingjie; Ying, Shihui

    2015-10-30

    Electroencephalography (EEG) based sleep staging is commonly used in clinical routine. Feature extraction and representation plays a crucial role in EEG-based automatic classification of sleep stages. Sparse representation (SR) is a state-of-the-art unsupervised feature learning method suitable for EEG feature representation. Collaborative representation (CR) is an effective data coding method used as a classifier. Here we use CR as a data representation method to learn features from the EEG signal. A joint collaboration model is established to develop a multi-view learning algorithm, and generate joint CR (JCR) codes to fuse and represent multi-channel EEG signals. A two-stage multi-view learning-based sleep staging framework is then constructed, in which JCR and joint sparse representation (JSR) algorithms first fuse and learning the feature representation from multi-channel EEG signals, respectively. Multi-view JCR and JSR features are then integrated and sleep stages recognized by a multiple kernel extreme learning machine (MK-ELM) algorithm with grid search. The proposed two-stage multi-view learning algorithm achieves superior performance for sleep staging. With a K-means clustering based dictionary, the mean classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are 81.10 ± 0.15%, 71.42 ± 0.66% and 94.57 ± 0.07%, respectively; while with the dictionary learned using the submodular optimization method, they are 80.29 ± 0.22%, 71.26 ± 0.78% and 94.38 ± 0.10%, respectively. The two-stage multi-view learning based sleep staging framework outperforms all other classification methods compared in this work, while JCR is superior to JSR. The proposed multi-view learning framework has the potential for sleep staging based on multi-channel or multi-modality polysomnography signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ON SCALAR MESONS FROM THE COMBINED ANALYSIS OF MULTI-CHANNEL pi pi SCATTERING AND J/psi DECAYS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Surovtsev, Yu .S.; Bydžovský, Petr; Gutsche, T.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, 3-4 (2011), s. 610-612 ISSN 0217-751X. [11th International Workshop on Meson Production , Properties and Interaction. Krakow, 10.06.2010-15.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Multi-channel pion-pion scattering * scalar-isoscalar resonances * multichannel analysis Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011

  15. Multi-channel up-conversion infrared spectrometer and method of detecting a spectral distribution of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A multi-channel infrared spectrometer for detecting an infrared spectrum of light received from an object. The spectrometer comprises a wavelength converter system comprising a nonlinear material and having an input side and an output side. The wavelength converter system comprises at least a first...... on the first side into light in a second output wavelength range output on the second side. The spectrometer further comprises a demultiplexer configured for demultiplexing light in the first up-conversion channel and light in the second up-conversion channel. The demultiplexer is located on the first side...

  16. Joint image reconstruction method with correlative multi-channel prior for x-ray spectral computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Andersen, Martin S

    2018-01-01

    peaks. The acquired energy-binned data, however, suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio, acquisition artifacts, and frequently angular undersampled conditions. New regularized iterative reconstruction methods have the potential to produce higher quality images and since energy channels are mutually...... to encourage joint smoothing directions. In particular, the method selects reference channels from which to propagate structure in an adaptive and stochastic way while preferring channels with a high data signal-to-noise ratio. The method is compared with current state-of-the-art multi-channel reconstruction...

  17. Distributed capillary adiabatic tissue homogeneity model in parametric multi-channel blind AIF estimation using DCE-MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíla, Jiří; Jiřík, Radovan; Bartoš, M.; Standara, M.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Taxt, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2016), s. 1355-1365 ISSN 0740-3194 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging * multi-channel blind deconvolution * arterial input function * impulse residue function * renal cell carcinoma Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.924, year: 2016

  18. 40 CFR 721.10153 - Modified methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). 721.10153 Section 721.10153 Protection of Environment...-hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... methacrylate polymer (PMN P-08-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  19. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications.

  20. Enhancement of impact strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) with surface fine-tuned nano-silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Bin; Dong, Yixiao; Wu, Lili; Long, Chao; Zhang, Chaocan

    2015-01-01

    Highly dispersible nanoparticles in organic solvent always receive wide interests due to their compatibility with polymer materials. This paper reported a kind of isopropanol alcohol silica dispersion which obtained using a method of azeotropic distillation. The isopropanol alcohol dispersed silica (IPADS) were treated with coupling agents to fine-tune their surface properties. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was then used as a research object to test the compatibility between IPADS and polymer. UV-vis spectra indicate that IPADS would reach its high compatibility with PMMA if coupling with trimethoxypropylsilane (PTMS). Followed experiments on PMMA proved that the high compatibility can prominently enhance the impact strength about 30%. The results may provide reference both for nano-silica modification and better understanding of nano-enhanced materials. (paper)