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Sample records for mulberry show insecticidal

  1. mulberry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin ... In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp ...... T. J. 1989 Transcription, organization, and sequence of an auxin-.

  2. Adhesion of electrodeposited coatings on U--Ti and Mulberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Dini, J.W.

    1976-05-01

    Quantitative test data are presented for two etched and plated uranium alloys, U-0.75 Ti and mulberry (U-7.5 Nb, 2.5 Zr). Conical head tensile tests showed that the bond between nickel plating and U--Ti was stronger than that between nickel plating and mulberry. Ring shear tests showed that electroplated nickel coatings are more adherent than other coatings applied to U--Ti. Utilizing a newly developed etchant for mulberry, large cylinders of this material were joined to aluminum and then tensile tested. Results showed that the strength of the joint was directly influenced by the taper angle on the mulberry

  3. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  4. Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G; Henriques, U V

    1988-01-01

    Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies in a stillborn female infant with moderate maceration are reported. The histogenesis of these structures is discussed based on light-microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. No demonstrable causal relation between the intravascular lesion...... and fetal death was found, the cause of death being attributed to intrauterine asphyxia. It is concluded, that intravascular "mulberry-bodies" most likely represent artifacts due to red blood cell autolysis.......Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies in a stillborn female infant with moderate maceration are reported. The histogenesis of these structures is discussed based on light-microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. No demonstrable causal relation between the intravascular lesions...

  5. Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G; Henriques, U V

    1988-01-01

    Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies in a stillborn female infant with moderate maceration are reported. The histogenesis of these structures is discussed based on light-microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. No demonstrable causal relation between the intravascular lesions...... and fetal death was found, the cause of death being attributed to intrauterine asphyxia. It is concluded, that intravascular "mulberry-bodies" most likely represent artifacts due to red blood cell autolysis....

  6. Transgenesis: An efficient tool in mulberry breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... ... (south campus). They have developed drought and salinity tolerent transgenic mulberry ... generates tolerence to salinity and water stress in transgenic mulberry (Morus indica). Key words: ..... seasonal cold acclimation.

  7. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  8. Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

    2013-01-01

    Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3′-O-β-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

  9. Kauplus Mulberry - Oksana Tandit = Mulberry - Oksana Tandit store

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Inglise firma Mulberry ja eesti moekunstniku Oksana Tanditi kauplusest Tallinnas Suur-Karja 2. Sisearhitektid Tiina Talvi ja Elo Pärlioja. Loetletud sisearhitektide tehtud töid. Interjööris kasutatud sepised valmistasid Tõnu Narro ja Märt Vaidla

  10. Overexpression of the mulberry latex gene MaMLX-Q1 enhances defense against Plutella xylostella in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purified mulberry latex chitinase (MLX has a role in defense against some lepidopteran insects. In this study, a full length chitinase gene, MaMLX-Q1, of 1405 bp with a 1140 bp open reading frame, was obtained from mulberry leaves by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR procedure. The gene encoded a mature protein with the predicted molecular mass of 39.38 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI of 6.43; it contained two chitin-binding domains and a hydrolase family 19 chitinase domain. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it in the class I chitinase protein group. Heterogeneous expression of this MaMLX-Q1 in Arabidopsis showed non-visible alterations in growth phenotype, except for the higher transcriptional expression of MaMLX-Q1 when compared to that of wild-type Arabidopsis. This ectopic MaMLX-Q1 exhibited toxicity to the growth and development of Plutella xylostella larvae, causing significantly lower weight gain and higher mortality. These results indicate an application of MaMLX-Q1 as an insecticide for plant protection.

  11. Influence of Tannin Extract and Yeast Extract on Color Preservation and Anthocyanin Content of Mulberry Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yilin; Li, Na; Han, Xue; Guo, Jielong; Liu, Guojie; Huang, Weidong; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-04-01

    The color of mulberry wine is extremely unstable in processing and aging. This paper investigates the effects of tannin extract and yeast extract on the color and color-preserving characteristics of mulberry wine made from the Dashi cultivar. The results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength in both tannin extract and yeast extract groups changed generating the red shift effect. The color of the tannin extract maintained a good gloss in the first 4 months, while the yeast extract group showed remarkable color preservation for the first 3 months. The total anthocyanin and cyanidin-3-rutinoside contents in both experiment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, thus proving that tannin extract and yeast extract both exert a remarkably positive effect on preserving the color of mulberry wine during its aging. Moreover, sensory analysis indicated that the quality of mulberry wine treated with tannin extract was significantly higher than that of the control. The distinct color of mulberry wine is one of the foremost qualities that imprints on consumers' senses, but it is extremely unstable in processing and aging. However, the color protection of mulberry wine was not studied previously. In this study, we found that tannin extract and yeast extract both exert a remarkably positive effect on preserving the color of mulberry wine during aging. The study is of great significance as a guide to improving the color stability of mulberry wine, thereby also improving and promoting the development of the mulberry deep processing industry. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil.

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  14. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  15. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  16. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihai Wang

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated serum protein (GSP, and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  17. Effect of Cultivar, Temperature, and Environmental Conditions on the Dynamic Change of Melatonin in Mulberry Fruit Development and Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yin, Li-Yuan; Shi, Xue-Ying; Xiao, Hua; Kang, Kun; Liu, Xing-Yan; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    High levels of melatonin have been reported in various foods but not in mulberry or its wine. This study investigated the dynamic changes of melatonin levels during mulberry fruit development and ethanol fermentation of 2 different colored mulberry cultivars ("Hongguo2ˮ Morus nigra, black and "Baiyuwangˮ Morus alba, white) at 2 fermentation temperatures (16 and 25 °C). Our results showed that the melatonin level increased in the beginning of mulberry development but decreased in the end. The MnTDC gene expression level correlated with melatonin production, which implied that TDC may be the rate-limiting enzyme of the melatonin biosynthetic process in mulberries. During mulberry fermentation, the melatonin concentration increased rapidly in the beginning and then decreased gradually. Low temperature delayed the melatonin production during fermentation. A relatively high level of melatonin was found in "Hongguo2ˮ compared with "Baiyuwangˮ during fruit development and fermentation. The variation of melatonin correlated with the ethanol production rate, suggesting that melatonin may participate in physiological regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation stage. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Morphological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of black mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Stehlíková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at the morphological, biochemical, technological and sensorial determination of black mulberry (Morus nigra L. – MN  fruitage and their utilization in the food production branches. For the experimental purposes were selected 50 genotypes of this population grown in the Pukanec surroundings. The medium fruitage weight determined in the selected collection ranged from 7.26 g (MN-1 to 1.42 g (MN-14, fruitage length in a range of 13.51 mm (MN-14 to 29.20 mm (MN-12 and the medium fruitage width  11.88 mm (MN-14 – 21.12 mm (MN-2. The variability of the evaluated traits varried from low to high degree. Juice yield from matured fruitage achieved 62.40 %. From black mulberry fruitages 16 food products were prepared – juice mixed with cream, yoghurt and/or curd (in several proportions and 3 confectionery products. Sensorial analyses showed significant differences among tested products. In the group of confectionery products was generally preferred the cream-mulberry cake. High values of antioxidative activity has been measured in the chocolate cake with a mulberry jam (36.90 – 28.43 %, followed by the cream-mulberry cake (29.78 – 12.71 % and the fresh mulberry juice (30.97 – 20.17 %. The antioxidation activities exerted generally higher values with the samples tested in water, when compared with those prepared in ethanol extract. Based on the gained results 4 genotypes were selected and recommended for the use in practice, as these provided relative high values of tested traits.doi:10.5219/234

  19. Cytomorphological studies of two mulberry varieties (Moraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two mulberry varieties, namely, S34 and Tr-10 were selected for cytomorphological studies. Stomatal frequency, somatic chromosome number, ploidy level and meiotic behaviour were studied for these varieties. S34 is diploid with 2n=28 and Tr-10 is triploid with 2n=42 chromosomes. Meiosis was irregular. Various ...

  20. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins with Macroporous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Liu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46 mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91 mg/mL resin. The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing.

  1. Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DNJ, an inhibitor of α-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM. The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD. The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf.

  2. Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-08-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialised scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurisation. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, % polymeric colour, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples. Jam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (P < 0.05). Individual anthocyanin contents, determined using HPLC analysis, also showed a significant decrease (∼99% loss). In contrast, % recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS assay) increased after jam processing (16%, 12%, and 37%, respectively). Fruit processing resulted in losses of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of black mulberry jam. Optimisation of food processing could help to protect the phenolic compounds in fruits which might be helpful for the food industry to minimise the antioxidant loss and improve the final product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Changes in the Quality of Black Mulberry and Blueberry Sherbets During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsen Rayman Ergün

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was evaluated the quality properties of traditional drink sherbets that are prepared from black mulberry and blueberry fruits. After production sherbets were investigated to determine their pH, acidity, °brix and colour values, total sugar, phenolic, anthocyanin and antioxidant contents. Moreover the sherbets stored at 4°C during 2 months and the changes in these quality properties were examined per month. As a result statistically significant changes were observed in the quality properties of these sherbets of black mulberry and blueberry fruits which are known with their rich content of phytochemical compounds. The results show that in blueberry sherbet the degradation of phenolics was faster than black mulberry sherbet. Anthocyanins that are higher in black mulberry sherbets after production were preserved better in blueberry sherbets at the end of 2nd month. L*and a* values decreased for blackberry and blueberry sherbets during storage. b* value decreased from 5.59 to 4.92 for blackberry sherbet while it increased from 0.62 to 0.79 for blueberry sherbet at the end of the storage time.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mulberry Vein Banding Associated Virus, a New Tospovirus Infecting Mulberry.

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    Jiaorong Meng

    Full Text Available Mulberry vein banding associated virus (MVBaV that infects mulberry plants with typical vein banding symptoms had been identified as a tentative species of the genus Tospovirus based on the homology of N gene sequence to those of tospoviruses. In this study, the complete sequence of the tripartite RNA genome of MVBaV was determined and analyzed. The L RNA has 8905 nucleotides (nt and encodes the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp of 2877 aa amino acids (aa in the viral complementary (vc strand. The RdRp of MVBaV shares the highest aa sequence identity (85.9% with that of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, and contains conserved motifs shared with those of the species of the genus Tospovirus. The M RNA contains 4731 nt and codes in ambisense arrangement for the NSm protein of 309 aa in the sense strand and the Gn/Gc glycoprotein precursor (GP of 1,124 aa in the vc strand. The NSm and GP of MVBaV share the highest aa sequence identities with those of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV (83.2% and 84.3%, respectively. The S RNA is 3294 nt in length and contains two open reading frames (ORFs in an ambisense coding strategy, encoding a 439-aa non-structural protein (NSs and the 277-aa nucleocapsid protein (N, respectively. The NSs and N also share the highest aa sequence identity (71.1% and 74.4%, respectively with those of CaCV. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp, NSm, GP, NSs, and N proteins showed that MVBaV is most closely related to CaCV and GBNV and that these proteins cluster with those of the WSMoV serogroup, and that MVBaV seems to be a species bridging the two subgroups within the WSMoV serogroup of tospoviruses in evolutionary aspect, suggesting that MVBaV represents a distinct tospovirus. Analysis of S RNA sequence uncovered the highly conserved 5'-/3'-ends and the coding regions, and the variable region of IGR with divergent patterns among MVBaV isolates.

  5. Non-Mulberry and Mulberry Silk Protein Sericins as Potential Media Supplement for Animal Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neety Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk protein sericins, in the recent years, find application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as biomaterials. We investigate the potential of sericin, extracted from both mulberry Bombyx mori and different non-mulberry sources, namely, tropical tasar, Antheraea mylitta; muga, Antheraea assama; and eri, Samia ricini, as growth supplement in serum-free culture medium. Sericin supplemented media containing different concentrations of sericins from the different species are examined for attachment, growth, proliferation, and morphology of fibrosarcoma cells. The optimum sericin supplementation seems to vary with the source of sericins. The results indicate that all the sericins promote the growth of L929 cells in serum-free culture media; however, S. ricini sericin seems to promote better growth of cells amongst other non-mulberry sericins.

  6. Accumulation of Flavonoid Glycosides and UFGT Gene Expression in Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L.) before and after Frost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yiling; Fan, Jingyi; Wang, Dujun; Gong, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Zhen

    2017-08-01

    In order to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the influence of frost on chemical changes in mulberry leaves, the UFGT activity, expression level, and accumulation of flavonoid glycosides in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) were studied. The expression of UFGT gene was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the UFGT activity, accumulation of flavonoid glycosides was studied by high performance liquid chromatography. Then, the correlation between the expression level of UFGT, the UFGT activity, and the flavonoid glycosides accumulation with temperature was explored. The accumulation of isoquercitrin and astragalin is significantly positively correlated with UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. On the contrary, the average temperature was significantly negatively correlated with the level of UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. The results show that after frost, low temperature can induce the expression of UFGT gene in mulberry leaves, resulting in the accumulation of flavonoid glycosides. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Studies on mutation breeding in mulberry (Morus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Wada, M.

    1982-01-01

    Re-irradiation of induced mulberry mutants with gamma rays has proved to give higher mutation frequencies and a wider mutation spectrum than when the original cultivars were irradiated. A comparison between chronic and acute re-irradiation was made, using a special cutting-back technique. Mutation frequencies of the shoots that developed from the sub-lateral shoot in chronic irradiation were lower than in acute irradiation. The five-lobed cultivar Ichinose raised an entire-leaved mutant, IRB240-1, by gamma rays, which showed reversion in leaf shape, from entire to lobed, by re-treatment of the mutant with gamma rays. The mutant and original cultivar were crossed with an entire-leaved cultivar Shiromekeiso. As a result of these crosses, the three mutants are supposed to be not of genic origin concerning leaf shape. A drop of conidia suspension was placed on a scratched surface of the irradiated shoots to select resistant mutants to die-back disease. Two resistant strains were selected by means of inoculation of conidia. It is considered that inoculation of solution using a vaccination apparatus was most efficient and reliable for selecting resistant mutants. Thirteen mutants and three strains were tested for the rooting ability of semi-softwood cuttings. Some mutant strains did not show any disability of rooting initiation of the shoot. Useful mutants which show high rooting ability can be selected by gamma irradiation. To detect the change in fine structure of mulberry a scanning electron microscope was used. The mutants not only varied in visible character from the original, but also in invisible changes, such as trichome, idioblast, etc

  8. Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M.; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify ...

  9. Feeding response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, to UV irradiation of mulberry leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazawa, M.; Shimizu, T.; Hirao, T.

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of mulberry leaves caused a reduced feeding response in Bombyx mori larvae (ca. 22% reduction in consumption as compared with control). Sucrose content of the foliage decreased after exposure to UV irradiation (0.5 mW/cm 2 ) for 1 hr. Electrophysiological responses of the sensilla styloconica-I to sucrose concentration (ca. 0-80 mg/g) showed a reduced response to UV-irradiated foliage when compared with the control. From feeding, gustatory, and electrophysiological responses, as well as the measurement of sucrose contents of the leaves, we concluded that the reduced feeding response to UV-irradiated leaves is due to the reduced sucrose content of the mulberry leaves, thus reducing pleogostimulatory levels

  10. Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Silk Cocoons and Mulberry Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch

    2005-10-01

    Silk cocoons and mulberry leaves have been used in the field of medicines, cosmetics, and foods. The objective of this study is to determine the antioxidant activities of silk cocoons and mulberry leaves using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and to determine tyrosinase inhibitory activities using dihydroxyphenylalanine. The water and ethanol extracts from silk cocoons (Nang Noi, U B1, and Lao) and mulberry leaves showed antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. However, the extracts from all samples at 1,000 μg/reaction mixture inhibited tyrosinase in the range of 12.28-45.98%, which was much lower than the standard whitening agent kojic acid (IC50 0.45 μg/reaction mixture). The results from TLC showed that the ethanol extracts from the 3 species of cocoons contained flavonoids, but only the extract from Nang Noi contained carotenoid. In addition, the separation destroyed the fraction with high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the disadvantage of the extract separation is increased cost and decreased antioxidant activities

  11. Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Silk Cocoons and Mulberry Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Thongphasuk, Piyanuch [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2005-10-15

    Silk cocoons and mulberry leaves have been used in the field of medicines, cosmetics, and foods. The objective of this study is to determine the antioxidant activities of silk cocoons and mulberry leaves using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and to determine tyrosinase inhibitory activities using dihydroxyphenylalanine. The water and ethanol extracts from silk cocoons (Nang Noi, U B1, and Lao) and mulberry leaves showed antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. However, the extracts from all samples at 1,000 {mu}g/reaction mixture inhibited tyrosinase in the range of 12.28-45.98%, which was much lower than the standard whitening agent kojic acid (IC50 0.45 {mu}g/reaction mixture). The results from TLC showed that the ethanol extracts from the 3 species of cocoons contained flavonoids, but only the extract from Nang Noi contained carotenoid. In addition, the separation destroyed the fraction with high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the disadvantage of the extract separation is increased cost and decreased antioxidant activities.

  12. Analysis of genetic relationships of mulberry (Morus L.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Analysis of genetic ... Key words: Mulberry, molecular marker, genetic diversity, SRAP. ... Europe, North and South America, and Africa, and it is cultivated ... Xingjiang autonomous region, China.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  14. Antimicrobial activity, phyto chemical profile and trace minerals of black mulberry (morus nigra l.) fresh juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Fawad, S.A.; Ahmed, I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the fresh juice of black mulberry (Morus nigra) was tested for antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. Total antioxidant contents, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, trace minerals, total acid contents, total solids and ascorbic acid content were also evaluated. The results showed good antimicrobial activity both for Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with highest zones of inhibition for Bacillus spizizenii (19.68 mm, Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.87 mm, Gram-negative). The black mulberry juice was rich in ascorbic acid (23.45 mg/100 g), had low overall acid content (1.60 %) and had 19% total soluble solids. The average total anthocyanins and total phenolic contents of black mulberry juice were 769 mu g/g of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-gly) per gram and 2050 mu g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of fresh juice. The average antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent, TE) of fresh juice was 14.00 mu mol/g according to a FRAP assay and 20.10 mu mol/g according to a DPPH assay. The fresh juice was also rich in a variety of trace minerals. (author)

  15. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of 1-Deoxynojirimycin from Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. and Preparative Separation with Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves were systematically investigated. Four extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of solvent to sample were explored by response surface methodology (RSM. The results indicated that the maximal yield of 1-deoxynojirimycin was achieved with an ethanol concentration of 55%, extraction temperature of 80 °C, extraction time of 1.2 h and ratio of solvent to sample of 12:1. The extraction yield under these optimum conditions was found to be 256 mg/100 g dry mulberry leaves. A column packed with a selected resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize the separation process. The results show that the preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves can be easily and effectively done by adopting 732 resin. In conclusion, 732 resin is the most appropriate for the separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from other components in mulberry leaves extracts, and its adsorption behavior can be described with Langmuir isotherms and a two-step adsorption kinetics model. The recovery and purity of 1-deoxynojirimycin in the final product were 90.51% and 15.3%, respectively.

  16. Protective Effect of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Extract against Benzo[a]pyrene Induced Skin Damage through Inhibition of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunju; Lee, JungA; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2017-12-20

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere surrounding our environment. Although B[a]P is a procarcinogen, enzymatically metabolized benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) could intercalate into DNA to form bulky BPDE-DNA adducts as an ultimate carcinogenic product in human keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of mulberry extract, purified from the fruit of Morus Alba L., on B[a]P-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and its mechanisms of action. In this study, we confirmed that B[a]P induced nuclear translocation and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were decreased by pretreatment of mulberry extract. Mulberry extract could decrease DNA damage through the suppression of B[a]P derived DNA adduct formation and restoration of cell cycle retardation at S phase in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a major active compound of mulberry extract, showed biological activities to protect the cells from B[a]P exposure, similar to the effectivity of the mulberry extract. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of C3G against B[a]P inducing skin cancer is attributable to repress the AhR signaling pathway.

  17. Identification of a latent pathogen on mulberry tree with a disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Pathogen inoculation and comparison. The healthy mulberry trees grown in Wuxing Station of Silkworm and Mulberry Technical Guidance, Huzhou (the area without disea- sed mulberries) and Institute of Sericultural Reseach, Chinese. Academy of Agricultura Sciences (Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province).

  18. Changes in soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community in mulberry (Morus alba L.)/alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) intercropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Meng; Wang, Ning; Hu, Yan-Bo; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2018-04-01

    A better understanding of tree-based intercropping effects on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community has a potential contribution to improvement of agroforestry productivity and sustainability. In this study, we investigated the effects of mulberry/alfalfa intercropping on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community by MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The results showed a significant increase in the contents of available nitrogen, available phosphate, available potassium, and total carbon in the rhizosphere soil of the intercropped alfalfa. Sequencing results showed that intercropping improved bacterial richness and diversity of mulberry and alfalfa based on richness estimates and diversity indices. The relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were significantly higher in intercropping mulberry than in monoculture mulberry; and the abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes in the intercropping alfalfa were markedly higher than that in monoculture alfalfa. Bacterial taxa with soil nutrients cycling were enriched in the intercropping system. There were higher relative abundances of Bacillus (0.32%), Pseudomonas (0.14%), and Microbacterium (0.07%) in intercropping mulberry soil, and Bradyrhizobium (1.0%), Sphingomonas (0.56%), Pseudomonas (0.18%), Microbacterium (0.15%), Rhizobium (0.09%), Neorhizobium (0.08%), Rhodococcus (0.06%), and Burkholderia (0.04%) in intercropping alfalfa soil. Variance partition analysis showed that planting pattern contributed 26.7% of the total variation of bacterial community, and soil environmental factors explained approximately 56.5% of the total variation. This result indicated that the soil environmental factors were more important than the planting pattern in shaping the bacterial community in the field soil. Overall, mulberry/alfalfa intercropping changed soil bacterial community, which was related to changes in soil total carbon

  19. The Latex Protein MLX56 from Mulberry (Morus multicaulis Protects Plants against Insect Pests and Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ping Gai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stresses are major constraints limiting the leaf quality and productivity of mulberry. MLX56 is a unique chitin-binding protein isolated from Shin-Ichinose (Morus alba latex that displays toxicity against lepidopteran caterpillars. In this study, the full-length cDNA encoding MLX56 was isolated from Husang 32 (M. multicaulis and designated HMLX56. Amino acid sequence analysis and protein modeling of three MLX56 proteins showed that they were highly conserved among Morus species. Tissue expression pattern analysis showed that the HMLX56 gene was strongly expressed in mulberry bark and leaves but only slightly expressed in fruits. In addition, analysis of GUS expression indicated that the promoter of HMLX56 showed higher transcriptional activity along the vascular strands, and its activity can be regulated by various environmental factors. Like the MLX56 protein from M. alba, the HMLX56 protein showed toxicity to Plutella xylostella. Moreover, when the HMLX56 gene was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance to aphids, the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our data suggest that the HMLX56 protein has a lectin-like molecular structure consisting of two hevein-like chitin-binding domains which provide not only chitin-binding activities but also other mechanisms of defense. The information provided here improves our understanding of the potential functions and defense mechanisms of MLX56 proteins, enabling in-depth functional analysis of latex exudates and perhaps facilitating mulberry genetic improvement in the future.

  20. Sericins of mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisabai, Wanna; Khamhaengpol, Arunrat; Siri, Sineenat

    2018-05-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has received many interests as a simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method. This study reported the use of sericins extracted from non-mulberry (Samia cynthia ricini) and mulberry (Bombyx mori) silkworms for green syntheses of AgNPs. Both sericins possessed the reducing activity, which the reducing activity of S. c. ricini sericin was significantly higher than that of B. mori sericin. The formation of AgNPs facilitated by S. c. ricini sericin was greater than B. mori sericin as determined by the intensity of the surfacing plasmon resonance peak of silver at 412 nm. The synthesized AgNPs using both sericins were spherical and uniform in size with the average diameter of ∼13 nm. The silver component and the crystalline structure was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited the antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, suggesting their potential application as an effective antibacterial agent.

  1. Sex Distribution of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera in the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johany Peñailillo

    Full Text Available Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L. L'Hér. ex Vent is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: the tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia.We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity.In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant.Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania.

  2. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zeković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume, temperature (40–80 °C and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity from black mulberry (Morus nigra L. leaves. Experimental values of total phenolic content were in the range from 18.6 to 48.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents per g of dried leaves and total flavonoids in the range from 6.0 to 21.4 mg of rutin eqivalents per g of dried leaves. Antioxidant activity expressed as the inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50 value was in the range from 0.019 to 0.078 mg of mulberry extract per mL. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions and to investigate the effect of different variables on the observed properties of mulberry leaf extracts. The results show a good fit to the proposed model (R˄2>0.90. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids were within the experimental range. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the used model and the success of RSM in optimizing the investigated extraction conditions.

  3. Metal toxicity on the basis of the mulberry growth and the mineral status in leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagishi, H.; Goto, A.; Sato, T.

    1976-02-01

    Some pot experiments were carried out to evaluate the toxicity of metal elements to mulberry plant. Alluvial sandy loam with strong acidity of pH (H/sub 2/O) ca. 4.5 was used. Leaf yield was reduced as the supply of tested metal element was increased, but the degree of yield reduction was different for each mulberry variety; Kenmochi (Morus bombysis Koidz) was most resistant to toxicity, and followed by Kairyo-Nezumigaeshi (M. Alba Linn) and Roso (M. latifolia Pollet) in the decreasing order of the resistance. The toxicity of test elements was in the order of Cu > Co greater than or equal to Ni > Zn much greater than Mn. The order was estimated from the value half acting concentration in soil which is obtained from multiplication of the half application amount by active coefficient; here the former shows the concentration of each metal which reduces the leaf yield to a half by toxicity and the latter corresponds to the regression coefficient between the supplied amount of metals and the extracted amount by neutral ammonium acetate solution. The soil-mulberry plant relationship of the elements was studied. Nickel had the highest mobility into leaves from soil, and being followed by Zn, Co and Cu of which contents in leaves were not so much affected by their increasing supply. Owing to this relation, the toxicity on the basis of metal content in leaves was in the order of Co greater than or equal to Cu > Ni much greater than Zn > Mn and the order was somewhat different from the above-mentioned one. Phosphorus content in leaves tended to decrease by Zn and Co supply.

  4. The antiproliferative effect of mulberry (Morus alba L.) plant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shadia A. Fathy

    2013-08-12

    Aug 12, 2013 ... cell line HepG2 ... a Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt ... Mulberry leaf extracts were prepared using the solvents: water, 50% aqueous ... cused on the search for a potential source rich in biologically ... Materials and methods. 2.1. ... HPLC grade (means high quality) were obtained from Fisher.

  5. Effectiveness of matured Morus nigra L. (black mulberry) fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Morin, a form of flavonoid that is highly found in black mulberry, has been ... determined by the method of Shimoi et al. (1994) with the .... quantified by DAD following HPLC separation at 280 nm for CA and. NA, 254 nm for RU, ...

  6. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Yuhong; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Bo; Schonewille, Thomas; Zhou, Zhenming

    This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had

  7. Effect of four varieties of mulberry on biochemistry and nutritional physiology of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oftadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four mulberry varieties (Kenmochi, Ichinose, Shin Ichinose, Mahalii on nutritional indices and digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were determined at 24±1°C, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. Fifth instar larvae reared on Shin Ichinose showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (3.82±0.16% and 3.11±0.07%, respectively. Approximate digestibility values of the fourth instar larvae were highest (95.23±0.73% and lowest (91.77±1.45% on Kenmochi and Shin Ichinose, respectively. The fifth instar larvae fed on Kenmochi had the highest consumption index (4.6±0.73 and lowest relative growth rate (0.03±0.10, respectively. Our results showed that the highest protease activity in optimal pH was on Malalii variety (0.97 U/mg and the lowest was on Kenmochi (0.75 U/mg. In addition, the highest amylase activity in optimal pH was on Mahalii (0.17 U/mg and lowest on Kenmochi (0.103 U/mg. Specific proteolytic analysis showed that larvae feeding on Mahalii had the highest activity of trypsin and elastase (2.30 and 2.13 U/mg, respectively. This research showed that plasticity in food utilization and enzyme activity is functionally relevant to host plant cultivars. The results of nutritional indices and activity of digestive enzymes indicated that Kenmochi was an unsuitable host for feeding of Glyphodes pyloalis.

  8. Effects of Applied Nitrogen Amounts on the Functional Components of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mari; Takahashi, Makoto; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-21

    This study investigated the effects of applied nitrogen amounts on specific functional components in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. The relationships between mineral elements and the functional components in mulberry leaves were examined using mulberry trees cultivated in different soil conditions in four cultured fields. Then, the relationships between the nitrogen levels and the leaf functional components were studied by culturing mulberry in plastic pots and experimental fields. In the common cultured fields, total nitrogen was negatively correlated with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = -0.48) and positively correlated with the 1-deoxynojirimycin content (R(2) = 0.60). Additionally, differences in nitrogen fertilizer application levels affected each functional component in mulberry leaves. For instance, with increased nitrogen levels, the chlorogenic acid and flavonol contents significantly decreased, but the 1-deoxynojirimycin content significantly increased. Selection of the optimal nitrogen application level is necessary to obtain the desired functional components from mulberry leaves.

  9. Influence of Fiber Bundle Morphology on the Mechanical and Bonding Properties of Cotton Stalk and Mulberry Branch Reconstituted Square Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of natural fiber composites can be strengthened in the longitudinal direction if the fiber is formed in a parallel manner. Reconstituted cotton stalk lumber and mulberry branch lumber were fabricated using hot-press technology, and the effects of fiber morphology on their mechanical and bonding properties were investigated. The fiber bundle size had a great influence on the mechanical and bonding properties of the final products. The maximum specific modulus of rupture (MOR and specific modulus of elasticity (MOE of the reconstituted lumber were obtained for medium-size fiber bundles, and the maximum MOR and MOE of reconstituted cotton stalk lumber was 130.3 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 12.9 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. The maximum MOR and MOE of the mulberry branch lumber was 147.2 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 14.7 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. Mechanical interlocking structures in the lumber were observed via fluorescence microscopy, showing that phenol-formaldehyde adhesive had penetrated into several cell layers of the fiber bundle under heating and pressure. The adhesive penetration capacity was stronger when the fiber bundles were smaller in size and density. The reconstituted lumber fabricated from both materials exhibited excellent mechanical performance in the parallel direction. Therefore, reconstituted cotton stalk and mulberry branch lumber are attractive potential materials for the construction industry.

  10. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  11. Antioxidant activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits in male rats exposed to gamma- radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; Mekawey, H.M.S.; El shahat, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible ameliorative effects of mulberry fruits on oxidative damage induced by irradiation in male rats. Gamma irradiation (2.5 Gy x 3 delivered every other day) resulted in a significant decrease of hepatic glutathione content (GSH) and the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The level of insulin and testosterone as well as the concentration of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) showed a decrease. A remarkable increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and xanthine oxidase activity was elevated in the liver. The activity of some liver enzymes, the level of glucose and the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density- and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol showed a significant increase. Administration of mulberry fruit powder (MFP) to irradiated rats was found to offer protection against irradiation induced oxidative stress by elevating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing liver function in addition to improving the lipid metabolism. From all results collected in this study, it could be concluded that the berries might be considered a natural antioxidant substance that can protect from radiation hazards

  12. Dissolution and regeneration of non-mulberry Eriogyna Pyretorum silk fibroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuhang; Li, Xiufang; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Shuqin; You, Renchuan

    2017-10-01

    Protein-based materials have been actively pursued as biomaterials because of their nontoxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, we demonstrated the potential of Eriogyna pyretorum silk fibroin (ESF), a non-mulberry silk protein, as biomaterials. The degummed ESF fibers could be dissolved completely by Ca(NO3)2/H2O/C2H5OH solution to produce regenerated ESF. The solubility was strongly dependent on the addition of C2H5OH, heating temperature and dissolving time. α-helix and random coil are main molecular conformation in aqueous ESF solution. The sol-gel transition behavior of regenerated ESF was also studied, indicating that the conformational transition of regenerated ESF from random coil/α-helix to β-sheet during gelation. Especially, ESF showed more rapid gelation than mulberry silk fibroin (BSF). Consequently, the gelation rate of BSF could be controlled ranging from tens of minutes to days by changing the ESF ratio, providing useful options for the fabrication of silk hydrogels. Water-stable regenerated ESF film could be achieved by using aqueous ethanol to induce structural transition. Tensile tests showed that the ESF films have a dry strength of approximate 31.0 MPa and a wet strength of approximate 3.3 MPa. This study provides new opportunities as an alternative natural protein material for biomedical applications.

  13. Genotypic variation in tolerance to drought stress is highly coordinated with hydraulic conductivity-photosynthesis interplay and aquaporin expression in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kanubothula Sitarami; Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic conductivity quantifies the efficiency of a plant to transport water from root to shoot and is a major constriction on leaf gas exchange physiology. Mulberry (Morus spp.) is the most economically important crop for sericulture industry. In this study, we demonstrate a finely coordinated control of hydraulic dynamics on leaf gas exchange characteristics in 1-year-old field-grown mulberry genotypes (Selection-13 (S13); Kollegal Local (KL) and Kanva-2 (K2)) subjected to water stress by withholding water for 20 days and subsequent recovery for 7 days. Significant variations among three mulberry genotypes have been recorded in net photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductance and sap flow rate, as well as hydraulic conductivity in stem (KS) and leaf (KL). Among three genotypes, S13 showed significantly high rates of Pn, KS and KL both in control as well as during drought stress (DS) and recovery, providing evidence for superior drought-adaptive strategies. The plant water hydraulics-photosynthesis interplay was finely coordinated with the expression of certain key aquaporins (AQPs) in roots and leaves. Our data clearly demonstrate that expression of certain AQPs play a crucial role in hydraulic dynamics and photosynthetic carbon assimilation during DS and recovery, which could be effectively targeted towards mulberry improvement programs for drought adaptation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mulberry anthocyanins improves thyroid cancer progression mainly by inducing apoptosis and autophagy cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Long Long

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary anthocyanin compounds have multiple biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic characteristics. The present study evaluated the anti-tumor capacity of mulberry anthocyanins (MA in thyroid cancer cells. Our data showed that MA suppressed SW1736 and HTh-7 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, flow cytometry results indicated that MA significantly increased SW1736 and HTh-7 cell apoptosis. We additionally observed that SW1736 and HTh-7 cell autophagy was markedly enhanced after MA treatment. Importantly, anthocyanin-induced cell death was largely abolished by 3-methyladenine (3-MA or chloroquine diphosphate salt (CQ treatment, suggesting that MA-induced SW1736 and HTh-7 cell death was partially dependent on autophagy. In addition, activation of protein kinase B (Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 (S6 were significantly suppressed by anthocyanin exposure. In summary, MA may serve as an adjunctive therapy for thyroid cancer patients through induction of apoptosis and autophagy-dependent cell death. Keywords: Mulberry anthocyanins, Thyroid cancer, Apoptosis, Autophagic death

  15. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Zeng

    Full Text Available Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp and the longest (233 bp ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  16. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  17. Synthesis and urea-loading of an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on mulberry branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiying Liang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry branch, consisting of bark and stalk, was used as raw skeleton material without any chemical pre-treatment to synthesize an eco-friendly mulberry branch-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (PMB/P(AA-co-AM superabsorbent composite. The synthesis conditions and properties of the PMB/P(AA-co-AM superabsorbent composite were investigated. The results showed that under the optimal synthesis conditions, the water absorbency of the prepared PMB/P(AA-co-AM reached 570.5 g/g in deionized water, 288.0 g/g in tap water, and 70.0 g/g in 0.9 wt% aqueous NaCl solution. The PMB/P(AA-co-AM composite also exhibited excellent water retention capacity as well as a rapid water absorbency rate. The urea loading percentage of the PMB/P(AA-co-AM composite was controlled by the concentration of aqueous urea solution. The release of urea from the loaded PMB/P(AA-co-AM composite in deionized water initially exhibited a high rate of release for 60 min, followed by a rapid decline. Meanwhile, the PMB/P(AA-co-AM superabsorbent composite with larger particle size achieved a better sustained release of urea.

