Note on beam--beam tune shift in single ring multi bunch mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Month, M.
1978-01-01
If many identical counter-rotating bunches of protons and antiprotons are stored in a single ring, they will have identical orbits. The question is: Is this total tune shift relevant to the problem of beam stability. The answer is: not in general. The nonlinear force is described by its ''strength'', Δν/sub I/, for each bunch interaction individually. It is not at all clear that the sum of the individual Δν/sub I/ is the significant quantity
Parallel Beam-Beam Simulation Incorporating Multiple Bunches and Multiple Interaction Regions
Jones, F W; Pieloni, T
2007-01-01
The simulation code COMBI has been developed to enable the study of coherent beam-beam effects in the full collision scenario of the LHC, with multiple bunches interacting at multiple crossing points over many turns. The program structure and input are conceived in a general way which allows arbitrary numbers and placements of bunches and interaction points (IP's), together with procedural options for head-on and parasitic collisions (in the strong-strong sense), beam transport, statistics gathering, harmonic analysis, and periodic output of simulation data. The scale of this problem, once we go beyond the simplest case of a pair of bunches interacting once per turn, quickly escalates into the parallel computing arena, and herein we will describe the construction of an MPI-based version of COMBI able to utilize arbitrary numbers of processors to support efficient calculation of multi-bunch multi-IP interactions and transport. Implementing the parallel version did not require extensive disruption of the basic ...
Beam-Beam Interaction, Electron Cloud and Intrabeam Scattering for Proton Super-bunches
Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, Giovanni; Papaphilippou, Y
2003-01-01
Super-bunches are long bunches with a flat longitudinal profile, which could potentially increase the LHC luminosity in a future upgrade. We present example parameters and discuss a variety of issues related to such superbunches, including beam-beam tune shift, tune footprints, crossing schemes, luminosity, intrabeam scattering, and electron cloud. We highlight the benefits, disadvantages and open questions.
Beam beam tune shifts for 36 bunch operation in the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagley, P.
1996-10-01
We are preparing to upgrade the Tevatron Collider from 6 to 36 bunch operation. The 36 bunches are in 3 ''trains'' of 12 bunches. The spacing between bunches within a train is 21 RF buckets (53.106 MHz) and 139 empty buckets separate the trains. Because the 36 bunches are not evenly spaced around the machine, the different bunches within a train pass the opposing bunches at different points in the ring and so feel different beam beam effects. Through most of the machine the beams have helical separation, so these are mainly long range beam beam effects. As a first, very simple step, we've looked at the differences in the tunes of the different anti-proton (anti p) bunches. During the 36 bunch studies in Fall 1995, we used a new tune measurement system to measure these in several different machine conditions. We compare these measurements to calculations of the tunes for a anti p with zero transverse and longitudinal oscillation amplitudes. We discuss experimental problems, and the assumptions, approximations, and effects included in the calculations. Our main intent is to gain confidence that we can accurately model beam beam effects in the Tevatron
Nonlinear coherent beam-beam oscillations in the rigid bunch model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dikansky, N.; Pestrikov, D.
1990-01-01
Within the framework of the rigid bunch model coherent oscillations of strong-strong colliding bunches are described by equations which are specific for the weak-strong beam case. In this paper some predictions of the model for properties of nonlinear coherent oscillations as well as for associated limitations of the luminosity are discussed. 14 refs.; 6 figs
Multi-bunch energy compensation in the NLC bunch compressor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, F.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Thomson, K.A.
1996-06-01
The task of the NLC bunch compressor is to reduce the length of each bunch in a train of 90 bunches from 4 mm, at extraction from the damping ring, to about 100 μm, suitable for injection into the X-band main linac. This task is complicated by longitudinal long-range wake fields and the multi-bunch beam loading in the various accelerating sections of the compressor. One possible approach to compensate the multi-bunch beam loading is to add two RF systems with slightly different frequencies (' Δf' scheme) to each accelerating section, as first proposed by Kikuchi. This paper summarizes the choice of parameters for three such compensating sections, and presents simulation results of combined single- and multi-bunch dynamics for four different NLC versions. The multi-bunch energy compensation is shown to be straightforward and its performance to be satisfactory
Lonza, M
2008-01-01
Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. The advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. The lecture will first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedbacks systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback sy...
Lonza, M.
2014-12-19
Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main co...
Beam-beam effects under the influence of external noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohmi, K
2014-01-01
Fast external noise, which gives fluctuation into the beam orbit, is discussed in connection with beam-beam effects. Phase noise from crab cavities and detection devices (position monitor) and kicker noise from the bunch by bunch feedback system are the sources. Beam-beam collisions with fast orbit fluctuations with turn by turn or multi-turn correlations, cause emittance growth and luminosity degradation. We discuss the tolerance of the noise amplitude for LHC and HL-LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lonza, M; Schmickler, H
2014-01-01
Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main components of a feedback system and the related issues will also be analysed. Finally, we shall focus on digital feedback systems, their characteristics, and features, as well as on how they can be concretely exploited for both the optimization of feedback performance and for beam dynamics studies
Considerations of bunch-spacing options for multi-bunch operation of the Tevatron Collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dugan, G.
1989-01-01
This discussion will consider a number of points relevant to limitations, advantages and disadvantages of various arrangements of bunches in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The considerations discussed here will be limited to: (a) bunch spacing symmetry and relation to the relative luminosity at B0 and D0 and the beam-beam interaction with separated beams; (b) bunch spacing constraints imposed by Main Ring RF coalescing and the optics of beam separation at B0 and D0; and (c) bunch spacing constraints imposed by injection and abort kicker timing requirements, and by the Antiproton Source RF unstacking process. 20 figs., 17 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.; Keil, E.
1979-06-01
The stability of the coherent beam-beam effect between rigid bunches is studied analytically and numerically for a linear force by evaluating eigenvalues. For a realistic force, the stability is investigated by following the bunches for many revolutions. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs
Lonza, M.; Schmickler, H.
2016-01-01
Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides importa...
Longitudinal bunch deformation of a multi-bunched beam in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obina, T.; Satoh, K.; Kasuga, T.; Funakoshi, Y.; Tobiyama, M.
1997-01-01
A remarkable bunch deformation has been observed in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) during multi-bunch operations. When two bunches that have different populations are stored in the ring, the bunch length of the weaker bunch is longer than that of the stronger one. The phenomenon can be explained as an effect of wake fields due to higher-order modes (HOMs) of accelerating cavities. We tried to find out the frequency of the mode and the strength of the wake field, and introduced a new technique called a test bunch measurement. The estimated field strength from the experiment shows a reasonable agreement with the calculation of HOM impedance. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Controlling multi-bunches by a fast phase switching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decker, F.J.; Jobe, R.K.; Merminga, N.; Thompson, K.A.
1990-09-01
In linear accelerators with two or more bunches the beam loading of one bunch will influence the energy and energy spread the following bunches. This can be corrected by quickly changing the phase of a traveling wave-structure, so that each bunch receives a slightly different net phase. At the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) three bunches, two (e + ,e - ) for the high energy collisions and one (e - -scavenger) for producing positrons should sit at different phases, due to their different tasks. The two e - -bunches are extracted from the damping ring at the same cycle time about 60 ns apart. Fast phase switching of the RF to the bunch length compressor in the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section can produce the necessary advance of the scavenger bunch (about 6 degree in phase). This allows a low energy spread of this third bunch at the e + -production region at 2/3 of the linac length, while the other bunches are not influenced. The principles and possible other applications of this fast phase switching as using it for multi-bunches, as well as the experimental layout for the actual RTL compressor are presented
Multi-Bunch Simulations of the ILC for Luminosity Performance Studies
White, Glen; Walker, Nicholas J
2005-01-01
To study the luminosity performance of the International Linear Collider (ILC) with different design parameters, a simulation was constructed that tracks a multi-bunch representation of the beam from the Damping Ring extraction through to the Interaction Point. The simulation code PLACET is used to simulate the LINAC, MatMerlin is used to track through the Beam Delivery System and GUINEA-PIG for the beam-beam interaction. Included in the simulation are ground motion and wakefield effects, intra-train fast feedback and luminosity-based feedback systems. To efficiently study multiple parameters/multiple seeds, the simulation is deployed on the Queen Mary High-Throughput computing cluster at Queen Mary, University of London, where 100 simultaneous simulation seeds can be run.
Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies
Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D
2012-01-01
Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.
Function of bunching segment in multi-cell RF gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xingfan; Xu Zhou Liu Xisan
2001-01-01
With a bunching segment and a shortened first cell, the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun produced in CAEP has been proved experimentally to be effective in reducing electron back bombardment. The analysis of the electric field distribution and electron motion in bunching segment of multi-cell RF gun is presented. The electron capture efficiency and electron trajectory with different initial phase are calculated using Runge-Kutta method. The function of the bunching segment is discussed. The calculated parameters of the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun agree well with the experimental results
Timing system for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at ATF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naito, T.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Imai, T.
2000-01-01
A timing system has been constructed for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at KEK-ATF. The linac accelerates 20 bunches of multi-bunch with 2.8 ns spacing. The Damping Ring stores up to 5 trains of multi-bunch. The timing system is required to provide flexible operation mode and bucket selection. A personal computer is used for manipulating the timing. The performance of kicker magnets at the injection/extruction is key issue for multi-train operation. The hardware and the test results are presented. (author)
Beam-Beam Interaction Studies at LHC
Schaumann, Michaela; Alemany Fernandez, R
2011-01-01
The beam-beam force is one of the most important limiting factors in the performance of a collider, mainly in the delivered luminosity. Therefore, it is essential to measure the effects in LHC. Moreover, adequate understanding of LHC beam-beam interaction is of crucial importance in the design phases of the LHC luminosity upgrade. Due to the complexity of this topic the work presented in this thesis concentrates on the beam-beam tune shift and orbit effects. The study of the Linear Coherent Beam-Beam Parameter at the LHC has been determined with head-on collisions with small number of bunches at injection energy (450 GeV). For high bunch intensities the beam-beam force is strong enough to expect orbit effects if the two beams do not collide head-on but with a crossing angle or with a given offset. As a consequence the closed orbit changes. The closed orbit of an unperturbed machine with respect to a machine where the beam-beam force becomes more and more important has been studied and the results are as well ...
Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2005-01-01
The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (T_{E}L) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the T_{E}L are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the T_{E}L provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.
Choice of parameters for linear colliders in multi-bunch mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claus, J.
1987-01-01
The energy efficiency of a linear collider in multi-bunch mode is calculated for the case that the bunches in each of the two interacting beams are identical in all interaction points, a configuration which can be realized by taking advantage of the beam-beam effect between beams of opposite electric charge. The maximization of the efficiency is discussed, the maximum appears to increase nearly linearly with beam brightness and accelerating gradient, and about quadratically with the length of the ir. The optimum operating frequency for the linacs increases also, while the pulse repetition rate and the beam current needed for fixed luminosity, decrease. The increasing brightness and the decreasing current needed for higher efficiency lead to smaller transverse spotsizes in the crossing points; this imposes tighter tolerances on the relative transverse coordinates of the two beam-axes. Pillbox or similar resonators, excited in the TM01 mode, may be preferable to quadrupoles for transverse focusing, at the high frequencies and gradients that seem desirable, particularly in the final focus. 4 refs., 7 figs
Beam-beam-induced orbit effects at LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaumann, M; Fernandez, R Alemany
2014-01-01
For high bunch intensities the long-range beam-beam interactions are strong enough to provoke effects on the orbit. As a consequence the closed orbit changes. The closed orbit of an unperturbed machine with respect to a machine where the beam-beam force becomes more and more important has been studied and the results are presented in this paper
'Electron compression' of beam-beam footprint in the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiltsev, V.; Finley, D.A.
1997-08-01
The beam-beam interaction in the Tevatron collider sets some limits on bunch intensity and luminosity. These limits are caused by a tune spread in each bunch which is mostly due to head-on collisions, but there is also a bunch-to-bunch tune spread due to parasitic collisions in multibunch operation. We describe a counter-traveling electron beam which can be used to eliminate these effects, and present general considerations and physics limitations of such a device which provides 'electron compression' of the beam-beam footprint in the Tevatron
Studies of the beam-beam interaction for the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnagopal, S.; Furman, M.A.; Turner, W.C.
1999-01-01
The authors have used the beam-beam simulation code CBI to study the beam-beam interaction for the LHC. We find that for nominal LHC parameters, and assuming only one bunch per beam, there are no collective (coherent) beam-beam instabilities. We have investigated the effect of sweeping one of the beams around the other (a procedure that could be used as a diagnostic for head-on beam-beam collisions). We find that this does not cause any problems at the nominal current, though at higher currents there can be beam blow-up and collective beam motion. consequence of quadrupole collective effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herr, W; Pieloni, T
2014-01-01
One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities
OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.
2003-01-01
RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far
Beam-beam limit in e+e- circular colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohmi, K.; Tawada, M.; Kamada, S.; Oide, K.; Cai, Y.; Qiang, J.
2004-01-01
Beam-beam effects limit the luminosity of circular colliders. Once the bunch population exceeds a threshold, the luminosity increases at a slower rate. This phenomenon is called the beam-beam limit. Onset of the beam-beam limit has been analyzed with various simulation methods based on the weak-strong and strong-strong models. We have observed that an incoherent phenomenon is mainly concerned in the beam-beam limit. The simulation have shown that equilibrium distributions of the two colliding beams are distorted from Gaussians when the luminosity is limited. The beam-beam limit is estimated to be ξ∼0.1 for a B factory with damping time of several thousand turns
Simulation of Transverse Multi-Bunch Instabilities of Proton Beams in LHC
Koschik, Alexander; Zotter, Bruno
The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed for highest luminosity and therefore requires operation with a large number of bunches and high intensities. Its performance could be limited by the electromagnetic interaction between the charged particle beam and its surroundings which cause collective instabilities. This thesis describes methods of simulating and analyzing multi-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators and storage rings. The simulation models as well as analyzing tools presented here, also facilitate the interpretation of measurements in multi-bunch machines. The 3-dimensional, multi-bunch tracking program MultiTRISIM was developed, based on its single-bunch predecessor TRISIM3D. It allows the exploration of longrange effects in round or flat vacuum chambers for equidistant or uneven filling schemes. Previous computer simulations of collective effects concentrated mainly on instabilities of single or few bunches in electron storage rings. There, the strong radiation damping reduces the r...
Design of a Multi-Bunch BPM for the Next Linear Collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, Andrew
2003-01-01
The Next Linear Collider (NLC) design requires precise control of colliding trains of high-intensity (1.4 x 10 10 particles/bunch) and low-emittance beams. High-resolution multi-bunch beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to ensure uniformity across the bunch trains with bunch spacing of 1.4ns. A high bandwidth (∼350 MHz) multi-bunch BPM has been designed based on a custom-made stripline sum and difference hybrid on a Teflon-based material. High bandwidth RF couplers were included to allow injection of a calibration tone. Three prototype BPMs were fabricated at SLAC and tested in the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and in the PEP-II ring at SLAC. Tone calibration data and single-bunch and multi-bunch beam data were taken with high-speed (5Gsa/s) digitizers. Offline analysis determined the deconvolution of individual bunches in the multi-bunch mode by using the measured single bunch response. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper
Limitations due to strong head-on beam-beam interactions (MD 1434)
Buffat, Xavier; Iadarola, Giovanni; Papadopoulou, Parthena Stefania; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pellegrini, Dario; Pojer, Mirko; Crockford, Guy; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Trad, Georges; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
The results of an experiment aiming at probing the limitations due to strong head on beam-beam interactions are reported. It is shown that the loss rates significantly increase when moving the working point up and down the diagonal, possibly due to effects of the 10th and/or 14th order resonances. Those limitations are tighter for bunches with larger beam-beam parameters, a maximum total beam-beam tune shift just below 0.02 could be reached.
Measurement of multi-bunch transfer functions using time-domain data and Fourier analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hindi, H.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Fox, J.; Prabhakar, S.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Drago, A.
1993-12-01
Multi-bunch transfer functions are principal ingredients in understanding both the behavior of high-current storage rings as well as control of their instabilities. The measurement of transfer functions on a bunch-by-bunch basis is particularly important in the design of active feedback systems. Traditional methods of network analysis that work well in the single bunch case become difficult to implement for many bunches. We have developed a method for obtaining empirical estimates of the multi-bunch longitudinal transfer functions from the time-domain measurements of the bunches' phase oscillations. This method involves recording the response of the bunch of interest to a white-noise excitation. The transfer function can then be computed as the ratio of the fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of the response and excitation sequences, averaged over several excitations. The calculation is performed off-line on bunch-phase data and is well-suited to the multi-bunch case. A description of this method and an analysis of its performance is presented with results obtained using the longitudinal quick prototype feedback system developed at SLAC
Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-06-24
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.
On the preservation of single- and multi-bunch emittance in linear accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drevlak, M.
1995-11-01
This document is concentrated on the investigation of the dynamics of a particle beam in a linear accelerator. We numerically simulate a number of effects and evaluate the severity of their impact on the beam. Furthermore, we examine the applicability of several correction techniques aiming at the suppression or correction of the effects diluting the beam emittance. First, there is the issue of single-bunch dynamics : we see that wake field effects and dispersive errors can cause a significant emittance growth. Secondly, long range dipole wakes and dispersive effects arising from the energy spread between different bunches will cause relative offsets between the individual bunches and likewise result in emittance growth. Finally, we observe interactions between the single-bunch and multi-bunch dynamics in a bunch train, which further aggravate these effects. The corrective measures against emittance growth are first tested with respect to individual effects relating to issues of single- or multi-bunch dynamics. Later, these different correction techniques are joined to one machine tuning procedure that will be applied in order to achieve good emittance preservation for operation of the accelerator with a full beam consisting of the full number of bunches. The performance of this procedure is tested in simulations of the combined single- and multi-bunch dynamics. Finally, tolerances on the machine alignment as well as machine and beam parameters are established. (orig.)
A symplectic coherent beam-beam model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.A.
1989-05-01
We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs
Analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring
Bartolini, Riccardo; Rehm, Guenther; Smaluk, Victor
2017-01-01
We present the result of the analytical, numerical and experimental analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring. This work compares the impedance estimates with CST with the analysis of the growth rates of the excited multi-bunch modes in different machine configurations. The contribution of a number of wakefield sources has been identified with very high precision thanks to high quality data provided by the existing TMBF diagnostics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teng, L.C.
1980-01-01
In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.
1992-01-01
There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)
Simulation of beam-beam effects in tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, C.S.; Assadi, S.; Talman, R.
1995-08-01
The Fermilab accelerator complex is in the middle of an upgrade plan Fermilab III. In the last phase of this upgrade the luminosity of the Tevatron will increase by at least one order of magnitude. In order to keep the number of interactions per crossing manageable for experiments, the number of bunches will be increased from 6 x 6 to 36 x 36 and finally to ∼100 x 100 bunches. The beam dynamics of the Tevatron has been studied from Beam-Beam effect point of view in a ''Strong-Weak'' representation with a single particle being tracked in presence of other beam. This paper describes the beam-beam effect in 6 x 6 operation of Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stancari, Giulio
2014-09-11
Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.
Beam-beam force and storage ring parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, J.C.
1979-01-01
The fundamental aspects of the beam--beam force as it occurs in Intersecting Storage Rings are reported. The way in which the effect of the beam--particle electromagnetic force (weak--strong interaction) is different in the case of unbunched proton beams which cross each other at an angle (as in the ISR and in ISABELLE) is shown, as compared to the case of electron--positron beams where bunches collide head-on
Beam-beam depolarization in SPEAR and PEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montague, B.W.
1977-01-01
In this note some approximate estimates are made of depolarization due to beam-beam forces in SPEAR and PEP, using the results of a calculation by Kondratenko. The model assumes head-on collisions between bunches of Gaussian distribution in the transverse directions; the force on the weak-beam particle is taken to be a δ-function at the interaction point. 1 ref
Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG
Schulte, Daniel
1998-01-01
While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.
Observations of the beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeman, J.T.
1985-11-01
The observed complexity of the beam-beam interaction is the subject of this paper. The varied observations obtained from many storage rings happen to be sufficiently similar that a prescription can be formulated to describe the behavior of the luminosity as a function of beam current including the peak value. This prescription can be used to interpret various methods for improving the luminosity. Discussion of these improvement methods is accompanied with examples from actual practice. The consequences of reducing the vertical betatron function (one of the most used techniques) to near the value of the bunch length are reviewed. Finally, areas needing further experimental and calculational studies are pointed out as they are uncovered
Beam-beam collisions and crossing angles in RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peggs, S.
1999-01-01
This paper evaluates the strength of head on and parasitic beam-beam collisions in RHIC when the crossing angle is zero. A non-zero crossing angle is not required in normal operation with 120 bunches, thanks to the early separation of the two beams. The RHIC lattice is shown to easily accommodate even conservatively large crossing angles, for example in beam dynamics studies, or in future operational upgrades to as many as 360 bunches per ring. A modest loss in luminosity is incurred when gold ions collide at an angle after 10 hours of storage
Instability of compensated beam-beam collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, J.B.; Autin, B.; Chen, Pisin.
1989-01-01
The beam-beam disruption phenomena in linear colliders are increasingly seen as a source of serious problems for these machines. A plasma compensation scheme, in which the motion of the plasma electrons in the presence of the colliding beams provides neutralizing charge and current densities, has been proposed and studied. But natural alternative to this scheme is to consider the overlapping of nearly identical high energy e + and e/sup /minus// bunches, and the collision of two such pairs - in other words, collision of two opposing relativistic positronium plasmas. It should be noticed that while the luminosity for all collisions is increased by a factor of four in this scheme, the event rate for e + e/sup /minus// collisions is only increased by a factor of two. The other factor of two corresponds to the addition of e + e + and e/sup /minus//e/sup /minus// collisions to the interaction point. This beam compensation scheme, which has been examined through computer simulation by Balakin and Solyak in the Soviet Union, promises full neutralization of beam charges and currents. These numerical investigations have shown that plasma instabilities exist in this nominally neutral system. Although the implementation of this idea seems technically daunting, the potential benefits (beamstrahlung and disruption suppression, relaxation of final focus system constraints) are such that we should consider the physics of these collisions further. In the remainder of this paper, we theoretically analyze the issues of stability and bunch parameter tolerances in this scheme. 11 refs
A multi-frequency approach to free electron lasers driven by short electron bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piovella, Nicola
1997-01-01
A multi-frequency model for free electron lasers (FELs), based on the Fourier decomposition of the radiation field coupled with the beam electrons, is discussed. We show that the multi-frequency approach allows for an accurate description of the evolution of the radiation spectrum, also when the FEL is driven by short electron bunches, of arbitrary longitudinal profile. We derive from the multi-frequency model, by averaging over one radiation period, the usual FEL equations modelling the slippage between radiation and particles and describing the super-radiant regime in high-gain FELs. As an example of application of the multi-frequency model, we discuss the coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) from short electron bunches
A Symplectic Beam-Beam Interaction with Energy Change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moshammer, Herbert
2003-01-01
The performance of many colliding storage rings is limited by the beam-beam interaction. A particle feels a nonlinear force produced by the encountering bunch at the collision. This beam-beam force acts mainly in the transverse directions so that the longitudinal effects have scarcely been studied, except for the cases of a collision with a crossing angle. Recently, however, high luminosity machines are being considered where the beams are focused extensively at the interaction point (IP) so that the beam sizes can vary significantly within the bunch length. Krishnagopal and Siemann have shown that they should not neglect the bunch length effect in this case. The transverse kick depends on the longitudinal position as well as on the transverse position. If they include this effect, however, from the action-reaction principle, they should expect, at the same time, an energy change which depends on the transverse coordinates. Such an effect is reasonably understood from the fact that the beam-beam force is partly due to the electric field, which can change the energy. The action-reaction principle comes from the symplecticity of the reaction: the electromagnetic influence on a particle is described by a Hamiltonian. The symplecticity is one of the most fundamental requirements when studying the beam dynamics. A nonsymplectic approximation can easily lead to unphysical results. In this paper, they propose a simple, approximately but symplectic mapping for the beam-beam interaction which includes the energy change as well as the bunch-length effect. In the next section, they propose the mapping in a Hamiltonian form, which directly assures its symplecticity. Then in section 3, they study the nature of the mapping by interpreting its consequences. The mapping itself is quite general and can be applied to any distribution function. They show in Section 4 how it appears when the distribution function is a Gaussian in transverse directions. The mapping is applied to the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, M.; Higo, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Takeda, S.; Oide, K.; Takata, K.
1993-01-01
In order to accept the beam from an injector linac to a damping ring of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a multi-bunch energy distribution must be within ±0.3% of the beam energy. Most of the multi-bunch energy distribution linear by depends on a bunch number and this linear term can be corrected by the energy conpesention cavities. So non-linear term was calculated. It was found that the non-linear term is within ±0.3%. (author)
Experimental observations and theoretical models for beam-beam phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheifets, S.
1981-03-01
The beam-beam interaction in storage rings exhibits all the characteristics of nonintegrable dynamical systems. Here one finds all kinds of resonances, closed orbits, stable and unstable fixed points, stochastic layers, chaotic behavior, diffusion, etc. The storage ring itself being an expensive device nevertheless while constructed and put into operation presents a good opportunity of experimentally studying the long-time behavior of both conservative (proton machines) and nonconservative (electron machines) dynamical systems - the number of bunch-bunch interactions routinely reaches values of 10/sup 10/-10/sup 11/ and could be increased by decreasing the beam current. At the same time the beam-beam interaction puts practical limits for the yield of the storage ring. This phenomenon not only determines the design value of main storage ring parameters (luminosity, space charge parameters, beam current), but also in fact prevents many of the existing storage rings from achieving design parameters. Hence, the problem has great practical importance along with its enormous theoretical interest. A brief overview of the problem is presented.
Experimental observations and theoretical models for beam-beam phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheifets, S.
1981-03-01
The beam-beam interaction in storage rings exhibits all the characteristics of nonintegrable dynamical systems. Here one finds all kinds of resonances, closed orbits, stable and unstable fixed points, stochastic layers, chaotic behavior, diffusion, etc. The storage ring itself being an expensive device nevertheless while constructed and put into operation presents a good opportunity of experimentally studying the long-time behavior of both conservative (proton machines) and nonconservative (electron machines) dynamical systems - the number of bunch-bunch interactions routinely reaches values of 10 10 -10 11 and could be increased by decreasing the beam current. At the same time the beam-beam interaction puts practical limits for the yield of the storage ring. This phenomenon not only determines the design value of main storage ring parameters (luminosity, space charge parameters, beam current), but also in fact prevents many of the existing storage rings from achieving design parameters. Hence, the problem has great practical importance along with its enormous theoretical interest. A brief overview of the problem is presented
Long-range beam-beam interactions in the Tevatron: Comparing simulation to tune shift data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saritepe, S.; Michelotti, L.; Peggs, S.
1990-07-01
Fermilab upgrade plans for the collider operation include a separation scheme in the Tevatron, in which protons and antiprotons are placed on separate helical orbits. The average separation distance between the closed orbits will be 5σ (σ of the proton bunch) except at the interaction regions, B0 and D0, where they collide head-on. The maximum beam-beam total tune shift in the Tevatron is approximately 0.024 (the workable tune space between 5th and 7th order resonances), which was reached in the 1988--1989 collider tun. Helical separation scheme allows us to increase the luminosity by reducing the total beam-beam tune shift. The number of bunches per beam will be 6 in the 1991 collider tun, to be increased to 36 in the following collider runs. To test the viability of this scenario, helical orbit studies are being conducted. The most recent studies concentrated on the injection of 36 proton bunches, procedures related to opening and closing of the helix, the feed-down circuits and the beam-beam interaction. In this paper, we present the results of the beam-beam interaction studies only. Our emphasis is on the tune shift measurements and the comparison to simulation. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs
Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Busold
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 10^{9} particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤30 mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.
Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source
Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Frydrych, S.; Kroll, F.; Joost, M.; Al-Omari, H.; Blažević, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Hofmann, I.; Bagnoud, V.; Cowan, T. E.; Roth, M.
2013-10-01
Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 109 particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤30mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.
Importance of beam-beam tune spread to collective beam-beam instability in hadron colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Lihui; Shi Jicong
2004-01-01
In hadron colliders, electron-beam compensation of beam-beam tune spread has been explored for a reduction of beam-beam effects. In this paper, effects of the tune-spread compensation on beam-beam instabilities were studied with a self-consistent beam-beam simulation in model lattices of Tevatron and Large Hodron Collider. It was found that the reduction of the tune spread with the electron-beam compensation could induce a coherent beam-beam instability. The merit of the compensation with different degrees of tune-spread reduction was evaluated based on beam-size growth. When two beams have a same betatron tune, the compensation could do more harm than good to the beams when only beam-beam effects are considered. If a tune split between two beams is large enough, the compensation with a small reduction of the tune spread could benefit beams as Landau damping suppresses the coherent beam-beam instability. The result indicates that nonlinear (nonintegrable) beam-beam effects could dominate beam dynamics and a reduction of beam-beam tune spread by introducing additional beam-beam interactions and reducing Landau damping may not improve the stability of beams
Detection of coherent beam-beam modes with digitized beam position monitor signals
Stancari, G.; White, S.M.
2014-01-01
A system for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations in the Fermilab Tevatron collider is described. It is based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, band-limited noise is applied to the beam for about 1 s. This excitation does not adversely affect the circulating beams even at high luminosities. The device has a response time of a few seconds, a frequency resolution of $1.6\\times 10^{-5}$ in fractional tune, and it is sensitive to oscillation amplitudes of 60 nm. It complements Schottky detectors as a diagnostic tool for tunes, tune spreads, and beam-beam effects. Measurements of coherent mode spectra are presented and compared with models of beam-beam oscillations.
Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.A.
1992-07-01
We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e + - e - colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II)
Simulation of wire-compensation of long range beam beam interaction in high energy accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorda, U.; )
2006-01-01
Full text: We present weak-strong simulation results for the effect of long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interaction in LHC as well as for proposed wire compensation schemes or wire experiments, respectively. In particular, we discuss details of the simulation model, instability indicators, the effectiveness of compensation, the difference between nominal and PACMAN bunches for the LHC, beam experiments, and wire tolerances. The simulations are performed with the new code BBTrack. (author)
Summary of Working Group I - beam-beam instability with crossing angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, T.
1995-06-01
This report is a summary report from a panel addressing the problem of beam-beam instability in colliding beams at finite crossing angles. This problem arises in the process of increasing luminosity in large circular particle factories. The primary means of increasing luminosity comes down to increasing the number of bunches in each beam, while decreasing the spacing between bunches. This situation favors finite crossing angle collision schemes. However such schemes allow synchro-betatron coupling, as transverse and longitudinal energies are mixed. The authors summarize their discussions on this problem, and the present state of experience with such schemes
Multi-bunch effect of resistive wall in the Beam Delivery System of the Compact Linear Collider
Mutzner, R; Rumolo, G; Tomas, R; Pieloni, T
2010-01-01
Wake fields in the CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) can cause severe single or multi-bunch effects leading to luminosity loss. The main contributors in the BDS are geometric and resistive wall wake fields of the collimators and resistive wall wakes of the beam pipe. The present work focuses only on the multi-bunch effects from resistive wall. Using particle tracking with wake fields through the BDS, we have established the aperture radius, above which the effect of the wake fields becomes negligible. Our simulations were later extended to include a realistic aperture model along the BDS as well as the collimators. The two cases of 3 TeV and 500 GeV have been examined.
Multi-Bunch effect of resistive wall in the beam delivery system of the Compact Linear Collider
Mutzner, Raphael; Pieloni, Tatiana; Rivkin, Leonid
2010-01-01
Wake fields in the CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) can cause severe single or multi-bunch effects leading to luminosity loss. The main contributors in the BDS are geometric and resistive wall wake fields of the collimators and resistive wall wakes of the beam pipe. The present master thesis focuses only on the multi-bunch effects from resistive wall. Using particle tracking with wake fields through the BDS, we have established the aperture radius, above which the effect of the wake fields becomes negligible. Simulations were later extended to include a realistic aperture model along the BDS as well as the collimators. We examine the two cases of 3 TeV and 500 GeV in this work, for stainless steel and copper pipes.
Future e+e- linear colliders and beam-beam effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.B.
1986-05-01
Numerous concepts, ranging from conventional to highly exotic, hae been proposed for the acceleration of electrons and positrons to very high energies. For any such concept to be viable, it must be possible to produce from it a set of consistent parameters for one of these ''benchmark'' machines. Attention is directed to the choice of parameters for a collider in the 300 GeV energy range, operating at a gradient on the order of 200 MV/m, using X-band power sources to drive a conventional disk-loaded accelerating structure. These rf power sources, while not completely conventional represent a reasonable extrapolation from present technology. The choice of linac parameters is strongly coupled to various beam-beam effects which take place when the electron and positron bunches collide. We summarize these beam-beam effects, and then return to the rf design of a 650 GeV center-of-mass collider. 14 refs
Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC
Lukic, Strahinja
2013-01-01
Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: - Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. - Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. - Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.
Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC
Lukic, Strahinja
2013-01-01
Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: -> Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. -> Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. -> Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.
Time-resolved soft x-ray absorption setup using multi-bunch operation modes at synchrotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stebel, L.; Sigalotti, P.; Ressel, B.; Cautero, G.; Malvestuto, M.; Capogrosso, V.; Bondino, F.; Magnano, E.; Parmigiani, F.
2011-01-01
Here, we report on a novel experimental apparatus for performing time-resolved soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the sub-ns time scale using non-hybrid multi-bunch mode synchrotron radiation. The present setup is based on a variable repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser (pump pulse) synchronized with the ∼500 MHz x-ray synchrotron radiation bunches and on a detection system that discriminates and singles out the significant x-ray photon pulses by means of a custom made photon counting unit. The whole setup has been validated by measuring the time evolution of the L 3 absorption edge during the melting and the solidification of a Ge single crystal irradiated by an intense ultrafast laser pulse. These results pave the way for performing synchrotron time-resolved experiments in the sub-ns time domain with variable repetition rate exploiting the full flux of the synchrotron radiation.
Beam-beam dynamics during the injection process at the PEP-II B-Factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Yong Ho.
1991-10-01
This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory based on PEP (PEP-2). For symmetric colliders, the primary source of the beam-beam effect is the head-on collision at the interaction point (IP), and this effect can be mitigated by separating the beams during the injection process. For an asymmetric collider, which intrinsically consists of two separate rings, the bunches not only collide at the IP but experience a long-range beam-beam force on the way into and out of the IP region. These collisions are called ''parasitic crossings (PC).'' The parasitic crossings emerge as a potential source of far stronger beam-beam impact during the injection process for the following reason. In the proposed injection scheme of the APIARY-6.3d design, the bunches are injected horizontally into the two rings with large horizontal offset of 8σ Ox sptm where σ Ox sptm is the nominal horizontal storage ring beam size at the end of the septum magnet. Then, the injected beam starts to travel around the ring oscillating horizontally. For the sake of discussion, let us assume that the beam in the other ring has already been fully stored. When the injected beam arrives at the 1st PC, where the two nominal orbits are separated horizontally by about 7.6 times the nominal horizontal beam size of the low energy ring, it may pass through the other beam far more closely than at the nominal separation distance, or it may even strike the other beam head-on
Dynamical chaos and beam-beam models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izrailev, F.M.
1990-01-01
Some aspects of the nonlinear dynamics of beam-beam interaction for simple one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of round and flat beams are discussed. The main attention is paid to the stochasticity threshold due to the overlapping of nonlinear resonances. The peculiarities of a round beam are investigated in view of using the round beams in storage rings to get high luminosity. 16 refs.; 7 figs
Beam-beam interaction working group summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siemann, R.H.
