Sample records for multi-band bcs superconductors

  1. Holographic Multi-Band Superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Maity, Debaprasad


    We propose a gravity dual for the holographic superconductor with multi-band carriers. Moreover, the currents of these carriers are unified under a global non-Abelian symmetry, which is dual to the bulk non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We study the phase diagram of our model, and find it qualitatively agrees with the one for the realistic 2-band superconductor, such as MgB2. We also evaluate the holographic conductivities and find the expected mean-field like behaviors in some cases. However, for a wide range of the parameter space, we also find the non-mean-field like behavior with negative conductivities.

  2. Topological transitions in multi-band superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continentino, Mucio A., E-mail: [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Deus, Fernanda, E-mail: [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padilha, Igor T., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus Capital, 69077-070, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Caldas, Heron, E-mail: [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, 36301-000, São João Del Rei, MG (Brazil)


    The search for Majorana fermions has been concentrated in topological insulators or superconductors. In general, the existence of these modes requires the presence of spin–orbit interactions and of an external magnetic field. The former implies in having systems with broken inversion symmetry, while the latter breaks time reversal invariance. In a recent paper, we have shown that a two-band metal with an attractive inter-band interaction has non-trivial superconducting properties, if the k-dependent hybridization is anti-symmetric in the wave-vector. This is the case, if the crystalline potential mixes states with different parities as for orbitals with angular momentum l and l+1. In this paper we take into account the effect of an external magnetic field, not considered in the previous investigation, in a two-band metal and show how it modifies the topological properties of its superconducting state. We also discuss the conditions for the appearance of Majorana fermions in this system.

  3. Quasiclassical theory of coherent charge transport into multi-band superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrova, A.V.; Devyatov, I.A.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Yada, Keiji; Tanaka, Y.


    We formulate a quasiclassical theory of coherent charge transport in junctions involving multi-band iron-based superconductors (FeBSs), explicitly taking into account the complex excitation spectrum and unconventional nature of superconducting pairing in FeBSs. We perform calculations assuming intra

  4. Theory of Tunneling Spectroscopy of Multi-Band Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrova, Angelina V.; Devyatov, Igor A.; Golubov, Alexander A.; Yada, Keiji; Tanaka, Yukio


    We present the derivation of boundary conditions on a wave function at the normal metal/superconductor (N/S) interface by extending the tight-binding approach developed for semiconducting heterostructures [Phys. Rev. 27 (1983) 3519]. Based on these boundary conditions, we formulate a quantitative th

  5. Quasiclassical description of multi-band superconductors with two order parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moor, Andreas


    This Thesis deals with multi-band superconductors with two order parameters, i.e., the superconductivity and the spin-density wave, also touching on one-band superconductors with a charge-density wave, as well as with only the superconducting order parameter. Quasiclassical description of suchlike structures is developed and applied to investigation of various effects, inter alia, the Josephson and the proximity effects, the Knight shift, the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell-like state, and the interplay of the order parameters in coexistence regime. The applicability of the developed approach to pnictides is discussed.

  6. BCS-Hubbard model applied to anisotropic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.S., E-mail: [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, Cd. del Carmen, 24180 Campeche (Mexico); Perez, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wang, C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The BCS formalism applied to a Hubbard model, including correlated hoppings, is used to study d-wave superconductors. The theoretical T{sub c} vs. n relationship is compared with experimental data from BiSr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The results suggest a nontrivial correlation between the hole and the doping concentrations. Based on the BCS formalism, we study the critical temperature (T{sub c}) as a function of electron density (n) in a square lattice by means of a generalized Hubbard model, in which first ({Delta}t) and second neighbors ({Delta}t{sub 3}) correlated-hopping interactions are included in addition to the repulsive Coulomb ones. We compare the theoretical T{sub c} vs. n relationship with experimental data of cuprate superconductors BiSr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} (BSCO) and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, (LSCO). The theory agrees very well with BSCO data even though the complicated association between Sr concentration (x) and hole doping (p). For the LSCO system, it is observed that in the underdoped regime, the T{sub c} vs. n behavior can be associated to different systems with small variations of t'. For the overdoped regime, a more complicated dependence n = 1 - p/2 fits better than n = 1 - p. On the other hand, it is proposed that the second neighbor hopping ratio (t'/t) should be replaced by the effective mean field hopping ratio t{sub MF}{sup '}/t{sub MF}, which can be very sensitive to small changes of t' due to the doping.

  7. BCS instabilities of electron stars to holographic superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Zaanen, Jan


    We study fermion pairing and condensation towards an ordered state in strongly coupled quantum critical systems with a holographic AdS/CFT dual. On the gravity side this is modeled by a system of charged fermion interacting through a BCS coupling. At finite density such a system has a BCS instability. We combine the relativistic version of mean-field BCS with the semi-classical fluid approximation for the many-body state of fermions. The resulting groundstate is the AdS equivalent of a charged neutron star with a superconducting core. The spectral function of the fermions confirms that the ground state is ordered through the condensation of the pair operator. A natural variant of the BCS star is shown to exist where the gap field couples Stueckelberg-like to the AdS Maxwell field. This enhances the tendency of the system to superconduct.

  8. Comparison of Tunneling in Fe-based Superconductors with Multi-band MgB2 (United States)

    Zasadzinski, John; Iavarone, Maria

    MgB2 is an s-wave, phonon coupled, multiband superconductor that exhibits novel tunneling spectra including a subtle dip feature due to quasiparticle transfer between bands. Since this feature mimics the above-gap spectral dip feature observed in Fe-based superconductors, typically attributed to a strong coupling boson, it is worthwhile to consider whether quasiparticle transfer is relevant. We first show that the dip in MgB2 appears in the π-band, DOS (Δ = 2.4 meV) and is due to quasiparticle transfer to the σ-band with Δ = 7.2 meV. Reviewing the spectral dip in Fe-based superconductors, including new data on FeSe crystals, there are inconsistencies with quasiparticle transfer as the origin. The conclusion is that the spectral dip is more likely due to a boson, the resonance spin excitation, as found in cuprate superconductors.

  9. Magnetic Lifshitz transition and its consequences in multi-band iron-based superconductors (United States)

    Ptok, Andrzej; Kapcia, Konrad J.; Cichy, Agnieszka; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Piekarz, Przemysław


    In this paper we address Lifshitz transition induced by applied external magnetic field in a case of iron-based superconductors, in which a difference between the Fermi level and the edges of the bands is relatively small. We introduce and investigate a two-band model with intra-band pairing in the relevant parameters regime to address a generic behaviour of a system with hole-like and electron-like bands in external magnetic field. Our results show that two Lifshitz transitions can develop in analysed systems and the first one occurs in the superconducting phase and takes place at approximately constant magnetic field. The chosen sets of the model parameters can describe characteristic band structure of iron-based superconductors and thus the obtained results can explain the experimental observations in FeSe and Co-doped BaFe2As2 compounds. PMID:28165043

  10. Theory of thermal conductivity in a multi-band superconductor : Application to pnictides (United States)

    Mishra, Vivek; Vorontsov, A. B.; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Vekhter, I.


    We calculate low temperature thermal conductivity within a two band model for newly discovered ferro-pnictide superconductors. We consider three different cases, sign changing s-wave state, highly anisotropic s-wave state and a state with order parameter nodes on one band. To include the effect of disorder, we have performed fully self-consistent T-matrix approximation including both intraband and interband impurity scatterings. We also study the behavior of the low temperature thermal conductivity under applied magnetic field using a recently developed variant of the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt approximation, and compare our results with latest experimental data.

  11. Fermi points and topological quantum phase transitions in a multi-band superconductor. (United States)

    Puel, T O; Sacramento, P D; Continentino, M A


    The importance of models with an exact solution for the study of materials with non-trivial topological properties has been extensively demonstrated. The Kitaev model plays a guiding role in the search for Majorana modes in condensed matter systems. Also, the sp-chain with an anti-symmetric mixing among the s and p bands is a paradigmatic example of a topological insulator with well understood properties. Interestingly, these models share the same universality class for their topological quantum phase transitions. In this work we study a two-band model of spinless fermions with attractive inter-band interactions. We obtain its zero temperature phase diagram, which presents a rich variety of phases including a Weyl superconductor and a topological insulator. The transition from the topological to the trivial superconducting phase has critical exponents different from those of Kitaev's model.

  12. Recombination limited energy relaxation in a BCS superconductor


    Timofeev, A. V.; Garcia, C. Pascual; Kopnin, N. B.; Savin, A. M.; Meschke, M.; Giazotto, F.; Pekola, J.P.


    We study quasiparticle energy relaxation at sub-kelvin temperatures by injecting hot electrons into an aluminium island and measuring the energy flux from electrons into phonons both in the superconducting and in the normal state. The data show strong reduction of the flux at low temperatures in the superconducting state, in qualitative agreement with the presented quasiclassical theory for clean superconductors. Quantitatively, the energy flux exceeds that from the theory both in the superco...

  13. A New First-Principles Calculation of Field-Dependent RF Surface Impedance of BCS Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)


    There is a need to understand the intrinsic limit of radiofrequency (RF) surface impedance that determines the performance of superconducting RF cavities in particle accelerators. Here we present a field-dependent derivation of Mattis-Bardeen theory of the RF surface impedance of BCS superconductors based on the shifted density of states resulting from coherently moving Cooper pairs. Our theoretical prediction of the effective BCS RF surface resistance (Rs) of niobium as a function of peak surface magnetic field amplitude agrees well with recently reported record low loss resonant cavity measurements from JLab and FNAL with carefully, yet differently, prepared niobium material. The surprising reduction in resistance with increasing field is explained to be an intrinsic effect.

  14. Second-order perturbation theory for the single-impurity Anderson model of a BCS superconductor (United States)

    Alastalo, Ari T.


    This paper presents a conserving approximation for a single magnetic impurity embedded in a BCS superconductor according to the Anderson model. The calculation generalizes the second-order selfenergy theory of a normal metal host into a superconducting medium. Within the second-order theory, both spin and pairing fluctuations contribute to the selfenergy. The second-order theory removes the unphysical spontaneous symmetry breaking of the Hartree-Fock approximation but results in a doubling of the bound-state spectrum within the energy gap. The HF bound states may be recovered in the small-U limit as the average of the two separate bound states. For increasing U, the novel pronounced low-energy bound states tend towards the center of the gap while the other bound states approach the gap edge and their spectral weights vanish.

  15. A BCS-like gap in the superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15. (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Tesanovic, Z; Liu, R H; Chen, X H; Chien, C L


    Since the discovery of superconductivity in the high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) copper oxides two decades ago, it has been firmly established that the CuO(2) plane is essential for superconductivity and gives rise to a host of other very unusual properties. A new family of superconductors with the general composition of LaFeAsO(1-x)F(x) has recently been discovered and the conspicuous lack of the CuO(2) planes raises the tantalizing question of a different pairing mechanism in these oxypnictides. The superconducting gap (its magnitude, structure, and temperature dependence) is intimately related to pairing. Here we report the observation of a single gap in the superconductor SmFeAsO(0.85)F(0.15) with T(c) = 42 K as measured by Andreev spectroscopy. The gap value of 2Delta = 13.34 +/- 0.3 meV gives 2Delta/k(B)T(c) = 3.68 (where k(B) is the Boltzmann constant), close to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) prediction of 3.53. The gap decreases with temperature and vanishes at T(c) in a manner consistent with the BCS prediction, but dramatically different from that of the pseudogap behaviour in the copper oxide superconductors. Our results clearly indicate a nodeless gap order parameter, which is nearly isotropic in size across different sections of the Fermi surface, and are not compatible with models involving antiferromagnetic fluctuations, strong correlations, the t-J model, and the like, originally designed for the high-T(c) copper oxides.

  16. The disorder-free non-BCS superconductor Cs3C60 emerges from an antiferromagnetic insulator parent state. (United States)

    Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Ganin, Alexey Y; Jeglic, Peter; Arcon, Denis; Takano, Takumi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Takata, Masaki; Takeshita, Nao; Prassides, Kosmas; Rosseinsky, Matthew J


    The body-centered cubic A15-structured cesium fulleride Cs3C60 is not superconducting at ambient pressure and is free from disorder, unlike the well-studied face-centered cubic A3C60 alkali metal fulleride superconductors. We found that in Cs3C60, where the molecular valences are precisely assigned, the superconducting state at 38 kelvin emerges directly from a localized electron antiferromagnetic insulating state with the application of pressure. This transition maintains the threefold degeneracy of the active orbitals in both competing electronic states; it is thus a purely electronic transition to a superconducting state, with a dependence of the transition temperature on pressure-induced changes of anion packing density that is not explicable by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory.

  17. Nonlinear Correction to Absorption Spectrum under Irradiation of Microwave Field in Conventional BCS Superconductors (United States)

    Jujo, Takanobu


    We investigate the absorption spectrum of s-wave superconductors under microwave pump field irradiation. The third-order response function is calculated in the dirty limit with the electron-phonon interaction included at finite temperatures. We find that the nonlinear correction to the linear absorption shows peculiar behavior when the pump field frequency is smaller than the superconducting gap. At finite temperatures, a negative nonlinear correction exists, which is caused by thermally excited quasiparticles. The vertex correction by impurity scattering is found to contain a dissipation mechanism by inelastic scattering (interaction between electrons and acoustic phonons) or nonlocality. We need this mechanism to obtain finite absorption in a nonequilibrium stationary state under a monochromatic external field. Although this term originates from the deformation of a one-particle state, there is also a final-state interaction (the amplitude mode). The latter term represents two-photon excitation and is almost independent of temperature.

  18. Unusual isotope effects on the pseudogap in high-Tc cuprate superconductors as support for the BCS-like pairing theory of large polarons above Tc (United States)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Baimatov, P. J.; Djumanov, Sh. S.


    The BCS-like pairing theory is extended to the intermediate coupling regime and to the cases of exotic cuprate superconductors with large and small Fermi surfaces, so as to describe the pairing correlations above Tc , the opening of a pseudogap (PG) at a mean-field temperature T∗ >Tc and the unusual isotope effects on the PG in these materials within the large polaron model and two different BCS-like approaches. We argue that unconventional electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the polaron formation and the separation between temperatures T∗ (the onset of precursor Cooper pairing) and Tc (the onset of the superconducting transition) in exotic cuprate superconductors. Using the extended BCS-like approaches, we calculate the PG formation temperature T∗ , isotope shifts ΔT∗ , oxygen and copper isotope exponents and show that isotope effects on the PG basically depend on strengths of Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions, doping levels and dielectric constants of the cuprates. The new BCS-like pairing theory of polaronic carriers predicts the existence of small and sizable positive oxygen isotope effect and very large negative oxygen and copper isotope effects on the PG in the cuprates with large Fermi surfaces. The calculated results for T∗ , isotope shifts and exponents are compared with experimental data on various cuprate superconductors. For all the considered cases, a good quantitative agreement was found between theory and experimental data. We also predict the existence of small and sizable negative isotope effects on T∗ in deeply underdoped cuprates with small Fermi surfaces. Further, we find that the isotope effects on T∗ (=Tc) in heavily overdoped cuprates just like in some metals are relatively small positive or become even negative.

  19. Evidence of a pseudogap driven by competing orders of multi-band origin in the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 (United States)

    Aslam, Mohammad; Paul, Arpita; Thakur, Gohil S.; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Avtar; Das, Shekhar; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sheet, Goutam


    From temperature and magnetic field dependent point-contact spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 (bulk superconducting {{T}\\text{c}}=2.5 K) we observe (a) a pseudogap in the normal state that sustains to a remarkably high temperature of 40 K and (b) two-fold enhancement of T c upto 5 K in the point-contact geometry. In addition, Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals a superconducting gap of 6 meV for certain point-contacts suggesting that the mean field T c of this system could be approximately 40 K, the onset temperature of pseudo-gap. Our results suggest that quantum fluctuations originating from other competing orders in Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 forbid a global phase coherence at high temperatures thereby suppressing T c. Apart from the known ordering to a ferromagnetic state, our first-principles calculations reveal nesting of a multi-band Fermi surface and a significant electron-phonon coupling that could result in charge density wave-like instabilities.

  20. Evidence of a pseudogap driven by competing orders of multi-band origin in the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2. (United States)

    Aslam, Mohammad; Paul, Arpita; Thakur, Gohil S; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Avtar; Das, Shekhar; Ganguli, Ashok K; Waghmare, Umesh V; Sheet, Goutam


    From temperature and magnetic field dependent point-contact spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 (bulk superconducting [Formula: see text] K) we observe (a) a pseudogap in the normal state that sustains to a remarkably high temperature of 40 K and (b) two-fold enhancement of T c upto 5 K in the point-contact geometry. In addition, Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals a superconducting gap of 6 meV for certain point-contacts suggesting that the mean field T c of this system could be approximately 40 K, the onset temperature of pseudo-gap. Our results suggest that quantum fluctuations originating from other competing orders in Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 forbid a global phase coherence at high temperatures thereby suppressing T c. Apart from the known ordering to a ferromagnetic state, our first-principles calculations reveal nesting of a multi-band Fermi surface and a significant electron-phonon coupling that could result in charge density wave-like instabilities.

  1. BCS 50 years

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Dimitri


    The BCS theory of superconductivity developed in 1957 by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer has been remarkably successful in explaining the properties of superconductors. In addition, concepts from BCS have been incorporated into diverse fields of physics, from nuclear physics and dense quark matter to the current standard model. Practical applications include SQUIDs, magnetic resonance imaging, superconducting electronics and the transmission of electricity. This invaluable book is a compilation of both a historical account and a discussion of the current state of theory and experiment. With con

  2. BCS theory of driven superconductivity (United States)

    Komnik, Andreas; Thorwart, Michael


    We study the impact of a time-dependent external driving of the lattice phonons in a minimal model of a BCS superconductor. Upon evaluating the driving-induced vertex corrections of the phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction, we show that parametric phonon driving can be used to elevate the critical temperature Tc, while a dipolar phonon drive has no effect. We provide simple analytic expressions for the enhancement factor of Tc. Furthermore, a mean-field analysis of a nonlinear phonon-phonon interaction also shows that phonon anharmonicities further amplify Tc. Our results hold universally for the large class of normal BCS superconductors.

  3. Supersymmetric BCS

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, Alejandro


    We implement relativistic BCS superconductivity in N=1 supersymmetric field theories with a U(1)_R symmetry. The simplest model contains two chiral superfields with a Kahler potential modified by quartic terms. We study the phase diagram of the gap as a function of the temperature and the specific heat. The superconducting phase transition turns out to be first order, due to the scalar contribution to the one-loop potential. By virtue of supersymmetry, the critical curves depend logarithmically with the UV cutoff, rather than quadratically as in standard BCS theory. We comment on the difficulties in having fermion condensates when the chemical potential is instead coupled to a baryonic U(1)_B current. We also discuss supersymmetric models of BCS with canonical Kahler potential constructed by "integrating-in" chiral superfields.

  4. Multi-band Eilenberger Theory of Superconductivity: Systematic Low-Energy Projection (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki


    We propose the general multi-band quasiclassical Eilenberger theory of superconductivity to describe quasiparticle excitations in inhomogeneous systems. With the use of low-energy projection matrix, the M-band quasiclassical Eilenberger equations are systematically obtained from N-band Gor'kov equations. Here M is the internal degrees of freedom in the bands crossing the Fermi energy and N is the degree of freedom in a model. Our framework naturally includes inter-band off-diagonal elements of Green's functions, which have usually been neglected in previous multi-band quasiclassical frameworks. The resultant multi-band Eilenberger and Andreev equations are similar to the single-band ones, except for multi-band effects. The multi-band effects can exhibit the non-locality and the anisotropy in the mapped systems. Our framework can be applied to an arbitrary Hamiltonian (e.g., a tight-binding Hamiltonian derived by the first-principle calculation). As examples, we use our framework in various kinds of systems, such as noncentrosymmetric superconductor CePt3Si, three-orbital model for Sr2RuO4, heavy fermion CeCoIn5/YbCoIn5 superlattice, a topological superconductor with the strong spin-orbit coupling CuxBi2Se3, and a surface system on a topological insulator.

  5. Multi Band Gap High Efficiency Converter (RAINBOW) (United States)

    Bekey, I.; Lewis, C.; Phillips, W.; Shields, V.; Stella, P.


    The RAINBOW multi band gap system represents a unique combination of solar cells, concentrators and beam splitters. RAINBOW is a flexible system which can readily expand as new high efficiency components are developed.

  6. Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, A V


    Superconductors is neither about basic aspects of superconductivity nor about its applications, but its mainstay is superconducting materials. Unusual and unconventional features of a large variety of novel superconductors are presented and their technological potential as practical superconductors assessed. The book begins with an introduction to basic aspects of superconductivity. The presentation is readily accessible to readers from a diverse range of scientific and technical disciplines, such as metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering, electronic and device engineering, and chemistry. The derivation of mathematical formulas and equations has been kept to a minimum and, wherever necessary, short appendices with essential mathematics have been added at the end of the text. The book is not meant to serve as an encyclopaedia, describing each and every superconductor that exists, but focuses on important milestones in their exciting development.

  7. The BCS-BE crossover phase diagram at T = 0 K for a d-wave superconductor: the importance of the Debye frequency and the tight binding band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RodrIguez-Nunez, J J [Departamento de FIsica-FACYT-UC, Valencia, Estado Carabobo (Venezuela); Schmidt, A A [Departamento de Matematica, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Alvarez-Llamoza, O [Departamento de FIsica-FACYT-UC, Valencia, Estado Carabobo (Venezuela); Orozco, E [Departamento de FIsica-FACYT-UC, Valencia, Estado Carabobo (Venezuela)


    We consider the phase diagram of the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BE (Bose-Einstein) crossover in the ground state (T = 0 K) of a d{sub x{sup 2}}{sub -y{sup 2}}-wave superconductor, with a nearest neighbour tight binding structure, when we take into account the Debye (phononic) frequency around the chemical potential, {mu}. This approach is a continuation of the work of den Hertog (1999 Phys. Rev. B 60 559) and that of Soares et al (2002 Phys. Rev. B 65 174506). The latter authors considered the influence of the second-nearest neighbours, but neither set of authors took into account the effect of the Debye frequency, {omicron}{sub D}, or the influence of the next nearest neighbour matrix hopping element. We have found the following results: (1) there is not a metallic phase-that is, {delta}/4t {yields}0 when V/4t {yields}0, for all {omega}{sub D}/4t, for all {alpha} ' in (-1/2,+1/2), and for all n, where n is the carrier density per site, V is the attractive interaction, t is the nearest neighbour hopping integral, and {alpha}' is the next nearest neighbour hopping ratio; (2) the BCS-BE crossover line is strongly affected by the presence of {omicron}{sub D}/4t and that of {alpha}'-actually, the values of V/4t needed to achieve the Bose-Einstein regime become extremely large for small values of {omicron}{sub D}/4t; and (3) both {delta}/4t and {mu}/4t strongly depend on the values of {omicron}{sub D}/4t and {alpha}'. The results are in agreement with the ones found by Perali et al (2003 Phys. Rev. B 68 066501 (Preprint cond-mat/0211132)) and RodrIguez-Nunez et al (2003 Phys. Rev. B 68 066502), and in disagreement with those of den Hertog and Soares et al.

  8. Bayesian Fusion of Multi-Band Images

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Qi; Tourneret, Jean-Yves


    In this paper, a Bayesian fusion technique for remotely sensed multi-band images is presented. The observed images are related to the high spectral and high spatial resolution image to be recovered through physical degradations, e.g., spatial and spectral blurring and/or subsampling defined by the sensor characteristics. The fusion problem is formulated within a Bayesian estimation framework. An appropriate prior distribution exploiting geometrical consideration is introduced. To compute the Bayesian estimator of the scene of interest from its posterior distribution, a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is designed to generate samples asymptotically distributed according to the target distribution. To efficiently sample from this high-dimension distribution, a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo step is introduced in the Gibbs sampling strategy. The efficiency of the proposed fusion method is evaluated with respect to several state-of-the-art fusion techniques. In particular, low spatial resolution hyperspectral and mult...

  9. Multi-Band Feeds: A Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Maan, Yogesh; Raja, Wasim; Mehta, Nikhil


    Broadband antenna feeds are of particular interest to existing and future radio telescopes for multi-frequency studies of astronomical sources. Although a 1:15 range in frequency is difficult to achieve, the well-known Eleven feed design offers a relatively uniform response over such a range, and reasonably well-matched responses in E & H planes. However, given the severe Radio Frequency Interference in several bands over such wide spectral range, one desires to selectively reject the corresponding bands. With this view, we have explored the possibilities of having a multi-band feed antenna spanning a wide frequency range, but which would have good response only in a number of pre-selected (relatively) RFI-free windows (for a particular telescope-site). The designs we have investigated use the basic configuration of pairs of dipoles as in the Eleven feed, but use simple wire dipoles instead of folded dipoles used in the latter. From our study of the two designs we have investigated, we find that the desig...

  10. Relativistic BCS-BEC Crossover at Quark Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang P.


    Full Text Available The non-relativistic G0G formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The theory recovers the BCS mean field approximation at zero temperature and the non-relativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superfluid to the non-relativistic BEC state and then to the relativistic BEC state. For color superconductivity at moderate baryon density, the matter is in the BCS-BEC crossover region, and the behavior of the pseudogap is quite similar to that found in high temperature superconductors.

  11. BCS–BEC and observed sharp vs. BCS exponential rise in T{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grether, M. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-542, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Llano, M. de, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Tolmachev, V.V. [Baumann State Technical University, 107005, 2-ja Baumanscaja St., 5, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Boson-fermion gas model of superconductors which is ternary, rather than usual binary, as hole-Cooper-pairs are included as well. • Model contains BCS, BEC, crossover, and Friedberg-T.D. Lee formalisms as special cases. • Enhancements in Tc are obtained, compared with BCS theory. • Sharp vs exponential BCS rise in Tc follow. -- Abstract: We show how a recent generalized Bose–Einstein condensation (GBEC) formalism predicts a sharp rise in T{sub c} with charge-carrier density as observed in variably-doped cuprates, in contrast with the exponential rise predicted by BCS theory.

  12. Multi-band model of quantum electron devices (United States)

    Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    Wigner function equations for multi-band quantum devices are presented in this presentation. These quantum transport equations are derived from the equations of motion of non-equilibrium Green's function with the generalized Kadanoff Baym ansatz, and the multi-band k.p Hamiltonian including the spin-orbit interaction. The results are applied to a two-band resonant inter-band tunneling structure. A Wigner function representation is developed for the quantum transport theory of the conduction band electrons in Rashba effect resonant tunneling structures with a phonon bath. In narrow band gap heterostructures, spin splitting occurs mainly as a result of inversion asymmetry in the spatial dependence of the potential or as a result of external electric field. This "zero magnetic field spin splitting" is due to the Rashba term in the effective mass Hamiltonian. A theoretical study of the spin-dependent resonant tunneling structure based on multi-band non-equilibrium Green's functions is also presented in this work. Again, the quantum transport equations are derived using multiband non-equilibrium Green's function formulation in generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz. Finally, numerical results are presented based on the multi-band Wigner-Poisson code. This code is able to simulate multi-band resonant tunneling structures.

  13. Multi-band Image Registration Method Based on Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庹红娅; 刘允才


    This paper presented a registration method based on Fourier transform for multi-band images which is involved in translation and small rotation. Although different band images differ a lot in the intensity and features,they contain certain common information which we can exploit. A model was given that the multi-band images have linear correlations under the least-square sense. It is proved that the coefficients have no effect on the registration progress if two images have linear correlations. Finally, the steps of the registration method were proposed. The experiments show that the model is reasonable and the results are satisfying.

  14. Surface Material Characterization from Multi-band Optical Observations (United States)

    Hall, D.


    Ground-based optical and radar sites routinely acquire resolved images of satellites. These resolved images provide the means to construct accurate wire-frame models of the observed body, as well as an understanding of its orientation as a function of time. Unfortunately, because such images are typically acquired in a single spectral band, they provide little information on the types of materials covering the satellite's various surfaces. Detailed surface material characterization generally requires spectrometric and/or multi-band photometric measurements. Fortunately, many instruments provide such multi-band information (e.g., spectrographs and multi-channel photometers). However, these sensors often measure the brightness of the entire satellite, with no spatial resolution at all. Because such whole-body measurements represent a summation of contributions from many reflecting surfaces, an ―un-mixing‖ or inversion process must be employed to determine the materials covering each of the satellite's individual sub-components. The first section of this paper describes the inversion theory required to retrieve satellite surface material properties from temporal sequences of whole-body multi-band brightness measurements. The inversion requires the following as input: 1) a set of multi-band measurements of a satellite's reflected-sunlight brightness, 2) the satellite's wire-frame model, including each major component capable of reflecting sunlight, 3) the satellite's attitude, specifying the body’s orientation at the time of each multi-band measurement, and 4) a database of bi-directional reflection distribution functions for a set of candidate surface materials. As output, the inversion process yields estimates of the fraction of each major satellite component covered by each candidate material. The second section of the paper describes several tests of the method by applying it to simulated multi-band observations of a cubical satellite with different materials

  15. Flexible metamaterial absorbers with multi-band infrared response (United States)

    Dayal, Govind; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha


    A flexible metamaterial with a tri-layer metal-dielectric-metal structure is fabricated by combining Excimer laser micromachining of a polyimide sheet and oblique angle physical vapour deposition methods. Excimer laser micromachining is used to generate an array of micro-disks on the flexible polymer sheet followed by physical vapour deposition at normal incidence to produce continuous metal and dielectric layers while oblique angle deposition of metal vapour is used to finally form discrete oblate ellipsoids on top of the micro-disks. The fabricated metamaterial shows multi-band metamaterial absorption exceeding 90% simultaneously over infrared bands centred at 3 µm, 5 µm, and 13.85 µm. The multi-band absorption arises due to multipole resonances of the disk structure and is accurately modelled by electromagnetic simulation as well. A theoretical model of a perfect absorber as an array of optimally impedance matched antennas is also presented.

  16. Phenomenology of passive multi-band submillimeter-wave imagery (United States)

    Enestam, Sissi; Kajatkari, Perttu; Kivimäki, Olli; Leivo, Mikko M.; Rautiainen, Anssi; Tamminen, Aleksi A.; Luukanen, Arttu R.


    In 2015, Asqella Oy commercialized a passive multi-band submillimeter-wave camera system intended for use in walk-by personnel security screening applications. In this paper we study the imagery acquired with the prototype of the ARGON passive multi-band submm-wave video camera. To challenge the system and test its limits, imagery has been obtained in various environments with varying background surface temperatures, with people of different body types, with different clothing materials and numbers of layers of clothing and with objects of different materials. In addition to the phenomenological study, we discuss the detection statistics of the system, evaluated by running blind trials with human operators. While significant improvements have been made particularly in the software side since the beginning of the testing, the obtained imagery enables a comprehensive evaluation of the capabilities and challenges of the multiband submillimeter-wave imaging system.

  17. BCS as Foundation and Inspiration: the Transmutation of Symmetry (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    The BCS theory injected two powerful ideas into the collective consciousness of theoretical physics: pairing and spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the 50 years since the seminal work of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer, those ideas have found important use in areas quite remote from the stem application to metallic superconductivity. This is a brief and eclectic sketch of some highlights, emphasizing relatively recent developments in QCD and in the theory of quantum statistics, and including a few thoughts about future directions. A common theme is the importance of symmetry transmutation, as opposed to the simple breaking of electromagnetic U(1) symmetry in classic metallic superconductors.

  18. A Self-Calibrating Multi-Band Region Growing Approach to Segmentation of Single and Multi-Band Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D W


    Image segmentation transforms pixel-level information from raw images to a higher level of abstraction in which related pixels are grouped into disjoint spatial regions. Such regions typically correspond to natural or man-made objects or structures, natural variations in land cover, etc. For many image interpretation tasks (such as land use assessment, automatic target cueing, defining relationships between objects, etc.), segmentation can be an important early step. Remotely sensed images (e.g., multi-spectral and hyperspectral images) often contain many spectral bands (i.e., multiple layers of 2D images). Multi-band images are important because they contain more information than single-band images. Objects or natural variations that are readily apparent in certain spectral bands may be invisible in 2D broadband images. In this paper, the classical region growing approach to image segmentation is generalized from single to multi-band images. While it is widely recognized that the quality of image segmentation is affected by which segmentation algorithm is used, this paper shows that algorithm parameter values can have an even more profound effect. A novel self-calibration framework is developed for automatically selecting parameter values that produce segmentations that most closely resemble a calibration edge map (derived separately using a simple edge detector). Although the framework is generic in the sense that it can imbed any core segmentation algorithm, this paper only demonstrates self-calibration with multi-band region growing. The framework is applied to a variety of AVIRIS image blocks at different spectral resolutions, in an effort to assess the impact of spectral resolution on segmentation quality. The image segmentations are assessed quantitatively, and it is shown that segmentation quality does not generally appear to be highly correlated with spectral resolution.

  19. RRI-GBT Multi-Band Receiver: Motivation, Design & Development

    CERN Document Server

    Maan, Yogesh; Chandrashekar, Vinutha; Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Rao, K B Raghavendra; Somashekar, R; Anderson, Gary; Ezhilarasi, M S; Sujatha, S; Kasturi, S; Sandhya, P; Bauserman, Jonah; Duraichelvan, R; Amiri, Shahram; Aswathappa, H A; Barve, Indrajit V; Sarabagopalan, G; Ananda, H M; Beaudet, Carla; Bloss, Marty; Dhamnekar, Deepa B; Egan, Dennis; Ford, John; Krishnamurthy, S; Mehta, Nikhil; Minter, Anthony H; Nagaraja, H N; Narayanaswamy, M; O'Neil, Karen; Raja, Wasim; Sahasrabudhe, Harshad; Shelton, Amy; Srivani, K S; Venugopal, H V; Viswanathan, Salna T


    We report the design and development of a self-contained multi-band receiver (MBR) system, intended for use with a single large aperture to facilitate sensitive & high time-resolution observations simultaneously in 10 discrete frequency bands sampling a wide spectral span (100-1500 MHz) in a nearly log-periodic fashion. The development of this system was primarily motivated by need for tomographic studies of pulsar polar emission regions. Although the system design is optimized for the primary goal, it is also suited for several other interesting astronomical investigations. The system consists of a dual-polarization multi-band feed (with discrete responses corresponding to the 10 bands pre-selected as relatively RFI-free), a common wide-band RF front-end, and independent back-end receiver chains for the 10 individual sub-bands. The raw voltage time-sequences corresponding to 16 MHz bandwidth each for the two linear polarization channels and the 10 bands, are recorded at the Nyquist rate simultaneously. W...

  20. Microelectrical Mechanical Systems Switch for Designing Multi-Band Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H.M.Z. Alam


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study Microelectrical Mechanical System (MEMS switches were proposed to design a reconfigurable/multi-band antenna to replaced PIN diode switches or semiconductor switches due to lower insertion losses, good isolation, much lower intermodulation distortion, and lower power consumption. The antenna is able to operate at very high frequencies. Approach: A reconfigurable antenna that is capable to operate at several frequencies was proposed by introducing two adjacent patches along with main radiating patch and two MEMS switches. Parametric analysis of the size of the wing patches was done for finding optimum size. A comparative study was done for Alumina, SiN, GaAs and Teflon as MEMS bridge materials for finding better results in terms of return loss and number of bands. The design was performed by using 3D electromagnetic simulator HFSS considering ideal MEMS switches. Results: It was found that SiN as MEMS bridge material makes the antenna to operate at 16.76, 23.56 and 27.7 GHz in the “OFF” states and operate at 20.9 and 21.91 GHz in the “ON” states of MEMS switches. Conclusion/Recommendations: MEMS cantilever beam material played an important role for providing antenna to operate at multi-band frequencies. The proposed multiband/reconfigurable antenna can be implemented with easy fabrication process steps by the Sandwich method of fabrication.

  1. Multiple phase transitions in Pauli limited iron-based superconductors


    Ptok, Andrzej


    Specific heat measurements have been successfully used to probe unconventional superconducting phases in one-band heavy-fermion and organic superconductors. We extend the method to study successive phase transitions in multi-band materials such as iron based superconductors. The signatures are multiple peaks in the specific heat, at low temperatures and high magnetic field, which can lead the experimental verification of unconventional superconducting states with non-zero total momentum.

  2. Mass renormalization and unconventional pairing in multi-band Fe-based superconductors- a phenomenological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, S.L.; Efremov, D.; Grinenko, V. [IFW-Dresden (Germany); Johnston, S. [Inst. of Quantum Matter, University of British Coulumbia, Vancouver (Canada); Rosner, H. [MPI-cPfS, Dresden, (Germany); Kikoin, K. [Tel Aviv University (Israel)


    Combining DFT calculations of the density of states and plasma frequencies with experimental thermodynamic, optical, ARPES, and dHvA data taken from the literature, we estimate both the high-energy (Coulomb, Hund's rule coupling) and the low-energy (el-boson coupling) electronic mass renormalization [H(L)EMR] for typical Fe-pnictides with T{sub c}<40 K, focusing on (K,Rb,Cs)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, (Ca,Na)122, (Ba,K)122, LiFeAs, and LaFeO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}As with and without As-vacancies. Using Eliashberg theory we show that these systems can NOT be described by a very strong el-boson coupling constant λ ≥ ∝ 2, being in conflict with the HEMR as seen by DMFT, ARPES and optics. Instead, an intermediate s{sub ±} coupling regime is realized, mainly based on interband spin fluctuations from one predominant pair of bands. For (Ca,Na)122, there is also a non-negligible intraband el-phonon/orbital fluctuation intraband contribution. The coexistence of magnetic As-vacancies and high-T{sub c}=28 K for LaFeO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}As{sub 1-δ} excludes an orbital fluctuation dominated s{sub ++} scenario at least for that system. In contrast, the line nodal BaFe{sub 2}(As,P){sub 2} near the quantum critical point is found as a superstrongly coupled system. The role of a pseudo-gap is briefly discussed for some of these systems.

  3. Filter Based Interference Mitigation in Multi Band-OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila J.


    Full Text Available This study aims at to mitigate the interference between the primary user and secondary user in the wireless environment. This becomes necessary task because with the growing demand for bandwidth for wireless connectivity, it has become essential to come up with innovative solutions to tackle the demand. Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM offers a compelling answer for higher bandwidth and data rate requirements. The performance of multi band OFDM has been tarnished by narrow band interference due to the existence of primary users in the UWB spectrum. This occurs due to the leakage of spectral interference power. Despite the fact that Multiband OFDM has the inherent capability to mitigate the interference, independent mitigation techniques become necessary when the interference level is too high. In this study, interference mitigation is carried out by filtering action at the receiver. Results of simulation are compared to analyze the performance of the filters. Further steps have been taken out to enhance the performance of multiband OFDM system which in turn will be helpful in mitigating the interference.

  4. Multi-Band Spectral Properties of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benzhong Dai; Dahai Yan


    The multi-band data covering optical, X-ray and -ray energy regions of 130 Fermi blazars in the First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) were collected to investigate the broadband spectral properties. The composite spectral indices show that HBLs have convex optical-to-X-ray continua and concave X-ray-to--ray continua, > 0 and < 0, while FSRQs and LBLs have < 0. The distribution of FSRQs and LBLs extends from negative to positive values. We suggest > 0 and < 0 could be considered as a criterion for HBLs. Moreover, HBLs have narrow distribution of peak interval of log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}=\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$, and FSRQs have significant anti-correlation between log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}-\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$ and $\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$. This indicates that SSC model is responsible for high energy emission of HBLs, while EC for FSRQs. Our results also indicate that FSRQs with larger break energy of electrons have smaller bulk Lorentz factor of dissipation region.

  5. MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing......MATLAB simulation software used for the PhD thesis "Acquisition of Multi-Band Signals via Compressed Sensing...

  6. A Multi-Band Photonic Phased Array Antenna for High-Data Rate Communication Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-band phased array antenna (PAA) can reduce the number of antennas on shipboard platforms while offering significantly improved performance. In order to steer...

  7. A Multi-band Photonic Phased Array Antenna for High-Date Rate Communication Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-band phased array antenna (PAA) can reduce the number of antennas on shipboard platforms while offering significantly improved performance. In order to steer...

  8. Single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency-like metamaterials with coupled split ring resonators (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris


    We present a metamaterial configuration exhibiting single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like properties. The unit cell of the single band EIT-like metamaterial consists of a multi-split ring resonator surrounded by a split ring resonator. The multi-split ring resonator acts as a quasi-dark or dark resonator, depending on the polarization of the incident wave, and the split ring resonator serves as the bright resonator. Combination of these two resonators results in a single band EIT-like transmission inside the stop band. EIT-like transmission phenomenon is also clearly observed in the measured transmission spectrum at almost the same frequencies for vertical and horizontal polarized waves, and the numerical results are verified for normal incidence. Moreover, multi-band transmission windows are created within a wide band by combining the two slightly different single band EIT-like metamaterial unit cells that exhibit two different coupling strengths inside a supercell configuration. Group indices as high as 123 for single band and 488 for tri-band transmission, accompanying with high transmission rates (over 80%), are achieved, rendering the metamaterial very suitable for multi-band slow light applications. It is shown that the group delay of the propagating wave can be increased and dynamically controlled by changing the polarization angle. Multi-band EIT-like transmission is also verified experimentally, and a good agreement with simulations is obtained. The proposed novel methodology for obtaining multi-band EIT, which takes advantage of a supercell configuration by hosting slightly different configured unit cells, can be utilized for easily formation and manipulation of multi-band transmission windows inside a stop band.

  9. Subgap states in disordered superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvortsov, M. A., E-mail:; Feigel' man, M. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)


    We revise the problem of the density of states in disordered superconductors. Randomness of local sample characteristics translates to the quenched spatial inhomogeneity of the spectral gap, smearing the BCS coherence peak. We show that various microscopic models of potential and magnetic disorder can be reduced to a universal phenomenological random order parameter model, whereas the details of the microscopic description are encoded in the correlation function of the order parameter fluctuations. The resulting form of the density of states is generally described by two parameters: the width {Gamma} measuring the broadening of the BCS peak and the energy scale {Gamma}{sub tail} that controls the exponential decay of the density of subgap states. We refine the existing instanton approaches for determination of {Gamma}{sub tail} and show that they appear as limiting cases of a unified theory of optimal fluctuations in a nonlinear system. The application to various types of disorder is discussed.

  10. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling. (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue


    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application.

  11. Order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Plantz, N W M; Vandoren, S


    We investigate the effect of order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor. In particular, the fully backreacted spectral functions of the order parameter in both the normal and the superconducting phase are computed. We also present a vector-like large-$N$ version of the Ginzburg-Landau model that accurately describes our long-wavelength results in both phases. The large-$N$ limit of the latter model explains why the Higgs mode and the second-sound mode are not present in the spectral functions. Our results indicate that the holographic superconductor describes a relativistic multi-component superfluid in the universal regime of the BEC-BCS crossover.

  12. Order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor (United States)

    Plantz, N. W. M.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Vandoren, S.


    We investigate the effect of order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor. In particular, following an introduction to the concept of intrinsic dynamics and its implementation within holographic models, we compute the intrinsic spectral functions of the order parameter in both the normal and the superconducting phase, using a fully backreacted bulk geometry. We also present a vector-like large-N version of the Ginzburg–Landau model that accurately describes our long-wavelength results in both phases. Our results indicate that the holographic superconductor describes a relativistic multi-component superfluid in the universal regime of the BEC–BCS crossover.

  13. Theoretical study on the two-band degenerate-gaps superconductors: Application to SrPt3P (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Hou, Li-Chao; Zhao, Bin-Peng


    We study the magnetic properties of two-band degenerate-gaps superconductors with two-band isotropic Ginzburg-Landau theory. The exact solutions of upper critical field and London penetration depth are obtained, and the calculations reproduce the experimental data of the recently observed superconducting crystal SrPt3P in a broad temperature range. It directly underlies that SrPt3P is a multi-band superconductor with equal gaps in two Fermi surface sheets.

  14. Inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy in conventional and unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlobil, Patrik; Schmalian, Joerg; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Jandke, Jasmin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie (Germany)


    Electron tunneling spectroscopy has been used extremely successful in order to verify the microscopic phonon pairing mechanism in conventional BCS superconductors using the Eliashberg theory. Nevertheless, earlier theories and experiments focused mainly on elastic tunneling processes. We present, motivated by recent experiments, a theoretical description of inelastic tunneling in STM in which an electrons tunnels from the tip into a BCS superconductor and coherently excites a phonon during the tunneling process. This additional channel enhances the measured conductivity and we show that if the superconductor is in the normal state, within some limitations, the derivative dσ/dV will be proportional to the Eliashberg function α2F. Additionally, the influence of the inelastic contributions on the tunneling spectrum in the superconducting state will be discussed. Finally, we generalize the theory to other bosonic excitations and focus on the question if inelastic tunneling could be used to unveil the electronic pairing mechanism in the iron pnictides.

  15. Ginzburg-Landau expansion in BCS-BEC crossover region of disordered attractive Hubbard model (United States)

    Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Kuleeva, N. A.; Sadovskii, M. V.


    We have studied disorder effects on the coefficients of Ginzburg-Landau expansion for attractive Hubbard model within the generalized DMFT+Σ approximation for the wide region of the values of attractive potential U—from the weak-coupling limit, where superconductivity is described by BCS model, towards the strong coupling, where superconducting transition is related to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of compact Cooper pairs. For the case of semi-elliptic initial density of states disorder influence on the coefficients A and B before the square and the fourth power of the order parameter is universal for at all values of electronic correlations and is related only to the widening of the initial conduction band (density of states) by disorder. Similar universal behavior is valid for superconducting critical temperature Tc (the generalized Anderson theorem) and specific heat discontinuity at the transition. This universality is absent for the coefficient C before the gradient term, which in accordance with the standard theory of "dirty" superconductors is strongly suppressed by disorder in the weak-coupling region, but can slightly grow in BCS-BEC crossover region, becoming almost independent of disorder in the strong coupling region. This leads to rather weak disorder dependence of the penetration depth and coherence length, as well as the slope of the upper critical magnetic field at Tc, in BCS-BEC crossover and strong coupling regions.

  16. Tunable multi-band chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric split ring resonators (United States)

    Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou; Meng, Qingxin; Zhou, Zhongxiang


    We have numerically demonstrated chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric Au film with hollow out design of split ring resonators on either side of the polyimide. Multiple electric dipoles and magnetic dipoles resulted from parallel and antiparallel currents between the eight split ring resonators. Multi-band circular dichroism is found in the visible frequency regime by studying the transmission properties. Huge optical activity and the induced multi-band negative refractive index are obtained at resonance by calculating the optical activity and ellipticity of the transmitted E-fields. Chirality parameter and effective refractive index are retrieved to illustrate the tunable optical properties of the metamaterials. The underlying mechanisms for the observed circular dichroism are analyzed. These metamaterials would offer flexible electromagnetic applications in the infrared and visible regime.

