WorldWideScience

Sample records for multi-allele system representing

  1. The SRCR/SID region of DMBT1 defines a complex multi-allele system representing the major basis for its variability in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, Jan; Müller, Hanna; Kollender, Gaby

    2002-01-01

    Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 has been proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene for brain and epithelial cancer. DMBT1 encodes a multifunctional mucin-like protein presumably involved in epithelial differentiation and protection. The gene consists of highly...... homologous and repeating exon and intron sequences. This specifically applies to the region coding for the repetitive scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains and SRCR-interspersed domains (SIDs) that constitutes the major part of the gene. This particular structure may previously have interfered...... with the delineation of DMBT1 alterations in cancer. Uncovering these, however, is of mechanistic importance. By a combined approach, we conducted a detailed mutational analysis, starting from a panel of 51 tumors, including 46 tumor cell lines and five primary tumors. Alterations in the repetitive region were present...

  2. The effect of subdivision on variation at multi-allelic loci under balancing selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution of polymorp......Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution...

  3. An ultra-dense integrated linkage map for hexaploid chrysanthemum enables multi-allelic QTL analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Bourke, Peter M.; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, Agnieszka; Liao, Yanlin; Post, Aike; Meeteren, van Uulke; Visser, Richard G.F.; Maliepaard, Chris; Arens, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Key message: We constructed the first integrated genetic linkage map in a polysomic hexaploid. This enabled us to estimate inheritance of parental haplotypes in the offspring and detect multi-allelic QTL.Abstract: Construction and use of linkage maps are challenging in hexaploids with polysomic

  4. Citizen's initiatives and the representative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberger, B.; Kempf, U.

    1978-01-01

    This anthology containing contributions of 19 sociologists is a systematic investigation of the locality, the possibilities and the effective radius of citizen's initiatives under the functional conditions of the parliamentary - representative system. The intellectual and political surroundings, the sociologic context, the institutional, political and judical overall conditions as well as the consequences of this movement for the whole political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  5. An approximate stationary solution for multi-allele neutral diffusion with low mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Tang, Yurong

    2016-12-01

    We address the problem of determining the stationary distribution of the multi-allelic, neutral-evolution Wright-Fisher model in the diffusion limit. A full solution to this problem for an arbitrary K×K mutation rate matrix involves solving for the stationary solution of a forward Kolmogorov equation over a (K-1)-dimensional simplex, and remains intractable. In most practical situations mutations rates are slow on the scale of the diffusion limit and the solution is heavily concentrated on the corners and edges of the simplex. In this paper we present a practical approximate solution for slow mutation rates in the form of a set of line densities along the edges of the simplex. The method of solution relies on parameterising the general non-reversible rate matrix as the sum of a reversible part and a set of (K-1)(K-2)/2 independent terms corresponding to fluxes of probability along closed paths around faces of the simplex. The solution is potentially a first step in estimating non-reversible evolutionary rate matrices from observed allele frequency spectra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Apri

    Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.

  7. Do citation systems represent theories of truth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.

  8. Enterprise Systems Implementations: Organizational Influence Processes for Corporate User Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nordheim, Stig

    2008-01-01

    -depth, interpretive study from the oil industry, where we analyze a case of innovative integration of an ECM system with collaboration technologies. The data collection has been longitudinal. The data analysis has been performed through the perspective of organizational influence processes. The main finding concerns...... an organizational role as corporate user representative to deal with the scale and complexities of implementation. A single person was particularly influential in the role. At the outset a user representative had to perform upward influence processes from a lower formal position. This is impeding...

  9. Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

    2010-03-04

    Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Representing Reservoir Stratification in Land Surface and Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, W.; Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Payn, R. A.; Demissie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional reservoir stratification modeling has been developed as part of Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), which is the river transport model used in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and Community Earth System Model (CESM). Reservoirs play an important role in modulating the dynamic water, energy and biogeochemical cycles in the riverine system through nutrient sequestration and stratification. However, most earth system models include lake models that assume a simplified geometry featuring a constant depth and a constant surface area. As reservoir geometry has important effects on thermal stratification, we developed a new algorithm for deriving generic, stratified area-elevation-storage relationships that are applicable at regional and global scales using data from Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD). This new reservoir geometry dataset is then used to support the development of a reservoir stratification module within MOSART. The mixing of layers (energy and mass) in the reservoir is driven by eddy diffusion, vertical advection, and reservoir inflow and outflow. Upstream inflow into a reservoir is treated as an additional source/sink of energy, while downstream outflow represented a sink. Hourly atmospheric forcing from North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) Phase II and simulated daily runoff by ACME land component are used as inputs for the model over the contiguous United States for simulations between 2001-2010. The model is validated using selected observed temperature profile data in a number of reservoirs that are subject to various levels of regulation. The reservoir stratification module completes the representation of riverine mass and heat transfer in earth system models, which is a major step towards quantitative understanding of human influences on the terrestrial hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical cycles.

  11. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  12. On Representing Instance Changes in Adaptive Process Management Systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle, S.B.; Kreher, U; Lauer, M.; Dadam, P.; Reichert, M.U.

    2006-01-01

    By separating the process logic from the application code process management systems (PMS) offer promising perspectives for automation and management of business processes. However, the added value of PMS strongly depends on their ability to support business process changes which can affect the

  13. Processing and waste disposal representative for fusion breeder blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the waste handling concepts applicable to fusion breeder systems. Its goal is to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under US Nuclear Regulatory regulations. The radionuclides expected in the materials used in fusion reactor blankets are described, as are plans for reprocessing and disposal of the components of different breeder blankets. An estimate of the operating costs involved in waste disposal is made

  14. Text, data and people how to represent earth system science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will discuss the application of the open access paradigm as well as Open Archives protocols and common metadata schemes, as they are applicable to datasets as well as people and groups. One outcome of this discussion will be a critical evaluation whether complex metadata schemes – as the 1000 attribute ISO 19115 – are useful for open, loosely coordinated harvesting schemes or if these should be applied in closed information systems only. Regarding people and organizations, we strongly recommend using the eduPerson object classes and attributes from the Internet2 / Grid middleware standards. Finally, we will demonstrate a working OAI-PMH service provider which harvests information about (text-) publications, datasets and researchers, which are described in a way as outlined above.

  15. Representing clinical communication knowledge through database management system integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairat, Saif; Craven, Catherine; Gong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Clinical communication failures are considered the leading cause of medical errors [1]. The complexity of the clinical culture and the significant variance in training and education levels form a challenge to enhancing communication within the clinical team. In order to improve communication, a comprehensive understanding of the overall communication process in health care is required. In an attempt to further understand clinical communication, we conducted a thorough methodology literature review to identify strengths and limitations of previous approaches [2]. Our research proposes a new data collection method to study the clinical communication activities among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) clinical teams with a primary focus on the attending physician. In this paper, we present the first ICU communication instrument, and, we introduce the use of database management system to aid in discovering patterns and associations within our ICU communications data repository.

  16. A strategy to discover genes that carry multi-allelic or mono-allelic risk for common diseases: A cohort allelic sums test (CAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenthaler, Stephan; Thilly, William G.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described to discover if a gene carries one or more allelic mutations that confer risk for any specified common disease. The method does not depend upon genetic linkage of risk-conferring mutations to high frequency genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. Instead, the sums of allelic mutation frequencies in case and control cohorts are determined and a statistical test is applied to discover if the difference in these sums is greater than would be expected by chance. A statistical model is presented that defines the ability of such tests to detect significant gene-disease relationships as a function of case and control cohort sizes and key confounding variables: zygosity and genicity, environmental risk factors, errors in diagnosis, limits to mutant detection, linkage of neutral and risk-conferring mutations, ethnic diversity in the general population and the expectation that among all exonic mutants in the human genome greater than 90% will be neutral with regard to any effect on disease risk. Means to test the null hypothesis for, and determine the statistical power of, each test are provided. For this 'cohort allelic sums test' or 'CAST', the statistical model and test are provided as an Excel (TM) program, CASTAT (C) at http://epidemiology.mit.edu. Based on genetics, technology and statistics, a strategy of enumerating the mutant alleles carried in the exons and splice sites of the estimated ∼25,000 human genes in case cohort samples of 10,000 persons for each of 100 common diseases is proposed and evaluated: A wide range of possible conditions of multi-allelic or mono-allelic and monogenic, multigenic or polygenic (including epistatic) risk are found to be detectable using the statistical criteria of 1 or 10 ''false positive'' gene associations per 25,000 gene-disease pair-wise trials and a statistical power of >0.8. Using estimates of the distribution of both neutral and gene-inactivating nondeleterious mutations in humans and

  17. Representative elements: A step to large-scale fracture system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemo, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Large-scale simulation of flow and transport in fractured media requires the development of a technique to represent the effect of a large number of fractures. Representative elements are used as a tool to model a subset of a fracture system as a single distributed entity. Representative elements are part of a modeling concept called dual permeability. Dual permeability modeling combines discrete fracture simulation of the most important fractures with the distributed modeling of the less important fracture of a fracture system. This study investigates the use of stochastic analysis to determine properties of representative elements. Given an assumption of fully developed laminar flow, the net fracture conductivities and hence flow velocities can be determined from descriptive statistics of fracture spacing, orientation, aperture, and extent. The distribution of physical characteristics about their mean leads to a distribution of the associated conductivities. The variance of hydraulic conductivity induces dispersion into the transport process. Simple fracture systems are treated to demonstrate the usefulness of stochastic analysis. Explicit equations for conductivity of an element are developed and the dispersion characteristics are shown. Explicit formulation of the hydraulic conductivity and transport dispersion reveals the dependence of these important characteristics on the parameters used to describe the fracture system. Understanding these dependencies will help to focus efforts to identify the characteristics of fracture systems. Simulations of stochastically generated fracture sets do not provide this explicit functional dependence on the fracture system parameters. 12 refs., 6 figs

  18. Comparatives of Expressive Activities of Junior High School Students with Different Types of Representative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geydebrekht N.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data from a study of drawings of children of primary school age to identify the сcomparative diagnostic parameters that allow to define the leading representative system in the child. 164 drawings of 51 persons under test of the two grades of primary school were analyzed. The observation and modified in relation to primary school age version of the method «Representational systems bias test» (Lewis A., Puselik R., 2012 were used as elements of the diagnostic unit. Based on these results it is concluded that the drawings of children of primary school age with different types of representative systems have differences, sufficient to justify their diagnostic informative value. The results of the study make comparative profiles of children of primary school age with different types of representational systems to facilitate the diagnostic part of the work with children's drawings.

  19. A Study of Integrity Evaluation System for Spent Fuel and Selection of the Representative Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, S. K.; Lim, C. J.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Spent fuel (SF) integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in 10 CFR 71(transportation) and 10 CFR 72(storage) of the U. S. NRC licensing requirement. NRC regulation states that retrievability of SF after storage should be ensured and SF integrity under the normal condition must be guaranteed during transportation and handling process that is entailed before/during/after the interim storage. And SF integrity evaluation under the hypothetical accident condition is a core technology element for an assessment of critical, shielding, and containment. In this paper, SF integrity evaluation system which is suitable for domestic situation is suggested, and necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described. The ultimate goal of the SF integrity evaluation is to evaluate a safety margin in case of transportation/ handling/storage of SFs. It means that retrievability of SF after storage should be assured and SF integrity must be guaranteed at normal condition in the process of transportation/handling accompanied before/during/after interim storage. In Korea, SF integrity evaluation system is not established up to date. Especially, representative SF selection technology that is essential to SF integrity evaluation has not been fulfilled. To overcome this situation effectively, the methodology and technology of an overseas agency need to be benchmarked. In this paper, an overseas SF integrity evaluation system is analyzed, and an evaluation system suitable for domestic situation is suggested. Also, necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described

  20. Feasibility of using the Omaha System to represent public health nurse manager interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; Newsom, Eric T

    2011-01-01

    To test the feasibility of representing public health nurse (PHN) manager interventions using a recognized standardized nursing terminology. A nurse manager in a Midwest local public health agency documented nurse manager interventions using the Omaha System for 5 months. ANALYTIC STRATEGY: The data were analyzed and the results were compared with the results from a parallel analysis of existing PHN intervention data. Interventions for 79 "clients" (projects, teams, or individuals) captured 76% of recorded work hours, and addressed 43% of Omaha System problems. Most problems were addressed at the "community" level (87.1%) versus the "individual" level (12.9%). Nursing practice differed between the 2 knowledge domains of public health family home visiting nursing and public health nursing management. Standardized nursing terminologies have the potential to represent, describe, and quantify nurse manager interventions for future evaluation and research. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mediterranean land systems: Representing diversity and intensity of complex land systems in a dynamic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malek, Ziga; Verburg, P.H.

    In the Mediterranean region, land systems have been shaped gradually through centuries. They provide services to a large and growing population in a region that is among the most vulnerable to future global change. The spatial extent and distribution of Mediterranean land systems is, however,

  2. Evaluating the feasibility and participants' representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Debin

    Full Text Available The increasing Internet coverage and the widespread use of digital devices offer the possibility to develop new digital surveillance systems potentially capable to provide important aid to epidemiological and public health monitoring and research. In France, a new nationwide surveillance system for influenza-like illness, GrippeNet.fr, was introduced since the 2011/2012 season based on an online participatory mechanism and open to the general population. We evaluate the recruitment and participation of users to the first pilot season with respect to similar efforts in Europe to assess the feasibility of establishing a participative network of surveillance in France. We further investigate the representativeness of the GrippeNet.fr population along a set of indicators on geographical, demographic, socio-economic and health aspects. Participation was widespread in the country and with rates comparable to other European countries with partnered projects running since a longer time. It was not representative of the general population in terms of age and gender, however all age classes were represented, including the older classes (65+ years old, generally less familiar with the digital world, but considered at high risk for influenza complications. Once adjusted on demographic indicators, the GrippeNet.fr population is found to be more frequently employed, with a higher education level and vaccination rate with respect to the general population. A similar propensity to commute for work to different regions was observed, and no significant difference was found for asthma and diabetes. Results show the feasibility of the system, provide indications to inform adjusted epidemic analyses, and highlight the presence of specific population groups that need to be addressed by targeted communication strategies to achieve a higher representativeness in the following seasons.

  3. On the Diurnal Periodicity of Representative Earthquakes in Greece: Comparison of Data from Different Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) in late 2007, the quality of observation significantly improved by 2011. For example, the representative magnitude level considerably has decreased and the number of annually recorded events has increased. The new observational system highly expanded the possibilities for studying regularities in seismicity. In view of this, the authors revisited their studies of the diurnal periodicity of representative earthquakes in Greece that was revealed earlier in the earthquake catalog before 2011. We use 18 samples of earthquakes of different magnitudes taken from the catalog of Greek earthquakes from 2011 to June 2016 to derive a series of the number of earthquakes for each of them and calculate its average diurnal course. To increase the reliability of the results, we compared the data for two regions. With a high degree of statistical significance, we have obtained that no diurnal periodicity can be found for strongly representative earthquakes. This finding differs from the estimates obtained earlier from an analysis of the catalog of earthquakes at the same area for 1995-2004 and 2005-2010, i.e., before the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network. The new results are consistent with the hypothesis of noise discrimination (observational selection) explaining the cause of the diurnal variation of earthquakes with different sensitivity of the seismic network in daytime and nighttime periods.

  4. Acoustic Characterization and Prediction of Representative, Small-Scale Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aircraft System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hover performance and acoustic measurements are taken on two different isolated rotors representative of small-scale rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a range of rotation rates. Each rotor system consists of two fixed-pitch blades powered by a brushless motor. For nearly the same thrust condition, significant differences in overall sound pressure level (OASPL), up to 8 dB, and directivity were observed between the two rotor systems. Differences are shown to be in part attributed to different rotor tip speeds, along with increased broadband and motor noise levels. In addition to acoustic measurements, aeroacoustic predictions were implemented in order to better understand the noise content of the rotor systems. Numerical aerodynamic predictions were computed using the unsteady Reynoldsaveraged Navier Stokes code OVERFLOW2 on one of the isolated rotors, while analytical predictions were computed using the Propeller Analysis System of the Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP-PAS) on the two rotor configurations. Preliminary semi-empirical frequency domain broadband noise predictions were also carried out based on airfoil self-noise theory in a rotational reference frame. The prediction techniques further supported trends identified in the experimental data analysis. The brushless motors were observed to be important noise contributors and warrant further investigation. It is believed that UAS acoustic prediction capabilities must consider both rotor and motor components as part of a combined noise-generating system.

  5. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Yuta; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term -{\\Delta}Q, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and {\\Delta} is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensi...

  6. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M.; Kekaelaeinen, P.; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-01

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  7. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  8. Cost comparison of dry-type and conventional cooling systems for representative nuclear generating plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, J.P.; Cecil, E.A.; Young, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of studies comparing the use of dry-type cooling towers with conventional cooling methods for representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants. The studies were based on the hypothetical use of dry-type cooling towers for three nuclear power plants now under construction which were designed and are being built to use conventional cooling methods. One of the plants is located in the northeastern United States, one in the Southeast and one in the West. The report also presents the results of comparisons based on a hypothetical plant at a typical eastern United States site. The three electric utilities which participated in these studies have furnished actual construction cost information for the conventional cooling systems being constructed, and the authors have made construction estimates for economically optimum dry cooling systems which might have been built in place of the conventional cooling systems being constructed. The report compares the physical and operating characteristics of dry-type and conventional cooling systems as well as the relative economics of the different cooling methods. The effect of dry cooling on the bus-bar cost of power has been computed for the three selected plants and for the typical eastern plant

  9. The Spectrum Prize: A simple algorithm to evaluate the relative sensitivity of γ-ray spectra, representative of detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolaore, P.

    2016-03-11

    A simple analysis of gamma spectra selected to represent the performance of different detection systems, or, for one same system, different operation modes or states of progress of the system development, allows to compare the relative average-sensitivities of the represented systems themselves, as operated in the selected cases. The obtained SP figure-of-merit takes into account and correlates the main parameters commonly used to estimate the performance of a system. An example of application is given.

  10. Models with Men and Women: Representing Gender in Dynamic Modeling of Social Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Erika; Wilson, Benedicte

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic engineering models have yet to be evaluated in the context of feminist engineering ethics. Decision-making concerning gender in dynamic modeling design is a gender and ethical issue that is important to address regardless of the system in which the dynamic modeling is applied. There are many dynamic modeling tools that operationally include the female population, however, there is an important distinction between females and women; it is the difference between biological sex and the social construct of gender, which is fluid and changes over time and geography. The ethical oversight in failing to represent or misrepresenting gender in model design when it is relevant to the model purpose can have implications for model validity and policy model development. This paper highlights this gender issue in the context of feminist engineering ethics using a dynamic population model. Women are often represented in this type of model only in their biological capacity, while lacking their gender identity. This illustrative example also highlights how language, including the naming of variables and communication with decision-makers, plays a role in this gender issue.

  11. Harnessing Big Data to Represent 30-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, N.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Van Huijgevoort, M.; Milly, C.; Sulman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial land surface processes play a critical role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (˜30 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing global environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles. The state-of-the-art Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model is then used to simulate these tiles and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  12. The capacity of Australia's protected-area system to represent threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James E M; Evans, Megan C; Carwardine, Josie; Fuller, Richard A; Joseph, Liana N; Segan, Dan B; Taylor, Martin F J; Fensham, R J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-04-01

    The acquisition or designation of new protected areas is usually based on criteria for representation of different ecosystems or land-cover classes, and it is unclear how well-threatened species are conserved within protected-area networks. Here, we assessed how Australia's terrestrial protected-area system (89 million ha, 11.6% of the continent) overlaps with the geographic distributions of threatened species and compared this overlap against a model that randomly placed protected areas across the continent and a spatially efficient model that placed protected areas across the continent to maximize threatened species' representation within the protected-area estate. We defined the minimum area needed to conserve each species on the basis of the species' range size. We found that although the current configuration of protected areas met targets for representation of a given percentage of species' ranges better than a random selection of areas, 166 (12.6%) threatened species occurred entirely outside protected areas and target levels of protection were met for only 259 (19.6%) species. Critically endangered species were among those with the least protection; 12 (21.1%) species occurred entirely outside protected areas. Reptiles and plants were the most poorly represented taxonomic groups, and amphibians the best represented. Spatial prioritization analyses revealed that an efficient protected-area system of the same size as the current protected-area system (11.6% of the area of Australia) could meet representation targets for 1272 (93.3%) threatened species. Moreover, the results of these prioritization analyses showed that by protecting 17.8% of Australia, all threatened species could reach target levels of representation, assuming all current protected areas are retained. Although this amount of area theoretically could be protected, existing land uses and the finite resources available for conservation mean land acquisition may not be possible or even effective

  13. Rhythm information represented in the fronto-parieto-cerebellar motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoike, Naho; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Yomogida, Yukihito; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Kuraoka, Koji; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2012-10-15

    Rhythm is an essential element of human culture, particularly in language and music. To acquire language or music, we have to perceive the sensory inputs, organize them into structured sequences as rhythms, actively hold the rhythm information in mind, and use the information when we reproduce or mimic the same rhythm. Previous brain imaging studies have elucidated brain regions related to the perception and production of rhythms. However, the neural substrates involved in the working memory of rhythm remain unclear. In addition, little is known about the processing of rhythm information from non-auditory inputs (visual or tactile). Therefore, we measured brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy subjects memorized and reproduced auditory and visual rhythmic information. The inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum exhibited significant activations during both encoding and retrieving rhythm information. In addition, most of these areas exhibited significant activation also during the maintenance of rhythm information. All of these regions functioned in the processing of auditory and visual rhythms. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum are thought to be essential for motor control. When we listen to a certain rhythm, we are often stimulated to move our body, which suggests the existence of a strong interaction between rhythm processing and the motor system. Here, we propose that rhythm information may be represented and retained as information about bodily movements in the supra-modal motor brain system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  15. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Hongyi; Tesfa, Teklu; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Zhang, Xuesong; Lu, Hui; Hartmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1,081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km2), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  16. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zeli [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Li, Hongyi [Montana State University, Bozeman MT USA; Tesfa, Teklu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Vanmaercke, Matthias [Département de Géographie, Université de Liège, Liege Belgium; Poesen, Jean [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Division of Geography, KU Leuven, Leuven Belgium; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lu, Hui [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Hartmann, Jens [Institute for Geology, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg Germany

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km27 ), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  17. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yuta; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term −ΔQ, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and Δ is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensional Euler vorticity equation of a neutral fluid. A heuristic estimate shows that current sheets grow exponentially (even in a fully nonlinear regime) together with the action variable P that is conjugate to Q. By numerical simulation, the predicted behavior of the canonical variables, yielding exponential growth of current sheets, has been demonstrated

  18. Identifying representative symbology for low visibility operations/surface movement guidance and control system (LVO/SMGCS) paper charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The Volpe Center developed a questionnaire to examine the representativeness of symbol shapes and the usefulness of information depicted on Low Visibility Operations/Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (LVO/SMGCS) paper charts. One-hundred f...

  19. Representing System Behaviors and Expert Behaviors for Intelligent Tutoring. Technical Report No. 108.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; And Others

    Simulation-based software tools that can infer system behaviors from a deep model of the system have the potential for automatically building the semantic representations required to support intelligent tutoring in fault diagnosis. The Intelligent Maintenance Training System (IMTS) is such a resource, designed for use in training troubleshooting…

  20. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  1. Generic test platform for representative tests of safety I/C systems - 15546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourestie, B.; Kuck, H.; Richter, J.; Rieche, S.; Waitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In compliance with the IEC 61513 safety Instrumentation and Control (I/C) systems must be successfully validated in their final configuration prior to installation on site and commissioning. However the contingent need for modifications during system validation activities or subsequently during the commissioning phase may entail long and costly re-engineering of the I/C systems. With the view to ease these possible modifications, a Generic Test Platform has been developed by AREVA which allows combining a real I/C system subpart with an emulation server. This platform provides a faithful representation of the I/C System allowing crediting the validation test results carried out on this platform. (authors)

  2. Systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a service representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott H.; Johnson, Joel A.; Neiswanger, Jeffery R.; Twitchell, Kevin E.

    2004-03-09

    The present invention includes systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a customer service representative. In one embodiment of the invention, a system configured to distribute a telephone call within a network includes a distributor adapted to connect with a telephone system, the distributor being configured to connect a telephone call using the telephone system and output the telephone call and associated data of the telephone call; and a plurality of customer service representative terminals connected with the distributor and a selected customer service representative terminal being configured to receive the telephone call and the associated data, the distributor and the selected customer service representative terminal being configured to synchronize, application of the telephone call and associated data from the distributor to the selected customer service representative terminal.

  3. Equivalent to Represent Inertial and Primary Frequency Control Effects of an External System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel equivalent, which is suitable for simulation of inertial and primary frequency control effects. In the model reduction procedure, dynamic power injectors are used to replace the external system and to mimic its dynamic behavior. The parameters of the equivalents...... are tuned with a simple approach presented in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a modified version of the ENTSO-E Dynamic Study Model. The results show that the system frequency response of the unreduced system is retained and a speedup of the simulations of around 4...

  4. Representing Causality and Reasoning about Controllability of Multi-level Flow-Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Safe operation of complex processes requires that operators maintain situational-awareness even in highly automated environments. Automatic reasoning can support operators as well as the automation system itself to react effectively and appropriately to disturbances. However, knowledge......-based reasoning about control situations remains a challenge due to the entanglement of process and control systems that co-establish the intended causal structure of a process. Due to this entanglement, reasoning about such systems depends on a coherent representation of control and process. This paper explains...... modeling of controlled processes with multilevelflow models and proposes a new framework for modeling causal influence in multilevel flow models on the basis of a flow/potential analogy. The results are illustrated on examples from the domain of electric power systems....

  5. Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system.

  6. A model for representing the Italian energy system. The NEEDS-TIMES experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmi, C.; Pietrapertosa, F.; Salvia, M. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, C.da S. Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)]|[Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Di Leo, S. [National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)]|[University of Basilicata, Department of Environmental Engineering and Physics, C.da Macchia Romana, I-85100 Potenza (Italy); Loperte, S.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, C.da S. Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)]|[National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Sustainability of energy systems has a strategic role in the current energy-environmental policies as it involves key issues such as security of energy supply, mitigation of environmental impact (with special regard to air quality improvement) and energy affordability. In this framework modelling activities are more than ever a strategic issue in order to manage the large complexity of energy systems as well as to support the decision-making process at different stages and spatial scales (regional, national, Pan-European, etc.). The aim of this article is to present a new model for the Italian energy system implemented with a common effort in the framework of an integrated project under the Sixth Framework Programme. In particular, the main features of the common methodology are briefly recalled and the modelling structure, the main data and assumptions, sector by sector, are presented. Moreover the main results obtained for the baseline (BAU) scenario are fully described. (author)

  7. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways, ...

  8. GIS in Evaluation: Utilizing the Power of Geographic Information Systems to Represent Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Robinson, David

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to geographic information systems (GIS) and how the technology can be used to enhance evaluation practice. As a tool, GIS enables evaluators to incorporate contextual features (such as accessibility of program sites or community health needs) into evaluation designs and highlights the interactions between…

  9. On Representing, Purging, and Utilizing Change Logs in Process Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle, S.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Jurisch, M.; Kreher, U

    In recent years adaptive process management technolgy has emerged in order to increase the flexibility of business process implementations and to support process changes at different levels. Usually, respective systems log comprehensive information about changes, which can then be used for different

  10. Hydric results in Guarani Aquifer System formation zone through by hydrogeological monitoring in representative basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L.; Dias Paiva, J.

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the direct and deep recharge in the Guarani Aquifer System, based on the evaluation of data acquired at the Ribeirao da Onca watershed, which is located at the outcrop zone of the GAS in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. During one year hydrological data (precipitation, temperature, discharge etc) have been monitored at the watershed. Using water level fluctuation measured in 23 monitoring wells, the direct recharge, the free aquifer storage and the base flow could be evaluated.The direct recharge of the system at the watershed has been estimated to 29% of the total precipitation in the period. Due to the drainage by the Ribeirao da Onca, the deep recharge, which effectively reaches the GAS, is reduced to 3,5% of the annual precipitation

  11. Cue Reliability Represented in the Shape of Tuning Curves in the Owl's Sound Localization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazettes, Fanny; Fischer, Brian J; Peña, Jose L

    2016-02-17

    Optimal use of sensory information requires that the brain estimates the reliability of sensory cues, but the neural correlate of cue reliability relevant for behavior is not well defined. Here, we addressed this issue by examining how the reliability of spatial cue influences neuronal responses and behavior in the owl's auditory system. We show that the firing rate and spatial selectivity changed with cue reliability due to the mechanisms generating the tuning to the sound localization cue. We found that the correlated variability among neurons strongly depended on the shape of the tuning curves. Finally, we demonstrated that the change in the neurons' selectivity was necessary and sufficient for a network of stochastic neurons to predict behavior when sensory cues were corrupted with noise. This study demonstrates that the shape of tuning curves can stand alone as a coding dimension of environmental statistics. In natural environments, sensory cues are often corrupted by noise and are therefore unreliable. To make the best decisions, the brain must estimate the degree to which a cue can be trusted. The behaviorally relevant neural correlates of cue reliability are debated. In this study, we used the barn owl's sound localization system to address this question. We demonstrated that the mechanisms that account for spatial selectivity also explained how neural responses changed with degraded signals. This allowed for the neurons' selectivity to capture cue reliability, influencing the population readout commanding the owl's sound-orienting behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362101-10$15.00/0.

  12. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+), a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(-) and IgM(+). Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined.

  13. Deep graphs—A general framework to represent and analyze heterogeneous complex systems across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxl, Dominik; Boers, Niklas; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Network theory has proven to be a powerful tool in describing and analyzing systems by modelling the relations between their constituent objects. Particularly in recent years, a great progress has been made by augmenting "traditional" network theory in order to account for the multiplex nature of many networks, multiple types of connections between objects, the time-evolution of networks, networks of networks and other intricacies. However, existing network representations still lack crucial features in order to serve as a general data analysis tool. These include, most importantly, an explicit association of information with possibly heterogeneous types of objects and relations, and a conclusive representation of the properties of groups of nodes as well as the interactions between such groups on different scales. In this paper, we introduce a collection of definitions resulting in a framework that, on the one hand, entails and unifies existing network representations (e.g., network of networks and multilayer networks), and on the other hand, generalizes and extends them by incorporating the above features. To implement these features, we first specify the nodes and edges of a finite graph as sets of properties (which are permitted to be arbitrary mathematical objects). Second, the mathematical concept of partition lattices is transferred to the network theory in order to demonstrate how partitioning the node and edge set of a graph into supernodes and superedges allows us to aggregate, compute, and allocate information on and between arbitrary groups of nodes. The derived partition lattice of a graph, which we denote by deep graph, constitutes a concise, yet comprehensive representation that enables the expression and analysis of heterogeneous properties, relations, and interactions on all scales of a complex system in a self-contained manner. Furthermore, to be able to utilize existing network-based methods and models, we derive different representations of

  14. Photosynthesis in Chromera velia represents a simple system with high efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Quigg

    Full Text Available Chromera velia (Alveolata is a close relative to apicomplexan parasites with a functional photosynthetic plastid. Even though C. velia has a primitive complement of pigments (lacks chlorophyll c and uses an ancient type II form of RuBISCO, we found that its photosynthesis is very efficient with the ability to acclimate to a wide range of irradiances. C. velia maintain similar maximal photosynthetic rates when grown under continual light-limited (low light or light-saturated (high light conditions. This flexible acclimation to continuous light is provided by an increase of the chlorophyll content and photosystem II connectivity under light limited conditions and by an increase in the content of protective carotenoids together with stimulation of effective non-photochemical quenching under high light. C. velia is able to significantly increase photosynthetic rates when grown under a light-dark cycle with sinusoidal changes in light intensity. Photosynthetic activities were nonlinearly related to light intensity, with maximum performance measured at mid-morning. C. velia efficiently acclimates to changing irradiance by stimulation of photorespiration and non-photochemical quenching, thus avoiding any measurable photoinhibition. We suggest that the very high CO(2 assimilation rates under sinusoidal light regime are allowed by activation of the oxygen consuming process (possibly chlororespiration that maintains high efficiency of RuBISCO (type II. Despite the overall simplicity of the C. velia photosynthetic system, it operates with great efficiency.

  15. Establishment of an In Vitro System Representing the Chicken Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a+, a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a− and IgM+. Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined. PMID:23185307

  16. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorjahan Banu Alitheen

    Full Text Available The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+, a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(- and IgM(+. Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240 was examined.

  17. Representing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Poncellini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of natural phenomena applied to architectural planning and design is facing the most fascinating and elusive of the four dimensions through which man attempts to define life within the universe: time. We all know what time is, said St. Augustine, but nobody knows how to describe it. Within architectural projects and representations, time rarely appears in explicit form. This paper presents the results of a research conducted by students of NABA and of the Polytechnic of Milan with the purpose of representing time considered as a key element within architectural projects. Student investigated new approaches and methodologies to represent time using the two-dimensional support of a sheet of paper.

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Representing Human Behavior Characteristics in a System of Systems Agent-Based Survivability Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    MANET system to reorganize. Soni and Dawra (2007) note that “self-organizing systems of agents with emergent system-level functions offer these...2007 IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications and Malaysia International Conference on Communications, 14-17. Burt, R. (1992). Structural...Bombay. Soni , D and Dawra, S (2007). AI System in (12th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Applied Mathematics, Cairo, Egypt, December 29-31, 2007 401. Sridhar

  19. A scenario analysis of future energy systems based on an energy flow model represented as functionals of technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasunori; Kimura, Seiichiro; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Michihisa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy flow model was represented as the functionals of technology options. • Relationships among available technologies can be visualized by developed model. • Technology roadmapping can be incorporated into the model as technical scenario. • Combination of technologies can increase their contribution to the environment. - Abstract: The design of energy systems has become an issue all over the world. A single optimal system cannot be suggested because the availability of infrastructure and resources and the acceptability of the system should be discussed locally, involving all related stakeholders in the energy system. In particular, researchers and engineers of technologies related to energy systems should be able to perform the forecasting and roadmapping of future energy systems and indicate quantitative results of scenario analyses. We report an energy flow model developed for analysing scenarios of future Japanese energy systems implementing a variety of feasible technology options. The model was modularized and represented as functionals of appropriate technology options, which enables the aggregation and disaggregation of energy systems by defining functionals for single technologies, packages integrating multi-technologies, and mini-systems such as regions implementing industrial symbiosis. Based on the model, the combinations of technologies on both energy supply and demand sides can be addressed considering not only the societal scenarios such as resource prices, economic growth and population change but also the technical scenarios including the development and penetration of energy-related technologies such as distributed solid oxide fuel cells in residential sectors and new-generation vehicles, and the replacement and shift of current technologies such as heat pumps for air conditioning and centralized power generation. The developed model consists of two main modules; namely, a power generation dispatching module for the

  20. Inwardly Rectifying Potassium (Kir) Channels Represent a Critical Ion Conductance Pathway in the Nervous Systems of Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Swale, Daniel R

    2018-01-25

    A complete understanding of the physiological pathways critical for proper function of the insect nervous system is still lacking. The recent development of potent and selective small-molecule modulators of insect inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels has enabled the interrogation of the physiological role and toxicological potential of Kir channels within various insect tissue systems. Therefore, we aimed to highlight the physiological and functional role of neural Kir channels the central nervous system, muscular system, and neuromuscular system through pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Our data provide significant evidence that Drosophila neural systems rely on the inward conductance of K + ions for proper function since pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of neural Kir channels yielded dramatic alterations of the CNS spike discharge frequency and broadening and reduced amplitude of the evoked EPSP at the neuromuscular junction. Based on these data, we conclude that neural Kir channels in insects (1) are critical for proper function of the insect nervous system, (2) represents an unexplored physiological pathway that is likely to shape the understanding of neuronal signaling, maintenance of membrane potentials, and maintenance of the ionic balance of insects, and (3) are capable of inducing acute toxicity to insects through neurological poisoning.

  1. A spring-mass-damper system dynamics-based driver-vehicle integrated model for representing heterogeneous traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munigety, Caleb Ronald

    2018-04-01

    The traditional traffic microscopic simulation models consider driver and vehicle as a single unit to represent the movements of drivers in a traffic stream. Due to this very fact, the traditional car-following models have the driver behavior related parameters, but ignore the vehicle related aspects. This approach is appropriate for homogeneous traffic conditions where car is the major vehicle type. However, in heterogeneous traffic conditions where multiple vehicle types are present, it becomes important to incorporate the vehicle related parameters exclusively to account for the varying dynamic and static characteristics. Thus, this paper presents a driver-vehicle integrated model hinged on the principles involved in physics-based spring-mass-damper mechanical system. While the spring constant represents the driver’s aggressiveness, the damping constant and the mass component take care of the stability and size/weight related aspects, respectively. The proposed model when tested, behaved pragmatically in representing the vehicle-type dependent longitudinal movements of vehicles.