1995-01-01
The limit in hadron colliders is understood phenomenologically. The beam-beam interaction produces nonlinear resonances and makes the transverse tunes amplitude dependent. Tune spreads result from the latter, and as long as these tune spreads do not overlap low order resonances, the lifetime and performance is acceptable. Experience is that tenth and sometimes twelfth order resonances must be avoided, and the hadron collider limit corresponds roughly to the space available between resonances of that and lower order when operating near the coupling resonance. The beam-beam interaction in e + e - colliders is not understood well. This affects the performance of existing colliders and could lead to surprises in new ones. For example. a substantial amount of operator tuning is usually required to reach the performance limit given above, and this tuning has to be repeated after each major shutdown. The usual interpretation is that colliding beam performance is sensitive to small lattice errors, and these are being reduced during tuning. It is natural to ask what these errors are, how can a lattice be characterized to minimize tuning time, and what aspects of a lattice should receive particular attention when a new collider is being designed. The answers to this type of question are not known, and developing ideas for calculations, simulations and experiments that could illuminate the details of the beam-beam interaction was the primary working group activity
Investigation of the flip-flop beam-beam effect in SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donald, M.H.R.; Paterson, J.M.
1980-01-01
When colliding electron and positron bunches in SPEAR at high values of the beam-beam tune shift parameter Δν, it had been observed that sometimes one of the equal intensity beams would blow up in the vertical plane more than the other beam. It was subsequently found that a small adjustment to the phase difference between the RF accelerating cavities would make the beam flip the other way. The results of the investigation of this phenomenon are presented in this paper
Investigation of the flip-flop beam--beam effect in SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donald, M.H.R.; Paterson, J.M.
1979-03-01
When colliding electron and positron bunches in SPEAR at high values of the beam--beam tune shift parameter Δν, it had been observed that sometimes one of the equal intensity beams would blow up in the vertical plane more than the other beam. It was subsequently found that a small adjustment to the phase difference between the RF accelerating cavities would make the beam flip the other way. The results of the investigation of this phenomenon are presented in this paper
An experimental study of a new multi-bunch damping mechanism in PETRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heins, D.; Kohaupt, R.D.; Kriens, W.; Leneke, M.; Matthiesen, K.H.; Musfeldt, H.; Paetzold, S.
1986-12-01
In this article we describe the experiment which has been performed in PETRA in order to demonstrate the existence of the damping mechanism based on a combination of a narrow-band feedback system and frequency splitting between bunches. (orig./HSI)
A longitudinal multi-bunch feedback system using parallel digital signal processors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sapozhnikov, L.; Fox, J.D.; Olsen, J.J.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.
1994-01-01
A programmable longitudinal feedback system based on four AT ampersand T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R ampersand D program. This longitudinal quick prototype is a proof of concept for the PEP-II system and implements full-speed bunch-by-bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacings of 4 ns. The design incorporates a phase-detector-based front end that digitizes the oscillation phases of bunches at the 250 MHz crossing rate, four programmable signal processors that compute correction signals, and a 250-MHz hold buffer/kicker driver stage that applies correction signals back on the beam. The design implements a general-purpose, table-driven downsampler that allows the system to be operated at several accelerator facilities. The hardware architecture of the signal processing is described, and the software algorithms used in the feedback signal computation are discussed. The system configuration used for tests at the LBL Advanced Light Source is presented
Multi-bunch energy spread induced by beam loading in standing wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F.
1995-04-01
The interaction of a relativistic beam with the modes of the TM 010 pass-band of a multicell cavity does not cause any problem: although all the modes are excited by the RF (radiofrequency) generator, resulting in different cell excitations during the cavity filling and the beam pulse, the net accelerating field exhibits negligible fluctuations from bunch to bunch. However, when the beam is not fully relativistic, this is no more true. The phase slippage occurring in the first cells, between the non relativistic beam and the lower pass-band modes, produces an effective enhancement of the shunt impedances, which is usually negligible for a relativistic beam in a well tuned cavity. Moreover, the voltage jumps (amplitude and phase) occurring at each bunch passage, as well as the beam detuning caused by the off-crest bunches, vary from cell to cell. These effects enhance dramatically the fluctuation of the accelerating voltage, with a dominant beating provided by the pass-band mode nearest to the pi-mode. The induced beam energy spread has been estimated by the help of two distinct codes, developed at Frascati (Italy) and (Saclay), with results in good agreement. While an interaction integral is computed at each bunch passage, the cavity refilling is calculated by solving coupled differential equations of the modes of the pass-band, driven by a generator linked to one end-cell. It is shown also that the intermode coupling arises from the external Q of the drive end-cell, and not from the wall losses. For illustration, the authors applied the method to the beam-loading problem in the SC capture cavity of the low charge injector of the TESLA test facility installed at DESY
An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation
AUTHOR|(CDS)2070952; Valishev, Aleksander; Shatilov, Dmitry
2015-01-01
In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical β∗ values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.
An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fartoukh, Stephane [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Shatilov, Dmitry [BINP, Novosibirsk
2015-06-01
In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical $\\beta^{\\ast}$values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.
A map for the thick beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irwin, J.; Chen, T.
1995-01-01
The authors give a closed-form expression for the thick beam-beam interaction for a small disruption parameter, as typical in electron-positron storage rings. The dependence on transverse angle and position of the particle trajectory as well as the longitudinal position of collision and the waist-modified shape of the beam distribution are included. Large incident angles, as are present for beam-halo particles or for large crossing-angle geometry, are accurately represented. The closed-form expression is well approximated by polynomials times the complex error function. Comparisons with multi-slice representations show even the first order terms are more accurate than a five slice representation, saving a factor of 5 in computation time
Survey of beam-beam limitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courant, E.; Cornacchia, M.; Donald, M.M.R.; Evans, L.R.; Tazzari, S.; Wilson, E.J.N.
1979-01-01
The effect of beam-beam interaction is known to limit the luminosity of electron-positron storage rings and will, no doubt, limit the proton-antiproton collision scheme for the SPS. While theorists are struggling to explain this phenomenon it is more instructive to list their failures than their rather limited successes, in the hope that experiments may emerge which will direct their endeavors. The search for a description of a nonlinear system as it approaches the limit in which ordered motion breaks down, is the nub of the problem. It has engaged many fine mathematical intellects for decades and will no doubt continue to do so long after ISABELLE, the p antip and LEP are past achievements. Empirical scaling laws are emerging which relate electron machines to each other but their extrapolation to proton machines remain a very speculative exercise. Experimental data on proton limits is confined to one machine, the ISR, which does not normally suffer the beam-beam effect and where it must be artificially induced or simulated. This machine is also very different in important ways from the p antip collider. The gloomy picture which has emerged recently is that the fixed limits which were conventionally assumed for proton and electron machines can only be said to be valid for the machines which engendered them - the best guess that could be made at the time. They are very difficult to extrapolate to other sets of parameters
Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC
Sailer, Andre
2010-01-01
The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GuineaPig and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam background hitting the vertex detector.
Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC
Sailer, A
2010-01-01
The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.
Rimbault, C.; Le Meur, G.; Blampuy, F.; Bambade, P.; Schulte, D.
2009-12-01
Depolarization is a new feature in the beam-beam simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++ (GP++). The results of this simulation are studied and compared with another beam-beam simulation tool, CAIN, considering different beam parameters for the International Linear Collider (ILC) with a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV.
Beam-beam interaction in e+-e- storage rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Duff, J.
1977-01-01
Colliding beams in electron-positron storage rings are discussed with particular reference to the space charge forces occuring during beam-beam interactions and their effect on beam current and consequently machine performance (maximum luminosity). The first section deals with linear beam-beam effects and discussses linear tune shift; the second section considers non-linear beam-beam effects and the creation on non-linear resonances. The last section poses questions of the possibility of extrapolating present results to future machines and discusses optimization of storage ring performance. (B.D.)
Bunch by bunch feedback systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tobiyama, Makoto
2006-01-01
Outlines of bunch-by-bunch feedback systems for suppressing multibunch instabilities in electron/positron storage rings are presented. The design principles and functions of the feedback components are reviewed. Recent topics of applying very fast and dense FPGA as feedback signal processor are also shown. (author)
LHC MD2877: Beam-beam long range impact on coupling measurements
Wenninger, Jorg; Carlier, Felix Simon; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Hostettler, Michi; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Valuch, Daniel; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2018-01-01
The LHC is now operating with a tune separation of ∼0.004 in collision. This puts tight constraints on the allowed transverse coupling since a |C−| larger than a fraction of the fractional tune split may lead to beam instabilities. In the last years a new tool based on the ADT used in a similar way as an AC-dipole to excite the beam was developed. The ADT AC-dipole gives coherent oscillations without increasing the beam emittance. These oscillations are analyzed automatically to obtain the value of the coupling. A coupling measurement campaign was done in 2017 and while the correction converged and stayed rather constant over time it was observed that depending on the target bunch and ﬁlling scheme the results could vary by Δ|C−| ∼ 0.002. In this MD report we investigated 3 diﬀerent bunches, one with Long Range Beam-Beam (LRBB) in IPs 1 and 5, one with LRBB in all IPs and one with no LRBB. The results indicate that there are diﬀerences in coupling between the bunches experiencing diﬀerent LR...
Beam-beam interaction and Pacman effects in the SSC with random nonlinear multipoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goderre, G.P.; Ohnuma, S.
1988-01-01
In order to find the combined effects of beam-beam interaction (head-on and long-range) and random nonlinear multipoles in dipole magnets, transverse tunes and smears have been calculated as a function of oscillation amplitudes. Two types of particles, ''regular'' and ''Pacman,'' have been investigated using a modified version of tracking code TEAPOT. Regular particles experience beam-beam interactions in all four interaction regions (IR's), both head-on and long range, while pacman particles interact with bunches of the other beam in one medium-beta and one low-beta IR's only. The model for the beam-beam interaction is of weak-strong type and the strong beam is assumed to have a round Gaussian charge distribution. Furthermore, it is assumed that the vertical closed orbit deviation arising from the finite crossing angle of 70 μrad is perfectly compensated for regular particles. The same compensation applied to pacman particles creates a closed orbit distortion. Linear tunes are adjusted for regular particles to the design values but there are no nonlinear corrections except for chromaticity correcting sextupoles in two families. Results obtained in this study do not show any reduction of dynamic or linear aperture for pacman particles but some doubts exist regarding the validity of defining the linear aperture from the smear alone. Preliminary results are given for regular particles when (Δp/p) is modulated by the synchrotron oscillation. For these, fifty oscillations corresponding to 26,350 revolutions have been tracked. A very slow increase in the horizontal amplitude, /approximately/4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4//oscillation (relative), is a possibility but this should be confirmed by trackings of larger number of revolutions. 11 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs
Simulation study of the beam-beam interaction at SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennyson, J.
1980-01-01
A two dimensional simulation study of the beam-beam interaction at SPEAR indicates that quantum fluctuations affecting the horizontal betatron oscillation play a critical role in the vertical beam blowup
Studies of halo distributions under beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, T.; Irwin, J.; Siemann, R.H.
1995-01-01
The halo distribution due to the beam-beam interaction in circular electron-positron colliders is simulated with a program which uses a technique that saves a factor of hundreds to thousands of CPU time. The distribution and the interference between the beam-beam interaction and lattice nonlinearities has been investigated. The effects on the halo distribution due to radiation damping misalignment at the collision point, and chromatic effect are presented
Flat bunch creation and acceleration: a possible path for the LHC luminosity upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhat, C.M.
2009-01-01
Increasing the collider luminosity by replacing bunches having Gaussian line-charge distribution with flat bunches, but with same beam-beam tune shift at collision, has been studied widely in recent years. But, creation of 'stable' flat bunches (and their acceleration) using a multiple harmonic RF system has not been fully explored. Here, we review our experience with long flat bunches in the barrier RF buckets at Fermilab.We presentsome preliminary results from beam dynamics simulations and recent beam studies in the LHC injectors to create stable flat bunches using double harmonic RF systems. The results deduced from these studies will be used to model the necessary scheme for luminosity upgrade in the LHC. We have also described a viable (and economical) way for creation and acceleration of flat bunches in the LHC. The flat bunch scheme may have many advantages over the LHC baseline scenario, particularly because of the reduced momentum spread of the bunch for increased intensities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fox, John D
1999-01-01
A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system based on a programmable DSP architecture is used to study coupled-bunch motion and its sources. Experimental results are presented from PEP-II, DAΦNE, ALS and SPEAR to highlight the operational experience from 4 installations, plus show novel accelerator diagnostics possible with the digital processing system. Modal growth and damping rates are measured via short (20 ms) transient recordings for unstable and stable coupled-bunch modes. Data from steady-state measurements are used to identify unstable modes and noise-driven beam motion. A novel impedance measurement technique is presented which reveals the longitudinal impedance as a function of frequency. This technique uses the measured synchronous phase and charge of every bucket to calculate the impedance seen by the beam at revolution harmonics
Beam-beam interactions in p-p storage rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keil, E.
1977-01-01
There are two lectures: the first part of this paper (sections 2 to 5) deals with the theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction, and the second part (sections 6 to 8) describe the results of experiments in the ISR. Section 3 describes the strengths of the beam-beam interaction in terms of the linear tune shift ΔQ which has been calculated for several models. Because of the non-uniform density distribution in the beam the force results in a tune spread. This can be calculated by a perturbation method as explained in section 4. Section 5 discusses the simulation of the beam-beam interaction on a computer. Finally, section 6 reviews beam-beam phenomena observed in the CERN-ISR. These include the absence of observable beam-beam effects in unbunched beams, overlap knock-out resonances, collisions between a low-energy beam and a high-intensity stack, experiments with a nonlinear lens, and experiments with a high-β insertion. Section 7 contains a few concluding remarks. (Auth.)
Beam-beam interactions in p-p storage rings
Keil, Eberhard
1977-01-01
There are two lectures. The first one (sections 2 to 5) deals with the theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction, and the second one (sections 6 to 8) describes the results of experiments in the ISR. Section 3 describes the strength of the beam-beam interaction in terms of the linear tune shift Delta Q which has been calculated for several models. Because of the non-uniform density distribution in the beam the force results in a tune spread. This can be calculated by a perturbation method as explained in section 4. Section 5 discusses the simulation of the beam-beam interaction on a computer. Finally, section 6 reviews beam-beam phenomena observed in the CERN-ISR. These include the absence of observable beam-beam effects in unbunched beams, overlap knock-out resonances, collisions between a low-energy beam and a high-intensity stack, experiments with a nonlinear lens, and experiments with a high- beta insertion. (20 refs).
CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in
CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1995-09-15
The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in 1983, using
The renormalized theory of beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Yong Ho.
1988-06-01
A new approach to calculate analytically the particle distribution in the presence of beam-beam interaction and synchrotron radiation effects for an electron-positron colliding beam storage ring is presented. The method is based on correct calculation of the Green's function which includes the full effect of the beam-beam force on the distortion of particle orbits, borrowing the renormalization technique of quantum field therory. By this way, the theory is applicable to any level of beam-beam interaction, no matter whether chaos ensues in phase space or not. This paper is devoted mostly to verificaiton of the theory by comparison with the results of computer simulations. Fairly good agreements are obtained. 5 refs., 3 figs
Creation and Storage of Long and Flat Bunches in the LHC
Damerau, H
2005-01-01
To maximize the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the collision of particle bunches with a uniform longitudinal particle density is considered for a future upgrade. The benefits of such bunches and their generation by means of special longitudinal beam manipulations are presented in this report. Three possible options are analyzed with respect to their potential luminosity gain at the beam-beam limit: short rectangular bunches held by radio frequency (RF) harmonics using multiples of the nominal RF frequency of 400.8MHz, long and flat bunches held by multiples of 40.08MHz, and so-called superbunches, confined by barrier buckets. The comparison of the three different approaches shows that flat bunches, with an intermediate bunch length of the order of several meters, are capable of producing a comparable luminosity to superbunches, while avoiding most of their inherent disadvantages. Possible schemes to create the bunches with uniform line density are studied and a longitudinal manipulation to com...
Beam-beam effect and luminosity in SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiedemann, H.
1980-01-01
Many measurements on the beam-beam limit in SPEAR have been performed over the past years. The goal for these measurements was to find the proper parameterization of the beam-beam effect. All measurements presented were done with both beams equally blown up by control of the flip-flop phenomenon. Colliding beam measurements were made at energies as low as 600 MeV and together with earlier measurements the author presents the scaling of some relevant storage ring parameters from 600 MeV up to almost 4 GeV. (Auth.)
AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Furuseth, Sondre Vik
2017-01-01
The Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) design study is currently exploring different IR design possibilities including round and flat optics or different crossing schemes. The present study intends to evaluate each scenario from the beam-beam effects point of view. In particular the single particle long term stability to maximize beam lifetimes and luminosity reach is used to quantify the differences. The impact of strong head on interactions on the beam quality and lifetime is addressed by means of GPU accelerated simulations code featuring a weak-strong 6-dimensional beam-beam interaction.
Observations of beam-beam effects in the LHC 2011
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herr, W.; Alemany, R.; Buffat, X.; Calaga, R.; Giachino, R.; Papotti, G.; Pieloni, T.; Trad, G.; Schaumann, M.
2012-01-01
We have reported on the first studies of beam-beam effects in the LHC with high intensity, high brightness beams and can summarize the results as follows. The effect of the beam-beam interaction on the beam dynamics is clearly established. The LHC allows very large head-on tune shifts above nominal. The effect of long range interactions on the beam lifetime and losses (dynamic aperture) is clearly visible. The number of head-on and/or long range interactions important for losses and all predicted PACMAN effects have been observed. All observations are in good agreement with the expectations
Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles
AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia
2017-01-01
Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.
Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J.; Kozanecki, W.; Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V.
1992-07-01
We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed
Feasibility study of stochastic cooling of bunches in the SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boussard, D.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dome, G.; Linnecar, T.
1984-01-01
The average luminosity of the SPS collider could be improved if the slow blow-up of transverse emittances due to beam-beam and intrabeam scattering effects were to be reduced by a transverse cooling system. We examine the parameters of such a system and propose a technological approach which seems better suited to the case of a few bunches circulating in a large machine. (orig./HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alabau Pons, M.; Bambade, P.; Faus-Golfe, A.
2006-01-01
At the interaction point of the International Linear Collider, beam-beam effects due to the strong electromagnetic fields that the bunches experience during collisions cause a mutual focusing, called pinch effect, which enhances the luminosity in the case of e + e - collisions. The opposite is true for e - e - collisions. In this case the luminosity is reduced by mutual defocusing, or anti-pinching. The resulting Beamstrahlung energy loss and beam-beam deflection angles as function of the vertical transverse offset are also different for both modes of operation. The dependence of these quantities with transverse beam sizes are presented for the case of e - e - collisions
Dynamic behaviour of nominal and PACMAN bunches for different LHC crossing schemes
Herr, Werner
2005-01-01
To avoid unwanted beam-beam interactions, the two LHC beams cross at an angle in all experimental interaction regions. The choice of the crossing plane in the different areas has fundamental consequences on the effects of the long range beam-beam interaction. An alternating crossing scheme, i.e. horizontal and vertical crossing planes in the two high luminosity experiments, is presently foreseen to partly compensate and minimize first order effects on PACMAN bunches. Recent studies with a simplified model of the machine suggested that an alternating crossing scheme may be less favourable due to a reduced dynamic aperture. In this report I investigate this assertion with a detailed tracking study. The head on and long range beam-beam effects are taken into account as well as machine imperfections. The effects on the dynamic aperture of nominal and PACMAN bunches are evaluated.
A summary of some beam-beam models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.
1989-01-01
Two categories of theoretical models for the beam-beam interaction are reviewed: the linear-lens models and the single-resonance models. In a linear-lens model, the beam-beam force is linearized and represented by a localized linear lens. Analyses of incoherent single particle effects can be performed exactly in these models by using matrix techniques. Although the results do not agree with the experimental observations in many respects, the linear-lens models constitute a starting point of our understanding of the beam-beam interaction. In the single-resonance models, one is concerned with the possible incoherent instabilities as the betatron tune of some of the particles is close to a certain rational number. It is assumed in these models that one and only one such rational number dominates the single-particle beam-beam effects. It is found that static single resonances cannot explain many of the experimental results. Some attempts have been made to modify the static single-resonance theory by including some mechanisms for diffusive tune fluctuations or periodic tune modulations. These modified single-resonance models have met only with some limited qualitative success. 21 refs., 13 figs
Report of the group on beam-beam effects in circular colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.A.
1991-05-01
We present a summary of the discussions and conclusions of the working group on beam-beam effects for circular colliders. This group was part of the larger beam-beam dynamics group at the 7th ICFA Workshop on Beam Dynamics, on the subject ''Beam-Beam and Beam-Radiation Interactions,'' held at UCLA, May 13--16, 1991. 15 refs
6D beam-beam interaction step-by-step
Iadarola, Giovanni; Papaphilippou, Yannis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
This document describes in detail the numerical method used in different simulation codes for the simulation of beam-beam interactions using the “Synchro Beam Mapping” approach, in order to correctly model the coupling introduced by beam-beam between the longitudinal and the transverse plane. The goal is to provide in a compact, complete and self-consistent manner the set of equations needed for the implementation in a numerical code. The effect of a “crossing angle” in an arbitrary “crossing plane” with respect to the assigned reference frame is taken into account with a suitable coordinate transformation. The employed description of the strong beam allows correctly accounting for the hour-glass effect as well as for linear coupling at the interaction point.
Closed orbit distortion and the beam-beam interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
1992-06-01
We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.
Transverse equilibria in linear collider beam-beam collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, J.B.; Chen, Pisin
1991-01-01
It has been observed in simulations of the beam-beam interaction in linear colliders that a near equilibrium pinched state of the colliding beams develops when the disruption parameter is large (D much-gt 1). In this state the beam transverse density distributions are peaked at center, with long tails. The authors present here an analytical model of the equilibrium approached by the beams, that of a generalized Bennett pinch which develops through collisionless damping due to the strong nonlinearity of the beam-beam interaction. In order to calculate the equilibrium pinched beam size, an estimation of the rms emittance growth is made which takes into account the partial adiabaticity of the collision. This pinched beam size is used to derive the luminosity enhancement factors whose scaling is in agreement with the simulation results for both D and thermal factor A = σ z /β * large, and explains the previously noted cubic relationship between round and flat beam enhancement factors
Closed orbit distortion and the beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J.; Kozanecki, W.; Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V.
1992-01-01
We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed
Electroproduction of pairs at beam-beam collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Strakhovenko, V.M.
1989-01-01
Charged particle pair production at beam-beam collision in electron-positron linear colliders has been discussed taking into account a finite size of the beams (both longitudinal and transverse) and end effects. Contributions of the main acting mechanisms are singled out which depend on the energy of initial particles and the masses of created particles. A spectral distribution of produced particles is presented. 15 refs
Observations and open questions in beam-beam interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Tanaji
2010-01-01
The first of the hadron colliders, ISR, started operation in 1970. In the following years, the hadron colliders to follow were the SPS (started 1980), the Tevatron (started 1987 first as a fixed target machine), RHIC (started 2000) and most recently the LHC, which started in 2008. HERA was a hybrid that collided electrons and protons. All of these accelerators had or have their performance limited by the effects of the beam-beam interactions. That has also been true for the electron-positron colliders such as LEP, CESR, KEKB and PEPII. In this article I will discuss how the beam-beam limitations arose in some of these machines. The discussion will be focused on common themes that span the different colliders. I will mostly discuss the hadron colliders but sometimes discuss the lepton colliders where relevant. Only a handful of common accelerator physics topics are chosen here, the list is not meant to be exhaustive. A comparative review of beam-beam performance in the ISR, SPS and Tevatron (ca 1989) can be found in reference. Table 1 shows the relevant parameters of colliders (excluding the LHC), which have accelerated protons.
Energy transparency and symmetries in the beam-beam interaction
Krishnagopal, S
2000-01-01
We have modified the beam-beam simulation code CBI to handle asymmetric beams and used it to look at energy transparency and symmetries in the beam-beam interaction. We find that even a small violation of energy transparency, or of the symmetry between the two beams, changes the character of the collective (coherent) motion; in particular, period-n oscillations are no longer seen. We speculate that the one-time observation of these oscillations at LEP, and the more ubiquitous observation of the flip-flop instability in colliders around the world, may be a consequence of breaking the symmetry between the electron and positron beams. We also apply this code to the asymmetric collider PEP-II, and find that for the nominal parameters of PEP-II, in particular, the nominal tune-shift parameter of xi /sub 0/=0.03, there are no collective beam-beam issues. Collective quadrupole motion sets in only at xi /sub 0/=0.06 and above, consistent with earlier observations for symmetric beams. (6 refs).
Design of BEPCII bunch current monitor system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Lei; Ma Huizhou; Yue Junhui; Lei Ge; Cao Jianshe; Ma Li
2008-01-01
BEPC II is an electron-positron collider designed to run under multi-bunches and high beam current condition. The accelerator consists of an electron ring, a positron ring and a linear injector. In order to achieve the target luminosity and implement the equal bunch charge injection, the Bunch Current Monitor (BCM) system is built on BEPC II. The BCM system consists of three parts: the front-end circuit, the bunch current acquisition system and the bucket selection system. The control software of BCM is based on VxWorks and EPICS. With the help of BCM system, the bunch current in each bucket can be monitored in the Central Control Room. The BEPC II timing system can also use the bunch current database to decide which bucket needs to refill to implement 'top-off' injection. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palutke, S.; Wurth, W.; Gerken, N. C.; Mertens, K.; Klumpp, S.; Martins, M.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Wunderer, C.; Graafsma, H.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.
2015-01-01
The setup and first results from commissioning of a fast online photon energy spectrometer for the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser at Hamburg (FLASH) at DESY are presented. With the use of the latest advances in detector development, the presented spectrometer reaches readout frequencies up to 1 MHz. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability to record online photon energy spectra on a shot-to-shot base in the multi-bunch mode of FLASH. Clearly resolved shifts in the mean wavelength over the pulse train as well as shot-to-shot wavelength fluctuations arising from the statistical nature of the photon generating self-amplified spontaneous emission process have been observed. In addition to an online tool for beam calibration and photon diagnostics, the spectrometer enables the determination and selection of spectral data taken with a transparent experiment up front over the photon energy of every shot. This leads to higher spectral resolutions without the loss of efficiency or photon flux by using single-bunch mode or monochromators
Progress with Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Studies for High Luminosity LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rossi, Adriana; et al.
2017-05-01
Long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interactions can be a source of emittance growth and beam losses in the LHC during physics and will become even more relevant with the smaller '* and higher bunch intensities foreseen for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade (HL-LHC), in particular if operated without crab cavities. Both beam losses and emittance growth could be mitigated by compensat-ing the non-linear LRBB kick with a correctly placed current carrying wire. Such a compensation scheme is currently being studied in the LHC through a demonstration test using current-bearing wires embedded into col-limator jaws, installed either side of the high luminosity interaction regions. For HL-LHC two options are considered, a current-bearing wire as for the demonstrator, or electron lenses, as the ideal distance between the particle beam and compensating current may be too small to allow the use of solid materials. This paper reports on the ongoing activities for both options, covering the progress of the wire-in-jaw collimators, the foreseen LRBB experiments at the LHC, and first considerations for the design of the electron lenses to ultimately replace material wires for HL-LHC.
Spin Depolarization due to Beam-Beam Interaction in NLC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, Kathleen A
2001-01-04
Calculations of spin depolarization effects due to the beam-beam interaction are presented for several NLC designs. The depolarization comes from both classical (Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi precession) and quantum (Sokolov-Ternov spin-flip) effects. It is anticipated that some physics experiments at future colliders will require a knowledge of the polarization to better than 0.5% precision. We compare the results of CAIN simulations with the analytic estimates of Yokoya and Chen for head-on collisions. We also study the effects of transverse offsets and beamstrahlung-induced energy spread.
Study of Beam-Beam Effects at PEP-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narsky, I
2004-01-01
Using a self-consistent three-dimensional simulation running on parallel supercomputers, we have modeled the beam-beam interaction at the PEP-II asymmetric e + e - collider. To provide guidance for luminosity improvement, we scanned the tunes and currents in both rings and computed their impact on the luminosity and transverse beam sizes. We also studied the effects of colliding the beams with a small crossing angle. Where possible, the code was benchmarked against experimental measurements of luminosity and beam sizes, yielding an acceptable agreement
Creation and storage of long and flat bunches in the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Damerau, H.
2005-09-01
To maximize the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the collision of particle bunches with a uniform longitudinal particle density is considered for a future upgrade. The benefits of such bunches and their generation by means of special longitudinal beam manipulations are presented in this report. Three possible options are analyzed with respect to their potential luminosity gain at the beam-beam limit: short rectangular bunches held by radio frequency (RF) harmonics using multiples of the nominal RF frequency of 400.8 MHz, long and flat bunches held by multiples of 40.08 MHz, and so-called superbunches, confined by barrier buckets. The comparison of the three different approaches shows that flat bunches, with an intermediate bunch length of the order of several meters, are capable of producing a comparable luminosity to superbunches, while avoiding most of their inherent disadvantages. Possible schemes to create the bunches with uniform line density are studied and a longitudinal manipulation to combine a batch of ordinary bunches into a long and flat bunch is proposed. These RF gymnastics are based on well-proven techniques such as batch compression and bunch pair merging. Their advantages and disadvantages, including optimization with respect to degradation of the longitudinal particle density, are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to the investigation of collective effects due to the large line charge density and the influence of the beam on the RF installation is also studied. (Orig.)
Photon anti bunching versus phantom anti bunching?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranowicz, A.; Ekert, A.; Ekert, A.; Bajer, J.; Leonski, W.
1997-01-01
Photon anti bunching defined by two-time correlation functions has hitherto, to our best knowledge, been considered to constitute a unique, well defined effect. We show explicitly that this is by no means the case. We analyze two of the most famous definitions showing that both anti bunching and bunching effects according to one definition can be accompanied by arbitrary photon correlation effects according to another. As an example we discuss a model of parametric frequency conversion. (authors)
Stability of the coherent quadrupole oscillations excited by the beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamiya, Y.; Chao, A.W.
1983-10-01
We study the coherent quadrupole motion in the presence of beam-beam interaction, using a linear approximation to the beam-beam force. The corresponding beam-beam limit is determined by evaluating the eigenvalues of a system of linear equations describing the coherent quadrupole motion. We find that the stability of the quadrupole motions imposes severe limits on the beam current, as is the case for the dipole instability. Preliminary results of this study have appeared elsewhere
Furuseth, Sondre
2017-01-01
The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. This report discusses results from an implementation of the weak-strong model, studying the effects of head-on beam-beam interactions. The assumptions has been shown to be valid for configurations where the growth and losses of the beam are small. The tracking has been done using an original code which applies graphic cards to reduce the computation time. The bunches in the beams have been modelled cylindrically symmetrical, based on a Gaussian distribution in three dimensions. This choice fits well with bunches...
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)390904; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Shatilov, Dmitry
2015-01-01
Colliding bunch trains in a circular collider demands a certain crossing angle in order to separate the two beams transversely after the collision. The magnitude of this crossing angle is a complicated function of the bunch charge, the number of long-range beam-beam interactions, of β* and type of optics (flat or round), and possible compensation or additive effects between several low-β insertions in the ring depending on the orientation of the crossing plane at each interaction point. About 15 years ago, the use of current bearing wires was proposed at CERN in order to mitigate the longrange beam-beam effects, therefore offering the possibility to minimize the crossing angle with all the beneficial effects this might have: on the luminosity performance by reducing the need for crab-cavities or lowering their voltage, on the required aperture of the final focus magnets, on the strength of the orbit corrector involved in the crossing bumps, and finally on the heat load and radiation dose deposited in the fi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D.X.
1996-01-01
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D.X.
1996-01-01
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bambade, P.
1984-06-01
In this thesis, we present a phenomenological study of the beam-beam effect in e + e - storage rings. We are in particular interested in the blow-up of the vertical dimension observed in this kind of accelerator. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic field generated by the very flat bunches stored, and seen by the counter-rotating particles shows that two-dimensional non-linear resonances, which couple vertical and horizontal betatron oscillations, play a very important role. Moreover, the ''weak beam-strong beam'' approximation holds rather well in the case of very flat bunches. Perturbative analysis enables us to predict the effects from the strongest coupling resonance: 20sub(x)-20sub(y) = integer. We find that mainly the tails of the vertical distribution are affected, and we give a criterion concerning the optimal distance to this resonance in the case of a storage ring such as LEP. Finally, the results and in particular the validity of the single resonance approximation are checked through a numerical simulation [fr
Feedback control of coupled-bunch instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fox, J.D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Oxoby, G.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Serio, M.
1993-05-01
The next generation of synchrotron light sources and particle accelerators will require active feedback systems to control multi-bunch instabilities. Stabilizing hundreds or thousands of potentially unstable modes in these accelerator designs presents many technical challenges. Feedback systems to stabilize coupled-bunch instabilities may be understood in the frequency domain (mode-based feedback) or in the time domain (bunch-by-bunch feedback). In both approaches an external amplifier system is used to create damping fields that prevent coupled-bunch oscillations from growing without bound. The system requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback are presented, and possible implementation options developed. Feedback system designs based on digital signal-processing techniques are described. Experimental results are shown from a synchrotron oscillation damper in the SSRL/SLAC storage ring SPEAR that uses digital signal-processing techniques
COMMISSIONING OF THE DIGITAL TRANSVERSE BUNCH-BY-BUNCH FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE TLS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HU, K.H.; KUO, C.H.; CHOU, P.J.; LEE, D.; HSU, S.Y.; CHEN, J.; WANG, C.J.; HSU, K.T.; KOBAYASHI, K.; NAKAMURA, T.; CHAO, A.W.; WENG, W.T.
2006-01-01
Multi-bunch instabilities degrade beam quality through increased beam emittance, energy spread and even beam loss. Feedback systems are used to suppress multi-bunch instabilities associated with the resistive wall of the beam ducts, cavity-like structures, and trapped ions. A new digital transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback system has recently been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source, and has replaced the previous analog system. The new system has the advantages that it enlarges the tune acceptance and improves damping for transverse instability at high currents, such that top-up operation is achieved. After a coupled-bunch transverse instability was suppressed, more than 350 mA was successfully stored during preliminary commissioning. In this new system, a single feedback loop simultaneously suppresses both horizontal and vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Investigating the characteristics of the feedback loop and further improving the system performances are the next short-term goals. The feedback system employs the latest generation of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processor to process bunch signals. Memory has been installed to capture up to 250 msec of bunch oscillation signal, considering system diagnostics suitable to support various beam physics studies
Beam-beam effect and luminosity in SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiedemann, H.
1980-07-01
Measurements performed at SPEAR have been discussed and scaling laws for the maximum luminosity and the maximum linear tune shift parameter with energy are shown. There are two distinct regimes, one below 2 GeV where the linear tune shift parameter scales like xi/sub y/ approx. E 2 4 and the other regime where this parameter is constant xi/sub y/ approx. = 0.05 to 0.06. In the lower energy regime the limit is reached when the vertical beam size is blown up to the acceptance of the storage ring. A significant (< 10%) horizontal beam blow up is not observed and the value of the horizontal linear tune shift parameter xi/sub x/ does not seem to be related to the beam-beam limit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Lu
2007-06-01
Full Text Available The extraordinary ability of space-charge waves in plasmas to accelerate charged particles at gradients that are orders of magnitude greater than in current accelerators has been well documented. We develop a phenomenological framework for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA in the 3D nonlinear regime, in which the plasma electrons are expelled by the radiation pressure of a short pulse laser, leading to nearly complete blowout. Our theory provides a recipe for designing a LWFA for given laser and plasma parameters and estimates the number and the energy of the accelerated electrons whether self-injected or externally injected. These formulas apply for self-guided as well as externally guided pulses (e.g. by plasma channels. We demonstrate our results by presenting a sample particle-in-cell (PIC simulation of a 30 fs, 200 TW laser interacting with a 0.75 cm long plasma with density 1.5×10^{18} cm^{-3} to produce an ultrashort (10 fs monoenergetic bunch of self-injected electrons at 1.5 GeV with 0.3 nC of charge. For future higher-energy accelerator applications, we propose a parameter space, which is distinct from that described by Gordienko and Pukhov [Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.1884126] in that it involves lower plasma densities and wider spot sizes while keeping the intensity relatively constant. We find that this helps increase the output electron beam energy while keeping the efficiency high.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gammel, G.M.; Maschke, A.W.; Mobley, R.M.