  17. A polarization-sensitive mid-infrared plasmonic absorber for multi-band resonance (United States)

    Li, Yongqian; Wang, Binbin; Xu, Xiaolun; Su, Lei; Zhou, Zili


    The aim of this work is to present a multi-band absorption metamaterials. One dual cross-shape perfect absorber metamaterials (PAMs) was developed to obtain multi-band spectrum at mid-infrared. The PAMs possess three distinct resonant peaks standing independently, which are attributed to the polarization sensitive excitation of plasmonic resonance. The optical parameters retrieved by S-parameters method were investigated, which provides a satisfactory qualitative description of the multiple-band spectra responses. On the other hand, the near-field plasmonic behaviors and redistribution of the electromagnetic field were probed theoretically and numerically into the PAMs structure, which also explains the observed absorption behavior of the PAMs ensemble based upon the microscopic perspective. The multiplex spectrum enables the infrared perfect absorber metamaterials (PAMs) a powerful tool for direct access to vibrational fingerprints of single molecular structure.

  18. Multi-band silicon quantum dots embedded in an amorphous matrix of silicon carbide (United States)

    Chang, Geng-rong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Da-yan; Xu, Ke-wei


    Silicon quantum dots embedded in an amorphous matrix of silicon carbide were realized by a magnetron co-sputtering process and post-annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, glancing x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the chemical composition and the microstructural properties. The results show that the sizes and size distribution of silicon quantum dots can be tuned by changing the annealing atmosphere and the atom ratio of silicon and carbon in the matrix. A physicochemical mechanism is proposed to demonstrate this formation process. Photoluminescence measurements indicate a multi-band configuration due to the quantum confinement effect of silicon quantum dots with different sizes. The PL spectra are further widened as a result of the existence of amorphous silicon quantum dots. This multi-band configuration would be extremely advantageous in improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells.

  19. Multi-band local microwave signal generation based on an optical frequency comb generator (United States)

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Sun, Wen Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua


    We propose and experimental demonstrate a new method to generate multi-band local microwave signals based on an optical frequency comb generator (OFCG) by applying an optical sideband injection locking technique and an optical heterodyning technique. The generated microwave signal can cover multi bands from S band to Ka band. A tunable multiband microwave signal spanning from 5 GHz to 40 GHz can be generated by the beating between the optical carrier and injection locked modulation sidebands in a photodetector without an optical filter. The wavelength of the slave laser can be continuously and near-linearly adjusted by proper changing its bias current. By tuning the bias current of the slave laser, the wavelength of that is matched to one of the modulation sidebands of the OFCG. The performance of the arrangement in terms of the tunability and stability of the generated microwave signal is also studied.

  20. A multi-band environment-adaptive approach to noise suppression for cochlear implants. (United States)

    Saki, Fatemeh; Mirzahasanloo, Taher; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser


    This paper presents an improved environment-adaptive noise suppression solution for the cochlear implants speech processing pipeline. This improvement is achieved by using a multi-band data-driven approach in place of a previously developed single-band data-driven approach. Seven commonly encountered noisy environments of street, car, restaurant, mall, bus, pub and train are considered to quantify the improvement. The results obtained indicate about 10% improvement in speech quality measures.

  1. Multi-segment Printed Monopole Antenna for Multi- band Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Kumari


    Full Text Available A novel planar monopole antenna capable of multi-band operation is proposed. The proposed antenna has eight segment planar rectangular radiation patches placed on a baseline segment, fed by a CPW-feed. The proposed structures cover the useful bands such as IEEE 802.11 a, b, etc. Details of the proposed design along with the simulation and experimental results obtained are presented and discussed.

  2. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array. (United States)

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C


    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems.

  3. On n-quantum vortices in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, V I


    The conditions of the n-quantum vortices observation in the superconductors are discussed. It is established in the course of calculating the coefficient by the |psi| sup 6 (psi - the order parameter) in the Ginzburg-Landau theory for the BCS standard model that the sign of this coefficient is negative. This favours the possibility of observing the n-quantum vortices in the superconductors, wherein the vortex lattice with gravitation is formed. The existence of gravitation is manifested in the magnetization finite jump in the H sub 0 = H sub c sub sup 1 field. When by the temperature change the superconductor behavior changes in such a way, that its magnetization in the H sub 0 = H sub c field reduces to the zero, than the observation of the n-quantum vortices near this transition is possible

  4. Superconductivity in an electron band just above the Fermi level: possible route to BCS-BEC superconductivity. (United States)

    Okazaki, K; Ito, Y; Ota, Y; Kotani, Y; Shimojima, T; Kiss, T; Watanabe, S; Chen, C-T; Niitaka, S; Hanaguri, T; Takagi, H; Chainani, A; Shin, S


    Conventional superconductivity follows Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) theory of electrons-pairing in momentum-space, while superfluidity is the Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) of atoms paired in real-space. These properties of solid metals and ultra-cold gases, respectively, are connected by the BCS-BEC crossover. Here we investigate the band dispersions in FeTe(0.6)Se(0.4)(Tc = 14.5 K ~ 1.2 meV) in an accessible range below and above the Fermi level(EF) using ultra-high resolution laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We uncover an electron band lying just 0.7 meV (~8 K) above EF at the Γ-point, which shows a sharp superconducting coherence peak with gap formation below Tc. The estimated superconducting gap Δ and Fermi energy [Symbol: see text]F indicate composite superconductivity in an iron-based superconductor, consisting of strong-coupling BEC in the electron band and weak-coupling BCS-like superconductivity in the hole band. The study identifies the possible route to BCS-BEC superconductivity.

  5. Modeling of multi-band drift in nanowires using a full band Monte Carlo simulation (United States)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Saraniti, Marco; Goodnick, Stephen M.


    We report on a new numerical approach for multi-band drift within the context of full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) simulation and apply this to Si and InAs nanowires. The approach is based on the solution of the Krieger and Iafrate (KI) equations [J. B. Krieger and G. J. Iafrate, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986)], which gives the probability of carriers undergoing interband transitions subject to an applied electric field. The KI equations are based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and previous solutions of these equations have used Runge-Kutta (RK) methods to numerically solve the KI equations. This approach made the solution of the KI equations numerically expensive and was therefore only applied to a small part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). Here we discuss an alternate approach to the solution of the KI equations using the Magnus expansion (also known as "exponential perturbation theory"). This method is more accurate than the RK method as the solution lies on the exponential map and shares important qualitative properties with the exact solution such as the preservation of the unitary character of the time evolution operator. The solution of the KI equations is then incorporated through a modified FBMC free-flight drift routine and applied throughout the nanowire BZ. The importance of the multi-band drift model is then demonstrated for the case of Si and InAs nanowires by simulating a uniform field FBMC and analyzing the average carrier energies and carrier populations under high electric fields. Numerical simulations show that the average energy of the carriers under high electric field is significantly higher when multi-band drift is taken into consideration, due to the interband transitions allowing carriers to achieve higher energies.

  6. Superconductor Composite (United States)

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Burlone, Dominick A.; Morgan; Carol W.


    A superconducting conductor fabricated from a plurality of wires, e.g., fine silver wires, coated with a superconducting powder. A process of applying superconducting powders to such wires, to the resulting coated wires and superconductors produced therefrom.

  7. Multi-band asymmetric acoustic transmission in a bended waveguide with multiple mechanisms (United States)

    Huang, Yu-lei; Sun, Hong-xiang; Xia, Jian-ping; Yuan, Shou-qi; Ding, Xin-lei


    We report the realization of a multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission by placing a phononic crystal inside a bended waveguide immersed in water, as determined both experimentally and numerically. The asymmetric acoustic transmission exists in three frequency bands below 500 kHz induced by multiple mechanisms. Besides the band gap of the phononic crystal, we also introduce the deaf mode and interaction between the phononic crystal and waveguide. More importantly, this asymmetric transmission can be systematically controlled by mechanically rotating the square rods of the phononic crystal. The device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and adjustable property, showing promising applications in ultrasonic devices.

  8. Pattern-based compression of multi-band image data for landscape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Wayne L; Patil, Ganapati P


    This book describes an integrated approach to using remotely sensed data in conjunction with geographic information systems for landscape analysis. Remotely sensed data are compressed into an analytical image-map that is compatible with the most popular geographic information systems as well as freeware viewers. The approach is most effective for landscapes that exhibit a pronounced mosaic pattern of land cover. The image maps are much more compact than the original remotely sensed data, which enhances utility on the internet. As value-added products, distribution of image-maps is not affected by copyrights on original multi-band image data.

  9. NIMBUS: A Near-Infrared Multi-Band Ultraprecise Spectroimager for SOFIA (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Mandell, Avi; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Spiegel, David S.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Amatucci, Edward; Blake, Cullen; Budinoff, Jason; Burgasser, Adam; Burrows, Adam; Clampin, Mark C.; Conroy, Charlie; Deming, L. Drake; Dunham, Edward; Foltz, Roger; Gong, Qian; Knutson, Heather; Muench, Theodore; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Peabody, Hume; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Villanueva, Geronimo


    We present a new and innovative near-infrared multi-band ultraprecise spectroimager (NIMBUS) for SOFIA. This instrument will enable many exciting observations in the new age of precision astronomy. This optical design splits the beam into 8 separate spectral bandpasses, centered around key molecular bands from 1 to 4 microns. Each spectral channel has a wide field of view for simultaneous observations of a reference star that can decorrelate time-variable atmospheric and optical assembly effects, allowing the instrument to achieve ultraprecise photometry for a wide variety of astrophysical sources

  10. Level-1 Trigger Development for the Multi-band Instability Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Joshua Peter


    Prototype studies in 2012/13 have shown that the newly developed multi-band instability monitor (MIM) can provide sub-micrometer resolutions for intra-bunch and head-tail beam position measurements. This talk presents the proposed design for a new on-line beam instability trigger. As an exploitation of the MIM's very high sensitivity, it aims to detect instabilities during their onsets and to estimate their lifetime. The generated trigger will be used to synchronise the acquisition of the other LHC beam instrumentation systems to aid a better diagnostic and mitigation of these instabilities.

  11. Towards a Global Optimization Scheme for Multi-Band Speech Recognition


    Cerisara, Christophe; Haton, Jean-Paul; Fohr, Dominique


    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture.; n this paper, we deal with a new method to globally optimize a Multi-Band Speech Recognition (MBSR) system. We have tested our algorithm with the TIMIT database and obtained a significant improvement in the accuracy over a basic HMM system for clean speech. The goal of this work is not to prove the effectiveness of MBSR, what has yet been done, but to improve the training scheme by introducing a global optimization procedure. A consequence of this me...

  12. Simple Front-End Concept for the Complex Challenges of Multi-Band Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del


    This paper proposes a new architecture for mobile phone front-ends that dramatically reduces the complexity of multi-band smart phones. Traditional smart phone front-ends consist of many parallel transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) chains each dedicated to a single band. The proposed architecture...... with additional tunable Rx and Tx filters the Rx/Tx isolation reaches 50 dB which is comparable with the isolation achieved with commercially available static duplex filters. Based on these antenna designs it is concluded that the proposed architecture is feasible for LTE phones and makes full coverage of all LTE...

  13. PSF homogenization for multi-band photometry from space on extended objects (United States)

    Boucaud, A.; Dole, H.; Abergel, A.; Ayasso, H.; Orieux, F.


    We present a fast and robust tool to create PSF matching kernels for multi-band photometric studies. Such kernels are useful for convolving images down to the same PSF prior to computing flux measurements like aperture photometry or spectral fitting. Unlike similar existing methods, we use a Wiener filter to take into account the real shape of the effective PSF, usually very complex for space telescopes. We apply this scheme to Euclid simulated PSF images to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm. This tool is publicly available

  14. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang


    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  15. Precision measurement of the sound velocity in an ultracold fermi gas through the BEC-BCS crossover (United States)

    Joseph, James Adlai

    A trapped Fermi gas near a collisional resonance provides a unique laboratory for testing many-body theories in a variety of fields. The ultracold Fermi gas produced in our lab is comprised of the lowest two spin states of 6Li. At 834 G there is a collisional or Feshbach resonance between the two spin states. The scattering length between trapped atoms of opposing spins far exceeds the interparticle spacing of the gas. On resonance, a strongly interacting, unitary, Fermi gas is created which exhibits universal behavior. The unitary Fermi gas is a prototype for other exotic systems in nature from nuclear matter to neutron stars and high temperature superconductors. For magnetic fields less than 834 G the scattering length is positive, and pairs Fermi atoms can form molecular dimers. These dimers, comprised of two fermions, are bosons. At ultracold temperatures the molecular bosons populate the lowest energy level and form a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC). For magnetic fields greater than 834G the scattering length between fermions in opposing spin states is negative, like Cooper pairs formed between electrons in a superconductor. The Bardeen, Cooper, and Shriefer (BCS) theory was developed to describe the pairing effect in the context of superconductors. In our experiment we produce an ultracold unitary gas. By tuning the magnetic field to either side of the Feshbach resonance we can transform the gas into a weakly interacting BEC or BCS superfluid. Therefore, the region near a Feshbach resonance is called the BEC-BCS crossover. This dissertation presents a precision measurement of the hydrodynamic sound velocity in an ultracold Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance. The sound velocity is measured at various magnetic fields both above and below resonance. Moreover, we are able compare our measurements to theoretical descriptions of hydrodynamic sound propagation. Further, our measurement of sound velocity exactly reproduces the non-perturbative case, eliminating the

  16. Isotope and multiband effects in layered superconductors. (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Keller, Hugo


    In this review we consider three classes of superconductors, namely cuprate superconductors, MgB(2) and the new Fe based superconductors. All of these three systems are layered materials and multiband compounds. Their pairing mechanisms are under discussion with the exception of MgB(2), which is widely accepted to be a 'conventional' electron-phonon interaction mediated superconductor, but extending the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory to account for multiband effects. Cuprates and Fe based superconductors have higher superconducting transition temperatures and more complex structures. Superconductivity is doping dependent in these material classes unlike in MgB(2) which, as a pure compound, has the highest values of T(c) and a rapid suppression of superconductivity with doping takes place. In all three material classes isotope effects have been observed, including exotic ones in the cuprates, and controversial ones in the Fe based materials. Before the area of high-temperature superconductivity, isotope effects on T(c) were the signature for phonon mediated superconductivity-even when deviations from the BCS value to smaller values were observed. Since the discovery of high T(c) materials this is no longer evident since competing mechanisms might exist and other mediating pairing interactions are discussed which are of purely electronic origin. In this work we will compare the three different material classes and especially discuss the experimentally observed isotope effects of all three systems and present a rather general analysis of them. Furthermore, we will concentrate on multiband signatures which are not generally accepted in cuprates even though they are manifest in various experiments, the evidence for those in MgB(2), and indications for them in the Fe based compounds. Mostly we will consider experimental data, but when possible also discuss theoretical models which are suited to explain the data.

  17. Transient noise reduction in cochlear implant users: a multi-band approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Dyballa


    Full Text Available A previously-tested transient noise reduction (TNR algorithm for cochlear implant (CI users was modified to detect and attenuate transients independently across multiple frequency-bands. Since speech and transient noise are often spectrally distinct, we hypothesized that benefits in speech intelligibility can be achieved over the earlier single- band design. Fifteen experienced CI users (49 to 72 years were tested unilaterally using pre-processed stimuli delivered directly to a speech processor. Speech intelligibility in transient and soft stationary noise, subjective sound quality and the recognition of warning signals was investigated in three processing conditions: no TNR (TNRoff, single- band TNR (TNRsgl and multi-band TNR (TNRmult. Notably, TNRmult improved speech reception thresholds (SRTs in cafeteria noise and office noise by up to 3 dB over both TNRoff and TNRsgl, and yielded higher comfort and clarity ratings in cafeteria noise. Our results indicate that multi-band transient noise reduction may be advantageous compared to a single-band approach, and reveal a substantial overall potential for TNR to improve speech perception and listening comfort in CI users.

  18. Ginzburg–Landau theory of mesoscopic multi-band Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, F.; De Luca, R., E-mail:


    Highlights: • We generalize, in the realm of the Ginzburg–Landau theory, the de Gennes matching-matrix method for the interface order parameters to describe the superconducting properties of multi-band mesoscopic Josephson junctions. • The results are in agreement with a microscopic treatment of nanobridge junctions. • Thermal stability of the nanobridge junction is discussed in connection with recent experiments on iron-based grain-boundary junctions. - Abstract: A Ginzburg–Landau theory for multi-band mesoscopic Josephson junctions has been developed. The theory, obtained by generalizing the de Gennes matching-matrix method for the interface order parameters, allows the study of the phase dynamics of various types of mesoscopic Josephson junctions. As a relevant application, we studied mesoscopic double-band junctions also in the presence of a superconducting nanobridge interstitial layer. The results are in agreement with a microscopic treatment of the same system. Furthermore, thermal stability of the nanobridge junction is discussed in connection with recent experiments on iron-based grain-boundary junctions.

  19. Optical frequency comb based multi-band microwave frequency conversion for satellite applications. (United States)

    Yang, Xinwu; Xu, Kun; Yin, Jie; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Hua; Liu, Tao; Ji, Yuefeng


    Based on optical frequency combs (OFC), we propose an efficient and flexible multi-band frequency conversion scheme for satellite repeater applications. The underlying principle is to mix dual coherent OFCs with one of which carrying the input signal. By optically channelizing the mixed OFCs, the converted signal in different bands can be obtained in different channels. Alternatively, the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LO) for widely distribution. Moreover, the scheme realizes simultaneous inter- and intra-band frequency conversion just in a single structure and needs only three frequency-fixed microwave sources. We carry out a proof of concept experiment in which multiple LOs with 2 GHz, 10 GHz, 18 GHz, and 26 GHz are generated. A C-band signal of 6.1 GHz input to the proposed scheme is successfully converted to 4.1 GHz (C band), 3.9 GHz (C band) and 11.9 GHz (X band), etc. Compared with the back-to-back (B2B) case measured at 0 dBm input power, the proposed scheme shows a 9.3% error vector magnitude (EVM) degradation at each output channel. Furthermore, all channels satisfy the EVM limit in a very wide input power range.

  20. Characterization of the heavy metal pyrochlore lattice superconductor CaIr2. (United States)

    Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Gibson, Quinn; Schoop, Leslie M; Luo, Huixia; Cava, R J


    We report the electronic properties of the cubic laves phase superconductor CaIr2(Tc = 5.8 K), in which the Ir atoms have a pyrochlore lattice. The estimated superconducting parameters obtained from magnetization and specific heat measurements indicate that CaIr2 is a weakly coupled BCS superconductor. Electronic band structure calculations show that the Ir d-states are dominant at the Fermi level, creating a complex Fermi surface that is impacted substantially by spin-orbit coupling.

  1. Gravitationally bound BCS state as dark matter (United States)

    Alexander, Stephon; Cormack, Sam


    We explore the possibility that fermionic dark matter undergoes a BCS transition to form a superfluid. This requires an attractive interaction between fermions and we describe a possible source of this interaction induced by torsion. We describe the gravitating fermion system with the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism in the local density approximation. We solve the Poisson equation along with the equations for the density and gap energy of the fermions to find a self-gravitating, superfluid solution for dark matter halos. In order to produce halos the size of dwarf galaxies, we require a particle mass of ~ 200 eV. We find a maximum attractive coupling strength before the halo becomes unstable. If dark matter halos do have a superfluid component, this raises the possibility that they contain vortex lines.

  2. Gravitationally bound BCS state as dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon


    We explore the possibility that fermionic dark matter undergoes a BCS transition to form a superfluid. This requires an attractive interaction between fermions and we describe a possible source of this interaction induced by torsion. We describe the gravitating fermion system with the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism in the local density approximation. We solve the Poisson equation along with the equations for the density and gap energy of the fermions to find a self-gravitating, superfluid solution for dark matter halos. In order to produce halos the size of dwarf galaxies, we require a particle mass of $\\sim 200\\mathrm{eV}$. We find a maximum attractive coupling strength before the halo becomes unstable. If dark matter halos do have a superfluid component, this raises the possibility that they contain vortex lines which may be detectable via gravitational lensing.

  3. Thermal conductivity peaks in old and new ceramic superconductors (United States)

    Williams, Wendell S.


    A sharp peak in the thermal conductivity curve of high Tc ceramic superconductors below Tc found by many workers is compared with a similar but even larger effect found earlier for niobium carbide — an older ceramic superconductor — by Radosevich and Williams. The interpretation of this peak given in the literature for the high Tc materials — reduced phonon-electron scattering below Tc as the superconducting energy gap opens — is the same as that established earlier for niobium carbide, which can be treated by BCS/BRT theory, thus lending support to this view. The role of point defects (vacancies) in both materials is also emphasized.

  4. Coherent quantum trasport in ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet graphene junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the coherent quantum transport in grapheme-based ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagent junctions within the framework of BCS theory using DBdG quasiparticles equation .The coherency with the finite size of superconductor region has two characteristic features subgap electron transport and oscillations of differential conductance. we show that periodic vanishing of the Andreev reflection at the energies called geometrical resonances above the superconducting gap is a striking consequence of quasiparticles interference. We suggest to make devices that produce polarized spin-current with possible applications in spintronics.

  5. A two-dimensional Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, Martin Gerhard


    This thesis reports on the preparation of a 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover and the observation of the BKT transition into a quasi long-range ordered superfluid phase. The pair momentum distribution of the gas is probed by means of a matter-wave focusing technique which relies on time-of-flight evolution in a weak harmonic potential. This distribution holds the coherence properties of the gas. The quasi long-range ordered phase manifests itself as a sharp low-momentum peak. The temperature where it forms is identified as the transition temperature. By tuning the temperature and the interaction strength, the phase diagram of the 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover is mapped out. The phase coherence is investigated in a self-interference experiment. Furthermore, algebraic decay of correlations is observed in the trap average of the first order correlation function, which is obtained from the Fourier transform of the pair momentum distribution. This is in qualitative agreement with predictions of homogeneous theory for the superfluid phase in a 2D gas. The presented results provide a foundation for future experimental and theoretical studies of strongly correlated 2D Fermi gases. They might thus help to elucidate complex systems such as the electron gas in high-T{sub c} superconductors.

  6. BCS Instability and Finite Temperature Corrections to Tachyon Mass in Intersecting D1-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Sathiapalan, B


    A holographic description of BCS superconductivity is given in arxiv:1104.2843. This model was constructed by insertion of a pair of D8-branes on a D4-background. The spectrum of intersecting D8-branes has tachyonic modes indicating an instability which is identified with the BCS instability in superconductors. Our aim is to study the stability of the intersecting branes under finite temperature effects. Many of the technical aspects of this problem are captured by a simpler problem of two intersecting D1-branes on flat background. In the simplified set-up we compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the tree-level tachyon mass using the frame-work of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (1 + 1)-dimensions. We show that the one-loop two-point functions are ultraviolet finite due to cancellation of ultraviolet divergence between the amplitudes containing bosons and fermions in the loop. The amplitudes are found to be infrared divergent due to the presence of massless fields in the loops. We compute the fini...

  7. Generation of a multi-band spectrum using a D/A converter for an RF-knockout system (United States)

    Shinkai, Akio; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Nakanishi, Tetsuya


    A method of generating a multi-band spectrum is proposed using a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. The multi-band spectrum is useful for the slow-beam-extraction from a synchrotron using the method of radio frequency (RF)-knockout. Data for the spectrum are calculated in advance to be saved in the memory of a D/A converter, and are output synchronized with external clocks. An experiment showed that a multi-band spectrum of 10 bands could be generated with a total bandwidth of about 16.4 MHz and each bandwidth less than 45 kHz. Beam simulation with this method showed that an RF signal from a D/A converter could be effectively used for the control of uniform spill structure.

  8. Multi-band frequency encoding method for metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate (United States)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Reed, Galen; Shin, Peter; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Hu, Simon; Bok, Robert; Vigneron, Daniel B.


    A new method was developed for simultaneous spatial localization and spectral separation of multiple compounds based on a single echo, by designing the acquisition to place individual compounds in separate frequency encoding bands. This method was specially designed for rapid and robust metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized 13C substrates and their metabolic products, and was investigated in phantom studies and studies in normal mice and transgenic models of prostate cancer to provide rapid metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products [1- 13C]lactate and [1- 13C]alanine at spatial resolutions up to 3 mm in-plane. Elevated pyruvate and lactate signals in the vicinity of prostatic tissues were observed in transgenic tumor mice. The multi-band frequency encoding technique enabled rapid metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized 13C compounds with important advantages over prior approaches, including less complicated acquisition and reconstruction methods.

  9. Robust Fusion of Multi-Band Images with Different Spatial and Spectral Resolutions for Change Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraris, Vinicius; Wei, Qi; Chabert, Marie


    Archetypal scenarios for change detection generally consider two images acquired through sensors of the same modality. However, in some specific cases such as emergency situations, the only images available may be those acquired through different kinds of sensors. More precisely, this paper addresses the problem of detecting changes between two multi-band optical images characterized by different spatial and spectral resolutions. This sensor dissimilarity introduces additional issues in the context of operational change detection. To alleviate these issues, classical change detection methods are applied after independent preprocessing steps (e.g., resampling) used to get the same spatial and spectral resolutions for the pair of observed images. Nevertheless, these preprocessing steps tend to throw away relevant information. Conversely, in this paper, we propose a method that more effectively uses the available information by modeling the two observed images as spatial and spectral versions of two (unobserved)...

  10. Mott transition in the multi-band Hubbard model in infinite dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Bulla, Ralf; Potthoff, Michael


    The Mott metal-insulator transition in the multi-band Hubbard model in infinite dimensions is studied by using the linearized dynamical mean-field theory. The critical interaction U{sub c} is obtained analytically. For the symmetric case and for orbital degeneracy M we find U{sub c}=(4M+2){radical}L{sub 2} where L{sub 2} is the second moment of the non-interacting density of states. We also derive an analytical expression for the discontinuity of the chemical potential {mu}(n) at the filling n=M for U>U{sub c}. The findings are in good agreement with numerical results obtained from the exact diagonalization method.

  11. NIMBUS: The Near-Infrared Multi-Band Ultraprecise Spectroimager for SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    McElwain, Michael W; Woodgate, Bruce; Spiegel, David S; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Amatucci, Edward; Blake, Cullen; Budinoff, Jason; Burgasser, Adam; Burrows, Adam; Clampin, Mark; Conroy, Charlie; Deming, L Drake; Dunham, Edward; Foltz, Roger; Gong, Qian; Knutson, Heather; Muench, Theodore; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Peabody, Hume; Rauscher, Bernard; Rinehart, Stephen A; Villanueva, Geronimo


    We present a new and innovative near-infrared multi-band ultraprecise spectroimager (NIMBUS) for SOFIA. This design is capable of characterizing a large sample of extrasolar planet atmospheres by measuring elemental and molecular abundances during primary transit and occultation. This wide-field spectroimager would also provide new insights into Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO), Solar System occultations, brown dwarf atmospheres, carbon chemistry in globular clusters, chemical gradients in nearby galaxies, and galaxy photometric redshifts. NIMBUS would be the premier ultraprecise spectroimager by taking advantage of the SOFIA observatory and state of the art infrared technologies. This optical design splits the beam into eight separate spectral bandpasses, centered around key molecular bands from 1 to 4 microns. Each spectral channel has a wide field of view for simultaneous observations of a reference star that can decorrelate time-variable atmospheric and optical assembly effects, allowing the instrument to ac...

  12. Multi-band microwave metamaterial absorber based on coplanar Jerusalem crosses (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Liu, Ming-Hai; Hu, Xi-Wei; Kong, Ling-Hua; Cheng, Li-Li; Chen, Zhao-Quan


    The influence of the gap on the absorption performance of the conventional split ring resonator (SRR) absorber is investigated at microwave frequencies. Our simulated results reveal that the geometry of the square SRR can be equivalent to a Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator and its corresponding metamaterial absorber (MA) is changed to a JC absorber. The JC MA exhibits an experimental absorption peak of 99.1% at 8.72 GHz, which shows an excellent agreement with our simulated results. By simply assembling several JCs with slightly different geometric parameters next to each other into a unit cell, a perfect multi-band absorption can be effectively obtained. The experimental results show that the MA has four distinct and strong absorption peaks at 8.32 GHz, 9.8 GHz, 11.52 GHz and 13.24 GHz. Finally, the multi-reflection interference theory is introduced to interpret the absorption mechanism.

  13. Multi-band Microwave Antennas and Devices based on Generalized Negative-Refractive-Index Transmission Lines (United States)

    Ryan, Colan Graeme Matthew

    Focused on the quad-band generalized negative-refractive-index transmission line (G-NRI-TL), this thesis presents a variety of novel printed G-NRI-TL multi-band microwave device and antenna prototypes. A dual-band coupled-line coupler, an all-pass G-NRI-TL bridged-T circuit, a dual-band metamaterial leaky-wave antenna, and a multi-band G-NRI-TL resonant antenna are all new developments resulting from this research. In addition, to continue the theme of multi-band components, negative-refractive-index transmission lines are used to create a dual-band circularly polarized transparent patch antenna and a two-element wideband decoupled meander antenna system. High coupling over two independently-specified frequency bands is the hallmark of the G-NRI-TL coupler: it is 0.35lambda0 long but achieves approximately -3 dB coupling over both bands with a maximum insertion loss of 1 dB. This represents greater design flexibility than conventional coupled-line couplers and less loss than subsequent G-NRI-TL couplers. The single-ended bridged-T G-NRI-TL offers a metamaterial unit cell with an all-pass magnitude response up to 8 GHz, while still preserving the quad-band phase response of the original circuit. It is shown how the all-pass response leads to wider bandwidths and improved matching in quad-band inverters, power dividers, and hybrid couplers. The dual-band metamaterial leaky-wave antenna presented here was the first to be reported in the literature, and it allows broadside radiation at both 2 GHz and 6 GHz without experiencing the broadside stopband common to conventional periodic antennas. Likewise, the G-NRI-TL resonant antenna is the first reported instance of such a device, achieving quad-band operation between 2.5 GHz and 5.6 GHz, with a minimum radiation efficiency of 80%. Negative-refractive-index transmission line loading is applied to two devices: an NRI-TL meander antenna achieves a measured 52% impedance bandwidth, while a square patch antenna incorporates

  14. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.


    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  15. Fast Fusion of Multi-Band Images Based on Solving a Sylvester Equation. (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Tourneret, Jean-Yves


    This paper proposes a fast multi-band image fusion algorithm, which combines a high-spatial low-spectral resolution image and a low-spatial high-spectral resolution image. The well admitted forward model is explored to form the likelihoods of the observations. Maximizing the likelihoods leads to solving a Sylvester equation. By exploiting the properties of the circulant and downsampling matrices associated with the fusion problem, a closed-form solution for the corresponding Sylvester equation is obtained explicitly, getting rid of any iterative update step. Coupled with the alternating direction method of multipliers and the block coordinate descent method, the proposed algorithm can be easily generalized to incorporate prior information for the fusion problem, allowing a Bayesian estimator. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves the same performance as the existing algorithms with the advantage of significantly decreasing the computational complexity of these algorithms.

  16. Software Simulation in GSM Environment and Hardware Implementation of Improved Multi-band Excitation Vocoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The algorithm of the Improved Multi-Band Excitation (IMBE) vocoder is thoroughly studied, designed and implemented including software implementation on PC/DOS, SUN/UNIX workstation system and hardware real-time implementation on TMS320C31 DSP. In order to explore the performance of IMBE vocoder in GSM environment, a GSM radio interface software simulation platform is built and a series of tests are run on four languages (Chinese, English, German, Swedish) and different channel models (urban, hilly and rural areas) with different SNR. Finally simulation result is analyzed which is useful for the performance analysis of IMBE and the application of vocoders with bit rate of 4kbps order in GSM environment.

  17. Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations. (United States)

    Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout


    In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances.

  18. Feature detection in biological tissues using multi-band and narrow-band imaging. (United States)

    Tamura, Yuki; Mashita, Tomohiro; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Haruo


    In the past decade, augmented reality systems have been expected to support surgical operations by making it possible to view invisible objects that are inside or occluded by the skull, hands, or organs. However, the properties of biological tissues that are non-rigid and featureless require a large number of distributed features to track the movement of tissues in detail. With the goal of increasing the number of feature points in organ tracking, we propose a feature detection using multi-band and narrow-band imaging and a new band selection method. The depth of light penetration into an object depends on the wavelength of light based on optical characteristics. We applied typical feature detectors to detect feature points using three selected bands in a human hand. To consider surgical situations, we applied our method to a chicken liver with a variety of light conditions. Our experimental results revealed that the image of each band exhibited a different distribution of feature points. In addition, the total number of feature points determined by the proposed method exceeded that of the R, G, and B images obtained using a normal camera. The results using a chicken liver with various light sources and intensities also show different distributions with each selected band. We have proposed a feature detection method using multi-band and narrow-band imaging and a band selection method. The results of our experiments confirmed that the proposed method increased the number of distributed feature points. The proposed method was also effective for different light conditions.

  19. Thermodynamics of Two-Band Superconductors: The Case of MgB2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, Oleg V.; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Kortus, Jens; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Shulga, Sergei V.


    Thermodynamic properties of the multiband superconductor MgB2 have often been described using a simple sum of the standard BCS expressions corresponding to sigma- and pi bands. However, it is a priori not clear if this approach is working always adequately, particularly in cases of strong interband

  20. 56 Gb/s multi-band CAP for data center interconnects up to an 80 km SMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Sanchez, Christian;


    We present the first (to the best of our knowledge) experimental demonstration of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) signal transmission over an 80-km single-mode fiber link with zero overhead pre-FEC signal recovery and enhanced timing jitter tolerance for opti......We present the first (to the best of our knowledge) experimental demonstration of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) signal transmission over an 80-km single-mode fiber link with zero overhead pre-FEC signal recovery and enhanced timing jitter tolerance...

  1. Superconductor cable (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank; Marzahn, Erik


    A superconductor cable is described, having a superconductive flexible cable core (1) , which is laid in a cryostat (2, 3, 4), in which the cable core (1) runs in the cryostat (2, 3, 4) in the form of a wave or helix at room temperature.

  2. LDA+DCA calculations of cuprate superconductors (United States)

    Kent, Paul; Macridin, Alexandru; Schulthess, Thomas; Krogh Andersen, Ole


    We present calculations of the properties of realistic models of single-layer cuprate superconductors. A multi-band Hubbard model is obtained from downfolded material specific local density approximation (LDA) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The on-site U is obtained from constrained DFT calculations. The resulting model is solved using the dynamic cluster approximation (DCA) and quantum Monte Carlo, for small clusters. Some of us have previously shown that DCA calculations of the single band Hubbard model, with empirical parameters, reproduce key features of the experimental phase diagram, including the d-wave superconducting region and pseudogap. In the multi-band model, we find a superconducting region, and discuss how the computed transition temperature depends on the downfolded band structure. In model calculations, we test the sensitivity of the transition temperature to changes in the individual hopping terms, including the copper-oxygen and oxygen-oxygen hybridization. Work supported by the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle LLC.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: KiDS-ESO-DR3 multi-band source catalog (de Jong+, 2017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kuijken, K.; Sikkema, G.; Brescia, M.; Bilicki, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Amaro, V.; Begeman, K. G.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Cavuoti, S.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Helmich, E.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; La Barbera, F.; Longo, G.; McFarland, J. P.; Nakajima, R.; Paolillo, M.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Tortora, C; Valentijn, E. A.; Vellucci, C.; Vriend, W-J.; Amon, A.; Blake, C.; Choi, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Klaes, D.; Merten, J.; Miller, L.; Schneider, P.; Viola, M.


    KiDS-ESO-DR3 contains a multi-band source catalogue encompassing all publicly released tiles, a total of 440 survey tiles including the coadded images, weight maps, masks and source lists of 292 survey tiles of KiDS-ESO-DR3, adding to the 148 tiles released previously (50 in KiDS-ESO-DR1 and 98 in

  4. Augmenting full colour-fused multi-band night vision imagery with synthetic imagery in real-time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Son, R. van; Dijk, J.


    We present the design and first field trial results of an all-day all-weather enhanced and synthetic-fused multi-band colour night vision surveillance and observation system. The system augments a fused and dynamic three-band natural-colour night vision image with synthetic 3D imagery in real-time.

  5. Multi-band characterization of hot jupiter using Observatório do Pico dos Dias data (United States)

    Moyano, M.; Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F.


    We have carried out a campaign to characterize the hot Jupiters WASP-5b, WASP-44b and, WASP-46b using multi-band observations. We have determined the planetary physical properties and new transit ephemerides of these planets. This is the first follow-characterization of WASP-46b.

  6. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José


    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both...

  7. "Modified" BCS theory at finite temperature and its flaws

    CERN Document Server

    Ponomarev, V Yu


    Drawbacks of a recently suggested modified BCS theory at finite temperature in [Phys. Rev. C {\\bf 67}, 014304 (2003)] are discussed. We conclude that the thermal behavior of the pairing correlations is not under control within this model.

  8. Superconductor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gömöry, F


    Superconductors used in magnet technology could carry extreme currents because of their ability to keep the magnetic flux motionless. The dynamics of the magnetic flux interaction with superconductors is controlled by this property. The cases of electrical transport in a round wire and the magnetization of wires of various shapes (circular, elliptical, plate) in an external magnetic field are analysed. Resistance to the magnetic field penetration means that the field produced by the superconducting magnet is no longer proportional to the supplied current. It also leads to a dissipation of electromagnetic energy. In conductors with unequal transverse dimensions, such as flat cables, the orientation with respect to the magnetic field plays an essential role. A reduction of magnetization currents can be achieved by splitting the core of a superconducting wire into fine filaments; however, new kinds of electrical currents that couple the filaments consequently appear. Basic formulas allowing qualitative analyses ...

  9. Chiral superconductors. (United States)

    Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John


    Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhwaar Vikaas


    Full Text Available The Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS was introduced By Amidon et al., (1995 as a method for classifying drug substances based on their dose/solubility ratio and intestinal permeability. It allows predicting the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drug products. The drug can be categorized into four classes of BCS, namely, High solubility high permeability, low solubility high permeability, High solubility low permeability and low solubility low permeability. An objective of BCS approach is to determine the equilibrium solubility of drug substances under physiological environment. The BCS helps in mathematically analyzing the kinetics and dynamics of drug in gastrointestinal tract (GIT for New Drug Applications (NDA and Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA filings and biowaivers. This step reduces time in the new drug development process. Further it helps to decide when the dissolution rate is likely to be the rate determining step. It also helps in the prediction of potential of inactive ingredients in the dosage form to alter the dissolution / absorption of the drug. The present review, apart from giving a brief overview of BCS classification system, highlights these and some of the more recent applications of BCS classification system.

  11. Multi-band, Multi-epoch Observations of the Transiting Warm Jupiter WASP-80b

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Akihiko; Ikoma, Masahiro; Narita, Norio; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Ita, Yoshifusa; Onozato, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Shogo; Baba, Haruka; Ryu, Tsuguru; Hirano, Teruyuki; Hori, Yasunori; Kurosaki, Kenji; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Nagayama, Takahiro; Tamura, Motohide; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Nagayama, Shogo; Ohta, Kouji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki


    WASP-80b is a warm Jupiter transiting a bright late-K dwarf, providing a good opportunity to extend the atmospheric study of hot Jupiters toward the lower temperature regime. We report multi-band, multi-epoch transit observations of WASP-80b by using three ground-based telescopes covering from optical (g', Rc, and Ic bands) to near infrared (NIR; J, H, and Ks bands) wavelengths. We observe five primary transits, each of which in three or four different bands simultaneously, obtaining 17 independent transit light curves. Combining them with previous works, we find that the observed transmission spectrum is largely consistent with both a solar-abundance and thick-cloud atmospheric models at 1.7-$\\sigma$ discrepancy level. On the other hand, we find a marginal spectral rise in optical region compared to NIR region at 2.9-$\\sigma$ level, which possibly indicates the existence of haze in the atmosphere. We simulate theoretical transmission spectra for a solar-abundance but hazy atmosphere, finding that a model wit...

  12. Low-Loss Matching Network Design for Band-Switchable Multi-Band Power Amplifier (United States)

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Furuta, Takayuki; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Narahashi, Shoichi; Nojima, Toshio

    This paper presents a novel design scheme for a band-switchable multi-band power amplifier (BS-MPA). A key point of the design scheme is configuring multi-section reconfigurable matching networks (MR-MNs) optimally in terms of low loss matching in multiple frequency bands from 0.7 to 2.5GHz. The MR-MN consists of several matching sections, each of which has a matching block connected to a transmission line via a switch. Power dissipation at an actual on-state switch results in the insertion loss of the MR-MN and depends on how the impedance is transformed by the MR-MN. The proposed design scheme appropriately transforms the impedance of a high power transistor to configure a low loss MR-MN. Numerical analyses show quantitative improvement in the loss using the proposed scheme. A 9-band 3-stage BS-MPA is newly designed following the proposed scheme and fabricated on a multi-layer low temperature co-fired ceramic substrate for compactness. The BS-MPA achieves a gain of over 30dB, an output power of greater than 33dBm and a power added efficiency of over 40% at the supply voltage of 4V in each operating band.

  13. A three dimensional extinction map of the Galactic Anticentre from multi-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, B -Q; Yuan, H -B; Zhang, H -H; Schultheis, M; Jiang, B -W; Huang, Y; Xiang, M -S; Zhao, H -B; Yao, J -S; Lu, H


    We present a three dimensional extinction map in $r$ band. The map has a spatial angular resolution, depending on latitude, between 3 -- 9\\,arcmin and covers the entire XSTPS-GAC survey area of over 6,000\\,$\\rm deg^2$ for Galactic longitude $\\rm 140 \\leq$ $l$ $ \\leq 220\\deg$ and latitude $\\rm -40\\leq$ $b$ $ \\leq 40\\deg$. By cross-matching the photometric catalog of the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (XSTPS-GAC) with those of 2MASS and WISE, we have built a multi-band photometric stellar sample of about 30 million stars and applied spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to the sample. By combining photometric data from the optical to the near-infrared, we are able to break the degeneracy between the intrinsic stellar colours and the amounts of extinction by dust grains for stars with high photometric accuracy, and trace the extinction as a function of distance for low Galactic latitude and thus highly extincted regions. This has allowed us to derive the best-fit extinc...

  14. ICI mitigation in concurrent multi-band receiver due to the phase noise and IQ imbalance (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Kyu; Ryu, Heung-Gyoon


    For the next generation long-term evolution (LTE) advanced mobile communication system, 100 MHz bandwidth and 1 Gbit/s data speed are needed. However, there is not enough and wide vacant frequency band. Therefore, spectrum aggregation method has been studied to extend available frequency bands. Frequency synthesiser and power amplifier of transceiver should cover this wide bandwidth. The phase noise and In-phase and quadrature (IQ) imbalance would increase, which would be a serious problem in this transceiver. Also, signal-to-noise ratio becomes degraded because of nonlinearity and the quantisation noises of the Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in the receiver. Uplink of LTE-advanced uses Aggregated DFT-spread (NxDFT-S) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Since the effect of the phase noise and IQ imbalance are more serious in the multi-band Discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-spreading OFDM system, we like to analyse the effect of inter-carrier interference in frequency domain of receiver and the degradation of bit error rate (BER) performance. Also, by the channel response in frequency domain of the uplink system, we separate phase noise and IQ imbalance effect. Finally, we like to propose a compensation method that estimates the channel exactly and removes IQ imbalance and phase noise. Simulation result shows that the proposed method achieves the 2 dB performance gain of BER = 10-4.

  15. Multi-band optical variability of three TeV Blazars on Diverse Timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Bhagwan, J; Strigachev, A; Bachev, R; Semkov, E; Gaur, H; Damljanovic, G; Vince, O; Wiita, Paul J


    We present our optical photometric observations of three TeV blazars, PKS 1510-089, PG 1553+113 and Mrk 501 taken using two telescopes in India, one in Bulgaria, one in Greece and one in Serbia during 2012 - 2014. These observations covered a total of 95 nights with a total of 202 B filter frames, 247 images in V band, 817 in R band while 229 images were taken in the I filter. This work is focused on multi-band flux and colour variability studies of these blazars on diverse timescales which are useful in understanding the emission mechanisms. We studied the variability characteristics of above three blazars and found all to be active over our entire observational campaigns. We also searched for any correlation between the brightness of the sources and their colour indices. During the times of variability, no significant evidence for the sources to display spectral changes correlated with magnitude was found on timescales of a few months. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms most likely responsi...

  16. Distributed Resource Allocation for Proportional Fairness in Multi-Band Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, I-Hong


    A challenging problem in multi-band multi-cell self-organized wireless systems, such as multi-channel Wi-Fi networks, femto/pico cells in 3G/4G cellular networks, and more recent wireless networks over TV white spaces, is of distributed resource allocation. This involves four components: channel selection, client association, channel access, and client scheduling. In this paper, we present a unified framework for jointly addressing the four components with the global system objective of maximizing the clients throughput in a proportionally fair manner. Our formulation allows a natural dissociation of the problem into two sub-parts. We show that the first part, involving channel access and client scheduling, is convex and derive a distributed adaptation procedure for achieving Pareto-optimal solution. For the second part, involving channel selection and client association, we develop a Gibbs-sampler based approach for local adaptation to achieve the global objective, as well as derive fast greedy algorithms fr...

  17. A SiGe BiCMOS multi-band tuner for mobile TV applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xueqing; Gong Zheng; Zhao Jinxin; Wang Lei; Yu Peng; Shi Yin


    This paper presents the circuit design and measured performance of a multi-band tuner for mobile TV applications.The tuner RFIC is composed ofa wideband front-end,an analog baseband,a full integrated fractionalN synthesizer and an I2C digital interface.To meet the stringent adjacent channel rejection (ACR) requirements of mobile TV standards while keeping low power consumption and low cost,direct conversion architecture with a local AGC scheme is adopted in this design.Eighth-order elliptic active-RC filters with large stop band attenuation and a sharp transition band are chosen as the channel select filter to further improve the ACR preference.The chip is fabricated in a 0.35-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupies a silicon area of 5.5 mm2.It draws 50 mA current from a 3.0 V power supply.In CMMB application,it achieves a sensitivity of -97 dBm with 1/2 coding QPSK signal input and over 40 dB ACR.

  18. Independent polarization and multi-band THz absorber base on Jerusalem cross (United States)

    Arezoomand, Afsaneh Saee; Zarrabi, Ferdows B.; Heydari, Samaneh; Gandji, Navid P.