  2. Extractables characterization for five materials of construction representative of packaging systems used for parenteral and ophthalmic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Castner, James; Egert, Thomas; Feinberg, Tom; Hendricker, Alan; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Shaw, Arthur; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and elastomeric materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging systems used to manufacture, store, deliver, and/or administer drug products. Characterizing extractables from such materials is a necessary step in establishing their suitability for use in these applications. In this study, five individual materials representative of polymers and elastomers commonly used in packaging systems and devices were extracted under conditions and with solvents that are relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products (PODPs). Extraction methods included elevated temperature sealed vessel extraction, sonication, refluxing, and Soxhlet extraction. Extraction solvents included a low-pH (pH = 2.5) salt mixture, a high-pH (pH = 9.5) phosphate buffer, a 1/1 isopropanol/water mixture, isopropanol, and hexane. The resulting extracts were chemically characterized via spectroscopic and chromatographic means to establish the metal/trace element and organic extractables profiles. Additionally, the test articles themselves were tested for volatile organic substances. The results of this testing established the extractables profiles of the test articles, which are reported herein. Trends in the extractables, and their estimated concentrations, as a function of the extraction and testing methodologies are considered in the context of the use of the test article in medical applications and with respect to establishing best demonstrated practices for extractables profiling of materials used in PODP-related packaging systems and devices. Plastic and rubber materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging/delivery systems for drug products. Characterizing the extractables from these materials is an important part of determining that they are suitable for use. In this study, five materials representative of plastics and rubbers used in packaging and medical devices were extracted by several means, and the extracts were analytically

  3. Treatment of Events Representing System Success in Accident Sequences in PSA Models with ET/FT Linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.; Mikulicic, V.; Simic, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of events that represent systems' successes in accident sequences is well known issue associated primarily with those PSA models that employ event tree / fault tree (ET / FT) linking technique. Even theoretically clear, practical implementation and usage creates for certain PSA models a number of difficulties regarding result correctness. Strict treatment of success-events would require consistent applying of de Morgan laws. However, there are several problems related to it. First, Boolean resolution of the overall model, such as the one representing occurrence of reactor core damage, becomes very challenging task if De Morgan rules are applied consistently at all levels. Even PSA tools of the newest generation have some problems with performing such a task in a reasonable time frame. The second potential issue is related to the presence of negated basic events in minimal cutsets. If all the basic events that result from strict applying of De Morgan rules are retained in presentation of minimal cutsets, their readability and interpretability may be impaired severely. It is also worth noting that the concept of a minimal cutset is tied to equipment failures, rather than to successes. For reasons like these, various simplifications are employed in PSA models and tools, when it comes to the treatment of success-events in the sequences. This paper provides a discussion of major concerns associated with the treatment of success-events in accident sequences of a typical PSA model. (author)

  4. Comment on "Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Mario; Pernal, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    van Dam [Phys. Rev. A 93, 052512 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052512] claims that the one-particle reduced density matrix (1RDM) of an interacting system can be represented by means of a single-determinant wave function of fictitious noninteracting particles. van Dam [Phys. Rev. A 93, 052512 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052512] introduced orbitals within a mean-field framework that produce energy levels similar to Hartree-Fock orbital energies, therefore he also claims that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are possible in 1RDM functional theory. In this Comment, we demonstrate that both claims are unfounded.

  5. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  6. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Karl A; Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J F; Paulsen, Ian T

    2015-02-10

    Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are an important class of resistance determinants that can be found in every bacterial genome sequenced to date. These transport proteins have important protective functions for the bacterial cell but are a significant problem in the clinical setting, since a single efflux system can mediate resistance to many structurally and mechanistically diverse antibiotics and biocides. In this study, we demonstrate that proteins related to the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter are a new class of multidrug

  7. Receptor-targeted liposome-peptide-siRNA nanoparticles represent an efficient delivery system for MRTF silencing in conjunctival fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, Cynthia; Tagalakis, Aristides D; Manunta, Maria D; Hart, Stephen L; Khaw, Peng T

    2016-02-24

    There is increasing evidence that the Myocardin-related transcription factor/Serum response factor (MRTF/SRF) pathway plays a key role in fibroblast activation and that knocking down MRTF can lead to reduced scarring and fibrosis. Here, we have developed a receptor-targeted liposome-peptide-siRNA nanoparticle as a non-viral delivery system for MRTF-B siRNA in conjunctival fibrosis. Using 50 nM siRNA, the MRTF-B gene was efficiently silenced by 76% and 72% with LYR and LER nanoparticles, respectively. The silencing efficiency was low when non-targeting peptides or siRNA alone or liposome-siRNA alone were used. LYR and LER nanoparticles also showed higher silencing efficiency than PEGylated LYR-P and LER-P nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were not cytotoxic using different liposomes, targeting peptides, and 50 nM siRNA. Three-dimensional fibroblast-populated collagen matrices were also used as a functional assay to measure contraction in vitro, and showed that MRTF-B LYR nanoparticles completely blocked matrix contraction after a single transfection treatment. In conclusion, this is the first study to develop and show that receptor-targeted liposome-peptide-siRNA nanoparticles represent an efficient and safe non-viral siRNA delivery system that could be used to prevent fibrosis after glaucoma filtration surgery and other contractile scarring conditions in the eye.

  8. Towards representing human behavior and decision making in Earth system models - an overview of techniques and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Schlüter, Maja; Mäs, Michael; Donges, Jonathan F.; Kolb, Jakob J.; Thonicke, Kirsten; Heitzig, Jobst

    2017-11-01

    Today, humans have a critical impact on the Earth system and vice versa, which can generate complex feedback processes between social and ecological dynamics. Integrating human behavior into formal Earth system models (ESMs), however, requires crucial modeling assumptions about actors and their goals, behavioral options, and decision rules, as well as modeling decisions regarding human social interactions and the aggregation of individuals' behavior. Here, we review existing modeling approaches and techniques from various disciplines and schools of thought dealing with human behavior at different levels of decision making. We demonstrate modelers' often vast degrees of freedom but also seek to make modelers aware of the often crucial consequences of seemingly innocent modeling assumptions. After discussing which socioeconomic units are potentially important for ESMs, we compare models of individual decision making that correspond to alternative behavioral theories and that make diverse modeling assumptions about individuals' preferences, beliefs, decision rules, and foresight. We review approaches to model social interaction, covering game theoretic frameworks, models of social influence, and network models. Finally, we discuss approaches to studying how the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations can aggregate to complex collective phenomena, discussing agent-based, statistical, and representative-agent modeling and economic macro-dynamics. We illustrate the main ingredients of modeling techniques with examples from land-use dynamics as one of the main drivers of environmental change bridging local to global scales.

  9. Sense of Accomplishment Is Modulated by a Proper Level of Instruction and Represented in the Brain Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tomoya; Nakatani, Hironori; Hosoda, Chihiro; Nonaka, Yulri; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Problem-solving can be facilitated with instructions or hints, which provide information about given problems. The proper amount of instruction that should be provided for learners is controversial. Research shows that tasks with intermediate difficulty induce the largest sense of accomplishment (SA), leading to an intrinsic motivation for learning. To investigate the effect of instructions, we prepared three instruction levels (No hint, Indirect hint, and Direct hint) for the same insight-problem types. We hypothesized that indirect instructions impose intermediate difficulty for each individual, thereby inducing the greatest SA per person. Based on previous neuroimaging studies that showed involvement of the bilateral caudate in learning and motivation, we expected SA to be processed in this reward system. We recruited twenty-one participants, and investigated neural activations during problem solving by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We confirmed that the Indirect hint, which imposed intermediate difficulty, induced the largest SA among the three instruction types. Using fMRI, we showed that activations in the bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly modulated by SA. In the bilateral caudate, the indirect hint induced the largest activation, while the ACC seemed to reflect the difference between correct and incorrect trials. Importantly, such activation pattern was independent of notations (number or letter). Our results indicate that SA is represented in the reward system, and that the Indirect instruction effectively induces such sensation.

  10. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs

  11. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. An improved ENSO simulation by representing chlorophyll-induced climate feedback in the NCAR Community Earth System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xianbiao; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Gao, Chuan; Zhu, Jieshun

    2017-12-07

    The El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) simulated in the Community Earth System Model of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR CESM) is much stronger than in reality. Here, satellite data are used to derive a statistical relationship between interannual variations in oceanic chlorophyll (CHL) and sea surface temperature (SST), which is then incorporated into the CESM to represent oceanic chlorophyll -induced climate feedback in the tropical Pacific. Numerical runs with and without the feedback (referred to as feedback and non-feedback runs) are performed and compared with each other. The ENSO amplitude simulated in the feedback run is more accurate than that in the non-feedback run; quantitatively, the Niño3 SST index is reduced by 35% when the feedback is included. The underlying processes are analyzed and the results show that interannual CHL anomalies exert a systematic modulating effect on the solar radiation penetrating into the subsurface layers, which induces differential heating in the upper ocean that affects vertical mixing and thus SST. The statistical modeling approach proposed in this work offers an effective and economical way for improving climate simulations.

  13. Creating a system of medical and psychological rehabilitation of extreme professions representatives (firemen-rescuers as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chumaeva

    2015-08-01

    2Odessa National Maritime Academy, Odessa, Ukraine   Abstract Background. Working conditions of representatives of extreme professions (firemen-rescuers are a good example, are connected with disregulations and disorders of physiologic functions, fatigue accumulation and disadaptation. The medical and psychological rehabilitation is an effective way for occupational health and reliability restoration. However, last one is characterized by an empirical approach and conducted by priority of medical component, that significantly reduces effectiveness of the undertaken measures. So, it is necessary to develop a system of combined medical and psychological rehabilitation (MPR. Materials and methods. In this progect MPR was carried out in 238 specialists of three professional groups:  firemen-rescuers (146, fire-engine drivers (44 and inspectors of fire safety (48 - control. Psychophysiological examination included the computerized program “MORTEST”, variant “SPAS-14” performance, answers to the individual-typological questionnaire (ITQ and Eysenck personal test (EPT. The levels of epinephrine (Е, norepinephrine (NЕ, dopamine (DА  and dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA urinal excretion, the vanillylmandelic (VMA and homovanillic acids (HVA levels in urine were also defined. The survey is conducted three times: at the beginning, middle and the end of a 12-day rehabilitation course. Statistical data processing  was carried out by common programs in  Microsoft Excel. Results and discussion. The studies have shown that the attributes to identify individual-typological differences are indicators of extroversion-introversion and anxiety in tests ITO and EPT. The results  were divided into three clusters: extroverts with low anxiety (52.9%; ambiverts with low (27.7% and high anxiety (19.4%. Simultaneously it was assigned different types of SAS response in the rehabilitation process: basic or balanced, epinephrinic, norepinephrinic, and with low secretory activity. Low

  14. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasima Akhter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* of Helen Keller International (HKI, Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Since 1998, it evolved into a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system in rural Bangladesh and also continued assessing trends of malnutrition in urban poor areas. Over the 16 year period, the NSP produced plethora of information that was packaged and shared as bulletins, in peer reviewed journal articles, as presentations at conferences, seminars, workshops. The NSP had a flexible framework that allowed it to assess trends and underlying factors of malnutrition, monitor and evaluate selected programs and conduct special studies related to current and emerging issues. NSP findings were available to contribute to program development and supported policy discussions in-country and internationally. The NSP continuously highlighted the importance of monitoring, which is not only an indispensible element for a successful program, but also helps prioritization and decision making to maximize utilization of limited resources for developing countries burdened with numerous problems to address. The NSP provides an example of a technically sound surveillance system with rapid turnover of data and findings, which is imperative to successful program planning, policy formulation and tracking progress toward developmental goals.Le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* de l’association Helen Keller International (HKI, mis en œuvre au Bangladesh en partenariat avec l’Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN,

  15. Towards representing human behavior and decision making in Earth system models. An overview of techniques and approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Schlüter, Maja; Maes, Michael; Donges, Jonathan F.; Kolb, Jakob J.; Thonicke, Kirsten; Heitzig, Jobst

    2017-01-01

    Today, humans have a critical impact on the Earth system and vice versa, which can generate complex feedback processes between social and ecological dynamics. Integrating human behavior into formal Earth system models (ESMs), however, requires crucial modeling assumptions about actors and their

  16. The importance of actions and the worth of an object: dissociable neural systems representing core value and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Schwartz, Sophie; Sander, David

    2012-01-01

    Neuroeconomic research has delineated neural regions involved in the computation of value, referring to a currency for concrete choices and decisions (‘economic value’). Research in psychology and sociology, on the other hand, uses the term ‘value’ to describe motivational constructs that guide choices and behaviors across situations (‘core value’). As a first step towards an integration of these literatures, we compared the neural regions computing economic value and core value. Replicating previous work, economic value computations activated a network centered on medial orbitofrontal cortex. Core value computations activated medial prefrontal cortex, a region involved in the processing of self-relevant information and dorsal striatum, involved in action selection. Core value ratings correlated with activity in precuneus and anterior prefrontal cortex, potentially reflecting the degree to which a core value is perceived as internalized part of one’s self-concept. Distributed activation pattern in insula and ACC allowed differentiating individual core value types. These patterns may represent evaluation profiles reflecting prototypical fundamental concerns expressed in the core value types. Our findings suggest mechanisms by which core values, as motivationally important long-term goals anchored in the self-schema, may have the behavioral power to drive decisions and behaviors in the absence of immediately rewarding behavioral options. PMID:21642352

  17. Temporal-spatial variation and source apportionment of soil heavy metals in the representative river-alluviation depositional system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Ji, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    The contributions of major driving forces on temporal changes of heavy metals in the soil in a representative river-alluviation area at the lower of Yangtze River were successfully quantified by combining geostatistics analysis with the modified principal component scores & multiple linear regressions approach (PCS-MLR). The results showed that the temporal (2003-2014) changes of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr presented a similar spatial distribution pattern, whereas the Cd and Hg showed the distinctive patterns. The temporal changes of soil Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr may be predominated by the emission of the shipbuilding industry, whereas the significant changes of Cd and Hg were possibly predominated by the geochemical and geographical processes, such as the erosion of the Yangtze River water and leaching because of soil acidification. The emission of metal-bearing shipbuilding industry contributed an estimated 74%-83% of the changes in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, whereas the geochemical and geographical processes may contribute 58% of change of Cd in the soil and 59% of decrease of Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The lectin complement pathway serine proteases (MASPs) represent a possible crossroad between the coagulation and complement systems in thromboinflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozarcanin, H; Lood, C; Fog, Lea Munthe

    2016-01-01

    by AT during clotting without the assistance of heparin. In all other cases the MASPs were, as previously reported, inactivated by C1-INH. In systemic lupus erythematosus patients with thrombotic disease and in polytrauma patients, the levels of activated MASP-1 and MASP-2 in complex with both AT and C1-INH...

  19. The data recording and processing programs of the MB-9101 data processing and image representing system for special cardiologic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, A.; Csernay, L.

    1982-01-01

    At present one of the most important areas of isotopic medical diagnostics is the heart. Using a scintillation gamma camera with computer aided data processing the modelling of a heart cycle from several hundred cycles through ECG gating becomes possible. The series of images produced in this way show the movement of the heart wall like a film. Thus the location and extent of the infarction can be determined. The equipment has been developed by Gamma Works, the program system has been prepared in the Isotope Laboratory of the Szeged Medical University. (author)

  20. Recharge contribution to the Guarani Aquifer System estimated from the water balance method in a representative watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Edson; Gomes, Luis H; Troeger, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems is essential information required to establish sustainable water resources management. The objective of this work was to determine the groundwater outflow in the Ribeirão da Onça Basin using a water balance model of the saturated soil zone. The basin is located in the outcrop region of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The water balance method involved the determination of direct recharge values, groundwater storage variation and base flow. The direct recharge was determined by the water table fluctuation method (WTF). The base flow was calculated by the hydrograph separation method, which was generated by a rain-flow model supported by biweekly streamflow measurements in the control section. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at depths corresponding to the variation zone of the groundwater level to determine the specific yield of the soil (drainable porosity). Water balances were performed in the saturated zone for the hydrological years from February 2004 to January 2007. The direct recharge ranged from 14.0% to 38.0%, and groundwater outflow from 0.4% to 2.4% of the respective rainfall during the same period.

  1. A first-principles generic methodology for representing the knowledge base of a process diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Briggs, L.L.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for identifying faulty component candidates of process malfunctions through basic physical principles of conservation, functional classification of components and information from the process schematics. The basic principles of macroscopic balance of mass, momentum and energy in thermal hydraulic control volumes are applied in a novel approach to incorporate deep knowledge into the knowledge base. Additional deep knowledge is incorporated through the functional classification of process components according to their influence in disturbing the macroscopic balance equations. Information from the process schematics is applied to identify the faulty component candidates after the type of imbalance in the control volumes is matched against the functional classification of the components. Except for the information from the process schematics, this approach is completely general and independent of the process under consideration. The use of basic first-principles, which are physically correct, and the process-independent architecture of the diagnosis procedure allow for the verification and validation of the system. A prototype process diagnosis expert system is developed and a test problem is presented to identify faulty component candidates in the presence of a single failure in a hypothetical balance of plant of a liquid metal nuclear reactor plant

  2. Remodelling of cellular excitation (reaction) and intercellular coupling (diffusion) by chronic atrial fibrillation represented by a reaction-diffusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henggui; Garratt, Clifford J.; Kharche, Sanjay; Holden, Arun V.

    2009-06-01

    Human atrial tissue is an excitable system, in which myocytes are excitable elements, and cell-to-cell electrotonic interactions are via diffusive interactions of cell membrane potentials. We developed a family of excitable system models for human atrium at cellular, tissue and anatomical levels for both normal and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) conditions. The effects of AF-induced remodelling of cell membrane ionic channels (reaction kinetics) and intercellular gap junctional coupling (diffusion) on atrial excitability, conduction of excitation waves and dynamics of re-entrant excitation waves are quantified. Both ionic channel and gap junctional coupling remodelling have rate dependent effects on atrial propagation. Membrane channel conductance remodelling allows the propagation of activity at higher rates than those sustained in normal tissue or in tissue with gap junctional remodelling alone. Membrane channel conductance remodelling is essential for the propagation of activity at rates higher than 300/min as seen in AF. Spatially heterogeneous gap junction coupling remodelling increased the risk of conduction block, an essential factor for the genesis of re-entry. In 2D and 3D anatomical models, the dynamical behaviours of re-entrant excitation waves are also altered by membrane channel modelling. This study provides insights to understand the pro-arrhythmic effects of AF-induced reaction and diffusion remodelling in atrial tissue.

  3. Tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) as a vegetation unit's representative of bioregenerative life support systems to elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklavtsova, Ekaterina; Ushakova, Sofya; Shikhov, Valentin; Kudenko, Yurii

    Plants inclusion in the photosynthesizing unit of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) expects knowledge of both production characteristics of plants cultivated under optimal condi-tions and their tolerance to stress-factors' effect caused by contingency origination in a system. The work was aimed at investigation of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) tolerance to the effect of super optimal air temperature of 44 subject to PAR intensity and exposure duration. Chufa was grown in light culture conditions by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. The Knop solution was used as nutrition medium. Up to 30 days the plants were cultivated at the intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 and air temperature of 25. Heat shock was employed at the age of 30 days under the air temperature of 44 during 7, 20 and 44 hours at two different PAR intensities of 690 and 1150 micromole*m-2*s*-1. Chufa heat tolerance was estimated by intensity of external 2 gas exchange and by state of leaves' photosynthetic apparatus (PSA). Effect of disturbing temperature during 44 hours at PAR intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 resulted in frozen-in damage of PSA-leaves' die-off. Chufa plants exposed to heat stress at PAR intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 during both 7 and 20-hours demonstrated respiration dominance over photosynthesis; and 2 emission was observed by light. Functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus estimated with respect to parameters of pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem 2 (PS 2) decreased on 40

  4. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro Okazaki

    Full Text Available People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction--two individuals influencing one another--or in one direction--one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR, the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the

  5. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  6. An Approach to Represent and Communicate Product or System Design Ideas at the Fuzzy-Front End of the Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliab Z. Opiyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary challenge underscored and dealt with was how to represent the product’s or system’s use environment and processes and to communicate ideas and envisaged use contexts effectively at the fuzzy-front early stages of the design process. The work focused specifically on complex products or systems with physical, software and/or cyber components, and the question was how to represent, e.g., the operations of the product or system and the interactions between the user and the product or system betimes in the period between when an opportunity for a new product or system is first considered, and when the idea is judged to be ready to enter formal development. Several approaches are currently being used to express and to communicate ideas at the conceptualization, embodiment, and detail design stages of the design process, but none of them address the challenge described above. We therefore adapted and extended the abstract prototyping concept to allow for total representation of ideas, as well as of use environments and processes early on. Extended abstract prototyping (Ext-AP entails using combinations of low and high-fidelity prototyping techniques to create cognitive virtual representations, which represent and help designers to express ideas and use contexts—namely, what complex product or system would be like, and how its users would interact with it. Real-world product development case studies have been used to demonstrate how the Ext-AP technique can be put into practice. One of the main observations from the application case studies is that the Ext-AP technique enabled the subjects to express ideas and use contexts more effectively early on. In addition, the extended abstract prototypes (Ext-APs offered a low cost, yet effective solution for expressing ideas, representing concepts and using contexts, and allowed the subjects to think divergently, make associations, easily and quickly construct, combine, and evaluate

  7. OSMOSE experiment representativity studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliberti, G.; Klann, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-10

    The OSMOSE program aims at improving the neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels through measurements in the MINERVE facility at the CEA-Cadarache (France) on samples containing the following separated actinides: Th-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243, Cm-244 and Cm-245. The goal of the experimental measurements is to produce a database of reactivity-worth measurements in different neutron spectra for the separated heavy nuclides. This database can then be used as a benchmark for integral reactivity-worth measurements to verify and validate reactor analysis codes and integral cross-section values for the isotopes tested. In particular, the OSMOSE experimental program will produce very accurate sample reactivity-worth measurements for a series of actinides in various spectra, from very thermalized to very fast. The objective of the analytical program is to make use of the experimental data to establish deficiencies in the basic nuclear data libraries, identify their origins, and provide guidelines for nuclear data improvements in coordination with international programs. To achieve the proposed goals, seven different neutron spectra can be created in the MINERVE facility: UO2 dissolved in water (representative of over-moderated LWR systems), UO2 matrix in water (representative of LWRs), a mixed oxide fuel matrix, two thermal spectra containing large epithermal components (representative of under-moderated reactors), a moderated fast spectrum (representative of fast reactors which have some slowing down in moderators such as lead-bismuth or sodium), and a very hard spectrum (representative of fast reactors with little moderation from reactor coolant). The different spectra are achieved by changing the experimental lattice within the MINERVE reactor. The experimental lattice is the replaceable central part of MINERVE, which establishes the spectrum at the sample location. This configuration

  8. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results

  9. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results.

  10. The Frontier Framework (and its eight Frontier Archetypes): A new conceptual approach to representing staff and patient well-being in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Darrin L

    2018-05-04

    This paper proposes a new conceptual framework for jointly analysing the production of staff and patient welfare in health systems. Research to date has identified a direct link between staff and patient well-being. However, until now, no one has produced a unified framework for analysing them concurrently. In response, this paper introduces the "Frontier Framework". The new conceptual framework is applicable to all health systems regardless of their structure or financing. To demonstrate the benefits of its use, an empirical example of the Frontier Framework is constructed using data from the UK's National Health Service. This paper also introduces eight "Frontier Archetypes", which represent common patterns of welfare generation observable in health organisations involved in programmes of change. These archetypes may be used in planning, monitoring or creating narratives about organisational journeys. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Representing Model Error in a Hybrid Ensemble-Variational Data Assimilation System for Track Forecast of Tropical Cyclones over the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Govindan; Muraleedharan, Rohit; Kesarkar, Amit P.

    2018-03-01

    Uncertainties in the numerical weather prediction models are generally not well-represented in ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) systems. The performance of an ensemble-based DA system becomes suboptimal, if the sources of error are undersampled in the forecast system. The present study examines the effect of accounting for model error treatments in the hybrid ensemble transform Kalman filter—three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) DA system (hybrid) in the track forecast of two tropical cyclones viz. Hudhud and Thane, formed over the Bay of Bengal, using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model. We investigated the effect of two types of model error treatment schemes and their combination on the hybrid DA system; (i) multiphysics approach, which uses different combination of cumulus, microphysics and planetary boundary layer schemes, (ii) stochastic kinetic energy backscatter (SKEB) scheme, which perturbs the horizontal wind and potential temperature tendencies, (iii) a combination of both multiphysics and SKEB scheme. Substantial improvements are noticed in the track positions of both the cyclones, when flow-dependent ensemble covariance is used in 3DVAR framework. Explicit model error representation is found to be beneficial in treating the underdispersive ensembles. Among the model error schemes used in this study, a combination of multiphysics and SKEB schemes has outperformed the other two schemes with improved track forecast for both the tropical cyclones.

  12. Comparative analysis of different supporting measures for the production of electrical energy by solar PV and Wind systems. Four representative European cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoccia, A.; Dusonchet, L.; Telaretti, E.; Zizzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the 9th of March 2007, the European Council decided a fixing goal of 20% contribution of the renewable energy sources (RES) on the total European electric energy production in 2020. In order to reach such an ambitious goal, all the European countries are adopting different support policies for encouraging the installations of RES-based generation systems. In this paper, after a brief review on the main support policies for RES in Europe, the specific situations of four representative countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) are examined, with the purpose of putting into evidence the main differences in the support policies adopted for Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind systems. In particular, a comparison based on the calculation of the pay-back-period (PBP), the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR), for different sized PV and Wind systems, shows that in some situations a support policy can be not convenient for the owner of the RES-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the way of implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give place to significantly different results. (author)

  13. Influence of increasing numbers of RE-inverters on the power quality in the distribution grids: A PQ case study of a representative wind turbine and photovoltaic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Przemyslaw JANIK; Grzegorz KOSOBUDZKI; Harald SCHWARZ

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the selected power quality (PQ) indicia of a wind generator and a photovoltaic installation considered to be the representative of medium voltage and low voltage distribution grids.The analysis of measured values suggests that the decrease in PQ is a case of specific combination of distributed generation,grid parameters and load behaviour.Modem generators have a limited impact on PQ.On the other hand,fluctuations in power generation are regarded as an emerging PQ indicator.The growing number of distributed renewable installations causes stochastic,variable,and hardly predictable power flows in the distribution grid.The nature of fluctuations in wind and solar generation is different.In both cases,new indexes for the quantification of fluctuations are needed and are yet not standardised.Proper assessment of these fluctuations enables definition of useful fluctuation limits and rules for optimal storage system integration.

  14. Thermal hydraulic characteristics of the pool-type FBR 'ARES' eliminating intermediate heat-transfer system. 2. Transient characteristics in representative events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Izumi; Yoshida, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    An innovative plant concept (ARES), which eliminates intermediate heat-transfer system, was proposed in order to reduce the construction cost of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). In the present study, representative events of the ARES were picked up and plant transient analysis was conducted in order to reveal the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the ARES. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) The core was sufficiently cooled without sodium boiling in an event of mis-operation of the siphon break system. (2) The disturbances of the SG transfer to the core within about 30 seconds in a event of the feed water increasing. This transition period is less than half that of the conventional LMFBR. However, the transient characteristics of the ARES are very similar to those of the conventional LMFBR. Based on these results, it is only necessary to consider the short transition period in order to design the control system. (3) Based on the results of the calculation of a total blackout accident, it is concluded that the use of the SG-side cooling together is profitable in order to satisfy the design safety criteria in design basis events. In the case of full natural-circulation cooling, the use of the SG-side cooling together is profitable in order to satisfy the design safety criteria. (author)

  15. A reduced-form approach for representing the impacts of wind and solar PV deployment on the structure and operation of the electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; McPherson, Madeleine; Parkinson, Simon C.; Krey, Volker; Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    In many climate change mitigation scenarios, integrated assessment models of the energy and climate systems rely heavily on renewable energy technologies with variable and uncertain generation, such as wind and solar PV, to achieve substantial decarbonization of the electricity sector. However, these models often include very little temporal resolution and thus have difficulty in representing the integration costs that arise from mismatches between electricity supply and demand. The global integrated assessment model, MESSAGE, has been updated to explicitly model the trade-offs between variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment and its impacts on the electricity system, including the implications for electricity curtailment, backup capacity, and system flexibility. These impacts have been parameterized using a reduced-form approach, which allows VRE integration impacts to be quantified on a regional basis. In addition, thermoelectric technologies were updated to include two modes of operation, baseload and flexible, to better account for the cost, efficiency, and availability penalties associated with flexible operation. In this paper, the modeling approach used in MESSAGE is explained and the implications for VRE deployment in mitigation scenarios are assessed. Three important stylized facts associated with integrating high VRE shares are successfully reproduced by our modeling approach: (1) the significant reduction in the utilization of non-VRE power plants; (2) the diminishing role for traditional baseload generators, such as nuclear and coal, and the transition to more flexible technologies; and (3) the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen electrolysis in facilitating the deployment of VRE.

  16. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: from cognitive maps to agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H A; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J

    2015-03-15

    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation models (quantitative) with the ultimate goal of improving understanding and communication about decision making in complex socio-ecological systems. The methodology integrates cognitive mapping and agent based modelling. It cascades through a sequence of qualitative/soft and numerical methods comprising: (1) Interviews to elicit mental models; (2) Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models; (3) Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process; (4) All-encompassing conceptual model of decision making, and (5) computational (in this case agent-based) Model. We apply the proposed methodology (labelled ICTAM) in a case study of viticulture irrigation in South Australia. Finally, we use strengths-weakness-opportunities-threats (SWOT) analysis to reflect on the methodology. Results show that the methodology leverages the use of cognitive mapping to capture the richness of decision making and mental models, and provides a combination of divergent and convergent analysis methods leading to the construction of an Agent Based Model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  18. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  19. Tamanho da subamostra e representatividade da fertilidade do solo no sistema plantio direto Subsample size and soil fertility representativity in the no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo André Schlindwein

    2002-12-01

    increase in the horizontal variability of the soil chemical characteristics, and in difficulties for collecting representative soil fertility samples. This research was carried out in two studies: the first one was to relate the subsample size with variability of the available phosphorus and potassium. Soil samples were collected with a shovel in an experiment and in a crop fild area in the no tillage system broadcast fertilized, at different sizes and layers up to 20cm depth. The second study was conducted to test the efficiency of different sizes and shapes of subsamples, given by soil sample equipments, througth the variability of soil fertility indexes. Two crop field areass under no tillage system were sampled at the 0-10cm depth with a screw auger and with a shovel with 5/10cm (thickness/wideness in the broadcast fertilizer field, and with 5cm thick and inter-row width in the row fertilized field. When the soil was sampled with the screw auger, the soil organic matter and available potassium content was lower in the row fertilized field, and available phosphorus content was lower in both, broadcast and row fertilized fields. In this situation, the variability was higher and, as a consequence, a higher number of subsamples were required to represent the fertility status of the soil. Soil samples taken with the shovel at the 5/10cm size were efficient to represent the soil fertility when the soil was broadcast fertilized in the no tillage system.

  20. Effects of patient health literacy, patient engagement and a system-level health literacy attribute on patient-reported outcomes: a representative statewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Weaver, Nancy L; Wray, Ricardo J; Brown, Melissa L R; Buskirk, Trent; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2014-10-07

    The effects of health literacy are thought to be based on interactions between patients' skill levels and health care system demands. Little health literacy research has focused on attributes of health care organizations. We examined whether the attribute of individuals' experiences with front desk staff, patient engagement through bringing questions to a doctor visit, and health literacy skills were related to two patient-reported outcomes. We administered a telephone survey with two sampling frames (i.e., household landline, cell phone numbers) to a randomly selected statewide sample of 3358 English-speaking adult residents of Missouri. We examined two patient-reported outcomes - whether or not respondents reported knowing more about their health and made better choices about their health following their last doctor visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the independent contributions of predictor variables (i.e., front desk staff, bringing questions to a doctor visit, health literacy skills). Controlling for self-reported health, having a personal doctor, time since last visit, number of chronic conditions, health insurance, and sociodemographic characteristics, respondents who had a good front desk experience were 2.65 times as likely (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13, 3.30) and those who brought questions were 1.73 times as likely (95% CI: 1.32, 2.27) to report knowing more about their health after seeing a doctor. In a second model, respondents who had a good front desk experience were 1.57 times as likely (95% CI: 1.26, 1.95) and those who brought questions were 1.66 times as likely (95% CI: 1.29, 2.14) to report making better choices about their health after seeing a doctor. Patients' health literacy skills were not associated with either outcome. Results from this representative statewide survey may indicate that one attribute of a health care organization (i.e., having a respectful workforce) and patient engagement through

  1. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  2. The Dy–Ni–Si system as a representative of the rare earth–Ni–Si family: Its isothermal section and new rare-earth nickel silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@general.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, Moscow GSP-2, 119992 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, Moscow GSP-2, 119992 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Pani, M.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P. [Institute SPIN-CNR and Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    The Dy–Ni–Si system has been investigated at 1070 K by X-ray and microprobe analysis. The system contains the 12 known compounds DyNi{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, DyNi{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, DyNi{sub 4}Si, DyNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 5}, DyNiSi{sub 3}, Dy{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2}, DyNiSi{sub 2}, DyNiSi, Dy{sub 3}NiSi{sub 3}, Dy{sub 3}NiSi{sub 2}, and the new compounds Dy{sub 34}Ni{sub 16−27}Si{sub 50−39} (AlB{sub 2}-type), Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 15.2−14.1}Si{sub 1.8−2.9} (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type), ∼Dy{sub 11}Ni{sub 65}Si{sub 24}, ∼Dy{sub 16}Ni{sub 62}Si{sub 22} (unknown structures), DyNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6} (GdNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6}-type), Dy{sub 3}Ni{sub 8}Si (Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 8}Si-type), DyNi{sub 2}Si (YPd{sub 2}Si-type), ∼Dy{sub 40}Ni{sub 47}Si{sub 13} and ∼Dy{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3} (unknown structures). Quasi–binary solid solutions were detected at 1070 (870 K) for Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, DyNi{sub 5}, DyNi{sub 7}, DyNi{sub 3}, DyNi{sub 2}, DyNi, DySi{sub 2} and DySi{sub 1.67}. No detectable solubility is observed for the other binary compounds of the Dy–Ni–Si system. The crystal structures of new phases RNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6} (GdNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6}-type), R{sub 3}Ni{sub 8}Si (Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 8}Si-type), RNi{sub 2}Si (YPd{sub 2}Si-type) and R{sub 3}Ni{sub 12}Si{sub 4} (Gd{sub 3}Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 12}-type), with R=Y, Gd–Tm, has been studied. Magnetic properties of few representative compounds are also reported. - Graphical abstract: The Dy–Ni–Si system has been investigated at 1070 K by X-ray and microprobe analysis. The system contains the 12 known compounds DyNi{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, DyNi{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, DyNi{sub 4}Si, DyNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 5}, DyNiSi{sub 3}, Dy{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2}, DyNiSi{sub 2}, DyNiSi, Dy{sub 3}NiSi{sub 3}, Dy{sub 3}NiSi{sub 2}, and the new compounds Dy{sub 34}Ni{sub 16−27}Si{sub 50−39}, Dy{sub 2}Ni{sub 15.2−14.1}Si{sub 1.8−2.9}, ∼Dy{sub 11}Ni{sub 65

  3. An Approach to Represent and Communicate Product or System Design Ideas at the Fuzzy-Front End of the Design Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opiyo, E.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The primary challenge underscored and dealt with was how to represent the product’s or system’s use environment and processes and to communicate ideas and envisaged use contexts effectively at the fuzzy-front early stages of the design process. The work focused specifically on complex products or

  4. Representing AIDS in Comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K

    2018-02-01

    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Representative of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The decommissioning of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant was a big challenge for the host community of Vandellos i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant and the close-by region. Closing down of the facility resulted in a rise of unemployment and a decrease of municipal income. The public was concerned with three issues: safety, transparency and information about the decommissioning, and economic future. Therefore, from the very beginning, municipal governments entered into negotiations with ENRESA on socio-economic benefits, including local employment in dismantling activities, and other types of financial and non-financial compensation. The ADE business association, i.e. a network of business organisations was created that guided the allotment of work to local firms. To satisfy public demand, local municipalities focused on the triad of safety, dialogue and local development, considered the three 'pillars of trust'. A Municipal Monitoring Commission was created, made up of representatives of affected municipalities, the regional government, the ADE business association, trade unions, the local university, the NPP management and ENRESA to monitor the dismantling process and regularly inform the local public. Items that were handled by this Commission included: - Work process monitoring. - Workers. - Materials Control. - Conventional and radioactive or contaminated waste management. - Emanation waste management (liquid and gas) - Safety (training and accidents). - Surveillance (radiological and environmental: dust, noise). - Effects. - Fulfillment of agreed conditions. A number of communication tools and channels were used, e.g., public information meetings, an information centre, the municipal magazine, the municipal radio station, and meetings with representatives of the local press. Particularly innovative was the idea to ask academics from the University of Tarragona to help with 'translating' technical information into language that could

  6. Representing sentence information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Walton A., III

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes a computer-oriented representation for sentence information. Whereas many Artificial Intelligence (AI) natural language systems start with a syntactic parse of a sentence into the linguist's components: noun, verb, adjective, preposition, etc., we argue that it is better to parse the input sentence into 'meaning' components: attribute, attribute value, object class, object instance, and relation. AI systems need a representation that will allow rapid storage and retrieval of information and convenient reasoning with that information. The attribute-of-object representation has proven useful for handling information in relational databases (which are well known for their efficiency in storage and retrieval) and for reasoning in knowledge- based systems. On the other hand, the linguist's syntactic representation of the works in sentences has not been shown to be useful for information handling and reasoning. We think it is an unnecessary and misleading intermediate form. Our sentence representation is semantic based in terms of attribute, attribute value, object class, object instance, and relation. Every sentence is segmented into one or more components with the form: 'attribute' of 'object' 'relation' 'attribute value'. Using only one format for all information gives the system simplicity and good performance as a RISC architecture does for hardware. The attribute-of-object representation is not new; it is used extensively in relational databases and knowledge-based systems. However, we will show that it can be used as a meaning representation for natural language sentences with minor extensions. In this paper we describe how a computer system can parse English sentences into this representation and generate English sentences from this representation. Much of this has been tested with computer implementation.