1979-01-01
One of the steps involved in producing an intense ion beam from conventional accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is beam bunching. To maintain space charge neutralized transport, neutralization must occur more quickly as the beam bunches. It has been demonstrated at BNL that a 60 mA proton beam from a 750 kV Cockcroft--Walton can be neutralized within a microsecond. The special problem in HIF is that the neutralization must occur in a time scale of nanoseconds. To study neutralization on a faster time scale, a 40 mA, 450 kV proton beam was bunched at 16 MHz. A biased Faraday cup sampled the bunched beam at the position where maximum bunching was nominally expected, about 2.5 meters from the buncher. Part of the drift region, about 1.8 meters, was occupied by a series of Gabor lenses. In addition to enhancing beam transport by transverse focussing, the background cloud of electrons in the lenses provided an extra degree of neutralization. With no lens, the best bunch factor was at least 20. Bunch factor is defined here as the ratio of the distance between bunches to the FWHM bunch length. With the lens, it was hoped that the increased plasma frequency would decrease the neutralization time and cause an increase in the bunch factor. In fact, with the lens, the instantaneous current increased about three times, but the bunch factor dropped to about 10. Even with the lens, the FWHM of the bunches at the position of maximum bunching was still comparable to or less than the oscillation period of the surrounding electron plasma. Thus, the electron density in the lens must increase before neutralization could be effective in this case, or bunching should be done at a lower frequency
Anticrab cavities for the removal of spurious vertical bunch rotations caused by crab cavities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Burt
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Many particle accelerators are proposing the use of crab cavities to correct for accelerator crossing angles or for the production of short bunches in light sources. These cavities produce a rotation to the bunch in a well-defined polarization plane. If the plane of the rotation does not align with the horizontal axis of the accelerator, the bunch will receive a small amount of spurious vertical bunch rotation. For accelerators with small vertical beam sizes and large beam-beam effects, this can cause significant unwanted effects. In this paper we propose the use of a 2nd smaller crab cavity in the vertical plane in order to cancel this effect and investigate its use in numerical simulations.
Commissioning of FPGA-based Transverse and Longitudinal Bunch-by-Bunch Feedback System for the TLS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, K. H.; Kuo, C. H.; Lau, W. K.; Yeh, M. S.; Hsu, S. Y.; Chou, P. J.; Wang, M. H.; Lee, Demi; Chen, Jenny; Wang, C. J.; Hsu, K. T.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, T.; Dehler, M.
2006-01-01
Multi-bunch instabilities deteriorate beam quality, increasing beam emittance, or even causing beam loss in the synchrotron light source. The feedback system is essential to suppress multi-bunch instabilities caused by the impedances of beam ducts, and trapped ions. A new FPGA based transverse and longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system have been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source recently, A single feedback loop is used to simultaneously suppress the horizontal and the vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Longitudinal instabilities caused by cavity-like structures are suppressed by the longitudinal feedback loop. The same FPGA processor is employed in the transverse feedback and the longitudinal feedback system respectively. Diagnostic memory is included in the system to capture the bunch oscillation signal, which supports various studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stéphane Fartoukh
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Colliding bunch trains in a circular collider demands a certain crossing angle in order to separate the two beams transversely after the collision. The magnitude of this crossing angle is a complicated function of the bunch charge, the number of long-range beam-beam interactions, of β^{*} and type of optics (flat or round, and possible compensation or additive effects between several low-β insertions in the ring depending on the orientation of the crossing plane at each interaction point. About 15 years ago, the use of current bearing wires was proposed at CERN in order to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects [J. P. Koutchouk, CERN Report No. LHC-Project-Note 223, 2000], therefore offering the possibility to minimize the crossing angle with all the beneficial effects this might have: on the luminosity performance by reducing the need for crab-cavities or lowering their voltage, on the required aperture of the final focus magnets, on the strength of the orbit corrector involved in the crossing bumps, and finally on the heat load and radiation dose deposited in the final focus quadrupoles. In this paper, a semianalytical approach is developed for the compensation of the long-range beam-beam interactions with current wires. This reveals the possibility of achieving optimal correction through a careful adjustment of the aspect ratio of the β functions at the wire position. We consider the baseline luminosity upgrade plan of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC project, and compare it to alternative scenarios, or so-called “configurations,” where modifications are applied to optics, crossing angle, or orientation of the crossing plane in the two low-β insertions of the ring. For all these configurations, the beneficial impact of beam-beam compensation devices is then demonstrated on the tune footprint, the dynamical aperture, and/or the frequency map analysis of the nonlinear beam dynamics as the main figures of merit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alabau Pons, M. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud XI, Bat. 200, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)]|[IFIC, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Bambade, P. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud XI, Bat. 200, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Faus-Golfe, A. [IFIC, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)
2006-01-15
At the interaction point of the International Linear Collider, beam-beam effects due to the strong electromagnetic fields that the bunches experience during collisions cause a mutual focusing, called pinch effect, which enhances the luminosity in the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The opposite is true for e{sup -}e{sup -} collisions. In this case the luminosity is reduced by mutual defocusing, or anti-pinching. The resulting Beamstrahlung energy loss and beam-beam deflection angles as function of the vertical transverse offset are also different for both modes of operation. The dependence of these quantities with transverse beam sizes are presented for the case of e{sup -}e{sup -} collisions.
Coherent pair creation from beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Pisin.
1989-09-01
It has recently been recognized that in future linear colliders, there is a finite probability that the beamstrahlung photons will turn into e + e - pairs induced by the same beam-beam field, and this would potentially cause background problems. In this paper, we first review the probability of such a coherent pair creation process. It is seen that the constraint on the beamstrahlung parameter, Υ, is tight of these coherent pairs to be totally suppressed. We then point out that there exists a minimum energy for the pair-created particles, which scales as ∼1/5Υ. When combining this condition with the deflection angle for the low-energy particles, the constraint on the allowable Υ value is much relaxed. Finally, we calculate the effective cross section for producing the weak bosons by the low-energy e + e - pairs. It is shown that these cross sections are substantial for Υ > 1. We suggest that this effect can help to autoscan the particle spectrum in the high energy frontier. 10 refs., 2 figs
A new model for the collective beam-beam interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellison, J.A.; Sobol, A.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vogt, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2006-09-15
The Collective Beam-Beam interaction is studied in the framework of maps with a ''kick-lattice'' model in 4-D phase space. A novel approach to the classical method of averaging is used to derive an approximate map which is equivalent to a flow within the averaging approximation. The flow equation is a continuous-time Vlasov equation which we call the averaged Vlasov equation, the new model of this paper. The power of this approach is evidenced by the fact that the averaged Vlasov equation has exact equilibria and the associated lineralized equations have uncoupled azimuthal Fourier modes. The equation for the Fourier modes leads to a Fredholm integral equation of the third kind and the setting is ready-made for the development of a weakly nonlinear theory to study the coupling of the {pi} and {sigma} modes. The {pi} and {sigma} modes are calculated from the third kind integral equation and results are compared with the kick-lattice model. (orig.)
A new model for the collective beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellison, J.A.; Sobol, A.V.; Vogt, M.
2006-09-01
The Collective Beam-Beam interaction is studied in the framework of maps with a ''kick-lattice'' model in 4-D phase space. A novel approach to the classical method of averaging is used to derive an approximate map which is equivalent to a flow within the averaging approximation. The flow equation is a continuous-time Vlasov equation which we call the averaged Vlasov equation, the new model of this paper. The power of this approach is evidenced by the fact that the averaged Vlasov equation has exact equilibria and the associated lineralized equations have uncoupled azimuthal Fourier modes. The equation for the Fourier modes leads to a Fredholm integral equation of the third kind and the setting is ready-made for the development of a weakly nonlinear theory to study the coupling of the π and σ modes. The π and σ modes are calculated from the third kind integral equation and results are compared with the kick-lattice model. (orig.)
The 'Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M.; Yu, L.H.
1991-01-01
The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Beam-beam effects for the PEP-II B Factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.A.; Eden, J.R.
1993-05-01
We present a summary of a fairly extensive study of beam-beam issues that arise in the design of PEP-II. Most of these studies are carried out with ''strong-strong'' multiparticle tracking simulations. We focus on: choice of nominal beam-beam parameter, strength of the parasitic collisions, injection issues, performance and tradeoffs with unequal beam-beam parameters. We comment only briefly on beam lifetime. We conclude that: the beams are sufficiently well separated so that the parasitic collisions are effectively weak; that small inequalities in the beam-beam parameters may imply more comfortable performance margins; and that vertical injection with vertical beam separation is more comfortable than horizontal
Exact suppression of depolarisation by beam-beam interaction in an electron ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buon, J.
1983-03-01
It is shown that depolarisation due to beam-beam interaction can be exactly suppressed in an electron storage ring. The necessary ''spin matching'' conditions to be fulfilled are derived for a planar ring. They depend on the ring optics, assumed linear, but not on the features of the beam-beam force, like intensity and non-linearity. Extension to a ring equipped with 90 0 spin rotators is straightorward
Impact of beam-beam effects on precision luminosity measurements at the ILC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rimbault, C [LAL, Univ Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Bambade, P [LAL, Univ Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Moenig, K [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Schulte, D [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2007-09-15
In this paper, the impact of beam-beam effects on the precision luminosity measurement at the International Linear Collider is investigated quantitatively for the first time. GUINEA-PIG, a beam-beam interaction simulation tool, is adapted to treat the space charge effects affecting the Bhabha events used in this measurement. The biases due to the resulting changes in kinematics are evaluated for different center-of-mass energies and beam parameters.
Impact of beam-beam effects on precision luminosity measurements at the ILC
Rimbault, C; Mönig, K; Schulte, D
2007-01-01
In this paper, the impact of beam-beam effects on the precision luminosity measurement at the International Linear Collider is investigated quantitatively for the first time. GUINEA-PIG, a beam-beam interaction simulation tool, is adapted to treat the space charge effects affecting the Bhabha events used in this measurement. The biases due to the resulting changes in kinematics are evaluated for different center-of-mass energies and beam parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambertson, G.
1995-09-01
When the electromagnetic fields that are excited by the passage of a bundle of charged particles persist to act upon bunches that follow, then the motions of the bunches are coupled. This action between bunches circulating on a closed orbit can generate growing patterns of bunch excursions. Such growth can often be suppressed by feedback systems that detect the excursion and apply corrective forces to the bunches. To be addressed herein is feedback that acts on motions of the bunch body centers. In addition to being useful for suppressing the spontaneous growth of coupled-bunch motions, such feedback can be used to damp transients in bunches injected into an accelerator or storage ring; for hadrons which lack strong radiation damping, feedback is needed to avoid emittance growth through decoherence. Motions excited by noise in magnetic fields or accelerating rf can also be reduced by using this feedback. Whether the action is on motions that are transverse to the closed orbit or longitudinal, the arrangement is the same. Bunch position is detected by a pickup and that signal is processed and directed to a kicker that may act upon the same bunch or some other portion of the collective beam pattern. Transverse motion is an oscillation with angular frequency ν perpendicular ω o where ω o is the orbital frequency 2π line-integral o. Longitudinal synchrotron oscillation occurs at frequency ω s = ν s ω o . The former is much more rapid, ν perpendicular being on the order of 10 while ν s is typically about 10 minus 1 to 10 minus 2
Sailer, André; Lohse, Thomas
2013-01-10
The high charge density---due to small beam sizes---and the high energy of the proposed CLIC concept for a linear electron--positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3~TeV lead to the production of a large number of particles through beam-beam interactions at the interaction point during every bunch crossing (BX). A large fraction of these particles safely leaves the detector. A still significant amount of energy will be deposited in the forward region nonetheless, which will produce secondary particles able to cause background in the detector. Furthermore, some particles will be created with large polar angles and directly cause background in the tracking detectors and calorimeters. The main sources of background in the detector, either directly or indirectly, are the incoherent $mathrm{e}^{+}mathrm{e}^{-}$ pairs and the particles from $gammagamma ightarrow$ hadron events. The background and radiation levels in the detector have to be estimated, to study if a detector is feasible, that can han...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fox, J.D.
1981-01-01
This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter
2011-08-15
The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 {mu}m) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 {mu}m). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter
2011-08-01
The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 μm) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 μm). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tobiyama, M; Kikutani, E [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
1996-08-01
Design and the present status of the bunch by bunch feedback systems for KEKB rings are shown. The detection of the bunch oscillation are made with the phase detection for longitudinal plane, the AM/PM method for transverse plane. Two GHz component of the bunch signal which is extracted with an analog FIR filter is used for the detection. Hardware two-tap FIR filter systems to shift the phase of the oscillation by 90deg will be used for the longitudinal signal processing. The same system will be used with no filtering but with only digital delay for transverse system. The candidate for the kicker and the required maximum power are also estimated. (author)
Dissipative effects in the beam-beam interaction of intersecting storage rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, J.; Vivaldi, F.
1982-01-01
This proposal seeks continuing support for an ongoing research investigation of various dynamical instabilities which arise in high energy intersecting storage rings due to the beam-beam interaction. Although the dissipative effect of radiation in beam-beam machines is anticipated to be a dominant feature affecting stability in the dynamics of colliding beams of heavy particles, almost nothing is known regarding the stability problem in many-dimensional dissipative systems. The work proposed here will extend the earlier computations on weak instabilities in many-dimensional beam-beam models to include the effect of dissipation. The object of this research is to obtain conditions for global beam stability over long time scales as a function of the machine parameters
Simulation of the beam halo from the beam-beam interaction in LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, T.; Irwin, J.; Siemann, R.
1994-02-01
The luminosity lifetimes of e + e - colliders are often dominated by the halo produced by the beam-beam interaction. They have developed a simulation technique to model this halo using the flux across boundaries in amplitude space to decrease the CPU time by a factor of one-hundred or more over 'brute force' tracking. It allows simulation of density distributions and halos corresponding to realistic lifetimes. Reference 1 shows the agreement with brute force tracking in a number of cases and the importance of beam-beam resonances in determining the density distribution of large amplitudes. this research is now directed towards comparisons with operating colliders and studies of the combined effects of lattice and beam-beam nonlinearities. LEP offers an ideal opportunity for both, and in this paper they are presenting the first results of LEP simulations
Long-range beam-beam experiments in the relativistic heavy ion collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calaga, R; Fischer, W; Milas, N; Robert-Demolaize, G
2014-01-01
Long-range beam-beam effects are a potential limit to the LHC performance with the nominal design parameters, and certain upgrade scenarios under discussion. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed and space is reserved in the LHC for such wires. Two current carrying wires were installed in RHIC to study the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects in a collider, as well as test the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The experimental data were used to benchmark simulations. We summarize this work
The effects of betatron phase advances on beam-beam and its compensation in RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.
2011-03-28
In this article we perform simulation studies to investigate the effects of betatron phase advances between the beam-beam interaction points on half-integer resonance driving term, second order chromaticty and dynamic aperture in RHIC. The betatron phase advances are adjusted with artificial matrices inserted in the middle of arcs. The lattices for the 2011 RHIC polarized proton (p-p) run and 2010 RHIC Au-Au runs are used in this study. We also scan the betatron phase advances between IP8 and the electron lens for the proposed Blue ring lattice with head-on beam-beam compensation.
The beam-beam limit in asymmetric colliders: Optimization of the B-factory parameter base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennyson, J.L.
1990-01-01
This paper presents a general theory of the beam-beam limit in symmetric and asymmetric lepton ring colliders. It shows how the beam-beam limit in these accelerators affects the maximum attainable luminosity and presents a specific algorithm for parameter base optimization. It is shown that the special problems inherent in asymmetric colliders derive not from the asymmetry, but from the fact that the two beams must be in different rings. Computer simulation experiments are used to demonstrate the various phenomena discussed in the theory
Hancock, S
2017-01-01
Hollow bunches address the issue of high-brightnessbeams suffering from transverse emittance growth in a strongspace charge regime. During the Proton Synchrotron (PS)injection plateau, the negative space charge tune shift canpush the beam onto theQy=6integer resonance. Modify-ing the longitudinal bunch profile in order to reduce the peakline charge density alleviates the detrimental impact of spacecharge. To this end we first produce longitudinally hollowphase space distributions in the PS Booster by exciting aparametric resonance with the phase loop feedback system.These inherently flat bunches are then transferred to the PS,where the beam becomes less prone to the emittance growthcaused by the integer resonance.During the late 2016 machine development sessions inthe PS Booster we profited from solved issues from 2015and managed to reliably extract hollow bunches of1.3eVsmatched longitudinal area. Furthermore, first results to cre-ate hollow bunches with larger longitudinal emittances to-wards the LHC Inject...
Bunch-by-bunch feedback for PEP II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Eisen, N.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Hoeflich, J.; Olsen, J.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Linscott, I.
1993-01-01
The proposed PEP II B factory at SLAC requires a feedback to damp out longitudinal synchrotron oscillations. A time domain, downsampled, bunch-by-bunch feedback system in which each bunch is treated as an oscillator being driven by disturbances from other bunches is presented as we review the evolution of the system design. Results from a synchrotron oscillation damping experiment conducted at the SLAC/SSRL/SPEAR ring are also presented in this paper
Modelling and implementation of the “6D” beam-beam interaction
Iadarola, Giovanni; Papaphilippou, Yannis
2018-01-01
These slides illustrate the numerical modelling of a beam-beam interaction using the “Synchro Beam Mapping” approach. The employed description of the strong beam allows correctly accounting for the hour-glass effect as well as for linear coupling at the interaction point. The implementation of the method within the SixTrack code is reviewed and tested.
Synchro-betatron resonances driven by the beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.A.
1994-01-01
We present a selective summary of the discussions on beam-beam-driven synchrobetatron resonances at the 6th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on the subject ''Synchro-Betatron Resonances,'' held in Funchal (Madeira, Portugal), October 24--30, 1993
Beam-beam studies for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, M.A.
1991-05-01
We present a summary of beam-beam dynamics studies that have been carried out to date for the proposed SLAC/LBL/LLNL B Factory. Most of the material presented here is contained in the proposal's Conceptual Design Report, although post-CDR studies are also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Numerical Calculation of the Phase Space Density for the Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobol, A.; Ellison, J.A.
2003-01-01
We developed a parallel code to calculate the evolution of the 4D phase space density of two colliding beams, which are coupled via the collective strong-strong beam-beam interaction, in the absence of diffusion and damping, using the Perron-Frobenius (PF) operator technique
Beam-Beam Effects in the SPS Proton-Anti Proton Collider
Cornelis, K.
2014-01-01
During the proton-anti proton collider run several experiments were carried out in order to understand the effect of the beam-beam interaction on backgrounds and lifetimes. In this talk a selection of these experiments will be presented. From these experiments, the importance of relative beam sizes and tune ripple could be demonstrated.
Intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics in the superconducting accelerators FLASH and European XFEL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellert, Thorsten
2017-11-15
FLASH and the European XFEL are linear accelerator driven SASE-FELs, operating in a pulsed mode with long bunch-trains. Multi-bunch FEL operation requires longitudinal and transverse stability within the bunch-train. The purpose of this work is to investigate the intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics at FLASH and XFEL. Key relationships of superconducting RF cavity operation, their misalignments and the resulting impact on the intra-bunch-train trajectory variation are described. In this thesis a numerical model is developed and simulations for different accelerating sections at FLASH and XFEL are performed. With the current operational setup significant intra-bunch-train trajectory variation must be considered, hence approaches for their reduction are discussed. The theoretical studies are compared to experimental results at FLASH. The observed trajectory variation during multi-bunch user runs is analyzed and related to causal intra-bunch-train variations of the RF and the following impact on the multi-bunch SASSE performance. Furthermore, HOM-based cavity misalignment measurements are performed and the deduction of misalignments from multi-bunch data is considered.
Intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics in the superconducting accelerators FLASH and European XFEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellert, Thorsten
2017-11-01
FLASH and the European XFEL are linear accelerator driven SASE-FELs, operating in a pulsed mode with long bunch-trains. Multi-bunch FEL operation requires longitudinal and transverse stability within the bunch-train. The purpose of this work is to investigate the intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics at FLASH and XFEL. Key relationships of superconducting RF cavity operation, their misalignments and the resulting impact on the intra-bunch-train trajectory variation are described. In this thesis a numerical model is developed and simulations for different accelerating sections at FLASH and XFEL are performed. With the current operational setup significant intra-bunch-train trajectory variation must be considered, hence approaches for their reduction are discussed. The theoretical studies are compared to experimental results at FLASH. The observed trajectory variation during multi-bunch user runs is analyzed and related to causal intra-bunch-train variations of the RF and the following impact on the multi-bunch SASSE performance. Furthermore, HOM-based cavity misalignment measurements are performed and the deduction of misalignments from multi-bunch data is considered.
Single bunch fast longitudinal instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.
1979-01-01
Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch area have been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Signals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. More detailed results will be given in another paper. The main result is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length. This condition is qualitatively in agreement with Boussard's suggestion
Single bunch fast longitudinal instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.
1979-01-01
Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch areas has been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Singals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. The main result of this paper is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length
New diagnostics and cures for coupled-bunch instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prabhakar, S.
2000-01-01
Electromagnetic interaction between a charged particle beam and its surroundings causes collective instabilities, which must be controlled if the new light sources and colliders are to meet their design goals. Control requires a combination of passive damping and fast active feedback on an unprecedented technological scale. Efficient instability diagnosis techniques are also needed for machines with large numbers of bunches. This thesis describes new methods of measuring and analyzing coupled-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators, and demonstrates the existence of a new cure. A new technique is demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of growth rates, damping rates and coherent tune shifts of all unstable coupled-bunch eigenmodes from a single 10-25-ms transient snapshot of beam motion. The technique has been used to locate and quantify beam impedance resonances at PEP-II, ALS and SPEAR. This method is faster than existing spectral scan methods by at least an order of magnitude, and has the added advantage of revealing coupled-bunch dynamics in the linear small-signal regime. A method is also presented for estimating beam impedance from multi-bunch fill shape and synchronous phase measurements. Phase space tracking of multi-bunch instabilities is introduced as a ''complete instability diagnostic.'' Digitized multi-bunch data is analyzed offline, to estimate the phase space trajectories of bunches and modes. Availability of phase space trajectories is shown to open up a variety of possibilities, including measurement of reactive impedance, and diagnosis of the fast beam-ion instability. Knowledge gained from longitudinal measurements (all made using a digital longitudinal feedback system) has been used to optimize cavity temperatures, tuner positions and feedback parameters, and also to identify sources of beam noise at the three machines. A matrix-based method is presented for analyzing the beneficial effect of bunch-to-bunch tune variation on instability
Micro-bunching diagnostics for the ICA by coherent transition radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.; Bogacz, S.A.; Cline, D.B.; Wang, X.J.; Pogorelsky, I.V.; Kimura, W.D.
1995-01-01
Here, the authors propose an effective method to detect micro-bunching effects (10 fs bunch length), produced by the ICA interaction, by using the CTR spectrum. The re-bunching of initially energy modulated e-beam passing through a Hydrogen gas cell (ICA interaction) is studied via a Monte Carlo simulation code (STI), as well as in a space-charge dominated region by a multi-particle time domain tracking code (PARMELA). The results show that even in a strong space-charge dominated region the re-bunching effect is still very pronounced. The erosion of bunching due to the space-charge defocusing washes out the final bunching peak only by about 10% (FWHM). The longitudinal distribution of a micro-bunched beam is Fourier analyzed to find the dominant harmonics contributing to the CTR. The CTR spectrum is calculated analytically for the ICA situation. A schematic of the experimental set up is also proposed
Large Scale Beam-beam Simulations for the CERN LHC using Distributed Computing
Herr, Werner; McIntosh, E; Schmidt, F
2006-01-01
We report on a large scale simulation of beam-beam effects for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The stability of particles which experience head-on and long-range beam-beam effects was investigated for different optical configurations and machine imperfections. To cover the interesting parameter space required computing resources not available at CERN. The necessary resources were available in the LHC@home project, based on the BOINC platform. At present, this project makes more than 60000 hosts available for distributed computing. We shall discuss our experience using this system during a simulation campaign of more than six months and describe the tools and procedures necessary to ensure consistent results. The results from this extended study are presented and future plans are discussed.
Simple computer model for the nonlinear beam--beam interaction in ISABELLE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, J.C.; Month, M.; Peierls, R.F.
1979-03-01
The beam--beam interaction for two counter-rotating continuous proton beams crossing at an angle can be simulated by a 1-dimensional nonlinear force. The model is applicable to ISABELLE as well as to the ISR. Since the interaction length is short compared with the length of the beam orbit, the interaction region is taken to be a point. The problem is then treated as a mapping with the remainder of the system taken to be a rotation of phase given by the betatron tune of the storage ring. The evolution of the mean square amplitude of a given distribution of particles is shown for different beam--beam strengths. The effect of round-off error with resulting loss of accuracy for particle trajectories is discussed. 3 figures
Evaluation of the BEAM--BEAM effect in PEP using Myer's simulation program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutton, A.
1982-09-01
The program BEAM BEAM written by Steve Myers for the LEP machine at CERN has given encouraging results in the simulation of the beam-beam effect in electron-positron storage rings. It therefore seemed worthwhile to apply the program to PEP with two main intentions. Firstly, to confirm the validity of the program by comparison with experimental data from previous PEP runs and secondly, to search for an improvement in the operating conditions of PEP. Clearly a successful prediction would also enhance the credibility of the program. The program itself has been extensively described in the literature and will not be repeated here, except for some comments of direct relevance to the present simulation. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs
Renormalization theory of beam-beam interaction in electron-positron colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Y.H.
1989-07-01
This note is devoted to explaining the essence of the renormalization theory of beam-beam interaction for carrying out analytical calculations of equilibrium particle distributions in electron-positron colliding beam storage rings. Some new numerical examples are presented such as for betatron tune dependence of the rms beam size. The theory shows reasonably good agreements with the results of computer simulations. 5 refs., 6 figs
Two Methods For Simulating the Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction in Hadron Colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warnock, Robert L.
2002-01-01
We present and compare the method of weighted macro particle tracking and the Perron-Frobenius operator technique for simulating the time evolution of two beams coupled via the collective beam-beam interaction in 2-D and 4-D (transverse) phase space. The coherent dipole modes, with and without lattice nonlinearities and external excitation, are studied by means of the Vlasov-Poisson system
Quadrupole modes in linearized beam-beam interaction in e+e- colliding rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Shuji; Hirata, Kohji.
1992-01-01
The dynamic-beta model is extended, incorporating the synchrotron radiation effects. The model yields dynamic-emittance effect. The steady-state envelope matrix is explicitly obtained. Both equal-beam and flip-flop solutions are found. The stability of the steady-state solutions are investigated by numerical calculations. The model illustrates some characteristic features of the beam-beam interaction at e + e - colliding rings in spite of containing some qualitatively unrealistic points. (author)
Beam-Beam Simulation of Crab Cavity White Noise for LHC Upgrade
Qiang, J; Pieloni, Tatiana; Ohmi, Kazuhito
2015-01-01
High luminosity LHC upgrade will improve the luminosity of the current LHC operation by an order of magnitude. Crab cavity as a critical component for compensating luminosity loss from large crossing angle collision and also providing luminosity leveling for the LHC upgrade is being actively pursued. In this paper, we will report on the study of potential effects of the crab cavity white noise errors on the beam luminosity lifetime based on strong-strong beam-beam simulations.
Measurement of femtosecond electron bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D. X.; Krafft, G. A.; Sinclair, C. K.
1997-01-01
Bunch lengths as short as 84 fs (rms) have been measured at Jefferson Lab using a zero-phasing RF technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first accurate bunch length measurement in this regime. In this letter, an analytical approach for computing the longitudinal distribution function and bunch length is described for arbitrary longitudinal and transverse distributions. The measurement results are presented, which are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations
Long-range and head-on beam-beam compensation studies in RHIC with lessons for the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H.-J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.
2009-01-01
Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations
Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.
1988-05-01
Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs
Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.
1988-01-01
Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. This paper shows that although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the capacitive component had also decreased relative to the inductive - to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded capacitor cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained
Numerical Simulation of Beam-Beam Effects in the Proposed Electron-Ion Colider at Jefferson Lab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terzic, Balsa; Zhang, Yuhong
2010-01-01
One key limiting factor to a collider luminosity is beam-beam interactions which usually can cause serious emittance growth of colliding beams and fast reduction of luminosity. Such nonlinear collective beam effect can be a very serious design challenge when the machine parameters are pushed into a new regime. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect for a medium energy ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF.
Effects of parasitic beam-beam interaction during the injection process at the PEP-II B Factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Y.H.
1992-06-01
This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory, PEP-II. It is shown that the parasitic beam-beam interaction can lead to a significant blowup in the vertical size of the injected beam. Simulation results for the horizontal and the vertical injection schemes are presented, and their performances are studied
CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2016-05-01
Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.
Bartosik, H
2012-01-01
An MD on August 26, 2011 was dedicated to injection studies of bunch trains with 25 ns spacing and nominal intensity of approximately 1×10(11) protons per bunch. Due to an electrical glitch, the MD was stopped after two attempts of injecting a train of 48 bunches for beam 2. Both injections were aborted after less than 0.1 s. In particular, the first attempt with transverse damper on was dumped after 1000 turns while the second attempt with transverse damper off was dumped after 500 turns only. In this note, an analysis of the bunch by bunch oscillation data recorded with the post-mortem system from the transverse damper is presented. The presented data clearly shows the presence of instabilities that affect mainly the second half of the batch. This is compatible with what would be expected qualitatively in the presence of the electron cloud effect.
Beam-beam effects in the high-pile-up tests of the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trad, G
2014-01-01
Investigating the beam-beam limit in the LHC is of great importance, since identifying its source is crucial for the luminosity optimization scenario. Several experiments were carried out to search for this limit and check whether it is dominated by the head-on (HO) or the long-range (LR) interactions. In this paper only the HO collision effects will be considered, tracking the evolution of the maximum tune shift achieved during the dedicated machine developments and the special high pile-up fills
Beam-beam effects in the high-pile-up tests of the LHC
Trad, G.
2014-07-17
Investigating the beam-beam limit in the LHC is of great importance, since identifying its source is crucial for the luminosity optimization scenario. Several experiments were carried out to search for this limit and check whether it is dominated by the head-on (HO) or the long-range (LR) interactions. In this paper only the HO collision effects will be considered, tracking the evolution of the maximum tune shift achieved during the dedicated machine developments and the special high pile-up fills.
Bench-marking beam-beam simulations using coherent quadrupole effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnagopal, S.; Chin, Y.H.
1992-06-01
Computer simulations are used extensively in the study of the beam-beam interaction. The proliferation of such codes raises the important question of their reliability, and motivates the development of a dependable set of bench-marks. We argue that rather than detailed quantitative comparisons, the ability of different codes to predict the same qualitative physics should be used as a criterion for such bench-marks. We use the striking phenomenon of coherent quadrupole oscillations as one such bench-mark, and demonstrate that our codes do indeed observe this behaviour. We also suggest some other tests that could be used as bench-marks
Bench-marking beam-beam simulations using coherent quadrupole effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnagopal, S.; Chin, Y.H.
1992-01-01
Computer simulations are used extensively in the study of the beam-beam interaction. The proliferation of such codes raises the important question of their reliability, and motivates the development of a dependable set of bench-marks. We argue that rather than detailed quantitative comparisons, the ability of different codes to predict the same qualitative physics should be used as a criterion for such bench-marks. We use the striking phenomenon of coherent quadrupole oscillations as one such bench-mark, and demonstrate that our codes do indeed observe this behavior. We also suggest some other tests that could be used as bench-marks
Beam-beam instability driven by wakefield effects in linear colliders
Brinkmann, R; Schulte, Daniel
2002-01-01
The vertical beam profile distortions induced by wakefield effects in linear colliders (the so-called ``banana effect'') generate a beam-beam instability at the collision point when the vertical disruption parameter is large. We illustrate this effect in the case of the TESLA linear collider project. We specify the tolerance on the associated emittance growth, which translates into tolerances on injection jitter and, for a given tuning procedure, on structure misalignments. We look for possible cures based on fast orbit correction at the interaction point and using a fast luminosity monitor.
Longitudinal single-bunch instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migliorati, M.; Palumbo, L.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome
2001-02-01
After introducing the concepts of longitudinal wakefield and coupling impedance, it is reviewed the theory of longitudinal single-bunch collective effects in storage rings. From the Fokker-Planck equation it is first derived the stationary solution describing the natural single-bunch regime, and then treat the problem of microwave instability, showing the different approaches used for estimating the threshold current. The lecture is ended with the semi-empirical laws that allow everyone to obtain the single-bunch behaviour above threshold, and with a description of the simulation codes that are now reliable tools for investigating all these effects
Overview of bunch length measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lumpkin, A. H.
1999-01-01
An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed
Status of the studies on collective eﬀects involving beam-beam interactions at the HL-LHC
Buffat, Xavier; Metral, Elias; Ribes Metidieri, Ariadna; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Goncalves Jorge, Patrik; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2018-01-01
This note summarised the status of the studies on the coherent beam-beam eﬀects in the HL-LHC project. It is shown that the obit, tune, chromaticity and dynamic β eﬀects due to head-on and long-range beam-beam interactions are tolerable without dedicated mitigations in the baseline scenario. The stability of coherent beam-beam modes under the inﬂuence of the beam coupling impedance is evaluated, as well as the impact of the beam-beam induced tune spread on the Landau damping of single beam head-tail modes of oscillation. Since the beam stability is marginal at the end of the squeeze for the ultimate scenario, it is suggested to use the ATS optics to increase the eﬀect of the octupoles at constant current, thus providing suﬃcient margins. Measurements suggesting that the transverse damper noise has to be signiﬁcantly reduced to allow for operation with large beam-beam parameter are shown.
Compensation of the Long-Range Beam-Beam Interaction in the LHC
AUTHOR|(CDS)2256057; De Conto, Jean-Marie
In the LHC, protons collide in four interaction points in order to deliver luminosity to detectors located there. In the next machine upgrade, the High Luminosity LHC, the objective is to increase this luminosity by a factor five. By sharing the same vacuum pipes, the two counter rotating beams are interacting with a longitudinal offset with respect to the IP: this effect is called Long-Range Beam-Beam interaction. In order to compensate this effect, a device is currently studying in the LHC: the Beam-Beam Compensator Wire. It consists in a DC wire carrying a current and imitating the strong beam, in the weak-strong approximation. This thesis reports a study of this device. First, we show under which hypothesis the strong beam can be equivalent to a wire. Then, we characterise the magnetic field of this wire and its effect on the weak beam before presenting results of experiments we led in order to demonstrate the beneficial effect of this device.
Linear beam-beam tune shift calculations for the Tevatron Collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, D.
1989-01-01
A realistic estimate of the linear beam-beam tune shift is necessary for the selection of an optimum working point in the tune diagram. Estimates of the beam-beam tune shift using the ''Round Beam Approximation'' (RBA) have over estimated the tune shift for the Tevatron. For a hadron machine with unequal lattice functions and beam sizes, an explicit calculation using the beam size at the crossings is required. Calculations for various Tevatron lattices used in Collider operation are presented. Comparisons between the RBA and the explicit calculation, for elliptical beams, are presented. This paper discusses the calculation of the linear tune shift using the program SYNCH. Selection of a working point is discussed. The magnitude of the tune shift is influenced by the choice of crossing points in the lattice as determined by the pbar ''cogging effects''. Also discussed is current cogging procedures and presents results of calculations for tune shifts at various crossing points in the lattice. Finally, a comparison of early pbar tune measurements with the present linear tune shift calculations is presented. 17 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs
BUNCHED BEAM STOCHASTIC COOLING SIMULAITONS AND COMPARISON WITH DATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN, J.M.
2007-09-10
With the experimental success of longitudinal, bunched beam stochastic cooling in RHIC it is natural to ask whether the system works as well as it might and whether upgrades or new systems are warranted. A computer code, very similar to those used for multi-particle coherent instability simulations, has been written and is being used to address these questions.
Coasting beam theory applied to bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hereward, H.