    In this paper, we present the design and simulation of a single and multi-band perfect metamaterial absorber (MA) in the THz region base on Jerusalem cross (JC) and metamaterial load in unit cells. The structures consist of dual metallic layers for allowing near-perfect absorption with absorption peak of more than 99%. In this novel design, four-different shape of Jerusalem cross is presented and by adding L, U and W shape loaded to first structure, we tried to achieve a dual-band absorber. In addition, by good implementation of these loaded, we are able to control the absorption resonance at second resonance at 0.9, 0.7 and 0.85 THz respectively. In the other hand, we achieved a semi stable designing at first resonance between 0.53 and 0.58 THz. The proposed absorber has broadband polarization angle. The surface current modeled and proved the broadband polarization angle at prototype MA. The LC resonance of the metamaterial for Jerusalem cross and modified structures are extracting from equivalent circuit. As a result, proposed MA is useful for THz medical imaging and communication systems and the dual-band absorber has applications in many scientific and technological areas.

  19. Cross-layer Resource Allocation Scheme for Multi-band High Rate UWB Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Ayman; Hélard, Jean-François


    In this paper, we investigate the use of a cross-layer allocation mechanism for the high-rate ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, through the cross-layer approach that provides a new service differentiation approach to the fully distributed UWB systems, we support traffic with quality of service (QoS) guarantee in a multi-user context. Second, we exploit the effective SINR method that represents the characteristics of multiple sub-carrier SINRs in the multi-band WiMedia solution proposed for UWB systems, in order to provide the channel state information needed for the multi-user sub-band allocation. This new approach improves the system performance and optimizes the spectrum utilization with a low cost data exchange between the different users while guaranteeing the required QoS. In addition, this new approach solves the problem of the cohabitation of more than three users in the same WiMedia channel.

  20. The design of common aperture and multi-band optical system based on day light telescope (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Bo; Teng, Guoqi; Wang, Meng


    As the development of electro-optical weapon system, the technique of common path and multi-sensor are used popular, and becoming a trend. According to the requirement of miniaturization and lightweight for electro-optical stabilized sighting system, a day light telescope/television viewing-aim system/ laser ranger has been designed in this thesis, which has common aperture. Thus integration scheme of multi-band and common aperture has been adopted. A day light telescope has been presented, which magnification is 8, field of view is 6°, and distance of exit pupil is more than 20mm. For 1/3" CCD, television viewing-aim system which has 156mm focal length, has been completed. In addition, laser ranging system has been designed, with 10km raging distance. This paper outlines its principle which used day light telescope as optical reference of correcting the optical axis. Besides, by means of shared objective, reserved image with inverting prism and coating beam-splitting film on the inclined plane of the cube prism, the system has been applied to electro-optical weapon system, with high-resolution of imaging and high-precision ranging.

  1. Vetting Kepler Planet Candidates in the Sub-Jovian Desert with Multi-Band Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Colón, Knicole D; Ford, Eric B


    We present new multi-band transit photometry of three small (R$_{p}$ < 6 R$_{\\oplus}$), short-period (P < 6 days) Kepler planet candidates acquired with the Gran Telescopio Canarias. These observations supplement the results presented in Col\\'on & Ford (2011) and Col\\'on et al. (2012), where we used multicolor transit photometry of five Kepler planet candidates to search for wavelength-dependent transit depths and either validate planet candidates or identify eclipsing binary false positives within our sample. In those previous studies, we provided evidence that three targets were false positives and two targets were planets. Here, we present observations that provide evidence supporting a planetary nature for KOI 439.01 and KOI 732.01, and we find that KOI 531.01, a 6 R$_{\\oplus}$ planet candidate around an M dwarf, is likely a false positive. We also present a discussion of the purported "sub-Jovian desert" in the orbital period-planet radius plane, which cannot be easily explained by observationa...

  2. Quantum funneling in blended multi-band gap core/shell colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neo, Darren C. J.; Assender, Hazel E.; Watt, Andrew A. R., E-mail: [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, 16 Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Stranks, Samuel D.; Eperon, Giles E.; Snaith, Henry J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, OX1 3PU Oxford (United Kingdom)


    Multi-band gap heterojunction solar cells fabricated from a blend of 1.2 eV and 1.4 eV PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) show poor device performance due to non-radiative recombination. To overcome this, a CdS shell is epitaxially formed around the PbS core using cation exchange. From steady state and transient photoluminescence measurements, we understand the nature of charge transfer between these quantum dots. Photoluminescence decay lifetimes are much longer in the PbS/CdS core/shell blend compared to PbS only, explained by a reduction in non-radiative recombination resulting from CdS surface passivation. PbS/CdS heterojunction devices sustain a higher open-circuit voltage and lower reverse saturation current as compared to PbS-only devices, implying lower recombination rates. Further device performance enhancement is attained by modifying the composition profile of the CQD species in the absorbing layer resulting in a three dimensional quantum cascade structure.

  3. 3D Galactic dust extinction mapping with multi-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, R J


    We present a method to simultaneously infer the interstellar extinction parameters $A_0$ and $R_0$, stellar effective temperature $T_{\\rm eff}$, and distance modulus $\\mu$ in a Bayesian framework. Using multi-band photometry from SDSS and UKIDSS, we train a forward model to emulate the colour-change due to physical properties of stars and the interstellar medium for temperatures from 4000 to 9000 K and extinctions from 0 to 5 mag. We introduce a Hertzsprung-Russel diagram prior to account for physical constraints on the distribution of stars in the temperature-absolute magnitude plane. This allows us to infer distances probabilistically. Influences of colour information, priors and model parameters are explored. Residual mean absolute errors (MAEs) on a set of objects for extinction and temperature are 0.2 mag and 300 K, respectively, for $R_0$ fixed to 3.1. For variable $R_0$, we obtain MAEs of 0.37 mag, 412.9 K and 0.74 for $A_0$, $T_{\\rm eff}$ and $R_0$, respectively. Distance moduli are accurate to approx...

  4. Superconductor Digital Electronics: -- Current Status, Future Prospects (United States)

    Mukhanov, Oleg


    Two major applications of superconductor electronics: communications and supercomputing will be presented. These areas hold a significant promise of a large impact on electronics state-of-the-art for the defense and commercial markets stemming from the fundamental advantages of superconductivity: simultaneous high speed and low power, lossless interconnect, natural quantization, and high sensitivity. The availability of relatively small cryocoolers lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled superconductor electronic systems. These fundamental advantages enabled a novel Digital-RF architecture - a disruptive technological approach changing wireless communications, radar, and surveillance system architectures dramatically. Practical results were achieved for Digital-RF systems in which wide-band, multi-band radio frequency signals are directly digitized and digital domain is expanded throughout the entire system. Digital-RF systems combine digital and mixed signal integrated circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, superconductor analog filter circuits, and semiconductor post-processing circuits. The demonstrated cryocooled Digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals, enabling multi-net data links, and performing signal acquisition from HF to L-band with 30 GHz clock frequencies. In supercomputing, superconductivity leads to the highest energy efficiencies per operation. Superconductor technology based on manipulation and ballistic transfer of magnetic flux quanta provides a superior low-power alternative to CMOS and other charge-transfer based device technologies. The fundamental energy consumption in SFQ circuits defined by flux quanta energy 2 x 10-19 J. Recently, a novel energy-efficient zero-static-power SFQ technology, eSFQ/ERSFQ was invented, which retains all advantages of standard RSFQ circuits: high-speed, dc power, internal memory. The

  5. Multi-band, Multi-epoch Observations of the Transiting Warm Jupiter WASP-80b (United States)

    Fukui, Akihiko; Kawashima, Yui; Ikoma, Masahiro; Narita, Norio; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Ita, Yoshifusa; Onozato, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Shogo; Baba, Haruka; Ryu, Tsuguru; Hirano, Teruyuki; Hori, Yasunori; Kurosaki, Kenji; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Nagayama, Takahiro; Tamura, Motohide; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Nagayama, Shogo; Ohta, Kouji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki


    WASP-80b is a warm Jupiter transiting a bright late-K/early-M dwarf, providing a good opportunity to extend the atmospheric study of hot Jupiters toward the lower temperature regime. We report multi-band, multi-epoch transit observations of WASP-80b by using three ground-based telescopes covering from optical (g', R c, and I c bands) to near-infrared (NIR; J, H, and K s bands) wavelengths. We observe 5 primary transits, each in 3 or 4 different bands simultaneously, obtaining 17 independent transit light curves. Combining them with results from previous works, we find that the observed transmission spectrum is largely consistent with both a solar abundance and thick cloud atmospheric models at a 1.7σ discrepancy level. On the other hand, we find a marginal spectral rise in the optical region compared to the NIR region at the 2.9σ level, which possibly indicates the existence of haze in the atmosphere. We simulate theoretical transmission spectra for a solar abundance but hazy atmosphere, finding that a model with equilibrium temperature of 600 K can explain the observed data well, having a discrepancy level of 1.0σ. We also search for transit timing variations, but find no timing excess larger than 50 s from a linear ephemeris. In addition, we conduct 43 day long photometric monitoring of the host star in the optical bands, finding no significant variation in the stellar brightness. Combined with the fact that no spot-crossing event is observed in the five transits, our results confirm previous findings that the host star appears quiet for spot activities, despite the indications of strong chromospheric activities.

  6. Multi-band algorithms for the estimation of chlorophyll concentration in the Chesapeake Bay

    KAUST Repository

    Gilerson, Alexander


    Standard blue-green ratio algorithms do not usually work well in turbid productive waters because of the contamination of the blue and green bands by CDOM absorption and scattering by non-algal particles. One of the alternative approaches is based on the two- or three band ratio algorithms in the red/NIR part of the spectrum, which require 665, 708, 753 nm bands (or similar) and which work well in various waters all over the world. The critical 708 nm band for these algorithms is not available on MODIS and VIIRS sensors, which limits applications of this approach. We report on another approach where a combination of the 745nm band with blue-green-red bands was the basis for the new algorithms. A multi-band algorithm which includes ratios Rrs(488)/Rrs(551)and Rrs(671)/Rrs(745) and two band algorithm based on Rrs671/Rrs745 ratio were developed with the main focus on the Chesapeake Bay (USA) waters. These algorithms were tested on the specially developed synthetic datasets, well representing the main relationships between water parameters in the Bay taken from the NASA NOMAD database and available literature, on the field data collected by our group during a 2013 campaign in the Bay, as well as NASA SeaBASS data from the other group and on matchups between satellite imagery and water parameters measured by the Chesapeake Bay program. Our results demonstrate that the coefficient of determination can be as high as R2 > 0.90 for the new algorithms in comparison with R2 = 0.6 for the standard OC3V algorithm on the same field dataset. Substantial improvement was also achieved by applying a similar approach (inclusion of Rrs(667)/Rrs(753) ratio) for MODIS matchups. Results for VIIRS are not yet conclusive. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. Multi-band, multi-epoch observations of the transiting warm Jupiter WASP-80b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Akihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Kawashima, Yui; Ikoma, Masahiro; Kurosaki, Kenji [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Narita, Norio; Nishiyama, Shogo; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Nagayama, Shogo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onitsuka, Masahiro; Baba, Haruka; Ryu, Tsuguru [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa; Onozato, Hiroki [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hirano, Teruyuki; Kawauchi, Kiyoe [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hori, Yasunori [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tamura, Motohide [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Oookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); and others


    WASP-80b is a warm Jupiter transiting a bright late-K/early-M dwarf, providing a good opportunity to extend the atmospheric study of hot Jupiters toward the lower temperature regime. We report multi-band, multi-epoch transit observations of WASP-80b by using three ground-based telescopes covering from optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c} bands) to near-infrared (NIR; J, H, and K{sub s} bands) wavelengths. We observe 5 primary transits, each in 3 or 4 different bands simultaneously, obtaining 17 independent transit light curves. Combining them with results from previous works, we find that the observed transmission spectrum is largely consistent with both a solar abundance and thick cloud atmospheric models at a 1.7σ discrepancy level. On the other hand, we find a marginal spectral rise in the optical region compared to the NIR region at the 2.9σ level, which possibly indicates the existence of haze in the atmosphere. We simulate theoretical transmission spectra for a solar abundance but hazy atmosphere, finding that a model with equilibrium temperature of 600 K can explain the observed data well, having a discrepancy level of 1.0σ. We also search for transit timing variations, but find no timing excess larger than 50 s from a linear ephemeris. In addition, we conduct 43 day long photometric monitoring of the host star in the optical bands, finding no significant variation in the stellar brightness. Combined with the fact that no spot-crossing event is observed in the five transits, our results confirm previous findings that the host star appears quiet for spot activities, despite the indications of strong chromospheric activities.

  8. Compact multi-band frequency reconfigurable planar monopole antenna for several wireless communication applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abou Al-Alaa


    Full Text Available A compact reconfigurable multi-band monopole antenna is presented. To achieve frequency reconfigurability, a PIN diode is used. There are two states of switch. State 1: when the switch is OFF, the antenna operates at four bands: 2.45, 3, 3.69, and 5.5 GHz with impedance bandwidth of 9.95, 5.96, 12.57, and 10.76%, respectively. State 2: when a switch is ON, the antenna operates at 2.64, 3.67, 4.94, and 5.3 GHz with impedance bandwidth of 21.15, 11.76, 5.79, and 4.12%, respectively. Folded and meandered techniques are used for miniaturize antenna size. Antenna size is 15 mm × 37 mm × 0.8 mm and the radiator part is 15 mm × 9 mm × 0.8 mm. The proposed antenna is used in several applications such as Bluetooth (2400–2484 MHz, WLAN [802.11b/g/n (2.4–2.48 GHz, 802.11y (3.657–3.69 GHz, 802.11y (4.9 GHz, 802.11a/h/j/n (5.2 GHz], Wi-MAX (2.5–2.69 GHz, LTE (band 7, band 38, band 41, and band 43 and S-DMB (2605–2655 MHz. The antenna is analyzed using the transient solver of CST Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna was fabricated and tested. Measurements and simulations show good agreement.

  9. Experimental investigation on multi-dimensional digital predistortion for multi-band radio-over-fiber systems. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun; Pei, Yinqing; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Lin, Jintong


    The recently-proposed multi-dimensional digital predistortion (DPD) technique is experimentally investigated in terms of nonlinearity order, memory length, oversampling rate, digital-to-analog conversion resolution, carrier frequency dependence and RF input power tolerance, in both directly-modulated and externally-modulated multi-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems. Similar characteristics of the multi-dimensional digital predistorter are identified in directly-modulated and externally-modulated RoF systems. The experimental results suggest implementing a memory-free multi-dimensional digital predistorter involving nonlinearity orders up to 5 at 2 × oversampling rate for practical multi-band RoF systems. Using the suggested parameters, the multi-dimensional DPD is able to improve the RF input power tolerance by greater than 3dB for each band in a two-band RoF system, indicating an enhancement of RF power transmitting efficiency.

  10. Ferromagnetic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxley, Andrew D.


    Highlights: • Review of ferromagnetic superconductors. • Covers UGe{sub 2}, URhGe and UCoGe and briefly other materials. • The focus is on experimental data and the pairing mechanism. - Abstract: The co-existence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism is of potential interest for spintronics and high magnetic field applications as well as a fascinating fundamental state of matter. The recent focus of research is on a family of ferromagnetic superconductors that are superconducting well below their Curie temperature, the first example of which was discovered in 2000. Although there is a ‘standard’ theoretical model for how magnetic pairing might bring about such a state, why it has only been seen in a few materials that at first sight appear to be very closely related has yet to be fully explained. This review covers the current state of knowledge of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these materials with emphasis on how they conform and differ from the behaviour expected from the ‘standard’ model and from each other.

  11. Design of a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS multi-band compatible low power GNSS receiver RF frontend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bing; Zhuang Yiqi; Long Qiang; Jin Zhao; Li Zhenrong; Jin Gang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)


    This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated multi-band RF receiver frontend for GNSS applications on L-band. A single RF signal channel with a low-IF architecture is adopted for multi-band operation on the RF section, which mainly consists of a low noise amplifier (LNA), a down-converter, polyphase filters and summing circuits. An improved cascode source degenerated LNA with a multi-band shared off-chip matching network and band switches is implemented in the first amplifying stage. Also, a re-designed wideband double balance mixer is implemented in the down conversion stage, which provides better gain, noise figure and linearity performances. Using a TSMC 0.18 {mu}m 1P4M RF CMOS process, a compact 1.27 GHz/1.575 GHz dual-band GNSS frontend is realized in the proposed low-IF topology. The measurements exhibit the gains of 45 dB and 43 dB, and noise figures are controlled at 3.35 dB and 3.9 dB of the two frequency bands, respectively. The frontend model consumes about 11.8-13.5 mA current on a 1.8 V power supply. The core occupies 1.91 x 0.53 mm{sup 2} while the total die area with ESD is 2.45 x 2.36 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Machine-Learned Identification of RR Lyrae Stars from Sparse, Multi-band Data: the PS1 Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Sesar, Branimir; Mitrović, Sandra; Ivezić, Željko; Rix, Hans-Walter; Cohen, Judith G; Bernard, Edouard J; Grebel, Eva K; Martin, Nicolas F; Schlafly, Edward F; Burgett, William S; Draper, Peter W; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf P; Magnier, Eugene A; Metcalfe, Nigel; Tonry, John L; Waters, Christopher


    RR Lyrae stars may be the best practical tracers of Galactic halo (sub-)structure and kinematics. The PanSTARRS1 (PS1) $3\\pi$ survey offers multi-band, multi-epoch, precise photometry across much of the sky, but a robust identification of RR Lyrae stars in this data set poses a challenge, given PS1's sparse, asynchronous multi-band light curves ($\\lesssim 12$ epochs in each of five bands, taken over a 4.5-year period). We present a novel template fitting technique that uses well-defined and physically motivated multi-band light curves of RR Lyrae stars, and demonstrate that we get accurate period estimates, precise to 2 sec in $>80\\%$ of cases. We augment these light curve fits with other {\\em features} from photometric time-series and provide them to progressively more detailed machine-learned classification models. From these models we are able to select the widest ($3/4$ of the sky) and deepest (reaching 120 kpc) sample of RR Lyrae stars to date. The PS1 sample of $\\sim 35,000$ RRab stars is pure (90%), an...

  13. Complexity-reduced digital predistortion for subcarrier multiplexed radio over fiber systems transmitting sparse multi-band RF signals. (United States)

    Pei, Yinqing; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Zhang, Anxu; Dai, Yitang; Ji, Yuefeng; Lin, Jintong


    A novel multi-band digital predistortion (DPD) technique is proposed to linearize the subcarrier multiplexed radio-over-fiber (SCM-RoF) system transmitting sparse multi-band RF signal with large blank spectra between the constituent RF bands. DPD performs on the baseband signal of each individual RF band before up-conversion and RF combination. By disregarding the blank spectra, the processing bandwidth of the proposed DPD technique is greatly reduced, which is only determined by the baseband signal bandwidth of each individual RF band, rather than the entire bandwidth of the combined multi-band RF signal. Experimental demonstration is performed in a directly modulated SCM-RoF system transmitting two 64QAM modulated OFDM signals on 2.4GHz band and 3.6GHz band. Results show that the adjacent channel power (ACP) is suppressed by 15dB leading to significant improvement of the EVM performances of the signals on both of the two bands.

  14. Multi-band morpho-Spectral Component Analysis Deblending Tool (MuSCADeT): Deblending colourful objects

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, R; Starck, J -L


    We introduce a new algorithm for colour separation and deblending of multi-band astronomical images called MuSCADeT which is based on Morpho-spectral Component Analysis of multi-band images. The MuSCADeT algorithm takes advantage of the sparsity of astronomical objects in morphological dictionaries such as wavelets and their differences in spectral energy distribution (SED) across multi-band observations. This allows us to devise a model independent and automated approach to separate objects with different colours. We show with simulations that we are able to separate highly blended objects and that our algorithm is robust against SED variations of objects across the field of view. To confront our algorithm with real data, we use HST images of the strong lensing galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223 and we show that MuSCADeT performs better than traditional profile-fitting techniques in deblending the foreground lensing galaxies from background lensed galaxies. Although the main driver for our work is the deblending...

  15. Test of modified BCS model at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Ponomarev, V Yu


    A recently suggested modified BCS (MBCS) model has been studied at finite temperature. We show that this approach does not allow the existence of the normal (non-superfluid) phase at any finite temperature. Other MBCS predictions such as a negative pairing gap, pairing induced by heating in closed-shell nuclei, and ``superfluid -- super-superfluid'' phase transition are discussed also. The MBCS model is tested by comparing with exact solutions for the picket fence model. Here, severe violation of the internal symmetry of the problem is detected. The MBCS equations are found to be inconsistent. The limit of the MBCS applicability has been determined to be far below the ``superfluid -- normal'' phase transition of the conventional FT-BCS, where the model performs worse than the FT-BCS.

  16. Bose-Einstein Condensation in Strong-Coupling Quark Color Superconductor near Flavor SU(3) Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Bing; REN Chun-Fu; ZHANG Yi


    Near the flavor SU(3) limit, we propose an analytical description for color-flavor-locked-type Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) phase in the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. The diquark behaviors in light-flavor and strange-flavor-involved channels and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of bound diquark states are studied. When the attractive interaction between quarks is strong enough, a BCS-BEC crossover is predicted in the environment with color-flavor-locked pairing pattern. The resulting Bose-Einstein condensed phase is found to be an intergrade phase before the emergence of the previous-predicted BEC phase in two-flavor quark superconductor.

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries FOCUS ON SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH EXOTIC SYMMETRIES (United States)

    Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru


    Superconductors can usefully be divided into two classes, those that are well described by the classic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory and its extensions and those which require a different microscopic description. The BCS theory of superconductivity solved the long standing mystery of this spectacular phenomenon and described all superconductors that were known when it was formulated in the 1950s. The key ingredient is an attractive interaction generated by the exchange of phonons between electrons which overcomes a Coulomb repulsion weakened by screening, to give a net attractive force on the low energy scale. In this case the simplest s-wave pairing always maximises the energy gain. There were speculations a little later that other types of electron pairing could be possible, but it took a quarter of a century until the first signs of superconductors with different and exotic pairing appeared. In the intervening thirty years many superconductors with exotic pairing have been and continue to be discovered and the study of their superconductivity has grown into a major subfield of condensed matter physics today. The importance of these exotic superconductors with unconventional symmetry is that their pairing is of electronic origin. As a result they are freed from the restrictions of low transition temperatures that go along with the phonon driven conventional superconductors. However in two of the main classes of the exotic superconductors, namely heavy fermion and organic superconductors, the intrinsic energy scales are very small leading to low temperature scales. The third class contains the small number of superconducting transition metal compounds with exotic pairing symmetry. The most studied of these are the high-Tc cuprates, the newly discovered iron pnictides and strontium ruthenate which is closely related to superfluid 3He. Although the basic electronic structure of these materials is well understood, the origin of the pairing is more complex

  18. Electronic structure investigation of novel superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buling, Anna


    The discovery of superconductivity in iron-based pnictides in 2008 gave rise to a high advance in the research of high-temperature superconductors. But up to now there is no generally admitted theory of the non-BCS mechanism of these superconductors. The electron and hole doped Ba122 (BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}) compounds investigated in this thesis are supposed to be suitable model systems for studying the electronic behavior in order to shed light on the superconducting mechanisms. The 3d-transition metal doped Ba122 compounds are investigated using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), while the completely hole doped K122 is observed using XPS. The experimental measurements are complemented by theoretical calculations. A further new class of superconductors is represented by the electride 12CaO*7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Here superconductivity can be realized by electrons accommodated in the crystallographic sub-nanometer-sized cavities, while the mother compound is a wide band gap insulator. Electronic structure investigations, represented by XPS, XAS and resonant X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ResPES), carried out in this work, should help to illuminate this unconventional superconductivity and resolve a debate of competing models for explaining the existence of superconductivity in this compound.

  19. Ferromagnetic superconductors (United States)

    Huxley, Andrew D.


    The co-existence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism is of potential interest for spintronics and high magnetic field applications as well as a fascinating fundamental state of matter. The recent focus of research is on a family of ferromagnetic superconductors that are superconducting well below their Curie temperature, the first example of which was discovered in 2000. Although there is a 'standard' theoretical model for how magnetic pairing might bring about such a state, why it has only been seen in a few materials that at first sight appear to be very closely related has yet to be fully explained. This review covers the current state of knowledge of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these materials with emphasis on how they conform and differ from the behaviour expected from the 'standard' model and from each other.

  20. Superconductor cable (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE


    A superconductor cable includes a superconductive cable core (1) and a cryostat (2) enclosing the same. The cable core (1) has a superconductive conductor (3), an insulation (4) surrounding the same and a shielding (5) surrounding the insulation (4). A layer (3b) of a dielectric or semiconducting material is applied to a central element (3a) formed from a normally conducting material as a strand or tube and a layer (3c) of at least one wire or strip of superconductive material is placed helically on top. The central element (3a) and the layer (3c) are connected to each other in an electrically conducting manner at the ends of the cable core (1).

  1. Software testing an ISTQB-BCS certified tester foundation guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian; Samaroo, Angelina; Thompson, Geoff; Williams, Peter; Hambling, Brian


    This practical guide provides insight into software testing, explaining the basics of the testing process and how to perform effective tests. It provides an overview of different techniques and how to apply them. It is the best-selling official textbook of the ISTQB-BCS Certified Tester Foundation Level.

  2. Prediction of solubility and permeability class membership: provisional BCS classification of the world's top oral drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M; Amidon, Gordon L


    .../discussion/extension of the BCS is continuously published in the literature. The BCS has been effectively implanted by drug regulatory agencies around the world in setting bioavailability/bioequivalence standards for immediate-release (IR...

  3. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar


    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  4. Antiferromagnetic Ising spin glass competing with BCS pairing interaction in a transverse field (United States)

    Magalhães, S. G.; Zimmer, F. M.; Kipper, C. J.; Calegari, E. J.


    The competition among spin glass (SG), antiferromagnetism (AF) and local pairing superconductivity (PAIR) is studied in a two-sublattice fermionic Ising spin glass model with a local BCS pairing interaction in the presence of an applied magnetic transverse field Γ. In the present approach, spins in different sublattices interact with a Gaussian random coupling with an antiferromagnetic mean J0 and standard deviation J. The problem is formulated in the path integral formalism in which spin operators are represented by bilinear combinations of Grassmann variables. The saddle-point Grand Canonical potential is obtained within the static approximation and the replica symmetric ansatz. The results are analysed in phase diagrams in which the AF and the SG phases can occur for small g (g is the strength of the local superconductor coupling written in units of J), while the PAIR phase appears as unique solution for large g. However, there is a complex line transition separating the PAIR phase from the others. It is second order at high temperature that ends in a tricritical point. The quantum fluctuations affect deeply the transition lines and the tricritical point due to the presence of Γ.

  5. Analysis of multi-band pyrometry for emissivity and temperature measurements of gray surfaces at ambient temperature (United States)

    Araújo, António


    A multi-band pyrometry model is developed to evaluate the potential of measuring temperature and emissivity of assumably gray target surfaces at 300 K. Twelve wavelength bands between 2 and 60 μm are selected to define the spectral characteristics of the pyrometers. The pyrometers are surrounded by an enclosure with known background temperature. Multi-band pyrometry modeling results in an overdetermined system of equations, in which the solution for temperature and emissivity is obtained through an optimization procedure that minimizes the sum of the squared residuals of each system equation. The Monte Carlo technique is applied to estimate the uncertainties of temperature and emissivity, resulting from the propagation of the uncertainties of the pyrometers. Maximum reduction in temperature uncertainty is obtained from dual-band to tri-band systems, a small reduction is obtained from tri-band to quad-band, with a negligible reduction above quad-band systems (a reduction between 6.5% and 12.9% is obtained from dual-band to quad-band systems). However, increasing the number of bands does not always reduce uncertainty, and uncertainty reduction depends on the specific band arrangement, indicating the importance of choosing the most appropriate multi-band spectral arrangement if uncertainty is to be reduced. A reduction in emissivity uncertainty is achieved when the number of spectral bands is increased (a reduction between 6.3% and 12.1% is obtained from dual-band to penta-band systems). Besides, emissivity uncertainty increases for pyrometers with high wavelength spectral arrangements. Temperature and emissivity uncertainties are strongly dependent on the difference between target and background temperatures: uncertainties are low when the background temperature is far from the target temperature, tending to very high values as the background temperature approaches the target temperature.

  6. A Survey of Star Clusters in the M31 South-West Field. UBVRI Photometry and Multi-Band Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Narbutis, D; Kodaira, K; Bridzius, A; Stonkute, R


    A new survey of star clusters in the South-West field of the M31 disk based on the high resolution Subaru Suprime-Cam observations is presented. The UBVRI aperture CCD photometry catalog of 285 objects (V < 20.5; 169 of them identified for the first time) is provided. Each object is supplemented with multi-band color maps presented in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement. Seventy seven star cluster candidates from the catalog are located in the Hubble Space Telescope archive frames.

  7. Fermi Surface of the Most Dilute Superconductor (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Zhu, Zengwei; Fauqué, Benoît; Behnia, Kamran


    The origin of superconductivity in bulk SrTiO3 is a mystery since the nonmonotonous variation of the critical transition with carrier concentration defies the expectations of the crudest version of the BCS theory. Here, employing the Nernst effect, an extremely sensitive probe of tiny bulk Fermi surfaces, we show that, down to concentrations as low as 5.5×1017cm-3, the system has both a sharp Fermi surface and a superconducting ground state. The most dilute superconductor currently known therefore has a metallic normal state with a Fermi energy as little as 1.1 meV on top of a band gap as large as 3 eV. The occurrence of a superconducting instability in an extremely small, single-component, and barely anisotropic Fermi surface implies strong constraints for the identification of the pairing mechanism.

  8. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces. (United States)

    Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A


    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces.

  9. BCS class IV drugs: Highly notorious candidates for formulation development. (United States)

    Ghadi, Rohan; Dand, Neha


    BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs. A decade back, extreme examples of class IV compounds were an exception rather than the rule, yet today many drug candidates under development pipeline fall into this category. Formulation and development of an efficacious delivery system for BCS class IV drugs are herculean tasks for any formulator. The inherent hurdles posed by these drugs hamper their translation to actual market. The importance of the formulation composition and design to successful drug development is especially illustrated by the BCS class IV case. To be clinically effective these drugs require the development of a proper delivery system for both oral and per oral delivery. Ideal oral dosage forms should produce both a reasonably high bioavailability and low inter and intra subject variability in absorption. Also, ideal systems for BCS class IV should produce a therapeutic concentration of the drug at reasonable dose volumes for intravenous administration. This article highlights the various techniques and upcoming strategies which can be employed for the development of highly notorious BCS class IV drugs. Some of the techniques employed are lipid based delivery systems, polymer based nanocarriers, crystal engineering (nanocrystals and co-crystals), liquisolid technology, self-emulsifying solid dispersions and miscellaneous techniques addressing the P

  10. Multi-band optical variability of the Blazar S5 0716+714 in outburst state during 2014-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Aditi; Bachev, R; Strigachev, A; Semkov, E; Wiita, Paul J; Fan, J H; Pandey, U S; Boeva, S; Spassov, B


    We analyzed the multi-band optical behaviour of the BL Lacertae object, S5 0716+714, during its outburst state from 2014 November - 2015 March. We took data on 23 nights at three observatories, one in India and two in Bulgaria, making quasi-simultaneous observations in B, V, R, and I bands. We measured multi-band optical fluxes, colour and spectral variations for this blazar on intraday and short timescales. The source was in a flaring state during the period analyzed and displayed intense variability in all wavelengths. R band magnitude of 11.6 was attained by the target on 18 Jan 2015, which is the brightest value ever recorded for S5 0716+714. The discrete correlation function method yielded good correlation between the bands with no measurable time lags, implying that radiation in these bands originate from the same region and by the same mechanism. We also used the structure function technique to look for characteristic timescales in the light curves. During the times of rapid variability, no evidence fo...

  11. RMF+BCS Description of Some Traditional Neutron Magic Isotones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena G.


    Full Text Available The traditional neutron magic nuclei with N = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126, and those with neutron sub-magic number N = 40 are investigated within the relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS approach. The results indicate appearance of new proton magic numbers as well as the disappearance of conventional magic numbers for nuclei with extreme isospin values. The calculated energies and densities do not indicate any tendency for the proton halo formations in any of the proton rich isotones due to Coulomb interaction and different single particle spectra. However, the potential barrier provided by the Coulomb interaction and that due to the centrifugal force may cause along delay in the actual decay of proton rich nucleus resulting the extended drip line.

  12. Continuum discretized BCS approach for weakly bound nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lay, J A; Fortunato, L; Vitturi, A


    The Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) formalism is extended by including the single-particle continuum, thus enabling the analysis of an isotopic chain from stability up to the drip line. We propose a continuum discretized generalized BCS based on single-particle pseudostates (PS). These PS are generated from the diagonalization of the single-particle Hamiltonian within a Transformed Harmonic Oscillator (THO) basis. The consistency of the results versus the size of the basis is studied. The method is applied to neutron rich Oxygen and Carbon isotopes and compared with similar previous works and available experimental data. We make use of the flexibility of the proposed model in order to study the evolution of the occupation of the low-energy continuum when the system becomes weakly bound. We find a larger influence of the non-resonant continuum as long as the Fermi level approaches zero.

  13. Theoretical study of pair density wave superconductors (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao

    In conventional superconductors, the Cooper pairs are formed from quasiparticles. We explore another type of superconducting state, a pair density wave (PDW) order, which spontaneously breaks some of the translational and point group symmetries. In a PDW superconductor, the order parameter is a periodic function of the center-of-mass coordinate, and the spatial average value of the superconducting order parameter vanishes. In the early 1960s, following the success of the BCS theory of superconductivity, Fulde and Ferrell and Larkin and Ovchinnikov (FFLO) developed theories of inhomogeneous superconducting states. Because of this Zeeman splitting in a magnetic field, the Cooper pairs having a nonzero center-of-mass momentum are more stable than the normal pairing, leading to the FFLO state. Experiments suggest possible occurrence of the FFLO state in the heavy-fermion compound CeCoIn5, and in quasi-low-dimensional organic superconductors. FFLO phases have also been argued to be of importance in understanding ultracold atomic Fermi gases and in the formation of color superconductivity in high density quark matter. In all Fermi superfluids known at the present time, Cooper pairs are composed of particles with spin 1/2. The spin component of a pair wave function can be characterized by its total spin S = 0 (singlet) and S = 1 (triplet). In the discovered broken inversion superconductors CePt3Si, Li2Pt3B, and Li2Pd3B, the magnetic field leads to novel inhomogeneous superconducting states, namely the helical phase and the multiple-q phase. Its order parameter exhibits periodicity similar to FFLO phase, and the consequences of both phases are same: the enhancement of transition temperature as a function of magnetic field. We have studied the PDW phases in broken parity superconductors with vortices included. By studying PDW vortex states, we find the usual Abrikosov vortex solution is unstable against a new solution with fractional vortex pairs. We have also studied the

  14. A revision of the quality of life-breast cancer survivors (QOL-BCS) instrument. (United States)

    Azuero, Andres; Su, Xiaogang; McNees, Patrick; Meneses, Karen


    The importance of quality of life (QOL) measurement among breast cancer survivors (BCS) is well-recognized by researchers and clinicians. With data from 427 rural BCS, the authors used a combination of clinical expertise and statistical analysis to revise a 48-item measure of QOL specific to BCS. The revised 15-item measure showed adequate psychometric properties and provides the basis for a brief yet comprehensive multidimensional measure of QOL applicable to most BCS. Future work includes fine-tuning the measurement model and examining its generalizability among non-rural BCS.

  15. Projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation with blocking effect (United States)

    Dias, H.; Krmpotić, F.


    The blocking effect is introduced through a canonical transformation in the projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is suggested that the blocking effect may play an important role in the description of the low-lying states in odd-mass nuclei. Present address: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Member of Carrera de Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina. Sponsored by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Brasil.

  16. A study of particle number fluctuation under BCS theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Particle number fluctuations in BCS theory are studied with the relativistic mean-field theory and the shell effects of particle number fluctuations are first discovered. By analyzing the relative errors of the particle number fluctuations, we find that the particle number fluctuations are relevant with the odd-even character. We later apply this method to the examination of the new shell structure, showing that N = 184 for the neutron is indeed a new closed shell.

  17. Isotope Effect on Electron-Phonon Coupling in Multiband Superconductor MgB2 (United States)

    Mou, Daixiang; Taufour, Valentin; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Bud'Ko, Serguei; Canfield, Paul; Kaminski, Adam

    We systematically investigate the isotope effect of electron-phonon coupling in multi-band superconductor MgB2 by laser based Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy. The kink structure around 70 meV on two σ bands, which is caused by electron coupling to E2 g phonon mode, is shifted to higher binding energy in Mg10B2 than that in Mg11B2. The measured shifting energy of 3.5 meV is consistent with theoretical calculation based on harmonic phonon in MgB2. Our temperature dependent measurement also indicates the isotope effect of kink structure is not dependent on superconducting transition.

  18. Andreev-Bragg Reflection from an Amperian Superconductor. (United States)

    Baireuther, P; Hyart, T; Tarasinski, B; Beenakker, C W J


    We show how an electrical measurement can detect the pairing of electrons on the same side of the Fermi surface (Amperian pairing), recently proposed by Patrick Lee for the pseudogap phase of high-Tc cuprate superconductors. Bragg scattering from the pair-density wave introduces odd multiples of 2k(F) momentum shifts when an electron incident from a normal metal is Andreev reflected as a hole. These Andreev-Bragg reflections can be detected in a three-terminal device, containing a ballistic Y junction between normal leads (1, 2) and the superconductor. The cross-conductance dI1/dV2 has the opposite sign for Amperian pairing than it has either in the normal state or for the usual BCS pairing.

  19. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto


    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  20. Fine uniform filament superconductors (United States)

    Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Li, Qi; Roberts, Peter R.; Antaya, Peter D.; Seuntjens, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Steven; DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Christopherson, Craig J.; Garrant, Jennifer H.; Craven, Christopher A.


    A multifilamentary superconductor composite having a high fill factor is formed from a plurality of stacked monofilament precursor elements, each of which includes a low density superconductor precursor monofilament. The precursor elements all have substantially the same dimensions and characteristics, and are stacked in a rectilinear configuration and consolidated to provide a multifilamentary precursor composite. The composite is thereafter thermomechanically processed to provide a superconductor composite in which each monofilament is less than about 50 microns thick.

  1. Multi-band multiwavelength fiber laser based on the combined effects of four wave mixing and self-seeding stimulated Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Yuan, Yijun; Yi, Miao; Yao, Yong


    A multi-band multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (MBMEFL) based on the combined four wave mixing effect (FWM) and self-seeding stimulated Brillouin scattering (SSBS) effect has been studied experimentally. We use two ring cavities which consist of a large and a small cavity to build up this MBMEFL. The output multiple bands and multiple wavelengths are depended on the EDFA power and the length of the single mode fiber (SMF). With a proper length of SMF, we can achieve multi-band lasing by FWM effect and multiwavelength lasing in these bands by SSBS. By increasing the EDFA power, the multi-band multiwavelength lasing signals from the MBMEFL decrease.

  2. Superconductor rotor cooling system (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.


    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  3. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kino, G.S.; Studenmund, W.R.; Fishman, I.M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)


    A photothermal technique has been used to measure diffusion and critical temperature in high temperature superconductors. The technique is particularly suitable for determining material quality and inhomogeneity.

  4. Theoretical study of magnetoelectric effects in noncentrosymmetric and cuprate superconductors (United States)

    Kashyap, Manoj K.

    A century after the discovery of superconductivity at the lab of Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911, it is noticeable that the phenomenon is quite ubiquitous in nature. In addition to a long list of superconducting alloys and compounds, almost half the elements in the periodic table superconduct. By the late seventies, superconductivity was thought to be well understood. This turned out to be a myth, with the discovery of unconventional superconductors that defied Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. Cuprates have been the most prominent example among them ever since their discovery in 1986 by Bednorz and Muller. Another example of non-compliance with BCS theory lie among noncentrosymmetric superconductors. In this dissertation, magnetoelectric (ME) effects in these two classes of superconductors have been studied from different perspectives, utilizing Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. Even though GL theory was proposed before the BCS theory, it was not given much importance due to its phenomenological nature until Gor'kov proved that it is a limiting form of the microscopic BCS theory. However today, in the absence of any complete microscopic theory to explain superconductivity in unconventional superconductors, Ginzburg-Landau theory is an important tool to move ahead and qualitatively understand the behavior of varied superconducting systems. Noncentrosymmetric superconductors have generated much theoretical interest since 2004 despite been known for long. The absence of inversion symmetry in non- centrosymmetric superconductors allows for extra terms called Lifshitz invariants in the Ginzburg-Landau functional. This leads to magnetoelectric effects that do not exist in centrosymmetric superconductors. One manifestation of this is in the vortex structure in materials with a cubic point group O. In particular, a current is predicted to flow parallel to the applied magnetic field in such a vortex in addition to the usual vortex supercurrents. In this work, we present both

  5. A multi-band flare in the M 87 jet 80 pc away from the central engine. (United States)

    Chang, C. S.; Ros, E.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.

    The radio-loud active galactic nucleus M 87 hosts a powerful jet fueled by a super-massive black hole in its center. A bright feature 80 pc away from the central engine of M 87, namely HST-1, has shown a multi-band flare that peaked in 2005. Early radio, optical and X-ray observations have suggested that HST-1 is superluminal, and is possibly related to the TeV flare observed by HESS around 2005. Therefore, it was suggested that HST-1 has blazar-like activity. To examine the blazar-like nature for this superluminal knot in the M 87 jet, we analyzed VLBA 2 cm data of 15 epochs from 2000 to 2009. HST-1 is successfully detected with milliarcsecond resolution from 2003 to 2007, and our findings do not support that HST-1 has a blazar-like nature.

  6. Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC. (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yen-Liang


    To increase the traffic rate in phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC), a multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) modulation is first proposed and demonstrated. In the measurement, we do not utilize optical blue filter to increase modulation bandwidth of phosphor-LED in the VLC system. In this proposed scheme, different bands of OFDM signals are applied to different LED chips in a LED lamp, this can avoid the power fading and nonlinearity issue by applying the same OFDM signal to all the LED chips in a LED lamp. Here, the maximum increase percentages of traffic rates are 41.1%, 17.8% and 17.8% under received illuminations of 200, 500 and 1000 Lux, respectively, when the proposed three-band OFDM modulation is used in the VLC system. In addition, the analysis and verification by experiments are also performed.

  7. Mapping the three-dimensional multi-band extinction and diffuse interstellar bands in the Milky Way with LAMOST

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Haibo; Xiang, Maosheng; Huo, Zhiying; Zhang, Huihua; Huang, Yang; Zhang, Huawei


    With modern large scale spectroscopic surveys, such as the SDSS and LSS-GAC, Galactic astronomy has entered the era of millions of stellar spectra. Taking advantage of the huge spectroscopic database, we propose to use a "standard pair" technique to a) Estimate multi-band extinction towards sightlines of millions of stars; b) Detect and measure the diffuse interstellar bands in hundreds of thousands SDSS and LAMOST low-resolution spectra; c) Search for extremely faint emission line nebulae in the Galaxy; and d) Perform photometric calibration for wide field imaging surveys. In this contribution, we present some results of applying this technique to the SDSS data, and report preliminary results from the LAMOST data.

  8. The non-equilibrium response of a superconductor to pair-breaking radiation measured over a broad frequency band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, P. J. de, E-mail: [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Yates, S. J. C. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen (Netherlands); Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Neto, A.; Llombart, N. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Terahertz Sensing Group, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Baryshev, A. M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen (Netherlands); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Baselmans, J. J. A. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Terahertz Sensing Group, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)


    We have measured the absorption of terahertz radiation in a BCS superconductor over a broad range of frequencies from 200 GHz to 1.1 THz, using a broadband antenna-lens system and a tantalum microwave resonator. From low frequencies, the response of the resonator rises rapidly to a maximum at the gap edge of the superconductor. From there on, the response drops to half the maximum response at twice the pair-breaking energy. At higher frequencies, the response rises again due to trapping of pair-breaking phonons in the superconductor. In practice, this is a measurement of the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle creation efficiency due to pair-breaking in a superconductor. The efficiency, calculated from the different non-equilibrium quasiparticle distribution functions at each frequency, is in agreement with the measurements.

  9. Similarities between Copper and Plutonium containing 'high T {sub c}' superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, P. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)]. E-mail:


    PuCoGa{sub 5} with 18.5 K has an extremely high T {sub c} for superconductivity compared with other actinide materials having T {sub c}s around 2-3 K. It appears to be a 'high T {sub c} superconductor' in the field of actinides. After nearly 20 years of research in high T {sub c} superconductors only Cu containing materials have T {sub c}s above about 30 K (exception MgB{sub 2}). BCS theory cannot explain such high transition temperatures, thus other or additional coupling mechanisms, like magnetic exchange are necessary. Mixed valence, spin holes in an antiferromagnetic lattice, small energy difference between the various valences and two-dimensionality are common features of Cu and Pu containing superconductors. It can be shown in this paper that the mechanism for superconductivity is the same for Cu and Pu containing materials.

  10. Similarities between Cu and Pu containing 'high T {sub c}' superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, P. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail:


    PuCoGa{sub 5} has with 18.5 K an extremely high T {sub c} for superconductivity compared with other actinide materials having T{sub c}s around 2-3 K. It appears to be a 'high T {sub c} superconductor' in the field of actinides. After nearly 20 years of research in high T{sub c} superconductors, only Cu containing materials have T{sub c}s above about 30 K (exception MgB{sub 2}). BCS theory cannot explain such high transition temperatures, thus other or additional coupling mechanisms like magnetic exchange are necessary. Mixed valence, spin holes in an antiferromagnetic lattice, small energy difference between the various valences and two-dimensionality are common features of Cu and Pu containing superconductors. It can be shown in this paper that the mechanism for superconductivity is the same for Cu and Pu containing materials.

  11. Caco-2 cells, biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biowaiver. (United States)

    Smetanová, Libuse; Stĕtinová, Vĕra; Svoboda, Zbynek; Kvetina, Jaroslav


    Almost all orally administered drugs are absorbed across the intestinal mucosa. The Caco-2 monolayers are used as an in vitro model to predict drug absorption in humans and to explore mechanism of drug absorption. The Caco-2 cells are derived from a human colon adenocarcinoma and spontaneously differentiate to form confluent monolayer of polarized cells structurally and functionally resembling the small intestinal epithelium. For studying drug permeability, Caco-2 cells are seeded onto the Transwell inserts with semipermeable membrane and grown to late confluence (21 days). After determination of cell viability, the integrity of monolayer is checked by phenol red permeability and by 14C-mannitol permeability. The transport from apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) is studied by adding the diluted drug on the apical or basolateral side and withdrawing the samples from the opposite compartment, respectively, for HPLC analysis or liquid scintillation spectrometry. Ca2+ -free transport medium is used to determine paracellular component of the drug transport. On the basis of permeability and solubility, drugs can be categorized into four classes of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). For certain drugs, the BCS-based biowaiver approach can be used which enables to reduce in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  12. Dimensional BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold Fermi gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Igor


    We investigate thermodynamics and phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases, which can be realized and measured in the laboratory with modern trapping techniques. We approach the subject from a both theoretical and experimental perspective. Central to the analysis is the systematic comparison of the BCS-BEC crossover of two-component fermions in both three and two dimensions. A dimensional reduction can be achieved in experiments by means of highly anisotropic traps. The Functional Renormalization Group (FRG) allows for a description of both cases in a unified theoretical framework. In three dimensions we discuss with the FRG the influence of high momentum particles onto the density, extend previous approaches to the Unitary Fermi Gas to reach quantitative precision, and study the breakdown of superfluidity due to an asymmetry in the population of the two fermion components. In this context we also investigate the stability of the Sarma phase. For the two-dimensional system scattering theory in reduced dimension plays an important role. We present both the theoretically as well as experimentally relevant aspects thereof. After a qualitative analysis of the phase diagram and the equation of state in two dimensions with the FRG we describe the experimental determination of the phase diagram of the two-dimensional BCS-BEC crossover in collaboration with the group of S. Jochim at PI Heidelberg.