  18. Fuzzy logic, artificial neural network and mathematical model for prediction of white mulberry drying kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahedi Rad, Shahpour; Kaveh, Mohammad; Sharabiani, Vali Rasooli; Taghinezhad, Ebrahim

    2018-05-01

    The thin-layer convective- infrared drying behavior of white mulberry was experimentally studied at infrared power levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 W, drying air temperatures of 40, 55 and 70 °C and inlet drying air speeds of 0.4, 1 and 1.6 m/s. Drying rate raised with the rise of infrared power levels at a distinct air temperature and velocity and thus decreased the drying time. Five mathematical models describing thin-layer drying have been fitted to the drying data. Midlli et al. model could satisfactorily describe the convective-infrared drying of white mulberry fruit with the values of the correlation coefficient (R 2=0.9986) and root mean square error of (RMSE= 0.04795). Artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic methods was desirably utilized for modeling output parameters (moisture ratio (MR)) regarding input parameters. Results showed that output parameters were more accurately predicted by fuzzy model than by the ANN and mathematical models. Correlation coefficient (R 2) and RMSE generated by the fuzzy model (respectively 0.9996 and 0.01095) were higher than referred values for the ANN model (0.9990 and 0.01988 respectively).

  19. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  20. Mulberry Fruit Extract Affords Protection against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502.43 ± 5.10 and 219.12 ± 4.45 mg QE/100 g FW. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins in MFE. In vitro antioxidant studies (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays jointly exhibited the potent antioxidant capacity of MFE. Further study indicated that MFE protected human liver HepG2 cells from EC-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging overproduced cellular ROS. EC treatment promoted intracellular glutathione (GSH depletion and caused mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP collapse, as well as mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, whereas MFE pretreatment significantly inhibited GSH depletion and restored the mitochondrial membrane function. Overall, our study suggested that polyphenolic-rich MFE could afford a potent protection against EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  1. "1"3"7Cs distribution in mulberry (Morus alba) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and effect of spray application of a liquid potassium fertilizer onto trunk surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masanori; Motojima, Sayaka; Igarashi, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, contamination of mulberry-leaf tea with over 100Bq kg"-"1 "1"3"7Cs was found. We therefore investigated "1"3"7Cs distribution in mulberry trees (Morus alba) and soil in Nihonmatsu City from 2012. As a result, mulberry leaves near the end of branches (0 - 30 cm), which are usually used as edible leaves, were shown to contain higher "1"3"7Cs concentration than the others. Trunk showed highest "1"3"7Cs concentration among the plant parts of mulberry investigated, while root "1"3"7Cs concentration was relatively low. Autoradiographic studies for leaf, bark and cross-sectional trunk suggest that radioactive substances were deposited onto bark and leaf radioactive contamination could be due to translocation of "1"3"7Cs from trunk. Spray application of 0.5% KH_2PO_4 solution onto trunk surface significantly reduced "1"3"7Cs concentration in edible leaves emerged about one month after the application. However, the effect was limited and insufficient to solve the problem of radioactive contamination in edible mulberry leaves. (author)

  2. Expression plasticity and evolutionary changes extensively shape the sugar-mimic alkaloid adaptation of non-digestive glucosidase in lepidopteran mulberry-specialist insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Shi, Liangen; Dai, Xiangping; Chen, Yajie; Xie, Hongqing; Feng, Min; Chen, Yuyin; Wang, Huabing

    2018-05-12

    During the co-evolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores, insects evolved systematic adaptive plasticity to minimise the chemical defence effects of their host plants. Previous studies mainly focused on the expressional plasticity of enzymes in detoxification and digestion. However, the expressional response and adaptive evolution of other fundamental regulators against host phytochemicals are largely unknown. Glucosidase II (GII), which is composed of a catalytic GIIα subunit and a regulatory GIIβ subunit, is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that regulates glycoprotein folding. In this study, we found that GIIα expression of the mulberry-specialist insect was significantly induced by mulberry leaf extract, 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), whereas GIIβ transcripts were not significantly changed. Moreover, positive selection was detected in GIIα when the mulberry-specialist insects diverged from the lepidopteran order; whereas GIIβ was mainly subjected to purifying selection, thus indicating an asymmetrically selective pressure of GII subunits. In addition, positively selected sites were enriched in the GIIα of mulberry-specialist insects, and located around the 1-DNJ binding sites and in the C-terminal region, which could result in conformational changes that affect catalytic activity and substrate-binding efficiency. These results show that expression plasticity and evolutionary changes extensively shape sugar-mimic alkaloids adaptation of non-digestive glucosidase in lepidopteran mulberry-specialist insects. Our study provides novel insights into a deep understanding of the sequestration and adaptation of phytophagous specialists to host defensive compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans.

  4. Processing black mulberry into jam: Effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and

  5. Identification of a latent pathogen on mulberry tree with a disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A disease on mulberries with the typical symptoms of mosaic and dwarf leaves was found in middle areas of China in 1980s. Presently, this disease became serious and spread out. Based on previous finding, we detected a viroid-like small molecular RNA in diseased mulberries tissues. In this paper, we further identified ...

  6. Immunoglobulin E reactivity and allergenic potency of Morus papyrifera (paper mulberry) pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Wangorsch, A.; Wolfheimer, S.; Foetisch, K.; Minhas, K.; Scheurer, S.; Ahmed, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paper mulberry (Morus papyrifera) pollen is considered to be one of the most clinically relevant aeroallergens in Pakistan. To date, the allergenicity of the pollen has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sensitization profile of mulberry-allergic patients and the

  7. Comparative analysis and nutritional composition of mulberry fruit morus alba plus seabuckthorn (hippophae) and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.; Rehman, S.; Shah, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The fruits of mulberry produced in Northern Pakistan were subjected to hot air dehydration to preserve without losing its natural flavour and nutrients. The dehydrated mulberry powder which is called mulberry beverage base (MBB) yielded good fruit tasty drink when mixed with suitable amount of water Shelf-life assessment was also conducted. The fresh fruit extract and the dehydrated mulberry beverage base (MBB) were analysed for juice/pulp, MBB, moisture, acidity as citric acid, total soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid and ash minerals like calcium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and iron in fresh fruit extract was also determined. Mulberry pulp was mixed with seabuckthorn pulp prior to dehydration. Dehydrated product was found better in taste, colour and flavour. (author)

  8. Adsorption of heavy metals by bio-chars produced from pyrolysis of paper mulberry from simulated industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adil, S.; Asma, M.

    2014-01-01

    Paper mulberry bio-char (by-product of pyrolysis) was evaluated for the removal of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) from simulated industrial waste water. The surface properties and surface area of the bio-char was found suitable for metal adsorption. Batch sorption studies for adsorption potential of paper mulberry bio-char for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were investigated under different experimental conditions of pH, temperature and contact time. Maximum removal efficiency of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was 97.8, 76.8, 85.6, and 82.2 % respectively at pH 12 while maximum removal of Cr was recorded (98%) at pH 2. The removal efficiency showed different behaviour at different contact times. Maximum removal efficiency of Cd, Cr, Zn was 81, 86, 61.4% at contact time of 3 hr. The maximum removal of Cu was 64.2% observed at a contact time of 4 hours while the maximum removal of Pb and Zn was 85% at contact time of 2 hr. The values of the thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy delta H, Gibbs free energy delta G of sorption and entropy delta So were calculated to define endothermic or exothermic behavior of the sorbent used. Negative value of delta G for Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb indicated paper mulberry bio-char as a feasible sorbent for the efficient removal of Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb. Negative value of delta H was observed for Cd and Pb indicating that the adsorption process is exothermic while positive value of delta H was calculated for Cu, Cr and Zn showed that the adsorption is endothermic. The results obtained showed that plant residue bio-char can act as an effective sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. (author)

  9. Phenolic compounds participating in mulberry juice sediment formation during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Xu, Yu-Juan; Wu, Ji-Jun; Yu, Yuan-Shan; Xiao, Geng-Sheng

    The stability of clarified juice is of great importance in the beverage industry and to consumers. Phenolic compounds are considered to be one of the main factors responsible for sediment formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the phenolic content in clarified mulberry juice during storage. Hence, separation, identification, quantification, and analysis of the changes in the contents of phenolic compounds, both free and bound forms, in the supernatant and sediments of mulberry juice, were carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic system, equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) techniques. There was an increase in the amount of sediment formed over the period of study. Total phenolic content of supernatant, as well as free phenolic content in the extracts of the precipitate decreased, whereas the bound phenolic content in the sediment increased. Quantitative estimation of individual phenolic compounds indicated high degradation of free anthocyanins in the supernatant and sediment from 938.60 to 2.30 mg/L and 235.60 to 1.74 mg/g, respectively. A decrease in flavonoids in the supernatant was also observed, whereas the contents of bound forms of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin in the sediment increased. Anthocyanins were the most abundant form of phenolics in the sediment, and accounted for 67.2% of total phenolics after 8 weeks of storage. These results revealed that phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, were involved in the formation of sediments in mulberry juice during storage.

  10. Chemistry and biosynthesis of isoprenylated flavonoids from Japanese mulberry tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taro; Hano, Yoshio; Fukai, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    Many isoprenylated flavonoids have been isolated from Japanese mulberry tree (Moraceae). Among them, kuwanons G (1) and H (2) were the first isolated active substances exhibiting a hypotensive effect. These compounds are considered to be formed through an enzymatic Diels-Alder type reaction between an isoprenyl portion of an isoprenylphenol as the diene and an α, β-double bond of chalcone as the dienophile. The absolute configurations of these Diels-Alder type adducts were confirmed by three different methods. The stereochemistries of the adducts were consistent with those of ones in the Diels-Alder reaction involving exo- and endo-addition. Some strains of Morus alba callus tissues have a high productivity of mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts, such as chalcomoracin (3) and kuwanon J (4). The biosynthetic studies of the mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts have been carried out with the aid of the cell strain. Chalcomoracin (3) and kuwanon J (4) were proved to be enzymatic Diels-Alder type reaction products by the administration experiments with O-methylchalcone derivatives. Furthermore, for the isoprenoid biosynthesis of prenylflavonoids in Morus alba callus tissues by administration of [1,3-13C2]- and [2-13C]-glycerol, a novel way through the junction of glycolysis and pentose-phosphate cycle was proved. Two independent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways, that for sterols and that for isoprenoidphenols, operate in the Morus alba cell cultures. The former is susceptible to compactin (ML-236) and the latter resists to compactin in the cell cultures, respectively. PMID:19907125

  11. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  12. Radiation damage and induced tetraploidy in mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, K.

    1976-01-01

    Vigorously growing mulberry shoots were exposed to 5 kR of gamma rays at the rate of 0.2 kR/hr and 5.0 kR/hr and successively pruned three times in two growing seasons. The most radiosensitive part of both the apical and axillary meristems was the second cell layer. The younger axillary bud primordia were more sensitive to radiation then the older ones. Recovery from radiation damage was assumed to be from the flank meristem in the shoot apex. The frequency of mutations was much lower than that of tetraploidy. Among the tetraploids 50% were 2-4-4 chimeras. (author)

  13. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  14. Antinociceptive and Antibacterial Properties of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Fruits of Black and Non-Black Mulberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins and flavones are important pigments responsible for the coloration of fruits. Mulberry fruit is rich in anthocyanins and flavonols, which have multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine. The antinociceptive and antibacterial activities of total flavonoids (TF from black mulberry (MnTF, TF of Morus nigra and non-black mulberry (MmTF, TF of Morus mongolica; and MazTF, TF of Morus alba ‘Zhenzhubai’ fruits were studied. MnTF was rich in anthocyanins (11.3 mg/g and flavonols (0.7 mg/g identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tunable ultraviolet/mass single-quadrupole detection (UPLC–TUV/QDa. Comparatively, MmTF and MazTF had low flavonol contents and MazTF had no anthocyanins. MnTF showed significantly higher antinociceptive and antibacterial activities toward Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus than MmTF and MazTF. MnTF inhibited the expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, phospho-p65 (p-p65 and phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα, and increased interleukin 10 (IL-10. Additionally, mice tests showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G, rutin (Ru and isoquercetin (IQ were the main active ingredients in the antinociceptive process. Stronger antinociceptive effect of MnTF was correlated with its high content of anthocyanins and flavonols and its inhibitory effects on proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway-related proteins.

  15. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent.

  16. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2010-02-24

    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  17. Mulberry (Morus sp. leaf moisture in storage enviroments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Porto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (IZ 56/4 cultivar in the pos-harvest, had been taken to the laboratory and submitted to six storage environments (8 hours in open ambient-O, 8 hours in cover ambient- C, 1hO/7hC, 2hO/6hC, 3hO/5hC and 4hO/4hC, aiming to evaluate moisture exchange capacity . It was utilized the experimental design split plot with five replications (blocks, six principal treatments (parcels and nine secondary treatments (sub parcels, weighing of hour in hour, of 08h00min. until 16h00min.. In the period of eight hours of experimentation mulberry leaves moisturedevreased in all the ambients evaluated. However, for cover leaves with wet cloth, for all periods, the water purport (74,63% was maintained close to the original value (08h00min.- 76,07%, demonstrating the efficiency technique in the conservation of the humidity of leaves for feeding silkworm.

  18. Reverse transcriptase sequences from mulberry LTR retrotransposons: characterization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Bi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Copia and Gypsy play important roles in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of plant genomes. In this study, a total of 106 and 101, Copia and Gypsy reverse transcriptase (rt were amplified respectively in the Morus notabilis genome using degenerate primers. All sequences exhibited high levels of heterogeneity, were rich in AT and possessed higher sequence divergence of Copia rt in comparison to Gypsy rt. Two reasons are likely to account for this phenomenon: a these elements often experience deletions or fragmentation by illegitimate or unequal homologous recombination in the transposition process; b strong purifying selective pressure drives the evolution of these elements through “selective silencing” with random mutation and eventual deletion from the host genome. Interestingly, mulberry rt clustered with other rt from distantly related taxa according to the phylogenetic analysis. This phenomenon did not result from horizontal transposable element transfer. Results obtained from fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that most of the hybridization signals were preferentially concentrated in pericentromeric and distal regions of chromosomes, and these elements may play important roles in the regions in which they are found. Results of this study support the continued pursuit of further functional studies of Copia and Gypsy in the mulberry genome.

  19. Spatial variation of important mulberry pests and their natural enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry is a silkworm food plant (Bombyxmori. L that is seriously affected by many insect pests. The incidence of Diaphania pulverulentalis (Hampson, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink, Aleurodiscus dispersus (Russels and Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa and their natural enemies, viz. coccinellids and spiders (/100 plants, were observed through survey and surveillance for 3 months. In February 2013, the incidence of insect pests in Vaikkalpattarai and Reddipudur villages (India was: D. pulverulentalis, 1.20 and 0.85%; P. marginatus, 6.80 and 33.10%; P. mori 42.98 and 45.50%, respectively. Further, the infestation of M. hirsutus (1.40% and A. dispersus (59.72% was also observed in February at Vaikkalpattarai. The population of coccinellids was high in December (1.02 and 0.84/100 plants, but the spider population was even higher in February and January (1.04 and 1.81/100 plants. Population of pests had a significant positive correlation with relative humidity. The population of coccinellids and spiders have positive correlation with temperature and mulberry pests infestation. The natural enemies observed in the study were mostly the ladybird beetles, Psyllobora bisoctonotata and unidentified species of spiders.

  20. A new set of mulberry-specific SSR markers for application in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marian Vincent Pinto

    have used these markers to characterize a set of 216 diverse mulberry germplasm and ..... tinctness of a new cultivar or for reliable, cost-effective and quick germplasm ... Morus boninensis Koidz., to establish conservation program. Mol. Ecol.

  1. The use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate molasses supplementation to mulberry (morus alba and rice straw mixed diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry foliages have high nutritive value (protein content, digestibility and degradability, therefore it is potential to be used as a supplement to poor quality roughages. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of addition of fermentable energy in the mixed of mulberry and rice straw basal diet. A control diet consisted of either rice straw (RS or urea treated rice straw mixed with mulberry foliage (URS with ratio of 60 : 40%. Treatment was formulated by supplementation of control diet with molasses (as sources of fermentable energy at 3 levels (5, 10 and 15%. The study was conducted in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment, consisted of 2 levels rice straw (untreated and urea treated and 4 levels molasses supplementation (control and 3 levels for molasses. Diets were evaluated using in vitro gas production. The fermentation kinetics was determined from the incubation of 200 mg sample during 96 hours. The calculation of the kinetics based on exponential equation P = A+ B (1-e-ct. A shorter gas production test was carried out to determine truly degradable fermented substrates (in vitro true organic matter degradability/IVTOMD by incubating 500 mg of samples 24 hours. The result showed that there was no significant interaction between rice straw treatment and molasses supplementation on fermentation characteristics, in vitro true dry matter digestibility, fermented substrate and total volatile fatty acid (VFA production. However there was a significant interaction between rice straw treatment on partitioning factor (PF, gas produced, propionic acid production and ratio between acetic acid and propionic acid. Molasses supplementation significantly (P<0.05 decreased gas production and ratio of acetic to propionic acid, and increase PF, propionic acid production in untreated rice straw mulberry (RSM basal diet. It is concluded that molasses supplementation to RSM diet decreased gas production and ratio of C2/C3, and increased PF and

  2. Effect of Different Solvents on the Measurement of Phenolics and the Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) with Accelerated Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiufang; Ou, XiaoQun; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, ZiYing; Ma, LiYan

    2017-03-01

    The effects of 9 different solvents on the measurement of the total phenolics and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruits were studied using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen to 22 types of phenolics (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavanol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and stilbenes) from different mulberry extracts were characterized and quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the suitable solvents to distinguish between different classes of phenolics. Additionally, the phenolic extraction abilities of ASE and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared. The highest extraction efficiency could be achieved by using 50% acidified methanol (50MA) as ASE solvents with 15.14 mg/gallic acid equivalents g dry weight of mulberry fruit. The PCA results revealed that the 50MA followed by 50% acidified acetone (50AA) was the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics, particularly flavonols (627.12 and 510.31 μg/g dry weight, respectively), while water (W) was not beneficial to the extraction of all categories of phenolics. Besides, the results of 3 antioxidant capability assays (DPPH, ABTS free radical-scavenging assay, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) showed that water-based organic solvents increased the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts compared with water or pure organic solvents. ASE was more suitable for the extraction of phenolics than UAE. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    The powder of C. frutescens had the highest mortality rate of ... plants were toxic to adult moths and also prevent hatching of the eggs of S. cerealella. ... Despite success in controlling insect pests using synthetic insecticides, there have been.

  4. The Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit-A Review of Characteristic Components and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Zhao, Longyan

    2017-12-06

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit has a high yield in one fruiting season in many countries, especially in Asia, and a long history of use as an edible fruit and traditional medicine. A great diversity of nutritive compounds such as fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, including anthocyanins, rutin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and polysaccharides have been found in mulberry fruit depending on the cultivars and maturity stages. Furthermore, the extracts and active components of mulberry fruit have demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antioxidant, neuroprotective, antiatherosclerosis, immunomodulative, antitumor, antihyperglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities in in vitro and in vivo studies, and they have received increasing interest from researchers and pharmaceutical companies. Although some mechanistic studies further substantiate these potential health benefits of mulberry fruit, a need exists to make a better understanding of the roles of these compounds in traditional medicine and the diet. This review provides recent findings regarding the chemical constituents and biological activities of mulberry fruit, which may be useful for stimulating deep research of mulberry fruit and for predicting their uses as important and safe contributors to benefit human health.

  5. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  6. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  7. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies are characterizing the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and/or permethrin (PM...

  8. 3 Insecticide Use Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    500,000 metric tonnes in the 1964/1965 season. Problems ... insecticides on the open market. ... effective in the management of insect pests of cocoa. .... Effectiveness and profitability of pest ... Youth in Agriculture; Programme Policy, Strategy.

  9. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  10. Separation and identification of anthocyanin extracted from mulberry fruit and the pigment binding properties toward human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Yuning; Zhao, Xingchen; Tian, Na; Hu, Huali; Li, Pengxia

    2014-07-16

    Purple pigments were isolated from mulberry extracts using preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified by ESI-MS/MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The solvent system containing methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, water, and trifluoroacetic acid (10:30:10:50:0.05; %, v/v) was developed in order to separate anthocyanins with different polarities. Cyanidin 3-O-(6″-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-galactopyranoside) (also known as keracyanin) is the major component present in mulberry (41.3%). Other isolated pigments are cyanidin 3-O-(6″-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside) and petunidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside. The binding characteristics of keracyanin with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that HSA fluorescence quenched by keracyanin follows a static mode. Binding of keracyanin to HSA mainly depends on van der Waals force or H-bonds with average binding distance of 2.82 nm. The results from synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD spectra show that adaptive structure rearrangement and decrease of α-helical structure occur in the presence of keracyanin.

  11. Conjunctival Aspergilloma with Multiple Mulberry Nodules: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Liang Chen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old healthy female presented with a 1-year history of chronic mucous discharge, tearing, and irritation in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed severe papillary and follicular reaction surrounding a movable subconjunctival mass on the left upper tarsal conjunctiva. Incision and curettage were performed to establish the diagnosis. Multiple peculiar black mulberry nodules were obtained. The clumps of septate hyphae seen with periodic acid-Schiff stain were characteristic of fungus ball (aspergilloma. The patient's symptoms improved significantly after surgery without any antifungal therapy. Although rarely reported, aspergillus is a common fungus in the conjunctiva that may seed into the subconjunctiva. We present this case to remind ophthalmologists of such a rare cause of recalcitrant conjunctival inflammation in immunocompetent patients.

  12. Azobenzene Modified Imidacloprid Derivatives as Photoswitchable Insecticides: Steering Molecular Activity in a Controllable Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping; Shi, Lina; Jiang, Danping; Cheng, Jiagao; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Incorporating the photoisomerizable azobenzene into imidacloprid produced a photoswitchable insecticidal molecule as the first neonicotinoid example of remote control insecticide performance with spatiotemporal resolution. The designed photoswitchable insecticides showed distinguishable activity against Musca both in vivo and in vitro upon irradiation. Molecular docking study further suggested the binding difference of the two photoisomers. The generation of these photomediated insecticides provides novel insight into the insecticidal activity facilitating further investigation on the functions of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and opens a novel way to control and study insect behavior on insecticide poisoning using light.

  13. Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSRTI, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biochar on soil properties, growth, yield and foliar disease incidence of mulberry plant. The study consisted of 6 treatments: control, basal dose of NPK, rice husk biochar, mineral enriched biochar, basal dose + rice husk biochar and basal dose + mineral enriched biochar. Growth parameters such as node/meter, total branch number/plant, total leaf yield/hectare/year were significantly increased in basal dose + mineral enriched biochar treated plot in second year compared with the other fertilizer treatments. In second year, the total leaf yield/hectare/year were also 142.1% and 115.9% higher in combined application of basal dose + mineral enriched biochar and basal dose + rice husk biochar, respectively, than the control treatment. The soil properties such as organic matter, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc percentage were significantly increased with both the (mineral enriched and rice husk biochar treated soil applied with or without recommended basal dose of NPK than the control and only the recommended basal dose of NPK, respectively. Further, the lowest incidences of tukra (6.4%, powdery mildew (10.4% and leaf spot (7.6% disease were observed in second year under mineral enriched biochar treated plot than the others. The findings revealed that utilization of biochar has positive effect on the improvement of soil fertility and productivity as well as disease suppression of mulberry plant.

  14. Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: translocation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25 mg kg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phenyl Substituted Isoxazolecarboxamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-fei; ZHANG Ji-feng; YAN Tao; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen novel phenyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR,elementary analysis and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS) techniques.Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the phcnyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides exhibited moderate insecticidal activities,among which compounds 9c and 9k showed comparatively higher activities.

  16. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Grdiša, Martina; Gršić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems....

  17. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-09-22

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry.

  19. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyhydroxylated alkaloids isolated from mulberry trees (Morusalba L.) and silkworms (Bombyx mori L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, N; Yamashita, T; Yasuda, K; Ikeda, K; Kizu, H; Kameda, Y; Kato, A; Nash, R J; Lee, H S; Ryu, K S

    2001-09-01

    New polyhydroxylated alkaloids, (2R,3R,4R)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine-N-propionamide from the root bark of Morus alba L., and 4-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-calystegine B(2) and 3 beta,6 beta-dihydroxynortropane from the fruits, were isolated by column chromatography using a variety of ion-exchange resins. Fifteen other polyhydroxylated alkaloids were also isolated. 1-Deoxynojirimycin, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, was concentrated 2.7-fold by silkworms feeding on mulberry leaves. Some alkaloids contained in mulberry leaves were potent inhibitors of mammalian digestive glycosidases but not inhibitors of silkworm midgut glycosidases, suggesting that the silkworm has enzymes specially adapted to enable it to feed on mulberry leaves. The possibility of preventing the onset of diabetes and obesity using natural dietary supplements containing 1-deoxynojirimycin and other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in high concentration is of great potential interest.

  1. Anticholinesterase insecticide retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2013-03-25

    The anticholinesterase (antiChE) organophosphorus (OP) and methylcarbamate (MC) insecticides have been used very effectively as contact and systemic plant protectants for seven decades. About 90 of these compounds are still in use - the largest number for any insecticide chemotype or mode of action. In both insects and mammals, AChE inhibition and acetylcholine accumulation leads to excitation and death. The cholinergic system of insects is located centrally (where it is protected from ionized OPs and MCs) but not at the neuromuscular junction. Structural differences between insect and mammalian AChE are also evident in their genomics, amino acid sequences and active site conformations. Species selectivity is determined in part by inhibitor and target site specificity. Pest population selection with OPs and MCs has resulted in a multitude of modified AChEs of altered inhibitor specificity some conferring insecticide resistance and others enhancing sensitivity. Much of the success of antiChE insecticides results from a suitable balance of bioactivation and detoxification by families of CYP450 oxidases, hydrolases, glutathione S-transferases and others. Known inhibitors for these enzymes block detoxification and enhance potency which is particularly important in resistant strains. The current market for OPs and MCs of 19% of worldwide insecticide sales is only half of that of 10 years ago for several reasons: there have been no major new compounds for 30 years; resistance has eroded their effectiveness; human toxicity problems are still encountered; the patents have expired reducing the incentive to update registration packages; alternative chemotypes or control methods have been developed. Despite this decline, they still play a major role in pest control and the increasing knowledge on their target sites and metabolism may make it possible to redesign the inhibitors for insensitive AChEs and to target new sites in the cholinergic system. The OPs and MCs are down

  2. Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adavallan, K; Krishnakumar, N

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15−53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition. (papers)

  3. Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adavallan, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15-53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition.

  4. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  5. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  6. An Operational Framework for Insecticide Resistance Management Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Thomsen, Edward K; Musapa, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Brogdon, William G; Norris, Douglas E; Masaninga, Freddie; Wirtz, Robert; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Muleba, Mbanga; Craig, Allen; Govere, John M; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Seyoum, Aklilu; Macdonald, Michael B; Coleman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future.

  7. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method.

  8. Insecticidal and fungicidal compounds from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, K; Unger, W

    1994-01-01

    Tryptanthrin (1), indole-3-acetonitrile (2) and p-coumaric acid methylester (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria L. The compounds show insecticidal and anti-feedant activity against termites (Reticulitermis santonensis), insect preventive and control activity against larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus) and fungicidal activity against the brown-rot fungus (Coniophora puteana).

  9. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  10. Toxicity of some insecticides to the haemocytes of giant honeybee, Apis dorsata F. under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Perveen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative studies concerning total and differential haemocyte counts and abnormalities were performed under laboratory conditions for larvae, pupae and adults collected from a wild Apis dorsata colony. Haemolymph samples were observed immediately, thirty and sixty minutes after field recommended concentration exposure of five different insecticides. Total haemocyte counts were significantly higher for larvae and pupae but less for adult bees, however, differential haemocyte counts insignificantly different. Exposure of insecticides showed variable response for tested insecticides with immediate increased change with ethofenprox, diafenthiuron and imidacloprid but decreased for all tested insecticides after sixty minutes. For differential haemocyte counts, plasmatocytes and granulocytes increased with exposure of insecticides. Immune response of haemocytes against insecticides showed different degrees of abnormalities like agglutination, denucleation and cell shape distortion. Such studies may help in possible identification of insect defense mechanisms against their exposure to external hazards for instance insecticide exposure.

  11. Effect of solar radiation on the functional components of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mari; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    The functional components of mulberry leaves have attracted the attention of the health food industry, and increasing their concentrations is an industry goal. This study investigated the effects of solar radiation, which may influence the production of flavonol and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) functional components in mulberry leaves, by comparing a greenhouse (poor solar radiation) and outdoor (rich solar radiation) setting. The level of flavonol in leaves cultivated in the greenhouse was markedly decreased when compared with those cultivated outdoors. In contrast, the DNJ content in greenhouse-cultivated plants was increased only slightly when compared with those cultivated outdoors. Interestingly, the flavonol content was markedly increased in the upper leaves of mulberry trees that were transferred from a greenhouse to the outdoors compared with those cultivated only in the outdoors. Solar radiation conditions influence the synthesis of flavonol and DNJ, the functional components of mulberry leaves. Under high solar radiation, the flavonol level becomes very high but the DNJ level becomes slightly lower, suggesting that the impact of solar radiation is great on flavonol but small on DNJ synthesis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of Bio-inoculants Applied to M 5 Mulberry Under Rain-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out at the department of sericulture, GKVK, UAS, Bangalore, India in 2007 with an objective to determine the effect of three bio-inoculants application to M5 mulberry plant on silkworm (PM x CSR2) growth, development and coocoon traits. The feeding experiment was laid-out in ...

  13. Galactose-binding lectin from mulberry (Morus alba L. seeds with growth hormone-like activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Khurtsidze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant lectins are well documented to participate in multiple physiological activities based on selective binding to the carbohydrate structures. They have been reported to play significant roles in various processes such as growth and development, differentiation and plant protection. Nevertheless, the intrinsic roles of plant lectins still remain undefined. We purified a galactose-binding lectin, named MAL, from mulberry (M. alba L. seeds and analyzed its properties. The lectin is composed of one polypeptide of 17 kDa, which is abundant in the seed protein fraction. MAL interacted with GalNAc and galactose residues of saccharides with high binding ability. Western blotting analysis suggested that MAL is deposited in the mulberry leaves and inflorescence. MAL was examined for growth stimulatory activity on mulberry hypocotyls and internodal sections of in vitro grown P. euphratica cultures. Elongation of mulberry hypocotyls was detected in the apical parts of the hypocotyl, where the growth increment was 58%. MAL had no significant effect on the stem elongation and induction of new leaves. Our results suggest that MAL may be involved in the growth and cell elongation at initial stages of tissue development.

  14. Effect of Bio-inoculants Applied to M5 Mulberry Under Rain-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Bombyx Mori L., is a monophagous insect that drives almost all required nutrients ... to mulberry plant is, therefore, very essential for the successful silkworm growth and cocoon ... However, the recommended rate of chemical .... Larval duration starting from hatching of the eggs up to 90 per cent of worms attain spinning was.

  15. Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. Results RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500–3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%, with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid species. Conclusion These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies.

  16. A short history of insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok Volodymyr Volodymyrovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review contains a brief history of the use of insecticides. The peculiarities, main advantages, and disadvantages of some modern insecticides are described. The names of the discoverers of some of the most popular insecticide preparations on the world market, are listed. The tendencies to find new insecticides to control the quantity of phytophagous insects are discussed. Special attention is paid to the perspective of creating preparations based on nucleic acids, in particular DNA insecticides. The use of insect-specific, short single-stranded DNA fragments as DNA insecticides, is paving the way in the field of “intellectual” insecticides that “think” before they act. It is worth noting, though, that in the near future, the quantity of produced insecticides will increase due to the challenges associated with food production for a rapidly growing population. It is concluded, that an agreeable interaction of scientists and manufacturers of insecticides should lead to the selection of the most optimal solutions for insect pest control, which would be safe, affordable, and effective at the same time.

  17. Gas Chromaotography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal Essential Oil Derived from Chinese Ainsliaea fragrans Champ ex Benth ... Methods: The essential oil of A. fragrans aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by ..... toxicity than the crude oil. Caryophyllene showed.

  18. Exploration of Novel Botanical Insecticide Leads: Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of β-Dihydroagarofuran Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ximei; Xi, Xin; Hu, Zhan; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-02-24

    The discovery of novel leads and new mechanisms of action is of vital significance to the development of pesticides. To explore lead compounds for botanical insecticides, 77 β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were mainly confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT-135°, IR, MS, and HRMS. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker, and the results indicated that, of these derivatives, eight exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than the positive control, celangulin-V. Particularly, compounds 5.7, 6.6, and 6.7 showed LD50 values of 37.9, 85.1, and 21.1 μg/g, respectively, which were much lower than that of celangulin-V (327.6 μg/g). These results illustrated that β-dihydroagarofuran ketal derivatives can be promising lead compounds for developing novel mechanism-based and highly effective botanical insecticides. Moreover, some newly discovered structure-activity relationships are discussed, which may provide some important guidance for insecticide development.

  19. Rice Production without Insecticide in Smallholder Farmer's Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ali

    2017-05-01

    if the field was infested with an insect pest. Predatory insects were higher in numbers than that of insecticide treated fields. We conclude farmers' should refrain insecticide applications up to 30–40 days after transplanting to enhance higher predatory arthropod population numbers, which might check pest populations in rice fields. Our experimental results show that a proper manner of an integrated pest management (IPM cut pesticide use without any yield penalty. Results indicate the T2 management system minimizes pest damage by increasing natural enemies and can improve environmental quality.