1975-01-01
It is plausible to apply coasting beam criteria to bunches if one has short wavelength disturbances of the bunch and short memory wake fields, where short means short compared with a bunch length, for then one can argue that a piece of the bunch near the middle does not even know that the bunch has ends. Some other conditions probably required to validate this approach are discussed. The local Keil-Schnell criterion is derived from the local dispersion integral
Combined phenomena of beam-beam and beam-electron cloud interactionsin circular e^{+}e^{-} colliders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuhito Ohmi
2002-10-01
Full Text Available An electron cloud causes various effects in high intensity positron storage rings. The positron beam and the electron cloud can be considered a typical two-stream system with a certain plasma frequency. Beam-beam interaction is another important effect for high luminosity circular colliders. Colliding two beams can be considered as a two-stream system with another plasma frequency. We study the combined phenomena of the beam-electron cloud and beam-beam interactions from a viewpoint of two complex two-stream effects with two plasma frequencies.
Beam-beam interaction and pacman effects in the SSC with momentum oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahale, N.K.; Ohnuma, S.
1989-01-01
In order to find the combined effects of beam-beam interaction (head-on and long-range) and random nonlinear multipoles in dipole magnets, the transverse oscillations of ''regular'' as well as ''pacman'' particles are traced for 256 synchrotron oscillation periods (corresponding to 135K revolutions) in the proposed SSC. Results obtained in this study do not show any obvious reduction of dynamic or linear apertures for pacman particles when compared with regular particles for (Δp/p) = 0. There are some indications of possible sudden or gradual increases in the oscillation amplitude, for pacman as well as regular particles, when the amplitude of momentum oscillation is as large as 3σ. 4 refs., 7 figs
Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade
Rijoff, T L
2012-01-01
The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.
Symmetrization of the beam-beam interaction in an asymmetric collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Y.H.
1990-07-01
This paper studies the idea of symmetrizing both the lattice and the beams of an asymmetric collider, and discusses why this regime should be within the parametric reach of the design in order to credibly ensure its performance. Also examined is the effectiveness of a simple compensation method using the emittance as a free parameter and that it does not work in all cases. At present, when there are no existing asymmetric colliders, it seems prudent to design an asymmetric collider so as to be similar to a symmetric one (without relying on a particular theory of the asymmetric beam-beam interaction that has not passed tests of fidelity). Nevertheless, one must allow for the maximum possible flexibility and freedom in adjusting those parameters that affect luminosity. Such a parameter flexibility will be essential in tuning the collider to the highest luminosity
Effect of a spectrometer magnet on the beam-beam interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cornacchia, M; Parzen, G
1981-01-01
The presence of experimental apparatus in the interaction regions of an intersecting beam accelerator changes the configuration of the crossing beams. This changes the space-charge forces with respect to the standard, magnet-free crossing. The question is: what is the maximum allowable perturbation caused by the spectrometer magnet that can be tolerated from the point of view of the beam dynamics. This paper is limited to the perturbations that the curved trajectories cause the beam-beam space charge nonlinearities. The question has arisen of how one defines the strength of the perturbation. The only solution is to compute the strength of the most important nonlinear resources. In what follows, the computational method used in calculating these resonances is described, and compared with those induced by random orbit errors.
Effect of a spectrometer magnet on the beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornacchia, M.; Parzen, G.
1981-01-01
The presence of experimental apparatus in the interaction regions of an intersecting beam accelerator changes the configuration of the crossing beams. This changes the space-charge forces with respect to the standard, magnet-free crossing. The question is: what is the maximum allowable perturbation caused by the spectrometer magnet that can be tolerated from the point of view of the beam dynamics. This paper is limited to the perturbations that the curved trajectories cause the beam-beam space charge nonlinearities. The question has arisen of how one defines the strength of the perturbation. The only solution is to compute the strength of the most important nonlinear resources. In what follows, the computational method used in calculating these resonances is described, and compared with those induced by random orbit errors
Resistive theory of bunch lengthening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Month, M.; Messerschmid, E.
1977-01-01
A new theory of bunch lengthening in electron storage rings is proposed. The equilibrium bunch length is that length which stabilizes the bunch against the onset of ''fast'' resistive instability, caused by the combination of many high frequency resonators such as vacuum flanges. The heat dissipated in these impedance sources follows immediately from the bunch length. It is found that the anomalous bunch length is determined by a scaling parameter g = (hVcos phi/sub s/)/I. Data taken in SPEAR I and II, data in which g extends in value by more than three orders of magnitude, can be fit with an appropriate choice of high frequency, large width coupling impedance. The impedance functions for SPEAR I and II are taken to be the same, a reflection of the fact that the high frequency sources are chamber discontinuities rather than structures connected with the rf systems. A parameter search leads to an impedance characterized by a central frequency approximately 5 GHz, a width (FWHM) approximately 1.8 GHz and a peak impedance approximately 0.2 M OMEGA. The expected and observed higher mode resistance (i.e., heat dissipated) for SPEAR are compared and found to be in agreement. Predictions are given for PEP and PETRA
Mako, F; Weilhammer, Peter
1999-01-01
We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated cold emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold emission process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied this resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm/sup 2/), high charge bunches (up to 100 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally ~5% of the RF period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show ~40 ps long microbunches at ~20 A/cm/sup 2/ without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 mu s-long macro- pulses. About 5.8*10/sup 13/ micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have pass...
AUTHOR|(CDS)2160109; Støvneng, Jon Andreas
2017-08-15
The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strength of the beam-beam interactions will be higher after the upgrade to the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, and also in the next generation of machines, as the Future Circular Hadron Collider. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and drives resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. For this thesis, a new code named CABIN (Cuda-Accelerated Beam-beam Interaction) has been developed to study the limitations caused by the impact of strong beam-beam interactions. In particular, the evolution of the beam emittance and beam intensity has been monitored to study the impact quantitatively...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frey, W.W.
1983-01-01
The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 μHy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frey, W.W.
1983-01-01
The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 ..mu..Hy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode.
Dynamics of electron bunches at the laser–plasma interaction in the bubble regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maslov, V.I., E-mail: vmaslov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Svystun, O.M., E-mail: svistun_elena@mail.ru; Onishchenko, I.N.; Tkachenko, V.I.
2016-09-01
The multi-bunches self-injection, observed in laser–plasma accelerators in the bubble regime, affects the energy gain of electrons accelerated by laser wakefield. However, understanding of dynamics of the electron bunches formed at laser–plasma interaction may be challenging. We present here the results of fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of laser wakefield acceleration driven by a short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The trapping and acceleration of three witness electron bunches by the bubble-like structures were observed. It has been shown that with time the first two witness bunches turn into drivers and contribute to acceleration of the last witness bunch.
Transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in trains of closely spaced bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, K.A.; Ruth, R.D.
1989-03-01
Damping rings for the next generation of linear collider may need to contain several bunch trains within which the bunches are quire closely spaced (1 or 2 RF wavelengths). Methods are presented for studying the transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities, applicable to this problem and to other cases in which the placement of the bunches is not necessarily symmetric. 5 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.S.; Wildman, D.W.
1988-01-01
The Fermilab Tevatron I proton-antiproton collider project requires that the Fermilab Main Ring produce intense bunches of protons and antiprotons for injection into the Tevatron. The process of coalescing a small number of harmonic number h=1113 bunches into a single bunch by bunch-rotating in a lower harmonic rf system is described.The Main Ring is also required to extract onto the antiproton production target bunches with as narrow a time spread as possible. This operation is also discussed. The operation of the bunch coalescing and bunch rotation are compared with simulations using the computer program ESME. 2 refs., 8 figs
Mako, Frederick M.; Len, L. K.
1999-05-01
We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated, in a microwave cavity, self-bunching, cold electron emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied using simulation codes the resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm2), high charge bunches (up to 500 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally ˜5% of the rf period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show ˜40 ps long micro-bunches at ˜20 A/cm2 without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 μs-long macro-pulses. Approximately 5.8×1013 micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 μs-long macro-pulse. It produces about 45 A in the macro-pulse. The third project is a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. A point design was performed at an rf output power of 150 MW at 34.2 GHz. The resulting system efficiency is 53% and the gain is 60 dB. The system efficiency includes the input cavity efficiency, input driver efficiency (a 50 MW klystron at 11.4 GHz), output cavity efficiency, and the post-acceleration efficiency.
Theory of multi-bunch feedback systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohaupt, R.D.
1991-06-01
In this article the theory of multibunch feedback systems is developed in a rigorous way including the fact that the elements of feedback systems are localized in the ring. The results of the theory which can be used for any strength of the systems are the base for the multibunch feedback systems for PETRA and HERA, already tested successfully in PETRA. (orig.)
Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.
2005-01-01
The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics
Femtosecond electron bunches, source and characterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Rhodes, M.W.; Saisut, J.; Thamboon, P.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Vilaithong, T.
2008-01-01
A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University, Thailand. So far, it has produced electron bunches as short as σ z ∼180 fs with (1-6)x10 8 electrons per microbunch. The system consists of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Coherent transition radiation emitted at wavelengths equal to and longer than the bunch length is used in a Michelson interferometer to determine the bunch length by autocorrelation technique. The experimental setup and results of the bunch length measurement are described
MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C. [Center for Quantum Technologies, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 (Singapore); Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H., E-mail: pengkian@physics.org, E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 (Singapore)
2014-07-01
Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.
Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC
Lukic, S
2015-01-01
Three methods for handling beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC are tested and evaluated in this work. The first method represents an optimization of the LEPtype asymmetric selection cuts that reduce the counting biases. The second method uses the experimentally reconstructed shape of the √ s ′ spectrum to determine the Beamstrahlung component of the bias. The last, recently proposed, collision-frame method relies on the reconstruction of the collision-frame velocity to define the selection function in the collision frame both in experiment and in theory. Thus the luminosity expression is insensitive to the difference between the CM frame of the collision and the lab frame. The collision-frame method is independent of the knowledge of the beam parameters, and it allows an accurate reconstruction of the luminosity spectrum above 80% of the nominal CM energy. However, it gives no precise infromation about luminosity below 80% of the nominal CM energy. The compatibility of diverse selection cut...
Beam-Beam effects at the CMS BRIL van-der-Meer scans
CMS Collaboration
2017-01-01
The CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project (BRIL) is devoted to the simulation and measurement of luminosity, beam conditions and radiation fields in the CMS Experiment at CERN. The project is engaged in operating and developing new detectors, compatible with the high luminosity experimental environments at the LHC. BRIL operates several detectors based on different physical principles and technologies. The detectors are calibrated using van-der-Meer scans to measure the luminosity that is a fundamental quantity of the LHC beam. In van-der-Meer scans the count rate in a detector is measured as a function of the distance between beams in the plane perpendicular to beam direction, to extract the underlying beam overlap area. The goal of the van-der-Meer scans is to obtain the calibration constant for each luminometer to be used at calibration then in physics data taking runs. The note presents the overview of beam-beam effects at the van-der-Meer scan and the corresponding corrections that sh...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Fischer
2017-09-01
Full Text Available A head-on beam-beam compensation scheme was implemented for operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 264801 (2015PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.115.264801]. The compensation consists of electron lenses for the reduction of the beam-beam induced tune spread, and a lattice for the minimization of beam-beam generated resonance driving terms. We describe the implementations of the lattice and electron lenses, and report on measurements of lattice properties and the effect of the electron lenses on the hadron beam.
Bunch lengthening with bifurcation in electron storage rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Eun-San; Hirata, Kohji [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
1996-08-01
The mapping which shows equilibrium particle distribution in synchrotron phase space for electron storage rings is discussed with respect to some localized constant wake function based on the Gaussian approximation. This mapping shows multi-periodic states as well as double bifurcation in dynamical states of the equilibrium bunch length. When moving around parameter space, the system shows a transition/bifurcation which is not always reversible. These results derived by mapping are confirmed by multiparticle tracking. (author)
Improvement of bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system in Hefei light source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Kai; Wang Junhua; Liu Zuping; Li Weimin; Zhou Zeran; Yang Yongliang; Huang Longjun; Chen Yuanbo
2006-01-01
Bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system is an important facility in the multibunch storage ring. In this paper, the established bunch-by-bunch beam current detection systems for the accelerator such as Cornell, SLAC and KEKB were compared and studied. The design of the bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system for HLS, which was based on the bunch-by-bunch tracing measurement system in HLS was given. Both demodulation by sine wave and square were applied in this paper, the deviation of the detect system was determined by the longitudinal oscillation. Compared the data acquired from ADC with the data from DCCT, the ADC data was scaled by the bunch current. The standard deviations of linear fit were about 1%, and the standard deviations of polynomial fit were less than 0.5% in both sine wave and square wave demodulation. Some analysis of the measurement results also had been shown in this paper. (authors)
Quantum beamstrahlung from gaussian bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, P.
1987-08-01
The method of Baier and Katkov is applied to calculate the correction terms to the Sokolov-Ternov radiation formula due to the variation of the magnetic field strength along the trajectory of a radiating particle. We carry the calculation up to the second order in the power expansion of B tau/B, where tau is the formation time of radiation. The expression is then used to estimate the quantum beamstrahlung average energy loss from e + e - bunches with gaussian distribution in bunch currents. We show that the effect of the field variation is to reduce the average energy loss from previous calculations based on the Sokolov-Ternov formula or its equivalent. Due to the limitation of our method, only an upper bound of the reduction is obtained. 18 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Jie
2009-01-01
In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC II. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations. (author)
Beam diagnostics based on time-domain bunch-by-bunch data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Limborg, C.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Sebek, J.; Young, A.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Barry, W.; Stover, G.
1998-01-01
A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been used to control coupled-bunch longitudinal motion and study the behavior of the beam at ALS, SPEAR, PEP-II, and DAΦNE. Each of these machines presents unique challenges to feedback control of unstable motion and data analysis. Here we present techniques developed to adapt this feedback system to operating conditions at these accelerators. A diverse array of techniques has been developed to extract information on different aspects of beam behavior from the time-domain data captured by the feedback system. These include measurements of growth and damping rates of coupled-bunch modes, bunch-by-bunch current monitoring, measurements of bunch-by-bunch synchronous phases and longitudinal tunes, and beam noise spectra. A technique is presented which uses the longitudinal feedback system to measure transverse growth and damping rates. Techniques are illustrated with data acquired at all of the four above-mentioned machines
Bunch compression at the Stanford Linear Collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holtzapple, R.L.; Decker, F.J.; Simopoulos, C.
1995-08-01
The production and measurement of short electron and positron bunches in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) will be presented in this paper. The bunches are compressed in a transport line between the damping rings and the linac. The electron and positron bunch distributions in the SLC linac have been measured using a Hamamatsu, model N3373-02, 500-femtosecond streak camera. The distributions were measured at the end of the SLC linac versus the bunch compressor RF voltage. The measurements are compared with simulations
Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted
2007-11-28
A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.
Certain features of FELs with short bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, A.N.
2006-01-01
The report is devoted to physics of free electron lasers operating in the short-wave domain where the bunch length could be less than the undulator length in the proper frame. Then the current component of the signal is locked within the bunch as in a cavity, while the electromagnetic component propagates freely. In contrast with gyrotrons where this regime can be of interest only for wavelengths comparable with the bunch length, we consider short waves in a bunch of arbitrary profile. Both amplification of an external harmonic signal and SASE regime, i.e. selective amplification of proper noises, are investigated
Properties of Trapped Electron Bunches in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirby, Neil; /SLAC
2009-10-30
Plasma-based accelerators use the propagation of a drive bunch through plasma to create large electric fields. Recent plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments, carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), successfully doubled the energy for some of the 42 GeV drive bunch electrons in less than a meter; this feat would have required 3 km in the SLAC linac. This dissertation covers one phenomenon associated with the PWFA, electron trapping. Recently it was shown that PWFAs, operated in the nonlinear bubble regime, can trap electrons that are released by ionization inside the plasma wake and accelerate them to high energies. These trapped electrons occupy and can degrade the accelerating portion of the plasma wake, so it is important to understand their origins and how to remove them. Here, the onset of electron trapping is connected to the drive bunch properties. Additionally, the trapped electron bunches are observed with normalized transverse emittance divided by peak current, {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t}, below the level of 0.2 {micro}m/kA. A theoretical model of the trapped electron emittance, developed here, indicates that the emittance scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density in the non-linear 'bubble' regime of the PWFA. This model and simulations indicate that the observed values of {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t} result from multi-GeV trapped electron bunches with emittances of a few {micro}m and multi-kA peak currents. These properties make the trapped electrons a possible particle source for next generation light sources. This dissertation is organized as follows. The first chapter is an overview of the PWFA, which includes a review of the accelerating and focusing fields and a survey of the remaining issues for a plasma-based particle collider. Then, the second chapter examines the physics of electron trapping in the PWFA. The third chapter uses theory and simulations to analyze the properties of the trapped
Single bunch beam breakup in linacs and BNS damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toyomasu, Takanori
1991-12-01
We study a single-bunch beam breakup (BBU) problem by a macro-particle model. We consider both the BBU solution and the Landau damping solution which includes the Balakin-Novokhatsky-Smirnov (BNS) damping. In the BBU solution, we get an analytic solution which includes both the Chao-Richter-Yao solution and the two-particle model solution and which agrees well with simulation. The solution can also be used in a multi-bunch case. In the Landau damping solution, we can be see the mechanism of Landau damping formally and can get some insights into BNS damping. We confirm that a two-particle model criterion for BNS damping is a good one. We expect that the two-particle model criterion is represented by the first order interaction in Landau damping solution of a macro-particle model. (author)
Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability
Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K
2005-01-01
In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.
TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*
Burov, A
2013-01-01
If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).
Correlation between morphological characters and estimated bunch ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The methodology of multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to estimate bunch weight. The most significant variables that were measured included number of leaves at harvest, number of fruits per bunch, FW, FL, rachis weight (RW) and stalk length (SL), generating the following prediction equation: BW= -5.249 + ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, J.; Kondoh, T.; Kan, K.; Kozawa, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.
2006-01-01
A femtosecond (fs) electron bunching was observed in a photoinjector with a magnetic compressor by rotating the bunch in longitudinal phase space. The bunch length was obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation of the electron beam with a femtosecond streak camera technique. A single electron bunch with rms bunch length of 98 fs was observed for a 32 MeV electron beam at a charge of 0.17 nC. The relative energy spread and the normalized transverse emittance of the electron beam were 0.2% and 3.8 mm-mrad, respectively. The effect of space charge on the bunch compression was investigated experimentally for charges from 0.17 to 1.25 nC. The dependences of the relative energy spread and the normalized beam transverse emittance on the bunch charge were measured
Curvature radiation by bunches of particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saggion, A.
1975-01-01
A bunch of relativistic particles moving on a curved trajectory is considered. The coherent emission of curvature radiation is described with particular regard to the role played by the 'shape' of the bunch as a function of its dimensions. It is found that the length of the bunch strongly affects the spectrum of the radiation emitted, with no effect on its polarization. For wavelengths shorter than the length of the bunch, the emitted intensity as a function of frequency shows recurrent maxima and minima, the height of the maxima being proportional to νsup(-5/3). The bunch dimensions perpendicular to the plane of the orbit affect both the spectral intensity and the polarization of the radiation. (orig./BJ) [de
Biao, Z J; Xie Jia Li; Zhang Guo Qing
2001-01-01
Coherent bending magnet or undulator radiation due to a train of electron bunches is treated as radiation from a multi-slit diffraction array. Based on this model, we numerically analyse the interference among coherent synchrotron radiation emitted from consecutive bunches in a train of bunches, which are accelerated by a 30-MeV RF-linac at BFEL. Some interesting results are as follows: (1) Rapidly oscillating radiation enhancement due to interbunch interference is overlapped on the single bunch spectrum. (2) It consists of a series of spectrum lines corresponding to harmonics of the RF fundamental. (3) Main maximum positions are determined by the 'diffraction condition'. (4) Total intensity is about the square of the number of bunches participating in interference as single bunch intensity. Experimental design to measure interbunch interference at BFEL with the sub-mm and mm-wave Michelson interferometer is presented.
Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun
2009-01-01
The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)
Sensitive beam-bunch phase detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeuchi, S; Shepard, K W
1984-11-15
A sensitive heavy-ion beam-bunch phase detector has been developed by first examining the relationship between the sensitivity of an rf resonant cavity as a particle bunch detector and the shunt impedance of the same cavity as an accelerating structure. Then the various high shunt impedance rf cavities previously developed for accelerating heavy ions were evaluated for use as bunch detectors. A spiral-loaded geometry was chosen, built, and tested with beam. The sensitivity obtained, 14 V per electrical nA of beam, is a factor 3 higher than previously reported. (orig.).
Sensitive beam-bunch phase detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeuchi, S; Shepard, K W [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Physics Div.
1984-11-15
A sensitive heavy-ion beam-bunch phase detector has been developed by first examining the relationship between the sensitivity of an RF resonant cavity as a particle bunch detector and the shunt impedance of the same cavity as an accelerating structure. Then the various high shunt impedance RF cavities previously developed for accelerating heavy ions were evaluated for use as bunch detectors. A spiral-loaded geometry was chosen, built, and tested with beam. The sensitivity obtained, 14 ..mu.. V per electrical nA of beam, is a factor 3 higher than previously reported.
Bunch Compression Stability Dependence on RF Parameters
Limberg, T
2005-01-01
In present designs for FEL's with high electron peak currents and short bunch lengths, higher harmonic RF systems are often used to optimize the final longitudinal charge distributions. This opens degrees of freedom for the choice of RF phases and amplitudes to achieve the necessary peak current with a reasonable longitudinal bunch shape. It had been found empirically that different working points result in different tolerances for phases and amplitudes. We give an analytical expression for the sensitivity of the compression factor on phase and amplitude jitter for a bunch compression scheme involving two RF systems and two magnetic chicanes as well numerical results for the case of the European XFEL.
Down sampled signal processing for a B Factory bunch-by-bunch feedback system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Briggs, D.; Fox, J.; Hutton, A.
1992-03-01
A bunch-by-bunch feedback scheme is studied for damping coupled bunch synchrotron oscillations in the proposed PEP II B Factory. The quasi-linear feedback systems design incorporates a phase detector to provide a quantized measure of bunch phase, digital signal processing to compute an error correction signal and a kicker system to correct the energy of the bunches. A farm of digital processors, operating in parallel, is proposed to compute correction signals for the 1658 bunches of the B Factory. This paper studies the use of down sampled processing to reduce the computational complexity of the feedback system. We present simulation results showing the effect of down sampling on beam dynamics. Results show that down sampled processing can reduce the scale of the processing task by a factor of 10
Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamson, P.; Ashmanskas, W.J.; Foster, G.W.; Hansen, S.; Marchionni, A.; Nicklaus, D.; Semenov, A.; Wildman, D.; Kang, H.
2005-01-01
We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project
Observations of bunch-by-bunch losses in the 2010 LHC proton physics operation
Papotti, G
2011-01-01
This document summarizes the bunch-by-bunch loss observations carried out during the 2010 proton physics run at the LHC. These observations proved beneficial to the improvement of operations, in particular in the early days of nominal intensity per bunch operation: then the plots initiated the removal of the tune split and motivated the modification of a filling scheme to remove parasitic encounters that heightened the losses on selected bunches. Along with plots from sample physics fills, summary plots for the year are shown. The colour coding is always chosen so to highlight the dependence of the losses on the filling scheme.
Bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for PEP-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.
1994-06-01
This paper describes the implementation of the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for the PEP-II B Factory. Bunch spacing down to 2 ns is achieved using 500 Megasamples per second A/D and D/A converters, and AT ampersand T 1610 Digital Signal Processors are integrated to run a downsampled feedback algorithm for each bunch in parallel. This general purpose programmable system, packaged in VXI and VME, is modular and scalable to offer portability to other accelerator rings. The control and monitoring hardware and software architecture have been developed to provide ease of operation as well as diagnostic tools for machine physics
Generation and measurement of velocity bunched ultrashort bunch of pC charge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. H. Lu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the velocity compression in a short rf linac of an electron bunch from a rf photoinjector operated in the blowout regime. Particle tracking simulations shows that with a beam charge of 2 pC an ultrashort bunch duration of 16 fs can be obtained at a tight longitudinal focus downstream of the linac. A simplified coherent transition radiation (CTR spectrum method is developed to enable the measurement of ultrashort (sub-50 fs bunches at low bunch energy (5 MeV and low bunch charges (<10 pC. In this method, the ratio of the radiation energy selected by two narrow bandwidth filters is used to estimate the bunch length. The contribution to the coherent form factor of the large transverse size of the bunch suppresses the radiation signal significantly and is included in the analysis. The experiment was performed at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector laboratory. The measurement results show bunches of sub-40 fs with 2 pC of charge well consistent with the simulation using actual experimental conditions. These results open the way to the generation of ultrashort bunches with time-duration below 10 fs once some of the limitations of the setup (rf phase jitter, amplitude instability and low field in the gun limited by breakdown are corrected.
Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rui Li
2008-01-01
Within the realm of classical electrodynamics, the curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. As an application of this canonical formulation, in this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of the particles in the distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particles in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase-space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions. Our study demonstrates clearly the time delay (or retardation) of the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force on a bunch in responding to the change of the bunch length in a magnetic bend. Our result also shows that the effective longitudinal CSR force for a bunch under full compression can have sensitive dependence on the transverse position of the test particle in the bunch for certain parameter regimes
Space Charge Mitigation by Hollow Bunches
Oeftiger, AO
2014-01-01
To satisfy the requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider), the LHC injector chain will need to supply a higher brightness, i.e. deliver the same transverse beam emittances \\epsilon_{x,y} while providing a higher intensity N. However, a larger number of particles per bunch enhances space charge effects. One approach to mitigate the impact of space charge is to change the longitudinal phase space distribution: hollow bunches feature a depleted bunch centre and a densely populated periphery. Thus, the spatial line density maximum is depressed which ultimately decreases the tune spread imposed by space charge. Therefore, a higher intensity can be accepted while keeping the same overall space charge tune shift. 3 different methods to create hollow bunches in the PSBooster are simulated.
Single bunched beam generation without subharmonic prebuncher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, T.; Tagawa, S.
1995-01-01
The intensity of the accelerated single bunched electron beam depends on the performance of the electron gun and the fast cathode pulser. The electron beam is emitted by a Y-796 cathode assembly with a cathode of 2 cm 2 (8 A/cm 2 ), and an extracted voltage of 90 kV. The maximum charge of the single bunched beam was attained at 1.5 nC/pulse using SHB. Recently, a single bunched beam has been generated by an ultrafast cathode pulser (rise and fall time <100 ps pulse height -2 kV at 50 Ω) without SHB. The charge of the accelerated electron beam is about 40 pC/pulse (pulse width <10 ps) without the production of a satellite beam. This result show that a single bunched beam can be produced by the linear accelerator without SHB. ((orig.))
Luminosity with more bunches in PEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corbett, W.J.
1990-12-01
The near term accelerator physics program for PEP includes experiments in a collider mode with up to 9 bunches in each beam. In this memo, luminosity data from the 3 x 3 configuration is first used to calculate vertical beam size, emittance and tune shift as a function of current. The data is then used to extrapolate to the case with either 6 x 6 or 9 x 9 bunches colliding in PEP. Vertical emittance growth from the separated bunch optics and dispersion at the IP are included in the calculations. The conclusion is that given a 90 mA current drive limitation in PEP, operating with 6 x 6 bunches yields the maximum luminosity. 9 refs., 6 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gagliardi, F.
1992-10-15
As other factors governing the electron-positron collision rate in CERN's LEP 27-kilometre storage ring reach their limit, one way of coaxing the collision rate higher is to increase the number of bunches stored in the ring.
Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches
Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni
2016-01-01
Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.
Application accelerator system having bunch control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D.; Krafft, G.A.
1999-01-01
An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser is disclosed. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control. 1 fig
Application accelerator system having bunch control
Wang, Dunxiong; Krafft, Geoffrey Arthur
1999-01-01
An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control.
Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2015-01-01
We present two different approaches to solve the 2-dimensional electrostatic problem with open boundary conditions to be used in fast tracking codes for beam-beam and space charge simulations in high energy accelerators. We compare a fast multipoles method with a hybrid Poisson solver based on the fast Fourier transform and finite differences in polar coordinates. We show that the latter outperforms the first in terms of execution time and precision, allowing for a reduction of the noise in the tracking simulation. Furthermore the new algorithm is shown to scale linearly on parallel architectures with shared memory. We conclude by effectively replacing the HFMM by the new Poisson solver in the COMBI code.
Transverse blowup along bunch train caused by electron cloud in BEPC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yudong; Guo Zhiyuan; Qin Qing; Wang Jiuqing; Zhao Zheng
2006-01-01
Electron cloud instability (ECI) may take place in a storage ring when the machine is operated with a multi-bunch positively charged beam. Transverse blowup due to electron cloud has been observed in some machines and is considered to be a major limit factor in the development of high current and high luminosity electron positron colliders. With a streak camera, the transverse blowup along the bunch train was first observed in an experiment at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC) and the simulation results were used to compared with the observation. (authors)
Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.
2015-12-01
Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].
Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loos, H.; /SLAC
2010-06-11
Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of
Herr, Werner
2003-01-01
We have calculated the tune distribution functions in the presence of beam-beam eﬀects in order to evaluate the efect of Landau damping of instabilities driven by the impedance. The corresponding stability diagrams have been computed and the limits on the transverse impedance have be derived.
Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Jaroszynski, D.A.
2004-01-01
Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001); Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002)]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser
Beam diagnostics based on time-domain bunch-by-bunch data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Limborg, C.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Sebek, J.; Young, A.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Barry, W.; Stover, G.
1998-01-01
A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been used to control coupled-bunch longitudinal motion and study the behavior of the beam at ALS, SPEAR, PEP-II, and DAΦNE. Each of these machines presents unique challenges to feedback control of unstable motion and data analysis. Here we present techniques developed to adapt this feedback system to operating conditions at these accelerators. A diverse array of techniques has been developed to extract information on different aspects of beam behavior from the time-domain data captured by the feedback system. These include measurements of growth and damping rates of coupled-bunch modes, bunch-by-bunch current monitoring, measurements of bunch-by-bunch synchronous phases and longitudinal tunes, and beam noise spectra. A technique is presented which uses the longitudinal feedback system to measure transverse growth and damping rates. Techniques are illustrated with data acquired at all of the four above-mentioned machines. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Evolution of dense spatially modulated electron bunches
Balal, N.; Bratman, V. L.; Friedman, A.
2018-03-01
An analytical theory describing the dynamics of relativistic moving 1D electron pulses (layers) with the density modulation affected by a space charge has been revised and generalized for its application to the formation of dense picosecond bunches from linear accelerators with laser-driven photo injectors, and its good agreement with General Particle Tracer simulations has been demonstrated. Evolution of quasi-one-dimensional bunches (disks), for which the derived formulas predict longitudinal expansion, is compared with that for thin and long electron cylinders (threads), for which the excitation of non-linear waves with density spikes was found earlier by Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 184801 (2011)] and Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. -Accel. Beams 16(10), 100701 (2013)]. Both types of bunches can be used for efficiency enhancement of THz sources based on the Doppler frequency up-shifted coherent spontaneous radiation of electrons. Despite the strong Coulomb repulsion, the periodicity of a preliminary modulation in dense 1D layers persists during their expansion in the most interesting case of a relatively small change in particle energy. However, the period of modulation increases and its amplitude decreases in time. In the case of a large change in electron energy, the uniformity of periodicity is broken due to different relativistic changes in longitudinal scales along the bunch: the "period" of modulation decreases and its amplitude increases from the rear to the front boundary. Nevertheless, the use of relatively long electron bunches with a proper preliminary spatial modulation of density can provide a significantly higher power and a narrower spectrum of coherent spontaneous radiation of dense bunches than in the case of initially short single bunches with the same charge.
Computer modelling of bunch-by-bunch feedback for the SLAC B-factory design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briggs, D.; Fox, J.D.; Hosseini, W.; Klaisner, L.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thompson, K.A.; Lambertson, G.
1991-05-01
The SLAC B-factory design, with over 1600 high current bunches circulating in each ring, will require a feedback system to avoid coupled-bunch instabilities. A computer model of the storage ring, including the RF system, wave fields, synchrotron radiation loss, and the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is presented. The feedback system model represents the performance of a fast phase detector front end (including system noise and imperfections), a digital filter used to generate a correction voltage, and a power amplifier and beam kicker system. The combined ring-feedback system model is used to study the feedback system performance required to suppress instabilities and to quantify the dynamics of the system. Results are presented which show the time development of coupled bunch instabilities and the damping action of the feedback system. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Coherent transition radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator as an electron bunch diagnostic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tilborg, J. van; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Martin, M.C.; Hao, Z.; Leemans, W.P.
2004-01-01
The observation and modeling of coherent transition radiation from femtosecond laser accelerated electron bunches is discussed. The coherent transition radiation, scaling quadratically with bunch charge, is generated as the electrons transit the plasma-vacuum boundary. Due to the limited transverse radius of the plasma boundary, diffraction effects will strongly modify the angular distribution and the total energy radiated is reduced compared to an infinite transverse boundary. The multi-nC electron bunches, concentrated in a length of a few plasma periods (several tens of microns), experience partial charge neutralization while propagating inside the plasma towards the boundary. This reduces the space-charge blowout of the beam, allowing for coherent radiation at relatively high frequencies (several THz). The charge distribution of the electron bunch at the plasma-vacuum boundary can be derived from Fourier analysis of the coherent part of the transition radiation spectrum. A Michelson interferometer was used to measure the coherent spectrum, and electron bunches with duration on the order of 50 fs (rms) were observed
Independent component analysis applied to long bunch beams in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring
Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Macek, Robert J.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Pang, Xiaoying
2012-11-01
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful blind source separation (BSS) method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis, ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. The conventional ICA application to turn-by-turn position data from multiple beam position monitors (BPMs) yields information about cross-BPM correlations. With this scheme, multi-BPM ICA has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch revealing correlations of particle motion within the beam bunch. We digitize beam signals of the long bunch at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring with a single device (BPM or fast current monitor) for an entire injection-extraction cycle. ICA of the digitized beam signals results in source signals, which we identify to describe varying betatron motion along the bunch, locations of transverse resonances along the bunch, measurement noise, characteristic frequencies of the digitizing oscilloscopes, and longitudinal beam structure.
Independent component analysis applied to long bunch beams in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey S. Kolski
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a powerful blind source separation (BSS method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis, ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. The conventional ICA application to turn-by-turn position data from multiple beam position monitors (BPMs yields information about cross-BPM correlations. With this scheme, multi-BPM ICA has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch revealing correlations of particle motion within the beam bunch. We digitize beam signals of the long bunch at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring with a single device (BPM or fast current monitor for an entire injection-extraction cycle. ICA of the digitized beam signals results in source signals, which we identify to describe varying betatron motion along the bunch, locations of transverse resonances along the bunch, measurement noise, characteristic frequencies of the digitizing oscilloscopes, and longitudinal beam structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.
2011-01-01
Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph
2015-01-01
We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps
''High intensity per bunch'' working group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)
Bunch compression for an FEL at NLCTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, F.
1997-04-01
As part of the design effort for a free electron laser driven by the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA), the author reports studies of bunch-length compression utilizing the existing infrastructure and hardware. In one possible version of the NLCTA FEL, bunches with 900-microm FWHM length, generated by an S-band photo-injector, would be compressed to an rms length of 60--120 microm before entering the FEL undulator. It is shown that, using the present magnetic chicane, the bunch compression is essentially straightforward, and that almost all emittance-diluting effects, e.g. wakefields, chromaticity, or space charge in the bending magnets, are small. The only exception to this finding is the predicted increase of the horizontal emittance due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Estimates based on existing theories of coherent synchrotron radiation suggest a tripling or quadrupling of the initial emittance, which seems to preclude bunch compression during regular FEL operation. Serendipitously, the magnitude of the predicted emittance growth would, on the other hand, make the NLCTA chicane an excellent tool for measuring the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. This will be of considerable interest to many future projects, in particular to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). As an aside, it is shown that coherent synchrotron radiation in a bending magnet gives rise to a minimum possible bunch length, which is very reminiscent of the Oide limit on the vertical spot size at the interaction point of a linear collider
Focusing of relativistic electron bunch, moving in cylindrical plasma waveguide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amatuni, A.Ts.; Ehlbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.