  13. Indication of BCS-BEC crossover behavior in halo nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, K; Sagawa, H; Schuck, P


    We investigate the spatial structure of two-neutron wave function in a Borromean nucleus $^{11}$Li using a three-body model in which two valence neutrons interact with each other by a density-dependent contact force. The behavior of the neutron Cooper pair at different densities is simulated by calculating the two-neutron wave function at several distances between the core nucleus and the center of mass of the two neutrons. We find that the neutron pair wave function in $^{11}$Li has an oscillation at normal density, while it becomes a well localized single peak in the dilute density region around the nuclear surface. These features are in close analogue to the BCS-BEC crossover of the Cooper pair wave function found in the infinite nuclear matter. The present results also provide a unified picture of the di-neutron and the cigar-like configurations in Borromian nuclei as a manifestation of the BCS-BEC crossover phenomenon.

  14. Fabrication of high temperature superconductors (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dorris, Stephen E.; Ma, Beihai; Li, Meiya


    A method of forming a biaxially aligned superconductor on a non-biaxially aligned substrate substantially chemically inert to the biaxially aligned superconductor comprising is disclosed. A non-biaxially aligned substrate chemically inert to the superconductor is provided and a biaxially aligned superconductor material is deposited directly on the non-biaxially aligned substrate. A method forming a plume of superconductor material and contacting the plume and the non-biaxially aligned substrate at an angle greater than and less than to deposit a biaxially aligned superconductor on the non-biaxially aligned substrate is also disclosed. Various superconductors and substrates are illustrated.

  15. Energy Spectrum of a Degenerate Fermi Gas at the BEC-BCS Crossover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A theoretical study of the BCS-BEC crossover is presented. Starting from a two-channel Boson-Fermion resonance model, the BCS-Bogoiubov mean-field method and the Green's function method are adopted. The result shows that we can end up with a BCS-type theory but with a composite order parameter. Calculation shows that the Bose condensate of BCS Cooper pairs is proportional to the molecular BEC of Bose molecules. The resonance superfluid phase is indicated by the energy spectrum with an obvious interpretation of the transition mechanism.

  16. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation. (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L


    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  17. Proximity-induced low-energy renormalization in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor Majorana structures (United States)

    Stanescu, Tudor D.; Das Sarma, Sankar


    A minimal model for the hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire Majorana platform is developed that fully captures the effects of the low-energy renormalization of the nanowire modes arising from the presence of the parent superconductor. In this model, the parent superconductor is an active component that participates explicitly in the low-energy physics, not just a passive partner that only provides proximity-induced Cooper pairs for the nanowire. This treatment on an equal footing of the superconductor and the semiconductor has become necessary in view of recent experiments, which do not allow a consistent interpretation based just on the bare semiconductor properties. The general theory involves the evaluation of the exact semiconductor Green's function that includes a dynamical self-energy correction arising from the tunnel-coupled superconductor. Using a tight-binding description, the nanowire Green's function is obtained in various relevant parameter regimes, with the parent superconductor being treated within the BCS-BdG prescription. General conditions for the emergence of topological superconductivity are worked out for single-band as well as multiband nanowires and detailed numerical results are given for both infinite and finite wire cases. The topological quantum phase diagrams are provided numerically and the Majorana bound states are obtained along with their oscillatory energy-splitting behaviors due to wave function overlap in finite wires. Renormalization effects are shown to be both qualitatively and quantitatively important in modifying the low-energy spectrum of the nanowire. The results of the theory are found to be in good qualitative agreement with Majorana nanowire experiments, leading to the conclusion that the proximity-induced low-energy renormalization of the nanowire modes by the parent superconductor is of fundamental importance in superconductor-semiconductor hybrid structures, except perhaps in the uninteresting limit of

  18. 56  Gb/s multi-band CAP for data center interconnects up to an 80  km SMF. (United States)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Sanchez, Christian; Du, Ruoyang; Griesser, Helmut


    We present the first (to the best of our knowledge) experimental demonstration of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) signal transmission over an 80-km single-mode fiber link with zero overhead pre-FEC signal recovery and enhanced timing jitter tolerance for optical data center interconnects.

  19. The cuprate superconductors: Narrow correlated-electron bands and interlayer pairing via plane-chain charge transfer (United States)

    Ashkenazi, J.; Kuper, C. G.


    The cuprate superconductors are modelled by two metallic CuO 2planes, separated by insulating layers, in an extended Hubbard Hamiltonian. Hybridization of O(2 p) and Cu( d) orbitals splits the wide bands of LDA theory, yielding a narrow conduction band of antibonding holes. Holes on the two CuO 2 planes are correlated via interplane hopping, giving a non-magnetic normal Fermi liquid. Charge exchange between the planes and the intervening layers generates attraction and a BCS condensation.

  20. Cu, Pu and Fe high T{sub c} superconductors: Spin holes in anti-ferromagnetic clusters form nonmagnetic bipolarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, Peter, E-mail: wachter@solid.phys.ethz.c [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The new iron based high T{sub c} superconductors with T{sub c} up to 55 K have stirred new interest in this field. It is consensus that the BCS mechanism is not able to explain the high T{sub c}'s. In the following we propose that spin holes in anti-ferromagnetic clusters combine to make nonmagnetic bipolarons, which can condense and lead to superconductivity.

  1. Large area bulk superconductors (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.


    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  2. Superconductor terahertz metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Cao, Wei; Xing, Qirong; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili


    We characterize the behaviour of split ring resonators made up of high-transition temperature YBCO superconductor using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. The superconductor metamaterial shows sharp change in the transmission spectrum at the fundamental inductive-capacitive resonance and the dipole resonance as the temperature dips below the transition temperature. Our results reveal that the high performance of such a metamaterial is limited by material imperfections and defects such as cracks, voids and secondary phases which play dominant role in partially impeding the flow of current causing dissipation of energy and electrical resistance to appear in the superconductor film.

  3. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)


    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  4. Espacio e identidades locales en Todos Santos, bcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Almada Alatorre


    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objetivo presentar un acercamiento a la relación existente entre la construcción de las identidades locales y el uso de los espacios en el pueblo de Todos Santos, Baja California Sur (bcs, formado por inmigrantes extranjeros y nacionales, y por las familias originarias del pueblo. Para entender dicha convivencia se analizan las diferencias en el uso y la distribución de los espacios privados y también de los que comparten con los demás, es decir, la plaza, la calle, las banquetas. En ese sentido, la observación y análisis de las relaciones que establecen durante las fiestas del pueblo ofrece la posibilidad de aprehender las discrepancias culturales manifiestas en las formas de participar y disfrutar del pueblo en diferentes circunstancias.

  5. Modelling the Multi-band Afterglow of GRB 091127: Evidence of a Hard Electron Energy Spectrum with an Injection Break

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang; Zong, Hong-Shi


    The afterglow of GRBs is believed to originate from the synchrotron emission of shock-accelerated electrons produced by the interaction between the outflow and the external medium. The accelerated electrons are usually assumed to follow a power law energy distribution with an index of $p$. Observationally, although most GRB afterglows have a $p$ larger than 2, there are still a few GRBs suggestive of a hard ($p<2$) electron spectrum. GRB 091127, with well-sampled broad-band afterglow data, shows evidence of a hard electron spectrum and strong spectral evolution, with a spectral break moving from high to lower energies. The spectral break evolves very fast and cannot be explained by the cooling break in the standard afterglow model, unless evolving microphysical parameters are assumed. Besides, the multi-band afterglow light curves show an achromatic break at around 33 ks. Based on the model of a hard electron spectrum with an injection break, we interpret the observed spectral break as the synchrotron freq...

  6. Extended photoresponse and multi-band luminescence of ZnO/ZnSe core/shell nanorods. (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Cai, Hua; Hu, Zhigao; Duan, Zhihua; Yang, Xu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada


    Aligned ZnO/ZnSe core/shell nanorods (NRs) with type-II energy band alignment were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition of ZnSe on the surfaces of hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs. The obtained ZnO/ZnSe core/shell NRs are composed of wurtzite ZnO cores and zinc blende ZnSe shells. The bare ZnO NRs are capable of emitting strong ultraviolet (UV) near band edge (NBE) emission at 325-nm light excitation, while the ZnSe shells greatly suppress the emission from the ZnO cores. High-temperature processing results in an improvement in the structures of the ZnO cores and the ZnSe shells and significant changes in the optical properties of ZnO/ZnSe core/shell NRs. The fabricated ZnO/ZnSe core/shell NRs show optical properties corresponding to the two excitonic band gaps of wurtzite ZnO and zinc blende ZnSe and the effective band gap between the conduction band minimum of ZnO and the valence band maximum ZnSe. An extended photoresponse much wider than those of the constituting ZnO and ZnSe and a multi-band photoluminescence including the UV NBE emission of ZnO and the blue NBE emission of ZnSe are observed.

  7. A Multi-band Photometric Study of Tidal Debris in A Compact Group of Galaxies Seyfert's Sextet

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiura, S; Murayama, T; Sato, Y; Nagao, T; Taniguchi, Y; Sanders, D B


    In order to investigate the properties of the prominent tidal debris feature extending to the northeast of the compact group of galaxies Seyfert's Sextet, we analyzed multi-band (U, B, V, VR, R, I, J, H and K') photometric imaging data and obtained the following results: 1) The radial surface brightness distribution of this tidal debris in Seyfert's Sextet (TDSS) in each band appears to be well approximated by an exponential profile. 2) The observed B-V color of TDSS is similar to those of dwarf elliptical galaxies in nearby clusters. 3) Comparing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of TDSS with theoretical photometric evolution models and with the SED of the stars in the outer part of HCG 79b, we find that its SED is comparable to that of a $\\sim$ 10 Gyr-old stellar population with solar metallicity, similar to the stellar population in the outer part of HCG 79b. This suggests that TDSS consists of stars that may have been liberated from HCG 79b by strong galaxy interactions, not a pre-existing dwarf gala...

  8. Multi-band gravitational wave astronomy: science with joint space- and ground-based observations of black hole binaries (United States)

    Sesana, Alberto


    Soon after the observation of the first black hole binary (BHB) by advanced LIGO (aLIGO), GW150914, it was realised that such a massive system would have been observable in the milli-Hz (mHz) band few years prior to coalescence. Operating in the frequency range 0.1-100 mHz, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can potentially detect up to thousands inspiralling BHBs, based on the coalescence rates inferred from the aLIGO first observing run (O1). The vast majority of them (those emitting at f 10 mHz however, several of them will sweep through the LISA band, eventually producing loud coalescences in the audio-band probed by aLIGO. This contribution reviews the scientific potential of these new class of LISA sources which, in the past few months, has been investigated in several contexts, including multi-messenger and multi-band gravitational wave astronomy, BHB astrophysics, tests of alternative theories of gravity and cosmography.

  9. Pauli Limiting and Multi-Band Superconductivity in KFe2As2 Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (United States)

    Eskildsen, M. R.; Kuhn, S. J.; Kawano-Furukawa, H.; Ono, M.; Forgan, E. M.; Jellyman, E.; Riyat, R.; Lee, C. H.; Kihou, K.; Hardy, F.; Wolf, Th.; Meingast, C.; Gavilano, J. L.

    We have studied the intrinsic anisotropy of the superconducting state in KFe2As2, using used small-angle neutron scattering to image the vortex lattice (VL) as the applied magnetic field is rotated towards the FeAs planes. The anisotropy is found to be strongly field dependent, indicating multi-band superconductivity. Furthermore, the high field anisotropy significantly exceeds that of the upper critical field, providing further support for Pauli limiting in KFe2As2 for field applied along the basal plane. Finally, we are able determine the contribution to the field modulation in the mixed state due to Pauli Paramagnetic Effects by measuring both the non-spin flip and spin flip VL scattered intensity. This represents the first instance where all the effects listed above have been obtained simultaneously and in a comprehensive manner by a single experimental technique. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award DE-FG02-10ER46783.

  10. Performance analysis of a rate adaptive multi-band ultra-wideband system based on quadrature fractal modulation scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-hong; ZHOU Zheng


    A rate adaptive multi-band ultra-wideband (UWB) system based on the quadrature fractal modulation (QFM)scheme was proposed. Exploring the use of homogeneous signals as modulating waveforms in UWB system, the signal within each 528MHz sub-band was divided into 8 different frequency bandwidths using wavelets transform and these data sequences to be transmitted were embedded into homogeneous waveforms. It is found that the use of homogeneous signals in such UWB system is quite feasible, leadings to a novel multi-rate diversity strategy. Within each 528MHz sub-band, the UWB-QFM system can provide much higher data rates than that of the UWB orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. Simulation results also show that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the UWB-QFM system achieves a greatly improvement over existing UWB-OFDM system. Due to the fractal properties of the homogeneous signals, these data sequences to be transmitted can be recovered using arbitrarily short receiver signal.

  11. Single-band and Dual-band Artificial Magnetic Conductor Ground Planes for Multi-band Dipole Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu


    Full Text Available Two new designs of high impedance surface (HIS structure are presented, namely zigzag and slotted rectangular with I-shaped slot Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC. The zigzag AMC is designed based on the straight dipole AMC. The zigzag AMC is introduced to minimize the AMC size and to be suitable for UHF RFID applications. On the other hand, the slotted rectangular with I-shaped slot AMC is designed to operate at 0.92 GHz and 2.45 GHz. The slot is loaded in the main patch of the AMC to create the other resonant frequency. By using this technique the resonant frequency can be lowered, and hence reduce the size of the AMC. Both structures are designed using the same dielectric substrate that is Taconic TLC-32. The properties of the AMC are investigated such as the reflection phase, reflection magnitude and surface impedance. The designed AMCs then are used as a back plane for the printed multi-band dipole antenna. By introducing the AMC as a ground plane (GP for the printed dipole antenna, the gain of the dipole antenna is increased.

  12. Non-uniform temperature and species concentration measurements in a laminar flame using multi-band infrared absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Ma, Liu Hao; Lau, Lok Yin; Ren, Wei


    We report in situ measurements of non-uniform temperature, H2O and CO2 concentration distributions in a premixed methane-air laminar flame using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A mid-infrared, continuous-wave, room-temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) at 4183 nm was used for the sensitive detection of CO2 at high temperature.The H2O absorption lines were exploited by one distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1343 nm and one ICL at 2482 nm to achieve multi-band absorption measurements with high species concentration sensitivity, high temperature sensitivity, and immunity to variations in ambient conditions. A novel profile-fitting function was proposed to characterize the non-uniform temperature and species concentrations along the line-of-sight in the flame by detecting six absorption lines of CO2 and H2O simultaneously. The flame temperature distribution was measured at different heights above the burner (5-20 mm), and compared with the thermocouple measurement with heat-transfer correction. Our TDLAS measured temperature of the central flame was in excellent agreement (<1.5% difference) with the thermocouple data.The TDLAS results were also compared with the CFD simulations using a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism (GRI 3.0) and considering the heat loss to the surroundings.The current CFD simulation overpredicted the flame temperature in the gradient region, but was in excellent agreement with the measured temperature and species concentration in the core of the flame.

  13. Mass accretion rates from multi-band photometry in the Carina Nebula: the case of Trumpler 14

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, G; Panagia, N; Valenti, E; Carraro, G; Romaniello, M; Zoccali, M; Weidner, C


    We present a study of the mass accretion rates of pre-Main Sequence (PMS) stars in the cluster Trumpler 14 (Tr14) in the Carina Nebula. Using optical multi-band photometry we were able to identify 356 PMS stars showing H-alpha excess emission with equivalent width EW(H-alpha)>20\\AA. We interpret this observational feature as indication that these objects are still actively accreting gas from their circumstellar medium. From a comparison of the HR diagram with PMS evolutionary models we derive ages and masses of the PMS stars. We find that most of the PMS objects are younger than 10 Myr with a median age of ~3 Myr. Surprisingly, we also find that ~20% of the mass accreting objects are older than 10 Myr. For each PMS star in Trumpler 14 we determine the mass accretion rate ($\\dot{M}_{acc}$) and discuss its dependence on mass and age. We finally combine the optical photometry with near-IR observations to build the spectral energy distribution (SED) for each PMS star in Tr14. The analysis of the SEDs suggests the...

  14. Simultaneous time-series spectroscopy and multi-band photometry of the sdBV PG 1605+072

    CERN Document Server

    Falter, S; Dreizler, S; Schuh, S L; Cordes, O; Edelmann, H


    We present time-series spectroscopy and multi-band photometry of the sdBV PG 1605+072 carried out simultaneously at the Calar Alto 2.2m and 3.5m telescopes. The periodogram analysis of the radial velocity curves reveals three frequencies at 2.078, 2.756, and 1.985 mHz for Hbeta and at 2.076, 2.753, and 1.978 mHz for Hgamma. The corresponding radial velocity amplitudes are 12.7, 8.0, and 7.9 km/s for Hbeta and 14.3, 6.5, and 7.2 km/s for Hgamma. Furthermore, we found five frequencies that are present in all wavelength bands of the BUSCA photometer. The frequencies detected in the radial velocity curves are recovered by the photometric measurements. Moreover, additional frequencies were present in the periodograms which could not be identified in all four bands simultaneously. The comparison of the amplitudes presented here with previous results from radial velocity and photometric observations of PG 1605+072 shows a significant change or even switch in the power of the modes within short time scales, i. e. abo...

  15. Relativistic description of BCS-BEC crossover in nuclear matter (United States)

    Sun, Bao Yuan; Toki, Hiroshi; Meng, Jie


    We study theoretically the di-neutron spatial correlations and the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in the S10 pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron pairs for both symmetric and neutron matter in the microscopic relativistic pairing theory. We take the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction Bonn-B in the particle-particle channel and the effective interaction PK1 of the relativistic mean-field approach in the particle-hole channel. It is found that the spatial structure of neutron Cooper pair wave function evolves continuously from BCS-type to BEC-type as density decreases. We see a strong concentration of the probability density revealed for the neutron pairs in the fairly small relative distance around 1.5 fm and the neutron Fermi momentum kFn ∈ [ 0.6 , 1.0 ] fm-1. However, from the effective chemical potential and the quasiparticle excitation spectrum, there is no evidence for the appearance of a true BEC state of neutron pairs at any density. The most BEC-like state may appear at kFn ∼ 0.2 fm-1 by examining the density correlation function. From the coherence length and the probability distribution of neutron Cooper pairs as well as the ratio between the neutron pairing gap and the kinetic energy at the Fermi surface, some features of the BCS-BEC crossover are seen in the density regions, 0.05 fm-1

  16. Solution Theory of Ginzburg-Landau Theory on BCS-BEC Crossover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Chen


    Full Text Available We establish strong solution theory of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL systems on BCS-BEC crossover. By the properties of Besov, Sobolev spaces, and Fourier functions and the method of bootstrapping argument, we deduce that the global existence of strong solutions to time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau systems on BCS-BEC crossover in various spatial dimensions.

  17. Electrodynamics of Metallic Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dressel


    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects of the microwave, terahertz, and infrared properties of superconductors are discussed. Electrodynamics can provide information about the superconducting condensate as well as about the quasiparticles. The aim is to understand the frequency dependence of the complex conductivity, the change with temperature and time, and its dependence on material parameters. We confine ourselves to conventional metallic superconductors, in particular, Nb and related nitrides and review the seminal papers but also highlight latest developments and recent experimental achievements. The possibility to produce well-defined thin films of metallic superconductors that can be tuned in their properties allows the exploration of fundamental issues, such as the superconductor-insulator transition; furthermore it provides the basis for the development of novel and advanced applications, for instance, superconducting single-photon detectors.

  18. Topological superconductors: a review. (United States)

    Sato, Masatoshi; Ando, Yoichi


    This review elaborates pedagogically on the fundamental concept, basic theory, expected properties, and materials realizations of topological superconductors. The relation between topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions are explained, and the difference between dispersive Majorana fermions and a localized Majorana zero mode is emphasized. A variety of routes to topological superconductivity are explained with an emphasis on the roles of spin-orbit coupling. Present experimental situations and possible signatures of topological superconductivity are summarized with an emphasis on intrinsic topological superconductors.

  19. Layered nickel based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Tuson [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurita, Nobuyuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimczuk, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Movshovich, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sefat, A S [ORNL; Mandrus, D [ORNL


    We review the properties of Ni-based superconductors which contain Ni{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X=As, P, Bi, Si, Ge, B) planes, a common structural element to the recently discovered FeAs superconductors. We also compare the properties ofthe Ni-and Fe-based systems from a perspective ofelectronic structure as well as structure-property relations.

  20. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.


    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  1. BCS Biowaivers: Similarities and Differences Among EMA, FDA, and WHO Requirements. (United States)

    Davit, Barbara M; Kanfer, Isadore; Tsang, Yu Chung; Cardot, Jean-Michel


    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), based on aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability, has enjoyed wide use since 1995 as a mechanism for waiving in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. In 2000, the US-FDA was the first regulatory agency to publish guidance for industry describing how to meet criteria for requesting a waiver of in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for highly soluble, highly permeable (BCS Class I) drugs. Subsequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) published guidelines recommending how to obtain BCS biowaivers for BCS Class III drugs (high solubility, low permeability), in addition to Class I drugs. In 2015, the US-FDA became better harmonized with the EMA and WHO following publication of two guidances for industry outlining criteria for obtaining BCS biowaivers for both Class I and Class III drugs. A detailed review and comparison of the BCS Class I and Class III criteria currently recommended by the US-FDA, EMA, and WHO revealed good convergence of the three agencies with respect to BCS biowaiver criteria. The comparison also suggested that, by applying the most conservative of the three jurisdictional approaches, it should be possible for a sponsor to design the same set of BCS biowaiver studies in preparing a submission for worldwide filing to satisfy US, European, and emerging market regulators. It is hoped that the availability of BCS Class I and Class III biowaivers in multiple jurisdictions will encourage more sponsors to request waivers of in vivo bioavailability/bioequivalence testing using the BCS approach.

  2. A Holographic Model for Pseudogap in BCS-BEC Crossover (I): Pairing Fluctuations, Double-Trace Deformation and Dynamics of Bulk Bosonic Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Wu, Chaolun


    We build a holographic model for the pairing fluctuation pseudogap phase in fermionic high temperature superconductivity/superfluidity based on the BCS-BEC crossover scenario. The pseudogap originates from incoherent Cooper pairing and has been observed in recent cold atom experiments. The strength of Cooper pairing and hence the BCS-BEC crossover is controlled by an effective 4-Fermi interaction and we argue that the double-trace deformation for charged scalar operator is a close analog in large N field theories. We employ the double-trace deformed Abelian Higgs model of holographic superconductors and propose that the incoherent fluctuations of the charged scalar in the bulk is the holographic dual of the fluctuating Cooper pairs. Using a Madelung transformation and the velocity-potential formalism, we develop a quantum fluid dynamics as an effective theory for these bulk fluctuations. The new fluid dynamics takes care of the boundary conditions required by AdS/CFT and encodes the vacuum polarization effect...

  3. Non-BCS superconducting state in yttrium hydride at a record low value of the external pressure (United States)

    Jarosik, Marcin W.; Szczȩśniak, Radosław; Wrona, Izabela A.; Kostrzewa, Małgorzata


    The ab initio calculations suggest that YH3 compound is a superconductor with the maximum value of the critical temperature (TC) for the record low external pressure equal to 17.7 GPa. Due to the high value of the electron-phonon coupling constant, the thermodynamic properties of the superconducting state in YH3 have been determined in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. It has been shown that TC changes in the range from 45.91K to 27.29 K, for the value of the Coulomb pseudopotential μ⋆ ∈ . The parameters of the superconducting phase differ significantly from the values predicted by the BCS theory due to the significant strong-coupling and retardation effects: kBTC /ωln ∈ , where ωln denotes the logarithmic phonon frequency. In particular, the dimensionless ratios: RΔ = 2 Δ (0) /kBTC , RC = Δ C (TC) /CN (TC) and RH =TCCN (TC) /HC2(0) take the following values: RΔ ∈ , RC ∈ and RH ∈ . The symbol Δ represents the order parameter, Δ C is the specific heat jump, CN is the specific heat of the normal state, and HC is the thermodynamic critical field.

  4. A multi-band semi-analytical algorithm for estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in the Yellow River Estuary, China. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Quan, Wenting; Cui, Tingwei


    In this study, two sample semi-analytical algorithms and one new unified multi-band semi-analytical algorithm (UMSA) for estimating chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration were constructed by specifying optimal wavelengths. The three sample semi-analytical algorithms, including the three-band semi-analytical algorithm (TSA), four-band semi-analytical algorithm (FSA), and UMSA algorithm, were calibrated and validated by the dataset collected in the Yellow River Estuary between September 1 and 10, 2009. By comparing of the accuracy of assessment of TSA, FSA, and UMSA algorithms, it was found that the UMSA algorithm had a superior performance in comparison with the two other algorithms, TSA and FSA. Using the UMSA algorithm in retrieving Chla concentration in the Yellow River Estuary decreased by 25.54% NRMSE (normalized root mean square error) when compared with the FSA algorithm, and 29.66% NRMSE in comparison with the TSA algorithm. These are very significant improvements upon previous methods. Additionally, the study revealed that the TSA and FSA algorithms are merely more specific forms of the UMSA algorithm. Owing to the special form of the UMSA algorithm, if the same bands were used for both the TSA and UMSA algorithms or FSA and UMSA algorithms, the UMSA algorithm would theoretically produce superior results in comparison with the TSA and FSA algorithms. Thus, good results may also be produced if the UMSA algorithm were to be applied for predicting Chla concentration for datasets of Gitelson et al. (2008) and Le et al. (2009).

  5. A novel multi-band SAR data technique for fully automatic oil spill detection in the ocean (United States)

    Del Frate, Fabio; Latini, Daniele; Taravat, Alireza; Jones, Cathleen E.


    With the launch of the Italian constellation of small satellites for the Mediterranean basin observation COSMO-SkyMed and the German TerraSAR-X missions, the delivery of very high-resolution SAR data to observe the Earth day or night has remarkably increased. In particular, also taking into account other ongoing missions such as Radarsat or those no longer working such as ALOS PALSAR, ERS-SAR and ENVISAT the amount of information, at different bands, available for users interested in oil spill analysis has become highly massive. Moreover, future SAR missions such as Sentinel-1 are scheduled for launch in the very next years while additional support can be provided by Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) SAR systems. Considering the opportunity represented by all these missions, the challenge is to find suitable and adequate image processing multi-band procedures able to fully exploit the huge amount of data available. In this paper we present a new fast, robust and effective automated approach for oil-spill monitoring starting from data collected at different bands, polarizations and spatial resolutions. A combination of Weibull Multiplicative Model (WMM), Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) techniques is proposed for achieving the aforementioned goals. One of the most innovative ideas is to separate the dark spot detection process into two main steps, WMM enhancement and PCNN segmentation. The complete processing chain has been applied to a data set containing C-band (ERS-SAR, ENVISAT ASAR), X-band images (Cosmo-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) and L-band images (UAVSAR) for an overall number of more than 200 images considered.

  6. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and dev

  7. Evaluation of Hyperspectral Multi-Band Indices to Estimate Chlorophyll-A Concentration Using Field Spectral Measurements and Satellite Data in Dianshan Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Li


    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration is considered as a key indicator of the eutrophic status of inland water bodies. Various algorithms have been developed for estimating Chl-a in order to improve the accuracy of predictive models. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of hyperspectral multi-band indices to estimate the Chl-a concentration in Dianshan Lake, which is the largest lake in Shanghai, an international metropolis of China. Based on field spectral measurements and in-situ Chl-a concentration collected on 7–8 September 2010, hyperspectral multi-band indices were calibrated to estimate the Chl-a concentration with optimal wavelengths selected by model tuning. A three-band index accounts for 87.36% (R2 = 0.8736 of the Chl-a variation. A four-band index, which adds a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR region, results in a higher R2 (0.8997 by removing the absorption and backscattering effects of suspended solids. To test the applicability of the proposed indices for routinely monitoring of Chl-a in inland lakes, simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data were selected to estimate the Chl-a concentration. The results show that the explanatory powers of these satellite hyperspectral multi-band indices are relatively high with R2 = 0.8559, 0.8945, 0.7969, and 0.8241 for simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data, respectively. All of the results provide strong evidence that hyperspectral multi-band indices are promising and applicable to estimate Chl-a in eutrophic inland lakes.

  8. Dynamical mean field theory of the repulsive BCS+U model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwon [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    The Gutzwiller-projected BCS Hamiltonian is a useful model for high-temperature superconductivity due to its equivalence to the Heisenberg model at half filling and a close connection to the t-J model at moderate doping. In this work, a dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) is developed for the BCS Hamiltonian with d-wave pairing subject to on-site repulsive interaction, U, which we call the BCS+U model. The large-U limit corresponds to the Gutzwiller-projected BCS Hamiltonian. It is shown that the equivalence between the Heisenberg and the Gutzwiller-projected BCS model is a manifestation of a broader duality in the BCS+U model: for any finite U, the local dynamics of the BCS+U model is dual at half filling with respect to the exchange between the hopping parameter, t, and the pairing amplitude, {delta}. It is explicitly demonstrated in our DMFT analysis that the real superconducting gap, determined from the sharp coherence peaks in the local density of states, shows strong renormalization from its bare value as a function of U.

  9. Granular Superconductors and Gravity (United States)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron


    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  10. BCS-BEC crossover and liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Meng [Institute of Particle Physics and Physical Department, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 4300079 (China); Urban, Michael [Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire -Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, F-91406 Orsay (France); Schuck, Peter, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses,CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    The effect of nucleon-nucleon correlations in symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature is studied beyond BCS theory. We calculate the critical temperature for a BEC superfluid of deuterons, of a BCS superfluid of nucleons, and in the crossover between these limits. The effect of the correlations on the liquid-gas phase transition is discussed. Our results show that nucleon-nucleon correlations beyond BCS play an important role for the properties of nuclear matter, especially in the low-density region.

  11. Nodal effects on the electronic specific heat of anisotropic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Luis A. [Departamento de Fisica Quimica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.P. 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail:; Samuel Millan, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, C.P. 24180, Cd. del Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Wang Chumin [Insituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Based on the BCS formalism, the electronic specific heat of d-symmetry superconducting states is studied. This study is performed on a square lattice described by a generalized Hubbard model, in which correlated-hopping interactions are included in addition to the repulsive Coulomb ones. Instead of the exponential temperature dependence for the s-channel, the results show second and higher power-law behaviors for d-wave superconducting specific heat, depending on the angular dependence of the single-excitation energy gap occurred at different carrier concentrations. The results of this study could help to understand a variety of power-law behaviors observed in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} superconductors.

  12. 373 K Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kostadinov, Ivan Zahariev


    Experimental evidence of superconductors with critical temperatures above $373\\:K$ is presented. In a family of different compounds we demonstrate the superconductor state, the transition to normal state above $387\\:K$, an intermediate $242\\:K$ superconductor, susceptibility up to $350\\:K$, $I-V$ curves at $4.2\\:K$ in magnetic field of $12\\:T$ and current up to $60\\:A$, $300\\:K$ Josephson Junctions and Shapiro steps with radiation of $5\\:GHz$ to $21\\:THz$, $300\\:K$ tapes tests with high currents up to $3000\\:A$ and many $THz$ images of coins and washers. Due to a pending patent, the exact chemical characterization and technological processes for these materials are temporarily withheld and will be presented elsewhere.

  13. Lightning in superconductors. (United States)

    Vestgården, J I; Shantsev, D V; Galperin, Y M; Johansen, T H


    Crucially important for application of type-II superconductor films is the stability of the vortex matter--magnetic flux lines penetrating the material. If some vortices get detached from pinning centres, the energy dissipated by their motion will facilitate further depinning, and may trigger a massive electromagnetic breakdown. Up to now, the time-resolved behaviour of these ultra-fast events was essentially unknown. We report numerical simulation results revealing the detailed dynamics during breakdown as within nanoseconds it develops branching structures in the electromagnetic fields and temperature, with striking resemblance of atmospheric lightning. During a dendritic avalanche the superconductor is locally heated above its critical temperature, while electrical fields rise to several kV/m as the front propagates at instant speeds near up to 100 km/s. The numerical approach provides an efficient framework for understanding the ultra-fast coupled non-local dynamics of electromagnetic fields and dissipation in superconductor films.

  14. Relaxation time of the Cooper pairs near Tc in cuprate superconductors (United States)

    Ramallo, M. V.; Carballeira, C.; Viña, J.; Veira, J. A.; Mishonov, T.; Pavuna, D.; Vidal, F.


    It is first shown that the thermal fluctuation effects on the transport and on the thermodynamic observables above the superconducting transition may provide, when they are analyzed simultaneously and consistently, a powerful tool to access the relaxation time, τ0, of the Cooper pairs with wave vector k = 0 in high-temperature cuprate superconductors (HTSC). Then, we apply this procedure to optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7 - δ (Y-123) crystals. It is found that in this HTSC τ0 follows, within 20% accuracy, the BCS temperature behaviour and amplitude given by τ0 = πhbar/[8kB(T - Tc0)].

  15. Spectral density of Cooper pairs in two level quantum dot-superconductors Josephson junction (United States)

    Dhyani, A.; Rawat, P. S.; Tewari, B. S.


    In the present paper, we report the role of quantum dot energy levels on the electronic spectral density for a two level quantum dot coupled to s-wave superconducting leads. The theoretical arguments in this work are based on the Anderson model so that it necessarily includes dot energies, single particle tunneling and superconducting order parameter for BCS superconductors. The expression for single particle spectral function is obtained by using the Green's function equation of motion technique. On the basis of numerical computation of spectral function of superconducting leads, it has been found that the charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by the positions and availability of the dot levels.

  16. Polynomial similarity transformation theory: A smooth interpolation between coupled cluster doubles and projected BCS applied to the reduced BCS Hamiltonian (United States)

    Degroote, Matthias; Henderson, Thomas M.; Zhao, Jinmo; Dukelsky, Jorge; Scuseria, Gustavo E.


    We present a similarity transformation theory based on a polynomial form of a particle-hole pair excitation operator. In the weakly correlated limit, this polynomial becomes an exponential, leading to coupled cluster doubles. In the opposite strongly correlated limit, the polynomial becomes an extended Bessel expansion and yields the projected BCS wave function. In between, we interpolate using a single parameter. The effective Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian and this polynomial similarity transformation theory follows the philosophy of traditional coupled cluster, left projecting the transformed Hamiltonian onto subspaces of the Hilbert space in which the wave function variance is forced to be zero. Similarly, the interpolation parameter is obtained through minimizing the next residual in the projective hierarchy. We rationalize and demonstrate how and why coupled cluster doubles is ill suited to the strongly correlated limit, whereas the Bessel expansion remains well behaved. The model provides accurate wave functions with energy errors that in its best variant are smaller than 1% across all interaction strengths. The numerical cost is polynomial in system size and the theory can be straightforwardly applied to any realistic Hamiltonian.

  17. Bi-based superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Mousavi


    Full Text Available   In this paper, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BCSCCO system superconductor is made by the solid state reaction method. The effect of doping Pb, Cd, Sb, Cu and annealing time on the critical temperature and critical current density have been investigated. The microstructure and morphology of the samples have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray. The results show that the fraction of Bi-2223 phase in the Bi- based superconductor, critical temperature and critical current density depend on the annealing temperature, annealing time and the kind and amount of doping .

  18. Physical Vacuum in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto


    Although experiments carried out by Jain et al. showed that the Cooper pairs obey the strong equivalence principle, The measurement of the Cooper pairs inertial mass by Tate et al. revealed an anomalous excess of mass. In the present paper we interpret these experimental results in the framework of an electromagnetic model of dark energy for the superconductors' vacuum. We argue that this physical vacuum is associated with a preferred frame. Ultimately from the conservation of energy for Cooper pairs we derive a model for a variable vacuum speed of light in the superconductors physical vacuum in relation with a possible breaking of the weak equivalence principle for Cooper pairs.

  19. Test of a modified BCS theory performance in the Picket Fence Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ponomarev, V Yu


    Analyses of a modified BCS (MBCS) theory performance at finite temperatures in the Picket Fence Model (PFM) for light and heavy systems is presented. Both symmetric, $\\Omega=N$ ($N$ particles on $\\Omega$ twice-degenerate levels), and asymmetric, $\\Omega\

  20. The Solution to the BCS Gap Equation for Superconductivity and Its Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Watanabe


    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of operator theory, we deal with the temperature dependence of the solution to the BCS gap equation for superconductivity. When the potential is a positive constant, the BCS gap equation reduces to the simple gap equation. We first show that there is a unique nonnegative solution to the simple gap equation, that it is continuous and strictly decreasing, and that it is of class with respect to the temperature. We next deal with the case where the potential is not a constant but a function. When the potential is not a constant, we give another proof of the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the BCS gap equation, and show how the solution varies with the temperature. We finally show that the solution to the BCS gap equation is indeed continuous with respect to both the temperature and the energy under a certain condition when the potential is not a constant.

  1. Statistics on BCS Classification of Generic Drug Products Approved Between 2000 and 2011 in the USA


    Nair, Anil K.; Anand, Om; Chun, Nam; Conner, Dale P.; Mehta, Mehul U.; Nhu, Duong T.; Polli, James E.; Yu, Lawrence X.; Davit, Barbara M.


    The Biopharmaceutics Classification system (BCS) classifies drug substances based on aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. The objective of this study was to use the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines to determine the distribution of BCS Class 1, 2, 3, and 4 drugs in Abbreviated New drug Applications (ANDA) submissions. To categorize solubility and intestinal permeability properties of generic drugs under development, we used a list of 61 drugs which were cl...

  2. Electronic Structure of the Bismuth Family of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lisa


    High temperature superconductivity remains the central intellectual problem in condensed matter physics fifteen years after its discovery. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) directly probes the electronic structure, and has played an important role in the field of high temperature superconductors. With the recent advances in sample growth and the photoemission technique, we are able to study the electronic structure in great detail, and address regimes that were previously inaccessible. This thesis work contains systematic photoemission studies of the electronic structure of the Bi-family of high temperature superconductors, which include the single-layer system (Bi2201), the bi-layer system (Bi2212), and the tri-layer system (Bi2223). We show that, unlike conventional BCS superconductors, phase coherence information emerges in the single particle excitation spectrum of high temperature superconductors as the superconducting peak in Bi2212. The universality and various properties of this superconducting peak are studied in various systems. We argue that the origin of the superconducting peak may provide the key to understanding the mechanism of High-Tc superconductors. In addition, we identified a new experimental energy scale in the bilayer material, the anisotropic intra-bilayer coupling energy. For a long time, it was predicted that this energy scale would cause bilayer band splitting. We observe this phenomenon, for the first time, in heavily overdoped Bi2212. This new observation requires the revision of the previous picture of the electronic excitation in the Brillouin zone boundary. As the first ARPES study of a trilayer system, various detailed electronic proper- ties of Bi2223 are examined. We show that, comparing with Bi2212, both superconducting gap and relative superconducting peak intensity become larger in Bi2223, however, the strength of the interlayer coupling within each unit cell is possibly weaker. These results suggest that the

  3. Microscopic model of quasiparticle wave packets in superfluids, superconductors, and paired Hall states. (United States)

    Parameswaran, S A; Kivelson, S A; Shankar, R; Sondhi, S L; Spivak, B Z


    We study the structure of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, bogolons, the fermionic excitations of paired superfluids that arise from fermion (BCS) pairing, including neutral superfluids, superconductors, and paired quantum Hall states. The naive construction of a stationary quasiparticle in which the deformation of the pair field is neglected leads to a contradiction: it carries a net electrical current even though it does not move. However, treating the pair field self-consistently resolves this problem: in a neutral superfluid, a dipolar current pattern is associated with the quasiparticle for which the total current vanishes. When Maxwell electrodynamics is included, as appropriate to a superconductor, this pattern is confined over a penetration depth. For paired quantum Hall states of composite fermions, the Maxwell term is replaced by a Chern-Simons term, which leads to a dipolar charge distribution and consequently to a dipolar current pattern.

  4. Manufacturing of Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Bay, Niels

    Superconducting tapes based on the ceramic high temperature superconductor (HTS) is a new promising product for high current applications such as electro-magnets and current transmission cables. The tapes are made by the oxide powder in tube (OPIT) method implying drawing and rolling of silver tu...

  5. Superconducting properties of the s ±-wave state: Fe-based superconductors (United States)

    Bang, Yunkyu; Stewart, G. R.


    Although the pairing mechanism of Fe-based superconductors (FeSCs) has not yet been settled with consensus with regard to the pairing symmetry and the superconducting (SC) gap function, the vast majority of experiments support the existence of spin-singlet sign-changing s-wave SC gaps on multi-bands ({{s}+/- } -wave state). This multi-band {{s}+/- } -wave state is a very unique gap state per se and displays numerous unexpected novel SC properties, such as a strong reduction of the coherence peak, non-trivial impurity effects, nodal-gap-like nuclear magnetic resonance signals, various Volovik effects in the specific heat (SH) and thermal conductivity, and anomalous scaling behaviors with a SH jump and condensation energy versus T c, etc. In particular, many of these non-trivial SC properties can easily be mistaken as evidence for a nodal-gap state such as a d-wave gap. In this review, we provide detailed explanations of the theoretical principles for the various non-trivial SC properties of the {{s}+/- } -wave pairing state, and then critically compare the theoretical predictions with experiments on FeSCs. This will provide a pedagogical overview of to what extent we can coherently understand the wide range of different experiments on FeSCs within the {{s}+/- } -wave gap model.

  6. An Application of Multi-band Forced Photometry to One Square Degree of SERVS: Accurate Photometric Redshifts and Implications for Future Science (United States)

    Nyland, Kristina; Lacy, Mark; Sajina, Anna; Pforr, Janine; Farrah, Duncan; Wilson, Gillian; Surace, Jason; Häußler, Boris; Vaccari, Mattia; Jarvis, Matt


    We apply The Tractor image modeling code to improve upon existing multi-band photometry for the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). SERVS consists of post-cryogenic Spitzer observations at 3.6 and 4.5 μm over five well-studied deep fields spanning 18 deg2. In concert with data from ground-based near-infrared (NIR) and optical surveys, SERVS aims to provide a census of the properties of massive galaxies out to z ≈ 5. To accomplish this, we are using The Tractor to perform “forced photometry.” This technique employs prior measurements of source positions and surface brightness profiles from a high-resolution fiducial band from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations survey to model and fit the fluxes at lower-resolution bands. We discuss our implementation of The Tractor over a square-degree test region within the XMM Large Scale Structure field with deep imaging in 12 NIR/optical bands. Our new multi-band source catalogs offer a number of advantages over traditional position-matched catalogs, including (1) consistent source cross-identification between bands, (2) de-blending of sources that are clearly resolved in the fiducial band but blended in the lower resolution SERVS data, (3) a higher source detection fraction in each band, (4) a larger number of candidate galaxies in the redshift range 5 forced photometry using The Tractor offers a means of improving the accuracy of multi-band extragalactic surveys designed for galaxy evolution studies. We will extend our application of this technique to the full SERVS footprint in the future.

  7. Dual-polarization multi-band OFDM versus single-carrier DP-QPSK for 100 Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission over legacy infrastructure. (United States)

    Karaki, J; Giacoumidis, E; Grot, D; Guillossou, T; Gosset, C; Le Bidan, R; Le Gall, T; Jaouën, Y; Pincemin, E


    The transmission performance of coherent dual-polarization multi-band OFDM (DP-MB-OFDM) and QPSK (DP-QPSK) are experimentally compared for 100 Gb/s long-haul transport over legacy infrastructure combining G.652 fiber and 10 Gb/s WDM system. It is shown that DP-MB-OFDM and DP-QPSK have nearly the same performance at 100 Gb/s after transmission over a 10 × 100-km fiber line. Furthermore, the origin of performance degradations and limitations of the DP-MB-OFDM is explored numerically, as well as the impact of transmission distance and sub-band spacing.

  8. Coupled multiple-mode theory for s± pairing mechanism in iron based superconductors. (United States)

    Kiselev, M N; Efremov, D V; Drechsler, S L; van den Brink, Jeroen; Kikoin, K


    We investigate the interplay between the magnetic and the superconducting degrees of freedom in unconventional multi-band superconductors such as iron pnictides. For this purpose a dynamical mode-mode coupling theory is developed based on the coupled Bethe-Salpeter equations. In order to investigate the region of the phase diagram not too far from the tetracritical point where the magnetic spin density wave, (SDW) and superconducting (SC) transition temperatures coincide, we also construct a Ginzburg-Landau functional including both SC and SDW fluctuations in a critical region above the transition temperatures. The fluctuation corrections tend to suppress the magnetic transition, but in the superconducting channel the intraband and interband contribution of the fluctuations nearly compensate each other.

  9. Apo- and Cellopentaose-bound Structures of the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Subunit BcsZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Olga; Zimmer, Jochen (UV)


    Cellulose, a very abundant extracellular polysaccharide, is synthesized in a finely tuned process that involves the activity of glycosyl-transferases and hydrolases. The cellulose microfibril consists of bundles of linear {beta}-1,4-glucan chains that are synthesized inside the cell; however, the mechanism by which these polymers traverse the cell membrane is currently unknown. In Gram-negative bacteria, the cellulose synthase complex forms a trans-envelope complex consisting of at least four subunits. Although three of these subunits account for the synthesis and translocation of the polysaccharide, the fourth subunit, BcsZ, is a periplasmic protein with endo-{beta}-1,4-glucanase activity. BcsZ belongs to family eight of glycosyl-hydrolases, and its activity is required for optimal synthesis and membrane translocation of cellulose. In this study we report two crystal structures of BcsZ from Escherichia coli. One structure shows the wild-type enzyme in its apo form, and the second structure is for a catalytically inactive mutant of BcsZ in complex with the substrate cellopentaose. The structures demonstrate that BcsZ adopts an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6}-barrel fold and that it binds four glucan moieties of cellopentaose via highly conserved residues exclusively on the nonreducing side of its catalytic center. Thus, the BcsZ-cellopentaose structure most likely represents a posthydrolysis state in which the newly formed nonreducing end has already left the substrate binding pocket while the enzyme remains attached to the truncated polysaccharide chain. We further show that BcsZ efficiently degrades {beta}-1,4-glucans in in vitro cellulase assays with carboxymethyl-cellulose as substrate.