  7. Increasing the spatial scale of process-based agricultural systems models by representing heterogeneity: The case of urine patches in grazed pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, Val O.; Cichota, R; McAuliffe, John

    2017-01-01

    -paddock simulation. It explicitly preserves the soil carbon and nitrogen heterogeneity but does not require independent simulation of soil water and plant processes and is temporal in that the patches of heterogeneity can appear and disappear during the simulation. The approach was tested through comparison...... to simulations that more-closely represented field conditions and which contained independent urine patches. The testing was successful, reducing substantial error in the simulation of pasture grazed and leaching for modest increases in simulation execution time but we recommend additional testing under very low...

  8. The applicability of activities in kinetic expressions: a more fundamental approach to represent the kinetics of the system CO2-OH- in terms of activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubrock, J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Versteeg, Geert

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of using activities instead of concentrations in kinetic expressions has been investigated using the reaction of CO2 with various hydroxide solutions as a model system. For this system it is known that when the reaction rate constant is based on the use of

  9. The applicability of activities in kinetic expressions : A more fundamental approach to represent the kinetics of the system CO2-OH- in terms of activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubrock, J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of using activities instead of concentrations in kinetic expressions has been investigated using the reaction of CO2 with various hydroxide solutions as a model system. For this system it is known that when the reaction rate constant is based on the use of

  10. The applicability of activities in kinetic expressions: A more fundamental approach to represent the kinetics of the system CO2–OH-salt in terms of activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubrock, J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Versteeg, Geert

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of utilizing activities instead of concentrations in kinetic expressions has been investigated using the reaction of CO2 in sodium hydroxide solutions also containing different neutral salts (LiCl, KCl and NaCl) as model system. For hydroxide systems it is known that when the

  11. Impact of the DRG System in Arizona. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (September 14, 1985, Tucson, AZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    Text of a Congressional hearing held in Tucson, Arizona, to examine health care and the diagnostic related group (DRG) system is presented in this document. Opening statements are delivered by Representatives Kolbe and McCain. Witnesses testifying include: (1) two older Arizona residents who had experienced problems related to diagnostic related…

  12. Task Analytic Models to Guide Analysis and Design: Use of the Operator Function Model to Represent Pilot-Autoflight System Mode Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Mitchell, Christine M.; Chappell, Alan R.; Shafto, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Task-analytic models structure essential information about operator interaction with complex systems, in this case pilot interaction with the autoflight system. Such models serve two purposes: (1) they allow researchers and practitioners to understand pilots' actions; and (2) they provide a compact, computational representation needed to design 'intelligent' aids, e.g., displays, assistants, and training systems. This paper demonstrates the use of the operator function model to trace the process of mode engagements while a pilot is controlling an aircraft via the, autoflight system. The operator function model is a normative and nondeterministic model of how a well-trained, well-motivated operator manages multiple concurrent activities for effective real-time control. For each function, the model links the pilot's actions with the required information. Using the operator function model, this paper describes several mode engagement scenarios. These scenarios were observed and documented during a field study that focused on mode engagements and mode transitions during normal line operations. Data including time, ATC clearances, altitude, system states, and active modes and sub-modes, engagement of modes, were recorded during sixty-six flights. Using these data, seven prototypical mode engagement scenarios were extracted. One scenario details the decision of the crew to disengage a fully automatic mode in favor of a semi-automatic mode, and the consequences of this action. Another describes a mode error involving updating aircraft speed following the engagement of a speed submode. Other scenarios detail mode confusion at various phases of the flight. This analysis uses the operator function model to identify three aspects of mode engagement: (1) the progress of pilot-aircraft-autoflight system interaction; (2) control/display information required to perform mode management activities; and (3) the potential cause(s) of mode confusion. The goal of this paper is twofold

  13. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: From cognitive maps to agent-based models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Sawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H.A.; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation

  14. Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) / Emergency Core Coolant System (ECCS Evaluation of Risk-Informed Margins Management Strategies for a Representative Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) toolkit and methodology are proposed for investigating nuclear power plant core, fuels design and safety analysis, including postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. This toolkit, under an integrated evaluation model framework, is name LOCA toolkit for the US (LOTUS). This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermal hydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results.

  15. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part I: A unified approach for representing action, quantitative evaluation, and interactive feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although principles based in motor learning, rehabilitation, and human-computer interfaces can guide the design of effective interactive systems for rehabilitation, a unified approach that connects these key principles into an integrated design, and can form a methodology that can be generalized to interactive stroke rehabilitation, is presently unavailable. Results This paper integrates phenomenological approaches to interaction and embodied knowledge with rehabilitation practices and theories to achieve the basis for a methodology that can support effective adaptive, interactive rehabilitation. Our resulting methodology provides guidelines for the development of an action representation, quantification of action, and the design of interactive feedback. As Part I of a two-part series, this paper presents key principles of the unified approach. Part II then describes the application of this approach within the implementation of the Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) system for stroke rehabilitation. Conclusions The accompanying principles for composing novel mixed reality environments for stroke rehabilitation can advance the design and implementation of effective mixed reality systems for the clinical setting, and ultimately be adapted for home-based application. They furthermore can be applied to other rehabilitation needs beyond stroke. PMID:21875441

  16. Use of a Balanced Scorecard in strengthening health systems in developing countries: an analysis based on nationally representative Bangladesh Health Facility Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Mahmud; Hotchkiss, David R; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Zunaid Ahsan, Karar

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates the importance of collecting facility-based data through regular surveys to supplement the administrative data, especially for developing countries of the world. In Bangladesh, measures based on facility survey indicate that only 70% of very basic medical instruments and 35% of essential drugs were available in health facilities. Less than 2% of officially designated obstetric care facilities actually had required drugs, injections and personnel on-site. Majority of (80%) referral hospitals at the district level were not ready to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care. Even though the Management Information System reports availability of diagnostic machines in all district-level and sub-district-level facilities, it fails to indicate that 50% of these machines are not functional. In terms of human resources, both physicians and nurses are in short supply at all levels of the healthcare system. The physician-nurse ratio also remains lower than the desirable level of 3.0. Overall job satisfaction index was less than 50 for physicians and 66 for nurses. Patient satisfaction score, however, was high (86) despite the fact that process indicators of service quality were poor. Facility surveys can help strengthen not only the management decision-making process but also the quality of administrative data. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Glass is Half Full and Half Empty: A population-representative twin study testing if Optimism and Pessimism are distinct systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Optimism and pessimism are associated with important outcomes including health and depression. Yet it is unclear if these apparent polar opposites form a single dimension or reflect two distinct systems. The extent to which personality accounts for differences in optimism/pessimism is also controversial. Here, we addressed these questions in a genetically informative sample of 852 pairs of twins. Distinct genetic influences on optimism and pessimism were found. Significant family-level environment effects also emerged, accounting for much of the negative relationship between optimism and pessimism, as well as a link to neuroticism. A general positive genetics factor exerted significant links among both personality and life-orientation traits. Both optimism bias and pessimism also showed genetic variance distinct from all effects of personality, and from each other. PMID:26561494

  18. The oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu represents a cell culture system to examine functional expression of the mouse gap junction gene connexin29 (Cx29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Christoph Söhl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential gap junction forming mouse connexin29 (Cx29 protein is concomitantly expressed with connexin32 (Cx32 in peripheral myelin forming Schwann cells and together with both Cx32 and connexin47 (Cx47 in oligodendrocytes of the CNS. To study the genomic structure and functional expression of Cx29, either primary cells or cell culture systems might be selected, from which the latter are easier to cultivate. Both structure and expression of Cx29 is still not fully understood. In the mouse sciatic nerve, brain and the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu the Cx29 gene is processed in two transcript isoforms both harbouring a unique reading frame. In contrast to Cx32 and Cx47, only Cx29 protein is abundantly expressed in undifferentiated as well as differentiated Oli-neu cells but the absence of Etbr dye transfer after microinjection concealed the function of Cx29 mediated gap junction communication between those cells. Although HeLa cells stably transfected with Cx29 or Cx29-eGFP neither demonstrated any permeability for Lucifer yellow nor for neurobiotin, blocking of Etbr uptake from the media by gap junction blockers does suppose a role of Cx29 in hemi-channel function. Thus, we conclude that, due to its high abundance of Cx29 expression and its reproducible culture conditions, the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu might constitute an appropriate cell culture system to study molecular mechanisms or putative extracellular stimuli to functionally open Cx29 channels or hemi-channels.

  19. Enhancing the Reuse of Digital Resources for Integrated Systems to Represent, Understand and Dynamize Complex Interactions in Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F. J.; Martinez, R.; Finat, J.; Martinez, J.; Puche, J. C.; Finat, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we develop a multiply interconnected system which involves objects, agents and interactions between them from the use of ICT applied to open repositories, users communities and web services. Our approach is applied to Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments (ACHE). It includes components relative to digital accessibility (to augmented ACHE repositories), contents management (ontologies for the semantic web), semiautomatic recognition (to ease the reuse of materials) and serious videogames (for interaction in urban environments). Their combination provides a support for local real/remote virtual tourism (including some tools for low-level RT display of rendering in portable devices), mobile-based smart interactions (with a special regard to monitored environments) and CH related games (as extended web services). Main contributions to AR models on usual GIS applied to architectural environments, concern to an interactive support performed directly on digital files which allows to access to CH contents which are referred to GIS of urban districts (involving facades, historical or preindustrial buildings) and/or CH repositories in a ludic and transversal way to acquire cognitive, medial and social abilities in collaborative environments.

  20. The July 11, 1995 Myanmar-China earthquake: A representative event in the bookshelf faulting system of southeastern Asia observed from JERS-1 SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lingyun; Wang, Qingliang; Xu, Jing; Ji, Cunwei

    2017-03-01

    On July 11, 1995, an Mw 6.8 earthquake struck eastern Myanmar near the Chinese border; hereafter referred to as the 1995 Myanmar-China earthquake. Coseismic surface displacements associated with this event are identified from JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. The largest relative displacement reached 60 cm in the line-of-sight direction. We speculate that a previously unrecognized dextral strike-slip subvertical fault striking NW-SE was responsible for this event. The coseismic slip distribution on the fault planes is inverted based on the InSAR-derived deformation. The results indicate that the fault slip was confined to two lobes. The maximum slip reached approximately 2.5 m at a depth of 5 km in the northwestern part of the focal region. The inverted geodetic moment was approximately Mw = 6.69, which is consistent with seismological results. The 1995 Myanmar-China earthquake is one of the largest recorded earthquakes that has occurred around the "bookshelf faulting" system between the Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the Red River fault in southwestern China.

  1. ZIP MK 2 : A Fortran code for calculating the eigenvalues (poles and zeros and frequency responses of large sets of linear equations representing complex dynamic systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, H.M.

    1969-03-01

    The KDF9/EGDON program ZIP MK 2 is the third of a series of programs for off-line digital computer analysis of dynamic systems: it has been designed specifically to cater for the needs of the design or control engineer in having an input scheme which is minimally computer-oriented. It uses numerical algorithms which are as near fool-proof as the author could discover or devise, and has comprehensive diagnostic sections to help the user in the event of faulty data or machine execution. ZIP MK 2 accepts mathematical models comprising first order linear differential and linear algebraic equations, and from these computes and factorises the transfer functions between specified pairs of output and input variables; if desired, the frequency response may be computed from the computed transfer function. The model input scheme is fully compatible with the frequency response programs FRP MK 1 and MK 2, except that, for ZIP MK 2, transport, or time-delays must be converted by the user to Pade or Bode approximations prior to input. ZIP provides the pole-zero plot, (or complex plane analysis), while FRP provides the frequency response and FIFI the time domain analyses. The pole-zero method of analysis has been little used in the past for complex models, especially where transport delays occur, and one of its primary purposes is as a research tool to investigate the usefulness of this method, for process plant, whether nuclear, chemical or other continuous processes. (author)

  2. Minimal levels of ultraviolet light enhance the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to two representative organisms of aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have been published concerning the potential ecotoxicological risks of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), but the results still remain inconclusive. The characteristics of the diverse types of nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity. TiO2 has important photocatalytic properties, and its photoactivation occurs in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to indicators organisms of freshwater and saline aquatic systems, under different illumination conditions (visible light, with or without UV light). Daphnia similis and Artemia salina were co-exposed to a sublethal dose of UV light and different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM). Both products were considered practically non-toxic under visible light to D. similis and A. salina (EC5048h > 100 mg/L). Exposure to nano-TiO2 under visible and UV light enhanced the toxicity of both products. In the case of D. similis, TM was more toxic than TA, showing values of EC5048h = 60.16 and 750.55 mg/L, respectively. A. salina was more sensitive than D. similis, with EC5048h = 4 mg/L for both products. Measurements were made of the growth rates of exposed organisms, together with biomarkers of oxidative stress and metabolism. The results showed that the effects of nano-TiO2 depended on the organism, exposure time, crystal phase, and illumination conditions, and emphasized the need for a full characterization of nanoparticles and their behavior when studying nanotoxicity.

  3. The Ce-Ni-Si system as a representative of the rare earth-Ni-Si family: Isothermal section and new rare-earth nickel silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V.; Garshev, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Faculty of Materials Science, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 73, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nirmala, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Quezado, S.; Malik, S.K. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, 59082-970 (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    The Ce-Ni-Si system has been investigated at 870/1070 K by X-ray and microprobe analyses. The existence of the known compounds, i.e.: Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 15.8}Si{sub 1.2} (Th{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}-type), Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 15-14}Si{sub 2-3} (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type), CeNi{sub 8.6}Si{sub 2.4} (BaCd{sub 11}-type), CeNi{sub 8.8}Si{sub 4.2} (LaCo{sub 9}Si{sub 4}-type), CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} (CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type), CeNi{sub 5}Si{sub 1-0.3} (TbCu{sub 7}-type), CeNi{sub 4}Si (YNi{sub 4}Si-type), CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (CeGa{sub 2}Al{sub 2}-type), Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 5} (U{sub 2}Co{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-type), Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2} (Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2}-type), Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 4} (U{sub 3}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 4}-type), CeNiSi{sub 2} (CeNiSi{sub 2}-type), ~CeNi{sub 1.3}Si{sub 0.7} (unknown type structure), Ce{sub 6}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 4} (Pr{sub 6}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 4}-type), CeNiSi (LaPtSi-type), CeNi{sub 0.8-0.3}Si{sub 1.2-1.7} (AlB{sub 2}-type), ~Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Si (unknown type structure), ~Ce{sub 4.5}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 2} (unknown type structure), Ce{sub 15}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 10} (Pr{sub 15}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 10}-type), Ce{sub 5}Ni{sub 1.85}Si{sub 3} (Ce{sub 5}Ni{sub 1.85}Si{sub 3}-type), Ce{sub 6}Ni{sub 1.4}Si{sub 3.4} (Ce{sub 6}Ni{sub 1.67}Si{sub 3}-type), Ce{sub 7}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 5} (Ce{sub 7}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 5}-type) and Ce{sub 3}NiSi{sub 3} (Y{sub 3}NiSi{sub 3}-type) has been confirmed in this section. Moreover, the type structure has been determined for ~Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Si (Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5}) and ~Ce{sub 4.5}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 2} (W{sub 3}CoB{sub 3}-type Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 3-2.7}Si{sub 1-1.3}) and new ternary phases Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 6.25}Si{sub 0.75} (Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 7}-type), CeNi{sub 7-7.6}Si{sub 6-5.4} (GdNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6}-type) and ~Ce{sub 27}Ni{sub 42}Si{sub 31} (unknown type structure) have been identified in this system. Quasi-binary phases, solid solutions, were detected at 870/1070 K for CeNi{sub 5}, CeNi{sub 3} and Ce

  4. How Are Feedbacks Represented in Land Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land systems are characterised by many feedbacks that can result in complex system behaviour. We defined feedbacks as the two-way influences between the land use system and a related system (e.g., climate, soils and markets, both of which are encompassed by the land system. Land models that include feedbacks thus probably more accurately mimic how land systems respond to, e.g., policy or climate change. However, representing feedbacks in land models is a challenge. We reviewed articles incorporating feedbacks into land models and analysed each with predefined indicators. We found that (1 most modelled feedbacks couple land use systems with transport, soil and market systems, while only a few include feedbacks between land use and social systems or climate systems; (2 equation-based land use models that follow a top-down approach prevail; and (3 feedbacks’ effects on system behaviour remain relatively unexplored. We recommend that land system modellers (1 consider feedbacks between land use systems and social systems; (2 adopt (bottom-up approaches suited to incorporating spatial heterogeneity and better representing land use decision-making; and (3 pay more attention to nonlinear system behaviour and its implications for land system management and policy.

  5. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and....../or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect...

  6. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  7. Does representative wind information exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Representativity requirements are discussed for various wind data users. It is shown that most applications can be dealt with by using data from wind stations when these are made to conform with WMO specifications. Methods to achieve this WMO normalization are reviewed, giving minimum specifications

  8. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  9. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    p. 4i). This hy- pothesis was studied in several contexts, including intuitive statisti- cal judgments and the prediction of professional choice (Kahneman... professional choice . Here, X is representative of M either because it is frequently associated with M (e.g., high fever commonly accompanies pneumonia

  10. WIPP facility representative program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) facility representative (FR) program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It provides the following information: (1) FR and support organization authorities and responsibilities; (2) FR program requirements; and (3) FR training and qualification requirements

  11. Forensic genetic informativeness of an SNP panel consisting of 19 multi-allelic SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zehua; Chen, Xiaogang; Zhao, Yuancun; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shu; Yang, Yiwen; Wang, Yufang; Zhang, Ji

    2018-05-01

    Current research focusing on forensic personal identification, phenotype inference and ancestry information on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been widely reported. In the present study, we focused on tetra-allelic SNPs in the Chinese Han population. A total of 48 tetra-allelic SNPs were screened out from the Chinese Han population of the 1000 Genomes Database, including Chinese Han in Beijing (CHB) and Chinese Han South (CHS). Considering the forensic genetic requirement for the polymorphisms, only 11 tetra-allelic SNPs with a heterozygosity >0.06 were selected for further multiplex panel construction. In order to meet the demands of personal identification and parentage identification, an additional 8 tri-allelic SNPs were combined into the final multiplex panel. To ensure application in the degraded DNA analysis, all the PCR products were designed to be 87-188 bp. Employing multiple PCR reactions and SNaPshot minisequencing, 511 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Sichuan were genotyped. The combined match probability (CMP), combined discrimination power (CDP), and cumulative probability of exclusion (CPE) of the panel were 6.07 × 10 -11 , 0.9999999999393 and 0.996764, respectively. Based on the population data retrieved from the 1000 Genomes Project, Fst values between Chinese Han in Sichuan (SCH) and all the populations included in the 1000 Genomes Project were calculated. The results indicated that two SNPs in this panel may contain ancestry information and may be used as markers of forensic biogeographical ancestry inference. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient simulation and likelihood methods for non-neutral multi-allele models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Paul; Genz, Alan; Buzbas, Erkan Ozge

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1980s, Simon Tavaré made numerous significant contributions to population genetics theory. As genetic data, in particular DNA sequence, became more readily available, a need to connect population-genetic models to data became the central issue. The seminal work of Griffiths and Tavaré (1994a , 1994b , 1994c) was among the first to develop a likelihood method to estimate the population-genetic parameters using full DNA sequences. Now, we are in the genomics era where methods need to scale-up to handle massive data sets, and Tavaré has led the way to new approaches. However, performing statistical inference under non-neutral models has proved elusive. In tribute to Simon Tavaré, we present an article in spirit of his work that provides a computationally tractable method for simulating and analyzing data under a class of non-neutral population-genetic models. Computational methods for approximating likelihood functions and generating samples under a class of allele-frequency based non-neutral parent-independent mutation models were proposed by Donnelly, Nordborg, and Joyce (DNJ) (Donnelly et al., 2001). DNJ (2001) simulated samples of allele frequencies from non-neutral models using neutral models as auxiliary distribution in a rejection algorithm. However, patterns of allele frequencies produced by neutral models are dissimilar to patterns of allele frequencies produced by non-neutral models, making the rejection method inefficient. For example, in some cases the methods in DNJ (2001) require 10(9) rejections before a sample from the non-neutral model is accepted. Our method simulates samples directly from the distribution of non-neutral models, making simulation methods a practical tool to study the behavior of the likelihood and to perform inference on the strength of selection.

  13. Burnout in Customer Service Representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and aim of this research was to (1 identify the factors that contributes towards job burnout in sales service representative (2 What are the relationships of these factors (3 To empirically test the relationships of the determinants relating to burnout in customer service representatives. Based on literature survey six different variables related to burnout were identified. The variables were (1 Emotional exhaustion.(2 Reduced personal accomplishment.(3 Job induced tension.(4 Job satisfaction.(5 Workload (6 Job satisfaction.Each of the variables contained 3 sub-variables. Five different hypotheses were developed and tested through techniques such as Z-test, F-test and regression analysis. The questionnaire administered for the study contained 15 questions including personal data. The subject was Moblink company customers sales service representative in Karachi.The valid sample size was 98 drawn through multi-cluster technique. Techniques such as measure of dispersion and measure of central tendencies were used for analyzing the data. Regression, Z-test, and F-test were used for testing the developed hypothesis.According to the respondents’ opinions, the reduced personal accomplishment had a high rating with a mean of 3.75 and job induced tension has the lowest mean of 3.58. The standard deviation of respondents’ opinions was highest for dimension depersonalization and least for dimension work load. This indicates that there is a high polarization of the respondents’ opinions on the dimension depersonalization moral and least on the dimension work load.The Skew nesses for all the dimensions were in negative except the determinants emotional exhaustion and workload. This indicates that the majority of respondents’ opinions on all the dimensions were below the mean except in the case of emotional exhaustion and workload.Five hypotheses were developed and tested:a The hypothesis relating to low level of burnout in customers

  14. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  15. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  16. Conspicuous Waste and Representativeness Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Shishkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the similarities between conspicuous waste and representativeness heuristic. The conspicuous waste is analyzed according to the classic Veblen’ interpretation as a strategy to increase social status through conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. In “The Theory of the Leisure Class” Veblen introduced two different types of utility – conspicuous and functional. The article focuses on the possible benefits of the analysis of conspicuous utility not only in terms of institutional economic theory, but also in terms of behavioral economics. To this end, the representativeness heuristics is considered, on the one hand, as a way to optimize the decision-making process, which allows to examine it in comparison with procedural rationality by Simon. On the other hand, it is also analyzed as cognitive bias within the Kahneman and Twersky’ approach. The article provides the analysis of the patterns in the deviations from the rational behavior strategy that could be observed in case of conspicuous waste both in modern market economies in the form of conspicuous consumption and in archaic economies in the form of gift-exchange. The article also focuses on the marketing strategies for luxury consumption’ advertisement. It highlights the impact of the symbolic capital (in Bourdieu’ interpretation on the social and symbolic payments that actors get from the act of conspicuous waste. This allows to perform a analysis of conspicuous consumption both as a rational way to get the particular kind of payments, and, at the same time, as a form of institutionalized cognitive bias.

  17. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...... most often used mass reduction method, performs appallingly?its use must be discontinued (with the singular exception for completely homogenized fine powders). Only proper mass reduction (i.e. carried out in complete compliance with all appropriate design principles, maintenance and cleaning rules) can...

  18. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  19. Want change? Call your representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2011-07-01

    During my tenure as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, which began in September 2010 and continues until November 2011, my time has been shared between working with the U.S. House of Representatives Natural Resource Committee Democratic staff and in the office of Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass., ranking Democrat on the committee). I appreciate getting to work with staff, fellows, and interns who inspire me, make me laugh, and know their issues cold. Much of my work on the committee is related to fish, wildlife, oceans, lands, and water issues and is directly related to my background in ecology and evolutionary biology (I studied zebra ecology and behavior in Kenya). My assignments have included asking the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about why it has not changed the allowed usage of certain pesticides that the National Marine Fisheries Service has found to jeopardize the recovery of endangered Pacific salmon; helping to identify research needs and management options to combat the swiftly spreading and catastrophic white nose syndrome in North American bats; and inquiring as to whether a captive-ape welfare bill, if passed without amendment, could thwart development of a vaccine to stop the Ebola virus from continuing to cause mass mortality in endangered wild apes.

  20. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available of solutes in unsaturated, partially saturated and fully saturated porous media (Simunek et al., 1999). It uses Richards' equation for variably-saturated water flow and the convection-dispersion equations for heat and solute transport, based on Fick?s Law... be of irregular shape and having non-uniform soil with a prescribed degree of anisotropy. Water flow can occur in the vertical plane, horizontal plane or radially on both sides of a vertical axis of symmetry. The boundaries of the system can be set at constant...

  1. Anthropomorphic Networks as Representatives of Global Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Yahodzinskyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been analyzed a phenomenon of global consciousness, and its cultural and historical, civilizational dimensions have been substantiated. There has been demonstrated that the concept of planetary consciousness, global thinking, noosphere was described for the first time in the philosophy of cosmism. However, in modern conditions ideas of representatives of the naturalistic philosophical direction of cosmism have not lost their heuristic potential. They can be reconsidered in a new fashion within the context of emerging anthropomorphic (human dimension networks. There has been proved that global consciousness is a component of the social and cultural potential of global information networks defining vectors to prospects of humanity progress in the 21st century. Relying on methodology of the structural and functional analysis, the author arrives at a conclusion about global networks obtaining the status of representatives of global consciousness. This is the area of networks where all relevant information is concentrated – from statistical data to scientific and technical information. Access to these data is limited by human abilities and is realized in the form of discrete requests with using heuristic algorithms of information procession. A suggestion is introduced considering the fact that modern society being a self-organized system seeks to gain stable condition. Anthropomorphic networks are means of decreasing social entropy, which is growing as a result of any kind of human intervention into social processes. Thus, for the first time a human is challenged by their intellect, ability to create, discover and control.

  2. OAS :: Authorities : Permanent Representatives to the OAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Bolivia José Luiz Machado Brazil José Luiz Machado e Costa Ambassador, Permanent Representative

  3. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  4. Global Positioning System : significant challenges in sustaining and upgrading widely used capabilities : report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides positioning, navigation, and timing data to users worldwide, has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in an expanding array of public service and commercial applications at home...

  5. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  6. Multicriteria analysis of ontologically represented information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2014-11-01

    Our current work concerns the development of a decision support system for the software selection problem. The main idea is to utilize expert knowledge to help the user in selecting the best software / method / computational resource to solve a computational problem. Obviously, this involves multicriterial decision making and the key open question is: which method to choose. The context of the work is provided by the Agents in Grid (AiG) project, where the software selection (and thus multicriterial analysis) is to be realized when all information concerning the problem, the hardware and the software is ontologically represented. Initially, we have considered the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is well suited for the hierarchical data structures (e.g., such that have been formulated in terms of ontologies). However, due to its well-known shortcomings, we have decided to extend our search for the multicriterial analysis method best suited for the problem in question. In this paper we report results of our search, which involved: (i) TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), (ii) PROMETHEE, and (iii) GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference). We also briefly argue why other methods have not been considered as valuable candidates.

  7. 40 CFR 73.33 - Authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized account representative. 73.33 Section 73.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.33 Authorized account...

  8. H.R. 2662: This Act may be cited as the Department of Energy Nuclear Contractors Accountability and Award System Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, June 15, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2662 is a bill to prohibit the Department of Energy from paying fines or penalties assessed against national security program contractors for violation of laws or regulations and to direct the Secretary of Energy to revise the system of award fees to such contractors to encourage discovery and remedy of conditions and practices that could lead to such violations

  9. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  10. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.906 - Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of New Technology... Conditions § 1274.906 Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative. Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative July 2002 (a) For purposes of administration...

  12. Verification of Representative Sampling in RI waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hong Joo; Song, Byung Cheul; Sohn, Se Cheul; Song, Kyu Seok; Jee, Kwang Yong; Choi, Kwang Seop

    2009-01-01

    For evaluating the radionuclide inventories for RI wastes, representative sampling is one of the most important parts in the process of radiochemical assay. Sampling to characterized RI waste conditions typically has been based on judgment or convenience sampling of individual or groups. However, it is difficult to get a sample representatively among the numerous drums. In addition, RI waste drums might be classified into heterogeneous wastes because they have a content of cotton, glass, vinyl, gloves, etc. In order to get the representative samples, the sample to be analyzed must be collected from selected every drum. Considering the expense and time of analysis, however, the number of sample has to be minimized. In this study, RI waste drums were classified by the various conditions of the half-life, surface dose, acceptance date, waste form, generator, etc. A sample for radiochemical assay was obtained through mixing samples of each drum. The sample has to be prepared for radiochemical assay and although the sample should be reasonably uniform, it is rare that a completely homogeneous material is received. Every sample is shredded by a 1 ∼ 2 cm 2 diameter and a representative aliquot taken for the required analysis. For verification of representative sampling, classified every group is tested for evaluation of 'selection of representative drum in a group' and 'representative sampling in a drum'

  13. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of uncertain parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is readily used for practical calculations. However, an alternative approach is offered by possibility theory making use of possibility distributions such as intervals and fuzzy intervals. This approach is well suited to represent lack of knowledge or imprecision......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  14. Representing and reasoning about program in situation calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Ming-yi; Wu, Mao-nian; Xie, Gang

    2011-12-01

    Situation calculus is an expressive tool for modeling dynamical system in artificial intelligence, changes in a dynamical world is represented naturally by the notions of action, situation and fluent in situation calculus. Program can be viewed as a discrete dynamical system, so it is possible to model program with situation calculus. To model program written in a smaller core programming language CL, notion of fluent is expanded for representing value of expression. Together with some functions returning concerned objects from expressions, a basic action theory of CL programming is constructed. Under such a theory, some properties of program, such as correctness and termination can be reasoned about.

  15. Services Subcontract Technical Representative (STR) handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, D.H.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidance to Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Subcontract Representatives in their assignments. It is the intention of this handbook to ensure that subcontract work is performed in accordance with the subcontract documents

  16. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  17. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms

  18. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  19. Examining the Resilience of Crop Production, Livestock Carrying Capacity, and Woodland Density in a Rural Zimbabwean Socio-Ecological System Using Agent-Based Models Representing Human Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzel Solera, M. V.; Neves, K.; Veski, A.; Solera, J.; Omoju, O. E.; Mawere Ndlovu, A.; Wilson, K.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change increases the pressures on arid ecosystems by changing timing and amount of rainfall, understanding the ways in which human management choices affect the resilience of these systems becomes key to their sustainability. On marginal farmland in Mazvihwa, Midlands Province, the historical carrying capacity of livestock has been consistently surprisingly high. We explore this phenomenon by building an agent-based model in NetLogo from a wealth of long-term data generated by the community-based participatory research team of The Muonde Trust, a Zimbabwean non-governmental organization. We combine the accumulated results of 35 years of indigenous and local knowledge with national datasets such as rainfall records. What factors keep the carrying capacity high? What management choices can maintain crops, livestock, and woodland at levels necessary for the community's survival? How do these choices affect long-term sustainability, and does increasing resilience at one scale reduce resilience at another scale? We use our agent-based model to explore the feedbacks between crops, livestock, and woodland and the impacts of various human choices as well as temporal and spatial ecological variation. By testing different scenarios, we disentangle the complex interactions between these components. We find that some factors out of the community's control can strongly affect the sustainability of the system through times of drought, and that supplementary feed may maintain livestock potentially at the expense of other resources. The challenges to resilience encountered by the farmers in Mazvihwa are not unique - many indigenous and rural people face drought and the legacies of colonialism, which contribute to lowered resilience to external challenges such as climate change, epidemics, and political instability. Using the agent-based model as a tool for synthesis and exploration initiates discussion about resilience-enhancing management choices for Mazvihwa's farmer-researchers.

  20. Dy–Mn–Si as a representative of family of ‘Dy–Transition Metal–Si’ systems: Its isothermal sections, empirical rProd. Type: FTPules and new rare-earth manganese silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@general.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P. [INFM and Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Yao, Jinlei; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    X-ray and microprobe analyses were employed for the investigation of Dy–Mn–Si system at 870/1070/1170 K. The Dy–Mn–Si system, contains the known DyMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, DyMnSi and Dy{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}Si{sub 5} compounds and DyMn{sub 4}Si{sub 2}, Dy{sub 2}MnSi{sub 2} and Dy{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 3} were new compounds identified first time and their structure are of the type TmCu{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}, Sc{sub 2}CoSi{sub 2} and Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3} respectively. The quasi-binary solid solutions were detected at 870/1070/1170 K: the ThMn{sub 12}-type Dy{sub 8}Mn{sub 87}Si{sub 5}, Th{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}-type Dy{sub 23}Mn{sub 72}Si{sub 5}, MgCu{sub 2}-type Dy{sub 33}Mn{sub 58}Si{sub 9} and AlB{sub 2}-type Dy{sub 38}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 58}. The other binary compounds of the Dy–Mn–Si system do not show any visible solubility. New phases R{sub 2}MnSi{sub 2} and R{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 3} (R=Gd, Tb, Ho–Tm) were found out and their structure of the type Sc{sub 2}CoSi{sub 2} and Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3} respectively. The specific features of ‘Dy–Transition Metal–Si’ systems were discussed. - Graphical abstract: The isothermal section of Dy–Mn–Si contains the known DyMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, DyMnSi, Dy{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}Si{sub 5} and new TmCu{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}-type DyMn{sub 4}Si{sub 2}, Sc{sub 2}CoSi{sub 2}-type Dy{sub 2}MnSi{sub 2} and Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type Dy{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 3} ternary compounds. The ternary solid solution based on the binary compounds of the Dy–Mn and Dy–Si systems: the ThMn{sub 12}-type Dy{sub 8}Mn{sub 87}Si{sub 5}, Th{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}-type Dy{sub 23}Mn{sub 72}Si{sub 5}, MgCu{sub 2}-type Dy{sub 33}Mn{sub 58}Si{sub 9} and AlB{sub 2}-type Dy{sub 38}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 58}. The other binary compounds of the Dy–Mn–Si system do not show any visible solubility. New Sc{sub 2}CoSi{sub 2}-type R{sub 2}MnSi{sub 2} and Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type R{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 3} phases were discovered for R=Gd, Tb, Ho–Tm. Display Omitted

  1. Crisis Relocation Workshops for Transportation Industry Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    executive, two National Guard members, one Air Force transporta- _a ,tion representative, two Red Cross representatives, one school bus z coordinators...manaaers, local transitCD operator, and miiltary busingA authorityA Local Governa-ient 2 Fire chief, assistantI Air Force 3 Liaison Support D CPA :z...to attend the workshop. Majur trans- portation problems anticipated during crisis relocation include: 1. Transportation of carless residents; 2. The

  2. Sample representativeness verification of the FADN CZ farm business sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample representativeness verification is one of the key stages of statistical work. After having joined the European Union the Czech Republic joined also the Farm Accountancy Data Network system of the Union. This is a sample of bodies and companies doing business in agriculture. Detailed production and economic data on the results of farming business are collected from that sample annually and results for the entire population of the country´s farms are then estimated and assessed. It is important hence, that the sample be representative. Representativeness is to be assessed as to the number of farms included in the survey and also as to the degree of accordance of the measures and indices as related to the population. The paper deals with the special statistical techniques and methods of the FADN CZ sample representativeness verification including the necessary sample size statement procedure. The Czech farm population data have been obtained from the Czech Statistical Office data bank.