1994-01-01
The problem on the focusing of electron bunches moving with the relativistic velocity along the axis of cylindrical overdense plasma waveguide with the conducting internal surface is considered. The existence of periodic and nonperiodic components of the fields, generated in the plasma is shown. The conditions of electron bunch self-focusing by transverse electrical field and azimuthal magnetic field are derived. The possibility of the acceleration and focusing of electron or positron bunches by driving electron bunch wake field is discussed. The conditions, when the bunch in plasma waveguide moves without wake fields generating are obtained, which could be of the interest for the transport of relativistic electron (positron) bunches. 5 refs
BBAT: Bunch and bucket analysis tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, D.P.
1995-01-01
BBAT is written to meet the need of an interactive graphical tool to explore the longitudinal phase space. It is driven for testing new ideas or new tricks quickly. It is especially suitable for machine physicists or operation staff as well both in the control room during machine studies or off-line to analyze the data. The heart of the package contains a set of c-routines to do the number crunching. The graphics part is wired with scripting language tcl/tk and BLT. The c-routines are general enough that one can write new applications such as animation of the bucket as a machine parameter varies via a sliding scale. BBAT deals with single rf system. For double rf system, one can use Dr. BBAT, which stands for Double rf Bunch and Bucket Analysis Tool. One usage of Dr. BBAT is to visualize the process of bunch coalescing and flat bunch creation
Note on polarized RHIC bunch arrangement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Underwood, D.
1996-01-01
We discuss what combinations of bunch polarization in the two RHIC rings are necessary to do the physics measurements at various interaction regions. We also consider the bunches for both the pion inclusive and p-p elastic polarization measurements. Important factors to consider are the direction of the polarization with respect to the momentum in each bunch, the beam gas backgrounds, and the simulation of zero - polarization in one beam by averaging + and - helicity, and luminosity monitoring for normalization. These considerations can be addressed by setting the relative number of each of the 9 combinations possible at each of the 6 interaction regions. The combinations are (+ empty -) yellow X (+ empty -)blue, where yellow and blue are the counter-rotating rings
Bunch coalescing in the Fermilab Main Ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wildman, D.; Martin, P.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.
1987-01-01
A new RF system has been installed in the Fermilab Main Ring to coalesce up to 13 individual bunches of protons or antiprotons into a single high-intensity bunch. The coalescing process consists of adiabatically reducing the h=1113 Main Ring RF voltage from 1 MV to less than 1 kV, capturing the debunched beam in a linearized h=53 and h=106 bucket, rotating for a quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period, and then recapturing the beam in a single h=1113 bucket. The new system is described and the results of recent coalescing experiments are compared with computer-generated particle tracking simulations
Bunch heating by coherent synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.A.; Zolotorev, M.
1995-10-01
The authors discuss here effects which define the steady-state rms energy spread of a microbunch in a storage ring. It is implied that the longitudinal microwave instability is controlled by low α lattice. In this case the coherent synchrotron radiation, if exists, may be the main factor defining the bunch temperature. Another effect comes from the fact that a nonlinear momentum compaction of such lattices makes Haissinskii equation not applicable, and the coherent synchrotron radiation may effect not only bunch lengthening but the energy spread as well
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Zhu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The generation of ultrashort electron bunches with ultrasmall bunch arrival-time jitter is of vital importance for laser-plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection. We study the production of 100-MeV electron bunches with bunch durations of subfemtosecond (fs and bunch arrival-time jitters of less than 10 fs, in an S-band photoinjector by using a weak magnetic chicane with a slit collimator. The beam dynamics inside the chicane is simulated by using two codes with different self-force models. The first code separates the self-force into a three-dimensional (3D quasistatic space-charge model and a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR model, while the other one starts from the first principle with a so-called 3D sub-bunch method. The simulations indicate that the CSR effect dominates the horizontal emittance growth and the 1D CSR model underestimates the final bunch duration and emittance because of the very large transverse-to-longitudinal aspect ratio of the sub-fs bunch. Particularly, the CSR effect is also strongly affected by the vertical bunch size. Due to the coupling between the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, the bunch duration at the entrance of the last dipole magnet of the chicane is still significantly longer than that at the exit of the chicane, which considerably mitigates the impact of space charge and CSR effects on the beam quality. Exploiting this effect, a bunch charge of up to 4.8 pC in a sub-fs bunch could be simulated. In addition, we analytically and numerically investigate the impact of different jitter sources on the bunch arrival-time jitter downstream of the chicane, and define the tolerance budgets assuming realistic values of the stability of the linac for different bunch charges and compression schemes.
Development of bunch by bunch transverse feedback system at Hefei light source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Junhua; Zheng Kai; Li Weimin; Yang Yongliang; Huang Longjun; Chen Yuanbo; Zhou Zeran; Wang Lin; Liu Zeping; Sun Baogen; Ma Li; Cao Jianshe; Yue Junhui; Liu Dekang; Ye Kairong
2008-01-01
This paper has introduced the development of the transverse bunch-by-bunch measurement and feedback system, including the experiment of damping the coupled bunch instability. Some key technologies on the system have been introduced: the vector calculation module as a signal processing module used to adjust the phase of the feedback signals, the feedback kicker cavity and the notch filter used to filter the DC component and revolution frequencies component in a signal and save the feedback power. The result of the feedback experiment is mentioned: the instability oscillation was damped when the feedback system was on. (authors)
Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning
Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S
2005-01-01
A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10
Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash-Derived Alkali and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, ...
Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban
2014-01-01
The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers
Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches
Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.
2007-01-01
We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches
Luminosity geometric reduction factor from colliding bunches with different lengths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2017-09-29
In the interaction point of the future electron-Ion collider eRHIC, the electron beam bunches are at least one order of magnitude shorter than the proton beam bunches. With the introduction of a crossing angle, the actual number of collisions resulting from the bunch collision gets reduced. Here we derive the expression for the luminosity geometric reduction factor when the bunches of the two incoming beams are not equal.
The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy
Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.
2005-01-01
The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…
Interaction of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches with dense plasmas
Rukhadze, A A
2012-01-01
Here we discuss the possibility of employment of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches for generation of high plasma wakefields in dense plasmas due to the Cherenkov resonance plasma-bunch interaction. We estimate the maximum amplitude of such a wake and minimum system length at which the maximum amplitude can be generated at the given bunch parameters.
The SPS Individual Bunch Measurement System
Guerrero, A; Jones, R; Savioz, J J
2001-01-01
The Individual Bunch Measurement System (IBMS) allows the intensity of each bunch in an LHC batch to be the measured both in the PS to SPS transfer lines and in the SPS ring itself. The method is vased on measuring the peak and valley of the analogue signal supplied by a Fast Beam Current Transformer at a frequency of 40 MHz. A 12 bit acquisition system is required to obtain a 1% resolution for the intensity range of 5X10`9 to 1.7X10`11 protons per bunch, corresponding to the pilot and ultimate LHC bunch intensities. The acquisition selection and external trigger adjustment system is driven by the 200MHz RF, which is distributed using a single-mode fibre-optic link. A local oscilloscope, controlled via a GPIB interface, allows the remote adjustment of the timing signals. The low-level software consists of a real-time task and a communication server run on a VME Power PC, which is accessed using a graphical user interface. This paper describes the system as a whole and presents some recent uses and results fro...
Single bunch stability in the ESRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farvacque, L.
1990-01-01
The longitudinal wake potential/impedance and bunch lengthening/stability in ESRF were studied. A cylindrical approximation of individual components of the vacuum chamber were studied. The results are wake potential and loss parameters. Measurements are necessary when the cylindrical approximation is not realistic. The coaxial wire method which is used gives a wake potential that can be substituted for the computed wake in the analysis. A measurement bench is presently being tested at ESRF. Wake potentials (computed or measured) are added before modeling or approximation is made. The impedance model used is the broad-band resonator model. Equations are derived for the longitudinal potential well. The bunch shape can be estimated knowing the first moments of the line density function. Mode coupling cannot explain the turbulent instability threshold. The threshold has then to be estimated by crude assumptions on potential well or bunch shape distortions. In the ESRF case, this threshold corresponds to a value of asymmetry s (th) = 0.6. Above the threshold the bunch lengthens with this constant asymmetry value
Introduction to impedance for short relativistic bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morton, P.L.
1993-02-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of impedance to calculate the wake field forces left behind by a short bunch which travels at relativistic speed through a structure with discontinuities. We will try to be as intuitive as possible and leave the more rigorous derivations to the second paper on this subject by J. Wang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagliardi, F.
1992-01-01
As other factors governing the electron-positron collision rate in CERN's LEP 27-kilometre storage ring reach their limit, one way of coaxing the collision rate higher is to increase the number of bunches stored in the ring
Goncalves Jorge, Patrik
The Future Circular hadron-hadron Collider (FCC-hh) is a design study for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The dynamics of the beams in such a collider poses many challenges, in particular the amount of energy stored in each beam (8.4 GJ) makes them very destructive and therefore requires a tight control of the machine and beam parameters during the full cycle in order to avoid damages and reach the collider designed performances. The FCC-hh features an increase of the beam brightness during the cycle due to the presence of synchrotron radiation damping at high energy. As a result, the electromagnetic forces that the two beams exert on each other, the so-called beam-beam forces, are enhanced and might become an issue for the safe operation of the machine. In this new regime, the impact of the beam-beam interaction on the optics becomes non-negligible. In this master thesis, for the first time, the impact of the beam-beam interaction on the optics ($\\beta$-beating) is measured in a hadron collider (LHC). The e...
Femtosecond electron-bunch dynamics in laser wakefields and vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Khachatryan
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in laser wakefield acceleration demonstrated the generation of extremely short (with a duration of a few femtoseconds relativistic electron bunches with relatively low (of the order of couple of percent energy spread. In this article we study the dynamics of such bunches in drift space (vacuum and in channel-guided laser wakefields. Analytical solutions were found for the transverse coordinate of an electron and for the bunch envelope in the wakefield in the case of arbitrary change in the energy. Our results show strong bunch dynamics already on a millimeter scale propagation distance both in plasma and in vacuum. When the bunch propagates in vacuum, its transverse sizes grow considerably; the same is observed for the normalized bunch emittance that worsens the focusability of the bunch. A scheme of two-stage laser wakefield accelerator with small drift space between the stages is proposed. It is found that fast longitudinal betatron phase mixing occurs in a femtosecond bunch when it propagates along the wakefield axis. When bunch propagates off axis, strong bunch decoherence and fast emittance degradation due to the finite bunch length was observed.
Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches
Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus
2015-01-01
A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches. PMID:26212024
Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches
Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus
2015-07-01
A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.
Single bunch instabilities in an SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruth, R.D.
1984-01-01
In this note coherent instability thresholds are estimated for the SSC and discuss some of the subsequent design restrictions. The various instabilities are set out in a block diagram with the essential features of each. The assumption is made that long wavelength coupled bunch effects can be cured effectively by a feedback system (both longitudinal and transverse) and that the impedance of the feedback system is such as to cancel that of the environment (at low frequency). Alternatively, the long wake field is assumed to be exactly canceled, on the average, by a feedback wake field. This leaves only single bunch effects. Thresholds for fast-blowup are discussed both in the longitudinal and transverse and the transverse mode coupling instability more familiar in electron/positron storage rings is covered. The impedances considered are a broadband impedance and the resistive wall impedance
Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gluckstern, R.L.; Fedotov, A.V.; Kurennoy, S.; Ryne, R.
1998-01-01
We have constructed, analytically and numerically, a class of self-consistent six-dimensional (6D) phase space stationary distributions. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without it being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3D axisymmetric beam bunches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches. Of particular importance is the result that, due to the coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion, a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed for a mismatch less than 10% if the mismatch in the other plane is large. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Beam induced heating reduction by bunch flattening
Argyropoulos, T; Esteban Müller, JF; Jakobsen, S; Mastoridis, T; Metral, E; Mounet, N; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E; Timko, H
2014-01-01
The main purpose of this MD was to modify the beam induced heating on some critical LHC components by flattening the bunch distribution by applying an RF phase modulation. In this way, the beam spectrum was modified so that the power spectral density is reduced at low frequencies (below 1.1 GHz), which is the band of frequencies where the beam interaction with different component impedances is most critical. We present temperature measurements showing the beneficial effect of this latter distribution on some of the monitored devices. Longitudinal peak detected Schottky spectrum was also acquired during the first part of the MD with the intention of estimating the synchrotron frequency shift due to the reactive part of the longitudinal impedance. In the second part of the MD, an attempt to cure the transverse instability during the beta-squeeze was done by reducing the RF voltage to lengthen the bunches and enhance Landau Damping.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Khachatryan
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001JTPLA20021-364010.1134/1.1427124; Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.65.046504]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser wakefield, considerably compressed and accelerated to an ultrarelativistic energy. In this paper we show the possibility of the generation of an extremely short (on the order of 1 μm long or a few femtoseconds in duration relativistic-electron-bunch by this mechanism. The initial electron bunch, which can be generated, for example, by a laser-driven photocathode rf gun, should have an energy of a few hundred keVs to a few MeVs, a duration in the picosecond range or less and a relatively low concentration. The trapping conditions and parameters of an accelerated bunch are investigated. The laser pulse dynamics as well as a possible experimental setup for the demonstration of the injection scheme are also considered.
Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation
Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter
2005-01-01
The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...
SuperB Bunch-By-Bunch Feedback R&D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drago, A.; Beretta, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC; Migliorati, M.; /Rome U.
2011-08-12
The SuperB project has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The SuperB design is based on collisions with extremely low vertical emittance beams and high beam currents. A source of emittance growth comes from the bunch by bunch feedback systems producing high power correction signals to damp the beams. To limit any undesirable effect, a large R&D program is in progress, partially funded by the INFN Fifth National Scientific Committee through the SFEED (SuperB Feedback) project approved within the 2010 budget. The SuperB project [1] has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In the last and current years, the machine layout has been deeply modified, in particular the main rings are now shorter and an option with high currents has been foreseen. In the fig.1 the new SuperB layout is shown. From bunch-by-bunch feedback point of view, the simultaneous presence in the machine parameters, of very low emittance, of the order of 5-10 pm in the vertical plane, and very high currents, at level of 4 Ampere for the Low Energy Ring, asks for designing very carefully the bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The parameter list is presented in Fig. 2. The bunch-by-bunch feedback design must take care of the risky and exciting challenges proposed in the SuperB specifications, but it should consider also some other important aspects: flexibility in terms of being able to cope to unexpected beam behaviours [2], [3] legacy of previous version experience [4], [5] and internal powerful diagnostics [6] as in the systems previously used in PEP-II and DAFNE [7].
On measuring charged particle bunch duration in linear accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lomize, L.G.; Malykh, N.I.; Khizhnyj, V.I.; Yampol'skij, E.S.
1977-01-01
The process of measuring short bunches is simulated by means of cavity resonators in which HF fields are excited by both positive and negative ion bunches flying through them. The simulation is aimed to assess optimum operation of a linear accelerator. A set of bunches of chance form and duration is simulated. Then the simulation of the process of restoring the duration and shape of a bunch according to data obtained from a limited number of resonators is realized. The use of 3-4 resonators tuned to 3, 6, 9 and 12-th harmonics of bunch repetition rate is shown to be sufficient for determining bunch duration with an accuracy of several per cent. When data on harmonic phases is available, one can obtain information on beam asymmetry
Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi
2015-04-01
Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinatier, T.
2015-01-01
My thesis investigates dynamics and diagnostics related to short electron bunches, namely whose rms duration is not directly measurable by an electronic method locating the border at a few tens of picoseconds. The short nature of the bunch and the necessity of a high peak current for the applications imply strong space-charge forces leading to a degradation of beam properties, as its transverse emittance and duration. The main difficulty is to characterize, model and take into account these effects. The chapter 2 consists in the measurements of several properties of these bunches: charge, transverse emittance, energy and duration. The originality of my work is that I use simple methods, both on the theoretical (analytical at maximum) and technological (using only common elements of electron accelerators) point of view. I have developed a method of charge measurement from the measurement of the light intensity emitted by a scintillating screen following the interaction with an electron beam. I have also developed a method to measure the bunch mean energy with a steering magnet and a scintillating screen, via the displacement of the bunch centroid as a function of the field of the steering magnet. I have also adapted multi-parametric methods to measure the transverse emittance and duration of electron bunches. These indirect methods allow the determination of these properties from the measurement of other more accessible properties: the transverse dimensions for the transverse emittance and the energy spread for the duration. The chapter 3 consists in the comparison of the properties of short electron beams, single or longitudinally modulated, generated by 3 different methods: Injection of a short or longitudinally modulated laser pulse in an RF-gun; Magnetic compression in a chicane; and RF-compression in an accelerating structure (Velocity Bunching). I have shown that, at equal conditions of charge, the generation of short bunches thanks to a short laser pulse
More Options for the NLC Bunch Compressors (LCC-0035)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emma, P.
2004-01-01
The present bunch compressor design for the NLC allows control of the final bunch length by way of changes to the horizontal betatron phase advance of the 180 o -turnaround arc. This adjustability requirement significantly constrains the design and cost optimization of the system and excludes the possibility of using permanent magnet quadrupoles in the arc. To relieve this constraint, and to avoid the very strong arc focusing required at the upper limits of the bunch length range, we explore an option of bunch length control using the first compressor stage, with the arc optics fixed
Ply tensile properties of banana stem and banana bunch fibres
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2012-03-01
Mar 1, 2012 ... BANANA BUNCH FIBRES REINFORCED NATURAL RUBBER. COMPOSITE ... National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, (NIIST) CSIR Trivandrum, India. ..... Handbook of Ceramics and Composites,. Vol.
Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.
1993-05-01
The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed
POSITION DETERMINATION OF CLOSELY SPACED BUNCHES USING CAVITY BPMs
Joshi, N; Cullinan, F; Lyapin, A
2011-01-01
Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems form a major part of precision position measurement diagnostics for linear accelerators with low emittance beams. Using cavity BPMs, a position resolution of less than 100 nm has been demonstrated in single bunch mode operation. In the case of closely spaced bunches, where the decay time of the cavity is comparable to the time separation between bunches, the BPM signal from a bunch is polluted by the signal induced by the previous bunches in the same bunch-train. This paper discusses our ongoing work to develop the methods to extract the position of closely spaced bunches using cavity BPMs. A signal subtraction code is being developed to remove the signal pollution from previous bunches and to determine the individual bunch position. Another code has been developed to simulate the BPM data for the cross check. Performance of the code is studied on the experimental and simulated data. Application of the analysis techniques to the linear colliders,...
Short bunch length detector for ion beam with high bunch density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tron, A.M.; Shako, V.V.
1993-01-01
The secondary electron rf monitors for short ion bunch phase distribution measurements are presented. Construction particularities of the monitors, influence of space charge of both the primary and the secondary electron beams on the phase resolution, thermal regime of the target during beam-target interaction are considered
Phase measurement and control of bunched beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, R.N.
1978-01-01
An ion bean buncher was developed at ANL for bunching all ion species through a tandem accelerator. Transit time variations through the tandem, caused by ripple and fluctuations in the injection and lens power supplies and terminal voltage, and to varying voltage distributions in the accelerating tube, cause a beam-phase variation at the output of the tandem. A beam-phase measurement and control system was designed and installed in conjunction with the ion beam buncher to control beam phase at the tandem output. That system is described
Emittance growth of bunched beams in bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsten, B.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.
1995-01-01
Talman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1429 (1986)] has proposed a novel relativistic effect that occurs when a charged particle beam is bent in the magnetic field from an external dipole. The consequence of this effect is that the space-charge forces from the particles do not exhibit the usual inverse-square energy dependence and some part of them are, in fact, independent of energy. This led to speculation that this effect could introduce significant emittance growth for a bending electron beam. Subsequently, it was shown that this effect's influence on the beam's transverse motion is canceled for a dc beam by a potential depression within the beam (to first order in the beam radius divided by the bend radius). In this paper, we extend the analysis to include short bunch lengths (as compared to the beam pipe dimensions) and find that there is no longer the cancellation for forces both transverse to and in the direction of motion. We provide an estimate for the emittance growth as a function of bend angle, beam radius, and current, and for magnetic compression of an electron bunch
On some properties of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamiya, Yukihide.
1983-02-01
Some properties of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities have been investigated theoretically and computationally, mainly based on a rigid-bunch model. In this report, we will study Robinson's stability, sum rules of the instabilities and the cure of instabilities by producing the oscillation frequencies different from bunch to bunch, and also give the numerical examples for KEK-PF storage ring. KEYWORD: storage ring, accelerator, bunched beam, longitudinal instability, transverse instability, coupled-bunch instability. (author)
Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M. [Vanderbilt Free-Electron-Laser Center, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others
1995-12-31
During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.
Electric-current-induced step bunching on Si(111)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homma, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Noriyuki
2000-01-01
We experimentally investigated step bunching induced by direct current on vicinal Si(111)'1x1' surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The scaling relation between the average step spacing l b and the number of steps N in a bunch, l b ∼N -α , was determined for four step-bunching temperature regimes above the 7x7-'1x1' transition temperature. The step-bunching rate and scaling exponent differ between neighboring step-bunching regimes. The exponent α is 0.7 for the two regimes where the step-down current induces step bunching (860-960 and 1210-1300 deg. C), and 0.6 for the two regimes where the step-up current induces step bunching (1060-1190 and >1320 deg. C). The number of single steps on terraces also differs in each of the four temperature regimes. For temperatures higher than 1280 deg. C, the prefactor of the scaling relation increases, indicating an increase in step-step repulsion. The scaling exponents obtained agree reasonably well with those predicted by theoretical models. However, they give unrealistic values for the effective charges of adatoms for step-up-current-induced step bunching when the 'transparent' step model is used
Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Takanaka
2003-10-01
Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.
Evaluation of fruit and bunch traits in black Sigatoka resistant ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Studies involving the evaluation of fruit and bunch characteristics of twenty seven cultivars of plantain and banana were undertaken. Results showed that bunch weight of plantain hybrid, 25344-18, differed significantly (P<0.05) from all other genotypes except SH 3362, with an average of 20.8 kg plant. The number of hands ...
LHC Report: spring cleaning over, bunches of luminosity
CERN Bulletin
2011-01-01
Scrubbing was completed on Wednesday 13 April. The run had seen over 1000 bunches per beam successfully circulating at 450 GeV. Measurements showed that electron cloud activity in the cold regions had been suppressed. A decrease of vacuum activity in the warm regions demonstrated that the cleaning had also achieved the required results there. As discussed in the last Bulletin, the scrubbing was performed with high intensity bunches with 50 nanosecond spacing. Given the potential luminosity performance with this spacing (more bunches, higher bunch intensity from the injectors) and in the light of the results of the scrubbing run, the decision was taken to continue the 2011 physics run with this bunch spacing. A few issues with 50 nanosecond spacing had to be resolved when standard operations for luminosity production resumed. Once things had been tidied up, stable beams were provided for the experiments, firstly with 228 bunches per beam and then with 336 bunches per beam. The 336 bunch fill that w...
Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.
1990-01-01
The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....
Production of Mineral Water Using Palm Bunch Ash (PBA) From ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A public health strategy for increasing the potassium and magnesium intake of the population was explored. These electrolytes have been confirmed by epidemiological studies to have some health benefits. A process for production of mineral water using palm bunch ash was developed. The composition of the palm bunch ...
Coupled-Beam and Coupled-Bunch Instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burov, Alexey [Fermilab
2016-06-23
A problem of coupled-beam instability is solved for two multibunch beams with slightly different revolution frequencies, as in the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR). Sharing of the inter-bunch growth rates between the intra-bunch modes is described. The general analysis is applied to the RR; possibilities to stabilize the beams by means of chromaticity, feedback and Landau damping are considered.
Simulation of the longitudinal instabilities of the asymmetric bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai Jianping; Zhao Zhentang
2002-01-01
The computational model of the code used to simulate the longitudinal instabilities of the asymmetric bunches was introduced. The growth rates of the longitudinal instabilities of the symmetric bunches got by this code were compared with those got by the code ZAP, and they were almost the same. As an example, the simulation results of the BEPC-II were presented
Longitudinal Bunch Position Control for the Super-B Accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertsche, Kirk; Rivetta, Claudio; Sullivam, Michael K.; SLAC; Drago, Alessandro; Frascati
2009-01-01
The use of normal conducting cavities and an ion-clearing gap will cause a significant RF accelerating voltage gap transient and longitudinal phase shift of the individual bunches along the bunch train in both rings of the SuperB accelerator. Small relative centroid position shifts between bunches of the colliding beams will have a large adverse impact on the luminosity due to the small β* y at the interaction point (IP). We investigate the possibility of minimizing the relative longitudinal position shift between bunches by reducing the gap transient in each ring and matching the longitudinal bunch positions of the two rings at the IP using feedback/feedforward techniques in the LLRF. The analysis is conducted assuming maximum use of the klystron power installed in the system
A bunch clock for the Advanced Photon Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.J.
1997-01-01
A bunch clock timing module has been developed for use by Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The module provides bunch pattern and timing information that can be used to trigger beamline data collection equipment. The module is fully integrated into the control system software (EPICS) which automatically loads it with the storage ring fill pattern at injection time. Fast timing outputs (1 ns FWHM) for each stored bunch are generated using the storage ring low-level rf and revolution clock as input references. Fiber-optic-based transmitters and receivers are used to transmit a 352-MHz low-level rf reference to distributed bunch clock modules. The bunch clock module is a single-width VME module and may be installed in a VME crate located near beamline instrumentation. A prototype has been in use on the SRI CAT beamline for over a year. The design and integration into the control system timing software along with measured performance results are presented
Simulations of the ILC Electron Gun and Electron Bunching System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haakonsen, C.B.; McGill U.
2006-01-01
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed electron-positron collider, expected to provide insight into important questions in particle physics. A part of the global R and D effort for the ILC is the design of its electron gun and electron bunching system. The present design of the bunching system has two sub-harmonic bunchers, one operating at 108 MHz and one at 433MHz, and two 5-cell 1.3 GHz (L-band) bunchers. This bunching system has previously been simulated using the Phase and Radial Motion in Electron Linear Accelerators (PARMELA) software, and those simulations indicated that the design provides sufficient bunching and acceleration. Due to the complicated dynamics governing the electrons in the bunching system we decided to verify and expand the PARMELA results using the more recent and independent simulation software General Particle Tracer (GPT). GPT tracks the motion and interactions of a set of macro particles, each of which represent a number of electrons, and provides a variety of analysis capabilities. To provide initial conditions for the macro particles, a method was developed for deriving the initial conditions from detailed simulations of particle trajectories in the electron gun. These simulations were performed using the Egun software. For realistic simulation of the L-band bunching cavities, their electric and magnetic fields were calculated using the Superfish software and imported into GPT. The GPT simulations arrived at similar results to the PARMELA simulations for sub-harmonic bunching. However, using GPT it was impossible to achieve an efficient bunching performance of the first L-band bunching cavity. To correct this, the first L-band buncher cell was decoupled from the remaining 4 cells and driven as an independent cavity. Using this modification we attained results similar to the PARMELA simulations. Although the modified bunching system design performed as required, the modifications are technically challenging to implement
Bunch mode specific rate corrections for PILATUS3 detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trueb, P., E-mail: peter.trueb@dectris.com [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Dejoie, C. [ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kobas, M. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Pattison, P. [EPF Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Peake, D. J. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Radicci, V. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Sobott, B. A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Walko, D. A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Broennimann, C. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland)
2015-04-09
The count rate behaviour of PILATUS3 detectors has been characterized for seven bunch modes at four different synchrotrons. The instant retrigger technology of the PILATUS3 application-specific integrated circuit is found to reduce the dependency of the required rate correction on the synchrotron bunch mode. The improvement of using bunch mode specific rate corrections based on a Monte Carlo simulation is quantified. PILATUS X-ray detectors are in operation at many synchrotron beamlines around the world. This article reports on the characterization of the new PILATUS3 detector generation at high count rates. As for all counting detectors, the measured intensities have to be corrected for the dead-time of the counting mechanism at high photon fluxes. The large number of different bunch modes at these synchrotrons as well as the wide range of detector settings presents a challenge for providing accurate corrections. To avoid the intricate measurement of the count rate behaviour for every bunch mode, a Monte Carlo simulation of the counting mechanism has been implemented, which is able to predict the corrections for arbitrary bunch modes and a wide range of detector settings. This article compares the simulated results with experimental data acquired at different synchrotrons. It is found that the usage of bunch mode specific corrections based on this simulation improves the accuracy of the measured intensities by up to 40% for high photon rates and highly structured bunch modes. For less structured bunch modes, the instant retrigger technology of PILATUS3 detectors substantially reduces the dependency of the rate correction on the bunch mode. The acquired data also demonstrate that the instant retrigger technology allows for data acquisition up to 15 million photons per second per pixel.
Two-bunch operation with ns temporal separation at the FERMI FEL facility
Penco, Giuseppe; Allaria, Enrico; Bassanese, Silvano; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Cleva, Stefano; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Ferianis, Mario; Gaio, Giulio; Giannessi, Luca; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Predonzani, Mauro; Rossi, Fabio; Roussel, Eleonore; Spampinati, Simone; Trovò, Mauro
2018-05-01
In the last decade, a continuous effort has been dedicated to extending the capabilities of existing free-electron lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet regimes. In this framework, the generation of two-color (or multi-color) temporally separated FEL pulses, has paved the way to new x-ray pump and probe experiments and several two-color two-pulse schemes have been implemented at the main facilities, but with a generally limited time-separation between the pulses, from 0 to few hundreds of fs. This limitation may be overcome by generating light with two independent electron bunches, temporally separated by integral multiples of the radio-frequency period. This solution was investigated at FERMI, measurements and characterization of this two-bunch mode of operation are presented, including trajectory control, impact of longitudinal and transverse wakefields, manipulation of the longitudinal phase space and finally a demonstration of suitability of the scheme to provide extreme ultraviolet light by using both bunches.
Belohrad, D; Ludwig, M; Savioz, J J; Thoulet, S
2009-01-01
The fast beam intensity measurements for the LHC are provided by eight Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Four FBCTs installed in the LHC rings are capable of providing both bunch-by-bunch and total turn-by-turn beam intensity information. A further four FBCTs, two in each of the LHC dump lines, are used to measure the total extracted beam intensity. In addition to providing intensity information the ring FBCTs also send signals to the machine protection system. This increases the complexity of both the RF front-end and the digital acquisition parts of the signal processing chain. The aim of this paper is to discuss the implemented hardware solution for the FBCT system, in particular with respect to the signal distribution, FPGA signal processing, calibration, and interaction of the FBCTs with the machine protection chain.
Temporal intensity interferometry: photon bunching in three bright stars
Guerin, W.; Dussaux, A.; Fouché, M.; Labeyrie, G.; Rivet, J.-P.; Vernet, D.; Vakili, F.; Kaiser, R.
2017-12-01
We report the first intensity correlation measured with starlight since the historical experiments of Hanbury Brown and Twiss. The photon bunching g(2)(τ, r = 0), obtained in the photon-counting regime, was measured for three bright stars: α Boo, α CMi and β Gem. The light was collected at the focal plane of a 1-m optical telescope, transported by a multi-mode optical fibre, split into two avalanche photodiodes and correlated digitally in real time. For total exposure times of a few hours, we obtained contrast values around 2 × 10-3, in agreement with the expectation for chaotic sources, given the optical and electronic bandwidths of our set-up. Comparing our results with the measurement of Hanbury Brown et al. for α CMi, we argue for the timely opportunity to extend our experiments to measuring the spatial correlation function over existing and/or foreseen arrays of optical telescopes diluted over several kilometres. This would enable microarcsec long-baseline interferometry in the optical, especially in the visible wavelengths, with a limiting magnitude of 10.
Single-gap multi-harmonic buncher for NSC pelletron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, A.; Ghosh, S.; Barua, P.
2001-01-01
A single-gap multi-harmonic buncher, developed in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, has been installed in the pre-acceleration region of NSC Pelletron. This buncher is required for injecting bunched beam into the booster LINAC, presently under construction. A saw-tooth voltage generated across a single gap formed by a closely spaced pair of grids is used for bunching the dc ion beam produced by the Pelletron accelerator. This saw-tooth voltage is produced by adding a sine wave with its three higher harmonics in proper phase and amplitude. 28 Si beam has been bunched successfully using this buncher. The best FWHM of the bunched beam was 1.5 ns and the maximum efficiency of bunching was 50%. The bunching voltage had no steering effect on the beam. (author)
Mode-coupling theory and bunch lengthening in SPEAR II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.; Chin, Y.; Satoh, K.
1983-01-01
A mode-coupling theory of bunched-beam instabilities is developed for a Gaussian bunch. The theory converts Sacherer's integral equation with mode coupling into a matrix eigenvalue problem. The present theory assumes well-defined azimuthal modes and takes into account radial modes which are expressed as superpositions of orthogonal functions. The theory is applied to bunch lengthening observed at SPEAR II. The theory explains qualitative features of the experimental results fairly well, but quantitative agreement is not too good. This is ascribed to insufficient knowledge of the coupling impedance of SPEAR II or to the possibility that such effects as radiation damping and quantum excitation should be included. (author)
Multiple bunch-splitting in the PS results and plans
Garoby, R
2001-01-01
The nominal longitudinal characteristics of the PS proton beam for the LHC were attained during the year 2000, using a sequence of triple- and double-splittings to divide each PS Booster (PSB) bunch into 12. This method minimizes longitudinal emittance blow-up and preserves a gap, free of particles, in the bunch train. Some of the ideas for alternative bunch trains have also been tested. The performance achieved is described and the sources of limitations are discussed together with the foreseen improvements.
Resistive wall wakefields of short bunches at cryogenic temperatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Stupakov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We present calculations of the longitudinal wakefields at cryogenic temperatures for extremely short bunches, characteristic for modern x-ray free electron lasers. The calculations are based on the equations for the surface impedance in the regime of the anomalous skin effect in metals. This paper extends and complements an earlier analysis of B. Podobedov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 044401 (2009. into the region of very high frequencies associated with bunch lengths in the micron range. We study in detail the case of a rectangular bunch distribution for parameters of interest of LCLS-II with a superconducting undulator.
Interaction of an ion bunch with a plasma slab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
Charge neutralization of a short ion bunch passing through a plasma slab is studied by means of numerical simulation. It is shown that a fraction of plasma electrons are trapped by the bunch under the action of the collective charge separation field. The accelerated electrons generated in this process excite beam−plasma instability, thereby violating the trapping conditions. The process of electron trapping is also strongly affected by the high-frequency electric field caused by plasma oscillations at the slab boundaries. It is examined how the degree of charge neutralization depends on the parameters of the bunch and plasma slab.
Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.
1997-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source
Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, D.C.
1997-05-12
The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime.
Transverse-Longitudinal Coupling Effect in Laser Bunch Slicing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimada, M.; Katoh, M.; Adachi, M.; Kimura, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Hosaka, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Takahashi, T.
2009-01-01
We report turn-by-turn observation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) produced by the laser bunch slicing technique at an electron storage ring operated with a small momentum compaction factor. CSR emission was intermittent, and its interval depended strongly on the betatron tune. This peculiar behavior of the CSR could be interpreted as a result of coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of the electrons. This is the first observation of such an effect, which would be important not only for controlling the CSR emission but also for generating and transporting ultrashort electron bunches or electron bunches with microdensity structures in advanced accelerators.
Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, D.C.
1997-01-01
The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime
Longitudinal Electron Bunch Diagnostics Using Coherent Transition Radiation
Mihalcea, Daniel; Happek, Uwe; Regis-Guy Piot, Philippe
2005-01-01
The longitudinal charge distribution of electron bunches in the Fermilab A0 photo-injector was determined by using the coherent transition radiation produced by electrons passing through a thin metallic foil. The auto-correlation of the transition radiation signal was measured with a Michelson type interferometer. The response function of the interferometer was determined from measured and simulated power spectra for low electron bunch charge and maximum longitudinal compression. Kramers-Kroning technique was used to determine longitudinal charge distribution. Measurements were performed for electron bunch lengths in the range from 0.3 to 2 ps (rms).
Chicane and wiggler based bunch compressors for future linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raubenheimer, T.O.; Emma, P.; Kheifets, S.