  10. Ambient-pressure organic superconductor (United States)

    Williams, Jack M.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Beno, Mark A.


    A new class of organic superconductors having the formula (ET).sub.2 MX.sub.2 wherein ET represents bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene, M is a metal such as Au, Ag, In, Tl, Rb, Pd and the like and X is a halide. The superconductor (ET).sub.2 AuI.sub.2 exhibits a transition temperature of 5 K which is high for organic superconductors.

  11. Unconventional Andreev reflection on the quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Nb2PdxSe5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeping Jiang


    Full Text Available We have carried out Andreev reflection measurements on point contact junctions between normal metal and single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D superconductor Nb2PdxSe5 (Tc ∼ 5.5 K. The contacts of the junctions were made on either self-cleaved surfaces or crystal edges so that the current flow directions in the two types of junctions are different, and the measurements provide a directional probe for the order parameter of the superconductor. Junctions made in both configurations show typical resistances of ∼20-30 Ohms, and a clear double-gap Andreev reflection feature was consistently observed at low temperatures. Quantitative analysis of the conductance spectrum based on a modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK model suggests that the amplitudes of two order parameters may have angular dependence in the a-c plane. Moreover, the gap to transition temperature ratio (Δ/TC for the larger gap is substantially higher than the BCS ratio expected for phonon-mediated s-wave superconductors. We argue that the anisotropic superconducting order parameter and the extremely large gap to transition temperature ratio may be associated with an unconventional pairing mechanism in the inorganic Q1D superconductor.

  12. Introduction to Holographic Superconductor Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li-Fang; Yang, Run-Qiu


    In the last years it has been shown that some properties of strongly coupled superconductors can be potentially described by classical general relativity living in one higher dimension, which is known as holographic superconductors. This paper gives a quick and introductory overview of some holographic superconductor models with s-wave, p-wave and d-wave orders in the literature from point of view of bottom-up, and summarizes some basic properties of these holographic models in various regimes. The competition and coexistence of these superconductivity orders are also studied in these superconductor models.

  13. Vortices and nanostructured superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides expert coverage of modern and novel aspects of the study of vortex matter, dynamics, and pinning in nanostructured and multi-component superconductors. Vortex matter in superconducting materials is a field of enormous beauty and intellectual challenge, which began with the theoretical prediction of vortices by A. Abrikosov (Nobel Laureate). Vortices, vortex dynamics, and pinning are key features in many of today’s human endeavors: from the huge superconducting accelerating magnets and detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, which opened new windows of knowledge on the universe, to the tiny superconducting transceivers using Rapid Single Flux Quanta, which have opened a revolutionary means of communication. In recent years, two new features have added to the intrinsic beauty and complexity of the subject: nanostructured/nanoengineered superconductors, and the discovery of a range of new materials showing multi-component (multi-gap) superconductivity. In this book, leading researche...

  14. Vortex cutting in superconductors (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.


    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  15. 智能手机PIFA多频段天线设计%Design of PIFA Multi-Band Antenna of Smart Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康佳; 谢良辉


    To design a PIFA Multi-Band Antenna covering all existing 2G and 3G bands in mobile phone,first the HFSS was used to get a better performance in the simulation,and then after actual pro-duction the network analyzer was used to debug the antenna to the last real one.The actual efficiency of the antenna measured by microwave anechoic chamber reached to 50%-77%.This Multi-Band Antenna could achieve a better performance and it can be used in real designing.%设计可以覆盖手机所有2 G和3 G频段的手机PIFA天线,先通过 HFSS在设计仿真得到较好性能,再实际制作且通过网络分析仪调试后得到最后的实物天线,经微波暗室实际测得其天线效率可达50%~77%,达到较好性能,此天线可以应用于实际的手机天线设计中。

  16. Processing of Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Josephson Edge Junctions (United States)

    Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.


    The electrical behavior of epitaxial superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson edge junctions is strongly affected by processing conditions. Ex-situ processes, utilizing photoresist and polyimide/photoresist mask layers, are employed for ion milling edges for junctions with Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) electrodes and primarily Co-doped YBCO interlayers.

  17. Optimized perturbation theory applied to the study of the thermodynamics and BEC-BCS crossover in the three-color Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (United States)

    Duarte, Dyana C.; Farias, R. L. S.; Manso, Pedro H. A.; Ramos, Rudnei O.


    The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two flavors, three colors, and diquark interactions is analyzed in the context of optimized perturbation theory (OPT). Corrections to the thermodynamical potential that go beyond the large-Nc (LN) approximation are taken into account, and the region of the phase diagram corresponding to intermediate chemical potentials and very low temperatures is explored. The simultaneous presence of both the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates can cause the system to behave as a fluid composed of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) or a color superconductor one, in the form of a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid. The BEC-BCS crossover is then studied in the nonperturbative OPT scheme. The results obtained in the context of the OPT method are then contrasted with those obtained in the LN approximation. We show that there are values for the coupling constants related to quark-quark and quark-antiquark interactions where the corrections beyond LN brought by the OPT method can influence the behavior of the diquark condensate and the effective quark mass as a function of the baryon chemical potential. These changes in the behavior of the phase structure of the model modify the location of the critical point related to the phase structure as a whole of the model. Also, when we impose the color neutrality condition, our results show that the nature of the phase transition can change as well, shifting the ratio of the quark-antiquark and quark-quark interactions to higher values in the OPT case as compared to the LN approximation.

  18. Analysis of the superconductivity in perovskite oxides using three-square-well BCS formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G C Asomba; O Abah; O A Ogbuu; C M I Okoye


    Superconductivity in perovskite, BaKBiO, is studied in the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) model, with three-square-well potentials. Components of the new coupling are: the attractive acoustic phonon–electron, optical phonon–electron and repulsive Coulomb interactions. With these in the BCS pairing Hamiltonian, expressions for the superconducting transition temperature and isotope effect exponent are obtained. Results of our analysis are consistent with experiments. Contributions of interactions to system properties are exhibited and analysed. Acoustic phonon–electron and optical phonon–electron interactions have near-identical elevation of transition temperature, holding out possible explanations for high-. Contrastingly, optical phonon–electron and Coulomb couplings cause debilitation of isotope exponent, a possible explanation for low isotope exponent in the cuprates and other high- systems. It is found that BCS electron–phonon coupling appears synonymous with acoustic phonon–electron coupling.

  19. Testability issues in Superconductor Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Arun, A.J.


    An emerging technology for solutions in high-end applications in computing and telecommunication is superconductor electronics. A system-level study has been carried out to verify the feasibility of DfT in superconductor electronics. In this paper, we present how this can be realized to monitor

  20. Coupling spin qubits via superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten


    We show how superconductors can be used to couple, initialize, and read out spatially separated spin qubits. When two single-electron quantum dots are tunnel coupled to the same superconductor, the singlet component of the two-electron state partially leaks into the superconductor via crossed...... Andreev reflection. This induces a gate-controlled singlet-triplet splitting which, with an appropriate superconductor geometry, remains large for dot separations within the superconducting coherence length. Furthermore, we show that when two double-dot singlet-triplet qubits are tunnel coupled...... to a superconductor with finite charging energy, crossed Andreev reflection enables a strong two-qubit coupling over distances much larger than the coherence length....

  1. 一种h形缝隙多频微带天线设计%Design of a Multi-Band h-shaped Slot Microstrip Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 陈川江


    A multi-band h-shaped slot microstrip antenna has been proposed based on analyzing the conventional slot microstrip antenna. The proposed antenna has the features of multi-band and miniaturization. The resonance frequency can be reduced and the bandwidth can be increased by being loaded a single shorted-post and being slotted in the ground plate. The characteristics of the antenna have been simulated by using HFSS11. 0 software based on the finite element method (FEM). The simulation results showed that the antenna operated at 2. 38 - 2. 79 GHz, 4. 59~4. 75 GHz and 5. 12~ 5. 90 GHz when the return loss S11 was less than -10 dB, the size reduced 62. 43% compared to the general microstrip antenna, demonstrated the effectiveness of the design scheme. The antenna structure is simple and easily to be implemented, met the wireless LAN 802. lla/b/g/n mobile terminal antenna miniaturization and multi-band requirements.%通过对传统缝隙微带天线的分析,提出了一种h形缝隙微带天线.该天线具有多频带、小型化等特点,通过加载短路探针和在接地板挖槽的方法降低了天线的谐振频率,提高了带宽.利用基于有限元法的电磁仿真软件HFSS11.0对天线的特性进行了仿真,仿真结果表明,该天线在回波损耗S11<-10 dB时,其工作频段为2.38~2.79 GHz,4.59~4.75 GHz和5.12~5.90 GHz,尺寸比普通微带天线降低了62.43%,从而验证了这种设计方案的有效性.该天线结构简单易于实现,能够满足无线局域网802.11a/b/g/n移动终端内置天线的多频带和小型化的要求.

  2. Iron pnictide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegel, Marcus Christian


    The scope of this dissertation therefore has not only been the synthesis of various new superconducting and non-superconducting iron pnictides of several structural families but also their in-depth crystallographic and physical characterisation. In Chapters 3 - 6, the family of the ZrCuSiAs-type (1111) compounds is subject of discussion. The solid solution series La(Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x})PO is analysed regarding magnetic and superconducting properties and the new compounds EuMnPF and REZnPO, as well as the new superconductor parent compound SrFeAsF are presented. Chapters 7 - 9 are dedicated to the new iron arsenide superconductors of the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type (122 family). Therein, also the discovery of the first superconductor in this structural family, Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, is unveiled. A detailed examination of the complete solid solution series (Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} is presented. Moreover, the crystallographic phase transitions of the closely related compounds SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} are characterised and the superconductors Sr{sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} are examined for magnetic and phononic excitations. In Chapter 10, the redetermined crystal structure of the superconductor Fe(Se{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}) (11-type) is presented from a chemist's point of view. Chapters 11 - 14 look into the superconducting and non-superconducting iron arsenides of more complex structural families (32522-type and 21311-type). Therein, crystallographic and magnetic details of Sr{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}O{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} are presented and Ba{sub 2}ScO{sub 3}FeAs and Sr{sub 2}CrO{sub 3}FeAs, the first two members of the new 21311-type are portrayed. Sr{sub 2}CrO{sub 3}FeAs is looked at in close detail with various methods, so e.g. the spin structure of the magnetically ordered compound is solved and a possible reason for the absence of superconductivity in this compound

  3. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans


    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  4. Antenna applications of superconductors (United States)

    Hansen, R. C.


    The applicability of superconductors to antennas is examined. Potential implementations that are examined are superdirective arrays; electrically small antennas; tuning and matching of these two; high-gain millimeter-wavelength arrays; and kinetic inductance slow wave structures for array phasers and traveling wave array feeds. It is thought that superdirective arrays and small antennas will not benefit directly, but their tuning/matching networks will undergo major improvements. Miniaturization of antennas will not be aided, but much higher gain millimeter-wave arrays will be realizable. Kinetic inductance slow-wave lines appear advantageous for improved array phasers and time delay, as well as for traveling-wave array feeds.

  5. The combination of GIS and biphasic to better predict in vivo dissolution of BCS class IIb drugs, ketoconazole and raloxifene. (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Igawa, Naoto; Drelich, Adam J; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L


    The formulation developments and the in vivo assessment of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drugs are challenging due to their low solubility and high permeability in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since the GI environment influences the drug dissolution of BCS class II drugs, the human GI characteristics should be incorporated into the in vitro dissolution system to predict bioperformance of BCS class II drugs. An absorptive compartment may be important in dissolution apparatus for BCS class II drugs, especially for bases (BCS IIb) because of high permeability, precipitation and supersaturation. Thus, the in vitro dissolution system with an absorptive compartment may help predicting the in vivo phenomena of BCS class II drugs better than compendial dissolution apparatuses. In this study, an absorptive compartment (a biphasic device) was introduced to a gastrointestinal simulator (GIS). This addition was evaluated if this in vitro system could improve the prediction of in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs, ketoconazole and raloxifene, and subsequent absorption. The GIS is a practical in vivo predictive tool and exhibited an improved in vivo prediction utilizing the biphasic format and thus a better tool for evaluating the bioperformance of BCS class IIb drugs than compendial apparatuses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Multi-Band (K- Q- and E-Band) Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Radio Wave Propagation Studies (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.


    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust multi-Gbps data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links. Lastly, the architecture for a compact multi-tone beacon transmitter, which includes a high frequency synthesizer, a polarizer, and a conical horn antenna, has been investigated for a notional CubeSat based space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment.

  7. Spin Transport in a Unitarity Fermi Gas Close to the BCS Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, M.P.; Jacobs, V. P. J.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Duine, R.A.; Polini, M.; Vignale, G.


    We consider spin transport in a two-component ultracold Fermi gas with attractive interspecies interactions close to the BCS pairing transition. In particular, we consider the spin-transport relaxation rate and the spin-diffusion constant. Upon approaching the transition, the scattering amplitude is

  8. On a test of the modified BCS theory performance in the picket fence model

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Nguyen Dinh


    The errors in the arguments, numerical results, and conclusions in the paper "Test of a modified BCS theory performance in the picket fence model" [Nucl. Phys. A (in press), doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.03.001.] by V.Yu. Ponomarev and A.I. Vdovin are pointed out. Its repetitions of already published material are also discussed.

  9. Flux pinning in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo


    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  10. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo


    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  11. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan


    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  12. Materials design for new superconductors. (United States)

    Norman, M R


    Since the announcement in 2011 of the Materials Genome Initiative by the Obama administration, much attention has been given to the subject of materials design to accelerate the discovery of new materials that could have technological implications. Although having its biggest impact for more applied materials like batteries, there is increasing interest in applying these ideas to predict new superconductors. This is obviously a challenge, given that superconductivity is a many body phenomenon, with whole classes of known superconductors lacking a quantitative theory. Given this caveat, various efforts to formulate materials design principles for superconductors are reviewed here, with a focus on surveying the periodic table in an attempt to identify cuprate analogues.

  13. Spin manipulation in nanoscale superconductors. (United States)

    Beckmann, D


    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism in nanoscale structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the exciting new physics created by the competition of these antagonistic ordering phenomena, and the prospect of exploiting this competition for superconducting spintronics devices. While much of the attention is focused on spin-polarized supercurrents created by the triplet proximity effect, the recent discovery of long range quasiparticle spin transport in high-field superconductors has rekindled interest in spin-dependent nonequilibrium properties of superconductors. In this review, the experimental situation on nonequilibrium spin injection into superconductors is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions of the field are outlined.

  14. Materials design for new superconductors (United States)

    Norman, M. R.


    Since the announcement in 2011 of the Materials Genome Initiative by the Obama administration, much attention has been given to the subject of materials design to accelerate the discovery of new materials that could have technological implications. Although having its biggest impact for more applied materials like batteries, there is increasing interest in applying these ideas to predict new superconductors. This is obviously a challenge, given that superconductivity is a many body phenomenon, with whole classes of known superconductors lacking a quantitative theory. Given this caveat, various efforts to formulate materials design principles for superconductors are reviewed here, with a focus on surveying the periodic table in an attempt to identify cuprate analogues.

  15. Manufacturing a Superconductor in School. (United States)

    Barrow, John


    Described is the manufacture of a superconductor from a commercially available kit using equipment usually available in schools or easily obtainable. The construction is described in detail including equipment, materials, safety procedures, tolerances, and manufacture. (Author/CW)

  16. Spectral density of Cooper pairs in two level quantum dot–superconductors Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhyani, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India); Rawat, P.S. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India); Tewari, B.S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India)


    Highlights: • The present work deals with the study of the electronic spectral density of electron pairs and its effect in charge transport in superconductor-quantum dot-superconductor junctions. • The charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by changing the positions of the dot level. • The Josephson supercurrent can also be tuned by controlling the position of quantum dot energy levels. - Abstract: In the present paper, we report the role of quantum dot energy levels on the electronic spectral density for a two level quantum dot coupled to s-wave superconducting leads. The theoretical arguments in this work are based on the Anderson model so that it necessarily includes dot energies, single particle tunneling and superconducting order parameter for BCS superconductors. The expression for single particle spectral function is obtained by using the Green's function equation of motion technique. On the basis of numerical computation of spectral function of superconducting leads, it has been found that the charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by the positions and availability of the dot levels.

  17. Superconductor stripes move on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, J. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)


    Differences in fundamental assumptions are behind much of the controversy among theorists over the cause of high-temperature superconductivity the absence of resistance to electrical current at temperatures as high as 130 K in layered copper-oxide compounds. One common assumption is that the charge carriers are distributed uniformly throughout the all-important CuO{sub 2} layers. However, there is growing experimental evidence that this is not the case and that 'stripes' of charge form in these puzzling materials. Now a significant step forward in the struggle to understand the behaviour of charge carriers in high-temperature superconductors has been made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the US. (UK)

  18. Manufacturing of Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Bay, Niels

    Superconducting tapes based on the ceramic high temperature superconductor (HTS) is a new promising product for high current applications such as electro-magnets and current transmission cables. The tapes are made by the oxide powder in tube (OPIT) method implying drawing and rolling of silver...... on the mechanical and thermal processes applied. One of the most crucial processes is probably the flat rolling process, where the round or square wire is rolled to form a thin tape (about 3 mm x 0.2 mm), while the density of the powder fibres increase and the fibres obtain their final geometry. For instance...... rolling a tape to a thickness of 250 µm may give a very high Je, whereas further reduction to 200 µm may be fatal. In the present work the flat rolling process is analysed systematically from a mechanical forming point of view. This work implies · Mechanical characterisation of the plastic parameters...

  19. Energy gap and upper critical field of the new magnetic superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} found by the Andreev reflection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V M [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rybaltchenko, L F [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Ishchenko, L A [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Khristenko, E V [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Bukowski, Z [W Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland); Troc, R [W Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland)


    We present the data of the point contact (PC) Andreev-reflection measurements on the new paramagnetic superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7}, which were used for finding the energy gap {delta} and upper critical field H{sub c2} for this compound. The maximum gap value, reduced to the zero temperature via the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, turned out to be {delta} (0) {approx_equal} 0.32 meV, which is slightly smaller than that expected from the BCS theory, {delta}{sup BCS} (0) {approx_equal} 0.35 meV. The temperature dependence of the gap obeys the BCS theory approximately. The H{sub c2}(0) value of about 16.5 kOe was obtained from fitting the experimental data to the conventional H(T) dependence, which is quadratic in temperature. This value is in close agreement with the result from magnetization measurements of 17.2 kOe.

  20. The quantum pressure correction to the excitation spectrum of the trapped superfluid Fermi gases in a BEC-BCS crossover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hang; Ma Yong-Li


    Using quantum hydrodynamic approaches, we study the quantum pressure correction to the collective excitation spectrum of the interacting trapped superfluid Fermi gases in the BEC-BCS crossover. Based on a phenomenological equation of state, we derive hydrodynamic equations of the system in the whole BEC-BCS crossover regime. Beyond the Thomas-Fermi approximation, expressions of the frequency corrections of collective modes for both spherical and axial symmetric traps excited in the BEC-BCS crossover are given explicitly. The corrections of the eigenfrequencies due to the quantum pressure and their dependence on the inverse interaction strength. Anisotropic parameter and particle numbers of the condensate are discussed in detail.

  1. Coincident photoelectron spectroscopy on superconductors; Koinzidente Photoelektronenspektroskopie an Supraleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Stefan


    Aim of the performed experiments of this thesis was to attempt to detect Cooper pairs as carriers of the superconducting current directly by means of the photoelectric effect. The method of the coincident photoelectron spectroscopy aims thereby at the detection of two coherently emitted electrons by the interaction with a photon. Because electrostatic analyzers typically cover only a very small spatial angle, which goes along with very low coincidence rates, in connection with this thesis a time-of-flight projection system has been developed, which maps nearly the whole spatial angle on a position-resolving detector. The pulsed light source in form of special synchrotron radiation necessary for the measurement has been adjusted so weak, that only single photons could arrive at the sample. Spectroscoped were beside test measurements on silver layers both a lead monocrystal as representative of the classical BCS superconductors and monocrystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} from the family of the high-temperature superconductors. With excitation energies up to 40 eV could be shown that sufficiently smooth and clean surfaces in the superconducting phase exhibit within the resolving power of about 0.5 eV no recognizable differences in comparison to the normally conducting phase. Beside these studies furthermore the simple photoemission at the different samples and especially in the case of the lead crystal is treated, because here no comparable results are known. Thereby the whole momentum space is discussed and the Fermi surface established as three-dimensional model, by means of which the measurement results are discussed. in the theoretical descriptions different models for the Cooper-pair production are presented, whereby to the momentum exchange with the crystal a special role is attributed, because this can only occur in direct excitations via discrete lattice vectors.

  2. Multi-band Chirp Signal Detection Based on GNURadio and USRP X310%基于GNU Radio和USRP X310的多带Chirp信号检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了提高Chirp通信系统的传输速率,本文采用多带Chirp信号作为信息传输的载体来实现多带Chirp通信系统。而实现高速多带Chirp通信系统的关键是接收端多带Chirp信号的检测,基于GNU Radio和USRP X310平台,分析了多带Chirp信号的检测方法。与纯硬件实现多带Chirp信号检测相比,使用Python脚本语言和GNU Radio中的软件模块,具有实现简单、开发周期短、复杂度低等优点。最后通过GNU Radio和USRP X310实验平台对多带Chirp信号检测方法的可行性进行了实验验证。实验结果表明,该检测方法能够有效地实现多带Chirp信号的检测。%In order to improve the information transmission rate of Chirp communication system,using a multi-carrier band Chirp signal as the transmission of information to achieve multi-band communication system Chirp. Chirp-speed multi-band communication system is key to achieving the receiver of multi-band Chirp signal detection.Multi-band Chirp signal detection method is analyzed based on GNU Radio and USRP X310 platform, which has much superiority such as easier to realization, shorter of system development cycle, lower complexity, etc than pure hardware. Finally, the feasibility of multi-band detection method validation experiments on GNU Radio and USRP X310 platform.Experimental verification on GNURadio and USRP X310 has been accomplished.

  3. Incentive and Architecture of Multi-Band Enabled Small Cell and UE for Up-/Down-Link and Control-/User-Plane Splitting for 5G Mobile Networks (United States)

    Saha, Rony Kumer; Aswakul, Chaodit


    In this paper, a multi-band enabled femtocell base station (FCBS) and user equipment (UE) architecture is proposed in a multi-tier network that consists of small cells, including femtocells and picocells deployed over the coverage of a macrocell for splitting uplink and downlink (UL/DL) as well as control-plane and user-plane (C-/U-plane) for 5G mobile networks. Since splitting is performed at the same FCBS, we define this architecture as the same base station based split architecture (SBSA). For multiple bands, we consider co-channel (CC) microwave and different frequency (DF) 60 GHz millimeter wave (mmWave) bands for FCBSs and UEs with respect to the microwave band used by their over-laid macrocell base station. All femtocells are assumed to be deployed in a 3-dimensional multi-storage building. For CC microwave band, cross-tier CC interference of femtocells with macrocell is avoided using almost blank subframe based enhanced inter-cell interference coordination techniques. The co-existence of CC microwave and DF mmWave bands for SBSA on the same FCBS and UE is first studied to show their performance disparities in terms of system capacity and spectral efficiency in order to provide incentives for employing multiple bands at the same FCBS and UE and identify a suitable band for routing decoupled UL/DL or C-/U-plane traffic. We then present a number of disruptive architectural design alternatives of multi-band enabled SBSA for 5G mobile networks for UL/DL and C-/U-plane splitting, including a disruptive and complete splitting of UL/DL and C-/U-plane as well as a combined UL/DL and C-/U-plane splitting, by exploiting dual connectivity on CC microwave and DF mmWave bands. The outperformances of SBSA in terms of system level capacity, average spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, and control-plane overhead traffic capacity in comparison with different base stations based split architecture (DBSA) are shown. Finally, a number of technical and business perspectives

  4. Test of a modified BCS theory performance in the Picket Fence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, V.Yu. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail:; Vdovin, A.I. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)


    Analyses of a modified BCS (MBCS) theory performance at finite temperatures in the Picket Fence Model (PFM) for light and heavy systems are presented. Both symmetric, {omega}=N (N particles on {omega} doubly-degenerate levels), and asymmetric, {omega}{ne}N, versions of the PFM are considered. Quantities determined exactly from particle-hole symmetry of the symmetric PFM are calculated in the MBCS. They are found in significant deviation from the exact values starting from far below the critical temperatures of the conventional BCS. Consequences of the MBCS prediction that heating generates a thermal constituent of the pairing gap, are discussed. The question of thermodynamical consistency of the MBCS is also addressed.

  5. Response Functions for the Two-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gas: Dynamical BCS Theory and Beyond (United States)

    Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei


    Response functions are central objects in physics. They provide crucial information about the behavior of physical systems, and they can be directly compared with scattering experiments involving particles such as neutrons or photons. Calculations of such functions starting from the many-body Hamiltonian of a physical system are challenging and extremely valuable. In this paper, we focus on the two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Fermi atomic gas which has been realized experimentally. We present an application of the dynamical BCS theory to obtain response functions for different regimes of interaction strengths in the 2D gas with zero-range attractive interaction. We also discuss auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods for the calculation of imaginary time correlations in these dilute Fermi gas systems. Illustrative results are given and comparisons are made between AFQMC and dynamical BCS theory results to assess the accuracy of the latter.

  6. Phase diagram of dilute nuclear matter: Unconventional pairing and the BCS-BEC crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    We report on a comprehensive study of the phase structure of cold, dilute nuclear matter featuring a {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} condensate at non-zero isospin asymmetry, within wide ranges of temperatures and densities. We find a rich phase diagram comprising three superfluid phases, namely a LOFF phase, the ordinary BCS phase, and a heterogeneous, phase-separated BCS phase, with associated crossovers from the latter two phases to a homogeneous or phase-separated Bose-Einstein condensate of deuterons. The phase diagram contains two tri-critical points (one a Lifshitz point), which may degenerate into a single tetra-critical point for some degree of isospin asymmetry.

  7. Correlation length and universality in the BCS-BEC crossover for energy-dependent resonance superfluidity (United States)

    Musolino, S.; Chiofalo, M.-L.


    We consider the BCS-BEC crossover of a quantum Fermi gas at T = 0 in the presence of an energy-dependent Fano-Feshbach resonance, driving the system from broad to narrow limits. We choose a minimal microscopic potential reproducing the two-particle resonance physics in terms of the scattering length a and the effective range R∗ representing the resonance width, and solve the BCS mean-field equations varying a, R∗ and the density. We show that the condensate fraction manifests a universal behavior when the correlation length, measuring the pair size, is used as the crossover parameter. Generally, a negative effective range has the effect of stretching the crossover region between the two extreme regimes, as evidenced by the behavior of the chemical potential. These results can be useful in view of the more recent perspectives of realizing narrow resonances also by optical means and amenable as a base quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Multiply quantized vortices and finite temperature effects in the BEC/BCS crossover regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempere, Jacques [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Devreese, Jozef T. [TFVS, Universiteit Antwerpen (UIA), Universiteitsplein 1, B2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)]. E-mail:


    The interatomic interaction strength in ultracold fermionic gases can be manipulated using Feshbach resonances, allowing to probe both the regime where atoms form molecules that Bose condense (BEC) and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. We use a path-integral formalism to investigate the properties of multiply quantized vortices in these systems. Although the vortex core region expands when more quanta of circulation are present, the qualitative result is the same: in the BEC regime, the atoms do not penetrate into the vortex core, whereas in the BCS regime they do. The system undergoes a smooth crossover between the two regimes. When the temperature is increased, the penetration of atoms into the vortex core becomes more pronounced.

  9. BEC-BCS crossover in a cold and magnetized two color NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Dyana C; Farias, R L S; Manso, Pedro H A; Ramos, Rudnei O; Scoccola, N N


    The BEC-BCS crossover for a NJL model with diquark interactions is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particular attention is paid to different regularization schemes used in the literature. A thorough comparison of results is performed for the case of a cold and magnetized two-color NJL model. According to our results, the critical chemical potential for the BEC transition exhibits a clear inverse magnetic catalysis effect for magnetic fields in the range $ 1 \\lesssim eB/m_\\pi^2 \\lesssim 20 $. As for the BEC-BCS crossover, the corresponding critical chemical potential is very weakly sensitive to magnetic fields up to $eB \\sim 9\\ m_\\pi^2$, showing a much smaller inverse magnetic catalysis as compared to the BEC transition, and displays a strong magnetic catalysis from this point on.

  10. The relation between the generalised Eshelby integral and the generalised BCS and DB models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Tian-You; Fan Lei


    The generalised BCS dislocation group model and the generalised DB atomic cohesive force zone model have obtained the same results on nonlinear fracture study of some one-, two-and three-dimensional quasicrystals. This work reveals some inherent connection between the two models, and finds that their common basis is the generalised Eshelby integral based on the generalised Eshelby energy-momentum tensor for quasicrystals. Further applications of the theory in solving nonlinear fracture problems of the materials are also discussed.

  11. Critical velocity for superfluid flow across the BEC-BCS crossover. (United States)

    Miller, D E; Chin, J K; Stan, C A; Liu, Y; Setiawan, W; Sanner, C; Ketterle, W


    Critical velocities have been observed in an ultracold superfluid Fermi gas throughout the BEC-BCS crossover. A pronounced peak of the critical velocity at unitarity demonstrates that superfluidity is most robust for resonant atomic interactions. Critical velocities were determined from the abrupt onset of dissipation when the velocity of a moving one-dimensional optical lattice was varied. The dependence of the critical velocity on lattice depth and on the inhomogeneous density profile was studied.

  12. Description of Drip-Line Nuclei within Relativistic Mean-Field Plus BCS Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, H L; Toki, H


    Recently it has been demonstrated, considering Ni and Ca isotopes as prototypes, that the relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach wherein the single particle continuum corresponding to the RMF is replaced by a set of discrete positive energy states for the calculation of pairing energy provides a good approximation to the full relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) description of the ground state properties of the drip-line neutron rich nuclei. The applicability of RMF+BCS is essentially due to the fact that the main contribution to the pairing correlations is provided by the low-lying resonant states. General validity of this approach is demonstrated by the detailed calculations for the ground state properties of the chains of isotopes of O, Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb nuclei. The TMA and NL-SH force parameter sets have been used for the effective mean-field Lagrangian. Comprehensive results for the two neutron separation energy, rms radii, single particle pairing gaps and pairing energies etc. are pres...

  13. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.


    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  14. Ferromagnet / superconductor oxide superlattices (United States)

    Santamaria, Jacobo


    The growth of heterostructures combining oxide materials is a new strategy to design novel artificial multifunctional materials with interesting behaviors ruled by the interface. With the (re)discovery of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) materials, there has been renewed interest in heterostructures involving oxide superconductors and CMR ferromagnets where ferromagnetism (F) and superconductivity (S) compete within nanometric distances from the interface. In F/S/F structures involving oxides, interfaces are especially complex and various factors like interface disorder and roughness, epitaxial strain, polarity mismatch etc., are responsible for depressed magnetic and superconducting properties at the interface over nanometer length scales. In this talk I will focus in F/S/F structures made of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO). The high degree of spin polarization of the LCMO conduction band, together with the d-wave superconductivity of the YBCO make this F/S system an adequate candidate for the search of novel spin dependent effects in transport. We show that superconductivity at the interface is depressed by various factors like charge transfer, spin injection or ferromagnetic superconducting proximity effect. I will present experiments to examine the characteristic distances of the various mechanisms of superconductivity depression. In particular, I will discuss that the critical temperature of the superconductor depends on the relative orientation of the magnetization of the F layers, giving rise to a new giant magnetoresistance effect which might be of interest for spintronic applications. Work done in collaboration with V. Peña^1, Z. Sefrioui^1, J. Garcia-Barriocanal^1, C. Visani^1, D. Arias^1, C. Leon^1 , N. Nemes^2, M. Garcia Hernandez^2, S. G. E. te Velthuis^3, A. Hoffmann^3, M. Varela^4, S. J. Pennycook^4. Work supported by MCYT MAT 2005-06024, CAM GR- MAT-0771/2004, UCM PR3/04-12399 Work at Argonne supported by the Department of Energy, Basic

  15. Gravitoelectromagnetism and Dark Energy in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    De Matos, C J


    A gravitomagnetic analogue of the London moment in superconductors can explain the anomalous Cooper pair mass excess reported by Janet Tate. Ultimately the gravitomagnetic London moment is attributed to the breaking of the principle of general covariance in superconductors. This naturally implies non-conservation of classical energy-momentum. Possible relation with the manifestation of dark energy in superconductors is questioned.

  16. Selection of Burst-like Transients and Stochastic Variables Using Multi-Band Image Differencing in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S; Heinis, S; Chornock, R; Berger, E; Rest, A; Huber, M E; Foley, R J; Narayan, G; Marion, G H; Scolnic, D; Soderberg, A; Lawrence, A; Stubbs, C W; Kirshner, R P; Riess, A G; Smartt, S J; Smith, K; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Flewelling, H; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Price, P A; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J


    We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SV) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g,r,i, and z. We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit burst-like transients and one stochastic light curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the sourc...

  17. Multi-band gravitational-wave astronomy: parameter estimation and tests of general relativity with space and ground-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, Salvatore


    With the discovery of the black hole binary (BBH) coalescence GW150914 the era of gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has started. It has recently been shown that BBH with masses comparable to or higher than GW150914 would be visible in the eLISA band a few years before they finally merge in the band of ground-based detectors. This would allow for pre-merger electromagnetic alerts, dramatically increasing the chances of a joint detection, if BBH are indeed luminous in the electromagnetic band. In this paper we explore a quite different aspect of multi-band GW astronomy, and verify if, and to what extent, measurement of masses and sky position with eLISA could improve parameter estimation and tests of general relativity with ground-based detectors. We generate a catalog of 200 BBH and find that having prior information from eLISA can reduce the uncertainty in the measurement of source distance and primary black hole spin by up to factor of 2 in ground-based GW detectors. The component masses estimate from eLISA ...

  18. Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers. (United States)

    Morgado, José A P; Fonseca, Daniel; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T


    Transmission of coexisting Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-baseband (BB) and multi-band OFDM-ultra-wideband (UWB) signals along long-reach passive optical networks using directly modulated lasers (DML) is experimentally demonstrated.When optimized modulation indexes are used, bit error ratios not exceeding 5 × 10⁻⁴ can be achieved by all (OFDM-BB and three OFDM-UWB sub-bands) signals for a reach of 100 km of standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and optical signal-to-noise ratios not lower than 25dB@0.1 nm. It is experimentally shown that, for the SSMF reach of 100km, the optimized performance of coexisting OFDM-BB and OFDM-UWB signals is mainly imposed by the combination of two effects: the SSMF dispersion-induced nonlinear distortion of the OFDM-UWB signals caused by the OFDM-BB and OFDM-UWB signals, and the further degradation of the OFDM-UWB signals with higher frequency, due to the reduced DML bandwidth.

  19. Enhancement of crystallinity of cellulose produced by Escherichia coli through heterologous expression of bcsD gene from Gluconacetobacter xylinus. (United States)

    Sajadi, Elaheh; Babaipour, Valiollah; Deldar, Ali Asghar; Yakhchali, Bagher; Fatemi, Seyed Safa-Ali


    To evaluate the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 after heterologous expression of the cellulose synthase subunit D (bcsD) gene of Gluconacetobacter xylinus BPR2001. The bcsD gene of G. xylinus BPR2001 was expressed in E. coli and its protein product was visualized using SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis showed that the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by the recombinants was 0.84, which is 17% more than that of the wild type strain. The increased crystallinity index was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The cellulose content was not changed significantly after over-expressing the bcsD. The bcsD gene can improve the crystalline structure of the bacterial cellulose but there is not any significant difference between the amounts of cellulose produced by the recombinant and wild type E. coli Nissle 1917.

  20. Flux-induced Nernst effect in low-dimensional superconductors (United States)

    Berger, Jorge


    A method is available that enables consistent study of the stochastic behavior of a system that obeys purely diffusive evolution equations. This method has been applied to a superconducting loop with nonuniform temperature, with average temperature close to Tc. It is found that a flux-dependent average potential difference arises along the loop, proportional to the temperature gradient and most pronounced in the direction perpendicular to this gradient. The largest voltages were obtained for fluxes close to 0.3Φ0, average temperatures slightly below the critical temperature, thermal coherence length of the order of the perimeter of the ring, BCS coherence length that is not negligible in comparison to the thermal coherence length, and short inelastic scattering time. This effect is entirely due to thermal fluctuations. It differs essentially from the usual Nernst effect in bulk superconductors, that is induced by magnetic field rather than by magnetic flux. We also study the effect of confinement in a 2D mesoscopic film.

  1. Multistrand superconductor cable (United States)

    Borden, Albert R.


    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

  2. Terahertz Detection with Twin Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Ming-Jye; SHI Sheng-Cai; Hiroshi Mat-suo


    Terahertz detection with twin superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions, which are connected in parallel via an inductive thin-film superconducting microstrip line, is mainly studied. Firstly, we investigate the direct-detection response of a superconducting twin-junction device by means of a Fourier transform spectrometer. Secondly, we construct a direct-detection model of twin SIS tunnel junctions. The superconducting twin-junction device is then simulated in terms of the constructed model. The simulation result is found to be in good agreement with the measured one. In addition, we observe that the direct-detection response of the device is consistent with the noise temperature behaviour.

  3. Renormalization effects and phonon density of states in high temperature superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Ashokan


    Full Text Available Using the versatile double time thermodynamic Green's function approach based on many body theory the renormalized frequencies, phonon energy line widths, shifts and phonon density of states (PDOS are investigated via a newly formulated Hamiltonian (does not include BCS type Hamiltonian that includes the effects of electron-phonon, anharmonicities and that of isotopic impurities. The automatic appearance of pairons, temperature, impurity and electron-phonon coupling of renormalized frequencies, widths, shifts and PDOS emerges as a characteristic feature of present theory. The numerical investigations on PDOS for the YBa2Cu3O7 − δ crystal predicts several new feature of high temperature superconductors (HTS and agreements with experimental observations.

  4. Relaxation time of the Cooper pairs near T{sub c} in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramallo, M.V.; Carballeira, C.; Vina, J.; Veira, J.A.; Mishonov, T.; Pavuna, D.; Vidal, F. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain). Lab. de Bajas Temperaturas y Superconductividad


    It is first shown that the thermal fluctuation effects on the transport and on the thermodynamic observables above the superconducting transition may provide, when they are analyzed simultaneously and consistently, a powerful tool to access the relaxation time, {tau}{sub 0}, of the Cooper pairs with wave vector k = 0 in high-temperature cuprate superconductors (HTSC). Then, we apply this procedure to optimally doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (Y-123) crystals. It is found that in this HTSC {tau}{sub 0} follows, within 20% accuracy, the BCS temperature behaviour and amplitude given by {tau}{sub 0} = {pi}{Dirac_h}[8k{sub B}(T-T{sub c0})]. (orig.)

  5. Introduction of biopharmaceutics classification system(BCS)and its application progress%生物药剂分类系统(BCS)及应用进展介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 平其能



  6. Topological insulators and topological superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernevig, Andrei B


    This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topolo...

  7. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.


    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  8. Modified Entropic Gravitation in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto


    Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde's derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor's quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravit...

  9. Superconductor stability, 1983: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.


    Three main topics have been discussed in this paper, namely, internally cooled superconductors, cooling by superfluid helium, and metastable magnets. The discussion of each has centered around a dominant idea, and it is fitting to highlight these ideas by way of conclusion. With regard to internally cooled superconductors, most of what we have learned in the last few years centers on the strong motion caused by the thermal expansion of helium. How naive were our early calculations that treated the helium as though it were incompressible. Our discussion of He-II was organized around the Gorter-Mellink relation and the solutions of the nonlinear diffusion equation it gives rise to. And our discussion of metastable magnets revolved around the fruitful concept of the MPZ. These three ideas are sturdy trunks that support much of the thought about superconductor stability that has flowered in the past several years.

  10. Topological surface states in nodal superconductors. (United States)

    Schnyder, Andreas P; Brydon, Philip M R


    Topological superconductors have become a subject of intense research due to their potential use for technical applications in device fabrication and quantum information. Besides fully gapped superconductors, unconventional superconductors with point or line nodes in their order parameter can also exhibit nontrivial topological characteristics. This article reviews recent progress in the theoretical understanding of nodal topological superconductors, with a focus on Weyl and noncentrosymmetric superconductors and their protected surface states. Using selected examples, we review the bulk topological properties of these systems, study different types of topological surface states, and examine their unusual properties. Furthermore, we survey some candidate materials for topological superconductivity and discuss different experimental signatures of topological surface states.

  11. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.


    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  12. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)


    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  13. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Novel Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lupi


    Full Text Available Through the coupling of Synchrotron Radiation and Michelson interferometry, one may obtain in the terahertz (THz range transmittance and reflectivity spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N up to 103. In this paper we review the application of this spectroscopic technique to novel superconductors with an increasing degree of complexity: the single-gap boron-doped diamond; the isotropic multiband V3Si, where superconductivity opens two gaps at the Fermi energy; the CaAlSi superconductor, isostructural to MgB2, with a single gap in the hexagonal ab plane and two gaps along the orthogonal c axis.

  14. Topological Aspects of Triplet Superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ji-Rong; XU Dong-Hui; ZHANG Xin-Hui; LI Ran


    In this paper, using the φ-mapping theory, it is shown that two kinds of topological defects, i.e., the vortex lines and the monopoles exist in the helical configuration of magnetic field in triplet superconductors. And the inner topological structure of these defects is studied. Because the knot solitons in the triplet superconductors are characterized by the Hopf invariant, we also establish a relationship between the Hopf invariant and the linking number of knots family,and reveal the inner topological structure of the Hopf invariant.

  15. Holographic superconductors without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Hua Bi


    A holographic superconductor is constructed in the background of a massive gravity theory. In the normal state without condensation, the conductivity exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit as studied by David Vegh. In the superconducting state, besides the infinite DC conductivity, the AC conductivity has Drude behavior at low frequency followed by a power law-fall. These results are in agreement with that found earlier by Horowitz and Santos, who studied a holographic superconductor with an implicit periodic potential beyond the probe limit. The results also agree with measurements on some cuprates.

  16. Multi-band spectral subtraction method applied to natural sounds classification%多频带谱减法用于生态环境声音分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王熙; 李应


    基于人类听觉特性的Mel频率倒谱系数广泛用于声音识别,然而在生态环境中噪声的出现导致其识别率剧减。提出一种在噪声背景下生态环境声音分类方法。利用非线性多频带谱减法对声音功率谱进行去噪处理并提取改进Mel频率倒谱系数,有效削弱不同频率段噪声功率谱干扰。利用支持向量机良好的鲁棒性和抗噪能力对含有噪声的生态环境声音进行分类。实验表明该方法能有效在噪声背景下对生态环境声音准确分类。%Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients, motivated by human auditory, are widely used for sound recognition, while in the ecological environment the presence of the noise causes its recognition rate to drop quickly. This paper presents a method for the classification of natural sounds in noise environment. Multi-band spectral subtraction method is proposed to reduce the noise for extracting MFCC, which effectively weakens audio noise disturbance. In addition, it introduces SVM classification model to classify the sound with noise owing to its better noise immunity and robustness. Experimental results show that this method can be used to classify ecological environmental sounds accurately.

  17. Monitoring System for Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Ground-Based Multi-Band Radiometer: Meteorological Application of Radio Astronomy Technologies (United States)

    Nagasaki, T.; Araki, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Kominami, K.; Tajima, O.


    High-resolution estimation of thermodynamic properties in the atmosphere can help to predict and mitigate meteorological disasters, such as local heavy rainfall and tornadic storms. For the purposes of short-term forecasting and nowcasting of severe storms, we propose a novel ground-based measurement system, which observes the intensity of atmospheric radiation in the microwave range. Our multi-band receiver system is designed to identify a rapid increase in water vapor before clouds are generated. At frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz, our system simultaneously measures water vapor as a broad absorption peak at 22 GHz as well as cloud liquid water. Another band at 50-60 GHz provides supplementary information from oxygen radiation to give vertical profiles of physical temperature. For the construction of this cold receiver system, novel technologies originally developed for observations of cosmic microwave background radiation were applied. The input atmospheric signal is amplified by a cold low-noise amplifier maintained below 10 K, while the spectrum of this amplified signal is measured using a signal analyzer under ambient conditions. The cryostat also contains a cold black body at 40 K to act as a calibration signal. This calibration signal is transported to each of the receivers via a wire grid. We can select either the atmospheric signal or the calibration signal by changing the orientation of this wire. Each receiver can be calibrated using this setup. Our system is designed to be compact (<1 m3), with low power consumption (˜ 1.5 kW). Therefore, it is easy to deploy on top of high buildings, mountains, and ship decks.

  18. 多频段圆极化微带天线的设计%Design of multi-band circular polarized microstrip antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽黎; 刘丽珍


    A multi-band circular polarized microstrip antenna for navigation satellite system is designed. To enhance the impedance bandwidth and realize right-handed circular polarization radiation,the CRLH transmission line phase shifter is used as a feed network,which also improves performance of circular polarization at the same time. The antenna has been designed to operate at the satellite navigation frequency bands including GPS, BDS-2 and GLONASS. Ansoft HFSS 13.0 software is used, and the results of the simulation show that the antenna can meet the requirements of the signals of navigation satellite system. The antenna has the characteristics of the compact, frequency bandwidth, small size, easy processing.%设计了一款应用于导航卫星系统的多频段圆极化微带天线。天线采用复合左右手传输线移相器作为馈电网络,展宽阻抗带宽并且实现了良好的右旋圆极化辐射。该天线工作在导航卫星系统GPS、BDS-2和 GLONASS 工作波段。采用 Ansoft HFSS 13.0软件仿真,仿真结果表明该天线能够满足导航卫星信号的要求。该天线具有结构紧凑、频带宽、体积小、易于加工等特点。

  19. 应用于WLAN及WiMAX的多频段天线的设计%Design of Multi-band Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莉; 侯丽娜


    设计了一款应用于WALN及WiMAX无线通信领域中的小型平面天线。该天线覆盖了IEEE802.11a/b/g(2.4~2.484GHz,5.15~5.35GHz,5.725~5.875GHz)及IEEE802.16(3.4~3.69GHz)频段的标准。选用L形天线作为基本的天线,天线的三个极子对应于三个不同的工作频段。并在HFSS中建立了该天线的电磁仿真模型,仿真结果表明,该天线在三个工作频段内的回波损耗都小于-10dB,阻抗匹配特性良好。%A smal size Multi-band planar antenna for WLAN/WiMAX is designed in this paper.The antenna can cover the working bands of IEEE802.11a/b/g(2.4~2.484GHz,5.15~5.35GHz,5.725~5.875GHz)and IEEE 802.16(3.4~3.69GHz).The basic part of this antenna is a L monopole antenna.The antenna's three pole co-rresponding to the three different working frequencies.An electromagnetic model of the designed antenna is developed in HFSS for numerical analysis and optimization.The result show that this antenna with return Loss is less than-10dB at different frequency points and it has good impedance matching characteristics.