  3. NASA: Changes to the scope, schedule, and estimated cost of the Earth Observing System. Report to the Chair, Government Activities and Transportation Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Congress funded the Earth Observing System (EOS) as a new NASA program beginning in fiscal year 1991. NASA proposed to launch about 30 types of earth observing instruments beginning in 1998. These instruments were intended to improve satellite data about the earth and to provide new data to support interdisciplinary studies of the earth. EOS is seen by NASA as the first step toward a future period of space-based scientific observation of the earth. The program is directly linked to the objectives of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and international efforts to observe and study the earth. The U.S. Global Change Research Program, which is funded by 11 agencies, is an attempt to achieve these objectives and to improve predictions of climate and other forms of global change. Within that program, EOS is intended to significantly improve scientists' abilities to model, and thereby predict, broad natural relationships among the sea, land, and atmosphere; to observe how water, carbon, and other substances move on the planet or are affected by variations in the sun's radiation; and to assess the impact of human activities on the earth's climate. Ultimately, EOS is to help determine the extent to which human activities are affecting the earth's environment and to provide policymakers with the information they will need to preserve the earth

  4. The Gd-Co-Al system at 870/1070 K as a representative of the rare earth-Co-Al family and new rare-earth cobalt aluminides: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Yuan, Fang; Yao, Jinlei; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The Gd-Co-Al system has been investigated at 870/1070 K by X-ray and elemental EDS analyses. The existence of the known compounds Gd2Co3Al9 (Y2Co3Ga9-type), Gd3Co4.5Al11.5 (Gd3Co4.6Al11) (Gd3Ru4Al12-type), Gd3Co6-7.4Al3-1.6 (CeNi3-type), GdCo1.15-0.65Al0.85-1.35 (MgZn2-type), Gd2Co2Al (Mo2NiB2-type) and Gd3Co3.5-3.25Al0.5-0.75 (W3CoB3-type) has been confirmed at 870/1070 K. Structure types have been determined for Gd2Co6Al19 (U2Co6Al19-type), Gd7Co6Al7 (Pr7Co6Al7-type), Gd6Co2-2.21Al1-0.79 (Ho6Co2Ga-type) and Gd14Co3.2Al2.8 (Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 at 970 K) (Lu14Co3In3-type). The structures of Gd6Co2Al, Gd6Co2.21Al0.79 and Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 flux-grown at 970 K have been refined from the single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Additionally, new ternary compounds Gd2Co5.7-5.3Al1.3-1.7 (Er2Co7-type) and Gd58Co20Al22 (unknown type structure) have been identified. Quasi-binary solid solutions were detected for Gd2Co17, GdCo5, Gd2Co7, GdCo3, GdCo2 and GdAl2 at 870/1070 K, while no appreciable solubility was observed for the other binary compounds in the Gd-Co-Al system. Magnetic properties of the Gd2Co3Al9, Gd3Co4.6Al11, Gd7Co6Al7, Gd6Co2.2Al0.8 and Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 compounds have been studied and are presented in this work. Gd6Co2.2Al0.8, Gd3Co4.6Al11, Gd7Co6Al7 and Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 order ferromagnetically, while Gd2Co3Al9 displays antiferromagnetic transition. Additionally, {Y, Sm, Tb - Tm}2Co6Al19 (U2Co6Al19-type), Yb2Co3Al9 (Y2Co3Ga9-type), {Y, Sm, Tm, Yb}3Co4.6Al11 (Gd3Ru4Al12-type) and Tb7Co6Al7 (Pr7Co6Al7-type) compounds have been synthesized and investigated.

  5. 48 CFR 1852.227-72 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-72 Designation of new technology representative... of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative (JUL 1997) (a) For purposes of administration of the clause of this contract entitled “New Technology” or “Patent Rights—Retention by the...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.58 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of new technology... of new technology representative and patent representative. Designation of New Technology... of this grant entitled “New Technology,” the following named representatives are hereby designated by...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg designated...

  8. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Papa

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change.

  9. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  10. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  11. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Policy innovation is a key aspect of public innovation, which has been largely overlooked. Political leadership, competition and collaboration are key drivers of policy innovation. It is a barrier in traditional models of representative democracy that they provide weak conditions for collaboration....... Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...... and collaboration in political life....

  12. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  13. OKBL: A language for representing object oriented knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Sugiyai, I.; Ishikawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Industrial system is operated by using numerous ''operator's knowledge'' about the system. Each knowledge can be regarded as an object and is represented and maintained as an 'ACTOR' and written in a language based on the actor concept. OKBL (Object Oriented Operational KnowledgeBase Management Language) is the language proposed here for this purpose and used in OKBS (a system based on OKBL). The OKBS inference mechanism on the knowledgebase written in OKBL is implemented by message passings among ACTORs. OKBS has been applied to the guidance system for the operators of electric power dispatch control stations

  14. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  15. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  16. Strong imploding shock, the representative curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1981-01-01

    The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)

  17. 28 CFR 104.4 - Personal Representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition, as provided in § 104.21(b)(5) of this part, the Special Master may publish a list of individuals... Special Master may, in his discretion, determine that the Personal Representative for purposes of... administrator of the decedent's estate. In the event no will exists, the Special Master may, in his discretion...

  18. Adjustment Following Disability: Representative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1984-01-01

    Examined adjustment following physical disability using the representative case method with two persons with quadriplegia. Results highlighted the importance of previously established coping styles as well as the role of the environment in adjustment. Willingness to mourn aided in later growth. (JAC)

  19. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  20. Overlapping neural systems represent cognitive effort and reward anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassena, Eliana; Silvetti, Massimo; Boehler, Carsten N; Achten, Eric; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Anticipating a potential benefit and how difficult it will be to obtain it are valuable skills in a constantly changing environment. In the human brain, the anticipation of reward is encoded by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Striatum. Naturally, potential rewards have an incentive quality, resulting in a motivational effect improving performance. Recently it has been proposed that an upcoming task requiring effort induces a similar anticipation mechanism as reward, relying on the same cortico-limbic network. However, this overlapping anticipatory activity for reward and effort has only been investigated in a perceptual task. Whether this generalizes to high-level cognitive tasks remains to be investigated. To this end, an fMRI experiment was designed to investigate anticipation of reward and effort in cognitive tasks. A mental arithmetic task was implemented, manipulating effort (difficulty), reward, and delay in reward delivery to control for temporal confounds. The goal was to test for the motivational effect induced by the expectation of bigger reward and higher effort. The results showed that the activation elicited by an upcoming difficult task overlapped with higher reward prospect in the ACC and in the striatum, thus highlighting a pivotal role of this circuit in sustaining motivated behavior.

  1. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  2. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  3. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  4. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  5. Using semantics for representing experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Olga; García, Alexander; López, Federico; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-11-13

    An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory. There is the need for a unified framework with respect to the syntactic structure and the semantics for representing experimental protocols. In this paper we present "SMART Protocols ontology", an ontology for representing experimental protocols. Our ontology represents the protocol as a workflow with domain specific knowledge embedded within a document. We also present the S ample I nstrument R eagent O bjective (SIRO) model, which represents the minimal common information shared across experimental protocols. SIRO was conceived in the same realm as the Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model that supports search, retrieval and classification purposes in evidence based medicine. We evaluate our approach against a set of competency questions modeled as SPARQL queries and processed against a set of published and unpublished protocols modeled with the SP Ontology and the SIRO model. Our approach makes it possible to answer queries such as Which protocols use tumor tissue as a sample. Improving reporting structures for experimental protocols requires collective efforts from authors, peer reviewers, editors and funding bodies. The SP Ontology is a contribution towards this goal. We build upon previous experiences and bringing together the view of researchers managing protocols in their laboratory work. Website: https://smartprotocols.github.io/ .

  6. The local brand representative in reseller networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Suraksha; Malhotra, Naresh K; Czinkota, Michael; Foroudi, Pantea

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of local individuals who represent a brand to its resellers by first conceptualizing these characteristics by employing complexity theory and then testing the conceptualization. This research revealed that four characteristics ‘native’, ‘entrepreneurial’, ‘advisor’, and ‘compatible’ are the main ones that influence reseller brand preferences. The study finds a link between reseller brand preference and reseller brand loyalty which is useful for mana...

  7. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, 'Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative', was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding

  8. Diversity and representativeness: two key factors

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    In the past few weeks many of you have filled out the questionnaire for preparing the upcoming Five-yearly review. Similarly, Staff Association members have elected their delegates to the Staff Council for the coming two years. Once again we would like to thank all those who have taken the time and effort to make their voice heard on these two occasions. Elections to the Staff Council Below we publish the new Staff Council with its forty delegates who will represent in 2014 and 2015 all CERN staff in the discussions with Management and Member States in the various bodies and committees. Therefore it is important that the Staff Council represents as far as possible the diversity of the CERN population. By construction, the election process with its electoral colleges and two-step voting procedure guarantees that all Departments, even the small ones, and the various staff categories are correctly represented. Figure 1 shows the participation rate in the elections. The average rate is just above 52 %, with ...

  9. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator's task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools...... for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many...... the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible...

  10. Representativeness of the IAGOS airborne measurements in the lower troposphere

    OpenAIRE

    Petetin, H.; Jeoffrion, M.; Sauvage, B.; Athier, G.; Blot, R.; Boulanger, D.; Clark, H.; Cousin, J.-M.; Gheusi, F.; Nedelec, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Thouret, V.

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the In Service Aircraft for Global Observing System (IAGOS) program, airborne in-situ O3 and CO measurements are performed routinely using in-service aircraft, providing vertical profiles from the surface to about 10–12 km. Due to the specificity of IAGOS measurements (measurements around busy international airports), uncertainties exist on their representativeness in the lower troposphere as they may be impacted by emissions related to airport activities and/or other air...

  11. Exploring Representativeness and Informativeness for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.

  12. [Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    2000-05-01

    Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.

  13. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  14. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  15. Using resource graphs to represent conceptual change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Wittmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce resource graphs, a representation of linked ideas used when reasoning about specific contexts in physics. Our model is consistent with previous descriptions of coordination classes and resources. It represents mesoscopic scales that are neither knowledge-in-pieces nor large-scale concepts. We use resource graphs to describe several forms of conceptual change: incremental, cascade, wholesale, and dual construction. For each, we give evidence from the physics education research literature to show examples of each form of conceptual change. Where possible, we compare our representation to models used by other researchers. Building on our representation, we analyze another form of conceptual change, differentiation, and suggest several experimental studies that would help understand the differences between reform-based curricula.

  16. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  17. Towards a representative periphytic diatom sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to acquire a representative periphytic diatom sample for river water quality monitoring has been recognised in the development of existing diatom indices, important in the development and employment of diatom monitoring tools for the Water Framework Directive. In this study, a nested design with replication is employed to investigate the magnitude of variation in diatom biomass, composition and Trophic Diatom Index at varying scales within a small chalk river. The study shows that the use of artificial substrates may not result in diatom communities that are typical of the surrounding natural substrates. Periphytic diatom biomass and composition varies between artificial and natural substrates, riffles and glides and between two stretches of the river channel. The study also highlights the existence of high variation in diatom frustule frequency and biovolume at the individual replicate scale which may have implications for the use of diatoms in routine monitoring.

  18. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh; Jadhav, Shreeraj; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Chen, Guoning; Levine, Joshua A.; Nonato, Luis Gustavo; Pascucci, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities

  19. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  20. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  1. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebben, G.; Rasmussen, K.; Kestens, V.; Linsinger, T. P. J.; Rauscher, H.; Emons, H.; Stamm, H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term ‘representative test material’ is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  2. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  3. What does self rated mental health represent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Levinson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health

  4. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  5. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst's understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed

  6. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  7. Representing biodiversity: data and procedures for identifying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nities agreed for a national forest reserve system in. Australia ... protection or exploitation, and these decisions should be informed by all ... constraint on biodiversity protection, planning methods must provide ..... assumed to support different sets of species (with some overlap) and ..... ces such as land (or water) and funds.

  8. Honourable minister of health represented by Dr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osn

    measure the net lifetime benefit was US$1,007 million dollars, which ... the capacity building, job satisfaction, etc; the benefits to non. Gambians ... tackled by public health approaches. ..... the service to a cluster of other institutions with an agreed systems of ... presented and provided to suit the ability of the customer to pay.

  9. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Katherine; Gyi, Diane; Haslam, Cheryl

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a leading cause of work-related ill health. Existing literature indicates that pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) report a high prevalence of MSDs, possibly exacerbated by the nature of work (prolonged driving and manual handling). In addition, they experience difficulty in accessing occupational health services. To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among PSRs in order to assist their occupational health management through raising risk awareness. A self-completed questionnaire distributed to 205 PSRs within a UK pharmaceutical company was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors, work tasks undertaken and company car use. To assist understanding of work tasks and organizational factors, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of 12 key personnel. The questionnaire response rate was 68%. PSRs reported high mileage and 100% reported working from the car in a typical day. Forty-seven per cent reported both manual handling for > or = 4 h/day and 'often' or 'sometimes' working from the car. Fifty-seven per cent reported low back symptoms in the last 12 months. Interview data revealed issues relating to car choice, storage in the boot and working from the car, which should be considered when developing priorities for preventive management of MSDs. Musculoskeletal symptoms appear to be a problem for PSRs, with risk factors reported as prolonged driving, sitting in the car, working from the car and manual handling. Interventions to facilitate their occupational health management should focus on raising awareness of the risks of prolonged driving and working from the car.

  10. HOW TO REPRESENT THE GENETIC CODE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Santos-Magalhães

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South. Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West. Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be

  11. Application to Representative Structures. Other Representative Structures: Mutsu-Ogawara, Niigata East and West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1999-01-01

    Reliability analyses are performed for three Japanese vertical wall breakwaters in this chapter. Only the geotechnical failure modes described in chapter 3 are investigated. For none of the breakwaters detailed data are available for the wave climate and for the soil conditions. Therefore represe...

  12. Fiscal year 1986 Department of Energy Authorization (uranium enrichment and electric energy systems, energy storage and small-scale hydropower programs). Volume VI. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 28; March 5, 7, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Volume VI of the hearing record covers three days of testimony on the future of US uranium enrichment and on programs involving electric power and energy storage. There were four areas of concern about uranium enrichment: the choice between atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and the advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) technologies, cost-effective operation of gaseous diffusion plants, plans for a gas centrifuge enrichment plant, and how the DOE will make its decision. The witnesses represented major government contractors, research laboratories, and energy suppliers. The discussion on the third day focused on the impact of reductions in funding for electric energy systems and energy storage and a small budget increase to encourage small hydropower technology transfer to the private sector. Two appendices with additional statements and correspondence follow the testimony of 17 witnesses

  13. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation...... by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means...

  14. Using SNOMED CT to Represent Two Interface Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Brown, Steven H.; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Gregg, William M.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Design Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Measurements Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. Results The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms. PMID:18952944

  15. Using SNOMED CT to represent two interface terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Brown, Steven H; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Gregg, William M; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms.

  16. Registration Appointment and Services for Representatives Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A new internet/intranet application that collects all representative information and establishes the relationship between the claimant and the representative. Allow...

  17. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  19. Representativeness of environmental impact assessment methods regarding Life Cycle Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnouf, Antoine; Latrille, Éric; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Helias, Arnaud

    2018-04-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) characterises all the exchanges between human driven activities and the environment, thus representing a powerful approach for tackling the environmental impact of a production system. However, LCA practitioners must still choose the appropriate Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method to use and are expected to justify this choice: impacts should be relevant facing the concerns of the study and misrepresentations should be avoided. This work aids practitioners in evaluating the adequacy between the assessed environmental issues and studied production system. Based on a geometrical standpoint of LCA framework, Life Cycle Inventories (LCIs) and LCIA methods were localized in the vector space spanned by elementary flows. A proximity measurement, the Representativeness Index (RI), is proposed to explore the relationship between those datasets (LCIs and LCIA methods) through an angular distance. RIs highlight LCIA methods that measure issues for which the LCI can be particularly harmful. A high RI indicates a close proximity between a LCI and a LCIA method, and highlights a better representation of the elementary flows by the LCIA method. To illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, representativeness of LCIA methods regarding four electricity mix production LCIs from the ecoinvent database are presented. RIs for 18 LCIA methods (accounting for a total of 232 impact categories) were calculated on these LCIs and the relevance of the methods are discussed. RIs prove to be a criterion for distinguishing the different LCIA methods and could thus be employed by practitioners for deeper interpretations of LCIA results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 20 CFR 266.7 - Accountability of a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability of a representative payee. 266.7 Section 266.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT REPRESENTATIVE PAYMENT § 266.7 Accountability of a representative payee. (a) A representative...

  1. [Fundamental role of the workers' representative in preventive safety activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossicini, A; Bindi, L; Casale, M C

    2003-01-01

    With the arrival of Legislative Decree 626/94 which brought into Italian law the EU directives on workers' health and safety at the workplace, our country has also introduced rules that make a break with the past in this area, with the creation of new professional roles. The workers' safety representative takes on a fundamentally important role in the management of prevention, safety and health for workers in their place of employment in accordance with article 19. In fact, before the introduction of this Legislative Decree, the "protection" of workers' health was essentially based on rules and regulations the application of which was left to the exclusive and direct responsibility of the relationship between the employer and doctor, leaving out any participation by the worker. Whereas in the past workers could only be considered the final receivers of instructions about the security measures to apply, with Law 626 the workers themselves became active participants in the assessment of risks at work and consequently in the implementing of all the safety and hygiene measures contributing to the reduction of risk levels. The new regulations now in force assign important tasks to the workers' safety representative; all tasks and responsibilities associated with that role are examined and discussed, especially those relating to rights to information and training, consultation and participation in the process of designing and promoting safety measures. The job of workers' representative today takes on a fundamentally important meaning and role in a self-regulating system of work safety, where he or she has a proper area responsibility, so becoming a reference point for the workers generally.

  2. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  3. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  4. Retention performance of green roofs in representative climates worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, F.; Hellies, M.; Deidda, R.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing process of global urbanization contributes to an increase in stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces, threatening also water quality. Green roofs have been proved to be innovative stormwater management measures to partially restore natural states, enhancing interception, infiltration and evapotranspiration fluxes. The amount of water that is retained within green roofs depends not only on their depth, but also on the climate, which drives the stochastic soil moisture dynamic. In this context, a simple tool for assessing performance of green roofs worldwide in terms of retained water is still missing and highly desirable for practical assessments. The aim of this work is to explore retention performance of green roofs as a function of their depth and in different climate regimes. Two soil depths are investigated, one representing the intensive configuration and another representing the extensive one. The role of the climate in driving water retention has been represented by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration dynamics. A simple conceptual weather generator has been implemented and used for stochastic simulation of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Stochastic forcing is used as an input of a simple conceptual hydrological model for estimating long-term water partitioning between rainfall, runoff and actual evapotranspiration. Coupling the stochastic weather generator with the conceptual hydrological model, we assessed the amount of rainfall diverted into evapotranspiration for different combinations of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in five representative climatic regimes. Results quantified the capabilities of green roofs in retaining rainfall and consequently in reducing discharges into sewer systems at an annual time scale. The role of substrate depth has been recognized to be crucial in determining green roofs retention performance, which in general increase from extensive to intensive settings. Looking at the

  5. 48 CFR 619.402 - Small Business Administration procurement center representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Business... DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation with the Small Business Administration 619.402 Small Business Administration procurement center representatives. ...

  6. Statistics On Title II Direct Payments To Claimant Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Every person has the right to be represented by an attorney or other representative while pursuing a claim or other rights. This dataset contains data around Title...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1520 - Fee for a representative's services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1520 Fee for a representative's services. (a... you or your representative from contacting us in person or in writing. (B) There was a death or...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1720 - Fee for a representative's services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1720 Fee for a representative's services. (a... you or your representative from contacting us in person or in writing. (B) There was a death or...

  9. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  10. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  11. State vector reduction - 1: Dynamical reduction theories; changing quantum theory so the statevector represents reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Pearle, P.

    1991-02-01

    The propositions, that what we see around us is real and that reality should be represented by the statevector, conflict with quantum theory. In quantum theory, the statevector can readily become a sum of states of comparable norm, each state representing a different reality. In this paper we present the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory, in which a modified Schroedinger equation, while scarcely affecting the dynamics of a microscopic system, rapidly ''reduces'' the statevector of a macroscopic system to a state appropriate for representing individual reality. (author). Refs

  12. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative is selected shall include a procedure for the owners and operators of the source and affected units at the source to authorize the alternate designated representative to act in lieu...) In the event of a conflict, any action taken by the designated representative shall take precedence...

  13. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section 23.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.4 Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means foreign...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under § 60.4113...

  15. Representing knowledge, data and concepts for EHRS using DCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William

    2011-01-01

    With the move towards next generations of Electronic Health Record Systems (EHRS), the focus changes from administrative and data retrieval and data entry system capabilities towards clinical functions. The representation of the clinical knowledge and evidence base into EHRS becomes an important asset for health care, with its own challenges. Clinician's do want EHRS support but do not want to standardize care, they do want unified terminology and structured data entry but also free text. In addition, information modelers challenge each other for the best solution, and care pathways and other workflows seem to differ for each situation. Such diverging approaches add complexity to the already difficult situation around Information Technology in health care, the EHRS in particular. This paper argues that a change is necessary to adopt Detailed Clinical Modeling as a method to organize clinical knowledge, represent concepts and define data in such a manner that it allows for semantics to be exchanged without being trapped in a specific technology. DCM help to fulfill the requirements for the enter data once, reuse multiple times paradigm for EHRS.

  16. Simplified and representative bacterial community of maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Paulson, Joseph Nathaniel; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-03-21

    Plant-associated microbes are important for the growth and health of their hosts. As a result of numerous prior studies, we know that host genotypes and abiotic factors influence the composition of plant microbiomes. However, the high complexity of these communities challenges detailed studies to define experimentally the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of community assembly and the beneficial effects of such microbiomes on plant hosts. In this work, from the distinctive microbiota assembled by maize roots, through host-mediated selection, we obtained a greatly simplified synthetic bacterial community consisting of seven strains ( Enterobacter cloacae , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum pituitosum, Herbaspirillum frisingense, Pseudomonas putida, Curtobacterium pusillum , and Chryseobacterium indologenes ) representing three of the four most dominant phyla found in maize roots. By using a selective culture-dependent method to track the abundance of each strain, we investigated the role that each plays in community assembly on roots of axenic maize seedlings. Only the removal of E. cloacae led to the complete loss of the community, and C. pusillum took over. This result suggests that E. cloacae plays the role of keystone species in this model ecosystem. In planta and in vitro, this model community inhibited the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides , indicating a clear benefit to the host. Thus, combined with the selective culture-dependent quantification method, our synthetic seven-species community representing the root microbiome has the potential to serve as a useful system to explore how bacterial interspecies interactions affect root microbiome assembly and to dissect the beneficial effects of the root microbiota on hosts under laboratory conditions in the future.

  17. STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATION SKILLS ASSESSMENT BY EXTERNAL LECTURERS AND INDUSTRY REPRESENTATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOORFAZILA KAMAL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft skills, especially communication skills, are important skills which each graduate must possess. Accordingly, several courses and approaches have been carried out in universities to train students in communication skills. The skills are normally evaluated by course lecturers. However, assessments by a third party from outside the university are valuable so that the students’ ahievements may be weighed against external evaluators’ point of views. In the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering (DEESE, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, communication skills assessment by external lecturers and industry representatives are performed on Hari Poster JKEES, where students present their final year project poster. There are two categories of evaluation, namely project and communication skills. The project evaluation covers content, result and impact, while communication skills evaluation covers poster layout and design, and delivery. This study only analyse the students’ communication skills achievement. The participants of this study consists of 109 final year students from two batches, of which 51 students are from year 2014 and the other 58 students from year 2015. The results show that for the year 2014 students, the mean mark given by external lecturers in layout and design category is 6.7, while the mean mark from industry evaluators is 6.5. For the 2015 batch, the mean mark in the layout and design category is 6.3 from external lecturers and 5.9 from industry evaluators. In the delivery category, the mean marks for the 2014 batch are 7.1 and 6.6 from external lecturers and industry evaluators, espectively. Meanwhile, for the 2015 batch, the mean marks by external lecturers and industry evaluators are 6.3 and 5.8, respectively. The results show that both external lecturers and industry representatives judged DEESE students’ communication skills to be good.

  18. Representativeness of the IAGOS airborne measurements in the lower troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the In Service Aircraft for Global Observing System (IAGOS program, airborne in-situ O3 and CO measurements are performed routinely using in-service aircraft, providing vertical profiles from the surface to about 10–12 km. Due to the specificity of IAGOS measurements (measurements around busy international airports, uncertainties exist on their representativeness in the lower troposphere as they may be impacted by emissions related to airport activities and/or other aircraft. In this study, we thus investigate how the IAGOS measurements in the lower troposphere compare with nearby surface stations (from the local Air Quality monitoring network (AQN and more distant regional surface stations (from the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW network. The study focuses on Frankfurt but some results at other European airports (Vienna, Paris are also discussed. Results indicate that the IAGOS observations close to the surface do not appear to be strongly impacted by local emissions related to airport activities. In terms of mixing ratio distribution, seasonal variations and trends, the CO and O3 mixing ratios measured by IAGOS in the first few hundred metres above the surface have similar characteristics to the mixing ratios measured at surrounding urban background stations. Higher in altitude, both the difference with data from the local AQN and the consistency with the GAW regional stations are higher, which indicates a larger representativeness of the IAGOS data. Despite few quantitative differences with Frankfurt, consistent results are obtained in the two other cities Vienna and Paris. Based on 11 years of data (2002–2012, this study thus demonstrates that IAGOS observations in the lowest troposphere can be used as a complement to surface stations to study the air quality in/around the agglomeration, providing important information on the vertical distribution of pollution.

  19. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    ’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.). At least two different...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...

  20. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, L.; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu; Ciattaglia, Emanuela; Walker, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  1. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, L. [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France)], E-mail: lmeunier@cea.fr; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France); Ciattaglia, Emanuela [EFDA CSU, Garching (Germany); Walker, Christopher [ITER International Organisation (France)

    2009-06-15

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  2. A budget impact analysis of Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma: a potential improvement in the inhalation technique to strengthen medication adherence could represent savings for the Spanish Healthcare System and five Spanish regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Gabriela Ramírez,2 Juan L García-Rivero,3 Sagrario Mayoralas-Alises,4 José Francisco Pascual,5 Albert Roger,6 Diego Vargas,7 Adi Bijedic8 1Department of Economics, Universitat de Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics & Outcomes Research SL, 3Hospital Laredo, Cantabria, 4Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 5Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, 6Hospital Universitario Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, 7Hospital de Alta Resolución el Toyo, Andalusia, 8Market Access and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain Objective: To assess the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax® by focusing on a potential improvement in the inhalation technique to strengthen medication adherence for the treatment of moderate to severe asthmatics in Spain and five Spanish regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2015–2018 from the Spanish Healthcare System perspective. Budesonide–formoterol fixed-dose combination delivered by Turbuhaler® was considered to be the most appropriate comparator for assessing the budget impact with the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®. National and regional data on asthma prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input parameters on health care resources were obtained by consulting experts from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included medical visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. The average numbers of primary care and specialist visits per year were also gathered. Based on health care resource use per patient, the total treatment cost per patient was estimated.Results: The population with moderate to severe asthma treated with budesonide–formoterol fixed-dose combinations delivered by Turbuhaler® in 2015 was estimated to be 166,985 in Spain. Region-specific prevalence data resulted in 25,081, 12,392, 16,097, 17,829, and 15,148 patients in Andalusia

  3. A Multi-Agent Framework Manages a Representative Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, D.; Schmidt, D.; Biswas, G.; Kinnebrew, J.; Otte, W.; Shankaran, N.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's vision of a Sensor Web (which includes a distributed global observation system) consists of a large number of elements, such as remote spacecraft hosting multiple instruments, in situ terrestrial and oceanic sensor networks, and airborne assets. Researchers and developers of a Sensor web face a number of challenges that arise from (1) the inherent heterogeneous and geographical distributed nature of the Sensor web; (2) the myriad mission goals and objectives that must be satisfied by the Sensor web, ranging from an improved understanding of earth science, weather forecasting, and disaster management to an alleviation of societal problems; and (3) the need to support myriad operational modes, such as long and short-term monitoring and targeted observations. Resolving these challenges requires some form of autonomy - typically embodied in software. Agent technology has emerged both as a salient purveyor of entities that exhibit autonomous behavior and also as a paradigm for constructing complex software systems with a large number of interacting heterogeneous components. This paper describes our experiences integrating the Multi-agent Architecture for Coordinated Responsive Observations (MACRO) into the SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education, and Research (SEAMONSTER). MACRO provides agents at (1) the mission level, where agents interact with users to define science goals and then translate these goals into a set of prioritized tasks that have to be executed to achieve these goals, and (2) the resource level, where agents translate tasks into activities related to data collection, data analysis, and data communication. As a representative small-scale sensor web situated in multiple locations on the Juneau Icefield, SEAMONSTER affords an unparalleled opportunity to develop, mature, and showcase MACRO's multi-level agent capabilities. MACRO is developed by the Lockheed Martin Space System Company's Advanced Technology

  4. THE STRUCTURE OF HAPPINESS REPRESENTATION FOR RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Zhdanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotional state of students exerts direct impact on their ability and readiness to cope with challenges when studying, gives rise to the success of educational process and its effectiveness. In this regard, the search of methods and determination of the tasks of psychological diagnostics is brought into focus. Above all, the teacher should consider mentality and valuable attitudes of representatives of various cultures, including their understanding of happiness and personal well-being in the activity against the background of the increasing scales of the international and interethnic mobility.The development of Russian psychology has recently acquired the direction of positive psychology, the focus of which is happiness and positive functioning of the individual. Modern research reveals significant differences in the indicators of happiness and satisfaction with life between representatives of different cultures. However, the diagnostic tools used in such studies are based primarily on the model of happiness image that has been developed in American psychology. In this connection, the question arises as to what extent the image of happiness in American culture correlates with the image of happiness in Russian culture.The aim of this work is to study the representation of happiness between representatives of American and Russian culture, the definition of invariable and variable components in the structure of representation.Methodology and research methods. The study included several stages. At the first stage, the theoretical analysis and development of the ontology of the subject area “Psychology of Happiness” was carried out. At the second stage, an empirical study of the representations of American and Russian respondents was carried out. The main method of data collection was a narrative interview; a method of early personal memories was used to obtain the narrative of happiness. Subsequent processing of verbal

  5. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  6. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as ca...

  7. Determination of representative CANDU feeder dimensions for engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Muzumdar, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a logic for selection of representative channel groups and a methodology for determination of representative CANDU feeder dimensions and the pressure drops between inlet/outlet header and fuel channel in the primary loop. A code, MEDOC, was developed based on this logic and methodology and helps perform a calculation of representative feeder dimensions for a selected channel group on the basis of feeder geometry data (fluid volume, mass flow rate, loss factor) and given property data (pressure, quality, density) at inlet/outlet header. The representative feeder dimensions calculated based on this methodology will be useful for the engineering simulator for the CANDU type reactor. (author)

  8. DFS Associates: Simple ways to become a good manufacturer's representative

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra K. Pharre

    2018-01-01

    Being one of the trusted manufacturer’s representative firms for RF and microwave products and services, DFS Associates wanted to impart a few insights to consider in becoming a good manufacturer’s representative with this article. Firstly, you need to understand what it does if you’re interested on becoming one where it could be an individual or a small business that can represent a manufacturer’s products and services effectively to the marketplace. You can choose between representing one m...

  9. Modeling of Cementitious Representative Volume Element with Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzamanian, M. M.; Basirun, W. J.

    CEMHYD3D has been employed to simulate the representative volume element (RVE) of cementitious systems (Type I cement) containing fly ash (Class F) through a voxel-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach. Three-dimensional microstructures composed of voxels are generated for a heterogeneous cementitious material consisting of various constituent phases. The primary focus is to simulate a cementitious RVE containing fly ash and to present the homogenized macromechanical properties obtained from its analysis. Simple kinematic uniform boundary conditions as well as periodic boundary conditions were imposed on the RVE to obtain the principal and shear moduli. Our current work considers the effect of fly ash percentage on the elastic properties based on the mass and volume replacements. RVEs with lengths of 50, 100 and 200μm at different degrees of hydration are generated, and the elastic properties are modeled and simulated. In general, the elastic properties of a cementitious RVE with fly ash replacement for cement based on mass and volume differ from each other. Moreover, the finite element (FE) mesh density effect is studied. Results indicate that mechanical properties decrease with increasing mesh density.

  10. Interaction of turbulent deflagrations with representative flow obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durst, B.; Ardey, N.; Mayinger, F.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of a gradual release of hydrogen in the course of an assumed, severe accident in a light water reactor, the combustion will normally start out as a slow deflagration. Acceleration of an initially slow flame due to interactions of chemical kinetics and turbulent heat and mass transfer can result in very high flame speeds. Therefore, in order to assess hydrogen mitigation techniques, detailed knowledge about flame acceleration and interaction of flames with obstacles is required. The reported investigations are aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for turbulent flame acceleration and improving present correlations for estimates and models for numerical simulations of hydrogen combustion processes. A medium-scale square cross-section setup is employed, using flow obstacles with shapes representative for reactor containments. The global flame speed is deduced from measurements using thermocouples, pressure transducers and photodiodes. Measurements using a two-component LDA-system are being carried through in order to correlate global flame spread and local turbulence parameters. Results indicate that low blockage-ratio obstacles only marginally influence the flame, as disturbances which are induced remain local to the vicinity of the obstacle and die out very quickly downstream thereof. Flow visualizations by means of a Schlieren setup indicate very complex flow structures in the vicinity of obstacles. The results are being used to validate turbulent reaction models. A model based on probability density functions (pdf) of assumed shape has been developed and initial calculations are presented. (author)

  11. Social tagging: a model for representing information in the blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pérez Sanchidrián

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study addresses the theoretical and conceptual aspects related to social labeling. Has the advantages of labels on different platforms of Web 2.0. Exposes some of the major sites of social labeling system including Flickr, Delicious, Technorati is destcan, among others. Terminologically analyzed using the tags in the blogosphere as a model for representing information. Methods: The research took as methods of qualitative content analysis to identify the behavior of the international literature on this subject and the metric analysis to characterize the use of social labeling in the blogosphere. Results: The study led to qualitatively describe the use of labels on blogs and their terminological particularities associated with the following aspects: creating labels in these spaces is related to a number of social issues among which we can highlight: Politics, Culture, economy, Gender, History, Sexuality, Discrimination, Health, Environment, Technology. The labels on these platforms are defined from the general to the particular and there is no limit concurrency for its creation, usually the authors cite for each post 4-7 labels in order to spread their content as possible in the community. Conclusions: This study enables reflect the social impact of using labels on platforms like blogs.

  12. Representing Young Children with Disabilities in Classroom Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.; LaRoe, Joyce; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam

    2000-01-01

    The "Inventory of Disability Representation" was administered to 92 teachers representing kindergarten, community child care, or preschool settings. Low scores across settings indicated that classrooms typically do not have materials that represent or depict children with diverse abilities. Reasons cited by teachers are noted as are benefits…

  13. 19 CFR 146.2 - Port director as Board representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.2 Port director as Board representative. The appropriate port director shall be in charge of the zone as the representative of the Board. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11, 1986, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999] ...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4114 - Objections concerning Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning Hg designated... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4114 Objections concerning Hg designated representative. (a) Once a complete certificate of...

  15. 37 CFR 10.84 - Representing a client zealously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representing a client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.84 Representing a client zealously. (a) A practitioner shall not intentionally: (1) Fail to seek the lawful objectives of a client through reasonably available...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 261 - Representative Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative Sampling Methods I...—Representative Sampling Methods The methods and equipment used for sampling waste materials will vary with the form and consistency of the waste materials to be sampled. Samples collected using the sampling...

  17. 27 CFR 71.31 - Attorneys and other representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... representatives. 71.31 Section 71.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... applicant may be represented by an attorney, certified public accountant, or other person enrolled to practice before the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau under 31 CFR part 8—Practice before the...

  18. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  19. An Ontology as a Tool for Representing Fuzzy Data in Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Martinez-Cruz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several applications to represent classical or fuzzy data in databases have been developed in the last two decades. However, these representations present some limitations specially related with the system portability and complexity. Ontologies provides a mechanism to represent data in an implementation-independent and web-accessible way. To get advantage of this, in this paper, an ontology, that represents fuzzy relational database model, has been redefined to communicate users or applications with fuzzy data stored in fuzzy databases. The communication channel established between the ontology and any Relational Database Management System (RDBMS is analysed in depth throughout the text to justify some of the advantages of the system: expressiveness, portability and platform heterogeneity. Moreover, some tools have been developed to define and manage fuzzy and classical data in relational databases using this ontology. Even an application that performs fuzzy queries using the same technology is included in this proposal together with some examples using real databases.

  20. Bayesian network representing system dynamics in risk analysis of nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varuttamaseni, Athi

    2011-12-01

    A dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model is used in conjunction with the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) regression method to analyze the risk associated with the loss of feedwater accident coupled with a subsequent initiation of the feed and bleed operation in the Zion-1 nuclear power plant. The use of the DBN allows the joint probability distribution to be factorized, enabling the analysis to be done on many simpler network structures rather than on one complicated structure. The construction of the DBN model assumes conditional independence relations among certain key reactor parameters. The choice of parameter to model is based on considerations of the macroscopic balance statements governing the behavior of the reactor under a quasi-static assumption. The DBN is used to relate the peak clad temperature to a set of independent variables that are known to be important in determining the success of the feed and bleed operation. A simple linear relationship is then used to relate the clad temperature to the core damage probability. To obtain a quantitative relationship among different nodes in the DBN, surrogates of the RELAP5 reactor transient analysis code are used. These surrogates are generated by applying the ACE algorithm to output data obtained from about 50 RELAP5 cases covering a wide range of the selected independent variables. These surrogates allow important safety parameters such as the fuel clad temperature to be expressed as a function of key reactor parameters such as the coolant temperature and pressure together with important independent variables such as the scram delay time. The time-dependent core damage probability is calculated by sampling the independent variables from their probability distributions and propagate the information up through the Bayesian network to give the clad temperature. With the knowledge of the clad temperature and the assumption that the core damage probability has a one-to-one relationship to it, we have calculated the core damage probably as a function of transient time. The use of the DBN model in combination with ACE allows risk analysis to be performed with much less effort than if the analysis were done using the standard techniques.

  1. Complementary roles of systems representing sensory evidence and systems detecting task difficulty during perceptual decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Ruff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making is a multi-stage process where incoming sensory information is used to select one option from several alternatives. Researchers typically have adopted one of two conceptual frameworks to define the criteria for determining whether a brain region is involved in decision computations. One framework, building on single unite recordings in monkeys, posits that activity in a region involved in decision making reflects the accumulation of evidence toward a decision threshold, thus showing the lowest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. The other framework instead posits that activity in a decision-making region reflects the difficulty of a decision, thus showing the highest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. We had subjects perform a face detection task on degraded face images while we simultaneously recorded BOLD activity. We searched for brain regions where changes in BOLD activity during this task supported either of these frameworks by calculating the correlation of BOLD activity with reaction time - a measure of task difficulty. We found that the right supplementary eye field, right frontal eye field and right inferior frontal gyrus had increased activity relative to baseline that positively correlated with reaction time, while the left superior frontal sulcus and left middle temporal gyrus had decreased activity relative to baseline that negatively correlated with reaction time. We propose that a simple mechanism that scales a region’s activity based on task demands can explain our results.