  20. DECISION TOOLS FOR MULBERRY THRIPS PSEUDODENDROTHRIPS MORI (NIWA, 1908) MANAGEMENT IN SERICULTURAL REGIONS; AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KayvanEtebari; L.Matindoost; R.N.Singh

    2004-01-01

    Mulberry thrips Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa, 1908) is a major pest of mulberry trees recorded from different sericultural regions of the world. The thrips infestation affects the qualitative and quantitative characters of mulberry leaf, by direct feeding damage to leaves and the ingestion of sap, which in turn affects the silkworm cocoon crop. This is most harmful in dry climates and seasons when heavily attacked plants lose moisture heavily. Under these conditions infestation can seriously deplete yields. The seasonal population fluctuation and the degree of damage caused to the host plant are influenced by various environmental factors including climate, host-plant variety, topography, soil type, and management regimes.This article attempts to review all available documents on mulberry thrips and to discuss the practical approaches for best control of this pest.

  1. Induction of mutation on mulberry (morus alba L.) by using in vitro techniques in combination with gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Vinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Biotechnology, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Mutation induction and selection of desired characters on mulberry will contribute to industrialization and modernization in agricultural development in Vietnam. The objectives are to conduct biochemical and physiological analyses of collected mulberry varieties and to improve techniques for boosting yield and better quality in some mulberry genotypes by using in vitro technique combined with gamma irradiation. Two mulberry varieties named BauDen and VA 186 were used. Cuts of them were treated with gamma rays of Co-60, cultivated in experimental field with use of vitro technique to rapidly isolate mutants in irradiated population and investigated for plantlets, color of leaves, etc 30 days after cultivation. The results on the mutation frequency and spectrum of variation as well as the results of selection and isolation are presented. Eleven mutated clones from the two starting varieties were obtained during 1993-99. Three of them are now being cultivated in LamDong province fields. (S. Ohno)

  2. Induction of mutation on mulberry (morus alba L.) by using in vitro techniques in combination with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Vinh

    2001-01-01

    Mutation induction and selection of desired characters on mulberry will contribute to industrialization and modernization in agricultural development in Vietnam. The objectives are to conduct biochemical and physiological analyses of collected mulberry varieties and to improve techniques for boosting yield and better quality in some mulberry genotypes by using in vitro technique combined with gamma irradiation. Two mulberry varieties named BauDen and VA 186 were used. Cuts of them were treated with gamma rays of Co-60, cultivated in experimental field with use of vitro technique to rapidly isolate mutants in irradiated population and investigated for plantlets, color of leaves, etc 30 days after cultivation. The results on the mutation frequency and spectrum of variation as well as the results of selection and isolation are presented. Eleven mutated clones from the two starting varieties were obtained during 1993-99. Three of them are now being cultivated in LamDong province fields. (S. Ohno)

  3. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Du, Bao-Lei; Cui, Zheng-Wei; Xu, Li-Ping; Li, Chun-Yang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on microbiological quality, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice. High hydrostatic pressure processing at 500 MPa for 10 min reduced the total viable count from 4.38 log cfu/ml to nondetectable level and completely inactivated yeasts and molds in raw mulberry juice, ensuring the microbiological safety as thermal processing at 85 ℃ for 15 min. High hydrostatic pressure processing maintained significantly (p hydrostatic pressure processing enhanced the volatile compound concentrations of mulberry juice while thermal processing reduced them in comparison with the control. These results suggested that high hydrostatic pressure processing could be an alternative to conventional thermal processing for production of high-quality mulberry juice.

  4. Field evaluation of two systemic neonicotinoid insecticides against pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green))on mulberry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infestations of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in ornamental trees were already in an advanced state at the time of its discovery in the Imperial Valley of California (USA) in August 1999. Concern about the spread of M. hirsutus beyond the Imperial Valley led to the p...

  5. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  6. Nutrigenetic screening strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, for nutritional efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnaswamy, Ramesha; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu S; Anuradha, Chebba M; Kumar, Chitta S

    2012-01-01

    The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW(2), RMW(3), RMW(4), RMG(3), RMG(1), RMG(4), RMG(5), RMG(6) and APM(1) as the control. The 1(st) day of 5(th) stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or 'biomarkers', three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG(4), RMW(2), and RMW(3)) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds

  7. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Phenylurea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel phenylurea derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active groups linkage and the principle of aromatic groups bioisosterism in this study. The structures of the novel phenylurea derivatives were confirmed based on ESI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for the insecticidal activity against the third instars larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Pieris rapae Linne respectively, at the concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed strong insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, chlorbenzuron and metaflumizone. Among the synthesized compounds, 3b, 3d, 3f, 4b and 4g displayed broad spectrum insecticidal activity.

  8. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17–carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the “out of Taiwan” hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China “into North Taiwan,” the “out of South China–Indochina” expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  9. Studies on F1 radiation sterilization of diamondback moth and mulberry wild silkworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxing; Xia Darong; Cu Weiping; Chu Jiming; Zhang Yanjun

    1993-01-01

    The study began in 1988 under the aegis of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control. During the following four years the control of the mulberry wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina Moore) and the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) by means of radiation induced sterility was studied. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 6 tabs

  10. The impact of insecticides to local honey bee colony Apis cerana indica in laboratory condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani E.; Permana, Agus D.; Nuriyah, Syayidah

    2014-03-01

    Heavy use of insecticides considered as one of common practice at local farming systems. Even though many Indonesian researchers had stated the possible detrimental effect of insecticide on agriculture environment and biodiversity, researches on this subject had been neglected. Therefore, our purpose in this research is observing the impact of insecticides usage by farmer to non target organisme like local honey bee (Apis cerana indica), which commonly kept in area near agriculture system. This research consisted of field observations out at Ciburial, Dago Pakar, Bandung and laboratory tests at School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung. The field observations recorded visited agriculture corps and types of pollen carried by bees to the nest while laboratory test recorderd the effect of common insecticide to mortality and behavior of honey bees. Three types of insecticides used in this research were insecticides A with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 50 g/l, insecticide B with active agent Profenofos 500 g/l, and insecticides C with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 100 g/l and λ-cyhalotrin 50g/l. The results show that during one week visit, wild flower, Wedelia montana, visited by most honey bees with average visit 60 honey bees followed by corn, Zea mays, with 21 honey bees. The most pollen carried by foragers was Wedelia montana, Calliandra callothyrsus, and Zea mays. Preference test show that honeybees tend move to flowers without insecticides as the preference to insecticides A was 12.5%, insecticides B was 0%, and insecticides was C 4.2%. Mortality test showed that insecticides A has LD50 value 0.01 μg/μl, insecticide B 0.31 μg/μl, and insecticides C 0.09 μg/μl which much lower than suggested dosage recommended by insecticides producer. This research conclude that the use of insecticide could lower the pollination service provide by honey bee due to low visitation rate to flowers and mortality of foraging bees.

  11. New potential phytotherapeutics obtained from white mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryn-Rynko, Anna; Bazylak, Grzegorz; Olszewska-Slonina, Dorota

    2016-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the profound and unique phyto-pharmacological and nutritional profile of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves which containing considerable amounts of easy digestive proteins, carbohydrates, micro- and macronutrients, polyphenols, free amino acids, organic acids. The wide range of significant biopharmaceutical activities of the aqueous and polar organic solvents extracts from mulberry leaves - including antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticancer, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory - have been critically discussed. The main objective was to demonstrate the results of recently published study on the components of white mulberry leaves exhibiting their biological activity in the various pathological and health human ailments. In addition, we intend to drawn the attention of researchers and public health workers for the extended exploration of this deciduous plant leaves as the source of potential indigenous nutraceuticals and functional food products to enable development of alternative prevention and treatment protocols offered in therapy of the common non-communicable diseases and malignances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Proportional relationship between intercepted solar radiation and dry matter production in a mulberry [Morus] field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueel, S.A.; Ito, D.; Naoi, T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between dry matter production (DMP) and the amount of intercepted solar radiation (S), and to analyze the fluctuations in the radiation conversion efficiency (DMP/S), summer-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) trees under a standard planting density were subjected to a shading treatment using a cheesecloth. Then, using a non-destructive method, DMP was examined for 5 plants from each plot every 15 days from July to September. DMP was also examined for mulberry trees under a high planting density. Rates of radiation that penetrated onto the ground and beneath the cheesecloth were measured to calculate S from the incoming solar radiation. In the shading plots, DMP decreased depending on the degree of shading throughout the experimental period. Compared with the control plot, 70 and 60 % DMP were produced finally under 71 and 53 % S. Therefore, DMP was considered to be almost proportional to S even in a broad-leaf population like mulberry. Radiation conversion efficiency gradually decreased with growth regardless of the planting density. At the late growth stage, radiation conversion efficiency was lower in the densely planted field than in the standard density field

  13. Beneficial Effects of Bioactive Compounds in Mulberry Fruits against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahae Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry, the fruit of white mulberry tree (Morus alba L., Moraceae, is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicines as a sedative, tonic, laxative, and emetic. In our continuing research of the bioactive metabolites from mulberry, chemical analysis of the fruits led to the isolation of five compounds, 1–5. The compounds were identified as butyl pyroglutamate (1, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (2, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-rutinoside (3, rutin (4, and 2-phenylethyl d-rutinoside (5 by spectroscopic data analysis, comparing their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR data with those in published literature, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The isolated compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their effects on anticancer drug-induced side effects by cell-based assays. Compound 1 exerted the highest protective effect against cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage. This effect was found to be mediated through the attenuation of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and caspase-3 in cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage.

  14. Neurotoxicology of insecticides and pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narahashi, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum where a variety of scientists who were interested in the interactions of insecticides and pheromones with the nervous system got together to exchange their views...

  15. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Diagnostic Doses of Insecticides for Adult Aedes aegypti to Assess Insecticide Resistance in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Crespo, Ariel; Hurtado, Daymi; Fuentes, Ilario; Rey, Jorge; Bisset, Juan Andrés

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses (DDs) of 5 insecticides for the Rockefeller susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti , using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay as a tool for monitoring insecticide resistance in the Cuban vector control program. The 30-min DD values determined in this study were 13.5 μg/ml, 6.5 μg/ml, 6 μg/ml, 90.0 μg/ml, and 15.0 μg/ml for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and propoxur, respectively. To compare the reliability of CDC bottle bioassay with the World Health Organization susceptible test, 3 insecticide-resistant strains were evaluated for deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Results showed that the bottles can be used effectively from 21 to 25 days after treatment and reused up to 4 times, depending on the storage time. The CDC bottle bioassay is an effective tool to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Ae. aegypti in Cuba and can be incorporated into vector management programs using the diagnostic doses determined in this study.

  17. Ecotoxicity of binary mixtures of Microcystis aeruginosa and insecticides to Daphnia pulex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselman, J.; Janssen, C.R.; Smagghe, G.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, mixtures of chemical and natural stressors can occur which may significantly complicate risk assessment approaches. Here, we show that effects of binary combinations of four different insecticides and Microcystis aeruginosa, a toxic cyanobacteria, on Daphnia pulex exhibited distinct interaction patterns. Combinations with chlorpyrifos and tetradifon caused non-interactive effects, tebufenpyrad caused an antagonistic interaction and fenoyxcarb yielded patterns that depended on the reference model used (i.e. synergistic with independent action, additive with concentration addition). Our results demonstrate that interactive effects cannot be generalised across different insecticides, not even for those targeting the same biological pathway (i.e. tebufenpyrad and tetradifon both target oxidative phosphorylation). Also, the concentration addition reference model provided conservative predictions of effects in all investigated combinations for risk assessment. These predictions could, in absence of a full mechanistic understanding, provide a meaningful solution for managing water quality in systems impacted by both insecticides and cyanobacterial blooms. - Highlights:: • 2 of 4 insecticide-Microcystis combinations showed no interactive effect on Daphnia. • One insecticide showed antagonistic deviation patterns. • For one other insecticide the results depended on the reference model used. • Interactive effects between insecticides and Microcystis cannot be generalized. • The concentration addition model provides conservative estimates of mixture effects. - Interactive effects between insecticides and cyanobacterial stressors cannot be generalized, not even for insecticides with closely related known modes of action

  18. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  19. The Nutritive value of mulberry leaves (Morus Alba) and partial replacement of cotton seed in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, C.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pham, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and the effects of the partial replacement of cotton seed with fresh mulberry leaf in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle was investigated. For the in vivo digestibility trial, twenty castrated rams of Phanrang breed (a

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ru Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR region (380–1030 nm were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits.

  1. Estimating Genetic Conformism of Korean Mulberry Cultivars Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunirmal Sheet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from being fed to silkworms in sericulture, the ecologically important Mulberry plant has been used for traditional medicine in Asian countries as well as in manufacturing wine, food, and beverages. Germplasm analysis among Mulberry cultivars originating from South Korea is crucial in the plant breeding program for cultivar development. Hence, the genetic deviations and relations among 8 Morus alba plants, and one Morus lhou plant, of different cultivars collected from South Korea were investigated using 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers in the present study. The ISSR markers exhibited a higher polymorphism (63.42% among mulberry genotypes in comparison to RAPD markers. Furthermore, the similarity coefficient was estimated for both markers and found to be varying between 0.183 and 0.814 for combined pooled data of ISSR and RAPD. The phenogram drawn using the UPGMA cluster method based on combined pooled data of RAPD and ISSR markers divided the nine mulberry genotypes into two divergent major groups and the two individual independent accessions. The distant relationship between Dae-Saug (SM1 and SangchonJo Sang Saeng (SM5 offers a possibility of utilizing them in mulberry cultivar improvement of Morus species of South Korea.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Four Gene Families Putatively Involved in Cadmium Uptake, Translocation and Sequestration in Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIPs, the natural resistance and macrophage proteins (NRAMP, the heavy metal ATPases (HMAs and the metal tolerance or transporter proteins (MTPs families are involved in cadmium (Cd uptake, translocation and sequestration in plants. Mulberry (Morus L., one of the most ecologically and economically important (as a food plant for silkworm production genera of perennial trees, exhibits excellent potential for remediating Cd-contaminated soils. However, there is no detailed information about the genes involved in Cd2+ transport in mulberry. In this study, we identified 31 genes based on a genome-wide analysis of the Morus notabilis genome database. According to bioinformatics analysis, the four transporter gene families in Morus were distributed in each group of the phylogenetic tree, and the gene exon/intron structure and protein motif structure were similar among members of the same group. Subcellular localization software predicted that these transporters were mainly distributed in the plasma membrane and the vacuolar membrane, with members of the same group exhibiting similar subcellular locations. Most of the gene promoters contained abiotic stress-related cis-elements. The expression patterns of these genes in different organs were determined, and the patterns identified, allowing the categorization of these genes into four groups. Under low or high-Cd2+ concentrations (30 μM or 100 μM, respectively, the transcriptional regulation of the 31 genes in root, stem and leaf tissues of M. alba seedlings differed with regard to tissue and time of peak expression. Heterologous expression of MaNRAMP1, MaHMA3, MaZIP4, and MaIRT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased the sensitivity of yeast to Cd, suggested that these transporters had Cd transport activity. Subcellular localization experiment showed that the four transporters were localized to the plasma membrane of yeast and

  3. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  4. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  5. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  6. Digestibilidade in vivo dos nutrientes de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L. em caprinos Digestibility in vivo of the nutrients from mulberry (Morus alba L. cultivates in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Josefina Dorigan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade "in vivo" dos nutrientes dos cultivares de amoreira FM 86 e FM SM nas idades de crescimento de 45 e 90 dias. Foram utilizados 8 caprinos machos, da raça Saanen, com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo médio de 26kg. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 X 2 (2 cultivares de amoreira e 2 idades de crescimento. O coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN do cultivar FM 86 (74,82 % superou o cultivar FM SM (69,36 %, não ocorrendo diferença significativa entre as idades de crescimento. Ocorreu interação significativa entre cultivar e idade de crescimento para o Coeficiente de Digestibilidade da FDA, e o cultivar FM 86 na idade de 45 dias (75,09 % superou a de 90 dias (68,82 %. Para os parâmetros NDT e oeficientes de digestibilidade da energia, MS e PB, verificou-se superioridade da idade de corte de 45 dias, sem diferença entre os cultivares. Concluiu-se que os cultivares FM 86 e FM SM apresentaram excelente valor energético e altos coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, da PB e dos constituintes da parede celular, indicando um elevado potencial da amoreira como forrageira para caprinos.This work was carried out for evaluating in vivo digestibility of nutrients from FM 86 and FM SM cultivars of mulberry at two growth ages, 45 and 90 days. Eight Saanen male goats being six month-old and 26kg of live weight were used. Experimental design was completely randomized factorial 2 x 2 (two mulberry cultivars and two growth ages. The NDF digestibility coefficient of FM 86 cultivar (74.82% was higher than the FM SM (69.36% and there was not statiscal difference between their growth ages. In relation to ADF digestibility coefficient, there was significant interaction between cultivars and growth ages. FM 86 cultivar with 45 day-old showed ADF digestibility coefficient higher (75.09% than that with 90 day-old (68.82%. Considering NDT and energy, DM and CP

  7. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes changes in response to variations in the larval environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Henry F; Chitnis, Nakul; Müller, Pie

    2017-06-16

    Insecticide resistance threatens the success achieved through vector control in reducing the burden of malaria. An understanding of insecticide resistance mechanisms would help to develop novel tools and strategies to restore the efficacy of insecticides. Although we have substantially improved our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide resistance over the last decade, we still know little of how environmental variations influence the mosquito phenotype. Here, we measured how variations in larval rearing conditions change the insecticide susceptibility phenotype of adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae and A. stephensi larvae were bred under different combinations of temperature, population density and nutrition, and the emerging adults were exposed to permethrin. Mosquitoes bred under different conditions showed considerable changes in mortality rates and body weight, with nutrition being the major factor. Weight is a strong predictor of insecticide susceptibility and bigger mosquitoes are more likely to survive insecticide treatment. The changes can be substantial, such that the same mosquito colony may be considered fully susceptible or highly resistant when judged by World Health Organization discriminatory concentrations. The results shown here emphasise the importance of the environmental background in developing insecticide resistance phenotypes, and caution for the interpretation of data generated by insecticide susceptibility assays.

  8. Intelligent poly (vinyl alcohol)-chitosan nanoparticles-mulberry extracts films capable of monitoring pH variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianyun; Liang, Tieqiang; Cao, Lele; Wang, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a visually responsive intelligent film based on poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan nanoparticles (CHNPs) and mulberry extracts (MBE). CHNPs were first prepared by using ionotropic gelation method to enhance the mechanical properties of PVA based films. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential and crystallinity of CHNPs were measured. The resultant CHNPs were spherical with a diameter of 381.2nm, with high stability and a zeta potential of 49.1±1.33mV. The film with 6% CHNPs (P-C6) had the highest tensile strength (∼73.43MPa). MBE was incorporated into the P-C6 film. The film containing 20% MBE had the highest tensile strength and showed visible color responses to variations across pH 1-13. The film was tested by monitoring the spoilage of fish. The color of the film changed from red to green as the fish spoiled. Therefore, the pH responsive intelligent film developed here can be used as a package label to detect food spoilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic compounds, bioactive content and antioxidant capacity of the fruits of mulberry (Morus spp. germplasm in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundogdu Muttalip

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in 2014 and 2015, and aimed to determine some important biochemical and antioxidant characteristics of the fruits of mulberry (Morus spp. cultivars and genotypes found in Malatya (Turkey. Phenolic compounds (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, phloridzin and ferulic acid, organic acids, sugars, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in sampled fruits. The results showed that most of the biochemical content and antioxidant capacities of the cultivars and genotypes were significantly different from one another (p < 0.05. Among the phenolic compounds, rutin (118.23 mg 100 g-1, gallic acid (36.85 mg 100 g-1, and chlorogenic acid (92.07 mg 100 g-1 were determined to have the highest values for most of the fruit samples. Malic acid and citric acid were dominant among the organic acids for all the cultivars and genotypes except 44-Nrk-05. Glucose was measured as a more abundant sugar than fructose and sucrose in all samples. Antioxidant capacity, on the other hand, varied between 6.17 and 21.13 μmol TE g-1 among the cultivars and genotypes analyzed.

  10. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.

  11. Storage condition of mulberry branches (Morus sp. in the survival, development and production of Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Porto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried with the objective of evaluate the survival, development and cocoons production of silkworm fed with mulberry leaves (Cultivar IZ 56/4 from branches stored in warehouse(24 hours or stored in the system of covering with wet cloth and immersion of bases in water, for a period of 72 hours. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments and six replications. Caterpillars fed with mulberry leaves from branches stored in the system of covering and immersion for 72 hours had conditions suitable for survival, development and production of cocoon, not differing from those who received leaves from branches stored in the warehouse.

  12. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  13. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; br, picanco@ufv; br, guedes@ufv; br, mateusc3@yahoo com; br, agronomiasilva@yahoo com

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  14. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio; julioufv@yahoo.com.br

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD 50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g -1 a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  15. Effects of various insecticides on the development of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y; Kawamura, S; Tanaka, T

    2001-12-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides, acephate, methomyl, ethofenprox, cartap, chlorfluazuron, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was tested on different developmental stages of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma dendrolimi (Matsumura). Each of the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid, Ethofenprox showed the highest toxicity and cartap showed relatively higher toxicity compared with the other insecticides. The development of the parasitoids treated with these two insecticides was normal, similar to that of the control group. Only the emergence of adult wasps from host eggs was disturbed. Emergence of the host, Mamestra brassicae larva was reduced following treatment with ethofenprox, cartap and methomyl. However, adult female wasps, which emerged from host eggs treated with the insecticides had the ability to oviposit normally.

  16. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  17. The contribution of agricultural insecticide use to increasing insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Molly C.; McKenzie, F. Ellis

    2016-01-01

    The fight against malaria is increasingly threatened by failures in vector control due to growing insecticide resistance. This review examines the recent primary research that addresses the putative relationship between agricultural insecticide use and trends in insecticide resistance. To do so, descriptive evidence offered by the new research was categorized, and additional factors that impact the relationship between agricultural insecticide use and observed insecticide resistance in malari...

  18. Antibacterial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of grape and mulberry leaves ethanolic extracts towards bacterial clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshahat M. Ramadan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were measured at concentrations of 0.01–2.56 mg/mL of grape and mulberry leaves ethanolic extracts. The MIC values were ranged from 0.08 to 0.16 mg/mL against Ps. aeruginosa Ps9, and 0.32 mg/mL against each of S. aureus St3, E. coli Ec3, and S. typhi Sa1. Whereas, the MBC values were ranged from 0.32 to 1.28 mg/mL of the tested extracts. The effects of the tested extracts were also studied representing the bactericidal effect of the grape extract with a ratio of 2 against all investigated isolates, except S. typhi Sa1. Whereas, the mulberry extract had a bactericidal effect towards S. aureus St3 and E. coli Ec3 with ratio of 2, and a bacteriostatic effect against Ps. aeruginosa Ps9 and S. typhi Sa1 with a ratio ≥4. The investigated bacteria found to have a strong ability to form biofilms with densities ranged from 0.67 to 0.80. Both tested extracts inhibited these biofilms with percentages ranged from 48 to 66% at sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs ranged from 0.04 to 0.16 mg/mL. In addition, the tested extracts have an excellent cytotoxic activity towards colon cancer cell lines (HCT-16. Five phenolic compounds detected in the tested extracts of grape and mulberry using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after 9.53 min of the retention time. The phenolic compounds of both tested extracts were gallic, coumaric, ferulic, chlorogenic and caffeic with concentrations ranged from 1.28 to 6.56 µg/mL.

  19. Morphological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of black mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Stehlíková; Marcela Čuláková; Andrej Sinica; Lucia Kucelová; Ján Brindza

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at the morphological, biochemical, technological and sensorial determination of black mulberry (Morus nigra L. – MN)  fruitage and their utilization in the food production branches. For the experimental purposes were selected 50 genotypes of this population grown in the Pukanec surroundings. The medium fruitage weight determined in the selected collection ranged from 7.26 g (MN-1) to 1.42 g (MN-14), fruitage length in a range of 13.51 mm (MN-14) to 29.20 mm (MN-12) and the med...

  20. Mass spectrometric analyses of organophosphate insecticide oxon protein adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles M; Prins, John M; George, Kathleen M

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides continue to be used to control insect pests. Acute and chronic exposures to OP insecticides have been documented to cause adverse health effects, but few OP-adducted proteins have been correlated with these illnesses at the molecular level. Our aim was to review the literature covering the current state of the art in mass spectrometry (MS) used to identify OP protein biomarkers. We identified general and specific research reports related to OP insecticides, OP toxicity, OP structure, and protein MS by searching PubMed and Chemical Abstracts for articles published before December 2008. A number of OP-based insecticides share common structural elements that result in predictable OP-protein adducts. The resultant OP-protein adducts show an increase in molecular mass that can be identified by MS and correlated with the OP agent. Customized OP-containing probes have also been used to tag and identify protein targets that can be identified by MS. MS is a useful and emerging tool for the identification of proteins that are modified by activated organophosphate insecticides. MS can characterize the structure of the OP adduct and also the specific amino acid residue that forms the key bond with the OP. Each protein that is modified in a unique way by an OP represents a unique molecular biomarker that with further research can lead to new correlations with exposure.

  1. Insecticidal and Nematicidal Activities of Novel Mimosine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Cao Quan Nguyen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mimosine, a non-protein amino acid, is found in several tropical and subtropical plants, which has high value for medicine and agricultural chemicals. Here, in continuation of works aimed to development of natural product-based pesticidal agents, we present the first significant findings for insecticidal and nematicidal activities of novel mimosine derivatives. Interestingly, mimosinol and deuterated mimosinol (D-mimosinol from mimosine had strong insecticidal activity which could be a result of tyrosinase inhibition (IC50 = 31.4 and 46.1 μM, respectively. Of synthesized phosphoramidothionate derivatives from two these amino alcohols, two compounds (1a and 1b showed high insecticidal activity (LD50 = 0.5 and 0.7 μg/insect, respectively with 50%–60% mortality at 50 μg/mL which may be attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Compounds 1a and 1b also had strong nematicidal activity with IC50 = 31.8 and 50.2 μM, respectively. Our results suggest that the length of the alkyl chain and the functional group at the C5-position of phosphoramidothionates derived from mimosinol and d-mimosinol are essential for the insecticidal and nematicidal activities. These results reveal an unexplored scaffold as new insecticide and nematicide.

  2. An insecticidal toxin from Nephila clavata spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Fang, Mingqian; Chen, Mengrou; Zhou, Chunling; Ombati, Rose; Hakim, Md Abdul; Mo, Guoxiang; Lai, Ren; Yan, Xiuwen; Wang, Yumin; Yang, Shilong

    2017-07-01

    Spiders are the most successful insect predators given that they use their venom containing insecticidal peptides as biochemical weapons for preying. Due to the high specificity and potency of peptidic toxins, discoveries of insecticidal toxins from spider venom have provided an opportunity to obtain natural compounds for agricultural applications without affecting human health. In this study, a novel insecticidal toxin (μ-NPTX-Nc1a) was identified and characterized from the venom of Nephila clavata. Its primary sequence is GCNPDCTGIQCGWPRCPGGQNPVMDKCVSCCPFCPPKSAQG which was determined by automated Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and MS/MS analysis. BLAST search indicated that Nc1a shows no similarity with known peptides or proteins, indicating that Nc1a belongs to a novel family of insecticidal peptide. Nc1a displayed inhibitory effects on Na V and K V channels in cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons. The median lethal dose (LD50) of Nc1a on cockroach was 573 ng/g. Herein, a study that identifies a novel insecticidal toxin, which can be a potential candidate and/or template for the development of bioinsecticides, is presented.

  3. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  5. Limonene--A Natural Insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry student's research project in which limonene was isolated from the oil of lemons and oranges. Outlines the students' tests on the use of this chemical as an insecticide. Discusses possible extensions of the exercises based on questions generated by the students. (TW)

  6. Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2018-04-04

    Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, avermectin for the glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH + ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Pyrethroids and other Na + channel modulator insecticides are generally poor radioligands due to lipophilicity and high nonspecific binding. For target site validation, the structure-activity relationships competing with the radioligand in the binding assays should be the same as that for insecticidal activity or toxicity except for rapidly detoxified or proinsecticide analogs. Once the radioligand assay is validated for relevance, it will often help define target site modifications on selection of resistant pest strains, selectivity between insects and mammals, and interaction with antidotes and other chemicals at modulator sites. Binding assays also serve for receptor isolation and photoaffinity labeling to characterize the interactions involved.

  7. Production Efficiency of Cocoon Shell of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae: Lepidoptera, as an Index for Evaluating the Nutritive Value of Mulberry, Morus sp. (Moraceae, Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaja Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional efficiency of mulberry leaves consumed by silkworms, Bombyx mori L., is usually evaluated in terms of the proportion of cocoon shell weight to the amount of food ingested. The production efficiency of cocoon shell is generally used to identify the superiority of a mulberry variety for silkworm rearing. In this study the production efficiency of cocoon shell was used as an index for evaluating the nutritive value of different mulberry varieties of India. Among the varieties, V-1, having highest production efficiency of cocoon shell with less amount of food ingested and highest digestibility, is regarded as the best suitable variety with nutritive values ideal for silkworm rearing.

  8. Insecticide Usage and Chemical Contamination Assessment in Asiatic Pennywort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongsook, S.

    2017-07-01

    The insecticide usage in commercially grown asiatic pennywort plantations in Nakhonpatum and Nonthaburi province, Thailand was surveyed during January-June, 2016. The results showed that asiatic pennywort cuttworms was leaf destructive and caused the most damge to the production. The growers used organophosphate insecticides to control the caterpillars the most, followed by pyrethoid, abamectin, carbamate and organochlorine, respectively. The chemical contaminants of pennywort from 9 fresh markets in Bangkok was monitored, the result indicated that lead was not detected in the samples. The amount of arsenic was less than 0.075 mg / kg. The insecticide residue measurement of dicofol, chlorpyrifos and methidathion was 0.98, 2.84 and 0.46 mg / kg, respectively.

  9. Pollution Of Insecticide Residues In PPTN Pasar Jumat Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir, Ulfa T.; Chairul, Sofnie M.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of insecticide residue pollution from some organochlorin and organo-phosphat in soil and water samples were carried out 1999-2000 periode. The aim of the measurement was to get information about impact of laboratorium activity on insecticide contents in PPTN PASAR JUMAT. Gas chromatograph with electron capture and flame ionization detector were used to measure the pesticide content. Result of the measurement in PPTN area showed that organo-chlorin were alpha BHC, endosulfan band DDT and organo-phosphat were klorphyriphos and malation and were lower than tolerance level

  10. Structural analysis and anti-obesity effect of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choi, J. W.; Synytsya, A.; Capek, P.; Bleha, R.; Pohl, Radek; Park, Y. I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, Aug 1 (2016), s. 187-196 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mulberry fruit * pectic polysaccharide * structure * pre-adipocytes * apoptosis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.811, year: 2016

  11. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  12. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  13. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  14. COCOON PRODUCTION OF THE SILKWORM, Bombyx mori L. (LEPIDOPTERA: BOMBYCIDAE, FED ON LEAVES OF MULBERRY HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERBSON AZEVEDO DE MENDONÇA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the fourth cocoon producer in the world. In São Paulo State there are mulberry some hybrids whose productivity are higher than the commonly cultivated varieties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mulberry hybrids (Morus spp. on the cocoon production of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.. The experiment was conducted at the Unidade Regional de Pesquisa de Gália do Instituto de Zootecnia, SP. The caterpillars were fed on leaves of the hybrids IZ-3/2, IZ-13/6, IZ-15/7, IZ-19/13, IZ-56/4, IZ-57/2, IZ- 40, IZ-64, in a rearing hut at 25 oC ± 3 oC and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. 'Korin' was used as standard. The hybrids affected the duration of the larval period and the weight of the caterpillars, prepupaes and the silk glands as well. There was a reduction in the duration of larval development when the caterpillars had been fed with hybrid IZ-56/4 and the 'Korin' variety. Hybrids IZ-57/2, IZ-56/4 and IZ-15/7 presented the highest cocoon production.

  15. Metabolic Effects of Mulberry Leaves: Exploring Potential Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes and Hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hunyadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other’s important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated.

  16. Quantitative 1H-NMR Spectroscopy for Profiling Primary Metabolites in Mulberry Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary metabolites in aqueous extract of mulberry (Morus alba L. leaves were characterized by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy. With the convenience of resonance assignment, GABA together with the other 10 primary metabolites was simultaneously identified and quantified in one 1H-NMR spectrum. In this study, external calibration curves for metabolites were employed to calculate the concentrations of interests. The proposed quantitative approach was demonstrated with good linearity (r2 ranged in the interval of 0.9965–0.9999, precision, repeatability, stability (RSD values in the ranges of 0.35–4.89%, 0.77–7.13% and 0.28–2.33%, respectively and accuracy (recovery rates from 89.2% to 118.5%. The established 1H-NMR method was then successfully applied to quantify 11 primary metabolites in mulberry leaves from different geographical regions within a rapid analysis time and a simple sample preparation procedure.

  17. Sublethal effects of some synthetic and botanical insecticides on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeily Saeideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortality caused by insecticides, some biological traits of insects may also be affected by sublethal insecticide doses. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to evaluate the sublethal effects of the four synthetic insecticides: abamectin, imidacloprid, diazinon, and pymetrozin as well as the botanical insecticide taken from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae extract, on eggs of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae. The lowest and highest survival rates and oviposition periods were observed in whiteflies treated by diazinon and imidacloprid, respectively. We found significant differences in the net reproductive rate (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r, the finite rate of increase (?, and the gross reproductive rate (GRR among different insecticides. Altogether, our results showed that pymetrozin and C. procera induced the most sublethal effects, thus they may be suitable candidates for use in integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci.

  18. Qualitative evaluation of same insecticides sold in Kinshasa and users behavior survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilua, K.; Essassi El, M.; Himmi, O.; Said Gmouh; Watsenga, T.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a serious public health problem in the tropical countries and particularly into Kinshasa. Anopheles gambiae sl. is the mean vector of this illness. The use of impregnated bednets is the national strategy; the chemical insecticides are used too in figthing the malaria vectors. The survey carried out on 144 households randomly selected in Kinshasa have showed that 61,1% are favourable with using bednets insecticide impregnated and 96,5% of these households use too chemical insecticides, meanly the pyrethroids one (90,5%) and the organophosphates (9,5%). Mass spectrometer analysis revealed that 87,5% of identified insecticides, essentially pyrethroinids have tetramethrine as active substance; the dichlorvos is the only one to be detected as organophosphate and that in some insecticides, the detected molecules are not avowed or different from those avowed or different from those avowed by the manufacturer.

  19. The contribution of agricultural insecticide use to increasing insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Molly C; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2016-02-19

    The fight against malaria is increasingly threatened by failures in vector control due to growing insecticide resistance. This review examines the recent primary research that addresses the putative relationship between agricultural insecticide use and trends in insecticide resistance. To do so, descriptive evidence offered by the new research was categorized, and additional factors that impact the relationship between agricultural insecticide use and observed insecticide resistance in malaria vectors were identified. In 23 of the 25 relevant recent publications from across Africa, higher resistance in mosquito populations was associated with agricultural insecticide use. This association appears to be affected by crop type, farm pest management strategy and urban development.