1993-05-01
In this paper, we discuss bunch compressors for future linear colliders. In the past, the bunch compression optics has been based upon achromatic cells using strong sextupoles to correct the dispersive and betatron chromaticity. To preserve the very small emittances required in most future collider designs, these schemes tend to have very tight alignment tolerances. Here, we describe bunch compressors based upon magnetic chicanes or wigglers which do need sextupoles to correct the chromatic emittance dilution. The dispersive chromaticity cancels naturally and the betatron chromaticity is not a significant source of emittance dilution. Thus, these schemes allow for substantially reduced alignment tolerances. Finally, we present a detailed design for the NLC linear collider
Simultaneous detection of longitudinal and transverse bunch signals at ANKA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehrer, Benjamin; Blomley, Edmund; Brosi, Miriam; Bruendermann, Erik; Hiller, Nicole; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Steinmann, Johannes; Schedler, Manuel; Schuh, Marcel; Schoenfeldt, Patrik; Smale, Nigel [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schuetze, Paul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
The ANKA storage ring offers different operation modes including the short-bunch mode with bunch lengths tuned down to a few picoseconds. This can lead to the occurrence of microwave instabilities coupled to the emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the so-called 'bursts'. To study this CSR instability we use several turn-by-turn enabled detector systems to synchronously measure both the THz signal as well as bunch profiles. The different detectors are placed at different locations around the storage ring. Here we discuss the experimental setup and calibration of the various systems' synchronisation.
Bunch monitor for an S-band electron linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otake, Yuji; Nakahara, Kazuo
1991-01-01
The measurement of bunch characteristics in an S-band electron linear accelerator is required in order to evaluate the quality of accelerated electron beams. A new-type bunch monitor has been developed which combines micro-stripline technology with an air insulator and wall-current monitoring technology. The obtained time resolution of the monitor was more than 150 ps. This result shows that the monitor can handle the bunch number of an S-band linac. The structure of the monitor is suitable for being installed in the vacuum area, since it is constructed of only metal and ceramic parts. It can therefore easily be employed in an actual machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, V.A.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shil'tsev, V.D.; Skrinskij, A.N.
1991-01-01
A ground motion produces shifts of storage ring quadrupoles. It strongly influences on the beam behaviour in large proton (anti)proton colliders due to the closed orbit distortion and due to the transverse emittance growth. Calculations of both effects are presented in this paper. An active feedback system is useful for the emittance growth suppression. It is shown that in this case the main parameter which determines the emittance growth is the betatron tune spread due to the beam-beam effects. A simple analytical model is considered which results are in good coincidence with computer simulations. All calculations are adapted to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs
Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Carrato, S.; Menk, R. H.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Jark, W. H.; Biasiol, G.; Ganbold, T.; Oliver, K.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.
2012-10-01
New generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) require novel concepts of beam diagnostics to keep photon beams under surveillance, asking for simultaneous position and intensity monitoring. To deal with high power load and short time pulses provided by these sources, novel materials and methods are needed for the next generation BPMs. Diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ X-ray BPMs withstanding the high dose rates of SR rings and high energy FELs. We report on the development of freestanding, single crystal CVD diamond detectors. Performances in both low and radio frequency SR beam monitoring are presented. For the former, sensitivity deviation was found to be approximately 2%; a 0.05% relative precision in the intensity measurements and a 0.1-μm precision in the position encoding have been estimated. For the latter, single-shot characterizations revealed sub-nanosecond rise-times and spatial precisions below 6 μm, which allowed bunch-by-bunch monitoring in multi-bunch operation. Preliminary measurements at the Fermi FEL have been performed with this detector, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for FEL pulses (~ 100 fs, energy 12 ÷ 60 eV), with a long-term spatial precision of about 85 μm results on FEL radiation damages are also reported. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices too may be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Results are reported which show the capability of a novel InGaAs/InAlAs device to detect intensity and position of 100-fs-wide laser pulses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoener, Markus
2015-07-01
At the 1.5-GeV synchrotron radiation source DELTA, operated by the TU Dortmund University, intensive synchrotron radiation in the spectral range from hard X-rays to THz radiation is generated by the circular deflection of highly relativistic electron bunches. Interacting with the vacuum chamber wall, the electron bunches create electric fields, which can act back on subsequent bunches. With increasing beam current, the excitation is enhanced so that the electron beam is unstable, which means that the electron bunches oscillate longitudinally or transversely relative to their reference position. The oscillations reduce the quality of the synchrotron radiation and limit the maximum storable beam current. Within the scope of this thesis, the beam instabilities at the storage ring were systematically investigated. A digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system was installed and commissioned, which allows to detect and digitize the position of each electron bunch at each turn. Based on the input signal, a correction signal is calculated in order to suppress transverse and longitudinal oscillation of the bunches. In addition, it is possible to excite dedicated bunches. The systematic excitation of all coupled-bunch modes allowed for the first time to determine the damping rates of all 192 eigenmodes of the electron beam. The current dependence of the damping rates was investigated and an instability threshold was found. Besides the investigation of multibunch instabilities, single-bunch instabilities are discussed. In addition, the acquisition unit of the digital feedback system can be triggered on external events. This was used to investigate the injection process and beam losses. It was shown that the transverse feedback system increases the injection efficiency. Another aspect of this thesis is the improvement of the signal quality of ultrashort coherent synchrotron radiation pulses, which are generated by the short-pulse facility at DELTA. The short-pulse facility is based
Effects of emittance and space-charge in femtosecond bunch compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan, K.; Yang, J.; Kondoh, T.; Norizawa, K.; Yoshida, Y.
2008-01-01
Ultrashort electron bunches of the order of <100fs are essential for the study of ultrafast reactions and phenomena by means of time-resolved pump-probe experiments. In order to generate such an electron bunch, the effects of emittance, space-charge (SC) and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the bunch length in a femtosecond magnetic bunch compressor were studied theoretically. It was observed that the bunch length is dominated by the emittance, SC and CSR effects when the electron bunch is compressed into a femtosecond electron bunch. The increases in bunch length due to the transverse emittance, SC and CSR effects in the bunch compressor were 1.7 fs/mm mrad, 107 fs/nC and 72 fs/nC, respectively. Finally, the simulated bunch length was compared with the experimental results.
Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, M.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Blackburn, J.A.
1990-01-01
The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results
Three bunch energy stabilization for the SLC injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheppard, J.C.; Almog, I.; Bambade, P.S.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Phinney, N.; Shoaee, H.; Stiening, R.F.; Thompson, K.A.
1986-09-01
Slow feedback has been developed to control the energy and energy spread of the beams which are injected into the SLC damping rings. Within a single RF pulse, two bunches of electrons and one bunch of positrons are accelerated to an energy of 1.21 GeV in the injector of the SLC. The two electron bunches are deflected into the north damping ring while the positrons are targeted into the south ring. In order to fit into the acceptance of the rings, the composite energy deviation and energy spread of the beams must be less than 2% full width. Control of the beam energy characteristics is accomplished with a set of computer controlled feedback loops which monitor the parameters of the three bunches and make adjustments to the available RF energy, RF phasing, and RF timing. This paper presents an overview of the feedback algorithms and of the special hardware developments, and reports on the operational status of the processes
Review of Coupled Bunch Instabilities in the LHC
Angal-Kalinin, Deepa
2002-01-01
In order to reach the required luminosity, the LHC will have a large number of high intensity bunches. Coupled bunch instabilities can therefore be excited by the higher order modes (HOMs)of the RF cavities, by parasitic cavities and by the transverse resistive wall effect. This report summarises the growth times of the coupled bunch instabilities taking into account the HOMs (damped or undamped)relevant for the 200 MHz normal conducting cavities, the 400 MHz superconducting cavities, as well as other parasitic cavities. It is shown that, with the damped HOMs of the RF cavities, the coupled bunch instabilities remain within control for the LHC operation.As far as the transverse resistive wall effect at injection disconcerned,it is demonstrated that the corresponding growth times can be safely compensated by the proposed transverse feedback system [1].
Coupled-bunch instabilities in the APS ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, L.
1991-01-01
A study of coupled bunch instabilities for the APS storage ring is presented. The instabilities are driven by the higher-order modes of the fifteen 352-MHz single-cell RF cavities. These modes are modeled using the 2-D cavity program URMEL. The program ZAP is then used to estimate the growth time of the instabilities for an equally-spaced bunch pattern. The cavity modes most responsible for the instabilities will be singles out for damping. 7 refs., 5 tabs
Nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yinbao
1992-02-01
The nonlinear space charge effect due to the nonuniform particle density distribution in bunched beam of a linac is discussed. The formulae of nonlinear space charge effect and nonlinear focusing forces were derived for the bunched beam with Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution, waterbag (WB) distribution, parabolic (PA) distribution, and Gauss (GA) distribution in both of the space charge disk model and space charge cylinder model in the waveguide of a linac
Velocity bunching of high-brightness electron beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. G. Anderson
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly
State orthogonality, boson bunching parameter and bosonic enhancement factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.
2016-01-01
Bosons bunching is the tendency of bosons to bunch together with respect to distinguishable particles. It is emphasized that the bunching parameter β = p_B/p_D, i.e. the ratio between the probability to measure 2 bosons and 2 distinguishable particles at the same state, is a constant of motion and depends only on the overlap between the initial wavefunctions. This ratio is equal to β = 2/(1 + l"2), where l is the overlap integral between the initial wavefunctions. That is, only when the initial wavefunctions are orthogonal this ratio is equal to 2, however, this bunching ratio can be reduced to 1, when the two wavefunctions are identical. This simple equation explains the experimental evidences of a beam splitter. A straightforward conclusion is that by measuring the local bunching parameter β (at any point in space and time) it is possible to evaluate a global parameter l (the overlap between the initial wavefunctions). The bunching parameter is then generalized to arbitrary number of particles, and in an analogy to the two-particles scenario, the well-known bosonic enhancement appears only when all states are orthogonal
Bunches of random cross-correlated sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maystrenko, A A; Melnik, S S; Pritula, G M; Usatenko, O V
2013-01-01
The statistical properties of random cross-correlated sequences constructed by the convolution method (likewise referred to as the Rice or the inverse Fourier transformation) are examined. We clarify the meaning of the filtering function—the kernel of the convolution operator—and show that it is the value of the cross-correlation function which describes correlations between the initial white noise and constructed correlated sequences. The matrix generalization of this method for constructing a bunch of N cross-correlated sequences is presented. Algorithms for their generation are reduced to solving the problem of decomposition of the Fourier transform of the correlation matrix into a product of two mutually conjugate matrices. Different decompositions are considered. The limits of weak and strong correlations for the one-point probability and pair correlation functions of sequences generated by the method under consideration are studied. Special cases of heavy-tailed distributions of the generated sequences are analyzed. We show that, if the filtering function is rather smooth, the distribution function of generated variables has the Gaussian or Lévy form depending on the analytical properties of the distribution (or characteristic) functions of the initial white noise. Anisotropic properties of statistically homogeneous random sequences related to the asymmetry of a filtering function are revealed and studied. These asymmetry properties are expressed in terms of the third- or fourth-order correlation functions. Several examples of the construction of correlated chains with a predefined correlation matrix are given. (paper)
The LHC Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instability
Mounet, Nicolas; Métral, Elias
In this thesis, the problem of the transverse coupled-bunch instabilities created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-coupling impedance, that can possibly limit the machine operation, is addressed thanks to several new theories and tools. A rather complete vision of the problem is proposed here, going from the calculation of the impedances and wake functions of individual machine elements, to the beam dynamics study. Firstly, new results are obtained in the theory of the beam-coupling impedance for an axisymmetric two-dimensional structure, generalizing Zotter's theories, and a new general theory is derived for the impedance of an infinite flat two-dimensional structure. Then, a new approach has been found to compute the wake functions from such analytically obtained beam-coupling impedances, over-coming limitations that could be met with standard discrete Fourier transform procedures. Those results are then used to obtain an impedance and wake function model of the LHC, based on the (resistive-) wall im...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing Shen
1993-01-01
A brief EEE view of signal QED is presented. The research has been concentrated on the virtual photon modes of ultra relativistic shock wave in a bunch-beampipe system, and real photon modes of Coherent RF Beamstrahlung CRFB. Physically, the virtual photons emitted by a bunch were treated as a travelling pseudo wave packet in a flight coaxial cavity constructed by bunch-wakefield core and beampipe. Mathematically, it is a boundary solution of shock wave excited by ultra relativistic impulse of bunch. The new modes of solution: VTA, VTEM, VTM, VLE are virtual photon packets and RTE, RTM, RTEM are real photon modes of CRFB. By these results the author measured and corrected BEPC bunch length from signals of : (1) TOF reference of BES, (2) BPM of BEPC, (3) Colliding CRFB of BEPC - BES coupling signal, as well as (4) the ordinary method of Synchrotron Radiation. All results of the measured bunch lengths are in accordance with the design length of BEPC, and were verified by the BES data of vertex reconstruction of hadron events. The author also found that CRFB is the unknown jam source of BES electronics. VLE virtual photons can accelerate particles
Optimization of a train of bunches for plasma wakefield acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martorelli, Roberto
2016-05-10
Particle accelerators are a fundamental instrument for the understanding of fundamental mechanism in nature. The need of always higher energies for the particle beams requires a huge increase of the sizes of the accelerators using the actual technology. Moreover the highest energies are achieved nowadays by circular colliders, not perfectly suitable for acceleration of electrons and positrons due to the radiation losses. In order to overcome this problem a new branch of physics studying alternative technique for particle acceleration has been developed. Among the various alternatives a promising one is the plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), in which a driver bunch interacts with a cold background plasma, exciting a plasma wave. The electric field of the plasma wave is then used for the acceleration of a second bunch. Such a mechanism allows to reach fields strength far beyond currently available, limited by the dielectric strength of the material. Among the different driver configurations, a promising one is the use of a modulated beam, namely a train of bunches, that provides a coherent interference among the electric fields generated by the single bunches. Such mechanism is subjected to a renewed interest in view of the forthcoming AWAKE experiment at CERN in which the long proton beam produced at the SPS facility is used as a driver. This possibility is achieved thanks to the onset of the self-modulation instability that modulates the long beam in a train of approximately 100 bunches. In order to accelerate the witness bunch to high energies is necessary on the other hand an efficient exchange of energy from the driver to the accelerated bunch, as well as a long duration of the driver so that can propagates for kilometers. This thesis deals with this two last aspects. The aim of this work is to provide an optimization for the modulated driver in order to improve specific features of the PWFA. This work shows the possibility to achieve an improved efficiency
A 40 MHz Bunch by Bunch Intensity Measurement for the CERN SPS and LHC
Jakob, H; Jones, R; Jensen, L
2003-01-01
A new acquisition system has been developed to allow the measurement of the individual intensity of each bunch in a 40MHz bunch train. Such a system will be used for the measurement of LHC type beams after extraction from the CERN-PS right through to the dump lines of the CERN-LHC. The method is based on integrating the analogue signal supplied by a Fast Beam Current Transformer at a frequency of 40MHz. This has been made possible with the use of a fast integration ASIC developed by the University of Clermont-Ferrand, France, for the LHC-b pre-shower detector. The output of the integrator is digitised using a 12-bit ADC and fed into a Digital Acquisition Board (DAB) that was originally developed by TRIUMF, Canada, for use in the LHC orbit system. A full system set-up was commissioned during 2002 in the CERN-SPS, and following its success will now be extended in 2003 to cover the PS to SPS transfer lines and the new TT40 LHC extraction channel.
Fast polycrystalline CdTe detectors for bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitoring in the LHC
Brambilla, A; Jolliot, M; Bravin, E
2008-01-01
The luminosity at the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be continuously monitored in order to provide an adequate tool for the control and optimisation of beam parameters. Polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors have previously been tested, showing their high potential to fulfil the requirements of luminosity measurement in the severe environment of the LHC interaction regions. Further, the large signal yield and the fast response time should allow bunch-by-bunch measurement of the luminosity at 40 MHz with high accuracy. Four luminosity monitors with two rows of five polycrystalline CdTe detectors each have been fabricated and will be installed at both sides of the low-luminosity interaction points ALICE and LHC-b. A detector housing was specially designed to meet the mechanical constraints in the LHC. A series of elementary CdTe detectors were fabricated and tested, of which 40 were selected for the luminosity monitors. A sensitivity of 104 electrons per minimum ioni...
Mainz/PSI φ-factory design considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Streun, A.
1991-01-01
Design considerations for a φ-factory with a Luminosity of the order of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 lead to the concept of a multi-bunch round beam double storage ring with superconducting solenoids for micro-beta focusing and beam rotation. Simulations of the beam-beam-interaction indicate, that significantly higher beam-beam-parameters may become possible with round beams. A rough draft design of a round beam φ-factory is presented. (orig.)
Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Muggli
2010-05-01
Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.
Superthermal photon bunching in terms of simple probability distributions
Lettau, T.; Leymann, H. A. M.; Melcher, B.; Wiersig, J.
2018-05-01
We analyze the second-order photon autocorrelation function g(2 ) with respect to the photon probability distribution and discuss the generic features of a distribution that results in superthermal photon bunching [g(2 )(0 ) >2 ]. Superthermal photon bunching has been reported for a number of optical microcavity systems that exhibit processes such as superradiance or mode competition. We show that a superthermal photon number distribution cannot be constructed from the principle of maximum entropy if only the intensity and the second-order autocorrelation are given. However, for bimodal systems, an unbiased superthermal distribution can be constructed from second-order correlations and the intensities alone. Our findings suggest modeling superthermal single-mode distributions by a mixture of a thermal and a lasinglike state and thus reveal a generic mechanism in the photon probability distribution responsible for creating superthermal photon bunching. We relate our general considerations to a physical system, i.e., a (single-emitter) bimodal laser, and show that its statistics can be approximated and understood within our proposed model. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the statistics of the bimodal laser and our model reveals that the bimodal laser is an ideal source of bunched photons, in the sense that it can generate statistics that contain no other features but the superthermal bunching.
Anomalous length of electron bunches as an instability threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Messerschmid, E.; Month, M.
1976-01-01
A mechanism for the anomalous length of electron bunches, based on the existence of a ''fast'' longitudinal instability, is proposed. The equilibrium length is obtained by requiring that the growth rate be sufficiently larger than the rate of synchrotron oscillations. The theory is used to describe the bunch length data for SPEAR at 1.5 GeV. The low voltage and/or high current regime is dominated by a set of ''low'' frequency, low Q resonators [e.g., f = 320 MHz, Δf(fwhm) = 130 MHz]. To fit the observations in the high voltage and/or low current regime, a high frequency, low Q impedance is required (e.g., f = 3.8 GHz, Δf = 1.0 GHz). The mechanism is mediated by the resistive component of the impedance. Thus, there is qualitative agreement with the observed distortion of the bunch tail. This is in contrast to the predictions of the potential well models based on a reactive impedance source. These latter theories yield large distortions of the head of the bunch. The calculated power dissipated in the assumed sources by the given electron bunch is not inconsistent with estimates made for SPEAR
Simulations of Bunch Merging in a Beta Beam Decay Ring
Heinrich, Daniel Christopher; Chance, Antoine
2011-01-01
To further study neutrino oscillation properties a Beta Beam facility has been proposed. Beta decaying ions with high kinetic energy are stored in a storage ring ("Decay Ring") with straight sections to create pure focused (anti) electron neutrino beams. However to reach high sensitivity to neutrino oscillation parameters in the experiment the bunched beam intensity and duty cycle in the DR have to be optimized. The first CERN-based scenario, using 6He and 18Ne as neutrino sources, has been studied using a bunch merging RF scheme. Two RF cavities at different frequencies are used to capture newly injected bunches and then merge them into the stored bunches. It was shown that this scheme could satisfy the requirements on intensity and duty cycle set by the experiment. This merging scheme has now been revised with new simulation software providing new results for 6He and 18Ne. Furthermore bunch merging has been studied for the second CERN-based scenario using 8Li and 8B.
Destructive interferences results in bosons anti bunching: refining Feynman's argument
Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el
2014-09-01
The effect of boson bunching is frequently mentioned and discussed in the literature. This effect is the manifestation of bosons tendency to "travel" in clusters. One of the core arguments for boson bunching was formulated by Feynman in his well-known lecture series and has been frequently used ever since. By comparing the scattering probabilities of two bosons and of two distinguishable particles, he concluded: "We have the result that it is twice as likely to find two identical Bose particles scattered into the same state as you would calculate assuming the particles were different" [R.P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton, M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics: Quantum mechanics (Addison-Wesley, 1965)]. This argument was rooted in the scientific community (see for example [C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloë, Quantum Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons, Paris, 1977); W. Pauli, Exclusion Principle and Quantum Mechanics, Nobel Lecture (1946)]), however, while this sentence is completely valid, as is proved in [C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloë, Quantum Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons, Paris, 1977)], it is not a synonym of bunching. In fact, as it is shown in this paper, wherever one of the wavefunctions has a zero, bosons can anti-bunch and fermions can bunch. It should be stressed that zeros in the wavefunctions are ubiquitous in Quantum Mechanics and therefore the effect should be common. Several scenarios are suggested to witness the effect.
Bunch lengthening in the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] damping rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.L.F.
1990-02-01
A high level of current dependent bunch lengthening has been observed on the North damping ring of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). At currents of 3 x 10 10 this behavior does not appear to degrade the machine's performance significantly. However, at the higher currents that are envisioned for the future one fears that its performance could be greatly degraded due to the phenomenon of bunch lengthening. This was the motivation for the work described in this paper. In this paper we calculate the longitudinal impedance of the damping ring vacuum chamber. More specifically, in this paper we find the response function of the ring to a short Gaussian bunch, which we call the Green function wake. In addition, we try to estimate the relative importance of the different vacuum chamber objects, in order to see how we might reduce the ring impedance. This paper also describes bunch length measurements performed on the North damping ring. We use the Green function wake, discussed above, to compute the bunch lengthening. Then we compare these results with those obtained from the measurements. In addition, we calculate the current dependence of the tune distribution
Micro-bunching diagnostics for the IFEL by coherent transition radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.; Cline, D.B.
1996-10-01
Here, we propose an effective method for detecting micro-bunching effects (10 fs bunch length) produced by the IFEL interaction, by measuring the CTR spectrum. The pre-bunching of an initially energy- modulated c- beam passing through a wiggler (IFEL interaction) is studied. Simulation shows that more than 40% of electrons are pre- bunched in the micro-bunches. The longitudinal distribution of an optically pre-bunched beam is Fourier analyzed to find the dominant harmonics contributing to the CTR. The CTR spectrum is calculated analytically for the IFEL situation. A detection system has been built to demonstrate this technique
Performance of the transverse coupled-bunch feedback system in the SRRC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, K.T.; Kuo, C.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Lin, K.K.; Ueng, T.S.; Weng, W.T.
1996-01-01
A transverse feedback system has been implemented and commissioned in the SRRC storage ring to suppress transverse coupled-bunch oscillations of the electron beam. The system includes transverse oscillation detectors, notch filter, baseband quadrature processing circuitry, power amplifiers, and kickers. To control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes, the system is broad-band, bunch-by- bunch in nature. Because the system is capable of bunch-by-bunch correction, it can also be useful for suppressing instabilities introduced by ions. The sextupole strength was then reduced to improve dynamic aperture and hence lifetime of the storage ring
Tambasco, Claudia; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Boccardi, Andrea; Buffat, Xavier; Bruce, Roderik; Gasior, Marek; Hostettler, Michi; Lefevre, Thibaut; Louro Alves, Diogo Miguel; Metral, Elias; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Pieloni, Tatiana; Pojer, Mirko; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2018-01-01
Beam Transfer Function (BTF) measurements are direct measurement of the stability diagrams that deﬁne the stability threshold of coherent beam instabilities driven by the impedance. At the LHC, some coherent instabilities at ﬂat top energy are still not fully understood and the BTF measurements provide a method to experimentally probe the Landau damping of the proton beams. The BTF response is sensitive to the particle distribution changes and contain information about the transverse tune spread in the beams. The BTF system has been installed in the LHC in the 2015 in order to investigate the Landau damping at different stages of the operational cycle, machine conﬁgurations (different octupole currents, crossing angles, tunes etc...) and in presence of beam-beam excited resonances that may provoke diffusion mechanisms with a consequence change of Landau damping. Past MDs showed some difﬁculties for the reconstruction of the stability diagram from BTF measurements and several improvements on the BTF sy...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Yunhai
2000-08-31
A highly accurate self-consistent particle code to simulate the beam-beam collision in e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings has been developed. It adopts a method of solving the Poisson equation with an open boundary. The method consists of two steps: assigning the potential on a finite boundary using the Green's function, and then solving the potential inside the boundary with a fast Poisson solver. Since the solution of the Poisson's equation is unique, the authors solution is exactly the same as the one obtained by simply using the Green's function. The method allows us to select much smaller region of mesh and therefore increase the resolution of the solver. The better resolution makes more accurate the calculation of the dynamics in the core of the beams. The luminosity simulated with this method agrees quantitatively with the measurement for the PEP-II B-factory ring in the linear and nonlinear beam current regimes, demonstrating its predictive capability in detail.
Fast cooling of bunches in compton storage rings*
Bulyak, E; Zimmermann, F
2011-01-01
We propose an enhancement of laser radiative cooling by utilizing laser pulses of small spatial and temporal dimensions, which interact only with a fraction of an electron bunch circulating in a storage ring. We studied the dynamics of such electron bunch when laser photons scatter off the electrons at a collision point placed in a section with nonzero dispersion. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling’, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering where the laser spot size is larger than the electron beam; and the synchrotron oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped within one synchrotron period, so that this method can support the rapid successive injection of many bunches in longitudinal phase space for stacking purposes. Results of extensive simulations are presented for the performance optimization of Compton gamma-ray sources and damping rings.
Bunching phase and constraints on echo enabled harmonic generation
Hemsing, E.
2018-05-01
A simple mathematical description is developed for the bunching spectrum in echo enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) that incorporates the effect of additional electron beam energy modulations. Under common assumptions, they are shown to contribute purely through the phase of the longitudinal bunching factor, which allows the spectral moments of the bunching to be calculated directly from the known energy modulations. In particular, the second moment (spectral bandwidth) serves as simple constraint on the amplitude of the energy modulations to maintain a transform-limited seed. We show that, in general, the impact on the spectrum of energy distortions that develop between the EEHG chicanes scales like the harmonic number compared to distortions that occur upstream. This may limit the parameters that will allow EEHG to reach short wavelengths in high brightness FELs.
Improved Bunch Splitting for the 75ns LHC Beam
Damerau, H
2011-01-01
The 75ns variant was added to the PS arsenal of LHC-type beams by adapting the 20MHz cavity used to produce the 25 and 50ns variants to operate at a switchable 13MHz. This permitted splitting from harmonic 14 to 28, but at a cost in adiabaticity compared with the h=2142 splitting of the other two cases. Consequently, a delicate empirical optimization was necessary to bring the 75ns beam inside specification. More recently the speed at which the bunches, once fully distinct, are moved apart has been revisited and further optimization achieved. As a by-product, deliberately degrading the splitting by moving the bunches apart too quickly led to sufficient coherent motion in the resultant bunch pair to permit a voltage calibration of the 13MHz cavity by means of the influence on convergence of the rf voltage input into the iterative algorithm of the Tomoscope [1,2].
Electro-Magnetic Bunch Length Measurement in LEP
Vos, L
1998-01-01
Bunch lengths between 3 and 12 mm have been measured routinely in LEP in 1997 with a small (7 mm diameter) button electrode. The measurement method is based on the spectral analysis of the electrode signal and relies on the fact that the transfer function of the complete set-up, including the signal cable, can be computed rather exactly thus eliminating the need for external calibration. The information of beam intensity is recovered as a by-product. It provides an interesting internal validation of the measurement by comparison with the normal intensity measurement. The system has been used to detect subtle but real bunch length changes with bunch intensity which can be attributed to the inductive impedance in LEP. A value for the imaginary (inductive) longitudinal impedance is derived from the observations. An indication for the resistive part of the impedance is given as well.
Enhanced coherent undulator radiation from bunched electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.; Smith, T.I.
1996-01-01
When energetic bunches of electrons traverse an undulator field, they can spontaneously emit radiation both coherently and incoherently. Although it has generally been assumed that undulator radiation is incoherent at wavelengths short compared to the longitudinal size of the electron bunch, several recent observations have proved this assumption false. Furthermore, the appearance of coherent radiation is often accompanied by a significant increase in radiated power. Here we report observations of strongly enhanced coherent spontaneous radiation together with direct measurements, using transition radiation techniques, of the electron distributions responsible for the coherent emission. We also report demonstrated enhancements in the predicted spontaneous radiated power by as much as 6x10 4 using electron bunch compression. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Thresholds of a bunched beam longitudinal instability in proton synchrotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balbekov, V.I.; Ivanov, S.V.
1986-01-01
The formulas and graphs for calculating instability thresholds arising during the interaction of a bunched proton beam with narrow-band resonator are given. The instabilities of three types with oscillations of a definite multipolarity, oscillations of some bound multipoles and with microwave oscillations arising as a result of addition of a great number of multipoles. The analysis of the above data shows that the increase of oscillations nonlinearity is accompanied by the growth of instability threshold only in the zone of separated and weakly bound multipoles. The increase of spread of synchrotron frequencies reduces the zone separated multipoles owing to which the microwave bunch instability can be caused by more and more low-frequency resonators. In the microwave zone practically there is no stabilizing effect of synchrotron frequencies spread. The instability threshold of the bunched beam now - where exceeds the microwave level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallo, A; Boni, R; Ghigo, A; Marcellini, F; Serio, M; Zobov, M [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati
1996-08-01
The multibunch operation of DA{Phi}NE calls for a very efficient feedback system to damp the coupled-bunch longitudinal instabilities. A collaboration program among SLAC, LBL and LNF laboratories on this subject led to the development of a time domain, digital system based on digital signal processors that has been already successfully tested at ALS. The feedback chain ends with the longitudinal kicker, an electromagnetic structure capable of transferring the proper energy correction to each bunch. A cavity kicker for the DA{Phi}NE bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system based on a pill-box loaded by six waveguides has been designed and a full-scale aluminium prototype has been fabricated at LNF. Both simulations and measurements have shown a peak shunt impedance of about 750 ohm and a bandwidth of about 220 MHz. The large shunt impedance allows to economize on the costly feedback power. Moreover, the damping waveguides drastically reduce the device HOM longitudinal and transverse impedances. One cavity pre ring will be sufficient to operate the machine up to 30 bunches while a second device per ring together with a feedback power improvement will be necessary to reach the ultimate current. (G.T.)
Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Assmann, M.; Veit, F.; Bayer, M.
2009-01-01
Quantum mechanically indistinguishable particles such as photons may show collective behavior. Therefore, an appropriate description of a light field must consider the properties of an assembly of photons instead of independent particles. We have studied multiphoton correlations up to fourth order...... in the single-mode emission of a semiconductor microcavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. The counting statistics of single photons were recorded with picosecond time resolution, allowing quantitative measurement of the few-photon bunching inside light pulses. Our results show bunching behavior...
Electron bunch length measurement with a wakefield radiation decelerator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiwei Li
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure the electron bunch length with a dielectric wakefield radiation (DWR decelerator which is composed of two dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs and an electron spectrometer. When an electron beam passes through a DLW, the DWR is excited which leads to an energy loss of the electron beam. The energy loss is found to be largely dependent on the electron bunch length and can be easily measured by an electron spectrometer which is essential for a normal accelerator facility. Our study shows that this method has a high resolution and a great simplicity.
Transient analysis of a bunched beam free electron laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.M.; Yu, L.H.
1985-01-01
The problem of the bunched beam operation of a free electron laser was studied. Assuming the electron beam to be initially monoenergetic, the Maxwell-Vlasov equations describing the system reduce to a third order partial differential equation for the envelope of the emitted light. The Green's function corresponding to an arbitrary shape of the electron bunch, which describes the transient behavior of the system, is obtained. The Green's function was used to discuss the start up problem as well as the power output and the power specrum of a self-amplified spontaneous emission
Modelling and measurements of bunch profiles at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papadopoulou, S. [Crete U.; Antoniou, F. [Liverpool U.; Argyropoulos, T. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Hostettler, M. [CERN; Papaphilippou, Y. [CERN
2017-07-20
The bunch profiles in the LHC are often observed to be non-Gaussian, both at Flat Bottom (FB) and Flat Top (FT) energies. Especially at FT, an evolution of the tail population in time is observed. In this respect, the Monte-Carlo Software for IBS and Radiation effects (SIRE) is used to track different types of beam distributions. The impact of the distribution shape on the evolution of bunch characteristics is studied. The results are compared with observations from the LHC Run 2 data.
Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Wittig
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.
Refinements to longitudinal, single bunch, coherent instability theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koscielniak, S R
1995-06-01
For the case of a bunched beam confined to a quadratic potential well, we demonstrate the necessity for considering mode-coupling to correctly obtain the threshold current for the d.c. instability. Further we find the effect upon growth rate and coherent tune shift of evaluating the impedance at a complex frequency. For the case of a bunched beam confined to a cosine potential well, we give an exact analytic expression for the dispersion integral, and calculate (with no approximations), the stability diagram for the Robinson instability taking into account Landau damping. This paper comprises extracts from a lengthy internal report. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs.
Emittance Growth during Bunch Compression in the CTF-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raubenheimer, Tor O
1999-02-26
Measurements of the beam emittance during bunch compression in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF-II) are described. The measurements were made with different beam charges and different energy correlations versus the bunch compressor settings which were varied from no compression through the point of full compression and to over-compression. Significant increases in the beam emittance were observed with the maximum emittance occurring near the point of full (maximal) compression. Finally, evaluation of possible emittance dilution mechanisms indicate that coherent synchrotron radiation was the most likely cause.
Design of the ALS transverse coupled-bunch feedback system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Corlett, J.N.; Hinkson, J.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.R.; Fox, J.D.
1993-05-01
Calculations of transverse coupled bunch growth rates in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring for producing synchrotron radiation, indicate the need for damping via a transverse feedback (TFB) system. We present the design of such a system. The maximum bunch frequency is 500 MHz, requiring that the FB system have a broadband response of at least 250 MHz. We described, in detail, the choice of broadband components such as kickers, pickups, power amplifiers, and electronics
Evolving bunch and retardation in the impedance formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warnock, Robert; Venturini, Marco
2003-01-01
The usual expression for the longitudinal wake field in terms of the impedance is exact only for the model in which the source of the field is a rigid bunch. To account for a deforming bunch one has to invoke the complete impedance, a function of both wave number and frequency. A computation of the corresponding wake field would be expensive, since it would involve integrals over frequency and time in addition to the usual sum over wave number. We treat the problem of approximating this field in an example of current interest, the case of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the presence of shielding by the vacuum chamber
Cancellation Effects in CSR Induced Bunch Transverse Dynamics in Bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, R.
2002-01-01
The partial cancellation between the effect of centrifugal space charge force on transverse bunch dynamics and the potential energy effect has been a long-standing controversial issue in the study of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced bunch dynamics in bends. In this paper, we clarify our definition of the ''centrifugal space charge force,'' and discuss the meaning of the ''cancellation effect'' and its general application. We further use simulation to demonstrate the cancellation in both steady state and transient regimes, and show the behavior of the effective transverse force
Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggiero, A.G.
1986-01-01
This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized
Bunch-shape monitor for a picosecond single-bunch beam of a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo
1995-01-01
A non-interactive-type bunch-shape and beam intensity monitor for a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA-type connector and an Al pipe of 50 mm inner diameter. Test measurements of the present monitor have been made under the conditions of the accelerated charges of lower than 27 nC/pulse and the pulse width ranging from 6 to 30 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum). The results show that the present monitor is applicable to bunch-shape measurement of the picosecond single-bunch beam. The monitor output is also found to be proportional to the beam intensity of more than 0.05 nC/pulse. (author)
Liang, Yifan; Du, Yingchao; Su, Xiaolu; Wang, Dan; Yan, Lixin; Tian, Qili; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dong; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang; Konoplev, I. V.; Zhang, H.; Doucas, G.
2018-01-01
Generation of coherent Smith-Purcell (cSPr) and transition/diffraction radiation using a single bunch or a pre-modulated relativistic electron beam is one of the growing research areas aiming at the development of radiation sources and beam diagnostics for accelerators. We report the results of comparative experimental studies of terahertz radiation generation by an electron bunch and micro-bunched electron beams and the spectral properties of the coherent transition and SP radiation. The properties of cSPr spectra are investigated and discussed, and excitations of the fundamental and second harmonics of cSPr and their dependence on the beam-grating separation are shown. The experimental and theoretical results are compared, and good agreement is demonstrated.
Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap
Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N
2014-01-01
The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...
Operation and performance of bunch pre-compression for increased transmission at the SLC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minty, M.G.; Akre, R.; Decker, F.J.; Turner, J.
1997-11-01
As the beam currents at the SLC are increased, transverse aperture restrictions in the ring-to-linac transport line (RTL) become increasingly important. The RTL contains a bunch compressor which introduces a large energy variation across the bunch and hence a larger transverse beam size. Since 1994 the compressor amplitude has been operating at higher than design voltage. While advantageous for shaping the bunch distribution, this increased the bunch energy spread and therefore resulted in more beam loss. Moreover, due to current-dependent bunch lengthening in the damping ring, the higher the beam current, the more the current loss. To avoid such losses, the bunch length may be precompressed in the damping ring. Until recently, bunch precompression with high beam currents was not stable. In this paper the authors identify the reasons for the difficulties, describe the changes made to accommodate bunch precompression, and discuss performance aspects after implementation. The estimated increase in current at the interaction point is 15%
Observation of the substructure in the electron bunch on the ACO storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergher, M.; Velghe, M.; Mialocq, J.P.
1984-09-01
In the future, one interesting point of the SRFEL at Orsay will be the microtemporal analysis of the laser beam correlated with that of the electron bunch. In a first time, we have only analysed the temporal structure of the electron bunch with an Electrophotonic streak camera. The first results seem to indicate that the bunch is not an homogeneous bunch but presents a substructure. We discuss with details this data
Radial bunch compression : path-length compensation in an rf photoinjector with a curved cathode
Loos, de M.J.; Geer, van der S.B.; Saveliev, Y.M.; Pavlov, V.M.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Wiggins, S.M.; Rodier, J.; Garvey, T.; Jaroszynski, D.A.
2006-01-01
Electron bunch lengthening due to space-charge forces in state-of-the-art rf photoinjectors limits the minimum bunch length attainable to several hundreds of femtoseconds. Although this can be alleviated by increasing the transverse dimension of the electron bunch, a larger initial radius causes
On the single bunch longitudinal collective effects in electron storage rings
Gao, J
2002-01-01
After giving an analytical expression for the single bunch short range wake potential of a storage ring, we have discussed separately the roles of linear and nonlinear terms of the Taylor expansion of the wake potential on the bunch longitudinal motion. The equations describing bunch lengthening and increase in energy spread are established. Applications to different operating machines are made.
Acceleration of a trailing positron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doche, A.; Beekman, C.; Corde, S.
2017-01-01
High gradients of energy gain and high energy efficiency are necessary parameters for compact, cost-efficient and high-energy particle colliders. Plasma Wakefield Accelerators (PWFA) offer both, making them attractive candidates for next-generation colliders. Here in these devices, a charge-density plasma wave is excited by an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch). The energy in the wave can be extracted by a second bunch (the trailing bunch), as this bunch propagates in the wake of the drive bunch. While a trailing electron bunch was accelerated in a plasma with more than a gigaelectronvolt of energy gain, accelerating a trailing positron bunch in a plasma is much more challenging as the plasma response can be asymmetric for positrons and electrons. We report the demonstration of the energy gain by a distinct trailing positron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator, spanning nonlinear to quasi-linear regimes, and unveil the beam loading process underlying the accelerator energy efficiency. A positron bunch is used to drive the plasma wake in the experiment, though the quasi-linear wake structure could as easily be formed by an electron bunch or a laser driver. Finally, the results thus mark the first acceleration of a distinct positron bunch in plasma-based particle accelerators.
Palm oil fresh fruit bunch ripeness grading identification using color ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This research investigates the ripeness grading identification of the palm oil FFB using color features that are color histogram, color moment and color correlogram. Palm is harvested during the optimum stage of its ripeness since it improves the FFB oil quality and quantity. Harvesting wrong bunches decreases the oil ...
Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.
2014-08-29
During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.
Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardner, C. J.
2014-01-01
During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.
Operational experience with nanocoulomb bunch charges in the Cornell photoinjector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Bartnik
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Characterization of 9–9.5 MeV electron beams produced in the dc-gun based Cornell photoinjector is given for bunch charges ranging from 20 pC to 2 nC. Comparison of the measured emittances and longitudinal current profiles to optimized 3D space charge simulations yields excellent agreement for bunch charges up to 1 nC when the measured laser distribution is used to generate initial particle distributions in simulation. Analysis of the scaling of the measured emittance with bunch charge shows that the emittance scales roughly as the square root of the bunch charge up to 300 pC, above which the trend becomes linear. These measurements demonstrate that the Cornell photoinjector can produce cathode emittance dominated beams meeting the emittance and peak current specifications for next generation free electron lasers operating at high repetition rate. In addition, the 1 and 2 nC results are relevant to the electron ion collider community.
Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel
shifting was neglected in this case, we would conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the observed bunching in taxable income for the self-employed is driven by intertemporal income shifting, implying a structural...
Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel
2013-01-01
was neglected in this case, we would estimate a taxable income elasticity in the range of 0.43-0.53 and conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the bunching in taxable income is driven by intertemporal income shifting...
LHC Report: 1,033 bunches per beam and counting
Jorg Wenninger for the LHC team
2015-01-01
Following the second technical stop, the first beams were injected into the LHC in the early evening of Saturday, 5 September. About ten days later, the machine was operated with around 1,000 bunches per beam. Evolution of the stored energy per LHC beam, over time. The first step after a technical stop consists of running through a full LHC cycle, from injection to collisions and beam dump, with a low-intensity bunch (“probe”) to check all machine settings and equipment. This is followed by a series of collimation and absorber validation tests at different points in the LHC cycle. Low-intensity beams – typically the equivalent of three nominal bunches (3 x 1011 protons) – are expanded transversely or longitudinally, or de-bunched to verify that the collimators and absorbers are correctly intercepting lost particles. The techniques for those validations have been progressively improved, and t...
Generation of slow positron beam and beam bunching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azuma, O.; Satoh, T.; Shitoh, M.; Kaneko, N.; Kawaratani, T.; Hara, O.
1994-01-01
Two items are described in this report. One is about the outline of our slow positron beam system, which has been fabricated as a commercial prototype. The other is about the calculation result of positron beam bunching, which will be an additional function to the system. (author)
State orthogonality, boson bunching parameter and bosonic enhancement factor
Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el
2016-04-01
It is emphasized that the bunching parameter β ≡ p B / p D , i.e. the ratio between the probability to measure two bosons and two distinguishable particles at the same state, is a constant of motion and depends only on the overlap between the initial wavefunctions. This ratio is equal to β = 2 / (1 + I 2), where I is the overlap integral between the initial wavefunctions. That is, only when the initial wavefunctions are orthogonal this ratio is equal to 2, however, this bunching ratio can be reduced to 1, when the two wavefunctions are identical. This simple equation explains the experimental evidences of a beam splitter. A straightforward conclusion is that by measuring the local bunching parameter β (at any point in space and time) it is possible to evaluate a global parameter I (the overlap between the initial wavefunctions). The bunching parameter is then generalized to arbitrary number of particles, and in an analogy to the two-particles scenario, the well-known bosonic enhancement appears only when all states are orthogonal.
Theory of longitudinal instability for bunched electron and proton beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggiero, A.G.
1977-01-01
A discussion is given of an original approach for the treatment of the longitudinal stability of high-intensity proton and electron bunches. The general analysis is divided in three steps. First, a search is made for a stationary bunch distribution which is matched to the external rf forces as well as to the current dependent induced fields. The existence of such distribution is questioned. Second, the stability of the stationary solution is checked by applying a small perturbation and observing whether this is initially damped or not. At this point a stability condition is derived in terms of current, surrounding impedance and bunch size. In the last step one should question what happens to the beam in case the stability condition is not satisfied. The problem here is the determination of the final bunch configuration. The originality of the approach stays in the combination of the three steps. All previous theories either consider only the first step or combine the second and third ones but disregard the first
Colossal photon bunching in quasiparticle-mediated nanodiamond cathodoluminescence
Feldman, Matthew A.; Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Bridges, Denzel; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Davidson, Roderick B.; Evans, Philip G.; Hachtel, Jordan A.; Hu, Anming; Pooser, Raphael C.; Haglund, Richard F.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.
2018-02-01
Nanoscale control over the second-order photon correlation function g(2 )(τ ) is critical to emerging research in nonlinear nanophotonics and integrated quantum information science. Here we report on quasiparticle control of photon bunching with g(2 )(0 ) >45 in the cathodoluminescence of nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV0) centers excited by a converged electron beam in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Plasmon-mediated NV0 cathodoluminescence exhibits a 16-fold increase in luminescence intensity correlated with a threefold reduction in photon bunching compared with that of uncoupled NV0 centers. This effect is ascribed to the excitation of single temporally uncorrelated NV0 centers by single surface plasmon polaritons. Spectrally resolved Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry is employed to demonstrate that the bunching is mediated by the NV0 phonon sidebands, while no observable bunching is detected at the zero-phonon line. The data are consistent with fast phonon-mediated recombination dynamics, a conclusion substantiated by agreement between Bayesian regression and Monte Carlo models of superthermal NV0 luminescence.
Poisson solvers for self-consistent multi-particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiang, J; Paret, S
2014-01-01
Self-consistent multi-particle simulation plays an important role in studying beam-beam effects and space charge effects in high-intensity beams. The Poisson equation has to be solved at each time-step based on the particle density distribution in the multi-particle simulation. In this paper, we review a number of numerical methods that can be used to solve the Poisson equation efficiently. The computational complexity of those numerical methods will be O(N log(N)) or O(N) instead of O(N2), where N is the total number of grid points used to solve the Poisson equation
Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steffen, B.R.
2007-07-01
Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)
Preservation of low slice emittance in bunch compressors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Bettoni
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Minimizing the dilution of the electron beam emittance is crucial for the performance of accelerators, in particular for free electron laser facilities, where the length of the machine and the efficiency of the lasing process depend on it. Measurements performed at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility revealed an increase in slice emittance after compressing the bunch even for moderate compression factors. The phenomenon was experimentally studied by characterizing the dependence of the effect on beam and machine parameters relevant for the bunch compression. The reproduction of these measurements in simulation required the use of a 3D beam dynamics model along the bunch compressor that includes coherent synchrotron radiation. Our investigations identified transverse effects, such as coherent synchrotron radiation and transverse space charge as the sources of the observed emittance dilution, excluding other effects, such as chromatic effects on single slices or spurious dispersion. We also present studies, both experimental and simulation based, on the effect of the optics mismatch of the slices on the variation of the slice emittance along the bunch. After a corresponding reoptimization of the beam optics in the test facility we reached slice emittances below 200 nm for the central slices along the longitudinal dimension with a moderate increase up to 300 nm in the head and tail for a compression factor of 7.5 and a bunch charge of 200 pC, equivalent to a final current of 150 A, at about 230 MeV energy.
Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bock, Marie Kristin
2013-03-01
Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.
Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steffen, B.R.
2007-07-15
Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)
Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bock, Marie Kristin
2013-03-15
Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.
A fifth harmonic rf bunch monitor for the ANL-APS electron linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nassiri, A.; Grelick, A.
1993-01-01
The function of a fifth harmonic (14.28 GHz) bunch monitor is to provide a signal which is proportional to the electron beam bunch size. The monitoring of the rf power signal at 14.28 GHz enables the operator to optimize the rf bunching of the beam at the end of the first accelerating section where the full bunching has been formed and remains mainly constant in size throughout the rest of the electron linac. A modified version of the SLAC original bunch monitor has been fabricated and its rf properties measured. This paper describes the design and the initial measurement results
Bunch rotation tests at SPS flat top for the AWAKE experiment
Argyropoulos, T; Bohl, T; Esteban Müller, J F; Petrenko, A; Shaposhnikova, E; Timko, H
2013-01-01
This note summarises the results of two MDs on bunch rotation at SPS flat top. The first MD was carried out on 11th July 2012 with the Q26 optics, while the second MD on the 30th October 2012 used the Q20 optics. To obtain a short bunch length, which is important for the plasma wake-field acceleration project AWAKE, the bunches have been rotated in longitudinal phase space on the SPS flat top. The aim of the MDs was to obtain first estimates of what bunch length, intensity, and transverse emittances - which are crucial for the project - can be achieved for high-intensity single bunches.
A fifth harmonic RF bunch monitor for the ANL-APS electron linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nassiri, A.; Grelick, A.
1993-01-01
The function of a fifth harmonic (14.28 GHz) bunch monitor is to provide a signal which is proportional to the electron beam bunch size. The monitoring of the rf power signal at 14.28 GHz enables the operator to optimize the rf bunching of the beam at the end of the first accelerating section where the full bunching has been formed and remains mainly constant in size throughout the rest of the electron linac. A modified version of the SLAC original bunch monitor has been fabricated and its rf properties measured. This paper describes the design and the initial measurements results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, L.
1993-01-01
A method of determining the deQing requirement of individual cavity higher-order modes (HOM) for a multi-cavity RF system is presented and applied to the APS ring. Since HOM resonator frequency values are to some degree uncertain, the HOM frequencies should be regarded as random variables in predicting the stability of the coupled bunch beam modes. A Monte Carlo simulation provides a histogram of the growth rates from which one obtains an estimate of the probability of instability. The damping of each HOM type is determined such that the damping effort is economized, i.e. no single HOM dominates the specified growth rate histogram
High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Rist
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r2 = 0.95 for berry number compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.
High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation.
Rist, Florian; Herzog, Katja; Mack, Jenny; Richter, Robert; Steinhage, Volker; Töpfer, Reinhard
2018-03-02
Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg) was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r² = 0.95 for berry number) compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.
CSR Interaction for a 2D Energy-Chirped Bunch on a General Orbit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Rui
2009-01-01
When an electron bunch with initial linear energy chirp traverses a bunch compression chicane, the bunch interacts with itself via coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge force. The effective longitudinal CSR force for such kind of 2D bunch on a circular orbit has been analyzed earlier (1). In this paper, we present the analytical results of the effective longitudinal CSR force for a 2D energy-chirped bunch going through a general orbit, which includes the entrance and exit of a circular orbit. In particular, we will show the behavior of the force in the last bend of a chicane when the bunch is under extreme compression. This is the condition when bifurcation of bunch phase space occurs in many CSR measurements. (1) R. Li, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 024401 (2008)
Repetitive Bunches from RF-Photo Gun Radiate Coherently
Van der Geer, C A J; Van der Geer, S B
2004-01-01
We consider to feed the laser wake field accelerator of the alpha-X project by a train of low charge pancake electron bunches to reduce undesired expansion due to space-charge forces. To this purpose the photo excitation laser of the rf-injector is split into a train of sub-pulses, such that each of the produced electron bunches falls into a successive ponderomotive well of the plasma accelerator. This way the total accelerated charge is not reduced. The repetitive photo gun can be tested, at low energy, by connecting it directly to the undulator and monitoring the radiation. The assertions are based on the results of new GPT simulations.
Bunch lengthening and related effects in SPEAR II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.B.; Servranckx, R.; Sabersky, A.P.; Gareyte, J.; Fischer, G.E.; Chao, A.W.; Donald, M.H.R.
1977-03-01
In recent years, electron storage ring designers have become aware of the problems caused by the interaction of short, high current bunches with their environment. Important effects are: (1) energy loss can cause local overheating of chamber components; (2) additional rf power is required due to overall energy loss; (3) the increased energy spread requires increased aperture; (4) destructive instabilities could occur. Anomalous bunch lengthening and energy spread, the spectroscopy of longitudinal modes and the shift of synchronous phase were simultaneously measured in order to study the dynamics of the interaction. From the data obtained at SPEAR II one is led to a model of coupling impedance which should be useful in the design of any electron ring
MD210 Note: Creation of Hollow Bunches in the PSB
Oeftiger, Adrian; Findlay, Alan James; Hancock, Steven; Rumolo, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2016-01-01
MD210 aims for the creation of longitudinally hollow bunches in the CERN PS Booster. The first three sessions have been carried out using the radial loop feedback system in order to drive the beam on a dipolar parametric resonance (instead of the phase loop). It has been found that the damping by the phase loop inhibits the excitation of the resonance to a major extent. The hollow distributions generated under these circumstances fail to reach a satisfying bunching factor. Nonetheless, proving the principally successful application of this technique to the PS Booster promises good results once the phase loop system supports trim functions. The approach, actions and detailed results of the first three MD sessions are presented in this paper.
Preliminary Study on Two Possible Bunch Compression Schemes at NLCTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Yipeng
2011-01-01
In this paper, two possible bunch compression configurations are proposed and evaluated by numerical simulation in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. A bunch compression ratio up to 20 could be achieved under a perfect condition, without consideration for the timing jitter and other error sources. The NLCTA is a test accelerator built at SLAC, which is approximately 42 meters long and composed of X-band acceleration structures. The main aim of building NLCTA is to develop and demonstrate the X-band rf acceleration technologies for the next generation linear collider, with a relatively high acceleration gradient between 50 MV/m and 100 MV/m. The current operation configuration of NLCTA features a thermionic-cathode electron gun at its starting point which generates an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV. This is followed by a roughly 1.5 meter long X-band acceleration structure which boosts the electron beam energy to 60 MeV. Then there is a four-dipole magnetic chicane which is 6 meters long and provides a first order longitudinal dispersion of R 56 = -73mm. Next the electron beam passes by several matching quadrupoles and can be accelerated further to 120 MeV through another one-meter-long X-band acceleration structure. After that, there are three small chicanes downstream, with a total first order longitudinal dispersion of R 56 = -10mm. A sketch of the main components of NLCTA is shown in Figure 1, where the total length of this accelerator is 45 meters. Free Electron Lasers (FELs), proposed by J. Madey and demonstrated for the first time at Stanford University in 1970s (2) (3), use the lasing of relativistic electron beam traveling through a magnetic undulator, which can reach high power and can be widely tunable in wavelength. Linac based FEL source can provide sufficient brightness, and a short X-ray wavelength down to angstrom scale, which promises in supporting wide range of research experiments. In order to have an electron beam
Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS
Damerau, H
2017-01-01
The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability
Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.
2007-01-01
At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab(trademark) using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab(trademark) and Matlab(trademark) (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort
Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-09-02
The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based on combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated together with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.
Coherent spontaneous radiation from highly bunched electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.
1995-01-01
Coherent spontaneous radiation has now been observed in several FELs, and is a subject of great importance to the design of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. We report observations of coherent spontaneous radiation in both FIREFLY and the mid-infrared FEL at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. Coherent emission has been observed at wavelengths as short as 5 microns, and enhancement over incoherent levels by as much as a factor of 4x10 4 has been observed at longer wavelengths. The latter behavior was observed at 45 microns in FIREFLY with short bunches produced by off-peak acceleration and dispersive compression. We present temporal measurements of the highly bunched electron distributions responsible for the large enhancements, using both transition radiation and energy-phase techniques
Bio-phenolic resin from oil palm empty fruit bunches
Zakaria, Zuhaili; Zakaria, Sarani; Roslan, Rasidi; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Amran, Umar Adli
2018-04-01
Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in the production of bio-phenolic resin is an alternative way to reduce the dependency of petroleum-based phenol. In this study, resol type bio-phenolic resin (BPR) was synthesized from EFB fibers using sulfuric acid as the catalyst to produce liquefied empty fruit bunches (LEFB) followed by resinification reaction with formaldehyde in alkaline condition. The SEM image of LEFB residue showed separation of fiber bundles into individual fibers. This indicate that lignin was destroyed during the liquefaction process. The increased of formaldehyde/LEFB molar ratio has resulted an increase of viscosity, solid content and pH of the resin. The obtained FTIR spectra confirmed that functional groups of BPR resins was almost similar with commercial resin.
Bunch-motion feedback for B-factories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambertson, G.R.
1992-09-01
The colliding electron and positron beams in a B-factory must have average current of one ampere or more to produce the required luminosity. The high current interacts with structures in the beam tube to drive strong coupled-bunch (c.b.) instabilities. To suppress these instabilities requires negative feedback of the bunch motions. Beam impedances arising from strong rf cavity modes should first be reduced to make the required feedback damping rate practical and the cost economical. In what follows, control of transverse motions will be discussed first, then longitudinal. We shall use the parameters of the 3.1 GeV ring of PEP-II to illustrate the general requirements
Loss factor for short bunches in azimuthally symmetric tapered structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Blednykh
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We use the program ECHO to study numerically the loss factor of axisymmetric cavities and collimators with and without tapering. We consider a Gaussian driving bunch of length σ, and structures with inner radius b, outer radius d, cavity gap (or collimator inner length g, and taper length L. In all cases we consider a short bunch with σ≪b. For the untapered structures (L=0, in certain regimes, we describe our numerical results using the known expressions for a step transition and for the diffraction model. In addition, we identify new regimes where gb, we present a phenomenological formula which accurately describes the dependence of the loss factor on the parameters σ, b, d, and L. This formula also holds for a tapered cavity with g>d^{2}/σ and d-b>b.
Laser vacuum acceleration of a relativistic electron bunch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glazyrin, I V; Karpeev, A V; Kotova, O G; Nazarov, K S [E.I. Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Centre, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V Yu [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-06-30
With regard to the problem of laser acceleration of a relativistic electron bunch we present a scheme of its vacuum acceleration directly by a relativistic intensity laser pulse. The energy of the electron bunch injected into the laser pulse leading edge increases during its coaxial movement to a thin, pulse-reflecting target. The laser-accelerated electrons continue to move free forward, passing through the target. The study of this acceleration scheme in the three-dimensional geometry is verified in a numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell method, which showed that the energy of a part of the electrons can increase significantly compared to the initial one. Restrictions are discussed, which impose limiting values of energy and total charge of accelerated electrons. (superstrong light fields)
Compensating effect of the coherent synchrotron radiation in bunch compressors
Jing, Yichao; Hao, Yue; Litvinenko, Vladimir N.
2013-06-01
Typical bunch compression for a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) requires a large compression ratio. Frequently, this compression is distributed in multiple stages along the beam transport line. However, for a high-gain FEL driven by an energy recovery linac (ERL), compression must be accomplished in a single strong compressor located at the beam line’s end; otherwise the electron beam would be affected severely by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the ERL’s arcs. In such a scheme, the CSR originating from the strong compressors could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for a bunch compressor that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beam’s quality. We discuss our findings from a study of such a compressor, and detail its potential for an FEL driven by a multipass ERL developed for the electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stratakis, Diktys
2016-03-01
The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based in combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth from CSR can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.
Measurement of electron beam bunch phase length by rectangular cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, V.D.; Rudychev, V.G.; Ushakov, V.I.
1976-01-01
An analysis of a phase length of electron bunches with the help of crossed rectangular resonators with the Hsub(102) oscillation type has been made. It has been shown that the electron coordinates after the duplex resonator are described by an ellipse equation for a non-modulated beam. An influence of the initial energy spread upon the electron motion has been studied. It has been ascertained that energy modulation of the electron beam results in displacement of each electron with respect to the ellipse which is proportional to modulation energy, i.e. an error in determination of the phase length of an electron bunch is proportional to the beam energy spread. Relations have been obtained which enable to find genuine values of phases of the analyzed electrons with an accuracy up to linear multipliers
Ultrashort electron bunch length measurement with diffraction radiation deflector
Xiang, Dao; Huang, Wen-Hui
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure electron bunch length with a diffraction radiation (DR) deflector which is composed of a DR radiator and three beam position monitors (BPMs). When an electron beam passes through a metallic aperture which is tilted by 45 degrees with respect to its trajectory, backward DR that propagates perpendicular to the beam’s trajectory is generated which adds a transverse deflection to the beam as a result of momentum conservation. The deflection is found to be largely dependent on the bunch length and could be easily observed with a downstream BPM. Detailed investigations show that this method has wide applicability, high temporal resolution, and great simplicity.
Ultrashort electron bunch length measurement with diffraction radiation deflector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dao Xiang
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure electron bunch length with a diffraction radiation (DR deflector which is composed of a DR radiator and three beam position monitors (BPMs. When an electron beam passes through a metallic aperture which is tilted by 45 degrees with respect to its trajectory, backward DR that propagates perpendicular to the beam’s trajectory is generated which adds a transverse deflection to the beam as a result of momentum conservation. The deflection is found to be largely dependent on the bunch length and could be easily observed with a downstream BPM. Detailed investigations show that this method has wide applicability, high temporal resolution, and great simplicity.
An Investigation of Presumptive Synergism of Oil Palm Bunch Ash ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Two kilogram (2 kg) of sandy soil was placed in each of five plastic vessels labeled TA, TB, TC, TD and TE. TA was left in its natural state while the others were each polluted with 6.7% v/w of crude oil. TB was not given any remediation amendment. TC and TD were each amended with 13.3% of oil palm bunch ash and ...
Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.
2009-01-01
By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.
Transient Resistive Wall Wake for Very Short Bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stupakov, G.; SLAC
2005-01-01
The catch up distance for the resistive wall wake in a round pipe is approximately equal to the square of the pipe radius divided by the bunch length. The standard formulae for this wake are applicable at distances much larger than the catch up distance. In this paper, we calculate the resistive wall wake at distances compared with the catch up distance assuming a constant wall conductivity
Multiple frequency generation by bunched solitons in Josephson tunnel junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1981-01-01
A detailed numerical study of a long Josephson tunnel junction modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation demonstrates the existence of a variety of bunched soliton configurations. Thus, on the third zero-field step of the V-I characteristic, two simultaneous adjacent frequencies are generated...... in a narrow bias current range. The analysis of the soliton modes provides an explanation of recent experimental observations....
Characterization of pseudosingle bunch kick-and-cancel operational mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Sun
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Pseudosingle-bunch kick-and-cancel (PSB-KAC is a new operational mode at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that provides full timing and repetition rate control for single x-ray pulse users while being fully transparent to other users of synchrotron radiation light. In this operational mode, a single electron bunch is periodically displaced from a main bunch train by a fast kicker magnet with a user-on-demand repetition rate, creating a single x-ray pulse to be matched to a typical laser excitation pulse rate. This operational mode can significantly improve the signal to noise ratio of single x-ray pulse experiments and drastically reduce dose-induced sample damage rate. It greatly expands the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In this paper, we carry out extensive characterizations of this PSB-KAC mode both numerically and experimentally. This includes the working principle of this mode, resonance conditions and beam stability, experimental setups, and diagnostic tools and measurements.
Characterization of pseudosingle bunch kick-and-cancel operational mode
Sun, C.; Robin, D. S.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.
2015-12-01
Pseudosingle-bunch kick-and-cancel (PSB-KAC) is a new operational mode at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that provides full timing and repetition rate control for single x-ray pulse users while being fully transparent to other users of synchrotron radiation light. In this operational mode, a single electron bunch is periodically displaced from a main bunch train by a fast kicker magnet with a user-on-demand repetition rate, creating a single x-ray pulse to be matched to a typical laser excitation pulse rate. This operational mode can significantly improve the signal to noise ratio of single x-ray pulse experiments and drastically reduce dose-induced sample damage rate. It greatly expands the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In this paper, we carry out extensive characterizations of this PSB-KAC mode both numerically and experimentally. This includes the working principle of this mode, resonance conditions and beam stability, experimental setups, and diagnostic tools and measurements.
Emittance control and RF bunch compression in the NSRRC photoinjector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lau, W.K.; Hung, S.B.; Lee, A.P.; Chou, C.S.; Huang, N.Y.
2011-01-01
The high-brightness photoinjector being constructed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center is for testing new accelerator and light-source concepts. It is the so-called split photoinjector configuration in which a short solenoid magnet is used for emittance compensation. The UV-drive laser pulses are also shaped to produce uniform cylindrical bunches for further reduction of beam emittance. However, limited by the available power from our microwave power system, the nominal accelerating gradient in the S-band booster linac is set at 18 MV/m. A simulation study with PARMELA shows that the linac operating at this gradient fails to freeze the electron beam emittance at low value. A background solenoid magnetic field is applied for beam emittance control in the linac during acceleration. A satisfactory result that meets our preliminary goal has been achieved with the solenoid magnetic field strength at 0.1 T. RF bunch compression as a means to achieve the required beam brightness for high-gain free-electron laser experiments is also examined. The reduction of bunch length to a few hundred femtoseconds can be obtained.
LHC Report: Boost in bunches brings record luminosity
2011-01-01
Having hit a luminosity of around 8.4x1032 cm-2 s-1 with 768 bunches per beam, the LHC went into a 5-day machine development (MD) program on Wednesday 4 May. Operators are now working on increasing the number of particle bunches in the machine towards a 2011 maximum of around 1380 bunches. The team is already hitting major milestones, recording another record-breaking peak luminosity on Monday 23 May. Former LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans (to the right) and Laurette Ponce, the engineer-in-charge when the recent luminosity record was achieved. The MD periods improve our understanding of the machine, with the aim of increasing its short- and long-term performance. This one also included tests of the machine’s configurations for special physics runs and a future high luminosity LHC. It was an intense program and overall it went very well, with most measurements carried out successfully. Highlights included: commissioning a dedicated machine setup for TOTEM and ALFA; succe...
Modulated electron bunch with amplitude front tilt in an undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni
2015-12-01
In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radiation behind the kick, because the deflection process involves the introduction of a tilt of the bunch profile. This tilt of the bunch profile leads to radiation pulse front tilt, which is equivalent to angular dispersion of the output radiation. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation XFEL codes for cross-checking their results.
Arbitrarily shaped high-coherence electron bunches from cold atoms
McCulloch, A. J.; Sheludko, D. V.; Saliba, S. D.; Bell, S. C.; Junker, M.; Nugent, K. A.; Scholten, R. E.
2011-10-01
Ultrafast electron diffractive imaging of nanoscale objects such as biological molecules and defects in solid-state devices provides crucial information on structure and dynamic processes: for example, determination of the form and function of membrane proteins, vital for many key goals in modern biological science, including rational drug design. High brightness and high coherence are required to achieve the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, but have been limited by the thermal nature of conventional electron sources and by divergence due to repulsive interactions between the electrons, known as the Coulomb explosion. It has been shown that, if the electrons are shaped into ellipsoidal bunches with uniform density, the Coulomb explosion can be reversed using conventional optics, to deliver the maximum possible brightness at the target. Here we demonstrate arbitrary and real-time control of the shape of cold electron bunches extracted from laser-cooled atoms. The ability to dynamically shape the electron source itself and to observe this shape in the propagated electron bunch provides a remarkable experimental demonstration of the intrinsically high spatial coherence of a cold-atom electron source, and the potential for alleviation of electron-source brightness limitations due to Coulomb explosion.
Femtosecond electron bunches from an RF-gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Farias, Ruy; Thongbai, Chitrlada; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut
2004-01-01
Sub-picosecond electron pulses become a tool of increasing importance to study dynamics at an atomic level. Such electron pulses can be used directly or be converted into intense coherent far infrared radiation or equally short X-ray pulses. In principle, sub-picosecond electron pulses can be obtained in large, high-energy electron linear accelerator systems by repeatedly applying an energy slew and magnetic compression. Another process is the production of short electron pulses at low energies from an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode together with a bunch compressing α-magnet. In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of capabilities and limits of sub-picosecond electron pulses from such a source. We discuss particular parameter choices as well as the impact of geometric and electric specifications on the 6-dimensional phase space electron distribution. Numerical beam simulations with the computer code PARMELA are performed including effects and limitations due to space charge forces. While the production of femtosecond electron bunches is of primary concern, we also consider the preservation of such short bunches along a beam transport line
Commissioning of an electro-optic electron bunch length monitor at FLASH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breunlin, Jonas
2011-03-01
The demands on the electron beam qualities for free-electron lasers (FEL) are challenging in terms of high peak currents. At FLASH, the high-gain FEL in Hamburg, longitudinal bunch compression is performed to achieve the requested high charge densities in short bunches. The precise control of the bunch compression process requires advanced diagnostics on the longitudinal bunch profile. The bunch length monitor presented in this thesis is based on a non-destructive detection using the electro-optic effect. The focus is on a compact and reliable system for permanent bunch diagnostics. The monitor provides single-shot measurements of the longitudinal bunch profiles with lengths of a few picoseconds by spectrally encoding their charge distribution. First measurements for characterization purpose have been performed. It has been shown that the monitor is suitable for monitoring the longitudinal bunch profile behind the first bunch compressor at FLASH. Electron bunch profiles with slopes corresponding to a full width half maximum of about 1.4 ps have been detected. That is the intrinsic resolution limit of the utilized method. (orig.)
Characterestics of pico-second single bunch at the S-band linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kozawa, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Ueda, Toru; Miya, Kenzo
1994-01-01
Measurement of the bunch structure of a pico-second single bunch was performed using a femto-second streak camera at the S-band linear accelerator of the University of Tokyo. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of the generation of a femto-second single bunch at the S-band linac. The details of the bunch structure and energy spectrum of an original single bunch were precisely investigated in several operation modes where the RF phases in accelerating tubes and a prebuncher were varied. The femto-second streak camera was utilized to measure the bunch structure by one shot via Cherenkov radiation emitted by the electrons in the bunch. Next, an experiment for magnetic pulse compression of the original single bunch was carried out. Pulse shapes of the compressed bunchs for different energy modulation were also obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation by one shot using the femto-second streak camera. Prior to the experiment, numerical tracking analysis to determine operating parameters for the magnetic pulse compression was also done. Measured pulse widths were compared with calculated ones. Finally, a 2 ps (full width at half maximum; FWHM) single bunch with an electric charge of 0.3 nC could be generated by the magnetic pulse compression. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roussel, E; Evain, C; Le Parquier, M; Szwaj, C; Bielawski, S; Hosaka, M; Yamamoto, N; Takashima, Y; Shimada, M; Adachi, M; Zen, H; Kimura, S; Katoh, M
2014-01-01
Many spatio-temporal systems can undergo instabilities, leading to the spontaneous formation of spatial structures (patterns). However, a range of cases exist for which the pattern itself is not directly visible because of technical or fundamental reasons. This is the case for the spontaneous formation of millimeter-scale patterns appearing inside relativistic electron bunches of accelerators. We demonstrate in this case how the study of responses to sine external perturbations can be used as a ‘probe’ to deduce the characteristic wavenumber of the pattern formation process. Experiments are performed in the UVSOR-II electron storage ring when the electron bunch is subjected to so-called microbunching instability, and the sine perturbations are provided by an external laser. The response is constituted of pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation, whose amplitude depends on the perturbation wavenumber. Experimental results on the dynamics are compared to numerical calculations obtained using a Vlasov–Fokker–Planck model. (paper)
Collective issues related to B-factories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestrikov, D.V.
1993-02-01
This report reviews the limitations on the performance of the planned B- and Φ-factories due to the collective interactions of stored bunches. Together with the traditional revision of the limitations due to the single- and multi-bunch interaction with surrounding electrodes, we briefly discuss in this report the limitations on the performance due to collective beam-beam instabilities of colliding beams and instabilities due to the collective interaction of beams with the ions. (author)
Single-gap multi-harmonic buncher for NSC Pelletron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, A.; Ghosh, S.; Barua, P.
1998-01-01
A single gap multi harmonic buncher has been installed in the pre-acceleration region of the NSC pelletron. For the operation of the booster LINAC, presently under construction, a pre-tandem buncher is required with higher efficiency and producing beam bunches of smaller time spread. The multi harmonic buncher meets all these requirements
Main Ring bunch spreaders: Past, 1987/1988 fixed target run, and proposed future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, G.P.
1989-01-01
During the last 1987--1988 fixed target running period beam intensity was limited many times by coherent instabilities in both the Main Ring and in the Tevatron. The intensity thresholds for instabilities are generally inversely proportional to the proton bunch length. Since fixed target operations are insensitive to the longitudinal phase space emittance of the beam, bunch spreaders are employed to increase this emittance, and hence the bunch length. As a result, more beam intensity can be delivered to the fixed target experiments. This paper starts with a short history behind the old Main Ring bunch spreader. After discussing the physics of stimulated emittance growth, the design and performance of the 1987--1988 fixed target run Main Ring bunch spreader is discussed. Finally, designs of improved Main Ring and Tevatron bunch spreaders for the next fixed target run are proposed. 23 figs
Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a diagnostic for sub-picosecond electron bunch length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, D.C.