  2. Searches over graphs representing geospatial-temporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Randolph; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying objects of interest in remote sensing images by searching over geospatial-temporal graph representations are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Geospatial-temporal graph searches are made computationally efficient by taking advantage of characteristics of geospatial-temporal data in remote sensing images through the application of various graph search techniques.

  3. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  4. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context

  5. Life forms of succulent representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gaidarzhy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life forms of succulent’s representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae of the tropical and subtropical plants from the collection of O.V. Fomin Botanical garden according to author classification are characterized.

  6. The value of political parties to representative democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölln, Ann-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Political parties play a major role in democratic processes around the world. Recent empirical research suggests that parties are increasingly less important to citizens. Simultaneously, classic and contemporary theories of representative democracy specifically still minimally incorporate accounts

  7. Microalbuminuria represents a feature of advanced renal disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The systematic screening for microalbuminuria represents the touchstone to prevent CRF in patients with diabetes mellitus. Microalbuminuria has also been demonstrated in patients with sickle cell disease. Whether this has the same ...

  8. Developing Representative Michigan Truck Configurations for Bridge Load Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study is to recommend a rating process representative of Michigan load effects for legal and extended permit vehicles. For this study, high fidelity WIM data from 20 Michigan sites were analyzed. Using vehicle weight and configu...

  9. UN: new Permanent Representative of Monaco presents credentials

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Michel Borghini, the new Permanent Representative of Monaco to the United Nations, presented his credentials to Secretary-General Kofi Annan today. He worked as a researcher at CERN from 1965 to 1969" (1/3 page).

  10. On the Representativeness of Norming Samples for Aptitude Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, William

    2003-01-01

    ...). We regressed aptitude test scores on demographics and concluded that: ̂ Norming sample for aptitude tests must be representative of the target population with respect to age, race"ethnicity, gender, respondent's education, and mother's...

  11. Arab Knowledge Society: Who Represents the Arab World Online ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Knowledge Society: Who Represents the Arab World Online? ... Wikipedia's culture of openness, extensive reuse and near ubiquity makes it an ideal place to ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  12. Elections for staff representatives – Join, commit and vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Council is a statutory body representing collectively in the area of employment conditions all CERN staff members (MPE and MPA), as well as the pensioners, former Cernois. The Staff Council is the supreme representative body of the CERN staff and pensioners, which defines the main lines of the policy of the Staff Association. The Staff Council is composed of staff representatives (45 seats to represent staff members, and 5 for representing fellows and associate members), as well as delegates for pensioners (seven positions), designated by GAC-EPA. Every two years, the Council is renewed through elections. Concerning the 45 delegates representing staff members, all departments have a least two seats allocated, one in career paths AA to D and one in career paths E to H. This guarantees a fair distribution of seats among the various organizational units and career paths. The table below, shows the exact number of delegates per department and career paths. Staff members or fellows who want to participa...

  13. Towards Representative Metallurgical Sampling and Gold Recovery Testwork Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Dominy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available When developing a process flowsheet, the risks in achieving positive financial outcomes are minimised by ensuring representative metallurgical samples and high quality testwork. The quality and type of samples used are as important as the testwork itself. The key characteristic required of any set of samples is that they represent a given domain and quantify its variability. There are those who think that stating a sample(s is representative makes it representative without justification. There is a need to consider both (1 in-situ and (2 testwork sub-sample representativity. Early ore/waste characterisation and domain definition are required, so that sampling and testwork protocols can be designed to suit the style of mineralisation in question. The Theory of Sampling (TOS provides an insight into the causes and magnitude of errors that may occur during the sampling of particulate materials (e.g., broken rock and is wholly applicable to metallurgical sampling. Quality assurance/quality control (QAQC is critical throughout all programmes. Metallurgical sampling and testwork should be fully integrated into geometallurgical studies. Traditional metallurgical testwork is critical for plant design and is an inherent part of geometallurgy. In a geometallurgical study, multiple spatially distributed small-scale tests are used as proxies for process parameters. These will be validated against traditional testwork results. This paper focusses on sampling and testwork for gold recovery determination. It aims to provide the reader with the background to move towards the design, implementation and reporting of representative and fit-for-purpose sampling and testwork programmes. While the paper does not intend to provide a definitive commentary, it critically assesses the hard-rock sampling methods used and their optimal collection and preparation. The need for representative sampling and quality testwork to avoid financial and intangible losses is

  14. Selection of Representative Models for Decision Analysis Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Luis A. A.; Coelho, Guilherme P.; Santos, Antonio Alberto S.; Schiozer, Denis J.

    2016-03-01

    The decision-making process in oil fields includes a step of risk analysis associated with the uncertainties present in the variables of the problem. Such uncertainties lead to hundreds, even thousands, of possible scenarios that are supposed to be analyzed so an effective production strategy can be selected. Given this high number of scenarios, a technique to reduce this set to a smaller, feasible subset of representative scenarios is imperative. The selected scenarios must be representative of the original set and also free of optimistic and pessimistic bias. This paper is devoted to propose an assisted methodology to identify representative models in oil fields. To do so, first a mathematical function was developed to model the representativeness of a subset of models with respect to the full set that characterizes the problem. Then, an optimization tool was implemented to identify the representative models of any problem, considering not only the cross-plots of the main output variables, but also the risk curves and the probability distribution of the attribute-levels of the problem. The proposed technique was applied to two benchmark cases and the results, evaluated by experts in the field, indicate that the obtained solutions are richer than those identified by previously adopted manual approaches. The program bytecode is available under request.

  15. Assessing the use of cognitive heuristic representativeness in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L; Crowley, Rebecca S; Crowley, Rebecca

    2008-11-06

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors.

  16. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors. PMID:18999140

  17. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  18. Music as the Representative of the World Picture, the Phenomenon of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossanova, Aigul Sh.; Yermanov, Zhanat R.; Bekenova, Aizhan S.; Julmukhamedova, Aizhan A.; Takezhanova, Roza Ph.; Zhussupova, Saule S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to the study of music as a representative of the picture of the world nomadic culture. With a systemic organization, rich expressive means, music reflects the diversity of the world in its complex, subtle and profound manifestations being the artistic value, key world modeling element. Music can satisfy the aesthetic…

  19. 48 CFR 301.604 - Training and certification of Contracting Officers' Technical Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training and certification of Contracting Officers' Technical Representatives. 301.604 Section 301.604 Federal Acquisition..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.604 Training and certification of Contracting Officers...

  20. 48 CFR 19.402 - Small Business Administration procurement center representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Business... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation With the Small Business Administration 19.402 Small Business Administration procurement center representatives. (a)(1) The...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4152 - Responsibilities of Hg authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of Hg authorized... and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4152 Responsibilities of Hg authorized account representative. Following the establishment of a Hg...

  2. Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacho, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating…

  3. On the classification of plane graphs representing structurally stable rational Newton flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.

    1991-01-01

    We study certain plane graphs, called Newton graphs, representing a special class of dynamical systems which are closely related to Newton's iteration method for finding zeros of (rational) functions defined on the complex plane. These Newton graphs are defined in terms of nonvanishing angles

  4. A geometric language for representing structure in polyphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, Deutsch and Feroe proposed a formal language for representing melodic pitch structure that employed the powerful concept of hierarchically-related pitch alphabets. However, neither rhythmic structure nor pitch structure in polyphonic music can be adequately represented using this language....... A new language is proposed here that incorporates certain features of Deutsch and Feroe’s model but extends and generalises it to allow for the representation of both rhythm and pitch structure in polyphonic music. The new language adopts a geometric approach in which a passage of polyphonic music...

  5. Mentalizing regions represent distributed, continuous, and abstract dimensions of others' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster-Hale, Jorie; Richardson, Hilary; Velez, Natalia; Asaba, Mika; Young, Liane; Saxe, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, we find evidence that motivational versus epistemic features are independently represented by theory of mind (ToM) regions: RTPJ contains information about the justification of the belief, bilateral TPJ represents the modality of the source of knowledge, and VMPFC represents the valence of the resulting emotion. These representations are found only in regions implicated in social cognition and predict behavioral responses at the level of single items. We argue that cortical regions implicated in mental state inference contain complementary, but distinct, representations of epistemic and motivational features of others' beliefs, and that, mirroring the processes observed in sensory systems, social stimuli are represented in distinct and distributed formats across the human brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Representing and managing uncertainty in qualitative ecological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttle, T.; Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Neumann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecologists and decision makers need ways to understand systems, test ideas, and make predictions and explanations about systems. However, uncertainty about causes and effects of processes and parameter values is pervasive in models of ecological systems. Uncertainty associated with incomplete

  7. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL AFFAIRS POLICY – THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNION FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND SECURITY POLICY – A FAVORABLE FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING A SINGLE VOICE FOR THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC SYSTEM OR JUST A NEW BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current international environment, after five years since the creation of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, as well as the European External Action Service The results of this paper show that, although from a legal standpoint it was attempted to clearly outline how the Union's external policies should work, on a practical level, this area still faces difficulties in performing at its full capacity.

  8. Representing User Navigation in XML Retrieval with Structural Summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, M. S.; Consens, Mariano P.; Larsen, Birger

    This poster presents a novel way to represent user navigation in XML retrieval using collection statistics from XML summaries. Currently, developing user navigation models in XML retrieval is costly and the models are specific to collected user assessments. We address this problem by proposing...

  9. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  10. On the representativeness of behavior observation samples in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Miller, Sarah J; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred students for 4 consecutive school days between 9:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. using duration recording in consecutive 10-min sessions. We then culled 10-min, 20-min, 30-min, and 60-min observations from the complete record and compared these observations to the true daily mean to assess their accuracy (i.e., how well individual observations represented the daily occurrence of target behaviors). The results indicated that when behavior occurred with low variability, the majority of brief observations were representative of the overall levels; however, when behavior occurred with greater variability, even 60-min observations did not accurately capture the true levels of behavior. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Hospitals - Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations. This study will, in particular, focus on their representational quality as well as on their role in collective

  12. Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Catering sector - Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the contract catering sector in the Netherlands. In order to determine their relative importance in the

  13. 'To Think Representatively': Arendt on Judgment and the Imagination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the standpoint of the spectator, I go on to examine their most distinctive features, in particular, the link between judgment, the imagination, and the ability to think 'representatively'. I also examine the philosophical sources of Arendt's theory of judgment, namely, Kant's theory of aesthetic judgment and its criteria of validity.

  14. Cephalopods represented by beaks in the stomach of a sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 3 000 cephalopod beaks taken from the stomach of a sperm whale stranded at Paekakariki, North Island, New Zealand, were identified to species and measured; estimates were made of the masses and standard lengths of the cephalopods represented. In all, 24 species of cephalopod in 13 families were ...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3211-3 - Employee representative supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative supplemental tax. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employee...

  16. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  17. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  18. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The photographic implement, from the earliest days of its invention in Europe, in 1839, has been used to document events considered as real. However, notions of 'reality' could be ambiguous as objects or sceneries intended to be photographed are sometimes constructed to represent an imagined stereotypical reality.

  19. A Balanced and Representative Corpus: The Effects of Strict Corpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically the Northern Sotho language is made up of almost 30 dialects while practically it is not so, because the standard language was formed from very few of its dialects. As a result, even today the language has no corpus which is balanced or representative owing to the fact that almost all of the available corpora ...

  20. Quantitative radiomic profiling of glioblastoma represents transcriptomic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Junhyung; Ryu, Gyuha; You, Hye-Jin; Sung, Joon Kyung; Han, Yong Hee; Shin, Hye-Mi; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Sung-Tae; Park, Chul-Kee; Choi, Seung Hong; Choi, Jeong Won; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2018-01-19

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers have increasingly emerged in the field of research utilizing available imaging modalities. We aimed to identify good surrogate radiomic features that can represent genetic changes of tumors, thereby establishing noninvasive means for predicting treatment outcome. From May 2012 to June 2014, we retrospectively identified 65 patients with treatment-naïve glioblastoma with available clinical information from the Samsung Medical Center data registry. Preoperative MR imaging data were obtained for all 65 patients with primary glioblastoma. A total of 82 imaging features including first-order statistics, volume, and size features, were semi-automatically extracted from structural and physiologic images such as apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion images. Using commercially available software, NordicICE, we performed quantitative imaging analysis and collected the dataset composed of radiophenotypic parameters. Unsupervised clustering methods revealed that the radiophenotypic dataset was composed of three clusters. Each cluster represented a distinct molecular classification of glioblastoma; classical type, proneural and neural types, and mesenchymal type. These clusters also reflected differential clinical outcomes. We found that extracted imaging signatures does not represent copy number variation and somatic mutation. Quantitative radiomic features provide a potential evidence to predict molecular phenotype and treatment outcome. Radiomic profiles represents transcriptomic phenotypes more well.

  1. Crime’s face: Imagining and representing kleptomania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Dumas is regarded as one of the most important international painters of this time. In this article, an analysis is made of what her painting The Kleptomaniac (2005) and, in particular, what its title represents. Drawing upon art history, I begin by looking at the original Portrait of a

  2. The occipital place area represents the local elements of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2016-05-15

    Neuroimaging studies have identified three scene-selective regions in human cortex: parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA). However, precisely what scene information each region represents is not clear, especially for the least studied, more posterior OPA. Here we hypothesized that OPA represents local elements of scenes within two independent, yet complementary scene descriptors: spatial boundary (i.e., the layout of external surfaces) and scene content (e.g., internal objects). If OPA processes the local elements of spatial boundary information, then it should respond to these local elements (e.g., walls) themselves, regardless of their spatial arrangement. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded similarly to images of intact rooms and these same rooms in which the surfaces were fractured and rearranged, disrupting the spatial boundary. Next, if OPA represents the local elements of scene content information, then it should respond more when more such local elements (e.g., furniture) are present. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded more to multiple than single pieces of furniture. Taken together, these findings reveal that OPA analyzes local scene elements - both in spatial boundary and scene content representation - while PPA and RSC represent global scene properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 19400 - Registry for Attorneys and Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... digits of his or her Social Security number. See 68 FR 75162. EOIR notes that online security standards... are only accredited to appear before the Department of Homeland Security. See id. \\3\\ As part of the... accredited representative registers, he or she will create a unique UserID and password for online access to...

  4. Professional Human Service Occupation Biases Represented in General Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…

  5. Under-Representation in Nationally Representative Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Karen; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the use of secondary data sets. Many such data sets purport to be nationally representative. Secondary data sets include research commissioned by the National Center for Education Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control, and other public entities. Research increasingly utilizes these secondary data in…

  6. Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Michels, Ank

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected within the scope of a Dutch internet panel survey (LISS) in 2011, this study tracks public support for direct, stealth and representative democracy according to educational level. Our findings indicate that, in terms of overall support for each specific type of democracy, lower

  7. Communication received from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the communication received by the Director General from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil to the Agency to inform him about the official inauguration on 9 December 1992 of the headquarters of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) in Rio de Janeiro

  8. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supply a given water demand. The DOE must project the concentration of radionuclides released from the... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Ground Water Protection Standards § 197.31 What is a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from...

  9. 32 CFR 705.14 - Embarkation of media representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Embarkation of media representatives. 705.14 Section 705.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... to avoid any interpretation of such review as “censorship” or interference with freedom of the press...

  10. Depression and Suicidality among Bisexual Youth: A Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Gloppen, Kari M.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2018-01-01

    To address gaps in the literature on bisexual youth, we used the first nationally representative sample of high school students from the United States to determine profiles of behaviors related to depressive symptoms, a suicide attempt, and a medically-serious attempt. We examined the data from 922 bisexual students in grades 9-12 who completed…

  11. Identifying and representing elements of local contexts in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to represent local context in a 3D visualisa- tionfor rural elders in Namibia we have foundmajor dierences in thecon- ceptualizationof this context between external and local partners in the co-creation process. Through the evaluation of a mobile context capture tool we found a clea...

  12. Markov LIMID processes for representing and solving renewal problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Nilsson, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    to model a Markov Limid Process, where each TemLimid represents a macro action. Algorithms are presented to find optimal plans for a sequence of such macro actions. Use of algorithms is illustrated based on an extended version of an example from pig production originally used to introduce the Limid concept...

  13. Can Democracy Represent Children? Toward a Politics of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John

    2012-01-01

    Children and youth under 18 have made significant strides in recent years toward fuller inclusion in democratic processes. These strides, however, rarely rise to the level of direct political representation, whether in changing policies, making laws, or voting. This article argues that democracies will be able to represent children only by…

  14. The role of a representative reinsurer in optimal reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.; Tan, K.S.; Zhuang, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a one-period optimal reinsurance design model with nn reinsurers and an insurer. For very general preferences of the insurer and that all reinsurers use a distortion premium principle, we establish the existence of a representative reinsurer and this in turn facilitates

  15. Graphical User Interface Development for Representing Air Flow Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nilika

    2004-01-01

    In the Turbine Branch, scientists carry out experimental and computational work to advance the efficiency and diminish the noise production of jet engine turbines. One way to do this is by decreasing the heat that the turbine blades receive. Most of the experimental work is carried out by taking a single turbine blade and analyzing the air flow patterns around it, because this data indicates the sections of the turbine blade that are getting too hot. Since the cost of doing turbine blade air flow experiments is very high, researchers try to do computational work that fits the experimental data. The goal of computational fluid dynamics is for scientists to find a numerical way to predict the complex flow patterns around different turbine blades without physically having to perform tests or costly experiments. When visualizing flow patterns, scientists need a way to represent the flow conditions around a turbine blade. A researcher will assign specific zones that surround the turbine blade. In a two-dimensional view, the zones are usually quadrilaterals. The next step is to assign boundary conditions which define how the flow enters or exits one side of a zone. way of setting up computational zones and grids, visualizing flow patterns, and storing all the flow conditions in a file on the computer for future computation. Such a program is necessary because the only method for creating flow pattern graphs is by hand, which is tedious and time-consuming. By using a computer program to create the zones and grids, the graph would be faster to make and easier to edit. Basically, the user would run a program that is an editable graph. The user could click and drag with the mouse to form various zones and grids, then edit the locations of these grids, add flow and boundary conditions, and finally save the graph for future use and analysis. My goal this summer is to create a graphical user interface (GUI) that incorporates all of these elements. I am writing the program in

  16. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignani, Sara; Carelli, Vinicio; Cordedda, Carlo; Zonno, Fedele; Ampollini, Marco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Venoso, Gennaro; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  17. Chaos control applied to cardiac rhythms represented by ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borem Ferreira, Bianca; Amorim Savi, Marcelo; Souza de Paula, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The control of irregular or chaotic heartbeats is a key issue in cardiology. In this regard, chaos control techniques represent a good alternative since they suggest treatments different from those traditionally used. This paper deals with the application of the extended time-delayed feedback control method to stabilize pathological chaotic heart rhythms. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are employed to represent the cardiovascular behavior. A mathematical model is employed to generate ECG signals using three modified Van der Pol oscillators connected with time delay couplings. This model provides results that qualitatively capture the general behavior of the heart. Controlled ECG signals show the ability of the strategy either to control or to suppress the chaotic heart dynamics generating less-critical behaviors. (paper)

  18. Vulvar Skin Disorders throughout Lifetime: About Some Representative Dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Doyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present general considerations which should be kept in mind by clinicians in charge of women with vulvar diseases. Four representative vulvar dermatoses are described. Lichen simplex chronicus is a pathological condition related to chemical and mechanical irritant agents. Detrimental effects of these irritants, in the presence of other dermatoses, have to be considered when therapeutic responses are unsatisfactory. Lichen sclerosus is the most common vulvar dermatosis in elderly. However, it should be kept in mind that it may be diagnosed at any age. Lichen planus, in spite of sharing a similar range of etiological factors with lichen sclerosus, is a very distinct entity. Finally, Paget’s disease, although rare, is also described especially because of the challenge it represents both clinically and therapeutically.

  19. Antecedents and Consequences of Sales Representatives' Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    . In addition, termination competence significantly affects the value of customer portfolios. Practical implications: The findings suggest that managers should more actively consider relationship termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to increase the value of a firm......'s customer portfolio, managers must not only provide a clear definition of the types of customers the organization does not want to serve, but must also implement termination routines within the organization. Managers also need to establish incentives for sales representatives to terminate relationships......Purpose: Most firms have a number of unprofitable customer relationships that drain the firms' resources. However, firms in general and sales representatives in particular hesitate to address this problem and, ultimately, to terminate business relationships. This paper therefore aims to investigate...

  20. Patient representatives' views on patient information in clinical cancer trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    of future simplified and more attractive informed consent forms. CONCLUSIONS: The emotional and cognitive responses to written patient information reported by patient representatives provides a basis for revised formats in future trials and add to the body of information that support use of plain language......BACKGROUND: Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed...... consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. METHODS: Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I...

  1. Representing climate change on public service television: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrett, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Publicly funded broadcasters with a track record in science programming would appear ideally placed to represent climate change to the lay public. Free from the constraints of vested interests and the economic imperative, public service providers are better equipped to represent the scientific, social and economic aspects of climate change than commercial media, where ownership conglomeration, corporate lobbyists and online competition have driven increasingly tabloid coverage with an emphasis on controversy. This prime-time snapshot of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's main television channel explores how the structural/rhetorical conventions of three established public service genres - a science programme, a documentary and a live public affairs talk show - impact on the representation of anthropogenic climate change. The study findings note implications for public trust, and discuss possibilities for innovation in the interests of better public understanding of climate change.

  2. Representing Scientific Communities by Data Visualization (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    These lectures present a research that investigates the representation of communities, and the way to foster their understanding by different audiences. Communities are complex multidimensional entities intrinsically difficult to represent synthetically. The way to represent them is likely to differ depending on the audience considered: governing entities trying to make decision for the future of the community, general public trying to understand the nature of the community and the members of the community themselves. This work considers two types of communities as example: a scientific organization and an arising domain: the EPFL institutional community composed of faculty members and researchers and, at a world wide level, the emerging community of Digital Humanities researchers. For both cases, the research is organised as a process going from graphical research to actual materialization as physical artefacts (posters, maps, etc.), possibly extended using digital devices (augmented reality applications). T...

  3. Crystallochemical particularities of complexes with lower representatives of dicarboiylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrova, G.I.; Kiosse, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of crystallochemical particularities of nonsubstituted dicarboxylic acids, HOOC-(CHsub(2))sub(n)-COOH, complexes with lower representatives of the given series (n=0.1). Besides published data, the studies on the structures obtained by the authors are included herein. From the structure data of salts and complexes with the lower representatives of dicarboxylic acids and oxyacids (among which there are complexes of rare earths and niobium) one can distinguish the formation of two-and polynuclear chelate complexes. Configuration of molecules of oxalic and malonic (and its derivatives) acids does not depend on the type of the compounds formed. The turn of carboxylic groups with respect to the plane of central carbon atoms in oxalate- and malonate-ions depends on their structural environment. The structures of complexes with malonic acid derivatives are not studied well although they are of great theoretical and practical interest

  4. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  5. Processes, data structures, and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA; Thomson, Judi R [Guelph, CA; Harvey, William J [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Whiting, Mark A [Richland, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Chappell, Alan R [Seattle, WA; Butner, R Scott [Richland, WA

    2011-09-20

    Processes, data structures, and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  6. Representing electrons a biographical approach to theoretical entities

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Both a history and a metahistory, Representing Electrons focuses on the development of various theoretical representations of electrons from the late 1890s to 1925 and the methodological problems associated with writing about unobservable scientific entities. Using the electron-or rather its representation-as a historical actor, Theodore Arabatzis illustrates the emergence and gradual consolidation of its representation in physics, its career throughout old quantum theory, and its appropriation and reinterpretation by chemists. As Arabatzis develops this novel biographical

  7. Obtaining Samples Representative of Contaminant Distribution in an Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, Ronald; Spane, Frank A.; Narbutovskih, Susan M.; Conley, Scott F.; Webber, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells have been assumed to provide average indications of contaminant concentrations within the aquifer over the well-screen interval. In-well flow circulation, heterogeneity in the surrounding aquifer, and the sampling method utilized, however, can significantly impact the representativeness of samples as contaminant indicators of actual conditions within the surrounding aquifer. This paper identifies the need and approaches essential for providing cost-effective and technically meaningful groundwater-monitoring results. Proper design of the well screen interval is critical. An accurate understanding of ambient (non-pumping) flow conditions within the monitoring well is essential for determining the contaminant distribution within the aquifer. The ambient in-well flow velocity, flow direction and volumetric flux rate are key to this understanding. Not only do the ambient flow conditions need to be identified for preferential flow zones, but also the probable changes that will be imposed under dynamic conditions that occur during groundwater sampling. Once the in-well flow conditions are understood, effective sampling can be conducted to obtain representative samples for specific depth zones or zones of interest. The question of sample representativeness has become an important issue as waste minimization techniques such as low flow purging and sampling are implemented to combat the increasing cost of well purging and sampling at many hazardous waste sites. Several technical approaches (e.g., well tracer techniques and flowmeter surveys) can be used to determine in-well flow conditions, and these are discussed with respect to both their usefulness and limitations. Proper fluid extraction methods using minimal, (low) volume and no purge sampling methods that are used to obtain representative samples of aquifer conditions are presented

  8. DOES FAIR VALUE REPRESENT A CONCERN FOR ROMANIAN RESEARCHERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcau Anca-Sabina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual economic context, the fair value concept is of high interest .We tried to see if the concept is only talk about, or if research in Romania has been actually done on this theme. We have analyzed the Romanian Journals recognized by CNCSIS in order to see if this concept represents a concern for Romanian researchers. This article is a literature review of the economic Romanian journals recognize by CNCSIS in the field of “fair value”.

  9. Patient representatives? views on patient information in clinical cancer trials

    OpenAIRE

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives? views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. Methods Written patient information leaflet...

  10. The Parliament of Catalonia, representing a millenary people

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Vilaseca, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Catalonia is a millenary nation, which the current Spanish constitutional order frames as an “autonomous community”. However, Catalonia as a nation was not born with the Spanish Constitution in 1978, nor has any possibility for the future been democratically barred. The most important contribution to Catalonia made by the 1978 Constitution was to make it possible for the Catalan Statute to create the Catalan Parliament, an institution that democratically represents the people of Catalonia and...

  11. Representing value judgements in the evaluation options for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1985-08-01

    In this report we show how the concept of Best Practical Environmental Option for nuclear waste management may be articulated using the methods of Multi-attribute Value Analysis. The concept of characteristic weights is introduced to represent differences of opinion on the relative importance of different factors that may reasonably be held, and show how these may be used to summarise information for decision-makers in a concise way. (author)

  12. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the...

  13. Representing health and illness: thoughts for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2011-06-01

    The on-going discussion about a new empiricism in the study of the medical humanities has lead to a misapprehension about the problems attendant to representing health and illness. The difficulty in understanding the politics of health and illness as well as the concomitant new aestheticism that has arisen concerning its representation demands a rethinking of these categories in the 21st century. Obesity can provide a model for the importance of this problem today.

  14. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  15. Active Learning by Querying Informative and Representative Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Jun; Jin, Rong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Active learning reduces the labeling cost by iteratively selecting the most valuable data to query their labels. It has attracted a lot of interests given the abundance of unlabeled data and the high cost of labeling. Most active learning approaches select either informative or representative unlabeled instances to query their labels, which could significantly limit their performance. Although several active learning algorithms were proposed to combine the two query selection criteria, they are usually ad hoc in finding unlabeled instances that are both informative and representative. We address this limitation by developing a principled approach, termed QUIRE, based on the min-max view of active learning. The proposed approach provides a systematic way for measuring and combining the informativeness and representativeness of an unlabeled instance. Further, by incorporating the correlation among labels, we extend the QUIRE approach to multi-label learning by actively querying instance-label pairs. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed QUIRE approach outperforms several state-of-the-art active learning approaches in both single-label and multi-label learning.

  16. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  17. Patch-based visual tracking with online representative sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Weihua; Yuan, Di; Li, Donghao; Liu, Bin; Xia, Daoxun; Zeng, Wu

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion is one of the most challenging problems in visual object tracking. Recently, a lot of discriminative methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. For the discriminative methods, it is difficult to select the representative samples for the target template updating. In general, the holistic bounding boxes that contain tracked results are selected as the positive samples. However, when the objects are occluded, this simple strategy easily introduces the noises into the training data set and the target template and then leads the tracker to drift away from the target seriously. To address this problem, we propose a robust patch-based visual tracker with online representative sample selection. Different from previous works, we divide the object and the candidates into several patches uniformly and propose a score function to calculate the score of each patch independently. Then, the average score is adopted to determine the optimal candidate. Finally, we utilize the non-negative least square method to find the representative samples, which are used to update the target template. The experimental results on the object tracking benchmark 2013 and on the 13 challenging sequences show that the proposed method is robust to the occlusion and achieves promising results.

  18. Patient representatives' views on patient information in clinical cancer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-02-01

    Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I-III trials, randomized and non-randomized trials that evaluated chemotherapy/targeted therapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and palliative settings. Data were collected through focus groups and were analysed using inductive content analysis. Two major themes emerged: emotional responses and cognitive responses. Subthemes related to the former included individual preferences and perceptions of effect, while subthemes related to the latter were comprehensibility and layout. Based on these observations the patient representatives provided suggestions for improvement, which largely included development of future simplified and more attractive informed consent forms. The emotional and cognitive responses to written patient information reported by patient representatives provides a basis for revised formats in future trials and add to the body of information that support use of plain language, structured text and illustrations to improve the informed consent process and thereby patient enrolment into clinical trials.

  19. Representing metarepresentations: is there theory of mind-specific cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2009-03-01

    What cognitive mechanisms underlie Theory of Mind? Some infer domain-specific Theory of Mind cognition based the pattern of children diagnosed with autism failing the False Belief test but passing the False Photograph test. However, we argue that the False Belief test entails various task demands the False Photograph task does not, including the necessity to represent a higher-order representation (a metarepresentation), thus confounding the inference of domain-specificity. Instead, a general difficulty that affects representations of metarepresentations might account for the seeming domain-specific failure. Here we find that False-Belief failing False-Photograph passing children fail the Meta Photograph test, a new photograph-domain test that requires subjects to represent a metarepresentation. We conclude that people who fail the False Belief test but pass the False Photograph test do not necessarily have a content-specific Theory of Mind deficit. Instead, the general ability to represent representations and metarepresentations might underlie Theory of Mind.

  20. Representativeness of wind measurements in moderately complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bossche, Michael; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the representativeness of 10-m wind measurements in a 4 km × 2 km area of modest relief by comparing observations at a central site with those at four satellite sites located in the same area. Using a combination of established and new methods to quantify and visualize representativeness, we found significant differences in wind speed and direction between the four satellite sites and the central site. The representativeness of the central site wind measurements depended strongly on surface wind speed and direction, and atmospheric stability. Through closer inspection of the observations at one of the satellite sites, we concluded that terrain-forced flows combined with thermally driven downslope winds caused large biases in wind direction and speed. We used these biases to generate a basic model, showing that terrain-related differences in wind observations can to a large extent be predicted. Such a model is a cost-effective way to enhance an area's wind field determination and to improve the outcome of pollutant dispersion and weather forecasting models.

  1. Representing Operational Knowledge of PWR Plant by Using Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    situation and support operational decisions. This paper will provide a general MFM model of the primary side in a standard Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor ( PWR ) system including sub - systems of Reactor Coolant System, Rod Control System, Chemical and Volume Control System, emergency heat removal......The aim of this paper is to explore the capability of representing operational knowledge by using Multilevel Flow Modelling ( MFM ) methodology. The paper demonstrate s how the operational knowledge can be inserted into the MFM models and be used to evaluate the plant state, identify the current...... systems. And the sub - systems’ functions will be decomposed into sub - models according to different operational situations. An operational model will be developed based on the operating procedure by using MFM symbols and this model can be used to implement coordination rules for organize the utilizati...

  2. Self-help organisations as patient representatives in health care and policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Forster, Rudolf

    2017-10-01

    A crucial question about participation is who is legitimised, willing and capable of representing particular collectives. Social insurance health care systems tend to focus on representation by patient organisations. Self-help organisations (SHOs), as one type of 'health consumer and patient organisation', often take over this role. Research findings indicate that participation by SHOs is accompanied by high expectations, but also by concerns about the risks of instrumental abuse, overload and professionalisation. However, there is a dearth of in-depth knowledge about both potential and risks of participating for the SHO. To tackle this research gap, a qualitative study design was used to investigate fifteen SHOs in Austria. Data were generated by expert interviews with SHO representatives and documentary analysis of SHO websites. Content analysis was applied. SHOs in Austria advocate for patients' interests, participate in invited spaces and have various forms of cooperative relations with the health care system. Thereby, they draw on the experiential knowledge of their members without, however, systematising it. Experiences with professionalisation and instrumental use are ambiguous, whereas overload is prevalent. SHOs need resources for reflection in order to define their position visà- vis the health system and to realise their potential as patient representatives. Deepening co-operation with the health care system might lead to new participatory practices acknowledging differences in culture and the resources of both sides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS). Part III. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eight Congress, Second Session, March 28 and August 2, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Part III of the hearing record contains the testimony of Peter Johnson, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator, and Energy Secretary Donald Hodel on the subject of BPA's contracts with the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) in which BPA will assume responsibility of WPPSS nuclear projects 1, 2, and 3. At issue was whether the contracts exceed BPA's authority and the protection of BPA's $1.9 billion invested in the projects. Johnson denied any secret agreements and emphasized that the intent was to preserve the assets for the federal government and federal power system. On the second hearing day, Hodel explained DOE's involvement in the agreements and its concurrence with BPA because of related litigation. An appendix with additional correspondence and statements submitted for the record follows the testimony

  4. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  5. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Klijs

    Full Text Available LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online self-registration. Our aim was to investigate the representativeness of the adult study population at baseline and to evaluate differences in the study population according to recruitment strategy.Demographic characteristics of the LifeLines study population, recruited between 2006-2013, were compared with the total adult population in the north of the Netherlands as registered in the Dutch population register. Socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, chronic diseases, and general health were further compared with participants of the Permanent Survey of Living Conditions within the region (2005-2011, N = 6,093. Differences according to recruitment strategy were assessed.Compared with the population of the north of the Netherlands, LifeLines participants were more often female, middle aged, married, living in a semi-urban place and Dutch native. Adjusted for differences in demographic composition, in LifeLines a smaller proportion had a low educational attainment (5% versus 14% or had ever smoked (54% versus 66%. Differences in the prevalence of various chronic diseases and low general health scores were mostly smaller than 3%. The age profiles of the three recruitment groups differed due to age related inclusion criteria of the recruitment groups. Other differences according to recruitment strategy were small.Our results suggest that, adjusted for differences in demographic composition, the LifeLines adult study population is broadly representative for the adult population of the north of the Netherlands. The recruitment strategy had a minor effect on the level of representativeness. These findings indicate that the risk of selection bias is low and that risk estimates

  6. Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment (SHINE) Students - Student Representatives' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahud, D. M.; Niembro, T.

    2014-12-01

    The SHINE workshop is an annual meeting of solar and heliospheric scientists which, in addition to aiming to improve understanding of solar disturbances and their propagation to, and effect, on the Earth (shinecon.org), is dedicated to actively supporting students. This dedication is substantiated in part through the National Science Foundation (NSF) providing funding for student attendance to the workshop, which enables student participation. Another example of SHINE's commitment to its student members is the incorporation of a Student Day prior to the workshop since 2003, entirely organized and run by two student representatives. While there are variations in format from year to year, Student Day consists of tutorials and research talks exclusively by student volunteers to an audience of only students. The day is intended to provide a low-stress environment for students to learn about the various topics addressed during the workshop, to ask questions freely, and to engage in scientific discussion with other students which hopefully is a catalyst for collaboration. As a result of positive experiences, over the past decade student attendance and participation in the workshop have increased. At the SHINE 2014 workshop, nearly a third of attendees were students. SHINE student visibility has increased over the years, with student posters being advertised at breakfast, inclusion of a student day summary by the student representatives during a plenary session, and continued support from the steering committee. Students are also promoting a broader impact of SHINE sciences via increased social media presence. From a student representative's perspective, SHINE has built and fostered a healthy student community and encourages students to engage in shaping the future of the field.