  20. Insecticide Use Practices in Cocoa Production in Four Regions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the insecticides used are classified as class II under WHO Hazard category, and the farmers used very minimal protective clothing during pesticides application. The results of this study show that there is the need to intensify education on safe handling and use of pesticides to reduce pesticide abuse, especially by ...

  1. Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis) on cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... In acute exposure cells showed deformities such as swelling of cells, oval shaped deformity, and ... Commercial grade of delfin insecticide used in this study was manufactured by .... exposure to cigarette extracts. Antibiotics caused .... administration of a neem pesticide on rat metabolic enzymes. J. Environ.

  2. Insecticide resistance in vector Chagas disease: evolution, mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection restricted to America. The disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to human through the feces of infected triatomine insects. Because no treatment is available for the chronic forms of the disease, vector chemical control represents the best way to reduce the incidence of the disease. Chemical control has been based principally on spraying dwellings with insecticide formulations and led to the reduction of triatomine distribution and consequent interruption of disease transmission in several areas from endemic region. However, in the last decade it has been repeatedly reported the presence triatomnes, mainly Triatoma infestans, after spraying with pyrethroid insecticides, which was associated to evolution to insecticide resistance. In this paper the evolution of insecticide resistance in triatomines is reviewed. The insecticide resistance was detected in 1970s in Rhodnius prolixus and 1990s in R. prolixus and T. infestans, but not until the 2000s resistance to pyrthroids in T. infestans associated to control failures was described in Argentina and Bolivia. The main resistance mechanisms (i.e. enhanced metabolism, altered site of action and reduced penetration) were described in the T. infestans resistant to pyrethrods. Different resistant profiles were demonstrated suggesting independent origin of the different resistant foci of Argentina and Bolivia. The deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans was showed to be controlled by semi-dominant, autosomally inherited factors. Reproductive and developmental costs were also demonstrated for the resistant T. infestans. A discussion about resistance and tolerance concepts and the persistence of T. infestans in Gran Chaco region are presented. In addition, theoretical concepts related to toxicological, evolutionary and ecological aspects of insecticide resistance are discussed in order to understand the particular scenario of pyrethroid

  3. Flupyradifurone: a brief profile of a new butenolide insecticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Jeschke, Peter; Velten, Robert; Beck, Michael E; Ebbinghaus-Kintscher, Ulrich; Thielert, Wolfgang; Wölfel, Katharina; Haas, Matthias; Kunz, Klaus; Raupach, Georg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development and commercialisation of new chemical classes of insecticides for efficient crop protection measures against destructive invertebrate pests is of utmost importance to overcome resistance issues and to secure sustainable crop yields. Flupyradifurone introduced here is the first representative of the novel butenolide class of insecticides active against various sucking pests and showing an excellent safety profile. RESULTS The discovery of flupyradifurone was inspired by the butenolide scaffold in naturally occurring stemofoline. Flupyradifurone acts reversibly as an agonist on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but is structurally different from known agonists, as shown by chemical similarity analysis. It shows a fast action on a broad range of sucking pests, as demonstrated in laboratory bioassays, and exhibits excellent field efficacy on a number of crops with different application methods, including foliar, soil, seed treatment and drip irrigation. It is readily taken up by plants and translocated in the xylem, as demonstrated by phosphor imaging analysis. Flupyradifurone is active on resistant pests, including cotton whiteflies, and is not metabolised by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 conferring metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids and pymetrozine. CONCLUSION The novel butenolide insecticide flupyradifurone shows unique properties and will become a new tool for integrated pest management around the globe, as demonstrated by its insecticidal, ecotoxicological and safety profile. © 2014 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25351824

  4. Characterizing the insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Moussa B M; Keita, Chitan; Dicko, Abdourhamane; Dengela, Dereje; Coleman, Jane; Lucas, Bradford; Mihigo, Jules; Sadou, Aboubacar; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Beach, Raymond

    2015-08-22

    The impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), key components of the national malaria control strategy of Mali, is threatened by vector insecticide resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from Mali against four classes of insecticide recommended for IRS: organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs), carbamates (CAs) and organophosphates (OPs). Characterization of resistance was done in 13 sites across southern Mali and assessed presence and distribution of physiological mechanisms that included target-site modifications: knockdown resistance (kdr) and altered acetycholinesterase (AChE), and/or metabolic mechanisms: elevated esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and monooxygenases. The World Health Organization (WHO) tube test was used to determine phenotypic resistance of An. gambiae s.l. to: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (OC), deltamethrin (PY), lambda-cyhalothrin (PY), bendiocarb (CA), and fenitrothion (OP). Identification of sibling species and presence of the ace-1 (R) and Leu-Phe kdr, resistance-associated mutations, were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Biochemical assays were conducted to detect increased activity of GSTs, oxidases and esterases. Populations tested showed high levels of resistance to DDT in all 13 sites, as well as increased resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in 12 out of 13 sites. Resistance to fenitrothion and bendiocarb was detected in 1 and 4 out of 13 sites, respectively. Anopheles coluzzii, An. gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis were identified with high allelic frequencies of kdr in all sites where each of the species were found (13, 12 and 10 sites, respectively). Relatively low allelic frequencies of ace-1 (R) were detected in four sites where this assessment was conducted. Evidence of elevated insecticide metabolism, based on oxidase

  5. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains.

  6. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry.

  7. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains.

  8. In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch bark extract (BBE derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L. with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of α-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glucokinase (GCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1 and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value.

  9. Power ultrasound as a pretreatment to convective drying of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves: Impact on drying kinetics and selected quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yilin; Kadam, Shekhar U; Han, Yongbin; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ultrasound pretreatment prior to convective drying on drying kinetics and selected quality properties of mulberry leaves was investigated in this study. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at 25.2-117.6 W/L for 5-15 min in a continuous mode. After sonication, mulberry leaves were dried in a hot-air convective dryer at 60 °C. The results revealed that ultrasound pretreatment not only affected the weight of mulberry leaves, it also enhanced the convective drying kinetics and reduced total energy consumption. The drying kinetics was modeled using a diffusion model considering external resistance and effective diffusion coefficient De and mass transfer coefficient hm were identified. Both De and hm during convective drying increased with the increase of acoustic energy density (AED) and ultrasound duration. However, De and hm increased slowly at high AED levels. Furthermore, ultrasound pretreatment had a more profound influence on internal mass transfer resistance than on external mass transfer resistance during drying according to Sherwood numbers. Regarding the quality properties, the color, antioxidant activity and contents of several bioactive compounds of dried mulberry leaves pretreated by ultrasound at 63.0 W/L for 10 min were similar to that of mulberry leaves without any pretreatments. Overall, ultrasound pretreatment is effective to shorten the subsequent drying time of mulberry leaves without damaging the quality of final product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Susceptibility to chemical insecticides of two Brazilian populations of the visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Barros, V C; de Souza, S F; Barros, S S; Teodoro, L P; Soares, Z R; Gontijo, N F; Reithinger, R

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the insecticide susceptibility of two geographically separated Lutzomyia longipalpis populations (Lapinha and Montes Claros) with different histories of insecticide exposure (i.e. no exposure and repeated exposure, respectively). (i) Bioassay monitoring of sand fly survival over time when exposed to a range of insecticides; and (ii) analysis of the level of insecticide detoxification enzymes in individual sand flies caught at both study sites. Insecticides tested were the organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion and the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and deltamethrin. Survival analyses showed that whilst there was no overall significant difference in susceptibility of both populations to organophosphates, Lapinha sand flies were significantly more susceptible to pyrethroids than those from Montes Claros. Multiple regression analyses also showed that insecticide susceptibility in both locations varied with sand fly sex. The relative susceptibilities of the two sand fly populations to tested insecticides were also compared. Thus, Montes Claros sand flies were most susceptible to malathion, followed by fenitrothion, deltamethrin and permethrin. Those from Lapinha were most susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin, followed by malathion, permethrin, deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that Montes Claros sand flies had significantly lower insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than Lapinha sand flies. Our results are the first record of significantly reduced susceptibility to the insecticides used in control of wild populations of Lu. longipalpis. They demonstrate the importance of evaluating chemicals against this species by conventional bioassay and microplate assays before and during spraying programmes.

  11. Outcome of Patients with Cholinergic Insecticide Poisoning Treated with Gastric Lavage: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekkattukunnel Andrews

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Number or timing of GL does not show any association with mortality while multiple GL had protective effect against development of late RF and IMS. Hence, GL might be beneficial in cholinergic insecticide poisoning.

  12. Determination of pollen quality and quantity in mulberry (morus alba l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, U.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pollen grains of eight different mulberry types in I.spir and Pazaryolu districts of Erzurum were tested for the determination of viability, germination rates, pollen production levels and morphologically homogeneity. Viability of the pollens was determined by TTC (2, 3, 5-triphenly tetrazolium chlorid) and IKI (iodine + potassium iodide) tests. Pollen germination experiments were performed with Agar-plate (1%) method in sucrose solutions of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% concentrations. In addition, pollen production and morphologically homogeneity were determined by the Hemacytometric method. The pollen viability of all types used in this study was obtained in high ratios. Pollen germination rates were the highest for 15% and 20% sucrose solutions. The highest pollen production level was obtained from the genotype 6. The morphologically homogeneity levels of pollens changed from 97.36 to 98.86% in types. (author)

  13. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees.

  14. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  15. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Insecticides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the insecticides module, when to list insecticides as a candidate cause, ways to measure insecticides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for insecticides, insecticides module references and literature reviews.

  16. Formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-precursor in mulberry leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1981-01-01

    Since a remarkable accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves of mulberry has been observed, the formation of 14 C-asparagine from 14 C-labeled substrates in young leaves was examined in comparison with that in the mature leaves. 14 C-aspartic acid and 14 C-succinic acid expected as active precursors for asparagine biosynthesis, and 14 C-sucrose as respiratory substrates were fed respectively to the disks of young or mature leaves of mulberry. Although 14 C-succinic acid was actively converted to 14 C-asparagine, no significant amount of 14 C-asparagine was formed from 14 C-aspartic acid in two hours of feeding period. The rate of formation of 14 C-asparagine from 14 C-succinic acid in the mature leaves was slightly higher than that in the young leaves. Amino acids other than asparagine acquired 14 C from 14 C-labeled substrates were mainly aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and ν-amino butyric acid in both of the leaves. Intending to accelerate the formation of asparagine in the leaves, ammonium ion was supplied to culturing solution as only source of nitrogen and plants were grown for two weeks in that solution before 14 C-labeled substrates feeding experiments. Supplying of ammonium ion brought about enhanced accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves, and caused remarkable formation of 14 C-asparagine from 14 C-aspartic acid in both of the leaves. However, the rate of 14 C-asparagine formation from 14 C-aspartic acid in the young leaves did not exceed that in the mature leaves. (author)

  17. Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-González, Idalyd; Quiñones, Martha L; Lenhart, Audrey; Brogdon, William G

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Colombia, and as part of the National Network of Insecticide Resistance Surveillance, 12 mosquito populations were assessed for resistance to pyrethroids, organophosphates and DDT. Bioassays were performed using WHO and CDC methodologies. The underlying resistance mechanisms were investigated through biochemical assays and RT-PCR. All mosquito populations were susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin and cyfluthrin, and highly resistant to DDT and etofenprox. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and fenitrothion ranged from moderate to high in some populations from Chocó and Putumayo states. In Antioquia state, the Santa Fe population was resistant to fenitrothion. Biochemical assays showed high levels of both cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) and non-specific esterases (NSE) in some of the fenitrothion- and pyrethroid-resistant populations. All populations showed high levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. GSTe2 gene was found overexpressed in DDT-resistant populations compared with Rockefeller susceptible strain. Differences in insecticide resistance status were observed between insecticides and localities. Although the biochemical assay results suggest that CYP and NSE could play an important role in the pyrethroid and fenitrothion resistance detected, other mechanisms remain to be investigated, including knockdown resistance. Resistance to DDT was high in all populations, and GST activity is probably the main enzymatic mechanism associated with this resistance. The results of this study provide baseline data on insecticide resistance in Colombian A. aegypti populations, and will allow comparison of changes in susceptibility status in this vector over time. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  20. Consequences of co-applying insecticides and fungicides for managing Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    Insecticides and fungicides are commonly co-applied in a tank mix to protect onions from onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and foliar pathogens. Co-applications reduce production costs, but past research shows that an insecticide's performance can be reduced when co-applied with a fungicide. An evaluation was made of the effects of co-applying spinetoram, abamectin and spirotetramat with commonly used fungicides, with and without the addition of a penetrating surfactant, on onion thrips control in onion fields. Co-applications of insecticides with chlorothalonil fungicides reduced thrips control by 25-48% compared with control levels provided by the insecticides alone in three of five trials. Inclusion of a penetrating surfactant at recommended rates with the insecticide and chlorothalonil fungicide did not consistently overcome this problem. Co-applications of insecticides with other fungicides did not interfere with thrips control. Co-applications of pesticides targeting multiple organisms should be examined closely to ensure that control of each organism is not compromised. To manage onion thrips in onion most effectively, insecticides should be applied with a penetrating surfactant, and should be applied separately from chlorothalonil fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Decaleside: a new class of natural insecticide targeting tarsal gustatory sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Rao, Lingamallu J. M.; Shivanandappa, Thimmappa

    2012-10-01

    Natural sources for novel insecticide molecules hold promise in view of their eco-friendly nature, selectivity, and mammalian safety. Recent progress in understanding the biology of insect olfaction and taste offers new strategies for developing selective pest control agents. We have isolated two natural insecticidal molecules from edible roots of Decalepis hamiltonii named Decalesides I and II, which are novel trisaccharides, highly toxic to household insect pests and stored-product insects. We have experimentally shown that insecticidal activity requires contact with tarsi on the legs but is not toxic orally. The insecticidal activity of molecules is lost by hydrolysis, and various sugars modify toxic response, showing that the insecticidal activity is via gustatory sites on the tarsi. Selective toxicity to insects by virtue of their gustatory site of action and the mammalian safety of the new insecticides is inherent in their chemical structure with 1-4 or 1-1 α linkage that is easily hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes of mammals. Decalesides represent a new chemical class of natural insecticides with a unique mode of action targeting tarsal chemosensory/gustatory system of insects.

  2. Insecticides and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, I.Y.; Helal, G.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of C-labelled methomyl in the culture media of Rihizobium leguminosarum (isolated from Vicia feba nodules), Aspergillus fumigatus, A.niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium notatum (isolated from Allium cepa rhizophere) was studied. The results revealed that 36.5, 28.6,27.9,32.5 and 20.1% of the applied doses were metabolized into hydrolytic products by the above organisms, respectively. The thin layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform and aqueous fractions of the media showed that C-labelled methomyl underwent a process of breakdown by these organisms into some metabolites.4 tab

  3. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  4. 2 Assessmen of the Efficiency of Insecticide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    malaria vectors and nuisance in West Africa – a-part. 2. Field evaluation. Malar J. 9: 341. Mosqueira B., Duchon S., Chandre F., Hougard, J. M., Carnevale P. and Mas-Coma S. (2010). Efficacy of an insecticide paint against insecticide- susceptible and resistant mosquitoes – b- Part 1: Laboratory evaluation. Malar J. 9: 340.

  5. Trifluoromethylphenyl amides as novel insecticides and fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of increased resistance to insecticides in arthropods, it is necessary to identify new chemicals that may have novel modes of action. Following an extensive literature search for compounds with insecticidal and mosquito repellent activity, we have designed and synthesized a set of 20 trifluo...

  6. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  7. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  8. Nota Técnica: Comportamiento productivo de la morera sometida a dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica Technical Note: Productive performance of mulberry subject to two alternatives of organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2007-11-01

    , the cumulative production did not show significant variations between the association and the fertilized mulberry (88,8 and 86,7 g edible dry biomass per individual, although it did with regards to the control which produced only 40,7 g. The contribution of organic matter to the soil during the establishment of the mulberry plantations and/or the association of A. lebbeck managed as green manure provide a significant advantage in the productive response of the forage shrub, and the second alternative stood out for its endogenous character.

  9. Enhanced activity of carbohydrate- and lipid-metabolizing enzymes in insecticide-resistant populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, R A; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, M G A; Ferreira, G H

    2008-08-01

    Insecticide resistance is frequently associated with fitness disadvantages in the absence of insecticides. However, intense past selection with insecticides may allow the evolution of fitness modifier alleles that mitigate the cost of insecticide resistance and their consequent fitness disadvantages. Populations of Sitophilus zeamais with different levels of susceptibility to insecticides show differences in the accumulation and mobilization of energy reserves. These differences may allow S. zeamais to better withstand toxic compounds without reducing the beetles' reproductive fitness. Enzymatic assays with carbohydrate- and lipid-metabolizing enzymes were, therefore, carried out to test this hypothesis. Activity levels of trehalase, glycogen phosphorylase, lipase, glycosidase and amylase were determined in two insecticide-resistant populations showing (resistant cost) or not showing (resistant no-cost) associated fitness cost, and in an insecticide-susceptible population. Respirometry bioassays were also carried out with these weevil populations. The resistant no-cost population showed significantly higher body mass and respiration rate than the other two populations, which were similar. No significant differences in glycogen phosphorylase and glycosidase were observed among the populations. Among the enzymes studied, trehalase and lipase showed higher activity in the resistant cost population. The results obtained in the assays with amylase also indicate significant differences in activity among the populations, but with higher activity in the resistant no-cost population. The inverse activity trends of lipases and amylases in both resistant populations, one showing fitness disadvantage without insecticide exposure and the other not showing it, may underlay the mitigation of insecticide resistance physiological costs observed in the resistant no-cost population. The higher amylase activity observed in the resistant no-cost population may favor energy storage

  10. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt. PMID:26877641

  11. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kum, Jun-Seok; Choi, Yun-Sang; Seo, Dong-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jong-Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt.

  12. of Several Organophosphorus Insecticide Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Carr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase (PON1 is a calcium dependent enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate anticholinesterases. PON1 activity is present in most mammals and previous research established that PON1 activity differs depending on the species. These studies mainly used the organophosphate substrate paraoxon, the active metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Using serum PON1 from different mammalian species, we compared the hydrolysis of paraoxon with the hydrolysis of the active metabolites (oxons of two additional organophosphorus insecticides, methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos. Paraoxon hydrolysis was greater than that of methyl paraoxon, but the level of activity between species displayed a similar pattern. Regardless of the species tested, the hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos-oxon was significantly greater than that of paraoxon or methyl paraoxon. These data indicate that chlorpyrifos-oxon is a better substrate for PON1 regardless of the species. The pattern of species differences in PON1 activity varied with the change in substrate to chlorpyrifos-oxon from paraoxon or methyl paraoxon. For example, the sex difference observed here and reported elsewhere in the literature for rat PON1 hydrolysis of paraoxon was not present when chlorpyrifos-oxon was the substrate.

  13. Insecticide resistance and intracellular proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide-resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods. Upregulation and expression of proteases have been characterised in resistant strains of some insect species, including mosquitoes. This increase in proteolysis results in more degradation products (amino acids) of intracellular proteins. These may be utilised in the resistant strain to better protect the cell from stress. There are changes in insect intracellular proteases shortly after insecticide exposure, suggesting a role in stress response. The use of protease and proteasome inhibitors or peptide mimetics as synergists with improved application techniques and through protease gene knockdown using RNA interference (possibly expressed in crop plants) may be potential pest management strategies, in situations where elevated intracellular proteases are relevant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Analogues of Chlorantraniliprole Containing Nitro Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; WANG Ming-zhong; XIONG Li-xia; LIU Zhi-li; LI Zheng-ming

    2011-01-01

    Twelve novel analogues of chlorantraniliprole containing nitro group were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the nitro-containing analogues showed favorable insecticidal activities,while the activity of compounds 5g at 0.25 mg/L was 40%,but still lower than chlorantraniliprole.

  15. Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rivero

    Full Text Available Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to result in a decrease in vector longevity, a decrease in infectiousness, or in a change in behaviour, all of which will reduce the vectorial capacity of the insect. If this effect is sufficiently large, the impact of insecticide resistance on disease management may not be as detrimental as previously thought. In other instances, however, insecticide resistance may have the opposite effect, increasing the insect's vectorial capacity, which may lead to a dramatic increase in the transmission of the disease and even to a higher prevalence than in the absence of insecticides. Either way-and there may be no simple generality-the consequence of the evolution of insecticide resistance for disease ecology deserves additional attention.

  16. FORMULASI, KANDUNGAN GIZI, DAN DAYA TERIMA KUE-KUE TRADISIONAL MAKASSAR BERBASIS TEPUNG PUPAE–MULBERRY (PURY SEBAGAI MAKANAN BERGIZI MASA DEPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Meliyanti Kusharto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aims of this research was to formulate and improve the nutrient content and define of makassar traditional snack which was enriched with Pupae-mulberry (Pury powder. Experimental study was conducted and proximate analysis was used to determine nutrient content of the product and acceptance test was used by hedonic test of 25-32 semi-trained panelists. This research produced three kinds of traditional snacks, namely Rampari sponge cake, Deppatori Pury, and Pury sticks. Based on organoleptic test product Deppatori was selected to develop further by mixing basic substances consist of rice flour, glutinous rice flour, brown sugar, sesame and water with pupae-mulberry (pury powder. The formulas were F1 (pury powder 5%, F2 (pury powder 10%, and F3 (pury powder 15%. The study showed that by hedonic scale, the panel preferred F2 because the addition more than 10% of Pury powder will make texture harder. Hedonic quality scale indicated that F2 had characteristics yellowish brown color, taste and flavor close to neutral. Nutrient content of Deppatori Pury 10% (per 100 g was water 7.92 g, ash 1.19 g, protein 5.80 g, fat 25.99 g, carbohydrates 67.02 g, energy 484 kcal, calcium 74.14 mg, iron 1.96 mg, phosporus 97.23 mg, respectively and result of microbiology test was 390 cfu/g. Protein contribution of Deppatori-Pury 10% per 100 g serving size to RDA of elderly was 9.4-10.4%. Therefore, two serving size is recommended for Deppatori-Pury as future food to reach 20% RDA protein.Keywords: acceptability, deppatori, makassar’s snack, pury powderABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah melakukan formulasi dan meningkatkan kandungan zat gizi serta daya terima kue-kue tradisional Makassar yang diperkaya tepung pupae-mulberry (Pury. Penelitian ini merupakan studi eksperimental yang melakukan analisis kandungan zat gizi secara proksimat dan uji penerimaan panelis (organoleptik menggunakan uji hedonik oleh 25-32 orang panelis semi terlatih. Pembuatan kue

  17. Antifeedant and insecticidal activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts on Nomophila indistinctalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quesada-Romero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Vegetal extracts represent an alternative to control against agricultural pests that have become resistant to pesticides. Using natural products is considered to be more friendly to the environment and safe. Aims: To determine the insecticidal and antifeedant activity of Polygonum persicaria extracts of two differents populations in Chile (Valparaiso and Curico against Nomophila indistinctalis larvae. Methods: Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC susceptibility test was used to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the extracts at concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L; against first instar larvae of Nomophila indistinctalis. The antifeedant activity was evaluated to determine the percentage of consumption in third instar larvae on treatment. Results: When comparing the control and the treatment groups in the antifeedant activity assay, significant differences (p<0.05 were observed after 90 minutes of exposure. With respect to the insecticidal activity, all extracts showed significant effects at the applied concentrations compared to the negative control. Moreover, the dichloromethane extracts of Curico and Valparaiso at concentrations greater than 500 mg/L showed a similar insecticidal activity as compared to the commercial formulation Neem. Conclusions: This work presents for the first time the results of the anti-feeding and insecticide activity of ethanol, methanol, and dichloromethane extracts from Polygonum persicaria on Nomophila indistinctalis. The results show that the extracts of this species can be used as an alternative for biological control. In addition, the results obtained allow a bioguided fractionation for the identification of secondary metabolites present in these extracts.

  18. Determination of insecticidal activity of Heliopsis longipes A. Gray Blake, an endemic plant of Guanajuato state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are involved in transmission of infectious diseases like malaria which affect human health, causing economic losses due to expensive treatments and job incapacity of patients. Strategies to minimize transmission of this disease are the employ of chemical insecticides that are excellent methods to reduce insect populations; however it causes deleterious effects on human health and environmental damage. Therefore is necessary to explore harmless alternatives, such as plant extracts which are potential source of natural insecticides. In this work we evaluated insecticidal properties of Heliopsis longipes A. Gray Blake against third instar larvae of Anopheles albimanus, malaria vector. Results showed that H.longipes A. Gray Blake has insecticide properties to control insect involved in malaria transmission.

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Insecticidal Activity of Some Novel Diacylhydrazine and Acylhydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a series of diacylhydrazine and acylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active group combination and the principles of aromatic group bioisosterism. The structures of the novel derivatives were determined on the basis on 1H-NMR, IR and ESI-MS spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their in vivo insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus and Pieris rapae Linne, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed high insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad, and approximately identical insecticidal activity against H. armigera, P. xyllostella and P. rapae as the references metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad.

  20. A Novel Insecticidal Peptide SLP1 Produced by Streptomyces laindensis H008 against Lipaphis erysimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are major insect pests for crops, causing damage by direct feeding and transmission of plant diseases. This paper was completed to discover and characterize a novel insecticidal metabolite against aphids from soil actinobacteria. An insecticidal activity assay was used to screen 180 bacterial strains from soil samples against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. The bacterial strain H008 showed the strongest activity, and it was identified by the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and physiological traits as a novel species of genus Streptomyces (named S. laindensis H008. With the bioassay-guided method, the insecticidal extract from S. laindensis H008 was subjected to chromatographic separations. Finally, a novel insecticidal peptide was purified from Streptomyces laindensis H008 against L. erysimi, and it was determined to be S-E-P-A-Q-I-V-I-V-D-G-V-D-Y-W by TOF-MS and amino acid analysis.

  1. Mulberry (桑葚子 Sang Shèn Zǐ and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Pei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (桑葚子 sāng shèn zǐ, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases.

  2. Characteristics of sucrose formation, and the influence of UV irradiation on the feeding by the silkworm, in leaves of the mulberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazawa, M.

    1997-01-01

    The mode of formation of sucrose, which is not only a nutritional material but also a phagostimulant for larvae of Bombyx mori, was investigated by measuring the rates of photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation in mulberry leaves. Also examined was the influence of UV irradiation to mulberry leaves on the feeding by larvae, as an increase in total amounts of UV rays arriving the surface of the earth due to the destruction of ozone layer has recently led to a global issue. Using mesophyll cells isolated from mulberry leaves, the photosynthetic rate was determined by the oxygen electrode method, and the pathway of carbon dioxide fixation was analyzed by the incorporation of radioactive precursors. In comparison with Ichinose, a popular Japanese race of mulberry, Thailand races investigated were found to be peculiar in that their photosynthetic activities were lower and the photorespiration (glycolic acid cycle) activities were higher, although the synthetic rate of sucrose and its content were much higher than those of Ichinose. It is thus likely that the photorespiration pathway is more important to the sucrose formation in the Thailand races than in Ichinose. In addition, the temperatures during cultivation of mulberry trees was found to influence the relative contributions of photosynthesis and photorespiration to the sucrose formation

  3. Weevil x Insecticide: Does 'Personality' Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juliana A; Cardoso, Danúbia G; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2013-01-01

    An insect's behavior is the expression of its integrated physiology in response to external and internal stimuli, turning insect behavior into a potential determinant of insecticide exposure. Behavioral traits may therefore influence insecticide efficacy against insects, compromising the validity of standard bioassays of insecticide activity, which are fundamentally based on lethality alone. By extension, insect 'personality' (i.e., an individual's integrated set of behavioral tendencies that is inferred from multiple empirical measures) may also be an important determinant of insecticide exposure and activity. This has yet to be considered because the behavioral studies involving insects and insecticides focus on populations rather than on individuals. Even among studies of animal 'personality', the relative contributions of individual and population variation are usually neglected. Here, we assessed behavioral traits (within the categories: activity, boldness/shyness, and exploration/avoidance) of individuals from 15 populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), an important stored-grain pest with serious problems of insecticide resistance, and correlated the behavioral responses with the activity of the insecticide deltamethrin. This analysis was performed at both the population and individual levels. There was significant variation in weevil 'personality' among individuals and populations, but variation among individuals within populations accounted for most of the observed variation (92.57%). This result emphasizes the importance of individual variation in behavioral and 'personality' studies. When the behavioral traits assessed were correlated with median lethal time (LT50) at the population level and with the survival time under insecticide exposure, activity traits, particularly the distance walked, significantly increased survival time. Therefore, behavioral traits are important components of insecticide efficacy, and individual variation should be

  4. Status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Buhler, Cyril; Pignatelli, Patricia; Ranson, Hilary; Nahzat, Sami Mohammad; Naseem, Mohammad; Sabawoon, Muhammad Farooq; Siddiqi, Abdul Majeed; Vink, Martijn

    2016-02-18

    Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. In Afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. The main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission. Adult female mosquitoes were reared from larvae successively collected in the provinces of Nangarhar, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ghazni and Laghman from August to October 2014. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %), malathion (5 %), bendiocarb (0.1 %), permethrin (0.75 %) and deltamethrin (0.05 %). In addition, the presence of kdr mutations was investigated in deltamethrin resistant and susceptible Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes collected in the eastern provinces of Nangarhar and Kunar. Analyses of mortality rates revealed emerging resistance against all four classes of insecticides in the provinces located east and south of the Hindu Kush mountain range. Resistance is observed in both An. stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies, the two dominant malaria vectors in these provinces. Anopheles superpictus in the northern province of Badakhshan shows a different pattern of susceptibility with suspected resistance observed only for deltamethrin and bendiocarb. Genotype analysis of knock down resistance (kdr) mutations at the voltage-gated channel gene from An. stephensi mosquitoes shows the presence of the known resistant alleles L1014S and L1014F. However, a significant fraction of deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes were homozygous for the 1014L wild type allele indicating that other mechanisms must be considered to account for the observed pyrethroid resistance. This study confirms the importance of monitoring insecticide resistance for the development of an integrated vector management in Afghanistan. The

  5. Concentration-mortality responses of Myzus persicae and natural enemies to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Silva, Gerson A; Martins, Júlio C

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides was determined for the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and some of its natural enemies - the predatory beetles Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) and Acanthinus sp. (Anthicidae), and the wasp parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Aphidiidae). Natural enemies from these groups are important natural biological control agents in a number of agroecosystems, and insecticides potentially safe to these non-target organisms should be identified using standardized tests. Thus, concentration-mortality bioassays were carried out with both the aphid and its natural enemies to assess the toxicity and selectivity of acephate, deltamethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and pirimicarb. The latter insecticide was highly selective to all natural enemies tested, and its LC(90) for M. persicae was 14-fold lower than the field rate recommended for control of the aphid in brassica crops. Methyl parathion also showed selectivity to C. sanguinea and Acanthinus sp., but not to D. rapae. Acephate was the least potent insecticide against M. persicae and was equally or more toxic to the natural enemies relative to the aphid. Pirimicarb and methyl parathion were efficient against M. persicae and selective in favor of two of the natural enemies tested. Acanthinus sp. and C. sanguinea were more tolerant to the insecticides than was the parasitoid D. rapae. This study shows that there are selective insecticides that may be compatible with conservation of natural enemies in brassica crops, which is important practical information to improve integrated pest management systems in these crops.

  6. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fungal degradation of organophosphorous insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)); Kakar, S.N.; Coleman, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Organophosphorous insecticides are used extensively to treat a variety of pests and insects. Although as a group they are easily degraded by bacteria in the environment, a number of them have half-lives of several months. Little is known about their biodegradation by fungi. We have shown that Phanerochaete chrysosporium can substantially degrade chlorpyrifos, fonofos, and terbufos (27.5%, 12.2%, and 26.6%, respectively) during 18-day incubation in nitrogen-limited stationary cultures. The results demonstrate that the clorinated pyridinyl ring of chlorpyrifos and the phenyl ring of fonofos undergo ring cleavage during biodegradation by the fungus. The usefulness of the fungus system for bioremediation is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The activity of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr in mosquito bioassay: towards a more rational testing and screening of non-neurotoxic insecticides for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborough, Richard M; N'Guessan, Raphael; Jones, Rebecca; Kitau, Jovin; Ngufor, Corine; Malone, David; Mosha, Franklin W; Rowland, Mark W

    2015-03-24

    The rapid selection of pyrethroid resistance throughout sub-Saharan Africa is a serious threat to malaria vector control. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide which shows no cross resistance to insecticide classes normally used for vector control and is effective on mosquito nets under experimental hut conditions. Unlike neurotoxic insecticides, chlorfenapyr owes its toxicity to disruption of metabolic pathways in mitochondria that enable cellular respiration. A series of experiments explored whether standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for evaluation of long-lasting insecticidal nets, developed through testing of pyrethroid insecticides, are suitable for evaluation of non-neurotoxic insecticides. The efficacy of WHO recommended cone, cylinder and tunnel tests was compared for pyrethroids and chlorfenapyr. To establish bioassay exposure times predictive of insecticide-treated net (ITN) efficacy in experimental hut trials, standard three-minute bioassays of pyrethroid and chlorfenapyr ITNs were compared with longer exposures. Mosquito behaviour and response to chlorfenapyr ITN in bioassays conducted at night were compared to day and across a range of temperatures representative of highland and lowland transmission. Standard three-minute bioassay of chlorfenapyr produced extremely low levels of mortality compared to pyrethroids. Thirty-minute day-time bioassay produced mortality closer to hut efficacy of chlorfenapyr ITN but still fell short of the WHO threshold. Overnight tunnel test with chlorfenapyr produced 100% mortality and exceeded the WHO threshold of 80%. The endogenous circadian activity rhythm of anophelines results in inactivity by day and raised metabolism and flight activity by night. A model which explains improved toxicity of chlorfenapyr ITN when tested at night, and during the day at higher ambient temperature, is that activation of chlorfenapyr and disruption of respiratory pathways is enhanced when the insect is more metabolically

  9. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  10. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2014-03-01

    Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane). Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information regarding botanicals acting as alternative to chemical insecticide against sandflies assumes importance in the context of development of resistance to insecticides as well as to prevent environment from contamination. This review deals with some plants and their products having repellent and insecticidal effect to sandflies in India and abroad. Different methods of extraction and their bioassay on sandflies have been emphasized in the text. Various extracts of some plants like Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Solanum jasminoides (Solanaceae), Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae), Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae) and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) had shown repellent/insecticidal effect on sandflies. This review will be useful in conducting the research work to find out botanicals of Indian context having insecticidal effect on sandflies.