  20. Design and Simulation of A Multi-band PIFA Atenna%一种多频带FIPA天线的设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of mobile communication, the cellphone becomes an indispensable communication tool, while the users has an increasingly high demand on functions of the cellphone. How to design a miniaturized, low-profile and multi-band antenna is now the difficult point and bottleneck of the cellphone development. Based on study of IFA antenna, a novel built-in antenna is proposed and designed, and it works in frequency bands of WCDMA and ISM. This twin-branch antenna uses two routes of electric current to drive their respective working frequency bands. Simulation and test indicate that this antenna has good performance and is very suitable for mobile communication terminals.%  随着移动通信的快速发展,手机已成为不可或缺的通信工具,用户对手机的功能需求越来越高。如何设计一种小型化、低剖面和多频段的内置天线成为手机发展的难点和瓶颈。这里在研究倒 F 型天线的基础上,通过加载开槽缝隙技术实现了双分支结构,利用两条电流支路激发各自频段的方式,实现了一种工作于 WCDMA 和 ISM 频段的一款新颖的内置天线。通过仿真和实际测试结果说明该天线辐射性能良好,满足移动终端的应用要求。

  1. Modeling the Multi-band Afterglow of GRB 130831A: Evidence for a Spinning-down Magnetar Dominated by Gravitational Wave Losses? (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Huang, Y. F.; Zong, H. S.


    The X-ray afterglow of GRB 130831A shows an “internal plateau” with a decay slope of ˜0.8, followed by a steep drop at around 105 s with a slope of ˜6. After the drop, the X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical afterglow exhibits two segments of plateaus separated by a luminous optical flare, followed by a normal decay with a slope basically consistent with that of the late-time X-ray afterglow. The decay of the internal X-ray plateau is much steeper than what we expect in the simplest magnetar model. We propose a scenario in which the magnetar undergoes gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability, and the spin-down is dominated by gravitational wave losses up to the end of the steep plateau, so that such a relatively steep plateau can be interpreted as the internal emission of the magnetar wind and the sharp drop can be produced when the magnetar collapses into a black hole. This scenario also predicts an initial X-ray plateau lasting for hundreds of seconds with an approximately constant flux which is compatible with observation. Assuming that the magnetar wind has a negligible contribution in the optical band, we interpret the optical afterglow as the forward shock emission by invoking the energy injection from a continuously refreshed shock following the prompt emission phase. It is shown that our model can basically describe the temporal evolution of the multi-band afterglow of GRB 130831A.

  2. Dual-polarization multi-band optical OFDM transmission and transceiver limitations for up to 500 Gb/s uncompensated long-haul links. (United States)

    Giacoumidis, E; Jarajreh, M A; Sygletos, S; Le, S T; Farjady, F; Tsokanos, A; Hamié, A; Pincemin, E; Jaouën, Y; Ellis, A D; Doran, N J


    A number of critical issues for dual-polarization single- and multi-band optical orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (DP-SB/MB-OFDM) signals are analyzed in dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)-free long-haul links. For the first time, different DP crosstalk removal techniques are compared, the maximum transmission-reach is investigated, and the impact of subcarrier number and high-level modulation formats are explored thoroughly. It is shown, for a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10(-3), 2000 km of quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) DP-MB-OFDM transmission is feasible. At high launched optical powers (LOP), maximum-likelihood decoding can extend the LOP of 40 Gb/s QPSK DP-SB-OFDM at 2000 km by 1.5 dB compared to zero-forcing. For a 100 Gb/s DP-MB-OFDM system, a high number of subcarriers contribute to improved BER but at the cost of digital signal processing computational complexity, whilst by adapting the cyclic prefix length the BER can be improved for a low number of subcarriers. In addition, when 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) is employed the digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital converter (DAC/ADC) bandwidth is relaxed with a degraded BER; while the 'circular' 8QAM is slightly superior to its 'rectangular' form. Finally, the transmission of wavelength-division multiplexing DP-MB-OFDM and single-carrier DP-QPSK is experimentally compared for up to 500 Gb/s showing great potential and similar performance at 1000 km DCF-free G.652 line.

  3. Nature of the superconductor-insulator transition in disordered superconductors. (United States)

    Dubi, Yonatan; Meir, Yigal; Avishai, Yshai


    The interplay of superconductivity and disorder has intrigued scientists for several decades. Disorder is expected to enhance the electrical resistance of a system, whereas superconductivity is associated with a zero-resistance state. Although superconductivity has been predicted to persist even in the presence of disorder, experiments performed on thin films have demonstrated a transition from a superconducting to an insulating state with increasing disorder or magnetic field. The nature of this transition is still under debate, and the subject has become even more relevant with the realization that high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductors are intrinsically disordered. Here we present numerical simulations of the superconductor-insulator transition in two-dimensional disordered superconductors, starting from a microscopic description that includes thermal phase fluctuations. We demonstrate explicitly that disorder leads to the formation of islands where the superconducting order is high. For weak disorder, or high electron density, increasing the magnetic field results in the eventual vanishing of the amplitude of the superconducting order parameter, thereby forming an insulating state. On the other hand, at lower electron densities or higher disorder, increasing the magnetic field suppresses the correlations between the phases of the superconducting order parameter in different islands, giving rise to a different type of superconductor-insulator transition. One of the important predictions of this work is that in the regime of high disorder, there are still superconducting islands in the sample, even on the insulating side of the transition. This result, which is consistent with experiments, explains the recently observed huge magneto-resistance peak in disordered thin films and may be relevant to the observation of 'the pseudogap phenomenon' in underdoped high-T(c) superconductors.

  4. Turismo y Sustentabilidad en Pequeñas Localidades Localidades Costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Ibañez Pérez


    Full Text Available El fomento del turismo se realiza en sitios que, aunque pequeños, cuentan con atractivos naturales y culturales, tal es el caso de las zonas costeras. Tan solo en México, se estima que existen más de 1,100 comunidades que dependen directamente de dicha actividad, esta te ndencia se refleja, de igual manera, en pequeñas localidades costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS. En este sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un an álisis exploratorio que permitió detectar a las comunidades costeras de BCS, donde el turismo genera un aporte importante a su economía local, además , se buscó identificar la problemática general que éstas enfrentan. Para realizar dicho estudio se revisó literatura, se organizó información estadística y se elaboró un análisis Fortalezas, Oportunidades, Debilidades y Amenazas (FODA. Los resultad os apuntan a que, en BCS, existen más de 35 localidades ru rales vinculadas con dicha actividad que comparten como problemática la escasa in fraestructura y la carencia de medidas de control de la afluencia turística. La principal recomendación es desarrollar líneas de investigación que permitan aportar elementos para medir la sustentabilidad turística a nivel local y, co n base en ello, diseñar medidas para la adecuada conducción de tan importante actividad.

  5. Absence of an energy gap in measurements of Cu-O superconductors with high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (United States)

    Phelps, R. B.; Akavoor, P.; Kesmodel, L. L.; Barr, A. L.; Markert, J. T.; Ma, J.; Kelley, R. J.; Onellion, M.


    We report extensive measurements of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi 2:2:1:2) and YBa2Cu3O7 (Y 1:2:3) single crystals with high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Both as-grown and oxygen-annealed Bi 2:2:1:2 samples were studied. In all cases, peaks due to surface optical phonons were observed at loss energies from 24 to 80 meV. We see no evidence for the weak feature near 60 meV which has been previously reported and attributed to the superconducting energy gap. Our results demonstrate that the optical conductivity of high-temperature superconductors deduced from HREELS, like that deduced from infrared spectroscopy, does not exhibit the gaplike structure expected for a BCS superconductor.

  6. Absence of an energy gap in measurements of Cu-O superconductors with high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, R.B.; Akavoor, P.; Kesmodel, L.L. (Physics Department and Materials Research Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)); Barr, A.L.; Markert, J.T. (Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)); Ma, J.; Kelley, R.J.; Onellion, M. (Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))


    We report extensive measurements of Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8] (Bi 2:2:1:2) and YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] (Y 1:2:3) single crystals with high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Both as-grown and oxygen-annealed Bi 2:2:1:2 samples were studied. In all cases, peaks due to surface optical phonons were observed at loss energies from 24 to 80 meV. We see no evidence for the weak feature near 60 meV which has been previously reported and attributed to the superconducting energy gap. Our results demonstrate that the optical conductivity of high-temperature superconductors deduced from HREELS, like that deduced from infrared spectroscopy, does not exhibit the gaplike structure expected for a BCS superconductor.

  7. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  8. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten


    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  9. Development of superconductor application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, G. W.; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H. G.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Won, D. Y.; Jang, K. I.; Kwon, S. C.; Kim, W. J.; Ji, Y. A.; Yang, S. W.; Kim, W. K.; Park, S. D.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, D. M.; Park, H. W.; Yu, J. K.; Lee, I. S.; Kim, J. J.; Choi, H. S.; Chu, Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. H.


    Fabrication of high Tc bulk superconductor and its application, fabrication of superconducting wire for electric power device and analysis for cryogenic system were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies for electric power system. High quality YBaCuO bulk superconductor was fabricated by controlling initial powder preparation process and prototype flywheel energy storage device was designed basically. The superconducting levitation force measuring device was made to examine the property of prepared superconductor specimen. Systematic studies onthe method of starting powder preparation, mechanical fabrication process, heat treatment condition and analysis of plastic deformation were carried out to increase the stability and reproducibility of superconducting wire. A starting power with good reactivity and fine particle size was obtained by mechanical grinding, control of phase assemblage, and emulsion drying method. Ag/BSCCO tape with good cross sectional shape and Jc of 20,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by applying CIP packing procedure. Multifilamentary wire with Jc of 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by rolling method using square billet as starting shape. The joining of the multifilamentary wire was done by etching and pressing process and showed 50% of joining efficiency. Analysis on the heat loss in cryostat for high Tc superconducting device was carried out for optimum design of the future cryogenic system. (author). 66 refs., 104 figs.

  10. Anisotropy and Strong-Coupling Effects on the Collective Mode Spectrum of Chiral Superconductors: Application to Sr2RuO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Avery Sauls


    Full Text Available Recent theories of Sr2RuO4 based on the interplay of strong interactions, spin-orbit coupling and multi-band anisotropy predict chiral or helical ground states with strong anisotropy of the pairing states, with deep minima in the excitation gap, as well as strong phase anisotropy for the chiral ground state. We develop time-dependent mean field theory to calculate the Bosonic spectrum for the class of 2D chiral superconductors spanning 3He-A to chiral superconductors with strong anisotropy. Chiral superconductors support a pair of massive Bosonic excitations of the time-reversed pairs labeled by their parity under charge conjugation. These modes are degenerate for 2D 3He-A. Crystal field anisotropy lifts the degeneracy. Strong anisotropy also leads to low-lying Fermions, and thus to channels for the decay of the Bosonic modes. Selection rules and phase space considerations lead to large asymmetries in the lifetimes and hybridization of the Bosonic modes with the continuum of un-bound Fermion pairs. We also highlight results for the excitation of the Bosonic modes by microwave radiation that provide clear signatures of the Bosonic modes of an anisotropic chiral ground state.

  11. Importance of the single-particle continuum in BCS pairing with a pseudostate basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay J. A.


    Full Text Available In a recent work [arXiv:1510.03185] the use of the Transformed Harmonic Oscillator (THO basis for the discretization of the singleparticle continuum into a Generalized Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS formalism was proposed for the description of weakly bound nuclei. We make use of the flexibility of this formalism to study the evolution of the pairing when the nucleus becomes more and more weakly bound. Specifically we focus on the evolution of the occupation of the different partial waves in 22O when the Fermi level approaches zero.

  12. Finite-Temperature Collective Dynamics of a Fermi Gas in the BEC-BCS Crossover (United States)

    Wright, M. J.; Riedl, S.; Altmeyer, A.; Kohstall, C.; Guajardo, E. R. Sánchez; Denschlag, J. Hecker; Grimm, R.


    We report on experimental studies on the collective behavior of a strongly interacting Fermi gas with tunable interactions and variable temperature. A scissors mode excitation in an elliptical trap is used to characterize the dynamics of the quantum gas in terms of hydrodynamic or near-collisionless behavior. We obtain a crossover phase diagram for collisional properties, showing a large region where a nonsuperfluid strongly interacting gas shows hydrodynamic behavior. In a narrow interaction regime on the BCS side of the crossover, we find a novel temperature-dependent damping peak, suggesting a relation to the superfluid phase transition.

  13. Spectral splits of neutrinos as a BCS-BEC crossover type phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Pehlivan, Y; Ghazanfari, N; Birol, S; Yüksel, H


    We show that the phenomenon of neutrino spectral split, which might be observed in the next galactic supernova neutrino signal, is analogous to the BCS-BEC crossover already observed in ultra cold atomic gas experiments. Although these two phenomena belong to two very different domains of physics, the propagation of neutrinos from highly interacting inner regions to the vacuum is reminiscent of the evolution of Cooper pairs between weak and strong interaction regimes. The Hamiltonians and the corresponding ground states undergo very similar transformations if one replaces the pair quasispin of the latter with the neutrino isospin of the former.

  14. Turismo y Sustentabilidad en Pequeñas Localidades Localidades Costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS)


    Reyna Ibañez Pérez


    El fomento del turismo se realiza en sitios que, aunque pequeños, cuentan con atractivos naturales y culturales, tal es el caso de las zonas costeras. Tan solo en México, se estima que existen más de 1,100 comunidades que dependen directamente de dicha actividad, esta te ndencia se refleja, de igual manera, en pequeñas localidades costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS). En este sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un an álisis exploratorio que permitió detectar a las comunidades c...

  15. Inverse Sine Phase Detector Phase Locked Loop Associated with Modified Multi Band LC Quadrature Voltage Controlled Oscillator for Wireless Communication Systems at 0.9, 1.8, 2.4, 3.5 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdellaoui


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study and in consequence of the restricted performance of the multi standard wireless receiver utilizing the classical architectures, we proposed and presented a new architecture of multi band wireless receiver based on an Inverse Sine Phase Detector Phase Locked Loop (ISPDPLL associated with modified multi band LC quadrature Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO, supporting GSM/DCS/DECT/Bluetooth/WiMax systems. Approach: To accomplish the multi standard receiving architecture at sufficiently good performance and at a low hardware cost, the proposed circuit, using an ISPDPLL associated with VCO based on switched capacitors utilizing a several numeric controlled capacitive branch and cross-coupled transistors, was implemented in 0.35 µm CMOS technology and designed to yield quadrature output signals (I-Q allowing to eliminate the dephasing block (90° employed in a multi band Zero IF architecture receiver, that make the proposed architecture amenable for monolithic integration and 4G multi standard application. Results: This novel system presented high performance and good potentiality to cover perfectly the wireless multi standard receiving on the large band with the same transmission condition. Conclusion/Recommendations: The performance of this system was analyzed and demonstrated to have a minimum phase noise, a good Factor Of Merit (FOM and wide tuning for these standard applications.

  16. Thermoelectric properties of FeAs based superconductors, with thick perovskite- and Sm-O fluorite-type blocking layers (United States)

    Singh, S. J.; Shimoyama, J.; Ogino, H.; Kishio, K.


    The transport properties (electrical resistivity, Hall and Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity) of iron based superconductors with thick perovskite-type oxide blocking layers and fluorine-doped SmFeAsO were studied to explore their possible potential for thermoelectric applications. The thermal conductivity of former compounds depicts the dominated role of phonon and its value decreases rapidly below the Tc, suggesting the addition of scattering of phonons. Both the Seebeck coefficient (S) and Hall coefficient (RH) of all samples were negative in the whole temperature region below 300 K, indicating that the major contribution to the normal state conductivity is by electrons. In addition, the profile of S(T) and RH(T) of all samples have similar behaviours as would be expected for a multi-band superconductors. Although the estimated thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of these compounds was much lower than that of practically applicable thermoelectric materials, however its improvement can be expected by optimizing microstructure of the polycrystalline materials, such as densification and grain orientation.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of FeAs based superconductors, with thick perovskite- and Sm-O fluorite-type blocking layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.J., E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Helmhotzstrass 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Shimoyama, J.; Ogino, H.; Kishio, K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties are studied for 22438 and 225411 with Sm1111. • Thermal and electrical coeff. follow almost the same behaviour for both categories. • The thermoelectric figure of merit has low value from the application point. • Major contribution to the normal state conductivity is by electron type carriers. - Abstract: The transport properties (electrical resistivity, Hall and Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity) of iron based superconductors with thick perovskite-type oxide blocking layers and fluorine-doped SmFeAsO were studied to explore their possible potential for thermoelectric applications. The thermal conductivity of former compounds depicts the dominated role of phonon and its value decreases rapidly below the T{sub c}, suggesting the addition of scattering of phonons. Both the Seebeck coefficient (S) and Hall coefficient (R{sub H}) of all samples were negative in the whole temperature region below 300 K, indicating that the major contribution to the normal state conductivity is by electrons. In addition, the profile of S(T) and R{sub H}(T) of all samples have similar behaviours as would be expected for a multi-band superconductors. Although the estimated thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of these compounds was much lower than that of practically applicable thermoelectric materials, however its improvement can be expected by optimizing microstructure of the polycrystalline materials, such as densification and grain orientation.

  18. Effects of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS) on the production of ethanol from low-grade starch materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.H.; Chung, D.S.; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)] [and others


    Yeast fermentation was performed on grain and bakery byproducts with and without adding the same volume of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS). Starch material in the grain and bakery byproducts effectively was converted to fermentable sugars with conversion ratios of 93-97% by successive treatments of samples with bacterial {alpha}-amylase and fungal glucoamylase. The yeast fermentation of these enzyme-digested byproducts alone showed that ethanol concentrations of 16.4-42.7 mL/100 g dry solid in the broth were achieved with fermentation efficiencies of 87-96%. Addition of BCS to the grain byproducts increased ethanol concentration by 10-86% by increasing the potential glucose content of the broth. The rates of fermentation measured by CO{sub 2} gas production demonstrated that BCS addition to bakery byproducts reduced the fermentation time from 62-72 h to 34-35 h. In bakery byproducts that were low in amino nitrogen, exhaustion of nitrogenous compounds in substrates was found to be a limiting factor for yeast growth. Because BCS is a rich source of nitrogen, adding BCS to these substrates markedly increased the fermentation rate. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Rotational symmetry breaking in the topological superconductor SrxBi2Se3 probed by upper-critical field experiments. (United States)

    Pan, Y; Nikitin, A M; Araizi, G K; Huang, Y K; Matsushita, Y; Naka, T; de Visser, A


    Recently it was demonstrated that Sr intercalation provides a new route to induce superconductivity in the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Topological superconductors are predicted to be unconventional with an odd-parity pairing symmetry. An adequate probe to test for unconventional superconductivity is the upper critical field, Bc2. For a standard BCS layered superconductor Bc2 shows an anisotropy when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the layers, but is isotropic when the field is rotated in the plane of the layers. Here we report measurements of the upper critical field of superconducting SrxBi2Se3 crystals (Tc = 3.0 K). Surprisingly, field-angle dependent magnetotransport measurements reveal a large anisotropy of Bc2 when the magnet field is rotated in the basal plane. The large two-fold anisotropy, while six-fold is anticipated, cannot be explained with the Ginzburg-Landau anisotropic effective mass model or flux flow induced by the Lorentz force. The rotational symmetry breaking of Bc2 indicates unconventional superconductivity with odd-parity spin-triplet Cooper pairs (Δ4-pairing) recently proposed for rhombohedral topological superconductors, or might have a structural nature, such as self-organized stripe ordering of Sr atoms.

  20. Josephson Current in Superconductor-Ferromagnet/Insulator/d-Wave Superconductor Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Wei; DONG Zheng-Chao


    Solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, the energy levels of bound states are obtained in the ferromagnetic superconductor. The Josephson currents in a ferromagnetic superconductor/Insulator/d-wave superconductor junction are calculated as a function of the exchange field, temperature, and insulating barrier strength. It is found that the Josephson critical current is always suppressed by the presence of exchange field h and depends on crystalline axis orientation of d-wave superconductor.

  1. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs. (United States)

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E


    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  2. Dipole modes of a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in the BCS-BEC crossover (United States)

    Wen, Wen; Chen, Bingyan; Zhang, Xuewu


    Motivated by the first experimental realization by the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS) group of a mixture of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a Fermi superfluid continuously changing from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) (Ferrier-Barbut et al 2014 Science 345 1035), we analytically study the dipole modes of the superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in the BCS-BEC crossover. The analytical approach can explicitly reveal relationships between the frequencies of the dipole modes and the microscopic properties of the novel system. We start from coupled hydrodynamic equations, where the equation of state for the Fermi superfluid in the crossover is an analytical fitting formula based on experimental data, and by using a scaling approach we analytically study eigenfrequencies of the dipole modes for the coupled system in the ENS experimental parameters. Without the boson-fermion interaction in the equilibrium density profiles, our theoretical results can be reduced to the mean-field model and is consistent with the experimental data. However, by further taking into account the boson-fermion interaction numerically and analytically, we find that the results disagree with the experiment, especially in the parameter regime where the boson interaction is smaller than the boson-fermion interaction.

  3. Superfluidity and BCS-BEC crossover of ultracold atomic Fermi gases in mixed dimensions (United States)

    Zhang, Leifeng; Chen, Qijin

    Atomic Fermi gases have been under active investigation in the past decade. Here we study the superfluid and pairing phenomena of a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas in the presence of mixed dimensionality, in which one component is confined on a 1D optical lattice whereas the other is free in the 3D continuum. We assume a short-range pairing interaction and determine the superfluid transition temperature Tc and the phase diagram for the entire BCS-BEC crossover, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite momentum pairs. We find that, as the lattice depth increases and the lattice spacing decreases, the behavior of Tc becomes very similar to that of a population imbalance Fermi gas in a simple 3D continuum. There is no superfluidity even at T = 0 below certain threshold of pairing strength in the BCS regime. Nonmonotonic Tc behavior and intermediate temperature superfluidity emerge, and for deep enough lattice, the Tc curve will split into two parts. Implications for experiment will be discussed. References: 1. Q.J. Chen, Ioan Kosztin, B. Janko, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 59, 7083 (1999). 2. Chih-Chun Chien, Qijin Chen, Yan He, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 090402(2006). Work supported by NSF of China and the National Basic Research Program of China.

  4. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu


    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  5. Topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions in chains of magnetic atoms on the surface of a superconductor (United States)

    Yazdani, Ali


    Chain of magnetic atoms on the surface of a BCS superconductor is a versatile platform for the realization of one-dimensional superconductors with Majorana bound states that lends itself to high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy studies. In this talk, I will describe experimental efforts to realize this platform using self-assembled chains of Fe atoms on the surface of Pb (110) and to directly visualize Majorana quasi-particle bound states at their edges. Using spin-polarized STM studies, we show that Fe chains are ferromagnetic while tunneling into Pb's substrate demonstrates signatures of strong spin-orbit interaction at its surface. Comparison of experimental measurements of structure and normal state electronic structure with DFT calculations suggest that these are triple zigzag chains with an odd number of band-crossings at the Fermi level. The onset of superconductivity in the Pb strongly modifies the low energy density of states of the Fe chains and induces a zero energy state at their ends. I will describe how these observations are consistent with the formation of a topological superconducting phase with Majorana edge states. Work supported by ONR, NSF-DMR, NSF-MRSEC, ARO-MURI, and LPS-ARO grants.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Heinis, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 21224 (United States); Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Narayan, G.; Marion, G. H.; Burgett, W. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Scolnic, D.; Riess, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lawrence, A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others


    We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SVs) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1}, and z {sub P1}. We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit BL transients; a Gaussian, a Gamma distribution, and an analytic supernova (SN) model, and one stochastic light-curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise and source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications, resulting in two measures of classification quality, from the averages across the photometric filters of (1) the classifications determined from the closest K-means cluster centers, and (2) the square distances from the clustering centers in the K-means clustering spaces. For a verification set of AGNs and SNe, we show that SV and BL occupy distinct regions in the plane constituted by these measures. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources, in the first 2.5 yr of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGNs, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host

  7. WE-G-18C-07: Accelerated Water/fat Separation in MRI for Radiotherapy Planning Using Multi-Band Imaging Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, S; Stemkens, B; Sbrizzi, A; Lagendijk, J; Berg, C van den; Andreychenko, A [UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Purpose: Dixon sequences are used to characterize disease processes, obtain good fat or water separation in cases where fat suppression fails and to obtain pseudo-CT datasets. Dixon's method uses at least two images acquired with different echo times and thus requires prolonged acquisition times. To overcome associated problems (e.g., for DCE/cine-MRI), we propose to use a method for water/fat separation based on spectrally selective RF pulses. Methods: Two alternating RF pulses were used, that imposes a fat selective phase cycling over the phase encoding lines, which results in a spatial shift for fat in the reconstructed image, identical to that in CAIPIRINHA. Associated aliasing artefacts were resolved using the encoding power of a multi-element receiver array, analogous to SENSE. In vivo measurements were performed on a 1.5T clinical MR-scanner in a healthy volunteer's legs, using a four channel receiver coil. Gradient echo images were acquired with TE/TR = 2.3/4.7ms, flip angle 20°, FOV 45×22.5cm{sup 2}, matrix 480×216, slice thickness 5mm. Dixon images were acquired with TE,1/TE,2/TR=2.2/4.6/7ms. All image reconstructions were done in Matlab using the ReconFrame toolbox (Gyrotools, Zurich, CH). Results: RF pulse alternation yields a fat image offset from the water image. Hence the water and fat images fold over, which is resolved using in-plane SENSE reconstruction. Using the proposed technique, we achieved excellent water/fat separation comparable to Dixon images, while acquiring images at only one echo time. Conclusion: The proposed technique yields both inphase water and fat images at arbitrary echo times and requires only one measurement, thereby shortening the acquisition time by a factor 2. In future work the technique may be extended to a multi-band water/fat separation sequence that is able to achieve single point water/fat separation in multiple slices at once and hence yields higher speed-up factors.

  8. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamihara, Yoichi, E-mail: [Keio University, Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology (Japan)


    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO{sub 1 - x}F{sub x}. The very large H{sub c2} of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  9. Current status of iron-based superconductors (United States)

    Kamihara, Yoichi


    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO1 - xFx. The very large H c2 of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  10. A Road Towards High Temperature Superconductors (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0040 A Road Towards High Temperature Superconductors Guy Deutscher Tel Aviv University Research... Superconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-10-1-3011 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 10-3011 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...issue in trying to make useful high temperature superconductors is obviously to discover superconductivity at higher temperatures. But there is also

  11. Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni


    Full Text Available Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T>Tc to the superconductor phase (T

  12. Emergent loop-nodal s(±)-wave superconductivity in CeCu(2)Si(2): similarities to the iron-based superconductors. (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Michi-To; Arita, Ryotaro


    Heavy-fermion superconductors are prime candidates for novel electron-pairing states due to the spin-orbital coupled degrees of freedom and electron correlations. Superconductivity in CeCu_{2}Si_{2} discovered in 1979, which is a prototype of unconventional (non-BCS) superconductors in strongly correlated electron systems, still remains unsolved. Here we provide the first report of superconductivity based on the advanced first-principles theoretical approach. We find that the promising candidate is an s_{±}-wave state with loop-shaped nodes on the Fermi surface, different from the widely expected line-nodal d-wave state. The dominant pairing glue is magnetic but high-rank octupole fluctuations. This system shares the importance of multiorbital degrees of freedom with the iron-based superconductors. Our findings reveal not only the long-standing puzzle in this material, but also urge us to reconsider the pairing states and mechanisms in all heavy-fermion superconductors.

  13. Recent progress on carbon-based superconductors. (United States)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Goto, Hidenori; Hamao, Shino; Kambe, Takashi; Terao, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Saki; Zheng, Lu; Miao, Xiao; Okamoto, Hideki


    This article reviews new superconducting phases of carbon-based materials. During the past decade, new carbon-based superconductors have been extensively developed through the use of intercalation chemistry, electrostatic carrier doping, and surface-proving techniques. The superconducting transition temperature T c of these materials has been rapidly elevated, and the variety of superconductors has been increased. This review fully introduces graphite, graphene, and hydrocarbon superconductors and future perspectives of high-T c superconductors based on these materials, including present problems. Carbon-based superconductors show various types of interesting behavior, such as a positive pressure dependence of T c. At present, experimental information on superconductors is still insufficient, and theoretical treatment is also incomplete. In particular, experimental results are still lacking for graphene and hydrocarbon superconductors. Therefore, it is very important to review experimental results in detail and introduce theoretical approaches, for the sake of advances in condensed matter physics. Furthermore, the recent experimental results on hydrocarbon superconductors obtained by our group are also included in this article. Consequently, this review article may provide a hint to designing new carbon-based superconductors exhibiting higher T c and interesting physical features.

  14. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  15. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P


    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  16. Theoretical studies of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groensleth, Martin Sigurd


    This thesis presents four research papers. In the first three papers we have derived analytical results for the transport properties in unconventional superconductors and ferromagnetic systems with multiple broken symmetries. In Paper I and parts of Paper II we have studied tunneling transport between two non-unitary ferromagnetic spin-triplet superconductors, and found a novel interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity manifested in the Josephson effect as a spin- and charge-current in the absence of an applied voltage across the junction. The critical amplitudes of these currents can be adjusted by the relative magnetization direction on each side of the junction. Furthermore, in Paper II, we have found a way of controlling a spin-current between two ferromagnets with spin-orbit coupling. Paper III considers a junction consisting of a ferromagnet and a non-unitary ferromagnetic superconductor, and we show that the conductance spectra contains detailed information about the superconducting gaps and pairing symmetry of the Cooper-pairs. In the last paper we present a Monte Carlo study of an effective Hamiltonian describing orbital currents in the CuO2 layers of high-temperature superconductive cuprates. The model features two intrinsically anisotropic Ising models, coupled through an anisotropic next-nearest neighbor interaction, and an Ashkin-Teller nearest neighbor fourth order coupling. We have studied the specific heat anomaly, as well as the anomaly in the staggered magnetization associated with the orbital currents and its susceptibility. We have found that in a limited parameter regime, the specific heat anomaly is substantially suppressed, while the susceptibility has a non-analytical peak across the order-disorder transition. The model is therefore a candidate for describing the breakup of hidden order when crossing the pseudo-gap line on the under-doped side in the phase diagram of high-temperature superconductors. (Author) 64 refs., figs

  17. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.


    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  18. Generalized Superconductors and Holographic Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata


    We study generalized holographic s-wave superconductors in four dimensional R-charged black hole backgrounds, in the probe limit. We first establish the superconducting nature of the boundary theory, and then study its optical properties. Numerical analysis indicates that a negative index of refraction appears at low frequencies in the theory, for certain temperature ranges, for specific values of the charge parameter. The corresponding cut-off values for these are numerically established in several cases.

  19. Holographic superconductors with Weyl corrections (United States)

    Momeni, Davood; Raza, Muhammad; Myrzakulov, Ratbay


    A quick review on the analytical aspects of holographic superconductors (HSCs) with Weyl corrections has been presented. Mainly, we focus on matching method and variational approaches. Different types of such HSC have been investigated — s-wave, p-wave and Stúckelberg ones. We also review the fundamental construction of a p-wave type, in which the non-Abelian gauge field is coupled to the Weyl tensor. The results are compared from numerics to analytical results.

  20. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  1. Is a color superconductor topological?

    CERN Document Server

    Nishida, Yusuke


    A fully gapped state of matter, whether insulator or superconductor, can be asked if it is topologically trivial or nontrivial. Here we investigate topological properties of superconducting Dirac fermions in 3D having a color superconductor as an application. In the chiral limit, when the pairing gap is parity even, the right-handed and left-handed sectors of the free space Hamiltonian have nontrivial topological charges with opposite signs. Accordingly, a vortex line in the superconductor supports localized gapless right-handed and left-handed fermions with the dispersion relations E=+/-vp_z (v is a parameter dependent velocity) and thus propagating in opposite directions along the vortex line. However, the presence of the fermion mass immediately opens up a mass gap for such localized fermions and the dispersion relations become E=+/-v(m^2+p_z^2)^(1/2). When the pairing gap is parity odd, the situation is qualitatively different. The right-handed and left-handed sectors of the free space Hamiltonian in the ...

  2. Modified entropic gravitation in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Clovis Jacinto de, E-mail: [European Space Agency, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris (France)


    Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde's derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor's quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravitational force can be interpreted as a surface force. The experimental detection of this new repulsive gravitational-type force appears to be challenging.

  3. Fault current limiters using superconductors (United States)

    Norris, W. T.; Power, A.

    Fault current limiters on power systems are to reduce damage by heating and electromechanical forces, to alleviate duty on switchgear used to clear the fault, and to mitigate disturbance to unfaulted parts of the system. A basic scheme involves a super-resistor which is a superconductor being driven to high resistance when fault current flows either when current is high during a cycle of a.c. or, if the temperature of the superconductive material rises, for the full cycle. Current may be commuted from superconductor to an impedance in parallel, thus reducing the energy dispersed at low temperature and saving refrigeration. In a super-shorted transformer the ambient temperature primary carries the power system current; the superconductive secondary goes to a resistive condition when excessive currents flow in the primary. A super-transformer has the advantage of not needing current leads from high temperature to low temperature; it behaves as a parallel super-resistor and inductor. The supertransductor with a superconductive d.c. bias winding is large and has small effect on the rate of fall of current at current zero; it does little to alleviate duty on switchgear but does reduce heating and electromechanical forces. It is fully active after a fault has been cleared. Other schemes depend on rapid recooling of the superconductor to achieve this.

  4. Physical properties and electronic band structure of noncentrosymmetric Th7Co3 superconductor. (United States)

    Sahakyan, M; Tran, V H


    The physical properties of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th7Co3 have been investigated by means of ac-magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements. From these data it is established that Th7Co3 is a dirty type-II superconductor with [Formula: see text] K, [Formula: see text] and moderate electron-phonon coupling [Formula: see text]. Some evidences for anisotropic superconducting gap are found, including e.g. reduced specific heat jump ([Formula: see text]) at T c, diminished superconducting energy gap ([Formula: see text]) as compared to the BCS values, power law field dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient at 0.4 K ([Formula: see text]), and a concave curvature of the [Formula: see text] line. The magnitudes of the thermodynamic critical field and the energy gap are consistent with mean-squared anisotropy parameter [Formula: see text]. The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state is reasonably fitted to an oblate spheroidal gap model. Calculations of scalar relativistic and fully relativistic electronic band structures reveal considerable differences in the degenerate structure, resulting from asymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC). A large splitting energy of spin-up spin-down bands at the Fermi level E F, [Formula: see text] meV is observed and a sizeable ratio [Formula: see text] could classify the studied compound into the class of noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong ASOC. The noncentrosymmetry of the crystal structure and the atomic relativistic effects are both responsible for an importance of ASOC in Th7Co3. The calculated results for the density of states show a Van Hove singularity just below E F and dominant role of the 6d electrons of Th to the superconductivity.

  5. Fifteen years of seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field; Quince anos de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prieto, Irais; Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field started in 1992 with an analog station of vertical components detecting a large number of earthquakes of varying magnitudes. In February 1993, a seismic network was installed, composed of six digital stations DR-2000-with S-6000 and S-5000 sensors and three registration channels (N-S, E-W and vertical). This was the basis for the development of a program to correct arrival-time data for P and S waves due to instrument drift. From January to April 1994 and May to August 1995, based on the 170 seismic events recorded, a velocity model was proposed. From December 1995 to July 1996, seismic data were processed and interpreted, and zones of occurrence were determined for events according to magnitude and the predominant noise in the field. From September 2003 to December 2004, 10 seismic stations (permanent and temporary) were installed and monitored and it was concluded the most active fault system was El Volcan. From September to December 2004, production wells LV-4 and LV-13 were acid-stimulated and seismic monitoring during this period allowed for the definition of two important seismic zones, both related to the El Volcan fault system and to injection well LV-8. After reopening these production wells, it was concluded an increase in seismic activity had occurred. From May to August 2006, information was compiled from the seismic network and it was concluded El Partido had became the most active fault system. Presently the seismic network in this field is composed of one SARA station and four K2 units. The SARA station is telemetrically connected to the base station. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, el monitoreo sismico empezo a partir de 1992 con una sola estacion analogica de registro vertical, la cual detecto una gran cantidad de temblores de distintas magnitudes. En febrero de 1993 se instalo una red sismica con seis estaciones digitales DR-2000 con sensores S-6000 y S

  6. Quantum fluctuations in the time-dependent BCS-BEC crossover. (United States)

    Breid, B M; Anglin, J R


    We describe the time-dependent formation of a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate from a BCS state of fermionic atoms as a result of slow sweeping through a Feshbach resonance. We apply a path integral approach for the molecules, and use two-body adiabatic approximations to solve the atomic evolution in the presence of the classical molecular fields, obtaining an effective action for the molecules. In the narrow resonance limit, the problem becomes semiclassical, and we discuss the growth of the molecular condensate in the saddle point approximation. Considering this time-dependent process as an analogue of the cosmological Zurek scenario, we compare the way condensate growth is driven in this rigorous theory with its phenomenological description via time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  7. BEC-BCS Crossover and the EoS of Strongly Interacting Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, Efrain J


    We show that at sufficiently strong coupling, quarks form a BEC system that does not collapse into a pressureless gas at zero temperature only if the diquark-diquark repulsion is self-consistently taken into account. It is found that there is a critical value of the coupling constant of the diquark-diquark interaction beyond which the tendency at zero temperature of the strongly interacting diquark gas to condense into the system ground state with zero momentum is compensated by the repulsion between diquarks so keeping a positive pressure with no significant variation along the whole strongly interacting region. We discuss possible implications of the diquark-diquark interaction for the astrophysics of compact stars. Also we analyze the effect of a strong magnetic field for the BEC-BCS crossover.

  8. Dimensionality and Finite Number Effect on BCS Transition of Atomic Fermi Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hai-Tao; WANG Lin-Cheng; YI Xue-Xi


    The effect of finite number and dimensionality has been discussed in this paper. The finite number effect has a negative correction to final temperature for 2D or 3D atomic Fermi gases. The changing of final temperature obtained by scanning from BEC region to BCS region are 10% or so with N ≤ 103 and can be negligible when N > 103.However, in 1D atomic Fermi gas, the effect gives a positive correction which greatly changes the final temperature in Fermi gas. This behavior is completely opposed to the 2D and 3D cases and a proper explanation is still to be found.Dimensionality also has a positive correction, in which the more tightly trapping, the higher final temperature one gets with the same particle number. A discussion is also presented.

  9. Purely in silico BCS classification: science based quality standards for the world's drugs. (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Kim, Young Hoon; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Crippen, Gordon M; Takagi, Toshihide; Bermejo, Marival; Amidon, Gordon L


    BCS classification is a vital tool in the development of both generic and innovative drug products. The purpose of this work was to provisionally classify the world's top selling oral drugs according to the BCS, using in silico methods. Three different in silico methods were examined: the well-established group contribution (CLogP) and atom contribution (ALogP) methods, and a new method based solely on the molecular formula and element contribution (KLogP). Metoprolol was used as the benchmark for the low/high permeability class boundary. Solubility was estimated in silico using a thermodynamic equation that relies on the partition coefficient and melting point. The validity of each method was affirmed by comparison to reference data and literature. We then used each method to provisionally classify the orally administered, IR drug products found in the WHO Model list of Essential Medicines, and the top-selling oral drug products in the United States (US), Great Britain (GB), Spain (ES), Israel (IL), Japan (JP), and South Korea (KR). A combined list of 363 drugs was compiled from the various lists, and 257 drugs were classified using the different in silico permeability methods and literature solubility data, as well as BDDCS classification. Lastly, we calculated the solubility values for 185 drugs from the combined set using in silico approach. Permeability classification with the different in silico methods was correct for 69-72.4% of the 29 reference drugs with known human jejunal permeability, and for 84.6-92.9% of the 14 FDA reference drugs in the set. The correlations (r(2)) between experimental log P values of 154 drugs and their CLogP, ALogP and KLogP were 0.97, 0.82 and 0.71, respectively. The different in silico permeability methods produced comparable results: 30-34% of the US, GB, ES and IL top selling drugs were class 1, 27-36.4% were class 2, 22-25.5% were class 3, and 5.46-14% were class 4 drugs, while ∼8% could not be classified. The WHO list

  10. History of Soil Survey and Evolution of the Brazilian Soil Classification System - SiBCS (United States)

    Cunha dos Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Csekö Nolasco de Carvalho, Claudia; Homem Antunes, Mauro Antonio; Muggler, Cristine Carole


    national soil classification was presented by Marcelo Camargo (Embrapa Soils) and Jacob Bennema (FAO adviser). When Soil Taxonomy was first published in 1975, a field workshop was held in Brazil, and the system was not accepted by the country scientists; one main reason was the usage of climate as a main attribute for suborders. In 1978, the first national soil field correlation meeting was held with the goal of developing the national system, giving origin to the Brazilian Soil Classification System (SiBCS). In 1980, a working group was created by Embrapa Soils and other institutes resulting in four approximations of the system. In 1999, the first edition of the SiBCS was released, followed by a second edition in 2006 and the third in 2013. The SiBCS is a hierarchic system, based on morphogenetic soil attributes, with six categorical levels: order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. It has 13 soil orders, and it is structured as a key down to subgroup level. Many soil attributes are based on concepts adopted by the Soil Taxonomy (United States) and by the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB - FAO). The development of the SiBCS is supervised by a national executive committee, and information is available at (in Portuguese).

  11. Pseudogaps and Impurity Effects in High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Paul J.


    In science the questions found are almost as important as the answers. High temperature (high T{sub c}) superconductivity is a phenomenon that has made researchers question accepted notions of solids in many aspects. Many ideas need revision such as BCS superconductivity and the quasiparticle notion. Clearly, these are large issues and this body of work seeks only to add some insight into these things. This work contains angle resolved photoemission data from BSCCO (Bi{sub 2} Sr{sub 2} Ca Cu{sub 2} O{sub 8+{delta}}), a high T{sub c} material chosen for convenience with respect to the experimental technique. In particular, the studies included O doped BSCCO, single plane BSCCO, and Zn doped BSCCO. O doping, a common tool for altering the carrier concentration, helped to establish the origin of T{sub c} as being limited by either phase fluctuations or the superconductor pairing strength. While reestablishing the agreement of the data with d-wave pairing, the data also demonstrated the relevant energy scales of interest across the doping regime. In studying single plane BSCCO as a function of carrier concentration, d-wave pairing again was reinforced and the limiting factors of T{sub c} in the single layered compound proved to be quite similar to that of the bilayer compound. The results for Zn doped BSCCO are presented in a more phenomenological flavor. Significant changes occurred in the spectra such as the suppression of the superconducting dip and the spectral peak along {Lambda}Y. While a unique microscopic theory does not readily present itself, these are dramatic changes to key portions of BSCCO spectra. Also, an anomalous change of spectral weight appeared in this material.

  12. Provisional in-silico biopharmaceutics classification (BCS) to guide oral drug product development. (United States)

    Wolk, Omri; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik


    The main objective of this work was to investigate in-silico predictions of physicochemical properties, in order to guide oral drug development by provisional biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). Four in-silico methods were used to estimate LogP: group contribution (CLogP) using two different software programs, atom contribution (ALogP), and element contribution (KLogP). The correlations (r(2)) of CLogP, ALogP and KLogP versus measured LogP data were 0.97, 0.82, and 0.71, respectively. The classification of drugs with reported intestinal permeability in humans was correct for 64.3%-72.4% of the 29 drugs on the dataset, and for 81.82%-90.91% of the 22 drugs that are passively absorbed using the different in-silico algorithms. Similar permeability classification was obtained with the various in-silico methods. The in-silico calculations, along with experimental melting points, were then incorporated into a thermodynamic equation for solubility estimations that largely matched the reference solubility values. It was revealed that the effect of melting point on the solubility is minor compared to the partition coefficient, and an average melting point (162.7 °C) could replace the experimental values, with similar results. The in-silico methods classified 20.76% (± 3.07%) as Class 1, 41.51% (± 3.32%) as Class 2, 30.49% (± 4.47%) as Class 3, and 6.27% (± 4.39%) as Class 4. In conclusion, in-silico methods can be used for BCS classification of drugs in early development, from merely their molecular formula and without foreknowledge of their chemical structure, which will allow for the improved selection, engineering, and developability of candidates. These in-silico methods could enhance success rates, reduce costs, and accelerate oral drug products development.

  13. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012 (United States)

    Caro, Cary A.


    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  14. Enhancement of mechanical properties of 123 superconductors (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam


    A composition and method of preparing YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor. Addition of tin oxide containing compounds to YBCO superconductors results in substantial improvement of fracture toughness and other mechanical properties without affect on T.sub.c. About 5-20% additions give rise to substantially improved mechanical properties.

  15. Electromagnetic Dark Energy and Gravitoelectrodynamics of Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto


    It is shown that Beck's electromagnetic model of dark energy in superconductors can account for the gravitomagnetic London moment, which has been conjectured by the author to explain the Cooper pair's mass excess reported by Cabrera and Tate. A new Einstein-Planck regime for gravitation in condensed matter is proposed as a natural scale to host the gravitoelectrodynamic properties of superconductors.

  16. Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto


    The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.

  17. High temperature superconductors: A technological revolution (United States)


    The objectives are to demonstrate the Meissner effect through magnetic levitation, to demonstrate one application of the Meissner effect, the low friction magnetic rotation bearing, and to demonstrate magnetic flux penetration and the Type II nature of ceramic superconductors via the stacking of the superconductor disks. Experimental equipment and procedures are described.