1996-01-01
We suggest a novel technique of measuring sub-picosecond electron bunch length base on coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) emitted when electrons pass close to the surface of a metal grating. With electron bunch lengths comparable to the grating period, we predict that coherent SPR will be emitted at large angles with respect to direction of beam propagation. As the bunch length shortens, the coherent SPR will be enhanced over the incoherent component that is normally observed at small angles. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the coherent SPR will be shifted toward smaller angles as the bunch length becomes much smaller than the grating period. By measuring the angular distribution of the coherent SPR, one can determine the bunch length of sub-picosecond electron pulses. This new technique is easy to implement and appears capable of measuring femtosecond electron bunch lengths
LHC MD 652: Coupled-Bunch Instability with Smaller Emittance (all HOMs)
AUTHOR|(CDS)2081238; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
The aim of the MD was to measure the coupled-bunch stability from all HOM impedances, with a reduced longitudinal emittance in order to explore the HL-LHC conditions. The acceleration ramp was performed with the nominal beams of 2016, but a reduced target bunch length and RF voltage. With this reduced emittance, the beam remained close but above the single-bunch stability threshold. No coupled-bunch oscillations were observed, so we can conclude that the stability threshold for coupled-bunch instability is not lower than the single-bunch threshold. An interesting observation in the MD was the long-lasting injection oscillations, whose traces can still be seen at arrival to flat top; in agreement with observations in earlier MDs. The measurements took place between 28th October 20:00 and 29th October 05:10.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besnier, G.
1979-01-01
The longitudinal space-charge force is assumed to vary like the derivative of the longitudinal beam density. Solutions of the linearized Vlasov equation are then given as an expansion of normal modes for the longitudinal phase-space density of a bunched beam. For a given bunch intensity, the method allows calculation of the required synchrotron frequency spread inside a parabolic bunch, in order to stabilize the beam against coherent oscillations by Landau-damping. (Auth.)
Methods For Electron Bunch Measurement With Resolution Of The Order Of 1 Fs And 1 Nm
Tron, A M
2004-01-01
Methods for bunch length and shape monitoring with femtosecond resolution by means of time converting photochronography of the bunch radiation in the range of visible light using photoelectron camera of new principle of its operation, and for monitoring the transverse bunch size, based on new beam cross section wire scanner technique where the depth of electron escapement being not more than 1 nm is used, are described. Main limitation, caused by space charge effect, is considered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, V. V.; Novitskii, A. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Chuprov, D. V., E-mail: chu-d@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
The spatial configuration of a relativistic plasma bunch generated under the gyromagnetic autoresonance and confined in a magnetic mirror trap has been studied experimentally and numerically. The characteristics of bremsstrahlung generated by the plasma bunch from the gas and chamber walls were investigated using X-ray spectroscopy and radiometry, which made it possible to determine the localization of the bunch and analyze the dynamics of its confinement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.
1985-01-01
The possibility of the use of longitudinal field excited in a plasma by electron bunches to accelerate charged particles is investigated. It is shown that the highets value of accelerating fields proportional to the square root of factor of electrons in the bunch is achieved in the case when bunch particle density approaches a limit equal to the half of the the plasma electron equilibrium density
Investigation of advanced electron bunch generation and diagnostics in the BOND laboratory at DESY
Kononenko, Olena; Bohlen, Simon; Gruse, Jan-Niclas; Karstensen, Sven; Libov, Vladyslav; Ludwig, Kai; Martinez de la Ossa, Alberto; Marutzky, Frank; Niroula, Avinash; Osterhoff, Jens; Quast, Martin; Schaper, Lucas; Dale, John; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Streeter, Matthew
2016-01-01
Laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators have been explored as a potential compact, reproducible source of relativistic electron bunches, utilising an electric field of many GV/m. Control over injection of electrons into the wakefield is of crucial importance in producing stable, mono-energetic electron bunches. Density tailoring of the target, to control the acceleration process, can also be used to improve the quality of the bunch. By using gas jets to provide tailored targets it is poss...
Geloni, G.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.
2004-08-01
An effective and practical technique based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) spectrum can be used to characterize the profile function of ultra-short bunches. The CSR spectrum measurement has an important limitation: no spectral phase information is available, and the complete profile function cannot be obtained in general. In this paper we propose to use constrained deconvolution method for bunch profile reconstruction based on a priori-known information about formation of the electron bunch. Application of the method is illustrated with practically important example of a bunch formed in a single bunch-compressor. Downstream of the bunch compressor the bunch charge distribution is strongly non-Gaussian with a narrow leading peak and a long tail. The longitudinal bunch distribution is derived by measuring the bunch tail constant with a streak camera and by using a priory available information about profile function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.
2004-01-01
An effective and practical technique based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) spectrum can be used to characterize the profile function of ultra-short bunches. The CSR spectrum measurement has an important limitation: no spectral phase information is available, and the complete profile function cannot be obtained in general. In this paper we propose to use constrained deconvolution method for bunch profile reconstruction based on a priori-known information about formation of the electron bunch. Application of the method is illustrated with practically important example of a bunch formed in a single bunch-compressor. Downstream of the bunch compressor the bunch charge distribution is strongly non-Gaussian with a narrow leading peak and a long tail. The longitudinal bunch distribution is derived by measuring the bunch tail constant with a streak camera and by using a priory available information about profile function
A Main Ring bunch length monitor by detecting two frequency components of the beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ieiri, T.; Jackson, G.
1989-01-01
The bunch length is measured by detecting two revolution frequency harmonics of the beam and taking the ratio of their amplitudes. Two heterodyne receivers have been made to direct them, one at 53MHz and the other at 159MHz. These signals are picked-up by a stripline detector. An analog circuit provides a signal proportional to the bunch length. The monitor measures variation of the bunch length as a function of time in the Main Ring. The measured signal, which sometimes shows that the bunches are tumbling in phase space, can be damped by feedback to the RF amplitude modulator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab
Transverse multibunch modes for non-rigid bunches, including mode coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, J S; Ruth, R D [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
1996-08-01
A method for computing transverse multibunch growth rates and frequency shifts in rings, which has been described previously, is applied to the PEP-II B factory. The method allows multibunch modes with different internal-bunch oscillation modes to couple to one another, similar to single-bunch mode coupling. Including coupling between the multibunch modes gives effects similar to those seen in single-bunch mode coupling. These effects occur at currents that are lower than the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. (author)
Measurement of the longitudinal wakefield and the bunch shape in the SLAC linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.L.F.; Decker, F.J.; Seeman, J.T.; Zimmermann, F.
1997-05-01
The authors report on measurements of the bunch energy spectrum at the end of the SLAC linac. Using the spectra obtained for two different linac rf phases they obtain both the bunch induced voltage and the longitudinal distribution of the bunch. The measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions. In particular, the induced voltage is in good agreement with that obtained using the calculated wake function for the SLAC linac. This measurement technique may be useful for monitoring changes of the linac bunch shape in the SLC
PF-KO system for single bunch mode operation of a storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohgaki, H.; Sugiyama, S.; Mikado, T.; Chiwaki, M.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, R.; Sei, N.; Noguchi, T.; Yamazaki, T.
1994-01-01
A new RF-KO (RF knockout) system for the single bunch mode operation of a storage ring has been developed. The knockout signal is modulated by the sum signal of the RF acceleration frequency of the storage ring and a bunch selection signal. We do not need any special device or a timing unit with this method. We obtain a high purity of bunch structure in a short knock out time. The single bunch impurity of 0.2% has been achieved. (author)
Transverse modes of a bunched beam with space charge dominated impedance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Balbekov
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Transverse coherent oscillations of a bunched beam in a ring accelerator are considered with space charge dominated impedance, taking into account linear synchrotron oscillations. A general equation of the bunch eigenmodes is derived, its exact analytical solution is presented for boxcar bunch, and numerical solutions are found for several realistic models. Both low and high synchrotron frequency approximations are considered and compared, fields of their applicability are determined, and some estimations are developed in the intermediate region. It is shown that most of the bunch eigenmodes are stabilized by Landau damping due to the space charge produced tune spread.
Barranco Garcia, Javier; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider has shown with various experimental verifications that one of the main limitations to the collider performance and to a possible upgrade can come from the long-range beam-beam effects which will define the operational parameters (intensities and emittances) and machine set-up (crossing angles and the minimum beta function at the interaction points). The High Luminosity project aims at very high intensities and will therefore need much larger separations to keep the long range effects weak. In the past several studies of possible active compensators have been carried out and experimental studies are planned to explore such schemes in the LHC. In this note we show the feasibility of using octupole magnets to compensate the effects of long range beam-beam interactions by use of dynamical aperture simulations. A prove of principle of such a compensation scheme is shown for the HL-LHC optics. Preliminary studies for the LHC optics ATS and standard are also presented pointing to the import...
Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber
Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti
In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.
Chromatic correction in the SLC bunch length compressors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adolphsen, C.E.; Emma, P.J.; Fieguth, T.H.; Spence, W.L.
1991-06-01
The SLC Ring to Linac (RTL) transport lines employ intense bending and strong transverse focusing to produce the momentum compaction needed for bunch length compression prior to S-band acceleration. In the presence of the large rf induced energy spread needed for compression the consequent chromatic effects -- viz. the variation with energy of residual output dispersion and of the RTL transfer matrix, threaten to destroy the small emittances produced by the damping rings. We report on the tuning methods that have been developed and used to implement the sextupole based chromatic correction scheme. 6 refs., 4 figs
Optimized Bunch Compression System for the European XFEL
Limberg, Torsten; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Decking, Winfried; Dohlus, Martin; Flöettmann, Klaus; Kim, Yujong; Schneidmiller, Evgeny
2005-01-01
The European XFEL bunch compressor system has been optimized for greater flexibility in parameter space. Operation beyond the XFEL design parameters is discussed in two directions: achieving the uppermost number of photons in a single pulse on one hand and reaching the necessary peak current for lasing with a pulse as short as possible on the other. Results of start-to-end calculations including 3D-CSR effects, space charge forces and the impact on wake fields demonstrate the potential of the XFEL for further improvement or, respectively, its safety margin for operation at design values.
Self-focusing of electron bunches in a nonlinear plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasovitskii, V.B.; Osmolovsky, S.I.
1994-01-01
The phenomena of self-focusing of previously bunched electron beam in hot nonlinear plasma with the frequency which less than the plasma one is studied. It is established that influence of the Miller's force nonlinearity of the plasma don't leads to self-focusing breaking. However in the case of a dense beam, the appearance strong resonant electric field is followed by the change of the sign of the plasma dielectric constant to positive at the beam axis. But the dielectric constant remain negative at the outer of the beam
Overview of coupled bunch active damper systems at FNAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steimel, J.; Crisp, J.; Ma, Hengjie; Marriner, J.; McGinnis, D.
1996-05-01
Beam intensities in all of the accelerators at Fermilab will increase significantly when the Main Injector becomes operational and will cause unstable oscillations in transverse position and energy. Places where the coupled bunch oscillations could dilute emittances include the Booster, Main Injector, and Tevatron. This paper provides an overview of the active feedback system upgrades which will be used to counteract the problem. It will explain the similarities between all the systems and will also explain design differences between longitudinal and transverse systems, fast sweeping systems, and systems for partially filled machines. Results from operational systems will also be shown. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
A BUNCH TO BUCKET PHASE DETECTOR USING DIGITAL RECEIVER TECHNOLOGY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DELONG, J.; BRENNAN, J.M.; HAYES, T.; LE, T.N.; SMITH, K.
2003-01-01
Transferring high-speed digital signals to a Digital Signal Processor is limited by the IO bandwidth of the DSP. A digital receiver circuit is used to translate high frequency W signals to base-band. The translated output frequency is close to DC and the data rate can be reduced, by decimation, before transfer to the DSP. By translating both the longitudinal beam (bunch) and RF cavity pick-ups (bucket) to DC, a DSP can be used to measure their relative phase angle. The result can be used as an error signal in a beam control servo loop and any phase differences can be compensated
Multi-stage wake-field accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gai, Wei.
1989-01-01
In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs
Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacker, Kirsten
2010-09-01
Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 μm precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)
Coherent synchrotron radiation and bunch stability in a compactstorage ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Venturini, Marco; Warnock, Robert; Ruth, Ronald; Ellison, James A.
2004-04-09
We examine the effect of the collective force due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in an electron storage ring with small bending radius. In a computation based on time-domain integration of the nonlinear Vlasov equation, we find the threshold current for a longitudinal microwave instability induced by CSR alone. The model accounts for suppression of radiation at long wave lengths due to shielding by the vacuum chamber. In a calculation just above threshold, small ripples in the charge distribution build up over a fraction of a synchrotron period, but then die out to yield a relatively smooth but altered distribution with eventual oscillations in bunch length. The instability evolves from small noise on an initial smooth bunch of r.m.s.length much greater than the shielding cutoff. The paper includes a derivation and extensive analysis of the complete impedance function Z for synchrotron radiation with parallel plate shielding. We find corrections to the lowest approximation to the coherent force which involve ''off-diagonal'' values of Z, that is, fields with phase velocity not equal to the particle velocity.
A combined source of electron bunches and microwave power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie, J.L.; Wang, F.Y.; Yang, X.P.; Shen, B.; Gu, W.; Zhang, L.W.
2003-01-01
In this article, the possibility of using a high power klystron amplifier simultaneously as a microwave power source as usual and an electron bunches source by extracting the spent beam with a magnet and also as an oscillator by feedback is investigated. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a very compact electron linear accelerator or for other applications of electron bunches. The feasibility of the idea was first examined by computer simulation of the electron motion in a 5 MW klystron and the characteristics of the klystron spent beam. Experimental study was then carried out by installing a radio frequency cavity and a Faraday cage in sequence at the exit end of a bending magnet located at the top of the klystron collector. The energy and current of the chopped spent electron beam can then be measured. By properly choosing the feedback circuit elements, the frequency stability of the klystron in oscillator mode was proved to be good enough for linac operation. According to the results presented in this article, it is evident that an extremely compact linac for research and education with better affordability can be constructed to promote the applications of linacs
A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapostolle, P.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.
1996-01-01
In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beam with a three-dimensional ellipsoid was proposed, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines. It removes the cylindrical symmetry required in SCHEFF and avoids the point to point interaction computation, whose number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two or three ellipsoids giving a good representation of the complex non-symmetrical form of the bunch (unlike the 3-d ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-d problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Comparisons with other space charge routines have been made, particularly with the ones applying other techniques such as SCHEFF. Introduced in the versatile beam dynamics code DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (orig.)
Violence Patterns in Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch (1969: Critical Reading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baker Bani-Khair
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of violence in Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch (1969 through explaining some of the cultural and historical implications of violence in the 1960s such as Vietnam War, the Mexican war and also the explosion of the feminist movement and some other important social and political upheavals that shaped the cultural context of the 1960s in America. It also sheds light on Sam Peckinpah’s approach of violence screen and stylizing violence and the representations of violence as a tormenting and brutalizing reality that matches the spirit of the age in addition to the social, political, and colonial conflicts of the 1960s. Violence and the implications of violence in The Wild Bunch whether social , cultural, psychological, or humanistic have been discussed in brief in order to show the critical approach of the film as being a rich and didactic film to watch, especially in terms of its rich cultural and historical contexts.
Generation of ultra-short relativistic-electron-bunch by a laser wakefield
Khachatryan, A.G.; Boller, Klaus J.; van Goor, F.A.
2003-01-01
The possibility of the generation of an ultra-short (about one micron long) relativistic (up to a few GeVs) electron-bunch in a moderately nonlinear laser wakefield excited in an underdense plasma by an intense laser pulse is investigated. The ultra-short bunch is formed by trapping, effective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakian, S.S.; Khachatryan, A.G.; Sekhpossian, E.V.
1995-03-01
This document is the final report on a project to study focusing effects of relativistic beams of electrons and positrons interacting with a cold plasma. The authors consider three different models for the overdense cold plasma - electron bunch interaction. They look at coulomb effects, wakefield effects, bunch parameters, and the effects of trains of pulses on focusing properties
A Value-Engaged Approach for Evaluating the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy
Greene, Jennifer C.
2005-01-01
In 2001, the Bunche Academy was chosen by its district to join in partnership with the Da Vinci Learning Corporation to embark on an ambitious whole-school reform initiative, especially designed by the corporation for low-performing schools. In this chapter, the author describes how, as illustrated in the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy context,…
A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy
King, Jean A.
2005-01-01
The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…
Acceleration of a high-current single bunch in a linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Seishi
1984-01-01
Some problems associated with the feasibility of an electron-positron linear collider with colliding energy of about 1x1 TeV are discussed. The first problem is related to the generation of high-current single bunch. A quasi-relativistic electron beam from an electron gun is injected into one bucket of the accelerating fields, in opposition to the longitudinal defocusing due to the space-charge effect. For generating a high-current single bunch, the beam bunching by means of the velocity modulation with a subharmonic prebuncher (SHPB) is indispensable. Three existing second generation single bunch electron linear accelerators (SLC, ANL and ISLR-Osaka Univ.) are briefly described. The results of the simulation of subharmonic-bunching is also reported. The second problem is associated with the physics of accelerating high-current single bunch. The longitudinal and transverse wake fields generated by a bunch-cavity interaction and the energy spread of the single bunch are analyzed and discussed. (Aoki, K.)
The excitation of wakefield in plasma by the sequence of electron bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onishchenko, I.N.; Balakirev, V.A.; Berezin, A.K.; Fainberg, J.B.; Kiselyov, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Sidel'nikov, G.L.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.
1994-01-01
The theoretical and experimental investigations of wakefield excitation in plasma by the train of bunches were carried out. The dependence of the wakefield amplitude on the number of bunches was considered and the saturation mechanism was determined. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirnyj, V.I.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.
2009-01-01
Method is proposed to divide a regular sequence of electron bunches into parts of bunches driving wakefield and witness bunches, which should be accelerated. It allows to avoid the necessity of additional electron accelerator for witness bunches producing and the necessity of precision short time techniques of injection phase adjusting. The idea concludes to the frequency detuning between bunches repetition frequency and the frequency of the fundamental mode of excited wakefield. Experiments were carried out on the linear resonant accelerator 'Almaz-2', which injected in the dielectric resonator a sequence of 6000 short bunches of relativistic electrons with energy 4.5 MeV, charge 0.16 nC and duration 60 psec each, the repetition interval 360 ps. Frequency detuning was entered by change of frequency of the master generator of the klystron within the limits of one percent so that the phase taper on the length of bunches sequence achieved 2π. Energy spectra of electrons of bunches sequence, which have been propagated through the dielectric resonator are measured and analyzed
A study of fast bunch rotation in the negative mass region
Rumolo, Giovanni
2001-01-01
Fast bunch rotation of high-intensity proton or ion bunches above transition is - in principle - supported by the self-bunching effect of the attractive space charge force ("negative instabilities"). Due to the broad-band nature of the space charge impedance, the highest harmonics of this negative mass mode grow fast and inhibit compression, unless the bunch rotation is accelerated by a sufficiently high rf-voltage. Using particle-in-cell simulation we establish the threshold below which effective compression is still possible. We find that the required rf-voltage for compression of a given bunch above transition can be reduced at most by a factor 2 compared with compression below transition, where space charge requires extra voltage.
Beam simulations with initial bunch noise in superconducting RF proton linacs
Tückmantel, J
2010-01-01
Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducti...
Radial bunch compression: Path-length compensation in an rf photoinjector with a curved cathode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. de Loos
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Electron bunch lengthening due to space-charge forces in state-of-the-art rf photoinjectors limits the minimum bunch length attainable to several hundreds of femtoseconds. Although this can be alleviated by increasing the transverse dimension of the electron bunch, a larger initial radius causes path-length differences in both the rf cavity and in downstream focusing elements. In this paper we show that a curved cathode virtually eliminates these undesired effects. Detailed numerical simulations confirm that significantly shorter bunches are produced by an rf photogun with a curved cathode compared to a flat cathode device. The proposed novel method will be used to provide 100 fs duration electron bunches for injection into a laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
C. Tennant, S.V. Benson, D. Douglas, P. Evtushenko, R.A. Legg
2011-09-01
We describe an electron bunch compression scheme suitable for use in a light source driven by a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac. The key feature is the use of a recirculating linac to perform the initial bunch compression. Phasing of the second pass beam through the linac is chosen to de-chirp the electron bunch prior to acceleration to the final energy in an SRF linac ('afterburner'). The final bunch compression is then done at maximum energy. This scheme has the potential to circumvent some of the most technically challenging aspects of current longitudinal matches; namely transporting a fully compressed, high peak current electron bunch through an extended SRF environment, the need for a RF harmonic linearizer and the need for a laser heater. Additional benefits include a substantial savings in capital and operational costs by efficiently using the available SRF gradient.
Study on Handing Process and Quality Degradation of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)
Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin
2017-05-01
The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The study employs exploratory and descriptive design, with quantitative approach and purposive sampling using self-administrated questionnaires, were obtained from 30 smallholder respondents from the Southern Region, Peninsular Malaysia. The study reveals that there was a convincing relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The main handling process factors influencing quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) were harvesting activity and handling at the plantation area. As a result, it can be deduced that the handling process factors variable explains 82.80% of the variance that reflects the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The overall findings reveal that the handling process factors do play a significant role in the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB).
Mutual compensation of wakefield and chromatic effects of intense linac bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeman, J.T.; Merminga, N.
1990-05-01
Mutual compensation of transverse and chromatic effects for intense electron bunches in a high-energy linac is a recent Novosibirsk idea which provides a new control of emittance enlargement. In this paper we elaborate on the principles and constraints for this new technique which requires careful matching of internal bunch parameters with external forces. With species values of the bunch length, bunch intensity, and klystron phasing, the transverse-wakefield-induced forces within the bunch can be cancelled by energy-dependent forces from the quadrupole lattice at all positions along the linac. Under these conditions the tolerances for quadrupole alignment, dipole stability, and injection launch errors are significantly relaxed. 7 refs., 8 figs
Nonlinear electrostatic emittance compensation in kA, fs electron bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geer, S.B. van der; Loos, M.J. de; Botman, J.I.M.; Luiten, O.J.; Wiel, M.J. van der
2002-01-01
Nonlinear space-charge effects play an important role in emittance growth in the production of kA electron bunches with a bunch length much smaller than the bunch diameter. We propose a scheme employing the radial third-order component of an electrostatic acceleration field, to fully compensate the nonlinear space-charge effects. This results in minimal transverse root-mean-square emittance. The principle is demonstrated using our design simulations of a device for the production of high-quality, high-current, subpicosecond electron bunches using electrostatic acceleration in a 1 GV/m field. Simulations using the GPT code produce a bunch of 100 pC and 73 fs full width at half maximum pulse width, resulting in a peak current of about 1.2 kA at an energy of 2 MeV. The compensation scheme reduces the root-mean-square emittance by 34% to 0.4π mm mrad
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Wei; Du, Yingchao; Yan, Lixin; Hua, Jianfei; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Wenhui, E-mail: huangwh@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Chuanxiang [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Ming [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)
2016-10-21
The electro-optic (EO) technique detects the Coulomb electric field distribution of relativistic electron bunches to obtain the associated longitudinal profile. This diagnostic method allows the direct time-resolved single-shot measurement and thus the real-time monitoring of the bunch profile and beam arrival time in a non-destructive way with sub-picosecond temporal resolution. In this paper, we report the measurement of the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch through electro-optic spectral decoding detection, in which the bunch profile is encoded into the spectra of the linearly chirped laser pulse. The experimental setup and measurement results of a 40 MeV electron bunch are presented, with a temporal profile length of 527 fs rms (~1.24 ps FWHM) and a beam arrival time jitter of 471 fs rms. Temporal resolution and future experimental improvement are also discussed.
Stability of higher-order longitudinal modes in a bunched beam without mode coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satoh, K.
1981-05-01
The theory of longitudinal instabilities of bunched beams was proposed by F. Sacherer. Starting from the Vlasov equation, he derived the integral equation for the perturbed distribution function. While the general method to solve the integral equation was given by Sacherer, a number of other papers discussing longitudinal bunched beam instability have also been published. Here we want to propose another formalism with which we can treat the integral equation without mode coupling for the case of a Gaussian bunch. We then generalize the formalism for the other bunch distributions, and derive a practical method to analyze the instability for the case of a parabolic bunch. While the solution of the Sacherer equation that we find is not new, we present another approach to solve it. Since the integral equation for the transverse instability is similar to that for the longitudinal instability, this formalism is also useful for the transverse case. 12 figs., 4 figs
Bunch Compressor Beamlines for the Tesla and S Band Linear Colliders
Emma, P
2003-01-01
A detailed design for a single stage beam bunch length compressor for both the TESLA and the S-Band Linear Collider (SBLC) is presented. Compression is achieved by introducing an energy-position correlation along the bunch with an rf section at zero-crossing phase followed by a short bending section with energy dependent path length (momentum compaction). The motivation for a wiggler design is presented and many of the critical single bunch tolerances are evaluated. A solenoid based spin rotator is included in the design and transverse emittance tuning elements, diagnostics and tuning methods are described. Bunch length limitations due to second order momentum compaction and sinusoidal rf shape are discussed with options for compensation. Finally, the disadvantages of bunch compression using a 180 sup o arc are discussed.
Bunch compression efficiency of the femtosecond electron source at Chiang Mai University
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.
2011-01-01
A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand. Ultra-short electron bunches can be produced with a bunch compression system consisting of a thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. To obtain effective bunch compression, it is crucial to provide a proper longitudinal phase-space distribution at the gun exit matched to the subsequent beam transport system. Via beam dynamics calculations and experiments, we investigate the bunch compression efficiency for various RF-gun fields. The particle distribution at the RF-gun exit will be tracked numerically through the alpha-magnet and beam transport. Details of the study and results leading to an optimum condition for our system will be presented.
Bunch compression efficiency of the femtosecond electron source at Chiang Mai University
Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.
2011-07-01
A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand. Ultra-short electron bunches can be produced with a bunch compression system consisting of a thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. To obtain effective bunch compression, it is crucial to provide a proper longitudinal phase-space distribution at the gun exit matched to the subsequent beam transport system. Via beam dynamics calculations and experiments, we investigate the bunch compression efficiency for various RF-gun fields. The particle distribution at the RF-gun exit will be tracked numerically through the alpha-magnet and beam transport. Details of the study and results leading to an optimum condition for our system will be presented.
Radiative interaction of electrons in a short electron bunch moving in an undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.
1999-01-01
This paper presents investigations of the longitudinal radiative force in an electron bunch. The model of the electron bunch assumes line density distribution. General formulas are presented for the calculation of the radiative force in the bunch moving along an arbitrary small-angle trajectory. The case of a motion in an undulator (wiggler) has been studied in detail. Analytical solutions are obtained for a rectangular and for a Gaussian bunch shape. It is shown that the rate of the bunch energy loss due to the radiative interaction is equal to the power of the coherent radiation in the far zone. Numerical estimations presented in the paper show that the effects of induced energy spread due to the radiative interaction can be important for free electron lasers operating in the infrared wavelength range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Y.-E; Piot, P.; Maxwell, T. J.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.
2010-01-01
We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beam line capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.
RF acceleration of intense laser generated proton bunches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almomani, Ali
2012-07-13
With respect to laser-accelerated beams, the high current capability of the CH-DTL cavity has been investigated. Beam simulations have demonstrated that 10{sup 10} protons per bunch can be accelerated successfully and loss free along the structure. It was shown that, the maximum number of protons per bunch that can be accelerated in the first cavity by exploiting about 1% of the stored field energy is 2.02 x 10{sup 11} protons. One further aspect is the total number of protons arriving at the linac entrance. One main aspect of an rf postacceleration experiment is the rf operation stability under these beam load conditions. Detailed simulations from the target along the solenoid and down to the linac entrance were presented, applying adapted software. Special care was taken on the time steps, especially close to the target, and on the collective phenomena between electron and proton distributions. The effect of comoving electrons on the beam dynamics has been investigated in detail. A CH-linac with high space charge limit and large transverse and longitudinal acceptance was designed to accept a maximum fraction of the laser generated proton bursts. Due to well-known transformations of the injected beam emittances along the CH-cavity, it is aimed to derive parameters of the laser generated beam by measuring the beam properties behind of the CH-cavity. With respect to the linac development it is intended to realize the first cavity of the proposed CH-DTL and to demonstrate the acceleration of a laser generated proton bunch with the LIGHT project. The first cavity consists of 7 gaps within a total length of about 668 mm. It is operated at 325 MHz and has an effective accelerating field gradient of about 12.6 MV/m. The study on the surface electric field for this cavity shows, that maximum surface fields of about 94 MV/m and 88 MV/m on the third and sixth drift tubes are reachable, respectively.
Formation of a single-bunch beam in the booster synchrotron at SPring-8
Suzuki, H; Ego, H; Hara, M; Hosoda, N; Kawashima, Y; Ohashi, Y; Ohshima, T; Tani, N; Yabashi, M; Yonehara, H
2000-01-01
In order to fill a radio frequency (rf) bucket with an electron beam in the storage ring at SPring-8, an rf knockout system was installed in the booster synchrotron. With this system, the energy of the electron beam injected from the linac was increased from 1 to 8 GeV. The time width of multi-bunch beams from the linac operated at 2856 MHz rf can be selected as 1 or 40 ns. The beam injected from the linac is distributed in rf buckets of the booster synchrotron operated at 508.58 MHz rf. To fill a single rf bucket with a beam, the rf knockout system is operated at a minimum beam energy of 1 GeV. By using the rf knockout system, the electron beam is effectively kept in a single rf bucket. Then the beam is injected into a targeted rf bucket in the storage ring with a precise timing system. The beam intensity of satellite rf buckets in the storage ring was measured with a photon counting method and determined to be 10 sup - sup 6 less than that of the main rf bucket. In this paper, we describe the rf knockout sy...
Focusing and bunching of ion beam in axial injection channel of IPHC cyclotron TR24
Adam, T.; Ivanenko, I.; Kazarinov, N.; Osswald, F.; Traykov, E.
2017-07-01
The CYRCe cyclotron (CYclotron pour la ReCherche et l’Enseignement) is used at IPHC (Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien) for the production of radio-isotopes for diagnostics, medical treatments and fundamental research in radiobiology. The TR24 cyclotron produced and commercialized by ACSI (Canada) delivers a 16-25 MeV proton beam with intensity from few nA up to 500 μA. The solenoidal focusing instead of existing quadrupole one is proposed in this report. The changing of the focusing elements will give the better beam matching with the acceptance of the spiral inflector of the cyclotron. The parameters of the focusing solenoid are found. Additionally, the main parameters of the bunching system are evaluated in the presence of the beam space charge. This system consists of the buncher installed in the axial injection beam line of the cyclotron. The using of the grid-less multi harmonic buncher may increase the accelerated beam current and will give the opportunity to new proton beam applications.
Gridded thermionic gun and integral superconducting ballistic bunch compression cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schultheiss, Thomas [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc., Medford, NY (United States)
2015-11-16
Electron-Ion colliders such as the Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) being developed by JLAB require high current electrons with low energy spread for electron cooling of the collider ring. Accelerator techniques for improving bunch charge, average current, emittance, and energy spread are required for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Circulator Rings (CR) for next generation colliders for nuclear physics experiments. Example candidates include thermionic-cathode electron guns with RF accelerating structures. Thermionic cathodes are known to produce high currents and have excellent lifetime. The success of the IR and THz Free-Electron Laser (FEL) designed and installed by Advanced Energy Systems at the Fritz Haber Institute (FHI) of the Max Planck Society in Berlin [1,2] demonstrates that gridded thermionic cathodes and rf systems be considered for next generation collider technology. In Phase 1 Advanced Energy Systems (AES) developed and analyzed a design concept using a superconducting cavity pair and gridded thermionic cathode. Analysis included Beam Dynamics and thermal analysis to show that a design of this type is feasible. The latest design goals for the MEIC electron cooler were for electron bunches of 420 pC at a frequency of 952.6 MHz with a magnetic field on the cathode of 2kG. This field magnetizes the beam imparting angular momentum that provides for helical motion of the electrons in the cooling solenoid. The helical motion increases the interaction time and improves the cooling efficiency. A coil positioned around the cathode providing 2kG field was developed. Beam dynamics simulations were run to develop the particle dynamics near the cathode and grid. Lloyd Young added capability to Tstep to include space charge effects between two plates and include image charge effects from the grid. He also added new pepper-pot geometry capability to account for honeycomb grids. These additions were used to develop the beam dynamics for this gun. The
Estimates of post-acceleration longitudinal bunch compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Judd, D.L.
1977-01-01
A simple analytic method is developed, based on physical approximations, for treating transient implosive longitudinal compression of bunches of heavy ions in an accelerator system for ignition of inertial-confinement fusion pellet targets. Parametric dependences of attainable compressions and of beam path lengths and times during compression are indicated for ramped pulsed-gap lines, rf systems in storage and accumulator rings, and composite systems, including sections of free drift. It appears that for high-confidence pellets in a plant producing 1000 MW of electric power the needed pulse lengths cannot be obtained with rings alone unless an unreasonably large number of them are used, independent of choice of rf harmonic number. In contrast, pulsed-gap lines alone can meet this need. The effects of an initial inward compressive drift and of longitudinal emittance are included
Analytical formulas for short bunch wakes in a flat dechirper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zgorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2016-03-15
We develop analytical models of the longitudinal and transverse wakes, on and off axis for realistic structures, and then compare them with numerical calculations, and generally find good agreement. These analytical ''first order'' formulas approximate the droop at the origin of the longitudinal wake and of the slope of the transverse wakes; they represent an improvement in accuracy over earlier, ''zeroth order'' formulas. In example calculations for the RadiaBeam/LCLS dechirper using typical parameters, we find a 16% droop in the energy chirp at the bunch tail compared to simpler calculations. With the beam moved to 200 μm from one jaw in one dechirper section, one can achieve a 3 MV transverse kick differential over a 30 μm length.
Single bunch transfer system for the National Synchrotron Light Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheehan, J.; Singh, O.; Rambo, W.
1983-01-01
The accelerator system at the National Synchrotron Light Source consists of an S-band 85 MeV linac and three synchrotron rings. The electron beam from the linac is accelerated by the booster ring to 600 MeV and transferred to one of the two storage rings. The smaller of the two rings operates between 300 and 800 MeV emtting photons in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), while the larger storage ring operates up to 2.5 GeV and emits photons in the x-ray spectrum. A system is described for loading the storage rings by filling a single-phase space bunch in the booster ring and transferring it at the end of each booster cycle into a selected bucket in one of the storage rings. By controlling the timing of the transfer on successive transfer cycles, many fill patterns may be obtained
Bunching phase evolution of short-pulse FEL oscillator system
Song, S B; Choi, D I
2000-01-01
We studied numerically the short-pulse FEL oscillator system using properly defined bunching phase theta sub B and PSI sub B. In stable operation, we have found that the optical field 'locks' the phase to pi/2 at the trailing edge, which gives the maximum gain. Moreover, electrons can be detrapped from ponderomotive bucket due to the spatial variation of the optical field, and this detrapping effect is a major cause of the limit cycle oscillation of the system. The 'bump' of the output power during the amplification usually exists at the near-perfect cavity synchronism regime, which can be explained as the change of the matching condition between electron micropulse and optical pulse.
Single-Bunch Stability With Direct Space Charge
Oeftiger, Adrian
2017-01-01
Previous studies have shown the suppressing effect of direct space charge on impedance-driven head-tail instabilities. The present work investigates transverse stability for the HL-LHC scenario based on our macro-particle simulation tool PyHEADTAIL using realistic bunch distributions. The impact of selfconsistent modelling is briefly discussed for non-linear space charge forces. We study how space charge pushes the instability threshold for the transverse mode coupling instability (TMCI) occurring between mode 0 and -1. Next we consider finite chromaticity: in absence of space charge, the impedance model predicts head-tail instabilities. For a selected case below TMCI threshold at Q0 = 5, we demonstrate the stabilising effect of space charge. Finally, we compare simulation results to past LHC measurements.