  11. Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jean-Philippe; Faucon, Frédéric; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Navratil, Vincent; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-03-05

    Mosquito control programmes using chemical insecticides are increasingly threatened by the development of resistance. Such resistance can be the consequence of changes in proteins targeted by insecticides (target site mediated resistance), increased insecticide biodegradation (metabolic resistance), altered transport, sequestration or other mechanisms. As opposed to target site resistance, other mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Indeed, insecticide selection often affects a large number of genes and various biological processes can hypothetically confer resistance. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for comparing transcription level and polymorphism variations associated with adaptation to chemical insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Biological materials consisted of a parental susceptible strain together with three child strains selected across multiple generations with three insecticides from different classes: the pyrethroid permethrin, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate propoxur. After ten generations, insecticide-selected strains showed elevated resistance levels to the insecticides used for selection. RNA-seq data allowed detecting over 13,000 transcripts, of which 413 were differentially transcribed in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain. Among them, a significant enrichment of transcripts encoding cuticle proteins, transporters and enzymes was observed. Polymorphism analysis revealed over 2500 SNPs showing > 50% allele frequency variations in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain, affecting over 1000 transcripts. Comparing gene transcription and polymorphism patterns revealed marked differences among strains. While imidacloprid selection was linked to the over transcription of many genes, permethrin selection was rather linked to polymorphism variations. Focusing on detoxification enzymes revealed that permethrin

  12. Decrease of insecticide resistance over generations without exposure to insecticides in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemipteran: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajun; Dong, Biqin; Xu, Hongxing; Zheng, Xusong; Tian, Junce; Heong, Kongleun; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-08-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most important insect pests on paddy rice in tropical and temperate Asia. Overuse and misuse of insecticides have resulted in the development of high resistance to many different insecticides in this pest. Studies were conducted to evaluate the change of resistance level to four insecticides over 15 generations without any exposure to insecticides in brown planthopper. After 15 generations' rearing without exposure to insecticide, brown planthopper could reverse the resistance to imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and fenobucarb. The range and style of resistance reversal of brown planthopper differed when treated with four different insecticides. To monitor potential changes in insect physiological responses, we measured the activity of each of the three selected enzymes, including acetylcholinesterases (AChE), general esterases (EST), and glutathione S-transferases. After multiple generations' rearing without exposure to insecticide, AChE and EST activities of brown planthopper declined with the increased generations, suggesting that the brown planthopper population adjusted activities of EST and AChE to adapt to the non-insecticide environment. These findings suggest that the reducing, temporary stop, or rotation of insecticide application could be incorporated into the brown planthopper management.

  13. Sorption and desorption of insecticides in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution of ten Brazilian soil types of four organochlorine, two organophosphorus and one carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory using gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Measurements showed that soils richest in organic matter, sorbed all substances except aldrin more strongly than the other soils. DDT was the most and aldrin the least sorbed organochlorine pesticide, being dieldrin sorbed two to four times more strongly than aldrin. Sorption of lindane varied in different soils. The organophosphate insecticides malathion and parathion were strongly sorbed in the soils richest in organic matter and weakly sorbed in the poorest soils heing moderately sorbed by the other soils. Sorption of carbaryl by all soils is small. Lindane was desorbed from the soil richest in organic matter and the extent of desorption was dependent on the sorption time. (Author) [pt

  14. Insecticide exposure affects DNA and antioxidant enzymes activity in honey bee species Apis florea and A. dorsata: Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Khizar; Afzal, Muhammad; Aqueel, Muhammad Anjum; Ali, Sajjad; Saeed, Muhammad Farhan; Khan, Qaiser M; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2018-04-23

    Insecticide exposure can affect honey bees in agro-ecosystems, posing behavioral stresses that can lead to population decline. In this study, insecticide incidence, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were studied in Apis florea and A. dorsata honey bee samples collected from insecticide-treated and insecticide-free areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Seven insecticides: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, imidacloprid, phorate, emamectin, chlorfenapyr, and acetamiprid were detected in seven samples of A. florea and five samples of A. dorsata. In total, 12 samples (22.2%) of honey bees were found positive to insecticide presence out of 54 samples. The most frequently detected insecticide was chlorpyrifos, which was found in four samples (7.4%), with a concentration ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 μg/g and an average concentration 0.03 μg/g. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis assay, a simple way to measure DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells, was used to microscopically find damage of DNA at the level of a single cell. Comet tail lengths of DNA in A. florea and A. dorsata samples from insecticide-treated areas were significantly higher (P honey bee samples from insecticide-treated and insecticide-free areas, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity showed a significant reduction in response to insecticide exposure. Significant positive correlations were detected between enzyme activity and insecticide concentration in honey bee species from insecticide-treated areas compared with control groups. Toxicity from pesticide exposure at sub-lethal levels after application or from exposure to pesticide residues should not be underestimated in honey bees, as it may induce physiological impairment that can decline honey bees' health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Insecticide-mediated apparent displacement between two invasive species of leafminer fly.

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    Yulin Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Closely related invasive species may often displace one another, but it is often difficult to determine mechanisms because of the historical nature of these events. The leafmining flies Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii have become serious invasive agricultural pests throughout the world. Where both species have invaded the same region, one predominates over the other. Although L. sativae invaded Hainan Island of China first, it recently has been displaced by the newly invasive L. trifolii. We hypothesized that differential susceptibilities to insecticides could be causing this demographic shift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Avermectin and cyromazine are the most commonly used insecticides to manage leafminers, with laboratory bioassays demonstrating that L. trifolii is significantly less susceptible to these key insecticides than is L. sativae. In trials where similar numbers of larvae of both species infested plants, which subsequently were treated with the insecticides, the eclosing adults were predominately L. trifolii, yet similar numbers of adults of both species eclosed from control plants. The species composition was then surveyed in two regions where L. trifolii has just begun to invade and both species are still common. In field trials, both species occurred in similar proportions before insecticide treatments began. Following applications of avermectin and cyromazine, almost all eclosing adults were L. trifolii in those treatment plots. In control plots, similar numbers of adults of the two species eclosed, lending further credence to the hypothesis that differential insecticide susceptibilities could be driving the ongoing displacement of L. sativae by L. trifolii. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that differential insecticide susceptibility can lead to rapid shifts in the demographics of pest complexes. Thus, successful pest management requires the identification of pest species to understand the

  16. Correlation between carboxylesterase alleles and insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens complex from China

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    Liu Yangyang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, large amounts of chemical insecticides are applied in fields or indoors every year, directly or indirectly bringing selection pressure on vector mosquitoes. Culex pipiens complex has evolved to be resistant to all types of chemical insecticides, especially organophosphates, through carboxylesterases. Six resistant carboxylesterase alleles (Ester were recorded previously and sometimes co-existed in one field population, representing a complex situation for the evolution of Ester genes. Results In order to explore the evolutionary scenario, we analyzed the data from an historical record in 2003 and a recent investigation on five Culex pipiens pallens populations sampled from north China in 2010. Insecticide bioassays showed that these five populations had high resistance to pyrethroids, medium resistance to organophosphates, and low resistance to carbamates. Six types of Ester alleles, EsterB1, Ester2, Ester8, Ester9, EsterB10, and Ester11 were identified, and the overall pattern of their frequencies in geographic distribution was consistent with the report seven years prior to this study. Statistical correlation analysis indicated that Ester8 and Ester9 positively correlated with resistance to four insecticides, and EsterB10 to one insecticide. The occurrences of these three alleles were positively correlated, while the occurrence of EsterB1 was negatively correlated with Ester8, indicating an allelic competition. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that one insecticide can select multiple Ester alleles and one Ester allele can work on multiple insecticides. The evolutionary scenario of carboxylesterases under insecticide selection is possibly "one to many".

  17. Resistance irrelevant CYP417A2v2 was found degrading insecticide in Laodelphax striatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Elzaki, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) usually overexpressed in resistant strain were found involved in oxidative detoxification of insecticides. In this study, an investigation was conducted to confirm if resistance irrelevant CYPs which were not overexpressed in resistant strain before, were capable of degrading insecticides. Three resistance irrelevant CYPs viz. CYP417A2v2, CYP425A1v2, and CYP4DJ1 from CYP4 family of Laodelphax striatellus were randomly selected for experiments. CYP417A2v2 and CYP425A1v2 were found expressed successfully in Sf9 cell line while CYP4DJ1 was not expressed successfully and out of two expressed CYPs, only CYP417A2v2 showed its efficient catalytic activity. For catalytic activity, three traditional model probe substrates and five insecticides were assayed. For the probe substrates screened, p -nitroanisole and ethoxycoumarin were preferentially metabolized by CYP417A2v2 (specific activity 3.76 ± 1.22 and 1.63 ± 0.37 nmol min -1  mg protein -1 , respectively) and they may be potential diagnostic probes for this enzyme. Among insecticides, only imidacloprid was efficiently degraded by CYP417A2v2. Incubation of imidacloprid with CYP417A2v2 of L. striatellus and subsequent HPLC, LC-MS, and MS/MS analysis revealed the formation of imidacloprid metabolites, that is, 4' or 5'hydroxy-imidacloprid by hydroxylation. This result implies the exemption of CYPs character that it is not always, all the CYPs degrading insecticides being selected and overexpressed in resistant strains and the degrading CYPs without mutations to upregulate could be candidates during insecticide resistance evolution. This characterization of individual insect CYPs in insecticide degradation can provide insight for better understand of insecticide resistance development.

  18. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the

  19. Neonicotinoid insecticides can serve as inadvertent insect contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar-Bouza, Laura; Bruckner, Selina; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Gauthier, Laurent; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Retschnig, Gina; Troxler, Aline; Vidondo, Beatriz; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    There is clear evidence for sublethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target ecosystem service-providing insects. However, their possible impact on male insect reproduction is currently unknown, despite the key role of sex. Here, we show that two neonicotinoids (4.5 ppb thiamethoxam and 1.5 ppb clothianidin) significantly reduce the reproductive capacity of male honeybees (drones), Apis mellifera. Drones were obtained from colonies exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticides or controls, and subsequently maintained in laboratory cages until they reached sexual maturity. While no significant effects were observed for male teneral (newly emerged adult) body mass and sperm quantity, the data clearly showed reduced drone lifespan, as well as reduced sperm viability (percentage living versus dead) and living sperm quantity by 39%. Our results demonstrate for the first time that neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect male insect reproductive capacity, and provide a possible mechanistic explanation for managed honeybee queen failure and wild insect pollinator decline. The widespread prophylactic use of neonicotinoids may have previously overlooked inadvertent contraceptive effects on non-target insects, thereby limiting conservation efforts. PMID:27466446

  20. Photodegradation of neonicotinoid insecticides in water by semiconductor oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2015-10-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of three neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs), thiamethoxam (TH), imidacloprid (IM) and acetamiprid (AC), in pure water has been studied using zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalysts under natural sunlight and artificial light irradiation. Photocatalytic experiments showed that the addition of these chalcogenide oxides in tandem with the electron acceptor (Na2S2O8) strongly enhances the degradation rate of these compounds in comparison with those carried out with ZnO and TiO2 alone and photolytic tests. Comparison of catalysts showed that ZnO is the most efficient for the removal of such insecticides in optimal conditions and at constant volumetric rate of photon absorption. Thus, the complete disappearance of all the studied compounds was achieved after 10 and 30 min of artificial light irradiation, in the ZnO/Na2S2O8 and TiO2/Na2S2O8 systems, respectively. The highest degradation rate was noticed for IM, while the lowest rate constant was obtained for AC under artificial light irradiation. In addition, solar irradiation was more efficient compared to artificial light for the removal of these insecticides from water. The main photocatalytic intermediates detected during the degradation of NIs were identified.

  1. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  2. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of New Ester-Derivatives of Celangulin-V

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    Wenjun Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop new biorational pesticides, ten new 6-substituted ester derivatives of Celangulin-V were designed and synthesized. The structures of the new derivatives were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectral analysis. Insecticidal activities of these compounds were tested against the third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata. Two derivatives (1.1, 1.2 showed higher insecticidal activities than Celangulin-V, with mortality of 75.0% and 83.3%, respectively. While four compounds (1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 denoted lower insecticidal activities, the others (1.5, 1.6, 1.9, 1.10 revealed no activities at a concentration of 10 mg.mL−1. The results suggest that C-6 substitutions of Celangulin-V are very important in determining the insecticidal activities of its ester-derivatives. That the acetyl (1.1 and propionyl (1.2 derivatives possessed much higher insecticidal activities than Celangulin-V itself supported the view that Celangulin-V has the potential to be a lead structure of semi-synthetic green insecticides.

  3. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  4. Enhancing emulsification and antioxidant ability of egg albumin by moderately acid hydrolysis: Modulating an emulsion-based system for mulberry seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Kang, Xu; Yuan, Jiang-Lan

    2018-07-01

    Mulberry seed oil (MSO) is a kind of potential health-care lipids. This study, we investigated unsaturated fatty acids profiles of freshly squeezed MSO by GC-MS and modulated an oil-in-water emulsion system stabilized by acid hydrolyzed egg albumin (AHEA) to protect MSO from oxidation. The results showed that the content of total unsaturated fatty acids in MSO was almost 80%, of which 9, 12- and 10, 13-linoleic acid was over 60% and 10% respectively. In the case of the MSO-in-AHEA emulsions, it was observed that acid hydrolysis improved emulsifying effect, emulsifying stability and antioxidant activity of egg albumin (EA). The hydrolysates of EA (1%, w/w) acid hydrolyzed for 4 h at 85 °C had the best DPPH radical scavenging efficiency. It was suitable for EA to hydrolyze for 4 to 12 h at pH 2.5 and 85 °C because of their better emulsification and oxidation stability than the others. The results about AHEA could be valuable for designing delivery and protect systems for MSO or other bioactive component to avoid their oxidative damage or control their release. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biotransformation and metabolism of three mulberry anthocyanin monomers by rat gut microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2017-12-15

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are naturally occurring components of human diet. Evidence has accumulated regarding the positive association of their intake with chronic disease. Because microbiota has been considered as a metabolic organ, the bacterial-dependent metabolisms of three types of ACNs from mulberry fruits (cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R), delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R)) during a simulation of large intestine conditions were investigated. ACNs and metabolites were analysed and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). C3G disappeared after 6h of metabolism, while C3R and D3R were no longer detected after 8h. The metabolism of C3G and C3R mainly resulted in the formation of protocatechuic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, as well as 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, while the main metabolites of D3R were gallic acid, syringic acid and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde. This research indicated that the intake of ACNs may result in the appearance of specific metabolites that exert a protective effect in the host physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tong; Lu, Ping; He, Nan

    2013-05-01

    Mulberry twig chars were prepared by pyrolysis, steam activation and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Textural characteristics and surface functional groups were performed using nitrogen adsorption and FTIR, respectively. Mercury adsorption of different modified MT chars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed absorber. The results indicated that steam activation and H2O2-impregnation can improve pore structure significantly and H2O2-impregnation and chloride-impregnation promote surface functional groups. However, chloride-impregnation has adverse effect on pore structure. Mercury adsorption capacities of impregnated MT chars with 10% or 30% H2O2 are 2.02 and 1.77 times of steam activated MT char, respectively. Mercury adsorption capacity of ZnCl2-impregnated MT char increase with increasing ZnCl2 content and is better than that of NaCl-impregnated MT char at the same chloride content. The modified MT char (MT873-A-Z5) prepared by steam activation following impregnation with 5% ZnCl2 exhibits a higher mercury adsorption capacity (29.55 μg g(-1)) than any other MT chars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market.

  9. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  10. Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natić, Maja M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Papetti, Adele; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojević, Mirjana; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29 mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45 μM ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical and hydrologic environments of the Mulberry coal reserves in eastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.; Bevans, H.E.; Diaz, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Strippable reserves of Mulberry coal underlie an area of approximately 300 square miles of Miami, Linn, and Bourbon Counties of eastern Kansas. Although subject to State reclamation law, current and projected strip mining of this relatively thin coal seam could alter and hydrologic environment of the study area. Drained by the Marais des Cygnes and Little Osage Rivers and their tributaries, this area is characterized by low relief and moderately impermeable soils. Streamflows are poorly sustained by ground-water discharge and fluctuate widely due to climatic extremes and usage of surface-water supplies. Because ground-water supplies are generally unreliable in quantity and quality, surface water is used to meet most water requirements in the study area. Primary used of surface waters are for domestic supplies, maintenance of wildlife and recreational areas, and cooling needs at LaCygne Power Plant. The prevailing chemical type of the natural streamflow is calcium bicarbonate, with concentrations of dissolved solids generally less than 500 milligrams per liter and pH near neutral. Additional streamflow and water-quality data are needed to evaluate the premining characteristics of and the anticipated changes in the hydrologic environment as strip mining proceeds within the study area. A network of data-collection stations and a sampling scheme have been established to acquire this additional information. (USGS)

  12. Mulberry Tumors in Retina and Nasal Hamartoma in a Patient With Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reshadat

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberous Sclerosis (TS is an autosomal dominant disease that affects the brain, skin, eye, heart, kidney even bones. The commonest presentation is seizures in infancy or early childhood (in 80% of cases, mental retardation (in 44%of cases. Characteristic skin lesion includes facial angiofibromas, adenoma sebaceum, hypopigmented macules, shagreen patches ungual ungual fibromas, ash leaf spots, cafe'-au-lait spots.Case Report: A nine years old male was admitted in a pediatric hospital because of the status myoclonic seizures. Seizures had been started since infancy. In physical exam he had some hypopigmented macules, cafe'-au-lait spots and ash leaf lesions, frontal fibrosis and also shagreen patches. Patient was a case of mild mentally retardation with no any focal neurological deficit. Computed tomography scan of brain and MRI imaging revealed sub ependymal tubers with multiple calcification in both sides of parietal region. Electroencephal-ogram recording suggested abnormal spike, sharp wave discharges and lennox-Gastaut pattern. The diagnosis based on the history and physical exam and MRI were tuberous sclerosis. His foundoscopic exam revealed two prominent calcified mass around right optic disc in supratemporal arch, left eye was normal. Retinal angiography revealed the mulberry tumors and right phakoma of retina. Conclusion: Computed tomography also revaled the nasal hamartoma. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of angiomyolipoma because the lesion was composed of smooth muscle bundles, mature adipose tissue and blood vessels of different sizes. He remained seizures free after treatment.

  13. The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

    2013-10-01

    Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root

  14. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  16. Malaria Vector Control Still Matters despite Insecticide Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alout, Haoues; Labbé, Pierrick; Chandre, Fabrice; Cohuet, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Mosquito vectors' resistance to insecticides is usually considered a major threat to the recent progresses in malaria control. However, studies measuring the impact of interventions and insecticide resistance reveal inconsistencies when using entomological versus epidemiological indices. First, evaluation tests that do not reflect the susceptibility of mosquitoes when they are infectious may underestimate insecticide efficacy. Moreover, interactions between insecticide resistance and vectorial capacity reveal nonintuitive outcomes of interventions. Therefore, considering ecological interactions between vector, parasite, and environment highlights that the impact of insecticide resistance on the malaria burden is not straightforward and we suggest that vector control still matters despite insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kum, Jun-Seok; Choi, Yun-Sang; Seo, Dong-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jong-Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h....

  18. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. - Highlights: • First global map on insecticide runoff through modelling. • Model predicts upper limit of insecticide exposure when compared to field data. • Water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects. • Insecticide application rate, terrain slope and rainfall main drivers of exposure. - We provide the first global map on insecticide runoff to surface water predicting that water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects

  19. Aedes aegypti resistance development to commonly used insecticides in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Humaidah Hamid

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of various relevant arthropod-borne viral infectious diseases worldwide. The mosquito control is still mainly performed by using insecticides but their effectiveness is increasingly questioned nowadays. We here conducted a study on Ae. aegypti resistance development towards several commonly used insecticides in the capital city of Jakarta, Indonesia. In order to achieve this goal, Ae. aegypti eggs from Jakarta were collected with ovitraps and hatched in the insectary of the Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. The F0 generations were used for WHO resistance tests and knockdown resistance (kdr assays. Presented results clearly showed that there was resistance development of Ae. aegypti populations to the here tested pyrethroid insecticides (i. e. permethrin. Observed mortalities were less than 90% with highest resistance against 0.75% permethrin concentrations. Furthermore, a significant association of V1016G gene mutations with resistance phenotypes to 0.75% permethrin was observed. Nevertheless, the F1534C mutation did not show a significant correlation to resistance development. In conclusion, our results show that populations of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes within the city of Jakarta have developed resistance against several routinely used pyrethroid insecticides in local performed control programs. Thus, the regular verification/assessment of resistance development status will hopefully help in the future to assist local public health authorities in their mosquito control programs by recommending and managing the rotation of different routinely used insecticides with diverse effector mechanisms in order to delay Ae. aegypti resistance development.

  20. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  2. Neurobehavioral toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofton, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as either Type I or Type II based upon in vivo toxic signs, and neurophysiological and biochemical data. Both axonal sodium channels and the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex have been proposed as the major site of action of the Type II pyrethroids. This investigation characterized the behavior and biochemical effects of low dosages of pyrethroids in rats. Type I and II pyrethroids were tested for effects on figure-eight maze activity and the acoustic startle response (ASR). All compounds decreased figure-eight maze activity. Interactions of Type I and II pyrethroids with the three major binding sites on the GABA complex were determined in vivo. Radioligand binding experiments assessed in vitro interactions of pyrethroids with the three major GABA-complex binding sites. None of the pyrethroids competed for [ 3 H]-muscimol or [ 3 H]-flunitrazepam binding. Only Type II pyrethroids inhibited binding of [ 35 S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) in cortical synaptosome preparations with K/sub i/ values of 5 to 10 μM. The [ 35 S]-TBPS data implicate the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding site in the mechanism of Type II pyrethroid toxicity. The results of these experiments support the classification of pyrethroids into two classes, and demonstrate the utility of the figure-eight maze and the ASR in studies to elucidate neurotoxic mechanisms. The interaction of the Type II pyrethroids is probably restricted to the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding domain on the GABA complex as shown by both the in vivo and in vitro studies

  3. Insecticide susceptibility of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Homoptera: Miridae and two predatory arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhengqun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green plant bug (Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür is a key pest of Bt cotton in China. Along with biological control, chemical control is one of the most important strategies in A. lucorum Integrated Pest Management (IPM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of eight conventional insecticides to A. lucorum and to assess the susceptibility of two generalist predators Chrysopa sinica (Jieder and Propylaea japonica (Thunbery to insecticides that are commonly used in A. lucorum management. Via glass-vial and leaf-dip bioassay, toxicity tests with selected insecticides at two different life-stages of A. lucorum indicated significant differences between the LD50 or LC50 values for these compounds within different insecticidal classes. Phenylpyrazole fipronil had the highest toxicity to 4th-instar nymphs and adults of A. lucorum, whereas neonicotinoid imidacloprid had the lowest toxicity among the insecticides. Females were more tolerant to insecticides than were males, as shown by the higher LD50 values for females. Furthermore, laboratory tests showed that endosulfan had the highest selectivity to C. sinica and P. japonica: the selective toxicity ratios (STRs were superior to other tested insecticides, particularly imidacloprid, and were 5.396 and 4.749-fold higher than baseline STRs, respectively. From this study, we conclude that fipronil can potentially be used to efficiently control A. lucorum. An alternative control agent worth consideration is endosulfan, owing to its relative safety to non-targeted natural enemies.

  4. Describing the role of Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporters in insecticide biology using CRISPR-Cas9 knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Shane; Fusetto, Roberto; Batterham, Philip

    2017-12-01

    ABC transporters have a well-established role in drug resistance, effluxing xenobiotics from cells and tissues within the organism. More recently, research has been dedicated to understanding the role insect ABC transporters play in insecticide toxicity, but progress in understanding the contribution of specific transporters has been hampered by the lack of functional genetic tools. Here, we report knockouts of three Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporter genes, Mdr49, Mdr50, and Mdr65, that are homologous to the well-studied mammalian ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). Each knockout mutant was created in the same wild type background and tested against a panel of insecticides representing different chemical classes. Mdr65 knockouts were more susceptible to all neuroactive insecticides tested, but Mdr49 and Mdr50 knockouts showed increased susceptibility or resistance depending on the insecticide used. Mdr65 was chosen for further analysis. Calculation of LC 50 values for the Mdr65 knockout allowed the substrate specificity of this transporter to be examined. No obvious distinguishing structural features were shared among MDR65 substrates. A role for Mdr65 in insecticide transport was confirmed by testing the capacity of the knockout to synergize with the ABC inhibitor verapamil and by measuring the levels of insecticide retained in the body of knockout flies. These data unambiguously establish the influence of ABC transporters on the capacity of wild type D. melanogaster to tolerate insecticide exposure and suggest that both tissue and substrate specificity underpin this capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log K ow ) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log K ow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Dhanyalakshmi

    Full Text Available The modern sequencing technologies are generating large volumes of information at the transcriptome and genome level. Translation of this information into a biological meaning is far behind the race due to which a significant portion of proteins discovered remain as proteins of unknown function (PUFs. Attempts to uncover the functional significance of PUFs are limited due to lack of easy and high throughput functional annotation tools. Here, we report an approach to assign putative functions to PUFs, identified in the transcriptome of mulberry, a perennial tree commonly cultivated as host of silkworm. We utilized the mulberry PUFs generated from leaf tissues exposed to drought stress at whole plant level. A sequence and structure based computational analysis predicted the probable function of the PUFs. For rapid and easy annotation of PUFs, we developed an automated pipeline by integrating diverse bioinformatics tools, designated as PUFs Annotation Server (PUFAS, which also provides a web service API (Application Programming Interface for a large-scale analysis up to a genome. The expression analysis of three selected PUFs annotated by the pipeline revealed abiotic stress responsiveness of the genes, and hence their potential role in stress acclimation pathways. The automated pipeline developed here could be extended to assign functions to PUFs from any organism in general. PUFAS web server is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pufas/ and the web service is accessible at http://capservices.ncbs.res.in/help/pufas.

  7. Protective property of mulberry digest against oxidative stress - A potential approach to ameliorate dietary acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linxia; Xu, Yang; Li, Yuting; Bao, Tao; Gowd, Vemana; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was investigating the protective effect of mulberry digest (MBD) on acrylamide-induced oxidative stress. Composition analysis of MBD revealed that it contained six major phenolic compounds (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin hexoside, quercetin rhamnosylhexoside hexoside, kaempferol rhamnosylhexoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside). After in vitro digestion, the contents of two anthocyanins were both decreased significantly, while the contents of four flavonoid glycosides were all increased. In addition, MBD was found to successfully suppress acrylamide-induced ROS overproduction, restore the mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibit the mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion. More interestingly, the protective effect of MBD against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage was enhanced compared with mulberry fruits without digestion (MBE). Further study revealed that MBD enhanced the cell resistance capacity to acrylamide-induced oxidative stress, rather than its direct reaction with acrylamide. Overall, our results indicate that MBD provides a potent protection against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mode of Action of the Natural Insecticide, Decaleside Involves Sodium Pump Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallappa Rajashekar

    Full Text Available Decalesides are a new class of natural insecticides which are toxic to insects by contact via the tarsal gustatory chemosensilla. The symptoms of their toxicity to insects and the rapid knockdown effect suggest neurotoxic action, but the precise mode of action and the molecular targets for decaleside action are not known. We have presented experimental evidence for the involvement of sodium pump inhibition in the insecticidal action of decaleside in the cockroach and housefly. The knockdown effect of decaleside is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+, K+ -ATPase in the head and thorax. The lack of insecticidal action by experimental ablation of tarsi or blocking the tarsal sites with paraffin correlated with lack of inhibition of Na+- K+ ATPase in vivo. Maltotriose, a trisaccharide, partially rescued the toxic action of decaleside as well as inhibition of the enzyme, suggesting the possible involvement of gustatory sugar receptors. In vitro studies with crude insect enzyme preparation and purified porcine Na+, K+ -ATPase showed that decaleside competitively inhibited the enzyme involving the ATP binding site. Our study shows that the insecticidal action of decaleside via the tarsal gustatory sites is causally linked to the inhibition of sodium pump which represents a unique mode of action. The precise target(s for decaleside in the tarsal chemosensilla and the pathway linked to inhibition of sodium pump and the insecticidal action remain to be understood.

  9. Impact of insecticides on parasitoids of the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, in pepper in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ricardo; Harris, Marvin; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-01-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are cosmopolitan, polyphagous pests of horticultural plants and many are resistant to insecticides. Producers in South Texas rely on insecticides as the primary management tool for leafminers, and several compounds are available. The objective of this study is to address the efficacy of these compounds for controlling Liriomyza while minimizing their effects against natural enemies. Research plots were established at Texas AgriLife research center at Weslaco, Texas in fall 2007 and spring 2008 seasons, and peppers were used as a model crop. Plots were sprayed with novaluron, abamectin, spinetoram, lambda-cyhalothrin and water as treatments according to leafminer infestation; insecticide efficacy was monitored by collecting leaves and infested foliage. Plant phenology was also monitored. Novaluron was the most effective insecticide and lambda-cyhalothrin showed resurgence in leafminer density in fall 2007 and no reduction in spring 2008. Other compounds varied in efficacy. Novaluron showed the least number of parasitoids per leafminer larva and the lowest parasitoid diversity index among treatments followed by spinetoram. Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) was the sole leafminer species on peppers, and 19 parasitoid species were found associated with this leafminer. Application of these insecticides for management of leafminers with conservation of natural enemies is discussed.

  10. [Susceptibility of natural populations of dengue vector to insecticides in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacoloma, Liliana; Chaves, Bernardo; Brochero, Helena Luisa

    2012-09-01

    Physiological resistance of natural population of Aedes aegypti to insecticides contribute to the decreased efficacy of chemical control as a main control strategy during dengue outbreaks. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti was assessed for the carbamate propoxur, the adulticide malathion and the larvicide temephos on 13 natural populations of Ae. aegypti immature forms were taken from 8 Colombian localities. These included the following: Bucaramanga (1), Sabana de Torres (2), Girardot (2), La Mesa (2), Villavicencio (2), Puerto López (2), San José del Guaviare (1) and Florencia (1). Susceptibility tests mainly consisted of the standardized bioassay outlined by WHO (1981) and CDC bottles (1998). Colorimetric tests were undertaken to determine enzyme levels possibly responsible for the reduction of susceptibility to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. All specimens demonstrated susceptibility to malathion and propoxur insecticides. Four of the 13 populations revealed susceptibility to the temephos larvicide. Seven of 11 populations showed a limited increase in values for nonspecific esterase enzymes. The Bucaramanga population was the only one which showed an increase in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enzymes. Neither population was found with modified acetilcolinesterase. The widespread susceptibility to organophosphates used as adulticides indicated that malathion, the most used insecticide in Colombia, remains effective in interrupting the transmission of dengue. Physiological resistance to insecticides occurring in communities of a single township proved to be a localized phenomenon.

  11. Mode of Action of the Natural Insecticide, Decaleside Involves Sodium Pump Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Shivanandappa, Thimmappa

    2017-01-01

    Decalesides are a new class of natural insecticides which are toxic to insects by contact via the tarsal gustatory chemosensilla. The symptoms of their toxicity to insects and the rapid knockdown effect suggest neurotoxic action, but the precise mode of action and the molecular targets for decaleside action are not known. We have presented experimental evidence for the involvement of sodium pump inhibition in the insecticidal action of decaleside in the cockroach and housefly. The knockdown effect of decaleside is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+, K+ -ATPase in the head and thorax. The lack of insecticidal action by experimental ablation of tarsi or blocking the tarsal sites with paraffin correlated with lack of inhibition of Na+- K+ ATPase in vivo. Maltotriose, a trisaccharide, partially rescued the toxic action of decaleside as well as inhibition of the enzyme, suggesting the possible involvement of gustatory sugar receptors. In vitro studies with crude insect enzyme preparation and purified porcine Na+, K+ -ATPase showed that decaleside competitively inhibited the enzyme involving the ATP binding site. Our study shows that the insecticidal action of decaleside via the tarsal gustatory sites is causally linked to the inhibition of sodium pump which represents a unique mode of action. The precise target(s) for decaleside in the tarsal chemosensilla and the pathway linked to inhibition of sodium pump and the insecticidal action remain to be understood.

  12. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  13. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been a rapid emergence in insecticide resistance among mosquito population to commonly used public health insecticides. This situation presents a challenge to chemicals that are currently used to control mosquitoes in sub-Saharan African. Furthermore, there is limited information on insecticide ...

  14. Microbes as interesting source of novel insecticides: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strains with good insecticidal properties can be identified, evaluated and utilized for pest control. This paper reviews the insecticidal properties of microbes and their potential utility in pest management. Keywords: Microbes, insecticides, metabolites, pest management. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(26) 2582- ...

  15. Metabolic control of the insecticides safety use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Solomenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the conducted research affirm that the phosphororganic insecticides utilization can lead to the break in the nitrogen metabolism, breaking the protein formation, reducing the protein molecules renewal, causing the amino acid and amides accumulation in the active state. It has been revealed that the translocation and transformation of the insecticides under consideration are more closely connected with the changes of insoluble protein fraction. The stagnation point of the Phosphamide and Kaunter impact on the plant has been determined. And only the use of the preparation in optimal norms can influence stimulatingly the course of the process under consideration.

  16. Oral toxicity of fipronil insecticide against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Clara Tavares; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    For a better evaluation of the model using Apis mellifera in toxicology studies with insecticides, the oral acute toxicity of the insecticide fipronil against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris was determined. The results showed that fipronil was highly toxic to M. scutellaris, with a calculated LC(50) (48 h) value of 0.011 ng a.i./μL of sucrose solution and an estimated oral LD(50) (48 h) of 0.6 ng a.i./bee. Our results showed that M. scutellaris bee is more sensitive to fipronil than the model specie A. mellifera.

  17. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante. The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, the cost effectiveness was computed. Treatments were designated as follows: Treatment 1- plants sprayed with active ingredient (a.i. cartap hydrochloride; Treatment 2 - plants sprayed with a.i. indoxacarb; Treatment 3- plants sprayed with a.i. chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam; Treatment 4 - plants sprayed with a.i. dinotefuran (positive control; and Treatment 5 - no insecticide applied. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. The first three systemic insecticides with such active ingredient were not yet registered for tomato plant. Statistical analyses show that there were no significant differences among the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant for each treatment. Results showed that treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 extracts have 49.74, 44.16, 48.19, 52.57 and 50.60 μg/g of total carotenoids (TC, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that there no significant differences in the TC content of each treatment. The antibacterial activity of each plant sample showed no significant differences among treatments. Thin layer chromatographic analysis revealed that there were equal numbers of spots for all the plant samples.The study concluded that systemic insecticide with a.i. cartap hydrochloride be introduced to the farmers as insecticide for tomato plant since it shows comparable effect with the registered insecticide (T4 based on the morphological

  18. Using trap crops for control of Acalymma vittatum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reduces insecticide use in butternut squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, A; Hazzard, R; Adler, L S; Boucher, J

    2009-06-01

    Striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F., is the primary insect pest of cucurbit crops in the northeastern United States. Adult beetles colonize squash crops from field borders, causing feeding damage at the seedling stage and transmitting bacterial wilt Erwinia tracheiphila Hauben et al. 1999. Conventional control methods rely on insecticide applications to the entire field, but surrounding main crops with a more attractive perimeter could reduce reliance on insecticides. A. cittatum shows a marked preference for Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) over butternut squash (C. moschata Poir). Given this preference, Blue Hubbard squash has the potential to be an effective perimeter trap crop. We evaluated this system in commercial butternut fields in 2003 and 2004, comparing fields using perimeter trap cropping with Blue Hubbard to conventionally managed fields. In 2003, we used a foliar insecticide to control beetles in the trap crop borders, and in 2004, we compared systemic and foliar insecticide treatments for the trap crop borders. We found that using a trap crop system reduced or eliminated the need to spray the main crop area, reducing insecticide use by up to 94% compared with conventional control methods, with no increase in herbivory or beetle numbers. We surveyed the growers who participated in these experiments and found a high level of satisfaction with the effectiveness and simplicity of the system. These results suggest that this method of pest control is both effective and simple enough in its implementation to have high potential for adoption among growers.