  18. 基于分频段ABAP谱减法的鸟叫声分类研究%Study of the Bird Sound Classification Based on ABAP Multi-band Spectral Subtraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍琰; 刘建芳; 郭力争


    To the bird sounds mixed with noises ,the estimation of noise is done by using the adaptive Bartlett aver-aging periodogram (ABAP), and noise reduction is made by using multi-band spectral subtraction, then the dynamic feature of Mel-frequency spectrum coefficients by two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (TDMFCC)was extracted. The comparison experiments of 30 bird sounds classification in different environments under different SNRs were con-structed based on the combination of SVM classifier and different features , namely MFCC, TDMFCC and MFCC, TDMFCC through ABAP multi-band spectral subtraction respectively .The results showed that the method of TDMFCC through ABAP multi-band spectral subtraction combined SVM can achieve better classification effect , which is very suitable for the bird sound classification in noisy environments .%针对带噪鸟叫声,用自适应Bartlett平均周期图( ABAP)完成噪声估计,进行分频段谱减去噪后,提取经过二维离散余弦变换的Mel频率倒谱系数动态声音特征(TDMFCC)。最后,利用支持向量机(SVM)分别结合MFCC、TDMFCC以及经过分频段ABAP谱减法降噪后的MFCC和TDMFCC对30种鸟叫声进行不同背景环境和信噪比情况下的对比实验。结果表明,分频段ABAP谱减法降噪后提取TDMFCC结合SVM的方法可以取得较好的分类效果,适用于噪声环境下的鸟叫声分类。

  19. Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey V [University of Wisconsin


    This proposal is for theoretical work on strongly correlated electron systems, which are at the center of experimental and theoretical activities in condensed-matter physics. The interest to this field is driven fascinating variety of observed effects, universality of underlying theoretical ideas, and practical applications. I propose to do research on Iron-based superconductors (FeSCs), which currently attract high attention in the physics community. My goal is to understand superconductivity and magnetism in these materials at various dopings, the interplay between the two, and the physics in the phase in which magnetism and superconductivity co-exist. A related goal is to understand the origin of the observed pseudogap-like behavior in the normal state. My research explores the idea that superconductivity is of electronic origin and is caused by the exchange of spin-fluctuations, enhanced due to close proximity to antiferromagnetism. The multi-orbital/multi-band nature of FeSCs opens routes for qualitatively new superconducting states, particularly the ones which break time-reversal symmetry. By all accounts, the coupling in pnictdes is below the threshold for Mott physics and I intend to analyze these systems within the itinerant approach. My plan is to do research in two stages. I first plan to address several problems within weak-coupling approach. Among them: (i) what sets stripe magnetic order at small doping, (ii) is there a preemptive instability into a spin-nematic state, and how stripe order affects fermions; (iii) is there a co-existence between magnetism and superconductivity and what are the system properties in the co-existence state; (iv) how superconductivity emerges despite strong Coulomb repulsion and can the gap be s-wave but with nodes along electron FSs, (v) are there complex superconducting states, like s+id, which break time reversal symmetry. My second goal is to go beyond weak coupling and derive spin-mediated, dynamic interaction between

  20. Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms. (United States)

    Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter


    Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach.

  1. NMR study of filled skutterudite superconductors MPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}(M=Sr,Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magishi, K., E-mail: [Inst. of Socio-Arts and Sciences, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Sugawara, H.; Ohta, N.; Saito, T.; Koyama, K. [Inst. of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)


    We report on the results of the {sup 195}Pt NMR measurements for MPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}(M=Sr,Ba) to clarify the microscopic electronic states at low temperatures. In SrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12} and BaPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}, the isotropic component of the Knight shift, that is, the contribution from the Pt 5s states is smaller than that in LaPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}. In the superconducting state, 1/T{sub 1} shows a small coherence peak just below T{sub C}, followed by an exponential decrease at low temperatures revealing on energy gap {Delta}/k{sub B}T{sub C}=1.6, which suggests a conventional BCS superconductor.

  2. BCS-like critical fluctuations with limited overlap of Cooper pairs in FeSe (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Chen, Guanyu; Zhu, Xiyu; Xing, Jie; Wen, Hai-Hu


    In conventional superconductors, very narrow superconducting-fluctuation regions are observed above Tc, because strong overlap of Cooper pairs occurs in a coherence volume 4 π ξ3/3 with ξ being the coherence length. In the bulk form of iron-chalcogenide superconductor FeSe, it is argued that the system may be located in the crossover region from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), where strong superconducting fluctuations are expected. In this respect, we carried out magnetization, specific heat, and Nernst effect measurements on FeSe single crystals in order to investigate the superconducting fluctuation effect near Tc. The temperature range of diamagnetization induced by superconducting fluctuations seems very narrow above Tc. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves measured at different magnetic fields do not cross at a single point. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in many cuprate superconductors, where such a crossing point has been taken as a clear signature of strong critical fluctuations. The magnetization data can be scaled according to the Ginzburg-Landau fluctuation theory for a quasi-two-dimensional system. However the scaling result cannot be described by the theoretical function of the fluctuation theory due to the limited fluctuation regions. The specific heat jump near Tc is rather sharp without the trace of strong superconducting fluctuations. This is also supported by the Nernst effect measurements which indicate a very narrow region for vortex motion above Tc. Associated with a very small value of Ginzburg number and further analyses, we conclude that the superconducting fluctuations are vanishingly weak above Tc in this material. Our results are strongly against the picture of significant phase fluctuations in FeSe single crystals, although the system has a very limited overlap of Cooper pairs in the coherence volume. This dichotomy provides new insights into the superconducting mechanism when the

  3. Noncentrosymmetric superconductors in one dimension (United States)

    Samokhin, K. V.


    We study the fermionic boundary modes (Andreev bound states) in a time-reversal invariant one-dimensional superconductor. In the presence of a substrate, spatial inversion symmetry is broken and the electronic properties are strongly affected by an antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling. We assume an arbitrary even number of nondegenerate bands crossing the Fermi level. We show that there is only one possible pairing symmetry in one dimension, an analog of s -wave pairing. The zero-energy Andreev bound states are present if the sign of the gap function in an odd number of the bands is different from all other bands.

  4. Passivation of high temperature superconductors (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)


    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  5. Microgravity Processing of Oxide Superconductors (United States)

    Hofmeister, William H.; Bayuzick, Robert J.; Vlasse, Marcus; McCallum, William; Peters, Palmer (Technical Monitor)


    The primary goal is to understand the microstructures which develop under the nonequilibrium solidification conditions achieved by melt processing in copper oxide superconductor systems. More specifically, to define the liquidus at the Y- 1:2:3 composition, the Nd-1:2:3 composition, and several intermediate partial substitution points between pure Y-1:2:3 and Nd-1:2:3. A secondary goal has been to understand resultant solidification morphologies and pathways under a variety of experimental conditions and to use this knowledge to better characterize solidification phenomena in these systems.

  6. Holographic superconductors with hyperscaling violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, ZhongYing


    We investigate holographic superconductors in asympototically geometries with hyperscaling violation. The mass of the scalar field decouples from the UV dimension of the dual scalar operator and can be chosen as negative as we want, without disturbing the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We first numerically find that the scalar condenses below a critical temperature and a gap opens in the real part of the conductivity, indicating the onset of superconductivity. We further analytically explore the effects of the hyperscaling violation on the superconducting transition temperature. We find that the critical temperature increases with the increasing of hyperscaling violation.

  7. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  8. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.


    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  9. Generalized superconductors and holographic optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Subhash; Phukon, Prabwal; Sarkar, Tapobrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology,Kanpur 208016 (India)


    We study generalized holographic s-wave superconductors in four dimensional R-charged black hole and Lifshitz black hole backgrounds, in the probe limit. We first establish the superconducting nature of the boundary theories, and then study their optical properties. Numerical analysis indicates that a negative Depine-Lakhtakia index may appear at low frequencies in the theory dual to the R-charged black hole, for certain temperature ranges, for specific values of the charge parameter. The corresponding cut-off values for these are numerically established in several cases. Such effects are seen to be absent in the Lifshitz background where this index is always positive.

  10. 基于分段组合复调制高斯函数的多通带滤波器设计%Multi-band-pass Filter Design Based on Sectional Combination Complex Modulated Gaussian Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊新海; 孙国强; 张传清; 张丽霞


    针对数字信号处理中的滤波器设计问题,提出了一种多通带数字滤波器设计方法,即通过分段组合复调制将具有不同中心频率的高斯函数进行时域叠加,使其逼近任一多通带数字滤波器的幅频特性,最后通过实例验证了该方法的有效性和实用性。结果表明:通过灵活选择形状参数、频移,可以设计出性能良好的特殊用途滤波器。%In view of the problem of filter design in digital signal processing,a method of multi-band-pass digital filter design is put forward.The method can approach any amplitude frequency characteristic of multi-band-pass digital filter by splicing sectional combined complex modulated Gaussian function in time domain.At last,the validity and practicability of the method is validated by examples.The result shows that filter with special application and excellent performance can be designed to take as a choice of shape parameter and frequency-shifting.

  11. Losses of Superconductor Journal Bearing (United States)

    Han, Y. H.; Hull, J. R.; Han, S. C.; Jeong, N. H.; Oh, J. M.; Sung, T. H.


    A high-temperature superconductor (HTS) journal bearing was studied for rotational loss. Two HTS bearings support the rotor at top and bottom. The rotor weight is 4 kg and the length is about 300 mm. Both the top and bottom bearings have two permanent magnet (PM) rings with an iron pole piece separating them. Each HTS journal bearing is composed of six pieces of superconductor blocks of size 35×25×10 mm. The HTS blocks are encased in a cryochamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. The inner spool of the cryochamber is made from G-10 to reduce eddy current loss, and the rest of the cryochamber is stainless steel. The magnetic field from the PM rings is < 10 mT on the stainless part. The rotational drag was measured over the same speed range at several chamber pressures. Results indicate that a chamber pressure of 0.4 mtorr is sufficiently low to minimize windage loss, and the 10 mT design criterion for the magnetic field on the stainless part of the cryochamber is too high.

  12. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.


    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  13. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  14. Electronic transport in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, M.J.


    The author investigates the electron transport coefficients in unconventional superconductors at low temperatures, where charge and heat transport are dominated by electron scattering from random lattice defects. He discusses the features of the pairing symmetry, Fermi surface, and excitation spectrum which are reflected in the low temperature heat transport. For temperatures {kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma} {much_lt} {Delta}{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the bandwidth of impurity induced Andreev states, certain eigenvalues become universal, i.e., independent of the impurity concentration and phase shift. Deep in the superconducting phase ({kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma}) the Wiedemann-Franz law, with Sommerfeld`s value of the Lorenz number, is recovered. He compares the results for theoretical models of unconventional superconductivity in high-{Tc} and heavy fermion superconductors with experiment. The findings show that impurities are a sensitive probe of the low-energy excitation spectrum, and that the zero-temperature limit of the transport coefficients provides an important test of the order parameter symmetry.

  15. Method to improve superconductor cable (United States)

    Borden, A.R.


    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.

  16. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors (United States)

    Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.


    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

  17. Solar flare hard and soft x ray relationship determined from SMM HXRBS and BCS data (United States)

    Toot, G. David


    The exact nature of the solar flare process is still somewhat a mystery. A key element to understanding flares if the relationship between the hard x rays emitted by the most energetic portions of the flare and the soft x rays from other areas and times. This relationship was studied by comparing hard x ray light curved from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with the soft x ray light curve and its derivation from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) which is part of the X-Ray Polychrometer (XRP), these instruments being on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (SMM). Data sample was taken from flares observed with the above instruments during 1980, the peak of the previous maximum of solar activity. Flares were chosen based on complete coverage of the event by several instruments. The HXRBS data covers the x ray spectrum from about 25 keV to about 440 keV in 15 spectral channels, while the BCS data used covers a region of the Spectrum around 3 angstroms including emission from the Ca XIX ion. Both sets of data were summed over their spectral ranges and plotted against time at a maximum time resolution of around 3 seconds. The most popular theory of flares holds that a beam of electrons produces the hard x rays by bremsstrahlung while the soft x rays are the thermal response to this energy deposition. The question is whether the rate of change of soft x ray emission might reflect the variability of the electron beam and hence the variability of the hard x rays. To address this, we took the time derivative of the soft x ray light curve and compared it to the hard flares, 12 of them showed very closed agreement between the soft x ray derivative and the hard x ray light curve. The other five did not show this behavior but were similar to each other in general soft x ray behavior. Efforts to determine basic differences between the two kinds of flares continue. In addition the behavior of soft x ray temperature of flares was examined.

  18. The low/high BCS permeability class boundary: physicochemical comparison of metoprolol and labetalol. (United States)

    Zur, Moran; Gasparini, Marisa; Wolk, Omri; Amidon, Gordon L; Dahan, Arik


    Although recognized as overly conservative, metoprolol is currently the common low/high BCS permeability class boundary reference compound, while labetalol was suggested as a potential alternative. The purpose of this study was to identify the various characteristics that the optimal marker should exhibit, and to investigate the suitability of labetalol as the permeability class reference drug. Labetalol's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Labetalol was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. In the pH range throughout the small intestine (6.5-7.5), labetalol exhibited pH-dependent permeability, with higher permeability at higher pH values. While in vitro octanol-buffer partitioning (Log D) values of labetalol were significantly higher than those of metoprolol, the opposite was evident in the in vitro PAMPA permeability assay. The results of the in vivo perfusion studies in rats lay between the two contradictory in vitro studies; metoprolol was shown to have moderately higher rat intestinal permeability than labetalol. Theoretical distribution of the ionic species of the drugs was in corroboration with the experimental in vitro and the in vivo data. We propose three characteristics that the optimal permeability class reference drug should exhibit: (1) fraction dose absorbed in the range of 90%; (2) the optimal marker drug should be absorbed largely via passive transcellular permeability, with no/negligible carrier-mediated active intestinal transport (influx or efflux); and (3) the optimal marker drug should preferably be nonionizable. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that neither metoprolol nor labetalol can be regarded as optimal low/high-permeability class boundary standard. While metoprolol is too conservative due to its complete absorption

  19. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the superconducting transition temperature and superfluid density of SmFeAsO0.85 and PrFe0.925Co0.075AsO superconductors (United States)

    Dong, X. L.; Lu, W.; Yang, J.; Yi, W.; Li, Z. C.; Zhang, C.; Ren, Z. A.; Che, G. C.; Sun, L. L.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, X. J.; Zhao, Z. X.


    We have measured magnetic susceptibility of iron pnictide superconductors SmFeAsO0.85 and PrFe0.925Co0.075AsO under hydrostatic pressure up to 1.15 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature (TC) deceases linearly and the Meissner signal size also decreases with increasing pressure for SmFeAsO0.85 . In contrast, the TC of PrFe0.925Co0.075AsO initially increases with pressure then saturates above ˜0.8GPa . Meanwhile its Meissner signal exhibits the similar pressure dependence. Our results indicate that the pressure dependences of TC and superfluid density in both systems are positively correlated which suggests that these quaternary iron-based superconductors are not conventional BCS ones.

  20. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John


    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 k) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  1. Synthesis of highly phase pure BSCCO superconductors (United States)

    Dorris, S.E.; Poeppel, R.B.; Prorok, B.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Maroni, V.A.


    An article and method of manufacture (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor are disclosed. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. 5 figs.

  2. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John


    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 K) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  3. Tuning non-equilibrium superconductors with lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentef, Michael A.; Kollath, Corinna [HISKP, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kemper, Alexander F. [LBL Berkeley (United States); Georges, Antoine [Ecole Polytechnique and College de France, Paris (France)


    The study of the real-time dynamics dynamics of solids perturbed by short laser pulses is an intriguing opportunity of ultrafast materials science. Previous theoretical work on pump-probe photoemission spectroscopy revealed spectroscopic signatures of electron-boson coupling, which are reminiscent of features observed in recent pump-probe photoemission experiments on cuprate superconductors. Here we investigate the ordered state of electron-boson mediated superconductors subject to laser driving using Migdal-Eliashberg theory on the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh contour. We extract the characteristic time scales on which the non-equilibrium superconductor reacts to the perturbation, and their relation to the coupling boson and the underlying order.

  4. San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, hybrid electric plant renewable energies in the rural communities development; Planta electrica hibrida San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, las energias renovables en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)


    The hybrid electric plant of San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, is described in terms of its environmental goals, operating process and contribution to the development of that rural community of the Baja California Peninsula. San Juanico hybrid electric plant is organized in three electrical generation systems that work in parallel: one uses solar energy, another wind energy and a third one uses diesel fuel. [Spanish] Se describe la planta hibrida de San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, en terminos de los objetivos ambientales que condujeron a su realizacion, asi como de su proceso operativo y de la participacion que tiene en el desarrollo de esa comunidad rural de la peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. La planta hibrida de San Juanico esta constituida por tres sistemas de generacion de electrcicidad que operan en paralelo: uno utiliza energia radiante del sol, otro energia del viento y un tercero utiliza diesel.

  5. Revisiting the BCS, a measurement system for characterizing the optics of solar collectors (United States)

    Strachan, J. W.

    The Beam Characterization System is being employed at the Sandia's National Solar Thermal Test Facility to characterize the optical performance of heliostats, point-focus solar collectors, and their optical sub-elements as part of the on-going task to develop solar thermal technologies. With this measurement system, images of concentrated solar flux are acquired using digital imaging and processed to obtain such measures of the collector's optical performance as beam power, flux distribution, and beam diameter. Key system elements are a diffusely reflective target for imaging collector beams, meteorological instrumentation including a flux gauge to measure flux at one point in the beam, and a calibration technique to establish a pixel-intensity to flux-density conversion factor for the image. The system is employed in a variety of collector tests such as beam quality, tracking error, and wind effects. The paper describes the Beam Characterization System and its components and presents, for illustration, sample test results. An analysis of the Beam Characterization System's sources of measurement error is presented. Lastly, measurement techniques that employ the BCS to align heliostats and to measure or estimate collector surface slope errors are described.

  6. Pairing in the BCS and LN approximations using continuum single particle level density (United States)

    Id Betan, R. M.; Repetto, C. E.


    Understanding the properties of drip line nuclei requires to take into account the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy of the system. This paper has the purpose to show that the continuum single particle level density is a convenient way to consider the pairing correlation in the continuum. Isospin mean-field and isospin pairing strength are used to find the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and Lipkin-Nogami (LN) approximate solutions of the pairing Hamiltonian. Several physical properties of the whole chain of the Tin isotope, as gap parameter, Fermi level, binding energy, and one- and two-neutron separation energies, were calculated and compared with other methods and with experimental data when they exist. It is shown that the use of the continuum single particle level density is an economical way to include explicitly the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy in large scale mass calculation. It is also shown that the computed properties are in good agreement with experimental data and with more sophisticated treatment of the pairing interaction.

  7. Pairing in the BCS and LN approximations using continuum single particle level density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Id Betan, R.M., E-mail: [Instituto de Física Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura (UNR), Av. Pellegrini 250, S2000BTP Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Estudios Nucleares y Radiaciones Ionizantes (UNR), Riobamba y Berutti, S2000EKA Rosario (Argentina); Repetto, C.E. [Instituto de Física Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura (UNR), Av. Pellegrini 250, S2000BTP Rosario (Argentina)


    Understanding the properties of drip line nuclei requires to take into account the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy of the system. This paper has the purpose to show that the continuum single particle level density is a convenient way to consider the pairing correlation in the continuum. Isospin mean-field and isospin pairing strength are used to find the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) and Lipkin–Nogami (LN) approximate solutions of the pairing Hamiltonian. Several physical properties of the whole chain of the Tin isotope, as gap parameter, Fermi level, binding energy, and one- and two-neutron separation energies, were calculated and compared with other methods and with experimental data when they exist. It is shown that the use of the continuum single particle level density is an economical way to include explicitly the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy in large scale mass calculation. It is also shown that the computed properties are in good agreement with experimental data and with more sophisticated treatment of the pairing interaction.

  8. Trends in Energy Management Technology: BCS Integration Technologies - Open Communications Networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Tom


    Our overall purpose in writing this series of articles is to provide Federal energy managers some basic informational tools to assist their decision making process relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential. Since Federal buildings rely on energy management systems more than their commercial counterparts, it is important for energy practitioners to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex systems. This is the second article in a series and will focus on building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and an assessment of current approaches to open communications protocols. This is important because networking is a complex subject and the networks form the basic infrastructure for energy management functions and for integrating a wide variety of OEM equipment into a complete EMCIS. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. Future topics will concentrate on more practical aspects including applications software, product offerings, networking strategies, and case studies of actual installations. Please refer to the first article for a more complete overview of the purpose and background for this series.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sunitha Reddy


    Full Text Available The present work was aimed at the enhancement of solubility of Fenofibrate a BCS class II drug by Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery systems (SEDDS. The solubility of Fenofibrate in various excipients was determined. The excipients were screened for maximum solubility and compatibility. SEDDS formulations of Fenofibrate were developed using different Oils, Surfactants and Co-Surfactant combinations. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were drawn using Triplot software and by applying Pseudoternary phase diagrams, microemulsification area was evaluated.Formulations were screened based on visual observances and phase diagrams. Seven formulations were selected for further evaluations like stability, effect of dilution, freeze-thawing, emulsion droplet size and zeta potential. Among the seven formulations three were optimized and In-Vitro dissolution was performed. The dissolution rate of SEDDS was compared with plain Fenofibrate (API. The study confirmed that the solubility and dissolution rate of Fenofibrate were remarkably increased when compared to that of plain drug. Hence SEDDS formulations can be a potential alternative to traditional oral drug delivery systems of Fenofibrate to improve its bioavailability.

  10. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol. (United States)

    Vogelpoel, H; Welink, J; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Möller, H; Olling, M; Shah, V P; Barends, D M


    Literature data related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are presented on verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol in the form of BCS-monographs. Data on the qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these active substances with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in the Netherlands (NL) are also provided; in view of these MA's the assumption was made that these tablets were bioequivalent to the innovator product. The development of a database with BCS-related data is announced by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

  11. Application Fields of High-Temperature Superconductors


    Hott, Roland


    Potential application fields for cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and the status of respective projects are reviewed. The availability of a reliable and inexpensive cooling technique will be essential for a future broad acceptance of HTS applications.

  12. Progress of metallic superconductors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1, Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)


    Highlights: ► Japanese contributions on the R and D of different metallic superconductors are summarized. ► Nb–Ti wires have been developed for MRI, accelerator, MAGLEV train and other applications. ► Multifilamentary Nb{sub 3}Sn wires with excellent performance have been developed for high-field use. ► Long-length Nb{sub 3}Al wires with promising strain tolerance have been fabricated by a new process. -- Abstract: This article overviews the development of metallic superconductors in Japan covering different kinds of alloys and intermetallic compounds. Metallic superconductors have opened many new application areas in science and technology. Japan has been one of the leading countries in the world, both in the research and development and in large-scale manufacturing of metallic superconductors.

  13. De-Sitter spacetime as a superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, D


    A superconductor is a material with infinite electric conductivity. Superconductivity and magnetism are happening as two opposite phenomena: superconductors need weak external magnetic fields (the Meissner effect) while generally with a strong external magnetic field we loose superconductivity. In \\cite{ref:I}-\\cite{Chernodub:2011tv} , the author showed that a very strong magnetic field can turn an empty space into a superconductor. We extended this idea to the constant curvature spaces, de Sitter (dS) spacetime and by a careful analysis of the modes for a spinor with arbitrary spin, we show that in a very similar condensation scenario as was proposed for flat space, we could transform dS to a superconductor.

  14. Application of BCS technology in pulverized coal furnace%BCS技术在煤粉炉上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞峰; 于现军


    BCS是应用于燃烧过程的通用优化控制技术,已成功应用于链条炉、 CFB锅炉、高炉热风炉、轧钢加热炉等多种炉型。在此基础上, BCS首次在某热电厂3台65 t/h煤粉炉上得到应用,并取得了良好的运行效果。%BCS is a sort of general optimization control technology for combustion process, which has been successfully applied to CFB boiler , chain boiler, hot stove for blast furnace, and reheating fur-nace for rolling etc.The optimization control system based on BCS was first put into use for 3 ×65t/h pulverized coal boiler and gets good results.

  15. Thermoelectric effect in a nonequilibrium superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, C. M.


    Initial results are reported showing experimental evidence for a pair-quasiparticle electrochemical potential difference in a superconductor in a temperature gradient. This potential diverges at low temperature and, within the resolution of the data, seems to approach a constant value at T/sub c/. The data can be used to extract a value for the thermal transport current of normal excitations in the superconductor.

  16. Majorana Fermions and Topology in Superconductors


    Sato, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Satoshi


    Topological superconductors are novel classes of quantum condensed phases, characterized by topologically nontrivial structures of Cooper pairing states. On the surfaces of samples and in vortex cores of topological superconductors, Majorana fermions, which are particles identified with their own anti-particles, appear as Bogoliubov quasiparticles. The existence and stability of Majorana fermions are ensured by bulk topological invariants constrained by the symmetries of the systems. Majorana...

  17. Holographic entanglement entropy in imbalanced superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Arghya


    We study the behavior of holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for imbalanced holographic superconductor. It is found that HEE for this imbalanced system decreases with the increase of imbalance in chemical potentials. Also for an arbitrary mismatch between two chemical potentials, below the critical temperature, superconducting phase has a lower HEE in comparison to the AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole phase. This suggests entanglement entropy to be a useful physical probe for understanding the imbalanced holographic superconductors.

  18. High temperature superconductors and other superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A S


    Written by eminent researchers in the field, this text describes the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity starting from liquid helium and a charged Bose-gas. It also discusses the modern bipolaron theory of strongly coupled superconductors, which explains the basic physical properties of high-temperature superconductors. This book will be of interest to fourth year graduate and postgraduate students, specialist libraries, information centres and chemists working in high-temperature superconductivity.

  19. Systematic study of even-even nuclei with Hartree-Fock+BCS method using Skyrme SIII force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Naoki; Takahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Naoki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences


    We have applied the Hartree-Fock+BCS method with Skyrme SIII force formulated in a three-dimensional Cartesian-mesh representation to even-even nuclei with 2 {<=} Z {<=} 114. We discuss the results concerning the atomic masses, the quadrupole (m=0, 2) and hexadecapole (m=0, 2, 4) deformations, the skin thicknesses, and the halo radii. We also discuss the energy difference between oblate and prolate solutions and the shape difference between protons and neutrons. (author)

  20. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity. (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter


    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  1. Regional-dependent intestinal permeability and BCS classification: elucidation of pH-related complexity in rats using pseudoephedrine. (United States)

    Fairstein, Moran; Swissa, Rotem; Dahan, Arik


    Based on its lower Log P value relative to metoprolol, a marker for the low/high-permeability (P(eff)) class boundary, pseudoephedrine was provisionally classified as BCS low-permeability compound. On the other hand, following oral administration, pseudoephedrine fraction dose absorbed (F(abs)) and systemic bioavailability approaches 100%. This represents a challenge to the generally recognized P(eff)-F(abs) correlation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the confusion in pseudoephedrine's BCS classification. Pseudoephedrine's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Pseudoephedrine was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. All of the permeability studies revealed similar phenomenon; at any given intestinal segment/pH, the permeability of metoprolol was higher than that of pseudoephedrine, however, as the intestinal region becomes progressively distal, and the pH gradually increases, pseudoephedrine's permeability rises above that of metoprolol in the former segment. This unique permeability pattern likely explains pseudoephedrine's complete absorption. In conclusion, pseudoephedrine is a BCS Class I compound; no discrepancy between P(eff) and F(abs) is involved in its absorption. Rather, it reflects the complexity behind P(eff) when considering the whole of the intestine. We propose to allow high-permeability classification to drugs with P(eff) that matches/exceeds the low/high class benchmark anywhere throughout the intestinal tract and not restricted necessarily to the jejunum.

  2. BCS Ground State and XXZ Antiferromagnetic Model as SU(2), SU(1,1) Coherent States: An Algebraic Diagonalization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing-Hao; ZHANG Hong-Biao; CHEN Jing-Ling


    An algebraic diagonalization method is proposed. As two examples, the Hamiltonians of BCS ground stateunder mean-field approximation and XXZ antiferromagnetic model in linear spin-wave frame have been diagonalized byusing SU(2), SU(1,1) Lie algebraic method, respectively. Meanwhile, the eigenstates of the above two models are revealedto be SU(2), SU(1,1) coherent states, respectively. The relation between the usual Bogoliubov Valatin transformationand the algebraic method in a special case is also discussed.

  3. Simultaneous constraint and phase conversion processing of oxide superconductors (United States)

    Li, Qi; Thompson, Elliott D.; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.; DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Parrell, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Jodi L.


    A method of making an oxide superconductor article includes subjecting an oxide superconductor precursor to a texturing operation to orient grains of the oxide superconductor precursor to obtain a highly textured precursor; and converting the textured oxide superconducting precursor into an oxide superconductor, while simultaneously applying a force to the precursor which at least matches the expansion force experienced by the precursor during phase conversion to the oxide superconductor. The density and the degree of texture of the oxide superconductor precursor are retained during phase conversion. The constraining force may be applied isostatically.

  4. Superconductors in the power grid materials and applications

    CERN Document Server


    Superconductors offer high throughput with low electric losses and have the potential to transform the electric power grid. Transmission networks incorporating cables of this type could, for example, deliver more power and enable substantial energy savings. Superconductors in the Power Grid: Materials and Applications provides an overview of superconductors and their applications in power grids. Sections address the design and engineering of cable systems and fault current limiters and other emerging applications for superconductors in the power grid, as well as case studies of industrial applications of superconductors in the power grid. Expert editor from highly respected US government-funded research centre Unique focus on superconductors in the power grid Comprehensive coverage

  5. Multi-band time-frequency spreading OFDM for power line communication system%一种多带时频扩展OFDM电力线通信系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李风飞; 郝学飞; 胡国荣


      针对电力线信道特性和噪声特性以及现有技术在鲁棒性和可靠性方面的不足,提出了一种适用于电力线环境的多带时频扩展OFDM(Multi-Band Time-Frequency Spreading OFDM,MB-TFS-OFDM)系统。该系统利用时频二维扩频技术来抵抗电力线信道的时变性和脉冲噪声,引入多带技术来克制脉冲噪声和窄带噪声,采用OFDM技术以抵抗符号间干扰、满足对速率的需求。与OFDM系统相比,MB-TFS-OFDM以牺牲G(扩频因子)倍的速率,获得10log(G) dB的增益;通过频带自适应选择和多带滤波,提高系统的鲁棒性。仿真结果显示,MB-TFS-OFDM性能优于OFDM和时频扩展OFDM(Time-Frequency Spreading OFDM, TFS-OFDM),尤其在脉冲噪声环境下,性能改善达5 dB。%This paper proposes a Multi-Band Time-Frequency Spreading OFDM (MB-TFS-OFDM) system used in powerline environment in accordance with the characteristics of powerline channels and its noise, and the shortcomings of the existing technology in robustness and reliability. The system resists time variability of the powerline channels and the impulse noise through Time-Frequency Spreading technology, restrains the impulse noise and narrowband noise through the adoption of multiband technology, and resists the intersymbol interference and meets the need of speed through OFDM technology. Compared with the OFDM system, the MB-TFS-OFDM acquires a gain of 10*log (G) dB at the cost of G-times speed, and enhances the robustness of the system through the adaptive selection of the frequency band and multi-band filter. The simulation results show that the MB-TFS-OFDM performances are better than OFDM and Time-Frequency Spreading OFDM, with a performance improvement of 5dB under impulse noise environment.

  6. Charge order in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, Sinan; Kampf, Arno P. [Theoretical Physics III, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg (Germany); Atkinson, Bill A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)


    Motivated by widespread experimental evidence of charge orders in underdoped cuprate superconductors, we study a three band model of a cuprate plane. Our calculations start from a pseudogap-like normal system with a reconstructed Fermi surface, and we search for charge instabilities. From the charge susceptibilities, we identify a charge ordering instability with an ordering wavevector, q*, that matches experimental results not only with respect to the doping dependence but more importantly regarding its magnitude and direction. Namely, q* points along the Brillouin zone axes. Thus, our results clarify the discrepancy between many recent theoretical calculations and the experiments. We extend this calculation towards possible loop current instabilities and the charge ordering pattern in bilayer systems.

  7. Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Gupta; D M Gaitonde


    We calculate the longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation rate (UAR) in clean d-wave superconductors in the Meissner and the mixed phases. In the Meissner phase we calculate the contribution of previously ignored processes involving the excitation of a pair of quasi-holes or quasi-particles. There is a contribution ∝ in the regime B ≪ F ≪ 0 and a contribution ∝ 1/ in the regime F ≪ B ≪ 0. We find that these contributions to the UAR are large and cannot be ignored. In the mixed phase, using a semi-classical description, we calculate the electronic quasi-particle contribution to the UAR which at very low , has a independent term proportional to $\\sqrt{H}$.

  8. Moessbauer studies of ternary superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, C.W.; Van Landuyt, G.L.; Barnet, C.D.; Shenoy, G.K.; Dunlap, B.D.; Fradin, F.Y.


    Moessbauer studies of the ternary Chevrel phase and rare earth rhodium boride superconductors have been made. Anomalous phonon properties at the Sn site in SnMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, SnMo/sub 6/Se/sub 8/, and La/sub 0/ /sub 98/Sn/sub 0/ /sub 02/Mo/sub 6/Se/sub 8/ have been investigated. Studies of polarization of conduction electrons at the site of the magnetic ion have been made by means of the /sup 151/Eu Moessbauer effect in Eu/sub x/Sn/sub 1-x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/ and the effects of such polarization on superconducting properties discussed. The Moessbauer effect in /sup 166/Er has been used to investigate the electronic ground state in the ternary compound ErRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/ both in the superconducting and magnetically ordered states.

  9. Search for Majorana fermions in topological superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shi, Xiaoyan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, Samuel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klem, John Frederick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The goal of this project is to search for Majorana fermions (a new quantum particle) in a topological superconductor (a new quantum matter achieved in a topological insulator proximitized by an s-wave superconductor). Majorana fermions (MFs) are electron-like particles that are their own anti-particles. MFs are shown to obey non-Abelian statistics and, thus, can be harnessed to make a fault-resistant topological quantum computer. With the arrival of topological insulators, novel schemes to create MFs have been proposed in hybrid systems by combining a topological insulator with a conventional superconductor. In this LDRD project, we will follow the theoretical proposals to search for MFs in one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductors. 1D topological superconductor will be created inside of a quantum point contact (with the metal pinch-off gates made of conventional s-wave superconductors such as niobium) in a two-dimensional topological insulator (such as inverted type-II InAs/GaSb heterostructure).

  10. Evolution of the vortex state in the BCS-BEC crossover of a quasi two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gas (United States)

    Luo, Xuebing; Zhou, Kezhao; Zhang, Zhidong


    We use the path-integral formalism to investigate the vortex properties of a quasi-two dimensional (2D) Fermi superfluid system trapped in an optical lattice potential. Within the framework of mean-field theory, the cooper pair density, the atom number density, and the vortex core size are calculated from weakly interacting BCS regime to strongly coupled while weakly interacting BEC regime. Numerical results show that the atoms gradually penetrate into the vortex core as the system evolves from BEC to BCS regime. Meanwhile, the presence of the optical lattice allows us to analyze the vortex properties in the crossover from three-dimensional (3D) to 2D case. Furthermore, using a simple re-normalization procedure, we find that the two-body bound state exists only when the interaction is stronger than a critical one denoted by G c which is obtained as a function of the lattice potential’s parameter. Finally, we investigate the vortex core size and find that it grows with increasing interaction strength. In particular, by analyzing the behavior of the vortex core size in both BCS and BEC regimes, we find that the vortex core size behaves quite differently for positive and negative chemical potentials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51331006, 51590883, and 11204321) and the Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-M05-3).

  11. Superconductors (United States)

    Newkirk, Lawrence R.; Valencia, Flavio A.


    The structural quality of niobium germanide as a high-transition-temperature superconducting material is substantially improved by the presence of about 5 at. % oxygen. Niobium germanide having this oxygen content may readily be prepared as a bulk coating bonded to a metallic substrate by chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  12. Superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor planar junctions of aluminium on DELTA-doped gallium arsenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas; Kutchinsky, jonatan


    We have fabricated and characterized planar superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor (S-Sm-S) junctions with a high quality (i.e. low barrier) interface between an n++ modulation doped conduction layer in MBE grown GaAs and in situ deposited Al electrodes. The Schottky barrier at the S...

  13. Geometric heat trapping in niobium superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixers due to niobium titanium nitride leads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, B; Jackson, BD; Gao, [No Value; Klapwijk, TM


    We analyze the current-voltage characteristics of a Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixer with NbTiN leads to identify the heating processes in this device. We argue that the electron-electron interaction is much faster than the electron-phonon interaction, and show that the heat flow to

  14. Strong nonequilibrium coherent states in mesoscopic superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Wildt, Morten; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef;


    A biased superconductor-normal metal-superconductor junction is known to be a strong nonequilibrium system, where Andreev scattering at the interfaces creates a quasiparticle distribution function far from equilibrium, a manifestation of this is the well-known subgap structure in the I...

  15. Direct current heating in superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel devices for THz mixing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, P; Klapwijk, T.M; Kovtonyuk, S.; van de Stadt, H.


    DC heating effects in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions are studied by comparing junctions sandwiched between niobium or aluminum layers. With niobium a temperature rise of several Kelvin is observed, which is reduced by an order of magnitude by using aluminum. A simple

  16. Niobium titanium nitride-based superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixers for low-noise terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, B.D.; De Lange, G.; Zijlstra, T.; Kroug, M.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Stern, J.A.


    Integrating NbTiN-based microstrip tuning circuits with traditional Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions enables the low-noise operation regime of SIS mixers to be extended from below 0.7 to 1.15 THz. In particular, mixers incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/NbTiN microstrip tuning circ

  17. Josephson current in a normal-metal nanowire coupled to a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisu, H.; Lu, B.; Taguchi, K.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Tanaka, Y.


    We consider a superconducting nanowire proximity coupled to a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) junction, where the magnetization penetrates into a superconducting segment in a nanowire decaying as ∼exp[−∣n∣ξ], where n is the site index and the ξ is the decay length. We tune chemical

  18. 基于Contourlet变换的多波段SAR图像伪彩色融合%False Color Fusion for Multi-band SAR Images Based on Contourlet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永安; 宋建社; 周文明


    A false color image fusion method for multi-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on contourlet transform is presented. It works in the following way: firstly, the flexible multiresolution, high directionality and anisotropy of contourlet transform are used for implementing the multiscale decomposition for SAR images. In the contourlet transform domain, an edge information measurement rule is used to merge the directional subbands, and an averaging rule is used to merge the lowpass subbands.Then, a hybrid high boost filter algorithm is proposed to produce the red, green and blue color channels of red-green-blue (RGB)model based on the gray fused image. Finally, the false color fused image is displayed in the RGB color space. This method translates the gray information into color information available to human visual system and enhances the spectral resolution for SAR images.Experimental results is confirmed the validity of the proposed method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between the body condition and the results of metabolic profile tests done in the milk (DIM of dairy cows in different days. Moreover, critical points in the early pre- and postpartum period were also analysed. In the experiment, blood and urine samples were taken from 1984 clinically healthy cows (from 49 large scale dairy farms in Hungary, selected randomly from various groups of cows with different physiological stage of lactation and gestation, 3-5 hours after the morning feeding. During the experiment body condition scoring (BCS was measured on 1-5 scale, as well. It was concluded, that the BCS (body condition score decreased from the 1st day of lactation (3.48 onwards till the 44th day (2.65 and slightly increased till the day 218 (2.89. The haemoglobin value and the glucose concentration in blood samples were ranging within the physiological range and followed the tendency of BCS and the relationship between them and DIM was (P<0.001. There was a close negative correlation between the NEFA (non-esterified-fatty-acid concentration in blood samples and BCS change and it was found that these values were significantly different (P<0.01 compared to the DIM. The aceto-acetic acid concentration exceeded the upper limit of the physiological range indicating hyperketonaemia at DIM 18. The AST (aspartate aminotransferase, liver-enzyme activity value exceeded the upper limit of physiological range and followed the tendency of BCS change . The urea concentration in the blood exceeded the upper limit of the physiological range in all cows. The NABE (net acid-base empty value in the urine samples indicated acid load in the first two groups of samples (pre-, and post calving. During factor analysis I could differentiate three group factors and one individual. The most important factor is the acid-based factor (with urine pH and NEBA. The results of the present study also confirm that the body

  20. pH-Dependent solubility and permeability criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification (BCS and BDDCS) in early drug discovery. (United States)

    Varma, Manthena V; Gardner, Iain; Steyn, Stefanus J; Nkansah, Paul; Rotter, Charles J; Whitney-Pickett, Carrie; Zhang, Hui; Di, Li; Cram, Michael; Fenner, Katherine S; El-Kattan, Ayman F


    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is a scientific framework that provides a basis for predicting the oral absorption of drugs. These concepts have been extended in the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) to explain the potential mechanism of drug clearance and understand the effects of uptake and efflux transporters on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The objective of present work is to establish criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification using pH-dependent passive permeability and aqueous solubility data generated from high throughput screening methodologies in drug discovery settings. The apparent permeability across monolayers of clonal cell line of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, was measured for a set of 105 drugs, with known BCS and BDDCS class. The permeability at apical pH 6.5 for acidic drugs and at pH 7.4 for nonacidic drugs showed a good correlation with the fraction absorbed in human (Fa). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to define the permeability class boundary. At permeability ≥ 5 × 10(-6) cm/s, the accuracy of predicting Fa of ≥ 0.90 was 87%. Also, this cutoff showed more than 80% sensitivity and specificity in predicting the literature permeability classes (BCS), and the metabolism classes (BDDCS). The equilibrium solubility of a subset of 49 drugs was measured in pH 1.2 medium, pH 6.5 phosphate buffer, and in FaSSIF medium (pH 6.5). Although dose was not considered, good concordance of the measured solubility with BCS and BDDCS solubility class was achieved, when solubility at pH 1.2 was used for acidic compounds and FaSSIF solubility was used for basic, neutral, and zwitterionic compounds. Using a cutoff of 200 μg/mL, the data set suggested a 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity in predicting both the BCS and BDDCS solubility classes. In conclusion, this study identified

  1. Fumaric acid microenvironment tablet formulation and process development for crystalline cenicriviroc mesylate, a BCS IV compound. (United States)

    Menning, Mark M; Dalziel, Sean M


    Cenicriviroc mesylate (CVC) is a potent dual antagonist of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) in phase 2b development as an entry inhibitor for HIV-1 infection treatment.1,2 CVC is a weak base exhibiting BCS IV characteristics with a highly pH dependent solubility profile (>100 mg/mL for pH 4) and low Caco-2 cell line permeability. Previous tablet formulations of CVC, including spray-dried dispersion and a wet granulation with citric acid, had been found unacceptable for commercial use due to chemical and physical instability or unacceptably high excipient loading precluding fixed-dose combinability. A high drug loading, 26% (w/w), acidic microenvironment tablet formulation with fumaric acid solubilizer (1:1 CVC/fumaric acid) and a dry granulation process was developed iteratively through a sequence of prototypes characterized by beagle dog absorption studies, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and accelerated stability testing. The fumaric acid based dry granulated product demonstrated a mean bioavailability comparable to an oral solution dose in a dog model. Stability and moisture sensitivity of the formulation were improved via the dry granulation process technique and the use of fumaric acid. It is hypothesized that the observed slow dissolution kinetics of fumaric acid prolongs an acidic microenvironment around the agglomerated CVC crystals and excipients leading to increased CVC dissolution and thereby absorption. The fumaric acid formulation also demonstrated absorption resilience to gastric pH extremes in a dog model. This optimized formulation and process enables CVC to be a viable candidate for current HIV treatment paradigms of single once daily fixed-dose combination products.

  2. Nonperturbative quantum dynamics of the order parameter in the BCS pairing model (United States)

    Galitski, Victor


    We consider quantum dynamics of the order parameter in the discrete pairing model (Richardson model) in thermodynamic equilibrium. The integrable Richardson Hamiltonian is represented as a direct sum of Hamiltonians acting in different Hilbert spaces of single-particle and paired/empty states. This allows us to factorize the full thermodynamic partition function into a combination of simple terms associated with real spins on singly occupied states and the partition function of the quantum XY model for Anderson pseudospins associated with the paired/empty states. Using coherent-state path integral, we calculate the effects of superconducting phase fluctuations exactly. The contribution of superconducting amplitude fluctuations to the partition function in the broken-symmetry phase is shown to follow from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in imaginary time. These equations in turn allow several interesting mappings, e.g., they are shown to be in a one-to-one correspondence with the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation in supersymmetric quantum mechanics. However, the most practically useful approach to calculate functional determinants is found to be via an analytical continuation of the quantum order parameter to real time, Δ(τ→it) , such that the problem maps onto that of a driven two-level system. The contribution of a particular dynamic order parameter, Δ(τ) , to the partition function is shown to correspond to the sum of the Berry phase and dynamic phase accumulated by the pseudospin. We also examine a family of exact solutions for two-level-system dynamics on a class of elliptic functions and suggest a compact expression to estimate the functional determinants on such trajectories. The possibility of having quantum soliton solutions coexisting with classical BCS mean field is discussed.

  3. In silico prediction of drug dissolution and absorption with variation in intestinal pH for BCS class II weak acid drugs: ibuprofen and ketoprofen. (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L


    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard.

  4. 具有不同宽槽数的矩形微带贴片天线多带特性研究%Study of multi-band property of rectangular microstrip patch antenna having different numbers of wide slots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. S. Abdallah; Y. E. Mohammed; 刘元安


    The property of multi-band operation has been studied and investigated analytically through the design of a rectangular patch microstrip antenna having different numbers of wide slots arranged at both the radiating edges. The analyses were carried out using the method of moments simulation software. It is shown that a patch with three slots has a multi-band feature with four resonant frequencies at 1. 6, 1. 8, 2. 65, and 4. 83 GHz and adequate values of return loss and gain. It is also shown that a patch with two pairs of wide slots arranged at both the radiating edges has the dual band feature with resonant frequencies at 1. 64 and 1. 8 GHz and good values of return loss and gain.%主要研究了多带工作的特性,并通过设计矩形贴片微带天线--包含不同数目的并放置在两辐射端的槽, 进行分析. 分析基于MOM仿真软件包, 结论表明一个贴片上有3个槽的天线具有多带特性: 4个振荡频率分别在1. 6, 1. 8, 2. 65, 和4. 83 GHz, 并且具有足够的反射损耗和增益值. 同时证明了带有2对槽的贴片天线(槽分别位于两辐射端)有双带特性, 其振荡频率分别在1. 64和1. 8 GHz, 而且返回损耗和增益值很好.

  5. 基于听觉掩蔽效应的多频带谱减语音增强方法%Multi-band spectral subtraction method for speech enhancement based on masking property of human auditory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亮; 张天骐; 高洪兴; 易琛


    In order to reduce the music noise introduced by conventional spectral subtraction method for speech enhancement, a speech enhancement algorithm is put forward based on the combination of multi-band spectral subtraction and the masking properties of human auditory system. Firstly, the weighted recursive averaging method is used to estimate the noise power spectrum, exert subtraction of multi-band on the noise-corrupted speech signal; then, auditory masking threshold is computed using the estimated speech signal, adjust the subtraction factor according to the threshold masking; finally, we obtain the spectrum of enhanced speech through computing the gain faction according to the subtraction factor. The simulation shows that, at low SNR, compared with conventional spectral subtraction, background noise and residual music noise are effectively suppressed, and the clarity and intelligibility of speech signal are dramatically improved.%为了减小传统谱减法引入的音乐噪声,提出了一种将多频带谱减和听觉掩蔽效应相结合的语音增强算法.用加权递归平滑的方法估计噪声的功率谱,对带噪的语音信号进行多频带谱减,计算听觉掩蔽阈值,再根据掩蔽阈值动态地调节谱减因子,通过增益函数得到增强后语音信号的频谱.仿真实验结果表明,与传统的谱减法相比,该算法在信噪比较低情况下,背景噪声和残余噪声得到了有效的抑制,语音信号的清晰度和可懂度也有了明显提升.