  7. Out-of-Autoclave Manufacturing of Aerospace Representative Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghs, Julien

    The use of carbon fibre reinforced composites for aerospace structures has seen a high increase in recent years, and is still growing. The high stiffness-to-weight ratio of these materials makes them ideal for primary structures on airplanes, satellites, and spacecrafts. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of composites remains very costly since it requires equipment investment such as an autoclave, and very qualified workers. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing technology is very promising since it only requires a traditional oven, while still aiming at similar part quality. However, the absence of positive pressure compared with an autoclave makes it more difficult to achieve low porosity parts. This research investigates the manufacturing of complex features with out-of autoclave prepreg technology. The features studied are tight-radius corners with a curvature change, and ply drop-offs. Ply drop-offs tests were conducted to identify if porosity is higher at ply terminations. In corners, the bagging arrangement was modified to achieve the most uniform thickness in areas of curvature change, even with small radii. The conclusions from these studies provided us with guidelines to manufacture larger representative parts, which included these features. The representative parts were tested for porosity, thickness uniformity, mechanical performance, and glass transition temperature (Tg). A total of four representative parts were manufactured with out-of-autoclave technology, and one more was manufactured with an autoclave to allow for a proper comparison between the two processes. The materials used were MTM45-1 5 harness satin and CYCOM5320 plain weave for the out-of-autoclave parts, and CYCOM5276-1 plain weave for the autoclave part. The effect of ply drop-offs on porosity was found to be negligible. Thickness deviation in corners was attributed to a combination of consumable bridging, prepreg's bulk factor and inter-ply shear. Overall, out-of-autoclave prepregs showed

  8. Representative Vector Machines: A Unified Framework for Classical Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-08-01

    Classifier design is a fundamental problem in pattern recognition. A variety of pattern classification methods such as the nearest neighbor (NN) classifier, support vector machine (SVM), and sparse representation-based classification (SRC) have been proposed in the literature. These typical and widely used classifiers were originally developed from different theory or application motivations and they are conventionally treated as independent and specific solutions for pattern classification. This paper proposes a novel pattern classification framework, namely, representative vector machines (or RVMs for short). The basic idea of RVMs is to assign the class label of a test example according to its nearest representative vector. The contributions of RVMs are twofold. On one hand, the proposed RVMs establish a unified framework of classical classifiers because NN, SVM, and SRC can be interpreted as the special cases of RVMs with different definitions of representative vectors. Thus, the underlying relationship among a number of classical classifiers is revealed for better understanding of pattern classification. On the other hand, novel and advanced classifiers are inspired in the framework of RVMs. For example, a robust pattern classification method called discriminant vector machine (DVM) is motivated from RVMs. Given a test example, DVM first finds its k -NNs and then performs classification based on the robust M-estimator and manifold regularization. Extensive experimental evaluations on a variety of visual recognition tasks such as face recognition (Yale and face recognition grand challenge databases), object categorization (Caltech-101 dataset), and action recognition (Action Similarity LAbeliNg) demonstrate the advantages of DVM over other classifiers.

  9. The live album or many ways of representing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzanti Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of live albums can clarify the dialectic between studio recordings and live performances. After discussing key concepts such as authenticity, space, time and place, and documentation, the author gives a preliminary definition of live albums, combining available descriptions and comparing them with different typologies and functions of these recordings. The article aims to give a new definition of the concept of live albums, gathering their primary elements: “A live album is an officially released extended recording of popular music representing one or more actually occurred public performances”.

  10. Direct and Representative Democracy - Supplementing, not Excluding Each Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    : and (4) more transparency and enlightened understanding versus less confidentiality. The arguments are discussed in relation to general political goals of good government such as legitimacy, efficiency and stability. The basic thesis of the paper is that direct and representative forms of democracy...... are not exclusive. Much of the disagreement among those in favour of and in opposition to the introduction of more elements of direct democracy is caused by arguments that could be tested empirically and on more or less implicit assumptions about an either-or rather than a more-or-less of these forms of government...

  11. Analysis of Mental Processes Represented in Models of Artificial Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Folchini da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Consciousness concept has been used in the engineering area as being an evolution of the Artificial Intelligence. However, consciousness is a complex subject and often used without formalism. As a main contribution, in this work one proposes an analysis of four recent models of artificial consciousness published in the engineering area. The mental processes represented by these models are highlighted and correlations with the theoretical perspective of cognitive psychology are made. Finally, considerations about consciousness in such models are discussed.

  12. A model-driven approach for representing clinical archetypes for Semantic Web environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Maldonado, José Alberto

    2009-02-01

    The life-long clinical information of any person supported by electronic means configures his Electronic Health Record (EHR). This information is usually distributed among several independent and heterogeneous systems that may be syntactically or semantically incompatible. There are currently different standards for representing and exchanging EHR information among different systems. In advanced EHR approaches, clinical information is represented by means of archetypes. Most of these approaches use the Archetype Definition Language (ADL) to specify archetypes. However, ADL has some drawbacks when attempting to perform semantic activities in Semantic Web environments. In this work, Semantic Web technologies are used to specify clinical archetypes for advanced EHR architectures. The advantages of using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) instead of ADL are described and discussed in this work. Moreover, a solution combining Semantic Web and Model-driven Engineering technologies is proposed to transform ADL into OWL for the CEN EN13606 EHR architecture.

  13. Studying the sampling representativeness in the NPP ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnovskij, R.I.; Fedchenko, T.K.; Minin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the gas and aerosol voluminous activity in the NPP ventilation ducts are an important source of information on the radiation contaminants ingress into the environmental medium. These measurements include sampling, samples transport and proper measurements. The work is devoted to calculation of metrological characteristics of the sampling systems for the NPP gas-aerosol releases by different parameters of these systems and ventilation ducts. The results obtained are intended for application by designing such systems and their metrological certification [ru

  14. Evaluation of BRDF Archetypes for Representing Surface Reflectance Anisotropy Using MODIS BRDF Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hu; Jiao, Ziti; Dong, Yadong; Li, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) archetypes extracted from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/Albedo product over the global Earth Observing System Land Validation Core Sites can be used to simplify BRDF models. The present study attempts to evaluate the representativeness of BRDF archetypes for surface reflectance anisotropy. Five-year forward-modeled MODIS multi-angular reflectance (MCD-ref) and aditional actual MODIS multi-angular observat...

  15. Shortest triplet clustering: reconstructing large phylogenies using representative sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Vinh Le

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolutionary relationships among species based on their genetic information is one of the primary objectives in phylogenetic analysis. Reconstructing phylogenies for large data sets is still a challenging task in Bioinformatics. Results We propose a new distance-based clustering method, the shortest triplet clustering algorithm (STC, to reconstruct phylogenies. The main idea is the introduction of a natural definition of so-called k-representative sets. Based on k-representative sets, shortest triplets are reconstructed and serve as building blocks for the STC algorithm to agglomerate sequences for tree reconstruction in O(n2 time for n sequences. Simulations show that STC gives better topological accuracy than other tested methods that also build a first starting tree. STC appears as a very good method to start the tree reconstruction. However, all tested methods give similar results if balanced nearest neighbor interchange (BNNI is applied as a post-processing step. BNNI leads to an improvement in all instances. The program is available at http://www.bi.uni-duesseldorf.de/software/stc/. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the new approach efficiently reconstructs phylogenies for large data sets. We found that BNNI boosts the topological accuracy of all methods including STC, therefore, one should use BNNI as a post-processing step to get better topological accuracy.

  16. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  17. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  18. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  19. In search of a representative sample of residential building work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Brenda; Woods, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Most research investigating injuries in construction work is limited by reliance on work samples unrepresentative of the multiple, variable-cycle tasks involved, resulting in incomplete characterisation of ergonomic exposures. In this case study, a participatory approach was used including hierarchical task analysis and site observations of a typical team of house builders in New Zealand, over several working days, to obtain a representative work sample. The builders' work consisted of 14 goal-defined jobs using varying subsets of 15 task types, each taking from less than 1 s to more than 1 h and performed in a variety of postures. Task type and duration varied within and between participants and days, although all participants spent at least 25% of the time moving from place to place, mostly carrying materials, and more than half the time either reaching up or bending down to work. This research has provided a description of residential building work based on a work sample more nearly representative than those previously published and has demonstrated a simple, low-cost but robust field observation method that can provide a valid basis for further study of hazard exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Representative Mouse Model with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jef; Jacobs, Ans; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. It represents a disease spectrum ranging from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In particular, NASH can evolve to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. The development of novel treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of representative NASH mouse models. Here, we describe a NASH mouse model, which is based on feeding non-genetically manipulated C57BL6/J mice a 'Western style' high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF-HSD). HF-HSD leads to early obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. After 12 weeks of HF-HSD, all mice exhibit the complete spectrum of features of NASH, including steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and lobular inflammation, together with fibrosis in the majority of mice. Hence, this model closely mimics the human disease. Implementation of this mouse model will lead to a standardized setup for the evaluation of (i) underlying mechanisms that contribute to the progression of NAFLD to NASH, and (ii) therapeutic interventions for NASH. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Engaging workplace representatives in research: what recruitment strategies work best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A

    2018-05-23

    Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.

  2. Type a behaviour pattern and performance as insurance representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. W. Strumpfer

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Participants were 155 insurance representatives and 116 of them who were still in the same position one year later. The performance criterion represented commission on policies and annuities sold; data were obtained for the year of testing and the next year. The Jenkins Activity Survey was administered. The Type A (M === 6.26; SD == 7.90 was not excessively high. The Factor H score correlated r (114 - 0,23, p = 0,05 with the criterion for the second year; no other score correlated significantly with criterion scores. Interventions to reduce Type A behaviour for health reasons seem unlikely to reduce business performance. Opsomming Die deelnemers was 155 assuransieverteenwoordigers en 116 van hulle wat een jaar later nog in dieselfde pos was. Die prestasiekriterium het kommissie op polisse en annuiteite verteenwoordig; gegewens is vir die jaar van toetsing en die volgende jaar verkry. Jenkins se Aktiviteitsvraelys is toegepas. Die Tipe A (X == 6.26; SA - 790 was nie buitengewoon hoog nie. Die Faktor H-telling het r (114 - 0,23, p - 0,05 met die kriterium vir die tweede jaar gekorreleer; geen ander tellings het beduidend met die kriteriumtellings gekorreleer nie. Dit lyk onwaarskynlik dat intervensies om Tipe A-gedrag om gesondheidsredes te verminder besigheidsprestasie sal verlaag.

  3. Challenges to Issues of Balance and Representativeness in African Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapelo Joseph Otlogetswe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Modern dictionaries depend on corpora of different sizes and types for frequency listings, concordances and collocations, illustrative sentences and grammatical information. With the help of computer software, retrieving such information has increasingly become relatively easy. However, the quality of retrieved information for lexicographic purposes depends on the information input at the stage of corpus construction. If corpora are not representative of the different language usages of a speech community, they may prove to be unreliable sources of lexicographic information. There are, however, issues in African languages which make many African corpora questionable. These issues include a lack of texts of different genres, the unavailability of balanced and representative written texts, a complete absence of spoken texts as well as literacy problems in African societies. This article therefore explores the different challenges to the construction of reliable corpora in African languages. It argues that African languages face peculiar challenges and corpus research may require a different treatment compared to European and American corpus research. It finally concludes that issues of balance and representativeness appear theoretically impossible when looking at the results of sociolinguistic research on the different existing language varieties which are difficult to represent accurately in a corpus.

    Keywords: AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BALANCE, BANK OF ENGLISH, BORROWING,BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS, COBUILD, CODE-SWITCHING, COMPUTERS, CORPORA,DIALECT, DICTIONARIES, FREQUENCY, LANGUAGE VARIETY, REPRESENTATIVENESS,SETSWANA, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SPEECH, TEXT

    Opsomming: Uitdagings betreffende kwessies van balans en verteenwoordigendheidin Afrikaleksikografie. Moderne woordeboeke steun op korpusse vanverskillende groottes en soorte vir frekwensielyste, konkordansies en kollokasies, voorbeeldsinneen taalkundige inligting. Met die hulp van

  4. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, p Results All in all, 309 works councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work, 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties. Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810 and non-leadership roles (N=2970 and for employees in general (N=35.000 showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative

  5. Coping with traumatic brain injury: representative case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnica, C M; Heinemann, A

    1994-04-01

    This case report compares the use of social supports and vulnerability to substance abuse for two rehabilitation clients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a psychosocial assessment, the Motivational Structure Questionnaire, Adaptive Skills Battery, and Ways of Coping Checklist within a representative case method, we studied two individuals in depth to understand differences in postinjury drinking behaviors. We also examined differences in availability and use of social supports and how support was related to coping efforts. Finally, we illustrated goal-setting and the relationship between long-term planning and follow-through on goals. Social supports, adaptive problem-solving behaviors, and positive reappraisal of situations seem to be important elements in postinjury abstinence. Clinically, this research supports the need for fostering use of both social supports and substance use prevention and treatment services when working with both inpatient and outpatient TBI clients.

  6. Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems.

  7. [Involvement of medical representatives in team medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Misaki; Sohma, Michiro; Takagi, Hidehiko

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, chemotherapies have been further advanced because of successive launch of new drugs, introduction of molecular targeting, etc., and the concept of so-called Team Medical Care ,the idea of sharing interdisciplinary expertise for collaborative treatment, has steadily penetrated in the Japanese medical society. Dr. Naoto Ueno is a medical oncologist at US MD Anderson Cancer Center, the birthplace of the Team Medical Care. He has advocated the concept of ABC of Team Oncology by positioning pharmaceutical companies as Team C. Under such team practice, we believe that medical representatives of a pharmaceutical company should also play a role as a member of the Team Medical Care by providing appropriate drug use information to healthcare professionals, supporting post-marketing surveillance of treated patients, facilitating drug information sharing among healthcare professionals at medical institutions, etc.

  8. [Attitudes of general practitioners to pharmaceutical sales representatives in Sousse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelaziz, A; Harrabi, I; Rahmani, S; Ghedira, A; Gaha, K; Ghannem, H

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic knowledge of physicians is the corner stone to the rational use of medicines; however information about medicines is generally obtained from the pharmaceutical industry via their sales representatives (reps). We aimed to identify general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes to pharmaceutical reps and the information they provide. We surveyed 140 GPs using a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 78% (72 GPs from the public sector and 68 from the private sector). About 10% of the GPs said they received daily visits from pharmaceutical reps; 84% of GPs considered them an efficient source of information and 31% said they might change their therapeutic prescribing following visits from these reps. Because of their positive perception of pharmaceutical reps, GPs are susceptible to the information they provide. Controlling the validity of the therapeutic information imparted by the pharmaceutical industry is thus a fundamental component of the programme for the rational use of medicines.

  9. On the Alignment of Shapes Represented by Fourier Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Ericsson, Anders; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    The representation of shapes by Fourier descriptors is a time-honored technique that has received relatively little attention lately. Nevertheless, it has many benefits and is applicable for describing a range of medical structures in two dimensions. Delineations in medical applications often...... consist of continuous outlines of structures, where no information of correspondence between samples exist. In this article, we discuss an alignment method that works directly with the functional representation of Fourier descriptors, and that is optimal in a least-squares sense. With corresponding...... represented by common landmarks can be constructed in an automatic fashion. If the aligned Fourier descriptors are inverse transformed from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, a set of roughly aligned landmarks are obtained. The positions of these are then adjusted along the contour of the objects...

  10. Use of S-α diagram for representing tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Chance, M.; Kessel, C.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1991-05-01

    A use of the S-α diagram is proposed as a tool for representing the plasma equilibrium with a qualitative characterization of its stability through pattern recognition. The diagram is an effective tool for visually presenting the relationship between the shear and dimensionless pressure gradient of an equilibrium. In the PBX-M tokamak, an H-mode operating regime with high poloidal β and L-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime results in favorable qualities of both regimes. The β collapse process and ELM event also manifest themselves as characteristic changes in the S-α pattern

  11. Representative Bureaucracy and the Role of Expertise in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarle Trondal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of existing studies on bureaucratic representation focus on bureaucracies’ permanent and internal staff. Yet, the rising sophistication of modern democracies and the technocratization of political life are gradually inducing an increased reliance on external experts to assist in the development and implementation of policy decisions. This trend, we argue, raises the need to extend studies of bureaucratic representation to such external and non-permanent experts in governmental affairs. In this article, we take a first step in this direction using seconded national experts (SNEs in the European Commission as our empirical laboratory. Our results highlight that Commission SNEs do not appear representative of their constituent population (i.e., the EU-27 population along a number of socio-demographic dimensions. Moreover, we find that the role perception of “experts” is primarily explained by organizational affiliation, and only secondarily by demographic characteristics (except, of course, education.

  12. Invite your representative to work. Change the world. Here's how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J

    2018-02-15

    Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory. Salud Carbajal peered through a microscope and met real scientists. Before his visit, he did not know what a postdoctoral fellow was, much less what stem cells look like. When he left he knew our names, how much money we bring into his district, and how important National Institutes of Health funding and international mobility are to our enterprise. Although I live in the United States, this approach should also apply to other democratic countries. If each of us converts one representative into a science champion, we can change the world. © 2018 Montell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  14. [Dangerous liaisons--physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between physicians and detailers (even when legitimate ones) raise scientific and ethical questions. In Portugal little thinking and discussion has been done on the subject and the blames for bribery have monopolized the media. This work intended to review what has been said in medical literature about these interactions. How do physicians see themselves when interacting with pharmaceutical companies and their representatives? Do these companies in fact change their prescriptive behaviour, and, if so, how do they change it? How can physicians interact with detailers and still keep their best practice? A Medline research, from 1966 till 2002, was performed using the key-words as follows. A database similar to Medline but concerning medical journals published in Portugal, Index das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas, was also researched from 1992 to 2002. Pharmaceutical companies are profit bound and they allot promoting activities, and detailing in particular, huge amounts of money. Most physicians hold firmly to the belief that they are able to resist and not be influenced by drug companies promotion activities. Nevertheless, all previous works on literature tell us the opposite. Market research also indicates that detailers effectively promote drug sales. Various works also suggest that the information detailers provide to physicians may be largely incorrect, even comparing it to the written information provided by the pharmaceutical companies they work for. The frequency at which portuguese physicians (especially family physicians) contact with pharmaceutical sales representatives is higher than the frequency reported in countries where the available studies come from (namely, Canada and the United States of America). This may put portuguese physicians at a higher risk, making it imperative that work and wide debate are initiated among the class.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF REPRESENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF LUKIŠKIŲ SQUARE IN VILNIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas TIŠKUS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Representative squares are sites where ideological monuments or monuments are built, or squares to important state or municipal buildings. Representation square is a mark or sign system that is intended to provide some relevant information. This information may include events or actors that are important and desirable to commemorate, ideological - political motives that want to be given exclusive importance. In determining the structure of the area’s representative area, causal relationships with the represented object are identified. The original key information is the name. Subsequently, the type of object represented – an event or personality, a connection to the square, the importance of the mark on the square (dominant, noticeable or invisible, and the interaction between the label and the environment are determined. After examining the structure of the square of the square and writing the values in the matrix, we can determine the representation level of the square. In the representation square we can name the square, for which the context of the environment and the level of representational marks for the purpose of the square have a decisive or significant influence.

  16. Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporally representative Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs are required for capturing the temporal variations in surface spatial heterogeneity through field measurements. Since inaccessibility often coexists with heterogeneity, a cost-efficient sampling design is mandatory. We proposed a sampling strategy to generate spatiotemporally representative and cost-efficient ESUs based on the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling scheme. The proposed strategy was constrained by multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery, and the ESUs were limited within a sampling feasible region established based on accessibility criteria. A novel criterion based on the Overlapping Area (OA between the NDVI frequency distribution histogram from the sampled ESUs and that from the entire study area was used to assess the sampling efficiency. A case study in Wanglang National Nature Reserve in China showed that the proposed strategy improves the spatiotemporally representativeness of sampling (mean annual OA = 74.7% compared to the single-temporally constrained (OA = 68.7% and the random sampling (OA = 63.1% strategies. The introduction of the feasible region constraint significantly reduces in-situ labour-intensive characterization necessities at expenses of about 9% loss in the spatiotemporal representativeness of the sampling. Our study will support the validation activities in Wanglang experimental site providing a benchmark for locating the nodes of automatic observation systems (e.g., LAINet which need a spatially distributed and temporally fixed sampling design.

  17. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  18. Representing Sudden Shifts in Intensive Dyadic Interaction Data Using Differential Equation Models with Regime Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ou, Lu; Ciptadi, Arridhana; Prince, Emily B; You, Dongjun; Hunter, Michael D; Rehg, James M; Rozga, Agata; Messinger, Daniel S

    2018-06-01

    A growing number of social scientists have turned to differential equations as a tool for capturing the dynamic interdependence among a system of variables. Current tools for fitting differential equation models do not provide a straightforward mechanism for diagnosing evidence for qualitative shifts in dynamics, nor do they provide ways of identifying the timing and possible determinants of such shifts. In this paper, we discuss regime-switching differential equation models, a novel modeling framework for representing abrupt changes in a system of differential equation models. Estimation was performed by combining the Kim filter (Kim and Nelson State-space models with regime switching: classical and Gibbs-sampling approaches with applications, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999) and a numerical differential equation solver that can handle both ordinary and stochastic differential equations. The proposed approach was motivated by the need to represent discrete shifts in the movement dynamics of [Formula: see text] mother-infant dyads during the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), a behavioral assessment where the infant is separated from and reunited with the mother twice. We illustrate the utility of a novel regime-switching differential equation model in representing children's tendency to exhibit shifts between the goal of staying close to their mothers and intermittent interest in moving away from their mothers to explore the room during the SSP. Results from empirical model fitting were supplemented with a Monte Carlo simulation study to evaluate the use of information criterion measures to diagnose sudden shifts in dynamics.

  19. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Lublin Upland. Some Ranunculaceae representatives are dichogamous. This feature is commonly thought as the factor preventing selfpollination and inbreeding depression. For example, Helleborus foetidus and Anemone sylvestris are known to be protogynous, while many of the Aconitum representatives are protandrous. There may be evident difference in duration of each floral sexual phases, like in protandrous Aconitum carmichaelii (the length of male phase vs. female phase = 7.6 vs. 1.9 days, on average or the time spent in stigma and pollen presentation can be similar, like in protogynous Adonis vernalis (7.5 and 8.4 days on average, respectively. Disparities in flowering period, diurnal dynamics of blooming and sexual phases were found to be the adaptations to different insect foraging patterns.

  20. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  1. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  2. Illusory correlation: a function of availability or representativeness heuristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M G

    2000-08-01

    The present study sought to investigate the illusory correlation phenomenon by experimentally manipulating the availability of information through the use of the "lag" effect (Madigan, 1969). Seventy-four university students voluntarily participated in this study. Similar to Starr and Katkin's (1969) methodology, subjects were visually presented with each possible combination of four experimental problem descriptions and four sentence completions that were paired and shown twice at each of four lags (i.e., with 0, 2, 8 and 20 intervening variables). Subjects were required to make judgements concerning the frequency with which sentence completions and problem descriptions co-occurred. In agreement with previous research (Starr & Katkin, 1969), the illusory correlation effect was found for specific descriptions and sentence completions. Results also yielded a significant effect of lag for mean ratings between 0 and 2 lags; however, there was no reliable increase in judged co-occurrence at lags 8 and 20. Evidence failed to support the hypothesis that greater availability, through the experimental manipulation of lag, would result in increased frequency of co-occurrence judgements. Findings indicate that, in the present study, the illusory correlation effect is probably due to a situational bias based on the representativeness heuristic.

  3. Representing the Marginal Stability of Peptides in Coarse Grained Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet; Dalgicdir, Cahit; Ramezanghorbani, Farhad

    Tertiary structure of proteins is only marginally stable; such that the folded structure is separated from local minima by as little as 10 kcal/mol. In particular for intrinsically disordered peptides, this marginal stability is key to understanding their complex behavior. Bottom-up coarse grained (CG) models for proteins/peptides which rely on structural and/or thermodynamic reference data from experiments or all atom simulations inherently focus on the equilibrium structure and fail to capture the conformational dynamics of the molecule. In this study, we present a CG model for a synthetic peptide, LK, which successfully captures the conformational flexibility of the molecule in different environments. LK peptide is composed of leucine and lysine residues and displays a stark conformational transition from a degenerate conformation in dilute solution to a fully stable alpha-helix at macroscopic and molecular interfaces. In this study we demonstrate that by carefully combining atomistic references from both the unfolded and folded states, one can create a CG model that can represent not only the folded state, but also the conformational transitions that the peptide exhibits in response to changes in the environment. M. Sayar thanks TÜBİTAK (Grant No. 212T184) and TÜBA Distinguished Young Scientist Award (2012 awardee) for financial support.

  4. Higher Level Visual Cortex Represents Retinotopic, Not Spatiotopic, Object Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The crux of vision is to identify objects and determine their locations in the environment. Although initial visual representations are necessarily retinotopic (eye centered), interaction with the real world requires spatiotopic (absolute) location information. We asked whether higher level human visual cortex—important for stable object recognition and action—contains information about retinotopic and/or spatiotopic object position. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis techniques, we found information about both object category and object location in each of the ventral, dorsal, and early visual regions tested, replicating previous reports. By manipulating fixation position and stimulus position, we then tested whether these location representations were retinotopic or spatiotopic. Crucially, all location information was purely retinotopic. This pattern persisted when location information was irrelevant to the task, and even when spatiotopic (not retinotopic) stimulus position was explicitly emphasized. We also conducted a “searchlight” analysis across our entire scanned volume to explore additional cortex but again found predominantly retinotopic representations. The lack of explicit spatiotopic representations suggests that spatiotopic object position may instead be computed indirectly and continually reconstructed with each eye movement. Thus, despite our subjective impression that visual information is spatiotopic, even in higher level visual cortex, object location continues to be represented in retinotopic coordinates. PMID:22190434

  5. Arctic indigenous peoples as representations and representatives of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Marybeth Long

    2008-06-01

    Recent scientific findings, as presented in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), indicate that climate change in the Arctic is happening now, at a faster rate than elsewhere in the world, and with major implications for peoples of the Arctic (especially indigenous peoples) and the rest of the planet. This paper examines scientific and political representations of Arctic indigenous peoples that have been central to the production and articulation of these claims. ACIA employs novel forms and strategies of representation that reflect changing conceptual models and practices of global change science and depict indigenous peoples as expert, exotic, and at-risk. These portrayals emerge alongside the growing political activism of Arctic indigenous peoples who present themselves as representatives or embodiments of climate change itself as they advocate for climate change mitigation policies. These mutually constitutive forms of representation suggest that scientific ways of seeing the global environment shape and are shaped by the public image and voice of global citizens. Likewise, the authority, credibility, and visibility of Arctic indigenous activists derive, in part, from their status as at-risk experts, a status buttressed by new scientific frameworks and methods that recognize and rely on the local experiences and knowledges of indigenous peoples. Analyses of these relationships linking scientific and political representations of Arctic climate change build upon science and technology studies (STS) scholarship on visualization, challenge conventional notions of globalization, and raise questions about power and accountability in global climate change research.

  6. Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA: computerization and representativeness of its collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo F. Treviño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific collections and herbaria are essential sources of information and education for researchers and practitioners in biological sciences. The Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA, registered at Index Herbariorum since 2004, holds one of the most important collections in Peru. In this paper we provide information about the collection, and its representativeness for the Peruvian flora. HUSA has more than 11000 specimens recorded to date, with more than 2300 determined species, consisting mostly of Magnoliophyta and Pteridophyta (ca. 98%, and a smaller proportion of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes (fungi and lichens and Bryophyta (mosses. The collection includes specimens from 23 departments of Peru, where the samples belonging to Arequipa have the largest number of individuals collected (3375 accounting for 31% of the collection. Asteraceae and Solanaceae are the most collected with 1571 and 964 specimens, respectively. The majority of geo-referenced specimens came from the tropical wet forest with 15%, followed by the tropical pre-montane wet forest with 8%. We also provide a list of the nomenclatural types and a brief summary of the history and development of HUSA since its creation.

  7. Representative concentration pathways and mitigation scenarios for nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of mitigating nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions are substantially different from those for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), because nitrogen (N) is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions are from the agricultural sector. Here I use a model of emission factors of N 2 O to demonstrate the magnitude of improvements in agriculture and industrial sectors and changes in dietary habits that would be necessary to match the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) now being considered in the fifth assessment report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Stabilizing atmospheric N 2 O by 2050, consistent with the most aggressive of the RCP mitigation scenarios, would require about 50% reductions in emission factors in all sectors and about a 50% reduction in mean per capita meat consumption in the developed world. Technologies exist to achieve such improved efficiencies, but overcoming social, economic, and political impediments for their adoption and for changes in dietary habits will present large challenges. (letter)

  8. Targeting Nucleophosmin 1 Represents a Rational Strategy for Radiation Sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhar, Konjeti R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Benamar, Mouadh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Sasi, Soumya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hann, Stephen R. [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Geng, Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Balusu, Ramesh [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas (United States); Abbas, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Freeman, Michael L., E-mail: michael.freeman@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that small molecule targeting of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) represents a rational approach for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: Wilde-type and NPM1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to determine whether radiosensitization produced by the small molecule YTR107 was NPM1 dependent. The stress response to ionizing radiation was assessed by quantifying pNPM1, γH2AX, and Rad51 foci, neutral comet tail moment, and colony formation. NPM1 levels in a human-derived non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue microarray (TMA) were determined by immunohistochemistry. YTR107-mediated radiosensitization was assessed in NSCLC cell lines and xenografts. Results: Use of NPM1-null MEFs demonstrated that NPM1 is critical for DNA double- strand break (DSB) repair, that loss of NPM1 increases radiation sensitivity, and that YTR107-mediated radiosensitization is NPM1 dependent. YTR107 was shown to inhibit NPM1 oligomerization and impair formation of pNPM1 irradiation-induced foci that colocalized with γH2AX foci. Analysis of the TMA demonstrated that NPM1 is overexpressed in subsets of NSCLC. YTR107 inhibited DNA DSB repair and radiosensitized NSCLC lines and xenografts. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that YTR107-mediated targeting of NPM1 impairs DNA DSB repair, an event that increases radiation sensitivity.

  9. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  10. Interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Alkaabba, Abdulaziz; Qadi, Mahdi; Albahlal, Abdullah; Alabdulkarim, Yasir; Alabduljabbar, Mohammad; Alqahtani, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representative (PR) is a major component of the promotional activities by pharmaceutical companies. The lack of studies examining the magnitude of this interaction in Saudi Arabia is evident. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and associated characteristics of physician-PR interaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among physicians working in the different regions of Saudi Arabia between March and July of 2012. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and July of 2012 in the different regions of Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and handed to all participants, both in paper and electronic formats. A total of 663 participants completed the questionnaire. The participation rate was 66.3% (663/1000). The majority of the participants (72.9%) reported interaction with PRs. This was lower among residents/interns compared to higher ranking employees (55.6% vs 83.6%, P strategy to reduce negative impact.

  11. 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy findings representing osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dae Gun; Moon, Tae Geon; Kim, Ji Hong; Son, Seok Man; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki

    2001-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled phosphates is one of the most common procedures in evaluation of various skeletal disorders. Metabolic bone diseases show involvement of the whole skeleton and are associated with increased bone turnover and increased uptake of 99m Tc-labeled phosphates. In this study, we investigated apparently normal women who were examined with routine bone scintigraphy applied bone densitometry to correlate it with skeletal uptake in bone scan. This study includes 79 women who were performed both of bone mineral density(BMD) and bone scintigraphy. We investigated the relation of bone scan findings and BMD of lumbar, femur, radius. Regional BMD were negatively correlated with increased age. Among the bone scintigraphy findings representing metabolic bone disease, uptakes by the long bones, skull and mandible increased with age in women, while that in the costochondral junction decreased. Increased skull and mandible uptakes is associated with decreased BMD, and it has statistically significance. Our results show that increased radionuclide uptake in bone scintigraphy, especially skull and mandible uptake was associated with decreased lumbar, femur BMD in women. So that, increased skull and mandible uptake in women would be a scintigraphic sign of osteopenia or osteoporosis

  12. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  13. Kernel-based discriminant feature extraction using a representative dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglin; Sancho Gomez, Jose-Luis; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2002-07-01

    Discriminant Feature Extraction (DFE) is widely recognized as an important pre-processing step in classification applications. Most DFE algorithms are linear and thus can only explore the linear discriminant information among the different classes. Recently, there has been several promising attempts to develop nonlinear DFE algorithms, among which is Kernel-based Feature Extraction (KFE). The efficacy of KFE has been experimentally verified by both synthetic data and real problems. However, KFE has some known limitations. First, KFE does not work well for strongly overlapped data. Second, KFE employs all of the training set samples during the feature extraction phase, which can result in significant computation when applied to very large datasets. Finally, KFE can result in overfitting. In this paper, we propose a substantial improvement to KFE that overcomes the above limitations by using a representative dataset, which consists of critical points that are generated from data-editing techniques and centroid points that are determined by using the Frequency Sensitive Competitive Learning (FSCL) algorithm. Experiments show that this new KFE algorithm performs well on significantly overlapped datasets, and it also reduces computational complexity. Further, by controlling the number of centroids, the overfitting problem can be effectively alleviated.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum dolichol phosphate mannose synthase represents a novel clade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Niehus, Sebastian; Dorn, Caroline; Kimmel, Juergen; Azzouz, Nahid; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2008-01-01

    Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM) catalyzes the reaction between dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) and guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-Man) to form dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man). This molecule acts as mannose donor for N-glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum DPM1 (Pfdpm1) possesses a single predicted transmembrane region near the N-, but not the C-terminus. Here we show that the cloned Pfdpm1 gene failed to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant indicating that the parasite gene does not belong to the baker's yeast group, as was previously assumed. Furthermore, Pfdpm1 was unable to complement a mouse mutant deficient in DPM but efficiently complements the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast mutant, indicating a difference between fission yeast and mammalian DPM genes. Therefore, we reanalyzed the hydrophobicity scales of all known DPMs and consequently reclassify the DPM clade into six major novel subgroups. Furthermore, we show that Pfdpm1 represents a unique enzyme among these subgroups

  15. Targeting Nucleophosmin 1 Represents a Rational Strategy for Radiation Sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, Konjeti R.; Benamar, Mouadh; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Sasi, Soumya; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Hann, Stephen R.; Geng, Ling; Balusu, Ramesh; Abbas, Tarek; Freeman, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that small molecule targeting of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) represents a rational approach for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: Wilde-type and NPM1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to determine whether radiosensitization produced by the small molecule YTR107 was NPM1 dependent. The stress response to ionizing radiation was assessed by quantifying pNPM1, γH2AX, and Rad51 foci, neutral comet tail moment, and colony formation. NPM1 levels in a human-derived non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue microarray (TMA) were determined by immunohistochemistry. YTR107-mediated radiosensitization was assessed in NSCLC cell lines and xenografts. Results: Use of NPM1-null MEFs demonstrated that NPM1 is critical for DNA double- strand break (DSB) repair, that loss of NPM1 increases radiation sensitivity, and that YTR107-mediated radiosensitization is NPM1 dependent. YTR107 was shown to inhibit NPM1 oligomerization and impair formation of pNPM1 irradiation-induced foci that colocalized with γH2AX foci. Analysis of the TMA demonstrated that NPM1 is overexpressed in subsets of NSCLC. YTR107 inhibited DNA DSB repair and radiosensitized NSCLC lines and xenografts. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that YTR107-mediated targeting of NPM1 impairs DNA DSB repair, an event that increases radiation sensitivity

  16. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  17. Shimoni bat virus, a new representative of the Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Mayer, Anne E; Niezgoda, Michael; Markotter, Wanda; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-05-01

    During 2009, 616 bats representing at least 22 species were collected from 10 locations throughout Kenya. A new lyssavirus, named Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV), was isolated from the brain of a dead Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni), found in a cave in the coastal region of Kenya. Genetic distances and phylogenetic reconstructions, implemented for each gene and for the concatenated alignment of all five structural genes (N, P, M, G and L), demonstrated that SHIBV cannot be identified with any of the existing species, but rather should be considered an independent species within phylogroup II of the Lyssavirus genus, most similar to Lagos bat virus (LBV). Antigenic reaction patterns with anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies corroborated these distinctions. In addition, new data on the diversity of LBV suggests that this species may be subdivided quantitatively into three separate genotypes. However, the identity values alone are not considered sufficient criteria for demarcation of new species within LBV. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  19. Exclusivity structures and graph representatives of local complementation orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Adán; Parker, Matthew G.; Scarpa, Giannicola; Severini, Simone

    2013-07-01

    We describe a construction that maps any connected graph G on three or more vertices into a larger graph, H(G), whose independence number is strictly smaller than its Lovász number which is equal to its fractional packing number. The vertices of H(G) represent all possible events consistent with the stabilizer group of the graph state associated with G, and exclusive events are adjacent. Mathematically, the graph H(G) corresponds to the orbit of G under local complementation. Physically, the construction translates into graph-theoretic terms the connection between a graph state and a Bell inequality maximally violated by quantum mechanics. In the context of zero-error information theory, the construction suggests a protocol achieving the maximum rate of entanglement-assisted capacity, a quantum mechanical analogue of the Shannon capacity, for each H(G). The violation of the Bell inequality is expressed by the one-shot version of this capacity being strictly larger than the independence number. Finally, given the correspondence between graphs and exclusivity structures, we are able to compute the independence number for certain infinite families of graphs with the use of quantum non-locality, therefore highlighting an application of quantum theory in the proof of a purely combinatorial statement.

  20. Knowledge represented using RDF semantic network in the concept of semantic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukasova, A., E-mail: alena.lukasova@osu.cz; Vajgl, M., E-mail: marek.vajgl@osu.cz; Zacek, M., E-mail: martin.zacek@osu.cz [Department of Informatics and Computers, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava 30. dubna 22, 701 03 Ostrava, Czech Republic http://prf.osu.eu/kip/ (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-08

    The RDF(S) model has been declared as the basic model to capture knowledge of the semantic web. It provides a common and flexible way to decompose composed knowledge to elementary statements, which can be represented by RDF triples or by RDF graph vectors. From the logical point of view, elements of knowledge can be expressed using at most binary predicates, which can be converted to RDF-triples or graph vectors. However, it is not able to capture implicit knowledge representable by logical formulas. This contribution shows how existing approaches (semantic networks and clausal form logic) can be combined together with RDF to obtain RDF-compatible system with ability to represent implicit knowledge and inference over knowledge base.