  19. Effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus and four insecticides on Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhez, Peter; Boone, Michelle D.; Fellers, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contamination may influence host-pathogen interactions, which has implications for amphibian population declines. We examined the effects of four insecticides alone or as a mixture on development and metamorphosis of Pacific Treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) in the presence or absence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]). Bd exposure had a negative impact on tadpole activity, survival to metamorphosis, time to metamorphosis, and time of tail absorption (with a marginally negative effect on mass at metamorphosis); however, no individuals tested positive for Bd at metamorphosis. The presence of sublethal concentrations of insecticides alone or in a mixture did not impact Pacific Treefrog activity as tadpoles, survival to metamorphosis, or time and size to metamorphosis. Insecticide exposure did not influence the effect of Bd exposure. Our study did not support our prediction that effects of Bd would be greater in the presence of expected environmental concentrations of insecticide(s), but it did show that Bd had negative effects on responses at metamorphosis that could reduce the quality of juveniles recruited into the population.

  20. Green Chemistry: Strategy in Essential Oils Sustainability by Development of Insecticide Using Docking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito; Utomo, EP; Ulfa, SM; Kholila, BN; Nindyasiwi, P.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural applications in green chemistry was associated with the development of insecticide production based on secondary metabolites, such as essential oils. This research used In Silico modeling for insecticide formulation based on essential oils. The insecticidal formula was made on the basis of the Ki value of multiple docking results between the major components of essential oils as ligand with Spodotera litura receptor (2DJC) studied using Autodock Tools software. Insecticide formula activity test was done by contact method of toxic and leaf contact with essential oils concentration at level 0% - 1%. The results of the in silico study showed that the inhibition constants (Ki) of citronellal and anethol ligands combination were 1.6 mM however of citronellal and eugenol as ligands were 1.75 mM and formulated rasio (v/v), respectively 5 : 1 and 4 : 1. In addition, in vitro activity of insecticide formula with the ratio of 5: 1 possess LC50 value 0.10% (toxic contact) and 0.35% (leaf contact). While the formula with a ratio of 4: 1 possess LC50 value 0.05% (toxic contacts) and 0.31% (leaf contact).

  1. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, R Graham; Nhamahanga, Eduardo; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen

    2011-02-09

    The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS) programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475) of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167), 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53) and of those identified (n = 33) 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality), less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality) and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%). Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo), strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166). One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of bendiocarb within the estate for seven years and the

  2. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhamahanga Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. Results No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475 of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167, 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53 and of those identified (n = 33 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality, less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%. Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo, strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166. One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Conclusion Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of

  3. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.; Rahmo, A.; Hajjar, J.

    2013-01-01

    The toxic effect of three insecticides: dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl) - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Regression Analysis was used to estimate the 20% inhibition of cells growth (IC 20). The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: 46.8, 61.6 and 68.9 μM, respectively. The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. (author)

  4. Composition of the Essential Oil of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae and Its Insecticidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The results demonstrated insecticidal and insectistatical activities against this insect pest with concentrations at 80 µg·mL−1 resulting in 20% larval viability and 10% pupal viability. The larval viability fifty (LV50 corresponded to a concentration of 128.8 µg·mL−1. This oil also increased the duration of the larval phase by 5.5 days and reduced the pupal weight by 29.2% withrespect to the control. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. ballotiflora showed its main components to be caryophyllene oxide (15.97%, and β-caryophyllene (12.74%, which showed insecticidal and insectistatical activities against S. frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of β-caryophyllene began at 80 µg·mL−1, giving a larval viability of 25% and viability pupal of 20%. The insectistatic activity also started at 80 µg·mL−1 reducing the pupal weight by 22.1% with respect to control. Caryophyllene oxide showed insecticidal activity at 80 µg·mL−1 giving a larval viability of 35% and viability pupal of 20%.The insectistatic activity started at 400 µg·mL−1 and increased the larval phase by 8.8% days with respect to control. The LV50 values for these compounds were 153.1 and 146.5 µg·mL−1, respectively.

  5. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant extracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  6. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant exctracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  7. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  8. Comparative efficacy of some insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.K.; Hasnain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of five commonly used insecticides viz., acetamiprid, buprofezin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and endosulfan against nymph and adult population of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions has been studied. Results showed that buprofezin was the most effective insecticide against nymph population of whitefly among the tested insecticides where nymphal population of B. tabaci was 0.2/leaf after 24h spray as compared to 1.9/leaf in control. Acetamiprid was the most effective against adult population of whitefly (0.3 to 1.3/leaf post 72 h spray, as compared to control with 6.9 to 8.2/leaf) followed by diafenthiuron and imidaclopirid. whereas, endosulfan was found to be the least effective on both populations as adult and nymph of whitefly. From the tested insecticides, acetamaprid gave effective control of both nymph and adult population of B. tabaci. (author)

  9. Is Apis mellifera more sensitive to insecticides than other insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstone, Melissa C; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2010-11-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are among the most important pollinators in natural and agricultural settings. They commonly encounter insecticides, and the effects of insecticides on honey bees have been frequently noted. It has been suggested that honey bees may be (as a species) uniquely sensitive to insecticides, although no comparative toxicology study has been undertaken to examine this claim. An extensive literature review was conducted, using data in which adult insects were topically treated with insecticides. The goal of this review was to summarize insecticide toxicity data between A. mellifera and other insects to determine the relative sensitivity of honey bees to insecticides. It was found that, in general, honey bees were no more sensitive than other insect species across the 62 insecticides examined. In addition, honey bees were not more sensitive to any of the six classes of insecticides (carbamates, nicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and miscellaneous) examined. While honey bees can be sensitive to individual insecticides, they are not a highly sensitive species to insecticides overall, or even to specific classes of insecticides. However, all pesticides should be used in a way that minimizes honey bee exposure, so as to minimize possible declines in the number of bees and/or honey contamination. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Illustrated accounts of coccinellid predators of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) on mulberry in India, with description of a new species of Scymnus Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, J; Lalitha, N

    2018-02-20

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), is a major pest of mulberry (Morus alba L.), the sole host of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), which is a source of livelihood to millions of sericulture farmers in India. Several predators, mainly Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), have been reported to feed on M. hirsutus on mulberry. Coccinellid predators of M. hirsutus collected on mulberry from different parts of India are illustrated here with brief diagnostic notes to facilitate their identification. An account of mycophagous species of coccinellids commonly found on mulberry and misreported as predators of mulberry pests is also given with illustrations. Scymnus (Pullus) latifolius sp. nov., a promising predator of M. hirsutus, hitherto misidentified and reported as Scymnus pallidicollis Mulsant, is described and illustrated from West Bengal, India, with detailed biological notes. Keiscymnus taiwanensis Yang Wu, 1972 is reduced to a new junior synonym of Scymnus pallidicollis Mulsant, 1853 (syn. nov.). Illeis bielawskii Ghorpade, 1976 is found to be a valid species and removed from synonymy with I. bistigmosa Mulsant, 1850 (stat. rev.).

  11. (Poly)phenolic fingerprint and chemometric analysis of white (Morus alba L.) and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry leaves by using a non-targeted UHPLC-MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Tassotti, Michele; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca; Martínez, Juan José; Mena, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the (poly)phenolic fingerprinting and chemometric discrimination of leaves of eight mulberry clones from Morus alba and Morus nigra cultivated in Spain. UHPLC-MS(n) (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) high-throughput analysis allowed the tentative identification of a total of 31 compounds. The phenolic profile of mulberry leaf was characterized by the presence of a high number of flavonol derivatives, mainly glycosylated forms of quercetin and kaempferol. Caffeoylquinic acids, simple phenolic acids, and some organic acids were also detected. Seven compounds were identified for the first time in mulberry leaves. The chemometric analysis (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of the chromatographic data allowed the characterization of the different mulberry clones and served to explain the great intraspecific variability in mulberry secondary metabolism. This screening of the complete phenolic profile of mulberry leaves can assist the increasing interest for purposes related to quality control, germplasm screening, and bioactivity evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity from fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and T. catigua (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Andreia Pereira; Nebo, Liliane; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits extracts of Trichilia elegans and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) has led to the identification of the limonoids 11β-acetoxyobacunone, cedrelone, methylangolensate and epimeric mixture of photogedunin besides known coumarins (scoparone, scopoletin, umbeliferone) and the steroids stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, sitostenone and campesterol. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia ssp. was carried out and the extracts of T. elegans revealed to have strong insecticidal activity and the extracts of T. catigua showed moderate larval mortality on Spodoptera frugiperda. (author)

  13. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    OpenAIRE

    Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of e...

  14. Organophosphorus pentavalent compounds: history, synthetic methods of preparation and application as insecticides and antitumor agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Viviane Martins Rebello dos; Donnici, Claudio Luis; DaCosta, Joao Batista Neves; Caixeiro, Janaina Marques Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a review of the history, synthesis and application of organophosphorus compounds, especially of those of pentavalent phosphorus, such as phosphoramidates, phosphorothioates, phosphonates and phosphonic acids with insecticide and anticancer activities. The organophosphorus compounds with agrochemical applications show great structural variety, They include not only insecticides, but also fungicides, herbicides, and others. The large variety of commercially available organophosphorus pesticides is remarkable. Even more interesting is the high efficiency of some organophosphorus compounds as anticancer agents such as cyclophosphamide and its derivatives. (author)

  15. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmaied, Ezzedine; Ben Mbarek, Wael

    2010-01-01

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  16. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  17. Effects of Soil Water Deficit on Insecticidal Protein Expression in Boll Shells of Transgenic Bt Cotton and the Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil water deficit on insecticidal protein expression in boll shells of cotton transgenic for a Bt gene. In 2014, Bt cotton cultivars Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar were planted in pots and five soil water content treatments were imposed at peak boll stage: 15% (G1, 35% (G2, 40% (G3, 60% (G4, and 75% field capacity (CK, respectively. Four treatments (G2, G3, G4, and CK were repeated in 2015 in the field. Results showed that the insecticidal protein content of boll shells decreased with increasing water deficit. Compared with CK, boll shell insecticidal protein content decreased significantly when soil water content was below 60% of maximum water holding capacity for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3. However, increased Bt gene expression was observed when boll shell insecticidal protein content was significantly reduced. Activity assays of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism showed that boll shell protease and peptidase increased but nitrogen reductase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT decreased. Insecticidal protein content exhibited significant positive correlation with nitrogen reductase and GPT activities; and significant negative correlation with protease and peptidase activities. These findings suggest that the decrease of insecticidal protein content associated with increasing water deficit was a net result of decreased synthesis and increased decomposition.

  18. Non-target toxicity of synthetic insecticides on the biological performance and population growth of Bracon hebetor Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Mohammad; Ansari, M Shafiq; Hasan, Fazil

    2018-05-24

    Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important biological control agent of various species of order Lepidoptera and extensively used in biological control program worldwide. Present study evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on B. hebetor using demographic and population growth parameters. Doses of all the tested insecticides were within a maximum range of their recommended field dosages and adults were treated using residual glass vials method. For control experiments adults were treated with distilled water. Among the tested insecticides, the survivorship of various stages of B. hebetor was considerably prolonged on cyantraniliprole followed by chlorantraniliprole and shortest on chlorpyrifos and profenofos treated group. Total immature development time was prolonged in chlorpyrifos and profenofos treated group. Population growth parameters like intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), net reproductive rate (R 0 ), finite rate of increase (λ) and mean generation time (T c ) were considerably reduced in B. hebetor groups treated with chlorpyrifos and profenofos. However, B. hebetor groups treated with chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole showed a little or no much difference in population growth parameters when compared with untreated group. It was also observed that chlorpyrifos and profenofos modified the sex ratio, thereby female emergence get reduced. On the basis of present findings it can be concluded that all tested insecticides caused considerable ecotoxic effects on B. hebetor compared to control. However, comparisons among the tested insecticides on the basis of IOBC criteria showed that chlorantraniliprol and cyntraniliprol was less toxic as compared to other insecticides tested on this biological control agent.

  19. Developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMicco, Amy; Cooper, Keith R; Richardson, Jason R; White, Lori A

    2010-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are one of the most commonly used residential and agricultural insecticides. Based on the increased use of pyrethroids and recent studies showing that pregnant women and children are exposed to pyrethroids, there are concerns over the potential for developmental neurotoxicity. However, there have been relatively few studies on the developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroids. In this study, we sought to investigate the developmental toxicity of six common pyrethroids, three type I compounds (permethrin, resmethrin, and bifenthrin) and three type II compounds (deltamethrin, cypermethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin), and to determine whether zebrafish embryos may be an appropriate model for studying the developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroids. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to pyrethroids caused a dose-dependent increase in mortality and pericardial edema, with type II compounds being the most potent. At doses approaching the LC(50), permethrin and deltamethrin caused craniofacial abnormalities. These findings are consistent with mammalian studies demonstrating that pyrethroids are mildly teratogenic at very high doses. However, at lower doses, body axis curvature and spasms were observed, which were reminiscent of the classic syndromes observed with pyrethroid toxicity. Treatment with diazepam ameliorated the spasms, while treatment with the sodium channel antagonist MS-222 ameliorated both spasms and body curvature, suggesting that pyrethroid-induced neurotoxicity is similar in zebrafish and mammals. Taken in concert, these data suggest that zebrafish may be an appropriate alternative model to study the mechanism(s) responsible for the developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides and aid in identification of compounds that should be further tested in mammalian systems.

  20. Minireview: Mode of action of meta-diamide insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Banba, Shinichi

    2015-06-01

    Meta-diamides [3-benzamido-N-(4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl)benzamides] are a distinct class of RDL GABA receptor noncompetitive antagonists showing high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura. The mode of action of the meta-diamides was demonstrated to be distinct from that of conventional noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs) such as fipronil, picrotoxin, lindane, dieldrin, and α-endosulfan. It was suggested that meta-diamides act at or near G336 in the M3 region of the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor. Although the site of action of the meta-diamides appears to overlap with that of macrocyclic lactones including avermectins and milbemycins, differential effects of mutations on the actions of the meta-diamides and the macrocyclic lactones were observed. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the meta-diamides may bind to an inter-subunit pocket near G336 in the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor better when in the closed state, which is distinct from the NCA-binding site, which is in a channel formed by M2s. In contrast, the macrocyclic lactones were suggested to bind to an inter-subunit pocket near G336 in the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor when in the open state. Furthermore, mechanisms underlying the high selectivity of meta-diamides are discussed. This minireview highlights the unique features of novel meta-diamide insecticides and demonstrates why meta-diamides are anticipated to become prominent insecticides that are effective against pests resistant to cyclodienes and fipronil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to insecticides used for malaria vector control in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Karema, Corine; Munyakanage, Dunia; Iranzi, Gad; Githure, John; Tongren, Jon Eric; Takken, Willem; Binagwaho, Agnes; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2016-12-01

    The widespread emergence of resistance to pyrethroids is a major threat to the gains made in malaria control. To monitor the presence and possible emergence of resistance against a variety of insecticides used for malaria control in Rwanda, nationwide insecticide resistance surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected in 12 sentinel sites throughout Rwanda. These were reared to adults and analysed for knock-down and mortality using WHO insecticide test papers with standard diagnostic doses of the recommended insecticides. A sub-sample of tested specimens was analysed for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations. A total of 14,311 mosquitoes were tested and from a sample of 1406 specimens, 1165 (82.9%) were identified as Anopheles arabiensis and 241 (17.1%) as Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mortality results indicated a significant increase in resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin from 2011 to 2013 in 83% of the sites, permethrin in 25% of the sites, deltamethrin in 25% of the sites and DDT in 50% of the sites. Mosquitoes from 83% of the sites showed full susceptibility to bendiocarb and 17% of sites were suspected to harbour resistance that requires further confirmation. No resistance was observed to fenitrothion in all study sites during the entire survey. The kdr genotype results in An. gambiae s.s. showed that 67 (50%) possessed susceptibility (SS) alleles, while 35 (26.1%) and 32 (23.9%) mosquitoes had heterozygous (RS) and homozygous (RR) alleles, respectively. Of the 591 An. arabiensis genotyped, 425 (71.9%) possessed homozygous (SS) alleles while 158 (26.7%) and 8 (1.4%) had heterozygous (RS) and homozygous (RR) alleles, respectively. Metabolic resistance involving oxidase enzymes was also detected using the synergist PBO. This is the first nationwide study of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Rwanda. It shows the gradual increase of insecticide resistance to pyrethroids (lambda

  2. Susceptibility of Sogatella furcifera and Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to Six Insecticides in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Wu, Shun-Fan; Ban, Lan-Feng; Su, Jian-Ya; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2014-10-01

    The whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), and small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), both are important crop pests throughout China, especially in rice. Application of chemical insecticides is the major control practice. Consequently, insecticide resistance has become an urgent issue. In this study, resistance levels to six conventional insecticides were evaluated for these two species collected from major occurring areas of China. Additionally, imidacloprid- (resistance ratio [RR] = 10.4-fold) and buprofezin (RR = 15.1-fold)-resistant strains of whitebacked planthopper were obtained through laboratory selections for cross-resistance profiling and synergism assessment to understand resistance mechanisms. The results showed that all tested populations of both species exhibited low to high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, while remaining susceptible to thiamethoxam. Three of the 14 whitebacked planthopper populations showed low to moderate resistance to imidacloprid, while all small brown planthopper populations reminded susceptible. All small brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper (except one) populations showed at least moderate resistance (RR = 10.1-271.1) to buprofezin. All small brown planthopper populations remained susceptible to pymetrozine and nitenpyram, and all whitebacked planthopper populations remained susceptible to isoprocarb. The imidacloprid-resistant whitebacked planthopper strain showed no significant cross-resistance to other tested insecticides. However, the buprofezin-resistant strain exhibited a low-level cross-resistance (CR = 3.1) to imidacloprid. Piperonyl butoxide, triphenyl phosphate, and diethylmaleate displayed no synergism effect on the resistant whitebacked planthopper strains. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  3. Multiple insecticide resistances in the disease vector Culex p. quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Milesi, Pascal; Makoundou, Patrick; Unal, Sandra; Zumbo, Betty; Atyame, Célestine; Darriet, Frédéric; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Thiria, Julien; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Iyaloo, Diana P; Weill, Mylène; Chandre, Fabrice; Labbé, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC), Organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PYR) families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR) is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation). In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to control populations

  4. Multiple insecticide resistances in the disease vector Culex p. quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pocquet

    Full Text Available Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC, Organophosphates (OP and pyrethroids (PYR families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation. In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to

  5. Toxicity and poisoning symptoms of selected insecticides to honey bees (Apis mellifera mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashte Vrushali Vijaykumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees are potential pollinators of wide variety of crops. The European dark bee, Apis mellifera mellifera (L. is widely used for crop pollination. However, pesticide usage in modern agriculture has threatened the plant-bee pollinator interaction. There is lack of data regarding lethal time, insecticide concentration and poisoning symptoms, especially for formulated insecticides that are widely used in insect management. This study shows that the intrinsic toxicity of insecticides (LC50 to A. mellifera mellifera (L. was in the following order: imidacloprid (0.0070 > fipronil (0.0125 > indoxacarb (0.0266> cypermethrin (0.0370 > dimethoate (0.0385. The lethal time (LT50 values (h in the ascending order of toxicity of insecticides were as follows: fipronil (6.56, cypermethrin (6.69, dimethoate (8.00, imidacloprid (9.85 and indoxacarb (13.45. Distinct poisoning symptoms observed in A. mellifera mellifera were extended proboscis, expanded wings, unhooked wings, extended legs and twisted bodies, defecation on cage covers, sting in release-out position and anus with excreta. All the tested pesticides are harmful to the honey bee except azadirachtin. The tested pesticides exhibited different poisoning symptoms in bees, which could be useful for beekeepers in identifying the cause of colony mortality. In conclusion, the pesticide toxicological research on bees is an important safety aspect for beneficial organisms. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity in the field of commonly used insecticides. The information is important for insecticide selection in order to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees while maintaining effective management of crop pests.

  6. Combining the essential oil of Piper aduncum L. with commercial insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of synergists is important to minimize the amount of chemical insecticide required for insect control. Their use may contribute to reducing environmental contamination and preserving beneficial insects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergy and uniformity of the response of Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae larvae to doses of an essential oil of an Amazon chemotype, Piper aduncum (Piperaceae, when combinationed with the following commercial insecticides: cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, permethrin and esfenvarelate, compared to piperonyl butoxide (PBO. Through the relationship between CL50 and DL50 of insecticides taken separately and their synergistic combinations with the essential oil and PBO, synergism factors (SF were obtained for comparison with each other. With residual contact, there was a significant enhancement of commercial insecticides formulated with cypermethrin (SF = 73.03, zeta-cypermethrin (SF = 16.51 and permethrin (SF = 8.46-17.22, when combined with the P. aduncum essential oil; in turn, with topical application, there was only an observed significant enhancement for zeta-cypermethrin (SF = 0.40-4.26, permethrin (SF = 2.10-4.79 and esfenvarelate (SF = 3.80 insecticides when combined with the essential oil. With the exception of esfenvarelate, the other synergistic combinations showed homogeneous responses for topical application and residual contact for at least one synergistic combination with P. aduncum essential oil. The significance of the SF values from combining P. aduncum essential oil with cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, permethrin and esfenvarelate insecticides may indicate that this essential oil is an alternative option to PBO.

  7. Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil

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    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    Full Text Available The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae. While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. In this context, use of biorational insecticides would be the best alternative options, as they are known to pose less risk to non-target organisms. We therefore examined the six commercially available biorational insecticides against H. postica under laboratory condition: Mycotrol® ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA, Aza-Direct® (Azadirachtin, Met52® EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Xpectro OD® (B. bassiana GHA + pyrethrins, Xpulse OD® (B. bassiana GHA + Azadirachtin and Entrust WP® (spinosad 80%. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lowest labelled rates were tested for all products. However, in the case of Entrust WP, additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 times the lowest label rate were also assessed. Mortality rates were determined at 1–9 days post treatment. Based on lethal concentrations and relative potencies, this study clearly showed that Entrust was the most effective, causing 100% mortality within 3 days after treatment among all the tested materials. With regard to other biorational, Xpectro was the second most effective insecticide followed by Xpulse, Aza-Direct, Met52, and Mycotrol. Our results strongly suggested that these biorational insecticides could potentially be applied for H. postica control. Keywords: Low risk insecticides, Insect pathogenic fungi, Efficacy, Lethal concentration, Mortality rate

  8. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Kwok, Rosanna S; Zalom, Frank G; Chiu, Joanna C

    2013-01-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between 'summer' and 'winter' conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the 'summer', D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the 'winter', activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as insecticide timing

  9. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

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    Xiao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cytochrome P450 (CYP genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively, permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold, whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  10. Secretory function of ovarian cells and myometrial contractions in cow are affected by chlorinated insecticides (chlordane, heptachlor, mirex) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, Michael Hubert; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of chlordane, heptachlor and mirex, on hormonal regulation of the force of myometrial contractions. Myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells as well as strips of myometrium from non-pregnant cows were incubated with three insecticides at environmentally relevant doses (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml). None of the insecticides affected the viability of studied cells. Chlordane stimulated, while heptachlor and mirex inhibited, secretion of testosterone and estradiol from granulosa cells as well as secretion of progesterone from luteal cells, respectively. Secretion of oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells was increased after incubation with all studied insecticides. Only mirex stimulated OT secretion from luteal cells, while heptachlor inhibited this effect. None of them affected synthesis of OT in luteal cells and prostaglandins (PGF2 and PGE2) secretion from uterine cells, except PGE2 secretion from endometrial cells was decreased when the cells were incubated with 0.1 ng/ml of chlordane. Basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions were increased by mirex and decreased by heptachlor. The data show that the insecticides altered secretory function of ovarian cells. Heptachlor and mirex affected also myometrial contractions in vitro, but uterine secretion of prostaglandins were not involved in the mechanism of that adverse effect of insecticides. The data indicate on potential of these insecticides to disturb fertilisation, blastocyst implantation or even the length of gestation. - Highlights: • The studied insecticides affected steroids and oxytocin secretion from ovaries. • Mirex stimulated bovine myometrial contractions. • Heptachlor inhibited bovine myometrial contractions. • Prostaglandins are not involved in adverse effect of the insecticides on uterine contractions.

  11. Characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes and their possible roles in multi-insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxia; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2018-03-01

    Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), as multifunctional detoxification enzymes, play important roles in the biotransformation of various compounds. However, their roles in insecticide resistance are still unclear. This study presents a genome-wide identification of the UGTs in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a notorious insect pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. The possible roles of these UGTs in insecticide resistance were evaluated. A total of 21 putative UGTs in P. xylostella were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analyses showed that all the UGT genes were expressed in all tested developmental stages and tissues. Bioassay results indicated that a field-collected population (BL) was resistant to 9 of 10 commonly used insecticides, and 10 of 21 UGT mRNAs were upregulated in the BL population. Exposure to the LC 50 of each insecticide affected the expression of most UGT genes. Among these, the expression levels of UGT40V1, UGT45B1 and UGT33AA4 were induced by more than five insecticides, whereas indoxacarb and metaflumizone significantly repressed the expression of most UGT genes. UGTs may play important roles in the metabolism of commonly used insecticides in P. xylostella. These findings provide valuable information for further research on the physiological and toxicological functions of specific UGT genes in P. xylostella. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriga, Balaji; Mopuri, Ramgopal; MuraliKrishna, T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ion channels: molecular targets of neuroactive insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond-Delpech, Valérie; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, Benedict M; Rauh, James J; Sattelle, David B

    2005-11-01

    Many of the insecticides in current use act on molecular targets in the insect nervous system. Recently, our understanding of these targets has improved as a result of the complete sequencing of an insect genome, i.e., Drosophila melanogaster. Here we examine the recent work, drawing on genetics, genomics and physiology, which has provided evidence that specific receptors and ion channels are targeted by distinct chemical classes of insect control agents. The examples discussed include, sodium channels (pyrethroids, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dihydropyrazoles and oxadiazines); nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (cartap, spinosad, imidacloprid and related nitromethylenes/nitroguanidines); gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (cyclodienes, gamma-BHC and fipronil) and L-glutamate receptors (avermectins). Finally, we have examined the molecular basis of resistance to these molecules, which in some cases involves mutations in the molecular target, and we also consider the future impact of molecular genetic technologies in our understanding of the actions of neuroactive insecticides.

  14. Toxicity of some insecticides to F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) gamma irradiated as parental pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The response of the F1 Progeny of Cotton Leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis Boisd, (from male irradiated as parental pupae with 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation) to Silicron, Atabron and Catabroun were studied. The lethal concentration doses of insecticides that kill 10,50 and 90 % of population (LC 10 , LC 50 and LC 90 ); The lethal time that kill 50% of population (LT 50 ) and the Tolerance Ratio(T.R) to the different previous insecticides were employed as parameters for measuring the response of irradiated and un-irradiated progeny. The results indicated that, the dose of irradiation and time post insecticides application had a great role in alter the response of F1 progeny of S. littoralis to the different-insecticides. Also, gamma irradiation increased the toxicity of Silicron at 2 and 4 days post insecticide treatments. By time elapsing after insecticide application the irradiated larvae became virtually the same degree of susceptibility as compared to non-irradiated ones. As well, 50 Gy slightly alter the toxicity of Atabron, while population irradiated with 100 and 150 Gy showed a high level of susceptibility to Atabron at 22 and 26 days post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated population. In addition, the toxicity of Catabroun increased in case of irradiated population at most of interval time post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated ones. Furthermore, a Comparison was made and discussed between the susceptibility of irradiated population only, population treated with insecticides only and population treated with both insecticides and radiation by using the standard parameter LT 50

  15. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Pennetier, Cédric; Costantini, Carlo; Corbel, Vincent; Licciardi, Séverine; Dabire, R. K.; Lapied, B.; Chandre, Fabrice; Hougard, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The spread of resistance to pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. necessitates the development of new strategies to control resistant mosquito populations. To test the efficacy of nets treated with repellent and insecticide against susceptible and insecticide-resistant An. gambiae mosquito populations, we impregnated mosquito bed nets with an insect repellent mixed with a low dose of organophosphorous insecticide and tested them in a rice-growing area ne...

  17. Impact of repeated insecticide application on soil microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bujin; Zhang Yongxi; Chen Meici; Zhu Nanwen; Ming Hong

    2001-01-01

    The effects of repeated insecticide application on soil microbial activity were studied both in a cotton field and in the laboratory. The results of experiment show that there are some effects on soil microbial activities, such as the population of soil microorganisms, soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity and nitrogen fixation. The degree of effects depends on the chemical dosage. Within the range of 0.5-10.0 μg/g air-dry-soil, the higher the concentration, the stronger effect. In this experiment, the effect disappeared within 4, 8 or 16 days after treatment, depending on the dose applied. In field conditions, the situation is more complex and the data of field experiment show greater fluctuation. (author)

  18. High throughput deep degradome sequencing reveals microRNAs and their targets in response to drought stress in mulberry (Morus alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixue; Chen, Dandan; Wang, Taichu; Wan, Yizhen; Li, Rongfang; Fang, Rongjun; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hong; Li, Long; Zhao, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Identification of miRNA targets is essential to better understanding the roles of miRNAs. miRNA targets have not been well characterized in mulberry (Morus alba). To anatomize miRNA guided gene regulation under drought stress, transcriptome-wide high throughput degradome sequencing was used in this study to directly detect drought stress responsive miRNA targets in mulberry. A drought library (DL) and a contrast library (CL) were constructed to capture the cleaved mRNAs for sequencing. In CL, 409 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 990 target genes of 199 novel miRNAs were identified. In DL, 373 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 950 target genes of 195 novel miRNAs were identified. Of the conserved miRNA families in DL, mno-miR156, mno-miR172, and mno-miR396 had the highest number of targets with 54, 52 and 41 transcripts, respectively, indicating that these three miRNA families and their target genes might play important functions in response to drought stress in mulberry. Additionally, we found that many of the target genes were transcription factors. By analyzing the miRNA-target molecular network, we found that the DL independent networks consisted of 838 miRNA-mRNA pairs (63.34%). The expression patterns of 11 target genes and 12 correspondent miRNAs were detected using qRT-PCR. Six miRNA targets were further verified by RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5' RACE). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that these target transcripts were implicated in a broad range of biological processes and various metabolic pathways. This is the first study to comprehensively characterize target genes and their associated miRNAs in response to drought stress by degradome sequencing in mulberry. This study provides a framework for understanding

  19. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lown

    Full Text Available High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME, may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut.A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19-59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract.Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC (glucose (mmol / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316, -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022 and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001 respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234, -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004 and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003 respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence.Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a classical dose response curve with

  20. Pastoreo restringido de ovejas Pelibuey en bancos de proteína de morera (Morus alba Restricted grazing of Pelibuey ewes in protein banks of mulberry (Morus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E Lara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de medir el efecto del pastoreo de ovejas Pelibuey en un banco de proteína de morera (Morus alba en el comportamiento productivo, se desarrolló un experimento completamente al azar y se utilizaron 10 ovejas de tercer parto con 32 + 2,6 kg de PV, considerando una oveja como unidad experimental; los tratamientos fueron: grupo testigo (T pastoreo en pasto estrella más 250 g de alimento concentrado animal-1 d-1 y pastoreo restringido (2 h d-1 en morera (M. Se encontró diferencia (PWith the objective of measuring the effect of grazing by Pelibuey ewes in a protein bank of mulberry (Morus alba on the productive performance, a completely randomized trial was carried out and 10 third parturition ewes with 32 ± 2,6 kg LW were used, considering one ewe as experimental unit; the treatments were: control -1 -1 -1 group (C grazing in star grass plus 250 g of concentrate feed animal d and restricted grazing (2 h d in mulberry (M. Difference (P < 0,05 was found in the body condition at the moment of weaning, of 2,46 ± 0,30 in C and 2,00 ± 0,24 in M. The voluntary intake (VI of the ewes was higher in mulberry, with 5,05% in pregnancy and 2,97% in lactation with regards to group C (4,28 and 2,28%. The weight at birth and weaning, as well as the MDG were better (P < 0,05 in the offspring of group C with 3,77; 15,61 and 0,207 vs 2,82; 13,01 and 0,185 kg, respectively. This was due to a lower prolificacy in C, for which the kilograms born and weaned were higher in M, with 5,86 and 23,41 vs 4,52 and 18,74 for C. The regrowth capacity of mulberry was optimal for grazing after 70 days, for which it is feasible to substitute the supplementation with concentrate in ewes by restricted grazing for 2 h in a mulberry bank during pregnancy and lactation.

  1. International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Vincent; Fonseca, Dina M; Weetman, David; Pinto, João; Achee, Nicole L; Chandre, Fabrice; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Dusfour, Isabelle; Grieco, John; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Lenhart, Audrey; Martins, Ademir J; Moyes, Catherine; Ng, Lee Ching; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Vatandoost, Hassan; Vontas, John; Muller, Pie; Kasai, Shinji; Fouque, Florence; Velayudhan, Raman; Durot, Claire; David, Jean-Philippe

    2017-06-02

    Vector-borne diseases transmitted by insect vectors such as mosquitoes occur in over 100 countries and affect almost half of the world's population. Dengue is currently the most prevalent arboviral disease but chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever show increasing prevalence and severity. Vector control, mainly by the use of insecticides, play a key role in disease prevention but the use of the same chemicals for more than 40 years, together with the dissemination of mosquitoes by trade and environmental changes, resulted in the global spread of insecticide resistance. In this context, innovative tools and strategies for vector control, including the management of resistance, are urgently needed. This report summarizes the main outputs of the first international workshop on Insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5-8 December 2016. The primary aims of this workshop were to identify strategies for the development and implementation of standardized insecticide resistance management, also to allow comparisons across nations and across time, and to define research priorities for control of vectors of arboviruses. The workshop brought together 163 participants from 28 nationalities and was accessible, live, through the web (> 70,000 web-accesses over 3 days).