  6. Application of superconductor-semiconductor Schottky barrier for electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, Alexander; Prunnila, Mika; Ahopelto, Jouni; Kivinen, Pasi; Toermae, Paeivi; Pekola, Jukka


    Electronic cooling in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor structures at sub kelvin temperatures has been demonstrated. Effect of the carrier concentration in the semiconductor on performance of the micro-cooler has been investigated.

  7. Performance of ceramic superconductors in magnetic bearings (United States)

    Kirtley, James L., Jr.; Downer, James R.


    Magnetic bearings are large-scale applications of magnet technology, quite similar in certain ways to synchronous machinery. They require substantial flux density over relatively large volumes of space. Large flux density is required to have satisfactory force density. Satisfactory dynamic response requires that magnetic circuit permeances not be too large, implying large air gaps. Superconductors, which offer large magnetomotive forces and high flux density in low permeance circuits, appear to be desirable in these situations. Flux densities substantially in excess of those possible with iron can be produced, and no ferromagnetic material is required. Thus the inductance of active coils can be made low, indicating good dynamic response of the bearing system. The principal difficulty in using superconductors is, of course, the deep cryogenic temperatures at which they must operate. Because of the difficulties in working with liquid helium, the possibility of superconductors which can be operated in liquid nitrogen is thought to extend the number and range of applications of superconductivity. Critical temperatures of about 98 degrees Kelvin were demonstrated in a class of materials which are, in fact, ceramics. Quite a bit of public attention was attracted to these new materials. There is a difficulty with the ceramic superconducting materials which were developed to date. Current densities sufficient for use in large-scale applications have not been demonstrated. In order to be useful, superconductors must be capable of carrying substantial currents in the presence of large magnetic fields. The possible use of ceramic superconductors in magnetic bearings is investigated and discussed and requirements that must be achieved by superconductors operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures to make their use comparable with niobium-titanium superconductors operating at liquid helium temperatures are identified.

  8. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors (United States)

    Wu, Weite; Chu, Cha Y.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.


    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  9. Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors (United States)

    Dai, Wenqing

    The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  10. Studies on Magnetization Technique of High Temperature Superconductors


    大橋, 忠巌; 荻原, 宏康


    It is known that permanent magnets produce magnetic fields up to 1T. On the other hand, magnetized high temperature superconductors can be used as "super"-permanent magnets which produce magnetic fields higher than 1T, because superconductors can trap higher magnetic fluxes than usual permanent magnets. In order to magnetize a YBCO bulk superconductor, there are two ways; a field cooling (FC) method and a zero field cooling (ZFC) method. FC is the way of magnetizing the superconductor by appl...

  11. The study of some physical properties of high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Atif Mahmoud


    The phenomenon of superconductivity, the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the Cuprates and the properties of these materials is described in the introductory chapter. It also includes a discussion of the pseudogap, which has remained a mystery as has the high transition temperature. Possible applications of high temperature superconductivity are reviewed before the theories by Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer (BCS) and Ginzburg and Landau are briefly sketched. The last section gives excerpts of the by now vast literature on this subject, focussing on the role impurities play in this context. The second chapter develops the mathematical tools and the theoretical background for the description of many-body systems. Various Green's functions are introduced which are then used to describe scattering of quasiparticles off defects of arbitrary strength. They are also required to calculate the a.c. conductivity, for which an expression is derived using linear response theory. The convergence problems one encounters when actually calculating the conductivity are briefly discussed. Detailed calculations for the normal state are presented in the third chapter and in the appendix. The third Chapter begins with a detailed presentation of the tight binding model for the energy dispersion because this model appears to give a more accurate description of the electronic properties of high temperature superconductors than the nearly free electron model. The shape of the two-dimensional Fermi surface is calculated and displayed as function of band filling and the next-nearest neighbor hopping integral B, assuming a rigid band. B plays an important role in the formation of so-called hot spots. The quasiparticle density of states and its Hilbert transform F({omega}) are solved by means of complete elliptic integrals formalism. These results are used to obtain impurity bound states. A simple model for the superconductivity in the cuprate materials is developed on

  12. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.


    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  13. Inhomogeneous magnetic field in AdS/CFT superconductor


    Wen, Wen-Yu


    We study the holographically dual description of superconductor in (2+1)-dimensions in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic field and observe that there exists type I and type II superconductor. A new feature of type changing is observed for type I superconductor near critical temperature.

  14. Physics and chemistry review of layered chalcogenide superconductors


    Deguchi, Keita; Takano, Yoshihiko; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu


    Structural and physical properties of layered chalcogenide superconductors are summarized. In particular, we review the remarkable properties of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductors, FeSe and FeTe-based materials. Furthermore, we introduce the recently-discovered new BiS2-based layered superconductors and discuss its prospects.

  15. Quantum interference in an interfacial superconductor (United States)

    Goswami, Srijit; Mulazimoglu, Emre; Monteiro, Ana M. R. V. L.; Wölbing, Roman; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Blanter, Ya. M.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.; Caviglia, Andrea D.


    The two-dimensional superconductor that forms at the interface between the complex oxides lanthanum aluminate (LAO) and strontium titanate (STO) has several intriguing properties that set it apart from conventional superconductors. Most notably, an electric field can be used to tune its critical temperature (Tc; ref. 7), revealing a dome-shaped phase diagram reminiscent of high-Tc superconductors. So far, experiments with oxide interfaces have measured quantities that probe only the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter and are not sensitive to its phase. Here, we perform phase-sensitive measurements by realizing the first superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) at the LAO/STO interface. Furthermore, we develop a new paradigm for the creation of superconducting circuit elements, where local gates enable the in situ creation and control of Josephson junctions. These gate-defined SQUIDs are unique in that the entire device is made from a single superconductor with purely electrostatic interfaces between the superconducting reservoir and the weak link. We complement our experiments with numerical simulations and show that the low superfluid density of this interfacial superconductor results in a large, gate-controllable kinetic inductance of the SQUID. Our observation of robust quantum interference opens up a new pathway to understanding the nature of superconductivity at oxide interfaces.

  16. Critical pairing fluctuations in the normal state of a superconductor: Pseudogap and quasiparticle damping (United States)

    Lange, Philipp; Tsyplyatyev, Oleksandr; Kopietz, Peter


    We study the effect of critical pairing fluctuations on the electronic properties in the normal state of a clean superconductor in three dimensions. Using a functional renormalization group approach to take the non-Gaussian nature of critical fluctuations into account, we show microscopically that in the BCS regime, where the inverse coherence length is much smaller than the Fermi wave vector, critical pairing fluctuations give rise to a nonanalytic contribution to the quasiparticle damping of order Tc√{Gi}ln(80 /Gi) , where the Ginzburg-Levanyuk number Gi is a dimensionless measure for the width of the critical region. As a consequence, there is a temperature window above Tc where the quasiparticle damping due to critical pairing fluctuations can be larger than the usual T2 Fermi liquid damping due to noncritical scattering processes. On the other hand, in the strong coupling regime where Gi is of order unity, we find within the Gaussian approximation that the quasiparticle damping due to critical pairing fluctuations is proportional to the temperature. Moreover, we show that in the vicinity of the critical temperature Tc the electronic density of states exhibits a fluctuation-induced pseudogap. We also use functional renormalization group methods to derive and classify various types of higher-order scattering processes induced by the pairing interaction in Fermi systems close to the superconducting instability.

  17. Theory of light-induced resonances with collective Higgs and Leggett modes in multiband superconductors (United States)

    Murotani, Yuta; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo


    We theoretically investigate coherent optical excitations of collective modes in two-band BCS superconductors, which accommodate two Higgs modes and one Leggett mode corresponding, respectively, to the amplitude and relative-phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameters associated with the two bands. We find, based on a mean-field analysis, that each collective mode can be resonantly excited through a nonlinear light-matter coupling when the doubled frequency of the driving field coincides with the frequency of the corresponding mode. Among the two Higgs modes, the higher-energy one exhibits a sharp resonance with light, while the lower-energy mode has a broadened resonance width. The Leggett mode is found to be resonantly induced by a homogeneous ac electric field because the leading nonlinear effect generates a potential offset between the two bands that couples to the relative phase of the order parameters. The resonance for the Leggett mode becomes sharper with increasing temperature. All of these light-induced collective modes along with density fluctuations contribute to the third-harmonic generation. We also predict an experimental possibility of optical detection of the Leggett mode.

  18. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  19. Hacia el motor superconductor: estudio de las interacciones entre un rotor superconductor y un estator convencional


    Pallarès Viña, Miquel Joan


    de la tesis:Hacia el motor superconductor: estudio de las interacciones entre un estator convencional y un rotor superconductorEl desarrollo de superconductores de alta temperatura (HTSC) de gran corriente crítica ha permitido la fabricación de dispositivos en varias áreas de la ingeniería electromecánica. En particular, los HTSC pueden mejorar el rendimiento de los motores eléctricos, ya sea sustituyendo el cobre en el rotor de los mismos o con la realización de nuevos diseños.El particular...

  20. dc Josephson Effect in s-Wave Superconductor/Ferromagnet Insulator/p-Wave Superconductor Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Wei


    The Josephson currents in s-wave superconductor/ferromagnet insulator/p-wave superconductor(s/FI/p)junctions are calculated as a function of temperature and the phase taking into account the roughness scattering effect at interface.The phase dependence of the Josephson current I ( φ) between s-wave and px-wave superconductor is predicted to be sin(2φ).The ferromagnet scattering effect,the barrier strength,and the roughness strength at interface suppress the dc currents in s/FI/p junction.

  1. Shock compaction of high- Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, S.T.; Nellis, W.J.; McCandless, P.C.; Brocious, W.F. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Seaman, C.L.; Early, E.A.; Maple, M.B. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kramer, M.J. (Ames Lab., IA (USA)); Syono, Y.; Kikuchi, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan))


    We present the results of shock compaction experiments on high-{Tc} superconductors and describe the way in which shock consolidation addresses critical problems concerning the fabrication of high J{sub c} bulk superconductors. In particular, shock compaction experiments on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} show that shock-induced defects can greatly increase intragranular critical current densities. The fabrication of crystallographically aligned Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} samples by shock-compaction is also described. These experiments demonstrate the potential of the shock consolidation method as a means for fabricating bulk high-{Tc} superconductors having high critical current densities.

  2. Radiation shielding effectiveness of newly developed superconductors (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Medhat, M. E.; Badiger, N. M.; Saliqur Rahman, Abu Zayed Mohammad


    Gamma ray shielding effectiveness of superconductors with a high mass density has been investigated. We calculated the mass attenuation coefficients, the mean free path (mfp) and the exposure buildup factor (EBF). The gamma ray EBF was computed using the Geometric Progression (G-P) fitting method at energies 0.015-15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp. The fast-neutron shielding effectiveness has been characterized by the effective neutron removal cross-section of the superconductors. It is shown that CaPtSi3, CaIrSi3, and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8.2 are superior shielding materials for gamma rays and Tl0.6Rb0.4Fe1.67Se2 for fast neutrons. The present work should be useful in various applications of superconductors in fusion engineering and design.

  3. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors (United States)

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Kullberg, Marc L.


    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  4. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations (United States)

    Karasack, Vincent G.


    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  5. Practical superconductor development for electrical power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goretta, K.C. (comp.)


    Development of useful high-critical-temperature (high-[Tc]) superconductors requires synthesis of superconducting compounds; fabrication of wires, tapes, and films from these compounds; production of composite structures that incorporate stabilizers or insulators; and design and testing of efficient components. This report describes the technical progress of research and development efforts aimed at producing superconducting components that are based on the Y-Ba-Cu, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu, Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu, and (TI,Pb)-(Ba,Sr)-Ca-Cu oxide systems. Topics discussed are synthesis and heat treatment of high-[Tc] superconductors, formation of monolithic and composite wires and tapes, superconductor/metal connectors, characterization of structures and superconducting and mechanical properties, fabrication and properties of thin films, and development of prototype components. Collaborations with industry and academia are documented.

  6. Charge and spin transport in mesoscopic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wolf


    Full Text Available Background: Non-equilibrium charge transport in superconductors has been investigated intensely in the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in the vicinity of the critical temperature. Much less attention has been paid to low temperatures and the role of the quasiparticle spin.Results: We report here on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures at very low temperatures. By comparing the nonlocal conductance obtained by using ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors, we discriminate charge and spin degrees of freedom. We observe spin injection and long-range transport of pure, chargeless spin currents in the regime of large Zeeman splitting. We elucidate charge and spin transport by comparison to theoretical models.Conclusion: The observed long-range chargeless spin transport opens a new path to manipulate and utilize the quasiparticle spin in superconductor nanostructures.

  7. AC susceptibilities of grain-textured superconductors (United States)

    Sakamoto, N.; Fukuda, Y.; Koga, M.; Akune, T.; Khan, H. R.; Lüders, K.


    In-phase χ n‧ and out-phase χ n″ components of nth harmonics of AC susceptibility with measuring parameters of a DC magnetic field Bdc, an amplitude Ba and a frequency f of the superimposed AC magnetic fields give substantial information of the superconducting properties. In low- Tc metallic superconductors, χ1‧ shows smooth transition and χ1″ does single peak. High- Tc oxide superconductors with anisotropic and grain-textured structures show deformed complex characteristics. Double peaks in χ1″ and shoulders in χ1‧ appear in AC susceptibility of Hg-1223 superconductors. Instead of simple Bean model, a grained model, where the superconducting grains are immersed in weak superconducting matrix, are proposed. The susceptibilities numerically analyzed using the model show varied and deformed curves and are successfully compared with the measured results.

  8. Crack problem in a long cylindrical superconductor (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He; Zeng, Jun


    In this work, the general problem of a center crack in a long cylindrical superconductor is studied. The dependence of the stress intensity factor on the parameters, including the crack length and the applied field, is investigated. We presented a simple model in which the effect of the crack on the critical current is taken into account. It is assumed that the crack forms a perfect barrier to the flow of current. The Bean model and the Kim model are considered for the critical state. Based on the complex potential and boundary collocation methods, the stress intensity factor under the magnetic field is obtained for a long cylindrical superconductor containing a central crack. The results show that the crack length and the applied field have significant effects on the fracture behavior of the superconductor.

  9. Physical properties and electronic band structure of noncentrosymmetric Th7Co3 superconductor (United States)

    Sahakyan, M.; Tran, V. H.


    The physical properties of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th7Co3 have been investigated by means of ac-magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements. From these data it is established that Th7Co3 is a dirty type-II superconductor with {{T}\\text{c}}=1.8+/- 0.02 K, Hc2\\text{orb}text{kOe}c2p and moderate electron-phonon coupling {λ\\text{el-\\text{ph}}}=0.56 . Some evidences for anisotropic superconducting gap are found, including e.g. reduced specific heat jump (Δ {{C}p}/γ {{T}\\text{c}}=1.01 ) at T c, diminished superconducting energy gap ({{Δ }0}/{{k}\\text{B}}{{T}\\text{c}}=2.17 ) as compared to the BCS values, power law field dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient at 0.4 K ({{C}p}/T\\propto {{H}0.6} ), and a concave curvature of the {{H}c2}≤ft({{T}\\text{c}}\\right) line. The magnitudes of the thermodynamic critical field and the energy gap are consistent with mean-squared anisotropy parameter ˜ 0.23 . The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state is reasonably fitted to an oblate spheroidal gap model. Calculations of scalar relativistic and fully relativistic electronic band structures reveal considerable differences in the degenerate structure, resulting from asymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC). A large splitting energy of spin-up spin-down bands at the Fermi level E F, Δ {{E}\\text{ASOC}}˜ 100 meV is observed and a sizeable ratio Δ {{E}\\text{ASOC}}/{{k}\\text{B}}{{T}\\text{c}}˜ 640 could classify the studied compound into the class of noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong ASOC. The noncentrosymmetry of the crystal structure and the atomic relativistic effects are both responsible for an importance of ASOC in Th7Co3. The calculated results for the density of states show a Van Hove singularity just below E F and dominant role of the 6d electrons of Th to the superconductivity.

  10. Thermomagnetic phenomena in the mixed state of high temperature superconductors (United States)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.


    Galvano- and thermomagnetic-phenomena in high temperature superconductors, based on kinetic coefficients, are discussed, along with a connection between the electric field and the heat flow in superconductor mixed state. The relationship that determines the transport coefficients of high temperature superconductors in the mixed state based on Seebeck and Nernst effects is developed. It is shown that this relationship is true for a whole transition region of the resistive mixed state of a superconductor. Peltier, Ettingshausen and Righi-Leduc effects associated with heat conductivity as related to high temperature superconductors are also addressed.

  11. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.


    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  12. Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I-type-II transition


    Iskin, Menderes


    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 045602 (2011) Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I–type-II transition M. Iskin1 and C. A. R. S´a de Melo2 1Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, TR-34450 Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey 2School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA (Received 11 March 2010; published 26 April 2011) We study ultracold neutral fermion superfluids in the presence of fictit...

  13. Workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors has gathered 102 registered participants from research laboratories, universities and industry. 8 European companies, active in superconducting materials and cables were present. This workshop has been organized to deal with the status of the world research and development on superconducting materials and cables for high field magnets (B > 10 T). The workshop has also reviewed the status of high temperature superconductors and transmission line cables for potential use in low field superconducting magnets for injectors and beam transfer lines, as well as cables for pulsed magnets that might be used in future hadron colliders or injectors.

  14. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor (United States)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.


    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  15. Electrical connection structure for a superconductor element (United States)

    Lallouet, Nicolas; Maguire, James


    The invention relates to an electrical connection structure for a superconductor element cooled by a cryogenic fluid and connected to an electrical bushing, which bushing passes successively through an enclosure at an intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and the temperature of the cryogenic fluid, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, said bushing projecting outside the ambient temperature enclosure. According to the invention, said intermediate enclosure is filled at least in part with a solid material of low thermal conductivity, such as a polyurethane foam or a cellular glass foam. The invention is applicable to connecting a superconductor cable at cryogenic temperature to a device for equipment at ambient temperature.

  16. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarrao


    Full Text Available Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  17. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Batista, C. D.; Zhu, J.-X.; Thompson, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  18. Electromagnetic Effects in Superconductors in Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmedov, B J


    The general relativistic modifications to the resistive state in superconductors of second type in the presence of a stationary gravitational field are studied. Some superconducting devices that can measure the gravitational field by its red-shift effect on the frequency of radiation are suggested. It has been shown that by varying the orientation of a superconductor with respect to the earth gravitational field, a corresponding varying contribution to AC Josephson frequency would be added by gravity. A magnetic flux (being proportional to angular velocity of rotation $\\Omega$) through a rotating hollow superconducting cylinder with the radial gradient of temperature $\

  19. Long-range spin transport in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Detlef; Wolf, Michael J. [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)


    Recently, there has been some controversy about spin-polarized quasiparticle transport and relaxation in superconductors, with reports of both anomalously short or anomalously long relaxation times as compared to the normal state. Here, we report on non-local transport in multiterminal superconductor-ferromagnet structures. We find signatures of spin transport over distances much larger than the normal-state spin-diffusion length in the presence of a large Zeeman splitting of the quasiparticle states. The relaxation length shows a nearly linear increase with magnetic field, hinting at a freeze-out of spin relaxation by the Zeeman splitting.

  20. Cellulose production, activated by cyclic di-GMP through BcsA and BcsZ, is a virulence factor and an essential determinant of the three-dimensional architectures of biofilms formed by Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. (United States)

    Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W


    Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, which results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. The production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan is critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. In addition, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E. amylovora Ea1189. In this study, we demonstrate that cellulose is synthesized by E. amylovora Ea1189 and is a major modulator of the three-dimensional characteristics of biofilms formed by this bacterium, and also contributes to virulence during systemic host invasion. In addition, we demonstrate that the activation of cellulose biosynthesis in E. amylovora is a c-di-GMP-dependent process, through allosteric binding to the cellulose catalytic subunit BcsA. We also report that the endoglucanase BcsZ is a key player in c-di-GMP activation of cellulose biosynthesis. Our results provide evidence of the complex composition of the extracellular matrix produced by E. amylovora and the implications of cellulose biosynthesis in shaping the architecture of the biofilm and in the expression of one of the main virulence phenotypes of this pathogen.

  1. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus; Atomes de lithium-6 ultra froids dans la transition BEC-BCS: experiences et construction d'un montage experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, M


    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  2. Simulation and Experiment on the Monopole Multi-Band Triangle Nested Printed Antenna%三角形嵌套多频单极印刷天线的仿真与实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林澍; 蔡润南; 黄冠龙; 王宜欢; 蒋瑞祺; 王进祥


    A multi-band antenna with triangle-nested construction is proposed and designed,which can operate in four bands.The antenna is nested by four radiator units,including three triangle metal-rings and a triangle metal-patch.The four units have a common vertex,which can be fed by coplanar waveguide.The proposed antenna model has been simulated and analyzed by CST.The simulated results present that the number of multi-band,the central frequency and bandwidth can be controlled by the number and height of triangle-nested rings,as well as the angle of the vertex.Moreover,there is consistent regularity between every frequency and the height of the corresponding unit.Finally,a monopole multi-band printed antenna with fractal-nested triangle rings has been designed,working at 2.4GHz,3.5GHz,5.2GHz and 5.8GHz.What′s more,the antenna prototype has been manufactured and measured in anechoic chamber.The research results indicate that this proposed antenna can achieve an excellent controllability in pass-band.The total size of the antenna is miniature,which is feasible for manufacture and can be widely applied in WLAN or WiMAX fields.%设计了一种三角形嵌套结构的具有四个频带的多频天线,该天线由三个三角形金属环和一个三角形金属片形成的辐射单元嵌套构成,四个单元共用一个顶点,可通过共面波导进行馈电。应用电磁仿真软件CST进行仿真分析,结果表明多频天线的频带个数、中心频点和带宽是由嵌套三角形的个数、高度和顶角角度控制,且各频点与相应单元的高度之间具有一致的规律。仿真设计了2.4GHz、3.5GHz、5.2GHz和5.8GHz四个频带的多频三角形分形嵌套单极印刷天线,并制作了天线实物进行实验验证。研究表明,三角形分形嵌套天线通频带可控性良好,且

  3. Giant supercurrent states in a superconductor-InAs/GaSb-superconductor junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiaoyan, E-mail:; Pan, W.; Hawkins, S. D.; Klem, J. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Yu, Wenlong; Jiang, Zhigang [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Andrei Bernevig, B. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    Superconductivity in topological materials has attracted a great deal of interest in both electron physics and material sciences since the theoretical predictions that Majorana fermions can be realized in topological superconductors. Topological superconductivity could be realized in a type II, band-inverted, InAs/GaSb quantum well if it is in proximity to a conventional superconductor. Here, we report observations of the proximity effect induced giant supercurrent states in an InAs/GaSb bilayer system that is sandwiched between two superconducting tantalum electrodes to form a superconductor-InAs/GaSb-superconductor junction. Electron transport results show that the supercurrent states can be preserved in a surprisingly large temperature-magnetic field (T – H) parameter space. In addition, the evolution of differential resistance in T and H reveals an interesting superconducting gap structure.

  4. Analytical Result on the Supercurrent Through a Superconductor/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Yu; LIN Tsung-Han


    We present an analytical result for the supercurrent across a superconductor/quantum-dot/superconductor junction. By converting the current integration into a special contour integral, we can express the current as a sum of the residues of poles. These poles are real and give a natural definition of the Andreev bound states. We also use the exact result to explain some features of the supercurrent transport behavior.

  5. Blind convolution speech separation based on multi-band ordering%基于多频段能量相关排序的语音卷积混合盲源分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧旭东; 张天骐; 闫振华; 张世会


    针对语音卷积盲源分离频域法排列顺序不确定性问题,提出一种多频段能量排序算法。通过对混合信号的短时傅里叶变换(STFT),在频域上各个频点建立一个瞬时混合模型进行独立分量分析,之后结合能量相关排序法和波达方向(DOA)排序法解决排序不确定性问题,再利用分裂语谱方法解决幅度不确定性问题,进而得到每个频点正确的分离子信号,最后利用逆短时傅里叶(ISTFT)变换得到分离的源信号。仿真结果表明,与Mu-rata的排序算法对比,改进的算法在信号偏差比、信道干扰比、系统误差比上都所提高。%For the ranking uncertainty in frequency domain of speech convolutive blind source separation,this paper deve-loped a new method based on multi-band energy sorting algorithm.Firstly,through the short Fourier transform (STFT)for the mixed signals,it built an instantanneous mixing model in frequency domain of each point and then used independent compo-nent analysis to separate it.After that,it proposed a multi-band energy sorting algorithm which was based on combining ener-gy-related and the direction of arrival (DOA)sorting methods to solve the problem of ranking uncertainty.Then it used the split speech spectral method to solve the problem of the uncertainty of magnitude,and got the proper sub-signals of each fre-quency.Finally,it separated out the source singals through the inverse short Fourier tranform.The simulation experiments show that the proposed method has better source to distortion,source to interference ratio and source to artifacts ratio.

  6. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography in the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA): Preliminary results. (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Li, Ceng; Zeng, Mengsu; Lu, Xin; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Jiali; Sami, Muhammad Umair; Xu, Kai


    Non-CE MRA techniques (true steady-state free-precession, SSFP) have been used effectively for the selective visualization of the portal venous system and inferior vena cava. Budd-Chiari Syndrome (BCS) encompasses a number of conditions that cause the obstruction of the hepatic outflow tract from the small hepatic veins to the junction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium. The purpose of this study was to diagnose BCS with IVC obstruction using respiratory triggered three-dimensional (3D) true SSFP with T-SLIP and compare to digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The image acquisition of 3D true SSFP scans was successfully performed in 108 patients (≧2 score). The mean and SDs of the relative SNR and CNR were 55.96±2.32 and 30.72±1.56, respectively. Intergroup agreement for the detection of the 4 types (membranous obstruction, segmental occlusion, and membranous obstruction with a hole and segmental stenosis) of BCS with IVC obstruction was excellent between the Time-SLIP and the DSA. In conclusion, Time-SLIP for the detection of IVC obstruction BCS does not require the use of contrast. This procedure can achieve a high success rate, high accuracy rate and fine image quality for the diagnosis of IVC obstruction BCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanosuspension development of scutellarein as an active and rapid orally absorbed precursor of its BCS class IV glycoside scutellarin. (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Miao, Xiaoqing; Cao, Fangrui; Li, Shang; Ai, Nana; Chang, Qi; Lee, Simon M Y; Zheng, Ying


    This work addressed solubility and membrane permeability problems of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class IV glycoside scutellarin (SG) by developing a nanosuspension of its aglycone scutellarein (S) as a precursor. An S nanosuspension containing poloxamer 188 was prepared using antisolvent precipitation where hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was utilized as a lyophilizing protectant. Particle size and polydispersity index after redispersion were 342.6 ± 18.2 and 0.32 ± 0.06 nm, respectively. The dissolution rate of the S nanosuspension was superior compared with the physical mixture. No free S, but SG and SG's isomer were detected in plasma following oral delivery of SG or S, S nanosuspension or physical mixture of S. The Cmax values of SG after dosing with the S nanosuspension were 12.0, 8.0, and 4.5-fold higher than the SG, S, or physical mixture, respectively. The Tmax and mean residence time (MRTlast ) of SG after dosing with the S nanosuspension were significantly shorter than S and SG. Treatments with SG, S, or S nanosuspensions reduced the hemorrhage rate in a zebrafish model, but the S nanosuspension exhibited the strongest rescue effect. This study highlights a new strategy to circumvent BCS Class IV flavonoid glycosides using a formulation of their aglycone as a precursor to accelerate oral absorption and improve bioactivity.

  8. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation. (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guijiang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian


    Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs) were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl(®)), respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs.

  9. Mechanistic PBPK Modeling of the Dissolution and Food Effect of a BCS IV Compound - the Venetoclax Story. (United States)

    Emami Riedmaier, Arian; Lindley, David J; Hall, Jeffrey A; Castleberry, Steven; Slade, Russell T; Stuart, Patricia; Carr, Robert A; Borchardt, Thomas B; Bow, Daniel A J; Nijsen, Marjoleen


    Venetoclax, a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor, is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class IV compound. The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to mechanistically describe absorption and disposition of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of venetoclax in humans. A mechanistic PBPK model was developed incorporating measured amorphous solubility, dissolution, metabolism and plasma protein binding. A middle-out approach was used to define permeability. Model predictions of oral venetoclax pharmacokinetics were verified against clinical studies of fed and fasted healthy volunteers, and clinical drug interaction studies with strong CYP3A inhibitor (ketoconazole) and inducer (rifampicin). Model verification demonstrated accurate prediction of the observed food effect following a low-fat diet. Ratios of predicted versus observed Cmax and AUC of venetoclax were within 0.8- to 1.25-fold of observed ratios for strong CYP3A inhibitor and inducer interactions, indicating that the venetoclax elimination pathway was correctly specified. The verified venetoclax PBPK model is one of the first examples mechanistically capturing absorption, food effect and exposure of an ASD formulated compound. This model allows evaluation of untested drug-drug interactions, especially those primarily occurring in the intestine, and paves the way for future modeling of BCS IV compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Bioadhesive Drug Delivery System for Enhancing the Permeability of a BCS Class III Drug via Hot-Melt Extrusion Technology. (United States)

    Mendonsa, Nicole S; Thipsay, Priyanka; Kim, Dong Wuk; Martin, Scott T; Repka, Michael A


    As the buccal route of administration has the ability to avoid the GI tract and first-pass effect by directing the absorption toward the cheek area, the bioavailability of BCS class III drugs can be increased through this route. Only a handful of studies have been conducted using oleic acid as a permeation enhancer in any transbuccal drug delivery system. Therefore, the objectives of this novel study were to develop a buccal tablet using two concentrations of oleic acid for a model BCS class III drug via hot-melt extrusion technology and to investigate the effects of oleic acid on the physicochemical properties of the tablet. The model drug selected was ondansetron hydrochloride. Formulations consisting of polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide) and two concentrations of oleic acid were prepared by hot-melt extrusion techniques. A melting point depression of the drug was obtained in the extruded granules as seen by the DSC thermograms. The ex vivo permeation studies showed a greater permeation of the drug in the formulation containing 10% oleic acid (F2) as compared to the formulation containing 20% oleic acid (F1), although not statistically significant. The in vitro bioadhesion studies, swelling studies, and surface pH measurements of the tablets were also conducted. In conclusion, permeation studies exhibited the potential of oleic acid as a buccal permeation enhancer as a significant permeation of the drug was obtained in the formulations. Hot-melt extrusion technology was successfully employed to formulate buccal tablets of ondansetron hydrochloride.

  11. p-wave superconductors in dilaton gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, ZhongYing


    In this paper, we study peculiar properties of p-wave superconductors in dilaton gravity. The scale invariance of the bulk geometry is effectively broken due to the existence of dilaton. By coupling the dilaton to the non-Abelian gauge field, i.e., $-\\frac14 e^{-\\beta \\Phi} F^a_{\\mu\

  12. Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors (United States)

    Chaudhari, Praveen


    The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.

  13. Stripe phases in high-temperature superconductors. (United States)

    Emery, V J; Kivelson, S A; Tranquada, J M


    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials.

  14. Kinetic energy driven pairing in cuprate superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, TA; Jarrell, M; Macridin, A; Slezak, C


    Pairing occurs in conventional superconductors through a reduction of the electronic potential energy accompanied by an increase in kinetic energy. In the underdoped cuprates, optical experiments show that pairing is driven by a reduction of the electronic kinetic energy. Using the dynamical cluster

  15. Stripe Phases in High-Temperature Superconductors (United States)

    Emery, V. J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Tranquada, J. M.


    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials.

  16. Epitaxy of semiconductor-superconductor nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, P.; Ziino, N.L.B.; Chang, W.


    Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface...

  17. Transverse acousto-electric effect in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipavský, P., E-mail: [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague 2 121 16 (Czech Republic); Koláček, J., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10, Prague 6 162 00 (Czech Republic); Lin, P.-J., E-mail: [Research Department, Universal Analytics Inc., RR2 Airdrie, AB T4B 2A4 (Canada)


    Highlights: • A description of an acousto-electric effect of superconductors is formulated, continuous over the phase transition. • Interactions among a sound wave, normal and superconducting electrons are included. • Response radiation attains a maximum before transition to the normal state. • Effects should be observable in clean niobium. - Abstract: We formulate a theory based on the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) theory and Newtonian vortex dynamics to study the transverse acousto-electric response of a type-II superconductor with Abrikosov vortex lattice. When exposed to a transverse acoustic wave, Cooper pairs emerge from the moving atomic lattice and moving electrons. As in the Tolman–Stewart effect in a normal metal, an electromagnetic field is radiated from the superconductor. We adapt the equilibrium-based TDGL theory to this non-equilibrium system by using a floating condensation kernel. Due to the interaction between normal and superconducting components, the radiated electric field as a function of magnetic field attains a maximum value occurring below the upper critical magnetic field. This local increase in electric field has weak temperature dependence and is suppressed by the presence of impurities in the superconductor.

  18. Quantum Dots Coupled to a Superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinggaard, Anders Robert

    are tuned electrostatically. This includes tuning the odd occupation of the dot through a quantum phase transition, where it forms a singlet with excitations in the superconductor. We detail the fabrication of these bottom gated devices, which additionally feature ancillary sensor dots connected...

  19. Noncontact Measurement Of Critical Current In Superconductor (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.


    Critical current measured indirectly via flux-compression technique. Magnetic flux compressed into gap between superconductive hollow cylinder and superconductive rod when rod inserted in hole in cylinder. Hall-effect probe measures flux density before and after compression. Method does not involve any electrical contact with superconductor. Therefore, does not cause resistive heating and consequent premature loss of superconductivity.

  20. Excitations in Topological Superfluids and Superconductors (United States)

    Wu, Hao

    In this thesis I present the theoretical work on Fermionic surface states, and %the bulk Bosonic collective excitations in topological superfluids and superconductors. Broken symmetries %Bulk-edge correspondence in topological condensed matter systems have implications for the spectrum of Fermionic excitations confined on surfaces or topological defects. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Technological Evolution of High Temperature Superconductors (United States)


    power level would reach 250 kilowatts in a joint Navy-Advanced Research Projects Agency (the fore- runner to the Defense Advanced Research Projects...A1 2/22/2007 Method and apparatus for cooling a blade server H01L 021/66 US- 20060283620 A1 American Superconductor Corporation (United States

  2. Towards Structural Testing of Superconductor Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arun, A.J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    Many of the semiconductor technologies are already facing limitations while new-generation data and telecommunication systems are implemented. Although in its infancy, superconductor electronics (SCE) is capable of handling some of these high-end tasks. We have started a defect-oriented test

  3. Clinical analysis of endoscopic multi-band mucosectomy for early esophageal cancer%内镜下多环黏膜切除术治疗早期食管癌疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子洋; 刘晓岗; 李易; 李良平; 胡晓; 阳运超; 张仁翼; 宋彦; 秦芩


    目的 观察早期食管癌患者应用内镜下多环黏膜切除术(multi-band mucosectomy,MBM)的治疗效果及安全性.方法 早期食管癌患者68例,依据内镜下手术方法不同分为行MBM者35例(MBM组)与行内镜黏膜剥离术(endoscopic submucosal dissection,ESD)者33例(ESD组),比较2组病灶完整切除率、手术时间及并发症等.结果 MBM组手术时间((31.3±4.0)min)低于ESD组((47.2±4.6)min)(t=-15.195,P=0.000),2组病灶治愈性切除率和并发症发生率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);术后随访3~24个月,2组均无病灶局部复发.结论 早期食管癌患者应用MBM安全、有效,并发症少.

  4. Gate-tuned Superconductor-Insulator transition in (Li,Fe)OHFeSe


    Lei, B; Xiang, Z. J.; Lu, X. F.; Wang, N. Z.; Chang, J. R.; Shang, C.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Z. Sun; Chen, X. H.


    The antiferromagnetic(AFM) insulator-superconductor transition has been always a center of interest in the underlying physics of unconventional superconductors. The quantum phase transition between Mott insulator with AFM and superconductor can be induced by doping charge carriers in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. For the best characterized organic superconductors of k-(BEDT-TTF)2X (X=anion), a first order transition between AFM insulator and superconductor can be tuned by applied external ...

  5. Ginzburg-Landau theory of dirty two band s(+/-) superconductors. (United States)

    Ng, Tai-Kai


    In this Letter, we study the effect of nonmagnetic impurities on two-band superconductors by deriving the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau equation. Depending on the strength of (impurity-induced) interband scattering, we find that there are two distinctive regions where the superconductors behave very differently. In the strong impurity-induced interband scattering regime T(c) band, the two-band superconductor behaves as an effective one-band dirty superconductor. In the other limit T(c) > or = tau(t)(-1), the dirty two-band superconductor is described by a network of frustrated two-band superconductor grains connected by Josephson tunneling junctions, and the Anderson theorem breaks down.

  6. Shiba chains of scalar impurities on unconventional superconductors (United States)

    Neupert, Titus; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei


    We show that a chain of nonmagnetic impurities deposited on a fully gapped two- or three-dimensional superconductor can become a topological one-dimensional superconductor with protected Majorana bound states at its end. A prerequisite is that the pairing potential of the underlying superconductor breaks the spin-rotation symmetry, as it is generically the case in systems with strong spin-orbit coupling. We illustrate this mechanism for a spinless triplet-superconductor (px+i py ) and a time-reversal symmetric Rashba superconductor with a mixture of singlet and triplet pairing. For the latter, we show that the impurity chain can be topologically nontrivial even if the underlying superconductor is topologically trivial.

  7. Electronic structure of a new layered bismuth oxyselenide superconductor: LaO0.5F0.5BiSe2. (United States)

    Xia, M; Jiang, J; Niu, X H; Liu, J Z; Wen, C H P; Lu, H Y; Lou, X; Pu, Y J; Huang, Z C; Zhu, Xiyu; Wen, H H; Xie, B P; Shen, D W; Feng, D L


    LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a new layered superconductor discovered recently, which shows the superconducting transition temperature of 3.5 K. With angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the electronic structure of LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) comprehensively. Two electron-like bands are located around the X point of the Brillouin zone, and the outer pockets connect with each other and form large Fermi surface around Γ and M. These bands show negligible k(z) dispersion, indicating their two-dimensional nature. Based on the Luttinger theorem, the carrier concentration is about 0.53 e(-) per unit cell, close to its nominal value. Moreover, the photoemission data and the band structure calculations agree very well, and the renormalization factor is nearly 1.0, indicating the electron correlations in this material are rather weak. Our results suggest that LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a conventional BCS superconductor without strong electron correlations.

  8. High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets

    CERN Document Server



    Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.

  9. Low resistivity contact to iron-pnictide superconductors (United States)

    Tanatar, Makariy; Prozorov, Ruslan; Ni, Ni; Bud& #x27; ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul


    Method of making a low resistivity electrical connection between an electrical conductor and an iron pnictide superconductor involves connecting the electrical conductor and superconductor using a tin or tin-based material therebetween, such as using a tin or tin-based solder. The superconductor can be based on doped AFe.sub.2As.sub.2, where A can be Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu or combinations thereof for purposes of illustration only.

  10. Search for New and Better High Temperature Superconductors (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0096 (MURI 09) TOWARDS NEW AND BETTER HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS Malcolm Beasley LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV CA Final...Search for New and Better High Temperature Superconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0583 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This program was focused on an integrated search for new superconductors in material systems with perceived

  11. Andreev Spectra and Subgap Bound States in Multiband Superconductors


    Golubov, A. A.; Brinkman, A.; Tanaka, Yukio; Mazin, I.I.; Dolgov, O. V.


    The theory of Andreev conductance is formulated for junctions involving normal metals (N) and multiband superconductors (S) and applied to the case of superconductors with nodeless extended $s_{\\pm}$-wave order parameter symmetry, as possibly realized in the recently discovered ferro pnictides. We find qualitative differences from tunneling into s-wave or d-wave superconductors that may help to identify such a state. First, interband interference leads to a suppression of Andreev reflection i...

  12. Conductance of d-wave superconductor/normal metal/d-wave superconductor junctions (United States)

    Pesin, Dmytro; Andreev, Anton; Spivak, Boris


    We develop a theory of the low-temperature conductance of superconductor/normal metal/superconductor junctions in which the superconductors have d-wave pairing symmetry. We show that at low temperatures the conductance of the junction is determined by the inelastic relaxation time of quasiparticles in the bulk of d-wave superconductors, GDND√&(d)circ;ɛ. Thus it greatly exceeds the conductance of the normal metal part of the junction, which is controlled by the elastic mean free path. This dependence of GDND on the inelastic relaxation time should be contrasted with that of the low-temperature conductance of the junction in the case of the s- wave superconductor leads, GSNS. In the latter case the conductance is proportional to the first power of the inelastic electron relaxation time in the normal metal part of the junction, GSNSτɛ^(n) [1]. [1] S. V. Lempitskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 624 (1983); U. Gunsenheimer and A. D. Zaikin, Phys. Rev. B50, 6317 (1994); F. Zhou and B. Spivak, JETP Lett. 65, 369 (1997).

  13. Studying the entropy excess and entropy excess ratio in (105,106,107)Pd within BCS model

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmatinejad, Azam; Razavi, Rohallah


    Pairing correlations and their influence on nuclear properties has been studied within BCS model. Using this theoretical model with inclusion of pairing interaction between nucleons, nuclear level density and entropy of Pd(105,106,107) have been extracted. The results well coincide with the empirical values of the nuclear level densities obtained by Oslo group. Then the entropy excess of Pd107 and Pd105 compared to Pd106 as a function of the temperature has been studied. Also the role of neutron and proton system in entropy excess have been investigated by the using of the entropy excess ratio proposed by Razavi et al. [R. Razavi, A.N. Behkami, S. Mohammadi, and M. Gholami, Phys. Rev. C 86, 047303 (2012)].

  14. A modified beam stiffness matrix for superconductor elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, R.; Schrefler, B.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Scienza e Tecnica delle Costruzioni)


    The components of the stiffness matrix of superconductor elements are derived taking into account the effects of the wrapping of superconductor strands around the internal insulating strip and of possible stabilizing profiles around conductor core. It is already known that the inclination of the strands referred to the longitudinal axis of the superconductor produces a reduction of the axial stiffness and a considerable increase in torsional stiffness. Here also the effects of bending are taken into account, completing hence the previous investigation. Examples relating to superconductors proposed for the Toroidal Field Coil of the Next European Torus are shown. In that instance the strand transposition is carried out by roebling. (orig.).

  15. Structural and Chemical Diversity of Tl-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Tl-based cuprate superconductor family is the largest family in crystal structure and chemical composition among all high Tc cuprate superconductors. The Tl family can be divided into two sub-families, the Tl single layer family and the Tl double layer family, based on their crystal structural characteristics. The Tl single layer family is an ideal material for investigating the evolution of crystalline formation, charge carrier density, chemical composition, transport properties, superconductivity and their relationships. The Tl family contains almostall possible crystal structures discovered in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. Tl cuprate superconductors are of great importance not only in studying high-temperature superconductivity but also in commercial applications.

  16. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XW


    Full Text Available Xingwang Zhang,* Guijiang Chen,* Tianpeng Zhang, Zhiguo Ma, Baojian WuDivision of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN, a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl®, respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs.Keywords: fenofibrate, lipid nanoparticles, PEGylation, oral bioavailability, absorption mechanism

  17. The suitability of an in situ perfusion model for permeability determinations: utility for BCS class I biowaiver requests. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seung; Mitchell, Stefanie; Kijek, Paul; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Amidon, Gordon L


    The FDA has published recommendations for sponsors who wish to request a waiver of in vivo bioavailability (BA) or bioequivalence (BE) studies for immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Biowaivers can be requested for IR formulations in which the active ingredient is shown to be a BCS class I drug: that is, a drug showing high permeability and high solubility over a pH range of 1-7.5. For permeability determinations, a variety of experimental methods can be used, such as the rat in situ single pass perfusion or Caco-2 cell culture models, once the suitability of the particular method is established. Following the recommended procedure for assessing the suitability of permeability determinations, we determined the permeability of 20 test drugs using the in situ single pass perfusion model in rats. The test compounds were coperfused through jejunal intestinal segments with an internal permeability reference standard (metoprolol) over a 90 min time period. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC, and the ratio of the effective permeability, Peff (cm/s), of test compound to that of metoprolol was determined. To address the question of test drug permeabilities that approach that of the internal standard, we propose that a statistical analysis such as the "0.8-1.25 rule" used for in vivo or in vitro bioequivalence studies provide guidance for permeability classification using the in situ single pass perfusion model. We developed a method using the 90% confidence interval of the permeability ratio of the test to internal reference standard in order to differentiate between high and low permeability compounds. This analysis allowed for the proper permeability classification of all of the test compounds and suggests a robust means for assessing drug permeability classification.

  18. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus


    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...... to lighting conditions. Results show that the localisation accuracy of facial features is considerably increased using this appearance representation under diffuse and directional lighting and at multiple scales....

  19. Multi-band infrared camera systems (United States)

    Davis, Tim; Lang, Frank; Sinneger, Joe; Stabile, Paul; Tower, John


    The program resulted in an IR camera system that utilizes a unique MOS addressable focal plane array (FPA) with full TV resolution, electronic control capability, and windowing capability. Two systems were delivered, each with two different camera heads: a Stirling-cooled 3-5 micron band head and a liquid nitrogen-cooled, filter-wheel-based, 1.5-5 micron band head. Signal processing features include averaging up to 16 frames, flexible compensation modes, gain and offset control, and real-time dither. The primary digital interface is a Hewlett-Packard standard GPID (IEEE-488) port that is used to upload and download data. The FPA employs an X-Y addressed PtSi photodiode array, CMOS horizontal and vertical scan registers, horizontal signal line (HSL) buffers followed by a high-gain preamplifier and a depletion NMOS output amplifier. The 640 x 480 MOS X-Y addressed FPA has a high degree of flexibility in operational modes. By changing the digital data pattern applied to the vertical scan register, the FPA can be operated in either an interlaced or noninterlaced format. The thermal sensitivity performance of the second system's Stirling-cooled head was the best of the systems produced.

  20. Multi-Band Frequency Selective Surfaces: Analysis (United States)


    IIt rn-I Thus we have reduced the integral equation into an algebraic linear system (with one different forcing term for each accessible mode), that can...mesh. Furthermore a rooftop function has the same vectorial direction in every point, which means that the current will assume that same direction