  1. Knowledge represented using RDF semantic network in the concept of semantic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasova, A.; Vajgl, M.; Zacek, M.

    2016-01-01

    The RDF(S) model has been declared as the basic model to capture knowledge of the semantic web. It provides a common and flexible way to decompose composed knowledge to elementary statements, which can be represented by RDF triples or by RDF graph vectors. From the logical point of view, elements of knowledge can be expressed using at most binary predicates, which can be converted to RDF-triples or graph vectors. However, it is not able to capture implicit knowledge representable by logical formulas. This contribution shows how existing approaches (semantic networks and clausal form logic) can be combined together with RDF to obtain RDF-compatible system with ability to represent implicit knowledge and inference over knowledge base.

  2. Experimental verification of air flow rate measurement for representative isokinetic air sampling in ventilation stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.; Mrtvy, M.; Kopecky, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear facilities are obliged to monitor their discharge's influence on environment. Main monitored factions in NPP's ventilation stacks are usually noble gasses, particulates and iodine. These factions are monitored in air sampled from ventilation stack by means of sampling rosette and bypass followed with on-line measuring monitors and balance sampling devices with laboratory evaluations. Correct air flow rate measurement and representative iso-kinetic air sampling system is essential for physical correct and metrological accurate evaluation of discharge influence on environment. Pairs of measuring sensors (Anemometer, pressure gauge, thermometer and humidity meter) are symmetrically placed in horizontal projection of stack on positions based on measured air flow velocity distribution characteristic, Analogically diameter of sampling rosette nozzles and their placement in the middle of 6 - 7 annuluses are calculated for assurance of representative iso-kinetic sampling. (authors)

  3. Experimental verification of air flow rate measurement for representative isokinetic air sampling in ventilation stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.; Mrtvy, M.; Kopecky, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear facilities are obliged to monitor their discharge's influence on environment. Main monitored factions in NPP's ventilation stacks are usually noble gasses, particulates and iodine. These factions are monitored in air sampled from ventilation stack by means of sampling rosette and bypass followed with on-line measuring monitors and balance sampling devices with laboratory evaluations. Correct air flow rate measurement and representative iso-kinetic air sampling system is essential for physical correct and metrological accurate evaluation of discharge influence on environment. Pairs of measuring sensors (Anemometer, pressure gauge, thermometer and humidity meter) are symmetrically placed in horizontal projection of stack on positions based on measured air flow velocity distribution characteristic, Analogically diameter of sampling rosette nozzles and their placement in the middle of 6- 7 annuluses are calculated for assurance of representative iso-kinetic sampling. (authors)

  4. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-13

    MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES ( 505-02.2 FLUSHING PROCEDURE FOR BALLAST SYSTEMS) (DARC REV) Nov-00 AGOR27 A051 STD Report - VENDOR RECOMMENDED SPARES (VRS...Report - COMMERCIAL TECHNICAL MANUALS AND SUPPLEMENTAL DATA ( #224 DI-055 (TM) for 433 AGOR Tailored LAN & CCTV ) (DARC REV) 448/0 AGOR27 A055 TM

  5. Beyond Synthesis: Re-Presenting Heterogeneous Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Allan; Tate, Mary; Johnstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the nature, role and function of the literature review in academic discourse. Researchers in information systems (IS) are often advised to espouse a neutral viewpoint and adapt the goal of synthesising previous literature when conducting a literature review. However, since research literature in many areas of IS is diverse…

  6. Representing real time semantics for distributed application integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poon, P.M.S.; Dillon, T.S.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.

    Traditional real time system design and development are driven by technological requirements. With the ever growing complexity of requirements and the advances in software design, the alignment of focus has gradually been shifted to the perspective of business and industrial needs. This paper

  7. Development of 80- and 100- Mile Work Day Cycles Representative of Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kresse, John [Cummins; Li, Ke [Cummins

    2018-04-03

    When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the powertrain. However, to this day with recent developments and advancements in plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology, no true 'work day' cycles exist with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address these issues and in support of development of a range-extended pickup and delivery Class 6 commercial vehicle, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in collaboration with Cummins analyzed 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States to characterize the typical daily performance requirements associated with Class 6 commercial pickup and delivery operation. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real-world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80-mile cycle and a 100-mile cycle representative of the daily operation of U.S. class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks. Using novel machine learning clustering methods combined with mileage-based weighting, these composite representative cycles correspond to 90th and 95th percentiles for daily vehicle miles traveled by the vehicles observed. In addition to including vehicle speed vs time drive cycles, in an effort to better represent the environmental factors encountered by pickup and delivery vehicles operating across the United States, a nationally representative grade profile and key status information were also appended to the speed vs. time profiles to produce a 'work day' cycle that captures the effects of vehicle dynamics, geography, and driver behavior which can be used for future design, development, and validation of technology.

  8. Examining the "Veggie" personality: Results from a representative German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Tamara M; Egloff, Boris

    2018-01-01

    An increasing proportion of people choose to follow a vegetarian diet. To date, however, little is known about if and how individual differences in personality relate to following a vegetarian diet. In the two studies presented here, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of self-defined vegetarians in two waves of a German representative sample (N = 4496 and 5125, respectively), (2) analyze the effect of socio-demographic variables on dietary behavior, and (3) examine individual differences between vegetarians and meat eaters in personality traits, political attitudes, and health-related variables. In Study 1, a strict definition of vegetarians was used, while in Study 2 the definition was laxer, to include also individuals who only predominantly followed a vegetarian diet. The prevalence of self-defined vegetarians was 2.74% in Study 1, and 5.97% in Study 2. Participants who were female, younger, and more educated were more likely to report following a vegetarian diet in both studies, and vegetarians had higher income as compared to meat eaters in Study 2. We also found differences between vegetarians and meat eaters with regard to personality traits, political attitudes, and health-related variables. Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed a unique effect beyond socio-demographic variables for openness (Studies 1 and 2), conscientiousness (Study 1), trust (Study 2), conservatism (Studies 1 and 2), and level of interest in politics (Study 1) on diet: Individuals with higher scores in openness and political interest had a higher probability of being vegetarian, whereas people with higher scores in conscientiousness and conservatism had a smaller likelihood of being vegetarian. We conclude that there are individual differences between vegetarians and meat eaters in socio-demographics, personality traits, and political attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%, received drug samples (85% and stationery (96%, and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME events at the workplace (80% and outside the workplace (93%. Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49% and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%. Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to

  10. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR) interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward. PMID:27637269

  11. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash R. Patwardhan MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward.

  12. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-08-15

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑ 88 BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑ 16EPA BaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑ 88 BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate.

  13. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggitt, P R; Jaykus, L A

    2000-12-01

    Although viral foodborne disease is a significant problem, foods are rarely tested for viral contamination, and when done, testing is limited to shellfish commodities. In this work, we report a method to extract and detect human enteric viruses from alternative food commodities using an elution-concentration approach followed by detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-gram lettuce or hamburger samples were artificially inoculated with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), or the Norwalk virus and processed by the sequential steps of homogenization, filtration, Freon extraction (hamburger), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. To reduce volumes further and remove RT-PCR inhibitors, a secondary PEG precipitation was necessary, resulting in an overall 10- to 20-fold sample size reduction from 50 g to 3 to 5 ml. Virus recoveries in secondary PEG concentrates ranged from 10 to 70% for PV1 and 2 to 4% for HAV as evaluated by mammalian cell culture infectivity assay. Total RNA from PEG concentrates was extracted to a small volume (30 to 40 microl) and subjected to RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA sequences. Detection limit studies indicated that viral RNA was consistently detected by RT-PCR at initial inoculum levels > or =102 PFU/50-g food sample for PV1 and > or =10(3) PFU/50-g food sample for HAV. In similar studies with the Norwalk virus, detection at inoculum levels > or =1.5 X 10(3) PCR-amplifiable units/50-g sample for both food products was possible. All RT-PCR amplicons were confirmed by subsequent Southern hybridization. The procedure reported represents progress toward the development of methods to detect human enteric viral contamination in foods other than shellfish.

  14. An Anthology as a Representative Genre in Contemporary Ukrainian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Haleta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed a history and functions of an anthology in a modern Ukrainian literature from the last quarter of the 19th c. to the beginning of the 21st. An anthology is treated as a literary and anthropological project which is characterized by recasting of original materials and specific politics of its re-arangement. It proposes a new cultural value hierarchy, defines a literary field and the rules of its organization. As a form of literary self-representation an anthology participates in a process of forming a literary tradition and canon, its diversification up to the emergence of anti-canon; it intensifies a work of cultural memory, represents new literary genres and styles and also indicates an appearance of diaspora as a model of cultural citizenship. Numerous anthological projects also stress spacial, performative, subjective, gender, erotical, somatic, and oneirological aspects of creative writing; they rethink a very nature of literature as a creative experiment and as a social action in a context of mass culture and new media development. This allows us to consider the literary anthology as a way of a literary self-reflection and as a separate meta-genre in modern Ukrainian literature. The main genre-defining anthological qualities are such as selectivity, double methonimity, integrity and an ability to create new cultural values. The history of anthology as a specific meta-genre helps us to understand the general pecularities of modenr and postmodern literature, its structure and principles of development, its key problems and challanges and also its the most important achievements.

  15. Prescribers and pharmaceutical representatives: why are we still meeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melissa A; Keough, Mary Ellen; Baril, Joann L; Saccoccio, Laura; Mazor, Kathleen M; Ladd, Elissa; Von Worley, Ann; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that pharmaceutical marketing influences prescribing and may cause cognitive dissonance for prescribers. This work has primarily been with physicians and physician-trainees. Questions remain regarding why prescribers continue to meet with pharmaceutical representatives (PRs). To describe the reasons that prescribers from various health professions continue to interact with PRs despite growing evidence of the influence of these interactions. Multi-disciplinary focus groups with 61 participants held in practice settings and at society meetings. Most prescribers participating in our focus groups believe that overall PR interactions are beneficial to patient care and practice health. They either trust the information from PRs or feel that they are equipped to evaluate it independently. Despite acknowledgement of study findings to the contrary, prescribers state that they are able to effectively manage PR interactions such that their own prescribing is not adversely impacted. Prescribers describe few specific strategies or policies for these interactions, and report that policies are not consistently implemented with all members of a clinic or institution. Some prescribers perceive an inherent contradiction between academic centers and national societies receiving money from pharmaceutical companies, and then recommending restriction at the level of the individual prescriber. Prescribers with different training backgrounds present a few novel reasons for these meetings. Despite evidence that PR detailing influences prescribing, providers from several health professions continue to believe that PR interactions improve patient care, and that they can adequately evaluate and filter information presented to them by PRs. Focus group comments suggest that cultural change is necessary to break the norms that exist in many settings. Applying policies consistently, considering non-physician members of the healthcare team, working with trainees, restructuring

  16. How do auditory cortex neurons represent communication sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Quentin; Huetz, Chloé; Gourévitch, Boris; Laudanski, Jonathan; Occelli, Florian; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    A major goal in auditory neuroscience is to characterize how communication sounds are represented at the cortical level. The present review aims at investigating the role of auditory cortex in the processing of speech, bird songs and other vocalizations, which all are spectrally and temporally highly structured sounds. Whereas earlier studies have simply looked for neurons exhibiting higher firing rates to particular conspecific vocalizations over their modified, artificially synthesized versions, more recent studies determined the coding capacity of temporal spike patterns, which are prominent in primary and non-primary areas (and also in non-auditory cortical areas). In several cases, this information seems to be correlated with the behavioral performance of human or animal subjects, suggesting that spike-timing based coding strategies might set the foundations of our perceptive abilities. Also, it is now clear that the responses of auditory cortex neurons are highly nonlinear and that their responses to natural stimuli cannot be predicted from their responses to artificial stimuli such as moving ripples and broadband noises. Since auditory cortex neurons cannot follow rapid fluctuations of the vocalizations envelope, they only respond at specific time points during communication sounds, which can serve as temporal markers for integrating the temporal and spectral processing taking place at subcortical relays. Thus, the temporal sparse code of auditory cortex neurons can be considered as a first step for generating high level representations of communication sounds independent of the acoustic characteristic of these sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisinger, Andy [New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, PO Box 10002, Wellington 6143 (New Zealand); Meinshausen, Malte [Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany); Manning, Martin, E-mail: andy.reisinger@nzagrc.org.nz [Climate Change Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

    2011-04-15

    Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO{sub 2} is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2}, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2} decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH{sub 4} would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N{sub 2}O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

  18. Design and evaluation of representative indoor radon surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Csegzi, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a procedure to design and evaluate representative indoor radon surveys. The procedure is based on random sampling of a population of houses and careful statistical analysis of measured indoor radon concentrations. The method is designed to estimate the fraction of houses in which annual average 222 Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level. Measurements of annual average indoor 222 Rn activity concentration were done in sleeping rooms at pillow level using etched track type radon detectors. We applied the above procedure in an old fashioned village and in a fast developing small city in Transylvania, Romania. In the village almost all houses were single floor wooden made houses without cellar built with traditional technology on a geologically uniform area. The distribution of indoor 222 Rn activity concentration in a sample of 115 houses can almost perfectly be fitted with log-normal probability density function. The correlation coefficient of linear fitting on linearized scales was k = -0.9980. The percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222 Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m -3 is less than 1 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m -3 can be estimated to be around 0.1 %. The small city, on the other hand lies on a geologically inhomogeneous area, and house construction technology has also changed dramatically in past decades. The resulting distribution of measured indoor 222 Rn activity concentration in a sample of 116 houses cannot be fitted with any simple probability density function. Therefore the prediction of the fraction of houses in which the annual average 222 Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level could not be done adequately. With certain assumptions we estimated that the percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222 Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m -3 is between 3 and 7 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m -3 can be estimated to be between

  19. Representatives of religious education in the structure of Novorossiysk university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. П. Бахчиванжи

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available History of the Departments of Theology, Ecclesiastical History and Ecclesiastical Law of Novorossiysk University as well as clarification of activities of professors who were the Heads of these Departments is the subject of the article. The objective of the research was to reveal the contribution to science these professors had made on basis of such material as “Records of Proceedings of the Board Meeting of Novorossiysk University”, “Teaching of Sciences at the Imperial Novorossiysk University Review” as well as the particular studies of the professors themselves. As a result of the research using the analytical approach generic aspects of existence of theological departments in educational structure of the University including the period of teaching the theological disciplines at the Richelieu Lycée were described. The basic legislative acts regulating the activity of such Departments were stated and the activity of such professors as Pavlovskiy M.K., Kudryavtsev A.N., Voytovskiy V.M., Klitin A.N., Krasnoseltsev N.F., Dobroklonskiy A.P., Almazov A.I., Pavlov F.S. who not only became the significant persons in the history of the University but also played the leading role in social and spiritual life of Odessa in general was elucidated. Such analysis of the activity of the representatives of religious education at Novorossiysk University provided an opportunity to conclude of the importance of the theological disciplines in educational structure of the University as it is them that are of great importance to the spiritual development of personality and society on the whole.

  20. How preschoolers and adults represent their joint action partner's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Meyer, M; Hartstra, E; Bekkering, H; Hunnius, S

    2017-10-24

    We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying turn-taking joint action in 42-month-old children (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) using a behavioral task of dressing a virtual bear together. We aimed to investigate how participants represent a partners' behavior, i.e., in terms of specific action kinematics or of action effects. The bear was dressed by pressing a smaller and a bigger button. In the Action-response task, instructions asked participants to respond to the partner by pressing the same or opposite button; in the Action-effect task they had to respond to the partner's action effect by dressing the bear with the lacking part of the clothing, which in some cases implied pressing the same button and in other cases implied pressing the opposite button. In 50% of the trials, the partner's association between each button and the ensuing effect (dressing the bear with t-shirt or pants) was reversed, while it never changed for participants. Both children and adults showed no effect of physical congruency of actions, but showed impaired performance in the Action-effect task if their partner achieved her effect through a different action-effect association than their own. These results suggest that, when encoding their partner's actions, agents are influenced by action-effect associations that they learnt through their own experience. While interference led to overt errors in children, it caused longer reaction times in adults, suggesting that a flexible cognitive control (that is still in development in young children) is required to take on the partner's perspective.

  1. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  2. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional

  3. Considerations in representing human individuals in social ecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredo, Michael J.; Teel, Tara L.; Gavin, Michael C.; Fulton, David C.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on how to integrate the human individual into social-ecological systems analysis, and how to improve research on individual thought and action regarding the environment by locating it within the broader social-ecological context. We discuss three key questions as considerations for future research: (1) is human thought conceptualized as a dynamic and adaptive process, (2) is the individual placed in a multi-level context (including within-person levels, person-group interactions, and institutional and structural factors), and (3) is human thought seen as mutually constructed with the social and natural environment. Increased emphasis on the individual will be essential if we are to understand agency, innovation, and adaptation in social-ecological systems.

  4. B.I.M. for representing historical building heritage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Cicalò

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is discussed the application of B.I.M (Building Information Modelling techno- logies on the survey and on the representation of the decorations in the façades of late Liberty and Art Deco buildings, built in Sardinian cities. The decorative languages analysed spread in one of the most marginal regions with some delay, by the insertion of serial decorations placed both on existing and new buildings. The study, still in pro- gress, discusses how the B.I.M. can be used in the analysis of the decorated elements that are se- rially inserted in the buildings, particularly in the perspective of the integration with GIS systems, which can allows the localisation of the elements into the urban landscape, also by using procedu- ral semiautomatic modelling systems of façades. 

  5. An Analysis of Electrical Consumption at Representative Army Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    can be done by analyzing and optimizing HVAC system and building operation. For example, if the minimum hourly usage (demand) of a typical bachelor...equipment. (Major candidates for scheduling are air-handler motors, chillers , air compressors, exhaust fans, exterior lights, hot water heaters, and hot...location: Thermostats Setpoint Measured Limiters Setback Area Temperature Temperature Yes No Yes No Are night setback thermostats recommended? Yes _ No

  6. Phenomenology of Schizophrenia and the Representativeness of Modern Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-10-01

    This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Amazon.com, the National Library of Medicine, and Forgottenbooks.com were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems. Twenty prominent symptoms and signs were reported by 5 or more authors. A strong association was seen between the frequency with which the symptoms/signs were reported and the likelihood of their presence in modern diagnostic systems. Of these 20 symptoms/signs, 3 (thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) were included in all diagnostic systems and were among the 4 most frequently reported. Three symptoms/signs were added then kept in subsequent criteria: emotional blunting, changes in volition, and changes in social life. Three symptoms/signs were added but then dropped: bizarre delusions, passivity symptoms, and mood incongruity. Eleven symptoms/signs were never included in any diagnostic system. Compared with historical authors, modern criteria favored symptoms over signs. Odd movements and postures, noted by 16 of 18 historical authors, were absent from all modern criteria. DSM-5 criteria contain 6 of the 20 historically noted symptoms/signs. Although modern operationalized criteria for schizophrenia reflect symptoms and signs commonly reported by historical experts, many clinical features emphasized by these experts are absent from modern criteria. This is not necessarily problematic as diagnostic criteria are meant to index rather than thoroughly describe syndromes. However, the lack of correspondence in schizophrenia between historically important

  7. Understanding, representing and communicating earth system processes in weather and climate within CNRCWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushama, Laxmi; Arora, Vivek; de Elia, Ramon; Déry, Stephen; Duguay, Claude; Gachon, Philippe; Gyakum, John; Laprise, René; Marshall, Shawn; Monahan, Adam; Scinocca, John; Thériault, Julie; Verseghy, Diana; Zwiers, Francis

    2017-04-01

    The Canadian Network for Regional Climate and Weather Processes (CNRCWP) provides significant advances and innovative research towards the ultimate goal of reducing uncertainty in numerical weather prediction and climate projections for Canada's Northern and Arctic regions. This talk will provide an overview of the Network and selected results related to the assessment of the added value of high-resolution modelling that has helped fill critical knowledge gaps in understanding the dynamics of extreme temperature and precipitation events and the complex land-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks in Canada's northern and Arctic regions. In addition, targeted developments in the Canadian regional climate model, that facilitate direct application of model outputs in impact and adaptation studies, particularly those related to the water, energy and infrastructure sectors will also be discussed. The close collaboration between the Network and its partners and end users contributed significantly to this effort.

  8. Failure Analysis for Composition of Web Services Represented as Labeled Transition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Dinanath; Basu, Samik; Honavar, Vasant; Lutz, Robyn

    The Web service composition problem involves the creation of a choreographer that provides the interaction between a set of component services to realize a goal service. Several methods have been proposed and developed to address this problem. In this paper, we consider those scenarios where the composition process may fail due to incomplete specification of goal service requirements or due to the fact that the user is unaware of the functionality provided by the existing component services. In such cases, it is desirable to have a composition algorithm that can provide feedback to the user regarding the cause of failure in the composition process. Such feedback will help guide the user to re-formulate the goal service and iterate the composition process. We propose a failure analysis technique for composition algorithms that views Web service behavior as multiple sequences of input/output events. Our technique identifies the possible cause of composition failure and suggests possible recovery options to the user. We discuss our technique using a simple e-Library Web service in the context of the MoSCoE Web service composition framework.

  9. Equivalent cylinder systems representing the soil matrix in diffusion-reaction models for an aggregated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C; Verhagen, JHG

    1999-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil or a dual-porosity medium is characterized by a function called the generalized surface-area-to-volume ratio, which can be measured as a distance distribution. For an isotropic structure the distance measurements may be done in the digitized image of a

  10. Methods and Systems for Representing, Using and Displaying Time-Varying Information on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    Datatype , including an xsd:dateTime datatype , an xsd:date datatype and/or a xsd: gYear datatype . The instructions include instructions for controlling a...can underlie most Semantic Web efforts. While implementation of the start and stop properties can include various known protocols or datatypes for...providing and communicating such properties among resources and applications, the use of standardized protocols, properties, and datatypes can be

  11. A Representative Survey of U.S. Space Systems and Methods for Estimating Their Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Failed to separate from Midas -9 ERS-1I Nodata ERS-12 10/16/63 07/01/65 TRS-5 ERS-13 07/17/64 07/01/66 TRS-6 I ERS-14 No data ERS-15 08/19/66 ORS-1 ERS...68 TETR.I Radose: U.S. Air Force satellites carrying radiation dosimeters Radose 06/15/63 07/30/63 Radose-5E1 09/28/63 SN39 Radose-5EIA 12105/63

  12. Equivalent cylinder systems representing the soil matrix in diffusion-reaction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.; Verhagen, J.H.G.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil or a dual-porosity medium is characterized by a function called the generalized surface-area-to-volume ratio, which can be measured as a distance distribution. For an isotropic structure the distance measurements may be done in the digitized image of a

  13. Comparing the Floating Point Systems, Inc. AP-190L to representative scientific computers: some benchmark results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brengle, T.A.; Maron, N.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of comparative timing tests made by running a typical FORTRAN physics simulation code on the following machines: DEC PDP-10 with KI processor; DEC PDP-10, KI processor, and FPS AP-190L; CDC 7600; and CRAY-1. Factors such as DMA overhead, code size for the AP-190L, and the relative utilization of floating point functional units for the different machines are discussed. 1 table

  14. What can action learning offer a beleaguered system? A narrative representing the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, James

    2017-05-02

    Purpose This is an attempt to write an account of action learning that is as close to the ground on which it was practised as the author can make it. In that sense, the reader can read what follows below as a kind of autoethnography, a "representation as relationship" as Gergen and Gergen (2002, p. 11) call it. This is because in the opportunity of telling a story about his practice as an action learning facilitator, the author hopes to evoke that which is more akin to the contactful environment of quality action learning than any amount of abstract theorising. Design/methodology/approach This is an example of "narrative inquiry", best judged, according to Sparkes (2002), in terms of the ability of such accounts to "contribute to sociological understanding in ways that, amongst others are self-knowing, self-respecting, self-sacrificing and self-luminous". Findings As the author re-tells this partial account, he has a sense of the massive wider structures around him, but all he can see in his dim lamp is the fleeting glimpse of the local strata. The author traces his hand along the seams, not intending to dig them out, but simply to witness them, or even, in a spirit of yearning, to give them a witnessing of themselves. Originality/value To the author, this is about portraying what action learning feels like, rather than thinks like, for his own and for the benefit of other practitioners.

  15. Photosynthesis in Chromera velia Represents a Simple System with High Efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quigg, A.; Kotabová, Eva; Jarešová, Jana; Kaňa, Radek; Šetlík, Jiří; Šedivá, Barbora; Komárek, Ondřej; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2012), e47036 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410907; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA ČR GAP501/12/0304 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Photosynthesis * Chromera velia * RuBISCO Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  16. Design Of Bioremediation Systems For Groundwater (Aerobic and Anaerobic Plus Representative Case Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioremediation in the subsurface. The basics of aerobic, cometabolic, and anaerobic bioremediation are presented. Case studies from the Delaware Sand & Gravel Superfund Site, Dover Cometabolic Research Project and the SABR...

  17. Application of Model-Based Diagnosis to Multi-Agent Systems Representing Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2012-01-01

    In public administration, legal knowledge in the form of critical incidents and, for want of a better word, noncompliance storylines is important for monitoring and enforcement, but has no natural place in traditional forms of legal knowledge representation such as normative rules or legal argument

  18. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  19. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  20. Heterogeneous researchers in a two-sector representative consumer economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Research activities have uncertain outcomes. The question asked in this paper is whether or not this uncertainty can be a central piece on the explanation of long run consumption growth paths. More specifically, we inquire how the existence of different research projects, with different degrees of uncertainty, contributes to unpredictable consumption growth paths. The proposed scenario is a two-sector representative consumer model with researchers that invest in different innovation projects. There is heterogeneity in terms of risk associated to research programs (researchers invest in projects with the same expected outcome but different volatility. This difference in volatility, combined with an adaptive learning - bounded rationality rule, implies an aggregate index of technology and a consumption growth rate that do not present a predictable pattern over time.As actividades de investigação produzem resultados incertos. A questão colocada neste artigo é se esta incerteza pode ser uma peça central na explicação das trajectórias de crescimento do consumo no longo prazo. Mais especificamente, pergunta-se como a existência de diferentes projectos de investigação, com diferentes graus de incerteza associados, contribui para trajectórias de crescimento do consumo que não são passíveis de previsão. O cenário proposto é um modelo de consumidor representativo de dois sectores com investigadores que investem em diferentes projectos de inovação. Existe heterogeneidade ao nível do risco associado aos programas de investigação (os investigadores investem em projectos com o mesmo resultado esperado mas diferente volatilidade. A diferença na volatilidade, combinada com uma regra de aprendizagem adaptativa - racionalidade limitada, implica um índice agregado de tecnologia e uma taxa de crescimento do consumo que não apresentam um padrão previsível ao longo do tempo.

  1. Progress on Fabrication of Planar Diffusion Couples with Representative TRISO PyC/SiC Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jolly, Brian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Anne A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Release of fission products from tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel limits the fuel’s operational lifetime and creates potential safety and maintenance concerns. A need for diffusion analysis in representative TRISO layers exists to provide fuel performance models with high fidelity data to improve fuel performance and efficiency. An effort has been initiated to better understand fission product transport in, and release from, quality TRISO fuel by investigating diffusion couples with representative pyrocarbon (PyC) and silicon carbide (SiC). Here planar PyC/SiC diffusion couples are being developed with representative PyC/SiC layers using a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) system identical to those used to produce laboratory-scale TRISO fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Qualification and Development Program’s (AGR) first fuel irradiation. The diffusivity of silver, the silver and palladium system, europium, and strontium in the PyC/SiC will be studied at elevated temperatures and under high temperature neutron irradiation. The study also includes a comparative study of PyC/SiC diffusion couples with varying TRISO layer properties to understand the influence of SiC microstructure (grain size) and the PyC/SiC interface on fission product transport. The first step in accomplishing these goals is the development of the planar diffusion couples. The diffusion couple construction consists of multiple steps which includes fabrication of the primary PyC/SiC structures with targeted layer properties, introduction of fission product species and seal coating to create an isolated system. Coating development has shown planar PyC/SiC diffusion couples with similar properties to AGR TRISO fuel can be produced. A summary of the coating development process, characterization methods, and status are presented.

  2. Officers, Boards, Committees, and Representatives of the American Psychological Association, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.

  3. Sampling device for withdrawing a representative sample from single and multi-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Walter J.; Cliff, William C.; Creer, James M.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid stream sampling device has been developed for the purpose of obtaining a representative sample from a single or multi-phase fluid flow. This objective is carried out by means of a probe which may be inserted into the fluid stream. Individual samples are withdrawn from the fluid flow by sampling ports with particular spacings, and the sampling parts are coupled to various analytical systems for characterization of the physical, thermal, and chemical properties of the fluid flow as a whole and also individually.

  4. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more...... robust color description, color calibration is performed. The framework was used in three recognition tasks: object instance recognition, object category recognition, and object spatial relationship recognition. For the object instance recognition task, we present a system that utilizes color and scale...

  5. Representing and querying now-relative relational medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselma, Luca; Piovesan, Luca; Stantic, Bela; Terenziani, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Temporal information plays a crucial role in medicine. Patients' clinical records are intrinsically temporal. Thus, in Medical Informatics there is an increasing need to store, support and query temporal data (particularly in relational databases), in order, for instance, to supplement decision-support systems. In this paper, we show that current approaches to relational data have remarkable limitations in the treatment of "now-relative" data (i.e., data holding true at the current time). This can severely compromise their applicability in general, and specifically in the medical context, where "now-relative" data are essential to assess the current status of the patients. We propose a theoretically grounded and application-independent relational approach to cope with now-relative data (which can be paired, e.g., with different decision support systems) overcoming such limitations. We propose a new temporal relational representation, which is the first relational model coping with the temporal indeterminacy intrinsic in now-relative data. We also propose new temporal algebraic operators to query them, supporting the distinction between possible and necessary time, and Allen's temporal relations between data. We exemplify the impact of our approach, and study the theoretical and computational properties of the new representation and algebra. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nine-year-old children use norm-based coding to visually represent facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Skinner, Andrew L; Benton, Christopher P; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-10-01

    Children are less skilled than adults at making judgments about facial expression. This could be because they have not yet developed adult-like mechanisms for visually representing faces. Adults are thought to represent faces in a multidimensional face-space, and have been shown to code the expression of a face relative to the norm or average face in face-space. Norm-based coding is economical and adaptive, and may be what makes adults more sensitive to facial expression than children. This study investigated the coding system that children use to represent facial expression. An adaptation aftereffect paradigm was used to test 24 adults and 18 children (9 years 2 months to 9 years 11 months old). Participants adapted to weak and strong antiexpressions. They then judged the expression of an average expression. Adaptation created aftereffects that made the test face look like the expression opposite that of the adaptor. Consistent with the predictions of norm-based but not exemplar-based coding, aftereffects were larger for strong than weak adaptors for both age groups. Results indicate that, like adults, children's coding of facial expressions is norm-based. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Determination Plastic Properties of a Material by Spherical Indentation Base on the Representative Stress Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarsa, I. N.; Gde Antara, I. N.; Dharma, Agus; Karnata, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    Under an indentation, the material undergoes a complex deformation. One of the most effective ways to analyse indentation has been the representative method. The concept coupled with finite element (FE) modelling has been used successfully in analysing sharp indenters. It is of great importance to extend this method to spherical indentation and associated hardness system. One particular case is the Rockwell B test, where the hardness is determined by two points on the P-h curve of a spherical indenter. In this case, an established link between materials parameters and P-h curves can naturally lead to direct hardness estimation from the materials parameters (e.g. yield stress (y) and work hardening coefficients (n)). This could provide a useful tool for both research and industrial applications. Two method to predict p-h curve in spherical indentation has been established. One is use method using C1-C2 polynomial equation approach and another one by depth approach. Both approach has been successfully. An effective method in representing the P-h curves using a normalized representative stress concept was established. The concept and methodology developed is used to predict hardness (HRB) values of materials through direct analysis and validated with experimental data on selected samples of steel.

  8. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

    2011-04-01

    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  9. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; López-Solaber, Ana M; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2013-09-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN), in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española") (2009), was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years) from 15 provinces (30 sampling points). Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increa ses with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with a University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended), it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad--Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity) (2010-2011) was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years) from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7. Being

  10. Data Structure Analysis to Represent Basic Models of Finite State Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gurenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex system engineering based on the automaton models requires a reasoned data structure selection to implement them. The problem of automaton representation and data structure selection to be used in it has been understudied. Arbitrary data structure selection for automaton model software implementation leads to unnecessary computational burden and reduces the developed system efficiency. This article proposes an approach to the reasoned selection of data structures to represent finite algoristic automaton basic models and gives practical considerations based on it.Static and dynamic data structures are proposed for three main ways to assign Mealy and Moore automatons: a transition table, a matrix of coupling and a transition graph. A thirddimensional array, a rectangular matrix and a matrix of lists are the static structures. Dynamic structures are list-oriented structures: two-level and three-level Ayliff vectors and a multi-linked list. These structures allow us to store all required information about finite state automaton model components - characteristic set cardinalities and data of transition and output functions.A criterion system is proposed for data structure comparative evaluation in virtue of algorithmic features of automata theory problems. The criteria focused on capacitive and time computational complexity of operations performed in tasks such as equivalent automaton conversions, proving of automaton equivalence and isomorphism, and automaton minimization.A data structure comparative analysis based on the criterion system has done for both static and dynamic type. The analysis showed advantages of the third-dimensional array, matrix and two-level Ayliff vector. These are structures that assign automaton by transition table. For these structures an experiment was done to measure the execution time of automation operations included in criterion system.The analysis of experiment results showed that a dynamic structure - two

  11. Representing with Light. Video Projection Mapping for Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiani, C.; Guerra, F.; Pasini, T.; Visonà, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a cross-disciplinary process that uses photogrammetric surveys as a precise basis for video projection mapping techniques. Beginning with a solid basis that uses geoinformatics technologies, such as laser scanning and photogrammetric survey, the method sets, as a first step, the physical and geometrical acquisition of the object. Precision and accuracy are the basics that allow the analysis of the artwork, both at a small or large scale, to evaluate details and correspondences. Testing contents at different scales of the object, using 3D printed replicas or real architectures is the second step of the investigation.The core of the process is the use of equations of collinearity into an interactive system such as Max 7, a visual programming language for music and multimedia, in order to facilitate operators to have a fast image correction, directly inside the interactive software. Interactivity gives also the opportunity to easily configure a set of actions to let the spectators to directly change and control the animation content. The paper goes through the different phases of the research, analysing the results and the progress through a series of events on real architecture and experiments on 3d printed models to test the level of involvement of the audience and the flexibility of the system in terms of content.The idea of using the collinearity equation inside da software Max 7 was developed for the M.Arch final Thesis by Massimo Visonà and Tommaso Pasini of the University of Venice (IUAV) in collaboration with the Digital Exhibit Postgraduate Master Course (MDE Iuav).