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  3. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki F Martinou

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  4. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Insecticides on the Functional Response of Two Mirid Generalist Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinou, Angeliki F; Stavrinides, Menelaos C

    2015-01-01

    The use of agrochemicals particularly pesticides, can hamper the effectiveness of natural enemies, causing disruption in the ecosystem service of biological control. In the current study, the effects of the insecticides thiacloprid and chlorantraniliprole on the functional response curves were assessed for two mirid predator nymphs, Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter. In the absence of insecticides, both predators exhibited a type II functional response when feeding on eggs of the moth Ephestia kuehniella. N. tenuis seems to be a more efficient predator than M. pygmaeus, as model estimated handling time was significantly lower for the former than for the latter. Residual exposure of M. pygmaeus to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide was associated with a change in the asymptote but not the type of the functional response curve. Thiacloprid seems to be the least compatible with M. pygmaeus, as it led to both a significant reduction of the attack rate and an increase in handling time. In contrast, chlorantraniliprole exposure significantly increased the handling time, but not the attack rate of the predator. Residual exposure of N. tenuis to sublethal concentrations of either insecticide did not have a significant effect on the type nor the parameters of the functional response model. The results show that pesticide residues that do not have lethal effects on beneficial arthropods can reduce prey consumption depending on predator species and on likely risks associated with toxicity.

  5. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  6. Determination of insecticides malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in zucchini by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayam M. Lofty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive gas chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-cyhalothrin insecticide residues in zucchini. The developed method consists of extraction with acetone, purification and partitioning with methylene chloride, column chromatographic clean-up, and finally capillary gas chromatographic determination of the insecticides. The recoveries of method were greater than 90% and limit of determination was 0.001 ppm for both insecticides. The method was applied to determine residues and the rate of disappearance of malathion and λ-cyhalothrin from fruits of zucchini (open field treatment, 50 cc of Malason/Cormandel 57% EC (emulsifiable concentrate for 100 L of water, 20 cc of LAMBDA SUPER FOG 5% liquid for 100 L of water. The insecticide incorporated into the plants decreased rapidly with a half-life time around 0.77 day (18.5h for malathion and 4 days for λ-cyhalothrin. It is not recommended to use zucchini before 12 h of malathion application. For λ-cyhalothrin, the preharvest interval is 5 days. Four market samples were chosen from different regions from A.R.E. and all of them showed no residues of malathion or λ-cyhalothrin.

  7. Influence of γ-Ray on Residues Dimethoate Insecticides in Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofnie M Chairul; Elida Djabir; I Wayan Reja; Yusleha Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of γ-ray influence on residues dimethoate insecticides in tomato, was carried out. Tomatoes were soaked into solution of dimethoate insecticides, at concentration of 100; 200; 300; and 400 ppm for 3 minutes. Then the tomatoes were dried at room temperature, after, drying the tomatoes were packed using aluminium foil, and kept for 1 week. Pack, of tomatoes the irradiated with γ-ray at 0; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 kGy dose. The residues of insecticide dimethoate was determined by extracting of tomatoes using ethyl acetate solvent and analyzed by Chromatography Gas using Flame Photo Detector. The result showed that dimethoate insecticide residues decreased from 9.74 ppm - 30.56 ppm ranges to become 0.0096 ppm-0.0294 ppm at irradiation of 0.5 kGy dose; 0.0049 ppm - 0.0202 ppm at irradiation of 1.0 kGy; 0.0072 ppm - 0.0152 ppm at irradiation of 1.5 kGy dose, while due a 7 days storage a decrease of only 8.24 ppm - 24.19 ppm occurred. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  9. Chlorfenapyr, a Potent Alternative Insecticide of Phoxim To Control Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunhe; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Zhengqun; Wei, Yan; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Chenggang; Mu, Wei

    2017-07-26

    Bradysia odoriphaga is the major pest affecting Chinese chive production, and in China, it has developed widespread resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action that does not confer cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. However, the effect of chlorfenapyr on organophosphate-resistant B. odoriphaga is not well understood. The present study evaluated the potential of chlorfenapyr for the control of phoxim-resistant B. odoriphaga. The results showed that chlorfenapyr had significant insecticidal activity to B. odoriphaga in multiple developmental stages, and there were no significant differences in susceptibility between the field (phoxim-resistant) and laboratory (phoxim-susceptible) populations. The pot experiment and field trials confirmed the results of our laboratory bioassays. In the field trial, chlorfenapyr applied at 3.0, 6.0, or 12.0 kg of active ingredient (a.i.)/ha significantly decreased the number of B. odoriphaga and improved the yield compared to phoxim at 6.0 kg of a.i./ha and the control conditions. Moreover, the final residues of chlorfenapyr on plants were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as a result of its non-systemic activity. These results demonstrate that chlorfenapyr has potential as a potent alternative to phoxim for controlling B. odoriphaga.

  10. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Mathieu, Romain Blanc; Pocquet, Nicolas; Riaz, Muhammad-Asam; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Sélior, Serge; Darriet, Frédéric; Reynaud, Stéphane; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Chandre, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is an important mosquito borne viral disease in Martinique Island (French West Indies). The viruses responsible for dengue are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, an indoor day-biting mosquito. The most effective proven method for disease prevention has been by vector control by various chemical or biological means. Unfortunately insecticide resistance has already been observed on the Island and recently showed to significantly reduce the efficacy of vector control interventions. In this study, we investigated the distribution of resistance and the underlying mechanisms in nine Ae. aegypti populations. Statistical multifactorial approach was used to investigate the correlations between insecticide resistance levels, associated mechanisms and environmental factors characterizing the mosquito populations. Bioassays revealed high levels of resistance to temephos and deltamethrin and susceptibility to Bti in the 9 populations tested. Biochemical assays showed elevated detoxification enzyme activities of monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-tranferases in most of the populations. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations, revealed the presence of the "knock-down resistance" V1016I Kdr mutation at high frequency (>87%). Real time quantitative RT-PCR showed the potential involvement of several candidate detoxification genes in insecticide resistance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed with variables characterizing Ae. aegypti from Martinique permitted to underline potential links existing between resistance distribution and other variables such as agriculture practices, vector control interventions and urbanization. Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy

  12. Survival and Locomotory Behavior of Earwigs After Exposure to Reduced-Risk Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Catarina D; Gontijo, Lessando M; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Chediak, Mateus

    2017-08-01

    The conservation of natural enemies is an important tactic to promote biological control of arthropod pests. The earwig Doru luteipes (Sccuder) is the most important predator of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in corn fields. One way of conserving these predators in the field is by using only selective insecticides when the pest population reaches the economic threshold. Some recent insecticides such as azadirachtin, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron have been claimed to pose reduced risk for natural enemies. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of information regarding the selectivity of these insecticides upon earwigs in specific. In this study, we carried out a series of laboratory assays to examine the survivorship and locomotory behavior of D. luteipes after exposure to fresh dry residue of azadirachtin, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron. Our results show a significant survival reduction for D. luteipes nymphs exposed to fresh residues of chlorantraniliprole and novaluron. In the behavioral studies, adults of D. luteipes stopped more often, spent more time resting (inactive), and moved more slowly immediately after exposure to chlorantraniliprole residue. These results suggest that chlorantraniliprole may mediate an impaired movement and a behavior arrestment of earwigs after contact with this insecticide fresh residue. This could translate into reduced foraging efficiency, and increase exposure and insecticide uptake. Although chlorantraniliprole and novaluron showed a potential to undermine the biological control provided by earwigs, it is yet essential to conduct field trials in order to confirm our laboratory results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Emamectin benzoate: new insecticide against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, A; Sacchetti, M

    2008-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a new insecticide of Syngenta Crop Protection, with a new mechanism of action and a strong activity against Lepidoptera as well as with and a high selectivity on useful organisms. This molecule acts if swallowed and has some contact action. It penetrates leaf tissues (translaminar activity) and forms a reservoir within the leaf. The mechanism of action is unique in the panorama of insecticides. In facts, it inhibits muscle contraction, causing a continuous flow of chlorine ions in the GABA and H-Glutamate receptor sites. During 2006 and 2007, experimentation was performed by the Bioagritest test facility, according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), aiming at establishing the biological efficacy and the selectivity of Emamectin benzoate on industry tomato against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidoe). The study was performed in Tursi-Policoro (Matera), southern Italy. Experimental design consisted in random blocks, in 4 repetitions. A dosage of 1.5 Kg/ha of the formulate was compared with two commercial formulates: Spinosad 0.2 kg/ha (Laser, Dow Agrosciences Italia) and Indoxacarb 0.125 kg/ha (Steward EC insecticide, Dupont). Three foliage applications were applied every 8 days. The severity of damage induced by H. armigera was evaluated on fruits. Eventual phytotoxic effects were also evaluated. Climatic conditions were optimal for Lepidoptera development, so that the percentage of fruits attacked in 2007 at the first scouting was 68.28%. Emamectin benzoate has shown, in two years of testing, a high control of H. armigera if compared with the standards Indoxacarb and Spinosad. No effect of phytotoxicity was noticed on fruits.

  14. Reduced-risk insecticides for control of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-06-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape (Vitis spp.) farms to evaluate insect management programs for control of the grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies. At each farm, one vineyard received only reduced-risk insecticides for control of second and third generation P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received conventional insecticides. Both vineyards received a conventional insecticide application for control of first generation P. viteana and other insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between programs in the total number of adult male moths trapped in vineyards, and oviposition by P. viteana was similar between the two programs in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation, both programs had a similar percentage of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In eight of the nine berry samples, survival of larvae was significantly lower in berries collected from vineyards managed under the reduced-risk insecticide program compared with the conventional program. Parasitism of P. citeana larvae in these samples was not consistently different between the two insecticide programs over 3 yr, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two programs throughout the study. Our results indicate that integrated pest management programs incorporating reduced-risk insecticides for control of P. viteana can obtain similar or greater control of P. viteana compared with programs based solely on conventional insecticides, but they may not lead to measurable long-term increases in parasitism of P. viteana.

  15. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t 1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify optimal pest control with lower economic risks to farmers, we investigated the effectiveness and profitability of different insecticides and insecticide formulations against bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) and bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedtii). Two separate experiments were conducted during 2009 to 2012.

  18. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This study provides information on the incidence of major insect pests of cowpea as well as the minimum insecticide control intervention necessary for effectively reducing cowpea yield losses on the field. Two insecticide spray regimes (once at flowering and podding) significantly reduced insect population ...

  19. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  20. Mechanistic modeling of insecticide risks to breeding birds in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of the insecticide and the risk the insecticide poses to the environment and non-target wildlife. At the present time, current USEPA risk assessments do not include population-level endpoints. In this paper, we present a new mechanistic model, which allows risk assessors to estimate the effects of insecticide exposure on the survival and seasonal productivity of birds known to use agricultural fields during their breeding season. The new model was created from two existing USEPA avian risk assessment models, the Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM v.3.0) and the Markov Chain Nest Productivity model (MCnest). The integrated TIM/MCnest model has been applied to assess the relative risk of 12 insecticides used to control corn pests on a suite of 31 avian species known to use cornfields in midwestern agroecosystems. The 12 insecticides that were assessed in this study are all used to treat major pests of corn (corn root worm borer, cutworm, and armyworm). After running the integrated TIM/MCnest model, we found extensive differences in risk to birds among insecticides, with chlorpyrifos and malathion (organophosphates) generally posing the greatest risk, and bifenthrin and ë-cyhalothrin (

  1. Expression of melanin and insecticidal protein from Rhodotorula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the salmon/red melanin and the insecticidal producing genes of Rhodotorula glutinis was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pZErO-1. This work suggests that in Rhodotorula species melanin and insecticidal toxin are co-expressed and therefore possibly co-evolved. Keywords: Rhodotorula ...

  2. Guide to testing insecticides on coniferous forest defoliators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll B Jr. Williams; David A. Sharpnack; Liz Maxwell; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor

    1985-01-01

    This report provides a guide to techniques for designing field tests of candidate insecticides, and for carrying out pilot tests and control projects. It describes experimental designs for testing hypotheses, and for sampling trees to estimate insect population densities and percent reduction after treatments. Directions for applying insecticides by aircraft and for...

  3. Biological efficacy of the ecotoxically favourable insecticides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... different, studies done in natural conditions should be favored. Key words: Insecticides ... insecticide was applied on synthetic or natural food of the target insect ..... Pozsgay M, Fast P, Kaplan H, Carey PR (1987). The effect of ...

  4. Ecdysone Agonist: New Insecticides with Novel Mode of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Andi Trisyono

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of insect resistance to insecticide has been the major driving force for the development of new insecticides. Awareness and demand from public for more environmentally friendly insecticides have contributed in shifting the trend from using broad spectrum to selective insecticides. As a result, scientists have looked for new target sites beyond the nervous system. Insect growth regulators (IGRs are more selective insecticides than conventional insecticides, and ecdysone agonists are the newest IGRs being commercialized, e.g. tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and halofenozide. Ecdysone agonists bind to the ecdysteroid receptors, and they act similarly to the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. The binding provides larvae or nymphs with a signal to enter a premature and lethal molting cycle. In addition, the ecdysone agonists cause a reduction in the number of eggs laid by female insects. The ecdysone agonists are being developed as selective biorational insecticides. Tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide are used to control lepidopteran insect pests, whereas halofenozide is being used to control coleopteran insect pests. Their selectivity is due to differences in the binding affinity between these compounds to the receptors in insects from different orders. The selectivity of these compounds makes them candidates to be used in combinations with other control strategies to develop integrated pest management programs in agricultural ecosystems. Key words: new insecticides, selectivity, ecdysone agonists

  5. Identification and cloning of two insecticidal protein genes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely applied type of microbial pesticide due to its high specificity and environmental safety. The activity of Bt is largely attributed to the insecticidal crystal protein encoded by the cry genes. Different insecticidal crystal proteins of Bt have different bioactivity against distinct agricultural ...

  6. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  7. Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Cheng, Xiaofei; Liu, Suqi; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and esterases are important mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance. Discovery of novel GST and esterase inhibitors from phytochemicals could provide potential new insecticide synergists. Conifer tree species contain flavonoids, such as taxifolin, that inhibit in vitro GST activity. The objectives were to test the relative effectiveness of taxifolin as an enzyme inhibitor and as an insecticide synergist in combination with the organophosphorous insecticide, Guthion (50% azinphos-methyl), and the botanical insecticide, pyrethrum, using an insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) strain. Both taxifolin and its isomer, quercetin, increased the mortality of 1(st) instar CPB larvae after 48h when combined with Guthion, but not pyrethrum. Taxifolin had greater in vitro esterase inhibition compared with the commonly used esterase inhibitor, S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). An in vivo esterase and GST inhibition effect after ingestion of taxifolin was measured, however DEF caused a greater suppression of esterase activity. This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Insecticide resistance in disease vectors from Mayotte: an opportunity for integrated vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Darriet, Frédéric; Zumbo, Betty; Milesi, Pascal; Thiria, Julien; Bernard, Vincent; Toty, Céline; Labbé, Pierrick; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Mayotte, a small island in the Indian Ocean, has been affected for many years by vector-borne diseases. Malaria, Bancroftian filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever have circulated or still circulate on the island. They are all transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes. To limit the impact of these diseases on human health, vector control has been implemented for more than 60 years on Mayotte. In this study, we assessed the resistance levels of four major vector species (Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to two types of insecticides: i) the locally currently-used insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids) and ii) alternative molecules that are promising for vector control and come from different insecticide families (bacterial toxins or insect growth regulators). When some resistance was found to one of these insecticides, we characterized the mechanisms involved. Larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate the level of resistance. When resistance was found, we tested for the presence of metabolic resistance through detoxifying enzyme activity assays, or for target-site mutations through molecular identification of known resistance alleles. Resistance to currently-used insecticides varied greatly between the four vector species. While no resistance to any insecticides was found in the two Aedes species, bioassays confirmed multiple resistance in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (temephos: ~ 20 fold and deltamethrin: only 10% mortality after 24 hours). In An. gambiae, resistance was scarce: only a moderate resistance to temephos was found (~5 fold). This resistance appears to be due only to carboxyl-esterase overexpression and not to target modification. Finally, and comfortingly, none of the four species showed resistance to any of the new insecticides. The low resistance observed in Mayotte's main disease vectors is particularly interesting, because it leaves a range of tools useable by vector control

  9. Insecticide resistance monitoring and correlation analysis of insecticides in field populations of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (stål) in China 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Liao, Xun; Mao, Kaikai; Zhang, Kaixiong; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The brown planthopper is a serious rice pest in China. Chemical insecticides have been considered a satisfactory means of controlling the brown planthopper. In the present study, we determined the susceptibility of twenty-one populations of Nilaparvata lugens to eleven insecticides by a rice-stem dipping method from 2012 to 2014 in eight provinces of China. These field-collected populations of N. lugens had developed high levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistant ratio, RR=233.3-2029-fold) and buprofezin (RR=147.0-1222). Furthermore, N. lugens showed moderate to high levels of resistance to thiamethoxam (RR=25.9-159.2) and low to moderate levels of resistance to dinotefuran (RR=6.4-29.1), clothianidin (RR=6.1-33.6), ethiprole (RR=11.5-71.8), isoprocarb (RR=17.1-70.2), and chlorpyrifos (RR=7.4-30.7). In contrast, the susceptibility of N. lugens to etofenprox (RR=1.1-4.9), thiacloprid (RR=2.9-8.2) and acetamiprid (RR=2.7-26.2) remained susceptible to moderate levels of resistance. Significant correlations were detected between the LC50 values of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, buprofezin, and etofenprox, as well as between clothianidin and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, ethiprole, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid. Similarly, significant correlations were observed between chlorpyrifos and etofenprox, acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Additionally, the activity of the detoxification enzymes of N. lugens showed a significant correlation with the log LC50 values of imidacloprid, dinotefuran and ethiprole. These results will be beneficial for effective insecticide resistance management strategies to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative efficacy of some insecticides against the sucking insect pest complex of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.U.; Muhammad, R.; Tofique, M.

    2016-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of some conventional and neonicotinoid insecticides for the management of sucking insect pests of cotton (whitefly, jassid and thrips) was determined. Six insecticides viz., Confidor 200 SL (imidacloprid) at the rate acre /sup -1/, Karate 1.5 EC (lambda cyhalothrin) at the rate 330 ml acre /sup -1/, Nockout 25 SP (nitenpyram) at the rate 100 gm acre /sup -1/, Polytrin-C 44 EC (profenofos+cypermethrin) at the rate 600 ml acre /sup -1/, Talstar 10 EC (bifenthrin) at the rate 250 ml acre /sup -1/ and Advantage 20 EC (carbosulfan) at the rate of 1000 ml acre /sup -1/ were sprayed twice in order to ascertain the reduction of the pests population on Sadori variety of cotton sown at experimental area of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam. All the tested insecticides caused significant reduction of whitefly, jassid and thrips at 24 hours, 72 hours and even 7 days after application. Imidacloprid followed by the nitenpyram proved to be most effective for bringing about a significant reduction in the populations of whitefly and thrips. Nitenpyram had the highest percentage reduction (73.80%) against jassid at 7th day after application but that was nonsignificantly different from imidacloprid(63.49%). Whereas, the conventional insecticides i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, profenofos+cypermethrin, bifenthrin and carbosulfan showed 57.93%, 52.38%, 47.61% and 42.06% reduction, respectively. Maximum extrapolated yield (2.99 tons ha /sup -1/) was also obtained in imidacloprid treated plots followed by nitenpyram (2.66 tons ha /sup -1/). Thus, these two insecticides were most effective for the sucking pests and in increasing seed cotton yield as compared to the conventional ones. (author)

  11. Baseline susceptibility of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from California to select insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Gispert, Carmen; Castle, Steven J

    2012-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, 20 populations of Planococcus ficus (Signoret), from Coachella and San Joaquin Valleys of California were measured in the laboratory for susceptibility to buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methomyl, and imidacloprid. Toxicity was assessed using a petri dish bioassay technique for contact insecticides and by a systemic uptake technique for imidacloprid. Mixed life stages were tested for susceptibility to all insecticides except for buprofezin, which was measured against early and late instars (first, second, and third). Dose-response regression lines from the mortality data established LC50 and LC99 values by both techniques. Responses of populations from the two geographical locations to all five insecticides varied, in some cases significantly. Variations in susceptibility to each insecticide among sample sites showed a sevenfold difference for buprofezin, 11-fold to chlorpyrifos, ninefold to dimethoate, 24-fold to methomyl, and 8.5-fold to imidacloprid. In spite of susceptibility differences between populations, baseline toxicity data revealed that all five insecticides were quite effective based on low LC50s. Chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound to Planococcus ficus populations as shown by lowest LC50s. Buprofezin was toxic to all immature stages but was more potent to first instars. The highest LC99 estimated by probit analysis of the bioassay data of all 20 populations for each compound was selected as a candidate discriminating dose for use in future resistance monitoring efforts. Establishment of baseline data and development of resistance monitoring tools such as bioassay methods and discriminating doses are essential elements of a sustainable management program for Planococcus ficus.

  12. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Unraveling the effect of structurally different classes of insecticide on germination and early plant growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Il-Doo; Kwak, Hwa-Sook; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Although a considerable number of studies about the effect of different insecticides on plant physiology and metabolism have been carried out, research work about the comparative action of structurally different classes of insecticide on physiological and biochemical properties of soybean seed germination and early growth has not been found. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different classes of insecticides on soybean seed germination and early plant growth. Soybean seeds of Bosuk cultivar were soaked for 24h in distilled water or recommended dose (2mLL(-1), 1mLL(-1), 0.5gL(-1), and 0.5gL(-1) water for insecticides Mepthion, Myungtaja, Actara, and Stonate, respectively) of pesticide solutions of four structurally different classes of insecticides - Mepthion (fenitrothion; organophosphate), Myungtaja (etofenprox; pyrethroid), Actara (thiamethoxam; neonicotinoid), and Stonate (lambda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam; pyrethroid cum neonicotinoid) - which are used for controlling stink bugs in soybean crop. Insecticides containing thiamethoxam and lamda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam showed positive effects on seedling biomass and content of polyphenol and flavonoid, however fenitrothion insecticide reduced the seed germination, seed and seedling vigor, and polyphenol and flavonoid contents in soybean. Results of this study reveal that different classes of insecticide have differential influence on physiologic and metabolic actions like germination, early growth, and antioxidant activities of soybean and this implies that yield and nutrient content also might be affected with the application of different types of insecticide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osta Mike A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. Methods C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. Results We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher’s exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the

  17. Electrophysiological Responses and Reproductive Behavior of Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea Drury) are Influenced by Volatile Compounds from Its Mulberry Host (Morus alba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea (Drury) is an invasive pest of Morus alba L. in China. β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol among eleven electro-physiologically active leaf volatiles from M. alba have been reported to influence captures of Hyphantria cunea moths when added into sex pheromone traps. This study further investigated influences of volatile types and their dosages on the electro-physiological responses in the antennae of male and female moths, as well as on mating and oviposition behaviors. Females were, regardless of dosages, more sensitive to β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol in electro-physiological response tests than males. For males, a dose response was detected, i.e., a dosage of 10 μg and 100 μg of either chemical stimulated higher electric response in their antennae than 1 μg. Moth pairs either exposed respectively to a herbivore-induced M. alba volatile blend (HIPV), to a mechanically-damaged M. alba volatile blend (MDV), to β-ocimene, to cis-2-penten-1-ol, or to pentane as a control showed that pairs exposed to β-ocimene most likely mated, followed by HIPV blends and least by the other volatiles or the control. In contrast, β-ocimene induced about 70% of the female oviposition behaviors and was nearly 4.5 times the oviposition rate than cis-2-penten-1-ol and 2 times than the control. However, none of the chemicals had any effect on the 48 h fecundity or on egg sizes. In conclusion, β-ocimene from mulberry plants alone could promote mating and oviposition in H. cunea at a dosage of 1 mg. The results indicate that reproductive behaviors of H. cunea moths can be enhanced through HIPV blends and β-ocimene induced by feeding of larvae. This contra phenomenon has revealed a different ecology in this moth during colonizing China as local pests would commonly be repelled by herbivore induced chemicals. These chemicals can be used for the development of biological control approaches such as being used together with sex pheromone traps. PMID:27153095

  18. Electrophysiological Responses and Reproductive Behavior of Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea Drury) are Influenced by Volatile Compounds from Its Mulberry Host (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Ning

    2016-05-03

    Hyphantria cunea (Drury) is an invasive pest of Morus alba L. in China. β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol among eleven electro-physiologically active leaf volatiles from M. alba have been reported to influence captures of Hyphantria cunea moths when added into sex pheromone traps. This study further investigated influences of volatile types and their dosages on the electro-physiological responses in the antennae of male and female moths, as well as on mating and oviposition behaviors. Females were, regardless of dosages, more sensitive to β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol in electro-physiological response tests than males. For males, a dose response was detected, i.e., a dosage of 10 μg and 100 μg of either chemical stimulated higher electric response in their antennae than 1 μg. Moth pairs either exposed respectively to a herbivore-induced M. alba volatile blend (HIPV), to a mechanically-damaged M. alba volatile blend (MDV), to β-ocimene, to cis-2-penten-1-ol, or to pentane as a control showed that pairs exposed to β-ocimene most likely mated, followed by HIPV blends and least by the other volatiles or the control. In contrast, β-ocimene induced about 70% of the female oviposition behaviors and was nearly 4.5 times the oviposition rate than cis-2-penten-1-ol and 2 times than the control. However, none of the chemicals had any effect on the 48 h fecundity or on egg sizes. In conclusion, β-ocimene from mulberry plants alone could promote mating and oviposition in H. cunea at a dosage of 1 mg. The results indicate that reproductive behaviors of H. cunea moths can be enhanced through HIPV blends and β-ocimene induced by feeding of larvae. This contra phenomenon has revealed a different ecology in this moth during colonizing China as local pests would commonly be repelled by herbivore induced chemicals. These chemicals can be used for the development of biological control approaches such as being used together with sex pheromone traps.

  19. Electrophysiological Responses and Reproductive Behavior of Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea Drury are Influenced by Volatile Compounds from Its Mulberry Host (Morus alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyphantria cunea (Drury is an invasive pest of Morus alba L. in China. β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol among eleven electro-physiologically active leaf volatiles from M. alba have been reported to influence captures of Hyphantria cunea moths when added into sex pheromone traps. This study further investigated influences of volatile types and their dosages on the electro-physiological responses in the antennae of male and female moths, as well as on mating and oviposition behaviors. Females were, regardless of dosages, more sensitive to β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol in electro-physiological response tests than males. For males, a dose response was detected, i.e., a dosage of 10 μg and 100 μg of either chemical stimulated higher electric response in their antennae than 1 μg. Moth pairs either exposed respectively to a herbivore-induced M. alba volatile blend (HIPV, to a mechanically-damaged M. alba volatile blend (MDV, to β-ocimene, to cis-2-penten-1-ol, or to pentane as a control showed that pairs exposed to β-ocimene most likely mated, followed by HIPV blends and least by the other volatiles or the control. In contrast, β-ocimene induced about 70% of the female oviposition behaviors and was nearly 4.5 times the oviposition rate than cis-2-penten-1-ol and 2 times than the control. However, none of the chemicals had any effect on the 48 h fecundity or on egg sizes. In conclusion, β-ocimene from mulberry plants alone could promote mating and oviposition in H. cunea at a dosage of 1 mg. The results indicate that reproductive behaviors of H. cunea moths can be enhanced through HIPV blends and β-ocimene induced by feeding of larvae. This contra phenomenon has revealed a different ecology in this moth during colonizing China as local pests would commonly be repelled by herbivore induced chemicals. These chemicals can be used for the development of biological control approaches such as being used together with sex pheromone traps.

  20. Enhanced degradation of spiro-insecticides and their leacher enol derivatives in soil by solarization and biosolarization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Vela, Nuria; Ros, Caridad; Navarro, Simón

    2017-04-01

    The leaching potential of three insecticides (spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, and spirotetramat) was assessed using disturbed soil columns. Small quantities of spirodiclofen and spiromesifen were detected in leachate fraction, while spirotetramat residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, the transformation products (enol derivatives) are relatively more mobile than the parent compounds and may leach into groundwater. Moreover, the use of disinfection soil techniques (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance their degradation rates in soil was investigated. The results show that both practices achieved a reduction in the number of juvenile nematodes, enhancing in a parallel way degradation rates of the insecticides and their enol derivatives as compared with the non-disinfected soil. This behavior can be mainly attributed to the increase in soil temperature and changes in microbial activity. All insecticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. As a consequence, both agronomic techniques could be considered as suitable strategies for detoxification of soils polluted with the studied pesticides.

  1. Mesoionic Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinone Insecticides: From Discovery to Triflumezopyrim and Dicloromezotiaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming

    2017-09-19

    One of the greatest global challenges is to feed the ever-increasing world population. The agrochemical tools growers currently utilize are also under continuous pressure, due to a number of factors that contribute to the loss of existing products. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones are an unusual yet very intriguing class of compounds. Known for several decades, this class of compounds had not been systemically studied until we started our insecticide discovery program. This Account provides an overview of the efforts on mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyridinone insecticide discovery, beginning from the initial high throughput screen (HTS) discovery to ultimate identification of triflumezopyrim (4, DuPont Pyraxalt) and dicloromezotiaz (5) for commercialization as novel insecticides. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones with a n-propyl group at the 1-position, such as compound 1, were initially isolated as undesired byproducts from reactions for a fungicide discovery program at DuPont Crop Protection. Such compounds showed interesting insecticidal activity in a follow-up screen and against an expanded insect species list. The area became an insecticide hit for exploration and then a lead area for optimization. At the lead optimization stage, variations at three regions of compound 1, i.e., side-chain (n-propyl group), substituents on the 3-phenyl group, and substitutions on the pyrido- moiety, were explored with many analogues prepared and evaluated. Breakthrough discoveries included replacing the n-propyl group with a 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl group to generate compound 2, and then with a 2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl group to form compound 3. 3 possesses potent insecticidal activity not only against a group of hopper species, including corn planthopper (Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), CPH) and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae (Harris), PLH), as well as two key rice hopper species, namely, brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), BPH) and rice green leafhopper (Nephotettix

  2. Monoclonal Antibody Analysis and Insecticidal Spectrum of Three Types of Lepidopteran-Specific Insecticidal Crystal Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfte, Herman; Van Rie, Jeroen; Jansens, Stefan; Van Houtven, Annemie; Vanderbruggen, Hilde; Vaeck, Mark

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the protein composition and the insecticidal spectrum of crystals of 29 Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against lepidopteran larvae. All crystals contained proteins of 130 to 140 kilodaltons (kDa) which could be grouped into three types by the molecular weight of the protoxin and the trypsin-activated core fragment. Proteins of the three types showed a characteristic insecticidal spectrum when tested against five lepidopteran species. Type A crystal proteins were protoxins of 130 or 133 kDa, which were processed into 60-kDa toxins by trypsin. Several genes encoding crystal proteins of this type have been cloned and sequenced earlier. They are highly conserved in the N-terminal half of the toxic fragment and were previously classified in three subtypes (the 4.5-, 5.3-, and 6.6-kilobase subtypes) based on the restriction map of their genes. The present study shows that different proteins of these three subtypes were equally toxic against Manduca sexta and Pieris brassicae and had no detectable activity against Spodoptera littoralis. However, the 4.5-, 5.3-, and 6.6-kilobase subtypes differed in their toxicity against Heliothis virescens and Mamestra brassicae. Type B crystal proteins consisted of 140-kDa protoxins with a 55-kDa tryptic core fragment. These were only active against one of the five insect species tested (P. brassicae). The protoxin and the trypsin-activated toxin of type C were 135- and 63-kDa proteins, respectively. Proteins of this type were associated with high toxicity against S. littoralis and M. brassicae. A panel of 35 monoclonal antibodies was used to compare the structural characteristics of crystal proteins of the three different types and subtypes. Each type of protein could be associated with a typical epitope structure, indicating an unambiguous correlation between antigenic structure and insect specificity. Images PMID:16347711

  3. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit Extract Containing Anthocyanins Improves Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diabetic C57BL/Ksj-db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung Ha; Lee, Hyun Ah; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-08-01

    The effect of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit extract (MFE) on hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in an animal model of type 2 diabetes was evaluated. C57BL/Ksj-diabetic db/db mice were divided into three groups: diabetic control, rosiglitazone, and MFE groups. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and intraperitoneal glucose were measured, and an insulin tolerance test was performed after MFE supplementation in db/db mice. In addition, the protein levels of various targets of insulin signaling were measured by western blotting. The blood levels of glucose and HbA1c were significantly lower in the MFE-supplemented group than in the diabetic control group. Moreover, glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that MFE treatment increased insulin sensitivity. The homeostatic index of insulin resistance significantly decreased in the MFE-supplemented group relative to the diabetic control group. MFE supplementation significantly stimulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and p-Akt substrate of 160 kDa (pAS160) and enhanced the level of plasma membrane-glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles. Further, dietary MFE significantly increased pAMPK and decreased the levels of glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the liver. MFE may improve hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMPK and AS160 in skeletal muscles and inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  4. Identification and validation of a gene causing cross-resistance between insecticide classes in Anopheles gambiae from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara N; Stevenson, Bradley J; Müller, Pie; Wilding, Craig S; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Field, Stuart G; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J I; Ranson, Hilary; Donnelly, Martin James

    2012-04-17

    In the last decade there have been marked reductions in malaria incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Sustaining these reductions will rely upon insecticides to control the mosquito malaria vectors. We report that in the primary African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, a single enzyme, CYP6M2, confers resistance to two classes of insecticide. This is unique evidence in a disease vector of cross-resistance associated with a single metabolic gene that simultaneously reduces the efficacy of two of the four classes of insecticide routinely used for malaria control. The gene-expression profile of a highly DDT-resistant population of A. gambiae s.s. from Ghana was characterized using a unique whole-genome microarray. A number of genes were significantly overexpressed compared with two susceptible West African colonies, including genes from metabolic families previously linked to insecticide resistance. One of the most significantly overexpressed probe groups (false-discovery rate-adjusted P P450 gene CYP6M2. This gene is associated with pyrethroid resistance in wild A. gambiae s.s. populations) and can metabolize both type I and type II pyrethroids in recombinant protein assays. Using in vitro assays we show that recombinant CYP6M2 is also capable of metabolizing the organochlorine insecticide DDT in the presence of solubilizing factor sodium cholate.