  12. Analysing and Navigating Natural Products Space for Generating Small, Diverse, But Representative Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Steve; Kell, Douglas B

    2018-01-01

    Armed with the digital availability of two natural products libraries, amounting to some 195 885 molecular entities, we ask the question of how we can best sample from them to maximize their "representativeness" in smaller and more usable libraries of 96, 384, 1152, and 1920 molecules. The term "representativeness" is intended to include diversity, but for numerical reasons (and the likelihood of being able to perform a QSAR) it is necessary to focus on areas of chemical space that are more highly populated. Encoding chemical structures as fingerprints using the RDKit "patterned" algorithm, we first assess the granularity of the natural products space using a simple clustering algorithm, showing that there are major regions of "denseness" but also a great many very sparsely populated areas. We then apply a "hybrid" hierarchical K-means clustering algorithm to the data to produce more statistically robust clusters from which representative and appropriate numbers of samples may be chosen. There is necessarily again a trade-off between cluster size and cluster number, but within these constraints, libraries containing 384 or 1152 molecules can be found that come from clusters that represent some 18 and 30% of the whole chemical space, with cluster sizes of, respectively, 50 and 27 or above, just about sufficient to perform a QSAR. By using the online availability of molecules via the Molport system (www.molport.com), we are also able to construct (and, for the first time, provide the contents of) a small virtual library of available molecules that provided effective coverage of the chemical space described. Consistent with this, the average molecular similarities of the contents of the libraries developed is considerably smaller than is that of the original libraries. The suggested libraries may have use in molecular or phenotypic screening, including for determining possible transporter substrates. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley

  13. Can Geostatistical Models Represent Nature's Variability? An Analysis Using Flume Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, C.; Fernandes, A. M.; Paola, C.; Caers, J.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of understanding in the Earth's geological and physical processes governing sediment deposition render subsurface modeling subject to large uncertainty. Geostatistics is often used to model uncertainty because of its capability to stochastically generate spatially varying realizations of the subsurface. These methods can generate a range of realizations of a given pattern - but how representative are these of the full natural variability? And how can we identify the minimum set of images that represent this natural variability? Here we use this minimum set to define the geostatistical prior model: a set of training images that represent the range of patterns generated by autogenic variability in the sedimentary environment under study. The proper definition of the prior model is essential in capturing the variability of the depositional patterns. This work starts with a set of overhead images from an experimental basin that showed ongoing autogenic variability. We use the images to analyze the essential characteristics of this suite of patterns. In particular, our goal is to define a prior model (a minimal set of selected training images) such that geostatistical algorithms, when applied to this set, can reproduce the full measured variability. A necessary prerequisite is to define a measure of variability. In this study, we measure variability using a dissimilarity distance between the images. The distance indicates whether two snapshots contain similar depositional patterns. To reproduce the variability in the images, we apply an MPS algorithm to the set of selected snapshots of the sedimentary basin that serve as training images. The training images are chosen from among the initial set by using the distance measure to ensure that only dissimilar images are chosen. Preliminary investigations show that MPS can reproduce fairly accurately the natural variability of the experimental depositional system. Furthermore, the selected training images provide

  14. Non-Relative Value Unit-Generating Activities Represent One-Fifth of Academic Neuroradiologist Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Zeineh, M; Zaharchuk, G; Srivastava, A; Fischbein, N

    2016-07-01

    A neuroradiologist's activity includes many tasks beyond interpreting relative value unit-generating imaging studies. Our aim was to test a simple method to record and quantify the non-relative value unit-generating clinical activity represented by consults and clinical conferences, including tumor boards. Four full-time neuroradiologists, working an average of 50% clinical and 50% academic activity, systematically recorded all the non-relative value unit-generating consults and conferences in which they were involved during 3 months by using a simple, Web-based, computer-based application accessible from smartphones, tablets, or computers. The number and type of imaging studies they interpreted during the same period and the associated relative value units were extracted from our billing system. During 3 months, the 4 neuroradiologists working an average of 50% clinical activity interpreted 4241 relative value unit-generating imaging studies, representing 8152 work relative value units. During the same period, they recorded 792 non-relative value unit-generating study reviews as part of consults and conferences (not including reading room consults), representing 19% of the interpreted relative value unit-generating imaging studies. We propose a simple Web-based smartphone app to record and quantify non-relative value unit-generating activities including consults, clinical conferences, and tumor boards. The quantification of non-relative value unit-generating activities is paramount in this time of a paradigm shift from volume to value. It also represents an important tool for determining staffing levels, which cannot be performed on the basis of relative value unit only, considering the importance of time spent by radiologists on non-relative value unit-generating activities. It may also influence payment models from medical centers to radiology departments or practices. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Result of desalinating filter performance at representative coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Nobuyosi; Wada, Tadamasa

    1989-01-01

    In Japan, Nuclear energy facilities are usually located within 1 km from sea shore. Lately, manufacturing plants for semiconductors and precision machines have also taken locations at the sea side. At these locations, salt particles coming from the sea flow into a plant through its air-intakes. This is a problem, because if can cause electric equipment and other important equipment to deteriorate and may influence production yield. An effective solution to this problem is to install a filter at the air-intake. However, few data in this area is available, because the salt concentration in the air is too low to verify acutual affects of installed filters. This report describes the performance of a filter system installed in an actual building located 300 m from the sea shore. We used a radioactivation analysis method with a detection limit up to 0.01 μg/m 3 to measure concentrations at the up stream and down stream of the filter. A flame spectrochemical analysis measured salt adhering to filter materials. The particle collection performance averaged 80 % for the prefilter and 90 % for a desalinating filter. We also investigated the possibility that captured NaCl might rescatter with the deliquescence due to high humidity, and we found this phenomenon at least in the prefilter. (author)

  16. THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF PATHOGENIC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEPTOSPIRA GENIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Vaganova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pathogenic leptospires can infect wide spectrum of hosts and they can survive in the environment long time. The outer membrane is the cellular component participated in interaction of microorganisms and environment. In present time several proteins located in the outer membrane of leptospires which are responsible for colonization of host organism, protection from influence of immune system of host, transport of substances in to the cell and other processes have been described. The outer membrane contains proteins and lipopolysaccharide molecules which have citotoxic effect. It was shown that regulation of protein composition of membranes depends on several factors of environment such as temperature, osmolarity, presence of certain substances in environment. Lipopolysaccharide and protein molecules of outer membranes have antigenic properties. These molecules can be used in practice as the components of vaccine against leptospiroses and diagnostic tools. Current review summarize information concerning structural organization of the outer membrane of leptospires, diversities of incoming parts of molecules and regulation of their synthesis. Moreover, perspectives of practical using of the outer membrane components in diagnostics and prevention of leptospiroses are presented.

  17. Bayesian Action&Perception: Representing the World in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald E. Loeb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Theories of perception seek to explain how sensory data are processed to identify previously experienced objects, but they usually do not consider the decisions and effort that goes into acquiring the sensory data. Identification of objects according to their tactile properties requires active exploratory movements. The sensory data thereby obtained depend on the details of those movements, which human subjects change rapidly and seemingly capriciously. Bayesian Exploration is an algorithm that uses prior experience to decide which next exploratory movement should provide the most useful data to disambiguate the most likely possibilities. In previous studies, a simple robot equipped with a biomimetic tactile sensor and operated according to Bayesian Exploration performed in a manner similar to and actually better than humans on a texture identification task. Expanding on this, Bayesian Action&Perception refers to the construction and querying of an associative memory of previously experienced entities containing both sensory data and the motor programs that elicited them. We hypothesize that this memory can be queried i to identify useful next exploratory movements during identification of an unknown entity (action for perception or ii to characterize whether an unknown entity is fit for purpose (perception for action or iii to recall what actions might be feasible for a known entity (Gibsonian affordance. The biomimetic design of this mechatronic system may provide insights into the neuronal basis of biological action and perception.

  18. Cultural Values Represented in First Certificate Masterclass Taught in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alimorad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the crucial role textbooks play in any educational system, an urgent need is felt to examine, evaluate, and choose the most suitable ones available. This study is an attempt to critically examine and uncover the hidden curriculum in First Certificate Masterclass (FCM that is taught at Navid institute in Iran. To this aim, FCM was deeply examined to identify any instances of Western cultural norms and preferences and their potential influences on Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ thoughts and ideologies. Peterson’s distinction between Big “C” culture and little “c” culture constituted the theoretical framework of the study. To collect the necessary data, all passages, texts, exercises, and even listening excerpts were closely studied and evaluated by the researcher. Results indicated that among the elements of little “c” culture introduced by Peterson, preferences or tastes, food, hobbies, popular music, and popular issues could mainly be observed in the book. Furthermore, the majority of the representations introduced and depicted in the book were incompatible with Iranian Muslim people’s ideologies and beliefs. Implications of these findings for Iranian material developers and textbook writers as well as English teachers are also discussed.

  19. Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zerefos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO, those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD, tropopause height changes (including global warming and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC. Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15 hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

  20. Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerefos, Christos; Kapsomenakis, John; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Hubert, Daan; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Frith, Stacey; Sofieva, Viktoria; Hassler, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV) satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle) and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD), tropopause height changes (including global warming) and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC). Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC) and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15 hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

  1. Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Edward A.; Yano, Takahiro; Li, Lin-Sheng; Avarbock, David; Avarbock, Andrew; Helm, Douglas; McColm, Andrew A.; Duncan, Ken; Lonsdale, John T.; Rubin, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate aerobe that is capable of long-term persistence under conditions of low oxygen tension. Analysis of the Mtb genome predicts the existence of a branched aerobic respiratory chain terminating in a cytochrome bd system and a cytochrome aa3 system. Both chains can be initiated with type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. We present a detailed biochemical characterization of the aerobic respiratory chains from Mtb and show that phenothiazine analogs specifically inhibit NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase activity. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mtb has prompted a search for antimycobacterial agents. Several phenothiazines analogs are highly tuberculocidal in vitro, suppress Mtb growth in a mouse model of acute infection, and represent lead compounds that may give rise to a class of selective antibiotics. PMID:15767566

  2. Factor structure of the integrated training of elite athletes - representatives of mountain sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of the factor structure of the readiness of mountaineers and climbers of different specializations. The study involved 26 athletes, among them - 10 masters of sports of international class (speed climbing , 10 masters of sports of international class ( climbing difficulty and 6 world-class climbers. The age of the athletes was 19-22 years. Identified 10 factors in the overall readiness of the surveyed athletes. It is shown that the most prominent climbers factors are adaptive capacity of the cardiovascular system, special endurance. Do climbers ( climbing difficulty - relative strength, stability, reaction speed, arm strength and the press. Do climbers ( climbing speed - spigot size hand, the mobility of the nervous system, the reaction rate. Shows the complexity of the manifestations of power-speed in relation to the performance of morphological and functional characteristics and capabilities of psychophysiological representatives of mountain sports. Found that the development of the power-speed positive effect on the improvement of psycho-physiological regulation of the body. The obtained data on the characteristics of the severity of different factors in representatives of different types of rock climbing and mountaineering can be used to predict future specialization novice climbers.

  3. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yalin

    Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the

  4. May car washing represent a risk for Legionella infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovin, T; Pierobon, A; Bertoncello, C; Destefani, E; Gennari, M; Stano, A; Baldo, V

    2018-01-01

    Legionella is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium naturally found in aquatic environments. It can pose a health problem when it grows and spreads in man-made water systems. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of Legionnaires' disease nowadays, a community-acquired pneumonia with pulmonary symptoms and chest radiography no different from any other form of infectious pneumonia. Legionella monitoring is important for public health reasons, including the identification of unusual environmental sources of Legionella. We report two cases of Legionnaires' disease associated with two different car wash installations in the province of Vicenza, in the Veneto region, northeastern Italy. Patients were not employees of the car wash installations, but users of the service. In both cases, Legionella antigen was detected in urine using the Alere BinaxNOW® Legionella Urinary Antigen, and Legionella antibodies were detected in serum using SERION ELISA classic Legionella pneumophila 1-7 IgG and IgM. Water samples were also analyzed as part of the surveillance program for Legionella prevention and control in compliance with the Italian guidelines. Both patients had clinical symptoms and chest radiography compatible with pneumonia, and only one of them had diabetes as a risk factor. Legionella urinary antigen and serological test on serum samples were positive for Legionella in both patients, even if much slighter in the case A due to the retrospective serological investigation performed a year later the episode and after the second clinical case occurred in the same district. The environmental investigations highlighted two different car wash plants as potential source of infection. A certified company using shock hyperchlorination was asked to disinfect the two plants and, subsequently, control samples resulted negative for Legionella pneumophila. Any water source producing aerosols should be considered at risk for the transmission of Legionella bacteria, including car

  5. Steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analyses of the Savannah River new production reactor representative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, R.J.; Maloney, K.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Review: Pichia pastoris represents an alternative for human glycoprotein production for therapeutic use. Fermentation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Córdoba Ruiz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Producing human proteins in lower organisms' cells using recombinant technology represents a very promising approach for treating many diseases produced by a particular protein deficiency, including close to 40 lysosomal storage diseases. Although E. coli has been the first host successfully employed in expressing human recombinant proteins, it has some limitations owing to its inability to perform some post-traductional steps such as glycosylation. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae has thusbeen initially considered and used. However, S. cerevisiae glycosylates proteins in a very different way to human cells producing highly antigenic proteins and thus some other non-conventional yeasts such as Pichia pastoris have been used recently. Human protein expression is not assodated with growth in this system; growth may occur at high cell concentrations, increasing heterologous protein productivity and yield. The system employs a very efficient, methanol-induced promoter which may be used as sole carbon and energy source. Post-traductional modifications seem more similar to human cells than those produced by other non-mammalian systems used in producing human glycoproteins; they do not secrete large amounts of endogenous proteins, simplifying expressed protein purification. This review presents some strategies for producing heterologous proteins in high density cultures using P. pastoris as an expression system.

  7. Calculating a Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Score Using Nationally Representative Reference Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Emily Hill; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; Cook, Stephen R; Stratbucker, William

    2018-02-26

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in youth varies on the basis of the classification system used, prompting implementation of continuous scores; however, the use of these scores is limited to the sample from which they were derived. We sought to describe the derivation of the continuous metabolic syndrome score using nationally representative reference values in a sample of obese adolescents and a national sample obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. Clinical data were collected from 50 adolescents seeking obesity treatment at a stage 3 weight management center. A second analysis relied on data from adolescents included in NHANES 2011-2012, performed for illustrative purposes. The continuous metabolic syndrome score was calculated by regressing individual values onto nationally representative age- and sex-specific standards (NHANES III). Resultant z scores were summed to create a total score. The final sample included 42 obese adolescents (15 male and 35 female subjects; mean age, 14.8 ± 1.9 years) and an additional 445 participants from NHANES 2011-2012. Among the clinical sample, the mean continuous metabolic syndrome score was 4.16 ± 4.30, while the NHANES sample mean was quite a bit lower, at -0.24 ± 2.8. We provide a method to calculate the continuous metabolic syndrome by comparing individual risk factor values to age- and sex-specific percentiles from a nationally representative sample. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using the Hands to Represent Objects in Space: Gesture as a Substrate for Signed Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Marshall, Chloë R

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing issue of interest in second language research concerns what transfers from a speaker's first language to their second. For learners of a sign language, gesture is a potential substrate for transfer. Our study provides a novel test of gestural production by eliciting silent gesture from novices in a controlled environment. We focus on spatial relationships, which in sign languages are represented in a very iconic way using the hands, and which one might therefore predict to be easy for adult learners to acquire. However, a previous study by Marshall and Morgan (2015) revealed that this was only partly the case: in a task that required them to express the relative locations of objects, hearing adult learners of British Sign Language (BSL) could represent objects' locations and orientations correctly, but had difficulty selecting the correct handshapes to represent the objects themselves. If hearing adults are indeed drawing upon their gestural resources when learning sign languages, then their difficulties may have stemmed from their having in manual gesture only a limited repertoire of handshapes to draw upon, or, alternatively, from having too broad a repertoire. If the first hypothesis is correct, the challenge for learners is to extend their handshape repertoire, but if the second is correct, the challenge is instead to narrow down to the handshapes appropriate for that particular sign language. 30 sign-naïve hearing adults were tested on Marshall and Morgan's task. All used some handshapes that were different from those used by native BSL signers and learners, and the set of handshapes used by the group as a whole was larger than that employed by native signers and learners. Our findings suggest that a key challenge when learning to express locative relations might be reducing from a very large set of gestural resources, rather than supplementing a restricted one, in order to converge on the conventionalized classifier system that forms part of the

  9. Combining 3d Volume and Mesh Models for Representing Complicated Heritage Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Chang, H.; Lin, Y.-W.

    2017-08-01

    This study developed a simple but effective strategy to combine 3D volume and mesh models for representing complicated heritage buildings and structures. The idea is to seamlessly integrate 3D parametric or polyhedral models and mesh-based digital surfaces to generate a hybrid 3D model that can take advantages of both modeling methods. The proposed hybrid model generation framework is separated into three phases. Firstly, after acquiring or generating 3D point clouds of the target, these 3D points are partitioned into different groups. Secondly, a parametric or polyhedral model of each group is generated based on plane and surface fitting algorithms to represent the basic structure of that region. A "bare-bones" model of the target can subsequently be constructed by connecting all 3D volume element models. In the third phase, the constructed bare-bones model is used as a mask to remove points enclosed by the bare-bones model from the original point clouds. The remaining points are then connected to form 3D surface mesh patches. The boundary points of each surface patch are identified and these boundary points are projected onto the surfaces of the bare-bones model. Finally, new meshes are created to connect the projected points and original mesh boundaries to integrate the mesh surfaces with the 3D volume model. The proposed method was applied to an open-source point cloud data set and point clouds of a local historical structure. Preliminary results indicated that the reconstructed hybrid models using the proposed method can retain both fundamental 3D volume characteristics and accurate geometric appearance with fine details. The reconstructed hybrid models can also be used to represent targets in different levels of detail according to user and system requirements in different applications.

  10. Towards an integrated model of floodplain hydrology representing feedbacks and anthropogenic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, K.; Schumann, G.; Voisin, N.; O'Loughlin, F.; Tesfa, T. K.; Bates, P.

    2017-12-01

    The exchange of water between hillslopes, river channels and floodplain can be quite complex and the difficulty in capturing the mechanisms behind it is exacerbated by the impact of human activities such as irrigation and reservoir operations. Although there has been a vast body of work on modeling hydrological processes, most of the resulting models have been limited with regards to aspects of the coupled human-natural system. For example, hydrologic models that represent processes such as evapotranspiration, infiltration, interception and groundwater dynamics often neglect anthropogenic effects or do not adequately represent the inherently two-dimensional floodplain flow. We present an integrated modeling framework that is comprised of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model, and the Water resources Management (WM) model. The VIC model solves the energy and water balance over a gridded domain and simulates a number of hydrologic features such as snow, frozen soils, lakes and wetlands, while also representing irrigation demand from cropland areas. LISFLOOD-FP solves an approximation of the Saint-Venant equations to efficiently simulate flow in river channels and the floodplain. The implementation of WM accommodates a variety of operating rules in reservoirs and withdrawals due to consumptive demands, allowing the successful simulation of regulated flow. The models are coupled so as to allow feedbacks between their corresponding processes, therefore providing the ability to test different hypotheses about the floodplain hydrology of large-scale basins. We test this integrated framework over the Zambezi River basin by simulating its hydrology from 2000-2010, and evaluate the results against remotely sensed observations. Finally, we examine the sensitivity of streamflow and water inundation to changes in reservoir operations, precipitation and temperature.

  11. Neurophysiological correlates of artistic image creation by representatives of artistic professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikaya L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The steadily increasing demand for artistic professions brings to the fore the task of studying the phenomenon of art by researching the unique capacity of the human brain to create works of art in different spheres of creative activity. So far, only a few studies have investigated creativity-related brain activity in representatives of the creative professions. The aim of the empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of artistic image creation by representatives of the artistic professions. The participants were 60 right-handed females aged 23-27, divided into three groups— artists (23 people, actors (17 people, and specialists who do not work in an artistic field (20 people. The mono-typing technique was used to model the creative artistic process. EEG signals were recorded in a resting state, and during four stages of the creation of an artistic image (viewing of monotypes, frustration, image creation, and thinking over the details from 21 electrodes set on the scalp according to the International 10-20 System. We analyzed EEG coherence for each functional trial at theta (4.00–8.00 Hz, alpha1 (8.00–10.5 Hz, alpha2 (10.5–13.00 Hz, and beta (13.00– 35.00 Hz frequency bands. For statistical analysis, we used MANOVA and post hoc analysis. We found that the neurophysiological correlates of creating an artistic image are different at different stages of the creative process, and have different features for artists and actors. The actors primarily show dominance of right hemisphere activity, while close interaction of the hemispheres distinguishes the brains of the artists. The differences revealed in brain cortex functioning when artists or actors create an artistic image reflect different strategies of imaginative creative work by representatives of these professions.

  12. Survival of microorganisms representing the three Domains of life inside the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesco, Canganella; Giovanna, Bianconi

    2007-09-01

    The present work was mainly focused to study the response of representative non pathogenic microorganisms to the environment inside the space vehicle at different mission stages (10, 56, and 226 days) within the frame of the Italian ENEIDE mission, from Feb to Oct 2005. Microorganisms were chosen according to their phylogenetic position and cell structures; they were representatives of the three taxonomic domains and belonged to different ecosystems (food, soil, intestinal tract, plants, deep-sea). They were the followings: Thermococcus guaymasensis (Domain Archaea); Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Domain Eucarya); Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Rhizobium tropici (Domain Bacteria). As main environmental parameters we were interested in: a) space radiations; b) microgravity; c) temperature. The response of microorganisms was investigated in terms of survival rates, cell structure modifications, and genomic damages. The survival of cells was affected by both radiation doses and intrinsec cell features. As expected, only samples kept on the ISS for 226 days showed significant levels of mortality. Asfar as regard the effect on cell structures, these samples showed also remarkable morphological changes, particularly for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The data collected allowed to get new insights into the biological traits of microorganisms exposed to space environment during the flight on a spacecraft. Moreover, the result obtained may be important for the improvement of human conditions aboard space vehicles (nutraceuticals for astronauts and disinfections of ISS modules) and also for the potential development of closed systems devoted to vegetable productions and organic recycling.

  13. Evaluation of BRDF Archetypes for Representing Surface Reflectance Anisotropy Using MODIS BRDF Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF archetypes extracted from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS BRDF/Albedo product over the global Earth Observing System Land Validation Core Sites can be used to simplify BRDF models. The present study attempts to evaluate the representativeness of BRDF archetypes for surface reflectance anisotropy. Five-year forward-modeled MODIS multi-angular reflectance (MCD-ref and aditional actual MODIS multi-angular observations (MCD-obs in four growing periods in 2008 over three tiles were taken as validation data. First, BRDF archetypes in the principal plane were qualitatively compared with the time-series MODIS BRDF product of randomly sampled pixels. Secondly, BRDF archetypes were used to fit MCD-ref, and the average root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs over each tile were examined for these five years. Finally, both BRDF archetypes and the MODIS BRDF were used to fit MCD-obs, and the histograms of the fit-RMSEs were compared. The consistency of the directional reflectance between the BRDF archetypes and MODIS BRDFs in nadir-view, hotspot and entire viewing hemisphere at 30° and 50° solar geometries were also examined. The results confirm that BRDF archetypes are representative of surface reflectance anisotropy for available snow-free MODIS data.

  14. Sexuality education in a representative sample of Portuguese schools: examining the impact of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Duarte, Cidália

    2015-02-01

    To share Portugal's experience with school-based sexuality education, and to describe its implementation at a local level, following an ecological model and using a mixed methodology approach. The study also examines the impact of the latest policies put into effect, identifying potential weaknesses and strengths affecting the effectiveness of sexuality education enforcement. A representative sample of 296 schools in Portugal was analysed. Teachers representing the school completed a questionnaire and were asked to share any kind of official document from their sexuality education project (such as curriculum content). A subsample of these documents was analysed by two coders. Quantitative analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics. The majority of Portuguese schools delivered sexuality education, in line with Portuguese technical guidelines and international recommendations. There were common procedures in planning, implementation and evaluation of sexuality education. Some strengths and weaknesses were identified. Results highlighted the impact of the various systems on the planning, enforcement and evaluation of sexuality education in school. The latest policies introduced valuable changes in school-based sexuality education. A way of assessing effectiveness of sexuality education is still needed.

  15. TRMM Satellite Algorithm Estimates to Represent the Spatial Distribution of Rainstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On-site measurements from rain gauge provide important information for the design, construction, and operation of water resources engineering projects, groundwater potentials, and the water supply and irrigation systems. A dense gauging network is needed to accurately characterize the variation of rainfall over a region, unfitting for conditions with limited networks, such as in Sarawak, Malaysia. Hence, satellite-based algorithm estimates are introduced as an innovative solution to these challenges. With accessibility to dataset retrievals from public domain websites, it has become a useful source to measure rainfall for a wider coverage area at finer temporal resolution. This paper aims to investigate the rainfall estimates prepared by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM to explain whether it is suitable to represent the distribution of extreme rainfall in Sungai Sarawak Basin. Based on the findings, more uniform correlations for the investigated storms can be observed for low to medium altitude (>40 MASL. It is found for the investigated events of Jan 05-11, 2009: the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE = 36.7 %; and good correlation (CC = 0.9. These findings suggest that satellite algorithm estimations from TRMM are suitable to represent the spatial distribution of extreme rainfall.

  16. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  17. Towards a semantic PACS: Using Semantic Web technology to represent imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Soest, Johan; Lustberg, Tim; Grittner, Detlef; Marshall, M Scott; Persoon, Lucas; Nijsten, Bas; Feltens, Peter; Dekker, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The DICOM standard is ubiquitous within medicine. However, improved DICOM semantics would significantly enhance search operations. Furthermore, databases of current PACS systems are not flexible enough for the demands within image analysis research. In this paper, we investigated if we can use Semantic Web technology, to store and represent metadata of DICOM image files, as well as linking additional computational results to image metadata. Therefore, we developed a proof of concept containing two applications: one to store commonly used DICOM metadata in an RDF repository, and one to calculate imaging biomarkers based on DICOM images, and store the biomarker values in an RDF repository. This enabled us to search for all patients with a gross tumor volume calculated to be larger than 50 cc. We have shown that we can successfully store the DICOM metadata in an RDF repository and are refining our proof of concept with regards to volume naming, value representation, and the applications themselves.

  18. Elementary representative sizes of soil attributes via attenuation of gamma rays and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Jaqueline Aparecida Ribaski

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the Computed Tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) techniques were used in the investigation of representative sample sizes for attributes related to soil structure. First of all, the representative elementary length (REL) for experimental measurements of soil mass attenuation coefficient (μes), of samples from a sandy and a clayey soil, was analyzed. The study was conducted with two radioactive sources ( 241 Am and 137 Cs), three collimators (2 - 4 mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (2-5 cm). From these analyzes, it was possible to identify an ideal thickness range for each of the studied sources (2-4 cm and 12-15 cm for the sources of 241 Am and 137 Cs, respectively). The application of such results in representative elementary area evaluations, in clayey soil clods via CT, indicated that experimental soil mass attenuation coefficient average values obtained for x>4 cm and source 241 Am might induce the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations. Subsequently, μCT images with a total volume of 39×39×33 mm 3 and spatial resolution of 60 μm were used for macroporous system morphological characterization of a Rhodic Ferralsol with clayey texture, under no-till (NT) and conventional till (CT) systems. Attributes as macroporosity (MAP), number of macropores (NMAP), tortuosity (τ) and connectivity (C) of the pores were assessed. The C degree was estimated based on the Euler-Poincare characteristic (EPC). Once 3D images enable the study of these attributes in different sample volumes, the proposed study is ideal for the analysis of representative elementary volume (REV). Usually, the selection of subvolumes for REV analysis occurs concentrically to a small volume or in adjacent positions. Here, we introduced a new method for selecting the positions of subvolumes, which are randomly chosen within the total image volume (random selection). It was observed that higher fluctuations in amplitude of each

  19. The strategy curve. A method for representing and interpreting generator bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.; Taylor, P.

    1995-01-01

    The pool is the novel trading arrangement at the heart of the privatized electricity market in England and Wales. This central role in the new system makes it crucial that it is seen to function efficiently. Unfortunately, it is governed by a set of complex rules, which leads to a lack of transparency, and this makes monitoring of its operation difficult. This paper seeks to provide a method for illuminating one aspect of the pool, that of generator bidding behaviour. We introduce the concept of a strategy curve, which is a concise device for representing generator bidding strategies. This curve has the appealing characteristic of directly revealing any deviation in the bid price of a genset from the costs of generating electricity. After a brief discussion about what constitutes price and cost in this context we present a number of strategy curves for different days and provide some interpretation of their form, based in part on our earlier work with game theory. (author)

  20. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  1. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve demand over the evolution of many years or decades. Various CEM formulations are used to evaluate systems ranging in scale from states or utility service territories to national or multi-national systems. CEMs can be computationally complex, and to achieve acceptable solve times, key parameters are often estimated using simplified methods. In this paper, we focus on two of these key parameters associated with the integration of variable generation (VG) resources: capacity value and curtailment. We first discuss common modeling simplifications used in CEMs to estimate capacity value and curtailment, many of which are based on a representative subset of hours that can miss important tail events or which require assumptions about the load and resource distributions that may not match actual distributions. We then present an alternate approach that captures key elements of chronological operation over all hours of the year without the computationally intensive economic dispatch optimization typically employed within more detailed operational models. The updated methodology characterizes the (1) contribution of VG to system capacity during high load and net load hours, (2) the curtailment level of VG, and (3) the potential reductions in curtailments enabled through deployment of storage and more flexible operation of select thermal generators. We apply this alternate methodology to an existing CEM, the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Results demonstrate that this alternate approach provides more accurate estimates of capacity value and curtailments by explicitly capturing system interactions across all hours of the year. This approach could be applied more broadly to CEMs at many different scales where hourly resource and load data is available, greatly improving the representation of challenges

  2. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  3. Representative bureaucracy, organizational strategy, and public service performance: An emperical analysis of English local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Andrews, Rhys; Boyne, George A.; Meier, Kenneth J.; Walker, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    The theory of representative bureaucracy suggests that organizations perform better if their workforces reflect the characteristics of their constituent populations. The management literature implies that the impact of representative bureaucracy is contingent on organizational strategy. Our

  4. Technical basis for the aboveground structure failure and associated represented hazardous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOETZ, T.G.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for the aboveground structure failure representative accident and associated represented hazardous conditions. This document was developed to support the documented safety analysis

  5. The appropriateness of using various Minkowskian metrics for representing cognitive configurations

    OpenAIRE

    G D Richardson

    1981-01-01

    Cognitive mapping has been a rapidly growing area of research concerned with how cognitive information about environments is represented, interpreted, and used. One area of research has been concerned with what geometry best represents cognitive spatial information. This paper further pursues this topic by examining which of three Minkowskian metrics (city-block, Euclidean, dominance) is most appropriate for representing cognitive configurations.

  6. Representative voice in different organizational contexts : a study of 40 departments of a Dutch childcare organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauksztat, Birgit; Wittek, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    'Representative voice' can be defined as actions in which one or more speakers represent others when speaking up about a problem at the workplace or making a suggestion. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of representative voice, assess the frequency of its occurrence and examine

  7. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  8. 22 CFR 72.9 - Responsibility if legal representative is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility if legal representative is... Nationals § 72.9 Responsibility if legal representative is present. (a) A consular officer should not act as provisional conservator if the consular officer knows that a legal representative is present in the foreign...

  9. Contingent representativity: Rival views of representatve bureaucracy and the challenges for nationbuilders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we argue that representative bureaucracy is a changing concept, and that in the academic and policy debate on representative bureaucracy in fact three different debates are intermingled. While the debate on representative bureaucracy in Public Administration is generally

  10. 40 CFR 60.4110 - Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hg designated representative. 60.4110 Section 60.4110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4110 Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative...

  11. 28 CFR 540.20 - Inmate correspondence with representatives of the news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of the news media. 540.20 Section 540.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... correspondence with representatives of the news media. (a) An inmate may write through “special mail” to representatives of the news media specified by name or title (see § 540.2(b)). (b) The inmate may not receive...

  12. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  13. Representing uncertainty in objective functions: extension to include the influence of serial correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, B. F.

    2008-12-01

    The role of performance indicators is to give an accurate indication of the fit between a model and the system being modelled. As all measurements have an associated uncertainty (determining the significance that should be given to the measurement), performance indicators should take into account uncertainties in the observed quantities being modelled as well as in the model predictions (due to uncertainties in inputs, model parameters and model structure). In the presence of significant uncertainty in observed and modelled output of a system, failure to adequately account for variations in the uncertainties means that the objective function only gives a measure of how well the model fits the observations, not how well the model fits the system being modelled. Since in most cases, the interest lies in fitting the system response, it is vital that the objective function(s) be designed to account for these uncertainties. Most objective functions (e.g. those based on the sum of squared residuals) assume homoscedastic uncertainties. If model contribution to the variations in residuals can be ignored, then transformations (e.g. Box-Cox) can be used to remove (or at least significantly reduce) heteroscedasticity. An alternative which is more generally applicable is to explicitly represent the uncertainties in the observed and modelled values in the objective function. Previous work on this topic addressed the modifications to standard objective functions (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, RMSE, chi- squared, coefficient of determination) using the optimal weighted averaging approach. This paper extends this previous work; addressing the issue of serial correlation. A form for an objective function that includes serial correlation will be presented, and the impact on model fit discussed.

  14. Development of Representative Rainfall Periods for Green Infrastructure Design: Connecting the Dots Between Climate, Urban Hydrology and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. M.; Traver, R.; Wadzuk, B.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of local-to-regional climate data is critical in understanding how changing patterns in rainfall and other atmospheric conditions can affect urban hydrology. Urbanization has caused hydrologic and ecologic modifications to our land surfaces, and altered the dynamics of urban water cycle in complex ways. Green infrastructure (GI) systems, in their simplest form, reduce runoff and flooding, prevent combined sewer overflows and improve quality of receiving waters. However, when viewed through a more holistic lens, GI systems sit at the nexus of hydrology, climate and energy, yet are rarely designed to account for the impacts of these intersections. We must assess urban hydrologic systems beyond their response to a single event or design storm, incorporating multiple temporal scales and all hydrologic processes. This is of utmost importance to design and characterization of urban GI systems because the resilience of these systems will be dictated by their ability to adapt to future behavior of extreme weather patterns and climate. In this study, we characterize long-term hydrologic conditions in Philadelphia to identify periods of record that are most representative of regional climate characteristics, including a representative rainfall year and longer representative periods. Utility of these datasets will be demonstrated by showing that GI systems are able to sustain effective performance for most expected annual precipitation events. Connections between atmospheric (precipitation and temperature) patterns, GI systems and potential removal mechanisms in the urban hydrologic cycle will be presented for Philadelphia and cities with similar climate characteristics. Establishing such connections is critically needed to not only validate what is already known about urban GI, but more importantly, to advance theory and practice by linking the hydrologic benefits of urban GI to broader concepts such as risk, mitigation of extreme events and sustainable communities.

  15. Studies on representative disruption scenarios, associated electromagnetic and heat loads and operation window in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, Hirobumi; Shimada, Michiya; Kawano, Yasunori; Ohmori, Junji; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Ioki, Kimihiro; Khayrutdinov, Rustan; Lukash, Victor

    2007-07-01

    The impacts of plasma disruptions on ITER have been investigated in detail to confirm the robustness of the design of the machine to the potential consequential loads. The loads include both electromagnetic (EM) and heat loads on the in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel (VV). Several representative disruption scenarios are specified based on newly derived physics guidelines for the shortest current quench time as well as the maximum product of halo current fraction and toroidal peaking factor arising from disruptions in ITER. Disruption simulations with the DINA code and EM load analyses with a 3D finite element method (FEM) code are performed for these scenarios. Some margins are confirmed in the EM load on in-vessel components due to induced eddy and halo currents for these representative scenarios. However, the margins are not very large. The heat load on various parts of the first wall due to the vertical movement and the thermal quench (TQ) is calculated with a 2D heat conduction code based on the database of heat deposition during disruptions and simulation results with the DINA code. It is found that the beryllium (Be) wall will not melt during the vertical movement. Significant melting is anticipated for the upper Be wall and tungsten divertor baffle due to the TQ after the vertical movement. However, its impact could be substantially mitigated by implementing a reliable detection system of the vertical movement and a mitigation system, e.g., massive noble gas injection (MGI). Some melting of the upper Be wall is anticipated at major disruptions (MD). At least several tens of unmitigated disruptions must be considered even if an advanced prediction/mitigation system is implemented. With these unmitigated disruptions, the loss of Be layer is expected to be within approx. = 30-100 μm/event out of 10 mm thick Be first wall. Various post processing programs of the results simulated with the DINA code, which are developed for the design work, are

  16. Emotion scents: a method of representing user emotions on GUI widgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Daniel; Weber, Christopher; Ebert, Achim; Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The world of desktop interfaces has been dominated for years by the concept of windows and standardized user interface (UI) components. Still, while supporting the interaction and information exchange between the users and the computer system, graphical user interface (GUI) widgets are rather one-sided, neglecting to capture the subjective facets of the user experience. In this paper, we propose a set of design guidelines for visualizing user emotions on standard GUI widgets (e.g., buttons, check boxes, etc.) in order to enrich the interface with a new dimension of subjective information by adding support for emotion awareness as well as post-task analysis and decision making. We highlight the use of an EEG headset for recording the various emotional states of the user while he/she is interacting with the widgets of the interface. We propose a visualization approach, called emotion scents, that allows users to view emotional reactions corresponding to di erent GUI widgets without in uencing the layout or changing the positioning of these widgets. Our approach does not focus on highlighting the emotional experience during the interaction with an entire system, but on representing the emotional perceptions and reactions generated by the interaction with a particular UI component. Our research is motivated by enabling emotional self-awareness and subjectivity analysis through the proposed emotionenhanced UI components for desktop interfaces. These assumptions are further supported by an evaluation of emotion scents.

  17. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  18. REPRESENTING ROAD RELATED LASERSCANNED DATA IN CURVED REGULAR GRID: A SUPPORT TO AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Potó

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial and mobile laser scanning has become nowadays a mature technology applied in several technical and non-technical applications. The transportation infrastructure can be surveyed by these technologies in an excellent way, then 3D maps, fly-through videos and road furniture inventories can be derived among many other applications. The very detailed measurement and the realistic feature enable even to be used in games or simulators. This advantage was to be analyzed in vehicular simulation environment; the primary goal of the paper was to demonstrate a potential workflow and use case for such laser scanning data. The selected simulation package was the OpenCRG, which is being a component of OpenDRIVE-OpenCRG-OpenSCENARIO system, where it has been developed for microscopic simulations, e.g. vibrations, tire models or vehicle suspension systems. Because of the realistic visualization of CRG models it is very popular in the design and development of autonomous vehicles. The paper presents two different paved pilot sites surveyed by these technologies, then the raw data preparation is described and the details of the CRG model building is shown. The results of the experiments bring an overview, how the captured field data can be represented and interpreted in road surface context. The diagrams illustrate the potential of the very high resolution (1 cm model, which allows to identify each separate cobble stone or to study surface roughness.

  19. EXTRACTING SPATIOTEMPORAL OBJECTS FROM RASTER DATA TO REPRESENT PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ANALYZE RELATED PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Zollweg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don’t see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm ‘object’. Temporally, we don’t see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain’s perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2 data stream.

  20. Extracting Spatiotemporal Objects from Raster Data to Represent Physical Features and Analyze Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollweg, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don't see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm `object'. Temporally, we don't see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain's perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA's High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2) data stream.