  5. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Overgaard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  6. Structural analysis and anti-obesity effect of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Won; Synytsya, Andriy; Capek, Peter; Bleha, Roman; Pohl, Radek; Park, Yong Il

    2016-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide JS-MP-1 was isolated from Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.). Sugar linkage analysis and NMR data confirmed that it is a rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG I) polymer carrying arabinan and arabinogalactan (AG II) side chains. JS-MP-1 reduced dose-dependently the viability of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells, significantly stimulated the cleavage of caspases 9 and 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax expression level that led to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in pre-adipocyte cells. The apoptotic death was mediated by stimulation of MAPKs (ERK and p38) signalling pathway. These results suggest that JS-MP-1 is able to reduce the number of fat cells and the mass of adipose tissue via inhibition of pre-adipocyte proliferation and thus JS-MP-1 itself or a crude aqueous Oddi extract containing this polysaccharide can be used as functional ingredient of health-beneficial food supplements for the treatment or prevention of obesity disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The isolation and the characterization of two polysaccharides from the branch bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fan; He, Tian-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-07-01

    Two water-soluble polysaccharides termed MBBP-1 and MBBP-2 were isolated from the branches of the mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) using hot water extraction and purified on Anion-exchange DEAE52-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column. MBBP-1 was shown to be composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 4.53:2.49:4.38:4.67:17.85:5.88. MBBP-2 was composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 26.85:13.8:3.14:4.4:6.1:3.19:4.9. Their structural characteristics were further investigated by FI-IR spectroscopy, Smith degradation, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Based on the data obtained, MBBP-1 had a backbone mainly consisting of (1 → 3)-linked glucose. MBBP-2 had a backbone mainly consisting of (1 → 3)-linked rhamnose and (1 → 2, 4)-linked xylose. Antioxidant assays indicated that antioxidant activities of MBBP-2 were significantly stronger than those of MBBP-1, and this was likely in relation to the different content of 8.2 % galacturonic acid in MBBP-2.

  8. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

  9. Exploring the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: a case study in Martinique Island (French West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yébakima André

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, causing up to 100 million dengue infections every year. As there is still no medicine and efficient vaccine available, vector control largely based on insecticide treatments remains the only method to reduce dengue virus transmission. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to chemical insecticides has been reported worldwide and the underlying molecular mechanisms, including the identification of enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification are not completely understood. Results The present paper investigates the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in a population of Ae. aegypti collected in Martinique (French West Indies. Bioassays with insecticides on adults and larvae revealed high levels of resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations showed a high frequency (71% of the sodium channel 'knock down resistance' (kdr mutation. Exposing mosquitoes to detoxification enzymes inhibitors prior to bioassays induced a significant increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, revealing the presence of metabolic-based resistance mechanisms. This trend was biochemically confirmed by significant elevated activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases at both larval and adult stages. Utilization of the microarray Aedes Detox Chip containing probes for all members of detoxification and other insecticide resistance-related enzymes revealed the significant constitutive over-transcription of multiple detoxification genes at both larval and adult stages. The over-transcription of detoxification genes in the resistant strain was confirmed by using real-time quantitative RT

  10. Exploring the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: a case study in Martinique Island (French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Darriet, Frederic; Reynaud, Stéphane; Bonnet, Julien; Strode, Clare; Brengues, Cecile; Yébakima, André; Ranson, Hilary; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe

    2009-10-26

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, causing up to 100 million dengue infections every year. As there is still no medicine and efficient vaccine available, vector control largely based on insecticide treatments remains the only method to reduce dengue virus transmission. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to chemical insecticides has been reported worldwide and the underlying molecular mechanisms, including the identification of enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification are not completely understood. The present paper investigates the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in a population of Ae. aegypti collected in Martinique (French West Indies). Bioassays with insecticides on adults and larvae revealed high levels of resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations showed a high frequency (71%) of the sodium channel 'knock down resistance' (kdr) mutation. Exposing mosquitoes to detoxification enzymes inhibitors prior to bioassays induced a significant increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, revealing the presence of metabolic-based resistance mechanisms. This trend was biochemically confirmed by significant elevated activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases at both larval and adult stages. Utilization of the microarray Aedes Detox Chip containing probes for all members of detoxification and other insecticide resistance-related enzymes revealed the significant constitutive over-transcription of multiple detoxification genes at both larval and adult stages. The over-transcription of detoxification genes in the resistant strain was confirmed by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest that the high level of

  11. Neonicotinoid insecticides induce salicylate-associated plant defense responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.; Chandran, Divya; Gulevich, Alexander G.; Okrent, Rachel A.; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Sarpong, Richmond; Bunnelle, Eric M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides control crop pests based on their action as agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which accepts chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-analogs almost equally well. In some cases, these compounds have also been reported to enhance plant vigor and (a)biotic stress tolerance, independent of their insecticidal function. However, this mode of action has not been defined. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the neonicotinoid compounds, imidacloprid (IMI) and clothianidin (CLO), via their 6-chloropyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid and 2-chlorothiazolyl-5-carboxylic acid metabolites, respectively, induce salicylic acid (SA)-associated plant responses. SA is a phytohormone best known for its role in plant defense against pathogens and as an inducer of systemic acquired resistance; however, it can also modulate abiotic stress responses. These neonicotinoids effect a similar global transcriptional response to that of SA, including genes involved in (a)biotic stress response. Furthermore, similar to SA, IMI and CLO induce systemic acquired resistance, resulting in reduced growth of a powdery mildew pathogen. The action of CLO induces the endogenous synthesis of SA via the SA biosynthetic enzyme ICS1, with ICS1 required for CLO-induced accumulation of SA, expression of the SA marker PR1, and fully enhanced resistance to powdery mildew. In contrast, the action of IMI does not induce endogenous synthesis of SA. Instead, IMI is further bioactivated to 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid, which is shown here to be a potent inducer of PR1 and inhibitor of SA-sensitive enzymes. Thus, via different mechanisms, these chloropyridinyl- and chlorothiazolyl-neonicotinoids induce SA responses associated with enhanced stress tolerance. PMID:20876120

  12. Insecticide resistance mechanisms associated with different environments in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: a case study in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkya, Theresia E; Akhouayri, Idir; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Batengana, Bernard; Mosha, Franklin; Magesa, Stephen; Kisinza, William; David, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-25

    Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides is a growing concern in Africa. Since only a few insecticides are used for public health and limited development of new molecules is expected in the next decade, maintaining the efficacy of control programmes mostly relies on resistance management strategies. Developing such strategies requires a deep understanding of factors influencing resistance together with characterizing the mechanisms involved. Among factors likely to influence insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, agriculture and urbanization have been implicated but rarely studied in detail. The present study aimed at comparing insecticide resistance levels and associated mechanisms across multiple Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from different environments. Nine populations were sampled in three areas of Tanzania showing contrasting agriculture activity, urbanization and usage of insecticides for vector control. Insecticide resistance levels were measured in larvae and adults through bioassays with deltamethrin, DDT and bendiocarb. The distribution of An. gambiae sub-species and pyrethroid target-site mutations (kdr) were investigated using molecular assays. A microarray approach was used for identifying transcription level variations associated to different environments and insecticide resistance. Elevated resistance levels to deltamethrin and DDT were identified in agriculture and urban areas as compared to the susceptible strain Kisumu. A significant correlation was found between adult deltamethrin resistance and agriculture activity. The subspecies Anopheles arabiensis was predominant with only few An. gambiae sensu stricto identified in the urban area of Dar es Salaam. The L1014S kdr mutation was detected at elevated frequency in An gambiae s.s. in the urban area but remains sporadic in An. arabiensis specimens. Microarrays identified 416 transcripts differentially expressed in any area versus the susceptible reference strain and supported the impact

  13. Differential expression of glutathione s-transferase enzyme in different life stages of various insecticide-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi: a malaria vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanil, D; Shetty, V; Shetty, N J

    2014-06-01

    Interest in insect glutathione s-transferases (GSTs) has primarily focused on their role in insecticide resistance. These play an important role in biotransformation and detoxification of many different xenobiotic and endogenous substances including insecticides. The GST activity among 10 laboratory selected insecticide resistant and susceptible/control strains of Anopheles stephensi was compared using the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The difference in the GST activities of different life stages of diverse insecticide resistant strains was compared and presented. About 100 larvae, pupae, adult males, adult females and eggs (100 μg in total weight) were collected and used for the experiment. The extracts were prepared from each of the insecticide-resistant strains and control. Protein contents of the enzyme homogenate and GST activities were determined. Deltamethrin and cyfluthrin-resistant strains of An. stephensi showed significantly higher GST activity. Larvae and pupae of DDT-resistant strain showed peak GST activity followed by the propoxur-resistant strain. On contrary, the GST activity was found in reduced quantity in alphamethrin, bifenthrin, carbofuran and chloropyrifos resistant strains. Adults of either sexes showed higher GST activity in mosquito strain resistant to organophosphate group of insecticides namely, temephos and chloropyrifos. The GST activity was closely associated with almost all of the insecticides used in the study, strengthening the fact that one of the mechanisms associated with resistance includes an increase of GST activity. This comparative data on GST activity in An. stephensi can be useful database to identify possible underlying mechanisms governing insecticide-resistance by GSTs.

  14. Dissecting the insect metabolic machinery using twin ion mass spectrometry: a single P450 enzyme metabolizing the insecticide imidacloprid in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Kin Kuan; Daborn, Phillip J; Battlay, Paul; Robin, Charles; Batterham, Philip; O'Hair, Richard A J; Donald, William A

    2014-04-01

    Insecticide resistance is one of the most prevalent examples of anthropogenic genetic change, yet our understanding of metabolic-based resistance remains limited by the analytical challenges associated with rapidly tracking the in vivo metabolites of insecticides at nonlethal doses. Here, using twin ion mass spectrometry analysis of the extracts of whole Drosophila larvae and excreta, we show that (i) eight metabolites of the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, can be detected when formed by susceptible larval genotypes and (ii) the specific overtranscription of a single gene product, Cyp6g1, associated with the metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids, results in a significant increase in the formation of three imidacloprid metabolites that are formed in C-H bond activation reactions; that is, Cyp6g1 is directly linked to the enhanced metabolism of imidacloprid in vivo. These results establish a rapid and sensitive method for dissecting the metabolic machinery of insects by directly linking single gene products to insecticide metabolism.

  15. Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Phylogeography of herbarium specimens of asexually propagated paper mulberry [Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae)] reveals genetic diversity across the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payacan, Claudia; Moncada, Ximena; Rojas, Gloria; Clarke, Andrew; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Allaby, Robin; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred. DNA from 47 herbarium specimens of B. papyrifera collected from 1882 to 2006 from different islands of the Pacific was obtained under ancient DNA protocols. Genetic characterization was based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS-1 sequence, a sex marker, the chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 intergenic spacer and a set of ten microsatellites developed for B. papyrifera. Microsatellites allowed detection of 15 genotypes in Near and Remote Oceanian samples, in spite of the vegetative propagation of B. papyrifera in the Pacific. These genotypes are structured in two groups separating West and East Polynesia, and place Pitcairn in a pivotal position. We also detected the presence of male plants that carry the Polynesian chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotype, in contrast to findings in contemporary B. papyrifera populations where only female plants bear the Polynesian cpDNA haplotype. For the first time, genetic diversity was detected among paper mulberry accessions from Remote Oceania. A clear separation between West and East Polynesia was found that may be indicative of pulses during its dispersal history. The pattern linking the genotypes within Remote Oceania reflects the importance of central Polynesia as a dispersal hub, in agreement with archaeological evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  17. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (Pinsects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight).

  18. Detection of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide in wild populations of medfly Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimouni, Wafa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the wild medfly resistance of the organophosphate insecticide is evaluated by the physiologic mechanism of resistance including the Acethylcholinesterase enzyme. Different representative populations of Ceratitis were collected from different regions of Tunisia. The analysis statistics (ACP) for DL50 and the treatment frequency showed a negative correlation between them. The gene ace was amplified at the level of the exons 4, 5, 6 et 7 by PCR. No mutation of the gene ace was identified with the collected individuals.

  19. Limonoids from Cipadessa fruticosa and Cedrela fissilis and their insecticidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Ana C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G. Fernandes da; Bueno, Fabiana C.; Oliveira, Cintia G.; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; Hebling, M. Jose A.; Bacci Junior, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the fruits of Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae) afforded the new limonoid cipadesin B and the known swietemahonolide. From the roots of Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae) were isolated the limonoid 3β-acetoxycarapin, new as natural product, along with the triterpenes oleanolic and oleanonic acid. These compounds and other six mexicanolide limonoids previously isolated from C. fruticosa showed insecticidal activity against the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  20. The Experiment of Carbofuran Controlled Release Formulation Insecticide Application on Rice Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistyati, M.; Ulfa TS; Sofnie M Ch; Kuswadi AN

    2004-01-01

    Field test of carbofuran insecticide (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate) controlled release formulation on rice plants of IR-64 variety was carried out in Pusakanegara, West Java. This insecticide formulation was made by using the mixture of activated charcoal, tapioca, kaolin, Na-alginate as a filler matrix. Insecticide formulation was applied one week after transplanting. The observations were conducted on the number of tillers, damage level caused by Orseolia oryzae (Wood/Mason), Chilo suppressalis (Walker), and Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guen) on new young plants. The observation were carried out on three weeks after application of carbofuran insecticide formulation then every two weeks until harvest. The number of tillers were occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 20kg/ha, 30kg/ha, and 40kg/ha dose rate on the third weeks, it was showed significant difference compared with commercial carbofuran, and the following weeks were no significant difference between the treatments. The attack of Orseolia oryzae was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation with dose rate of 30 kg/ha and 40 kg/ha on the seventh weeks, ninth weeks, and eleventh weeks, those attacks were significantly difference found compared with commercial carbofuran. The attack of Chilo suppressalis was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 40kg/ha dose rate on the fifth weeks, it was showed significant difference which was compared to untreated carbofuran. The attack of Cnaphalocrosis medinalis was occurred on the ninth weeks, three dose rate of controlled released formulation were showed significant differences which compared with commercial carbofuran and were showed 50% less than commercial carbofuran, while the grains dry weight were no significant difference between the treatments. (author)

  1. Management of Mango Hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, Using Chemical Insecticides and Neem Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan, S. M.; Uddin, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Islam, M. S.; Kashem, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in pe...

  2. Limonoids from andiroba oil and Cedrela fissilis and their insecticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrozin Alessandra R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine limonoids were isolated from Carapa guianensis and Cedrela fissilis. Among them, 1,2-dihydro-3beta-hydroxy-7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin is a new compound. Moreover, the assignments of some chemical shifts of xyloccensin k have been corrected and ¹H NMR data of 7-deacetylgedunin have been assigned for the first time. These isolated limonoids were assayed on Atta sexdens rubropilosa workers showing moderate insecticidal activities.

  3. Limonoids from andiroba oil and Cedrela fissilis and their insecticidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozin, Alessandra R.P.; Leite, Ana C.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, M. Fatima das G. Fernandes da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Bueno, Fabiana C.; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; Hebling, Jose A.; Bacci Junior, Mauricio [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais

    2006-05-15

    Nine limonoids were isolated from Carapa guianensis and Cedrela fissilis. Among them, 1,2-dihydro-3{beta}-hydroxy-7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin is a new compound. Moreover, the assignments of some chemical shifts of xyloccensin k have been corrected and {sup 1}H NMR data of 7-deacetylgedunin have been assigned for the first time. These isolated limonoids were assayed on Atta sexdens rubropilosa workers showing moderate insecticidal activities. (author)

  4. Behavioural response to combined insecticide and temperature stress in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Level, A; Neumann-Mondlak, A; Good, R T; Green, L M; Schmidt, J M; Robin, C

    2016-05-01

    Insecticide resistance evolves extremely rapidly, providing an illuminating model for the study of adaptation. With climate change reshaping species distribution, pest and disease vector control needs rethinking to include the effects of environmental variation and insect stress physiology. Here, we assessed how both long-term adaptation of populations to temperature and immediate temperature variation affect the genetic architecture of DDT insecticide response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mortality assays and behavioural assays based on continuous activity monitoring were used to assess the interaction between DDT and temperature on three field-derived populations from climate extremes (Raleigh for warm temperate, Tasmania for cold oceanic and Queensland for hot tropical). The Raleigh population showed the highest mortality to DDT, whereas the Queensland population, epicentre for derived alleles of the resistance gene Cyp6g1, showed the lowest. Interaction between insecticide and temperature strongly affected mortality, particularly for the Tasmanian population. Activity profiles analysed using self-organizing maps show that the insecticide promoted an early response, whereas elevated temperature promoted a later response. These distinctive early or later activity phases revealed similar responses to temperature and DDT dose alone but with more or less genetic variance depending on the population. This change in genetic variance among populations suggests that selection particularly depleted genetic variance for DDT response in the Queensland population. Finally, despite similar (co)variation between traits in benign conditions, the genetic responses across population differed under stressful conditions. This showed how stress-responsive genetic variation only reveals itself in specific conditions and thereby escapes potential trade-offs in benign environments. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European

  5. Insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in the Federal District, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castelo Branco, Marina; Gatehouse, Alexander G.

    1997-01-01

    The levels of resistance to the insecticides cartap, deltamethrin and metamidophos were evaluated for three populations of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) from the Federal District, Brazil in laboratory bioassays. The larvae of DBM showed levels of resistance to deltamethrin between 4 and 47 fold relative to a susceptible laboratory strain. The level of resistance to metamidophos was 2-9 fold greater than that of the susceptible strain. No resistance to cartap was detected. O...

  6. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  7. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for insecticides: development of predictive in vivo insecticide activity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, P K; Singh, T; Singh, H

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed independently on data sets belonging to two groups of insecticides, namely the organophosphates and carbamates. Several types of descriptors including topological, spatial, thermodynamic, information content, lead likeness and E-state indices were used to derive quantitative relationships between insecticide activities and structural properties of chemicals. A systematic search approach based on missing value, zero value, simple correlation and multi-collinearity tests as well as the use of a genetic algorithm allowed the optimal selection of the descriptors used to generate the models. The QSAR models developed for both organophosphate and carbamate groups revealed good predictability with r(2) values of 0.949 and 0.838 as well as [image omitted] values of 0.890 and 0.765, respectively. In addition, a linear correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental LD(50) values for the test set data with r(2) of 0.871 and 0.788 for both the organophosphate and carbamate groups, indicating that the prediction accuracy of the QSAR models was acceptable. The models were also tested successfully from external validation criteria. QSAR models developed in this study should help further design of novel potent insecticides.

  8. Amplification of a cytochrome P450 gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puinean, Alin M; Foster, Stephen P; Oliphant, Linda; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Millar, Neil S; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris

    2010-06-24

    The aphid Myzus persicae is a globally significant crop pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of insecticide. To date, the neonicotinoids, an economically important class of insecticides that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), have remained an effective control measure; however, recent reports of resistance in M. persicae represent a threat to the long-term efficacy of this chemical class. In this study, the mechanisms underlying resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticides were investigated using biological, biochemical, and genomic approaches. Bioassays on a resistant M. persicae clone (5191A) suggested that P450-mediated detoxification plays a primary role in resistance, although additional mechanism(s) may also contribute. Microarray analysis, using an array populated with probes corresponding to all known detoxification genes in M. persicae, revealed constitutive over-expression (22-fold) of a single P450 gene (CYP6CY3); and quantitative PCR showed that the over-expression is due, at least in part, to gene amplification. This is the first report of a P450 gene amplification event associated with insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest. The microarray analysis also showed over-expression of several gene sequences that encode cuticular proteins (2-16-fold), and artificial feeding assays and in vivo penetration assays using radiolabeled insecticide provided direct evidence of a role for reduced cuticular penetration in neonicotinoid resistance. Conversely, receptor radioligand binding studies and nucleotide sequencing of nAChR subunit genes suggest that target-site changes are unlikely to contribute to resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in M. persicae.

  9. A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinxin; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang; Zheng, Dafeng; Xu, Mengyi; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2009-01-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO 3/SiO 2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164 ± 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite particles) and the low surface energy (provided by polydimethylsiloxane). This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  10. Insecticidal defenses of Piperaceae from the neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C B; Krishanmurty, H G; Chauret, D; Durst, T; Philogène, B J; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Hasbun, C; Poveda, L; San Román, L; Arnason, J T

    1995-06-01

    Insecticidal and growth-reducing properties of extracts of 14 species of American neotropical Piperaceae were investigated by inclusion in diets of a polyphagous lepidopteran, the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis. Nutritional indices suggested most extracts acted by postdigestive toxicity.Piper aduncum, P. tuberculatum, andP. decurrens were among the most active species and were subjected to bioassay-guided isolation of the active components. Dillapiol was isolated from the active fraction ofP. aduncum, piperlonguminine was isolated fromP. tuberculatum, and a novel neolignan fromP. decurrens. The results support other studies on Asian and AfricanPiper species, which suggest that lignans and isobutyl amides are the active defence compounds in this family.

  11. Insecticidal Constituents from Buddlej aalbiflora Hemsl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Shen, Jing; Zhou, Yu; Wei, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Eleven known compounds, deoxymikanolide (1), 1,3-dihydroxyxanthone (2), kumatakenin (3), apigenin (4), chrysin (5), kaempferol (6), Iso-kaempferol (7), luteolin (8), luteolin-3',4'-dimethylether-7-O-β-glucoside (9), luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (10) and quercetin (11) were identified in MeOH extract of Buddleja albiflora Hemsl (Oleaceae). These compounds (each, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg mL -1 ) were tested for insecticidal activity against 3rd and 4th-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella, 3rd-instar larvae of Mythimna separata and 3rd-instar larvae of Macrosiphoniella sanborni. The lowest 50% anti-feedant concentration (AFC 50 ) against P. xylostella and 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) against P. xylostella and M. sanborni were observed as 0.0058, 0.0046 and 3.4048 mg L -1 , respectively.

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Cyanohydrin and Monoterpenoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Coats

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activities of several cyanohydrins, cyanohydrin esters and monoterpenoid esters (including three monoterpenoid esters of a cyanohydrin were evaluated. Topical toxicity to Musca domestica L. adults was examined, and testing of many compounds at 100 mg/fly resulted in 100% mortality. Topical LD50 values of four compounds for M. domestica were calculated. Testing of many of the reported compounds to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellog resulted in 100% mortality at 10 ppm, and two compounds caused 100% mortality at 1 ppm. Aquatic LC50 values were calculated for five compounds for larvae of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti (L.. Monoterpenoid esters were among the most toxic compounds tested in topical and aquatic bioassays.

  13. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  14. The spinosyn family of insecticides: realizing the potential of natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Herbert A

    2010-03-01

    The spinosyns are a large family of unprecedented compounds produced from fermentation of two species of Saccharopolyspora. Their core structure is a polyketide-derived tetracyclic macrolide appended with two saccharides. They show potent insecticidal activities against many commercially significant species that cause extensive damage to crops and other plants. They also show activity against important external parasites of livestock, companion animals and humans. Spinosad is a defined combination of the two principal fermentation factors, spinosyns A and D. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) have been extensively studied, leading to development of a semisynthetic second-generation derivative, spinetoram. The spinosyns have a unique mechanism of action (MOA) involving disruption of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. When compared with many other insecticides, the spinosyns generally show greater selectivity toward target insects and lesser activity against many beneficial predators as well as mammals and other aquatic and avian animals. Their insecticidal spectrum, unique MOA and lower environmental effect make them useful new agents for modern integrated pest management programs. As a result, this work has received U S Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards.

  15. Efficacy of eco-smart insecticides against certain biological stages of jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb.(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of six eco-smart insecticides, Dipel 2x 6.4% WP (Bacillus thuringensis AI, Biofly 100% WP (Beauvaria bessiana AI, Radiant 12% SC (Saccharopolyspora spinosa AI, Mectin 1.8% EC (Streptomyces avermitilis AI, Nimbecidine 0.03% EC (Azadirachtin AI and Bio-Power 50% EC (Beauvaria bessiana AI, were tested against eggs, larvae and pupae of the jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb. and its parasitoid Apanteles syleptae under laboratory conditions. Data indicated that all tested insecticides had ovicidal activity against P. unionalis. Mectin was the most toxic among the tested insecticides against the egg stage, followed by Radiant or Dipel 2x, and their respective values of LC50 were 0.005 cm/l, 0.006 cm/l and 0.055 g/l. Dipel 2x was the most toxic insecticide to the 1st instar larvae of P. unionalis, whereas Mectin was the most toxic to both the 3rd and 5th instar larvae. Also, the results revealed that Mectin was the most effective against the pupal stage, followed descendingly by Radiant and Dipel 2x. The toxicity index values showed a superior efficiency of Mectin at LC50 (100% against eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupal stage, whereas Dipel 2x showed such superior efficiency at LC50 (100% only against 1st instar larvae. The results showed that the percents of pupation and emergence of moths were significantly different in all treatments compared to control, while deformed pupae and malformed adults were insignificantly different when fifth instar larvae were treated with the tested insecticides. Moreover, the rate of P. unionalis adult emergence from treated pupae was concentration-dependent and significant differences were found between insecticide treatments and control. Generally, Mectin, Radiant and Dipel 2x caused the highest impacts on adult emergence and malformed adults percentages. Regarding the toxicity of insecticides to the endoparasitoid A. syleptae, the treated cocoons developed to adult stages with no significant

  16. Insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants on Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Chahine, M [Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Jdeidet el-Metn (Lebanon); Khoury, N; Webeh, E [Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Jdeidet el-Metn (Lebanon)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The excessive use of chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests is becoming alarming. The objective of this study is to search for biopesticides of plant origin that could be used to control one of the major pest of fruit production; the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). A colony of the Lebanese wild strain of this insect was reared under laboratory condition to provide biological material. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants in Lebanon was assessed. The tested plants are: Foeniculum vulgare, Thymbra spicata, Artemisia herba alba, Origanum syriacum, Ruta chalepensis, Lavandula stoechas, Salvia fruticosa, Mentha microphylla, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis and Ocimum gratissimum. Results show that essential oils isolated from F. vulgare, T. spicata, A. herba alba, O. syriacum and R. chalepensis have promising insecticidal potential. (author)

  17. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  18. Insecticidal and Repellent Activit ies of Laurinterol from the Okinawan Red Alga Laurencia nidifica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ishii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract of Laurencia nidifica was found to have toxic effect against brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract resulted in the isolation of four known halogenated sesquiterpenes, laurinterol (1, isolaurinterol (2, aplysin (3, and a -bromocuparene (4. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Among isolated compounds, only laurinterol showed strong toxicity against A. salina. Further experiments revealed that laurinterol also exhibited repellent activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais , insecticidal activity against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory effect . This is the first report of insecticidal and repellent activities of laurinterol.

  19. [Effects of insecticides on insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junqi; Miao, Yong; Zou, Yunding; Li, Guiting

    2006-05-01

    This paper studied the effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid on the insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields in the Yangtze-Huaihe region of Anhui Province. The results showed that all of the test insecticides had significant effects in controlling the growth of major insect pest populations. The average value of insect pest-natural enemy community diversity under effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid was 1.545, 1.562, 1.691 and 1.915, respectively, while that in control plot was 1.897. After two weeks of applying insecticides, the plots applied with shachongshuang and abamectin had a similar composition of insect pest-natural enemy community, but the community composition was significantly different between the plots applied with triazophos and Bt + imidacloprid. From the viewpoints of community stability and pest control, Bt + imidacloprid had the best effect, and shachongshuang and abamectin were better than triazophos.

  20. Safety testing of VIROTECTO as a bio insecticide on animal health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal's health. Fifty-four male albino rats (100-110 g) were randomly divided into three equal groups, eighteen in each, the first group served as control, the second group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% normal potato and the third group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% potato sprayed with 0.15 g/kg potato virotecto. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals of 15, 35 and 45 days. Results of the present study showed that viral uses led to a significant decrease in final body weight and organs weight. Hematological (RBC, WBC, Hb, Ht, MCU, MCH and MCHC), biochemical (testosterone, lipid peroxide, total lipid, total protein and albumin) and histopathological examination of testis revealed that there were different disorders as a result of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal health

  1. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Cooper, C M; Smith, S; Cullum, R F; Knight, S S; Locke, M A; Bennett, E R

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides.

  2. Yaequinolones, new insecticidal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-2140. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ryuji; Imasato, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Shiomi, Kazuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    New nine insecticidal antibiotics designated yaequinolones were isolated from the culture broth of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. FKI-2140 by solvent extraction, centrifugal partition chromatography and HPLC. Yaequinolones showed growth inhibitory activity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Among them, yaequinolone F has the most potent activity with MIC value of 0.19 microg/ml.

  3. Molecular Insights into the Potential Insecticidal Interaction of β-Dihydroagarofuran Derivatives with the H Subunit of V-ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielu Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Celangulin V (CV, one of dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters isolated from Chinese bittersweet (Celastrus angulatus Maxim, is famous natural botanical insecticide. Decades of research suggests that is displays excellent insecticidal activity against some insects, such as Mythimna separata Walker. Recently, it has been validated that the H subunit of V-ATPase is one of the target proteins of the insecticidal dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters. As a continuation of the development of new pesticides from these natural products, a series of β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives have been designed and synthesized. The compound JW-3, an insecticidal derivative of CV with a p-fluorobenzyl group, exhibits higher insecticidal activity than CV. In this study, the potential inhibitory effect aused by the interaction of JW-3 with the H subunit of V-ATPase c was verified by confirmatory experiments at the molecular level. Both spectroscopic techniques and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements showed the binding of JW-3 to the subunit H of V-ATPase was specific and spontaneous. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of the compound was discussed. Docking results indicated compound JW-3 could bind well in ‘the interdomain cleft’ of the V-ATPase subunit H by the hydrogen bonding and make conformation of the ligand–protein complex become more stable. All results are the further validations of the hypothesis, that the target protein of insecticidal dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters and their β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives is the subunit H of V-ATPase. The results also provide new ideas for developing pesticides acting on V-ATPase of insects.

  4. Teenage organophosphate insecticide poisoning: An ugly trend in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    is worsened by uncontrolled sale of organophosphorus insecticides on the streets and in open markets. We report ..... Nicotinic activity results in autonomic nervous system .... optimize outcome.23 Oximes are cholinesterase re-activators used ...

  5. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural ... especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural ... through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of ...

  6. Neurotoxicological effects and the mode of action of pyrethroid insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, H.P.M.; Bercken, Joep van den

    1990-01-01

    Neuroexcitatory symptoms of acute poisoning of vertebrates by pyrethroids are related to the ability of these insecticides to modify electrical activity in various parts of the nervous system. Repetitive nerve activity, particularly in the sensory nervous system, membrane depolarization, and

  7. Effect of natural and chemical insecticides on Hyalopterus pruni and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Anthmis pseudocotula and their mixtures with chemical insecticide (Malathion) on growth of ... ed the use of natural extracts of Fagonia arabica, Salix ..... Studies on the efficacy of neem products against the aphid Aphis.

  8. Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the root bark of Catalpa ovata G. Don by response surface methodology. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  9. Insect P450 inhibitors and insecticides: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, René

    2015-06-01

    P450 enzymes are encoded by a large number of genes in insects, often over a hundred. They play important roles in insecticide metabolism and resistance, and growing numbers of P450 enzymes are now known to catalyse important physiological reactions, such as hormone metabolism or cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis. Ways to inhibit P450 enzymes specifically or less specifically are well understood, as P450 inhibitors are found as drugs, as fungicides, as plant growth regulators and as insecticide synergists. Yet there are no P450 inhibitors as insecticides on the market. As new modes of action are constantly needed to support insecticide resistance management, P450 inhibitors should be considered because of their high potential for insect selectivity, their well-known mechanisms of action and the increasing ease of rational design and testing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Original Research Article. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and ... into a natural fumigant/insecticide for the control of stored product insects. Keywords: Mallotus ..... stability as well as reduce cost. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

  11. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... apelta aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) to determine its composition. ... into a natural fumigant/insecticide for the control of stored product insects.

  12. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Section 18 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 18 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizes EPA to allow an unregistered use of a pesticide for a limited time if EPA...

  13. PRN 73-4: Residual Insecticides in Food Handling Establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice provides a copy of a Federal Register notice published July 6, 1973, regarding certain insecticides used in food-handling establishments. It establishes certain definitions and requirements related to approval for crack and crevice treatment.

  14. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides: Residue findings in chilean honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bridi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neonicotinoids are a relatively new generation of insecticides that have been used for control of pests such as aphids, leafhoppers and whiteflies. This paper presents for the first time a determination of residues of four neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid and imidacloprid in Chilean honey using QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The limits of detection and quantification found for all analytes ranging from 0.34 to 1.43 μg kg-1 and from 0.30 to 4.76 μg kg-1, respectively. The extraction using QuEChERS method provided recoveries over 79% and the precision showed coefficient of variation lower than 20%. These data are in agreement with the international criteria that recommend general recovery limits of 70 - 120%. Of the 16 samples analyzed, in three honey samples neonicotinoids pesticides were detected. These three samples were collected from the same geographical area (Rengo. Fruit and grain production characterize the province of Rengo. The analysis of the botanical origin of these honeys showed the absence of pollen grains of crops and the majority presence of pollen grains of weeds such as Medicago sativa, Galega officinalis and Brassica rapa, which could be associated with crops. Although the residue levels found were low, the results also confirm the actual occurrence of a transfer of neonicotinoid insecticides from exposed honeybees into honey.

  15. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter−1), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC50 between 6 × 10−5 mg a.i. liter−1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter−1). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults. PMID:27958333

  16. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-13

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC 50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter -1 ), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC 50 between 6 × 10 -5  mg a.i. liter -1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter -1 ). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  17. Insecticide susceptibility of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Thbiani Aziz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti from various sites in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was examined based on WHO standard procedures. Results: The larvae of Ae. aegypti were susceptible to all larvicides examined, but this susceptibility was more pronounced in wild populations, which tended to show tolerance to icon. Icon was the most effective larvicide with LC 50 values of 0.007 ppm and 0.012 ppm for the laboratory and field strains, respectively. Ae. aegypti adults exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin showed a low mortality rate in comparison with those exposed to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate differential susceptibility between field and laboratory larval populations. Wild larvae are less susceptible to insecticide treatments than their laboratory-bred counterparts. Taken together, these results suggest that tolerance and the tendency toward resistance to commonly used insecticides are present in Ae. aegypti populations throughout Makkah City, Saudi Arabia.

  18. Chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of Calotropis gigantea L. flower extract against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rowshanul Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis gigantea L. flower (designated as EECF against stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst of different larval and adult stages. Methods: Residual film method was used here to study the toxicity of EECF against Tribolium castaneum and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was also performed to characterize the chemicals of EECF. Results: In residual film bioassay, EECF showed lowest LD50 (0.134 mg/cm2 against 1st instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and this finding ultimately revealed that the insect of initial stage was more susceptible than other stages. From the results of this study, it was found that with the increasing of age, Tribolium castaneum showed some extent of resistance against the toxicity of EECF. Moreover, chemical profiles of EECF identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis were also found to consistent with its insecticidal activity. Conclusions: So, the overall results suggested that extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. flower have potential insecticidal effect which might be used in pest control.

  19. Sublethal Effects of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on the Transcriptome of the Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-12-05

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are now the most widely used insecticides in the world. Previous studies have indicated that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impair learning, memory capacity, foraging, and immunocompetence in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Despite these, few studies have been carried out on the molecular effects of neonicotinoids. In this study, we focus on the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, which is currently widely used in agriculture to protect crops. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we investigated the transcriptome profile of honey bees after subchronic exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. In total, 609 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 225 were upregulated and 384 were downregulated. Several genes, including vitellogenin, CSP3, defensin-1, Mrjp1, and Cyp6as5 were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The functions of some DEGs were identified, and Gene Ontology-enrichment analysis showed that the enriched DEGs were mainly linked to metabolism, biosynthesis, and translation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that thiamethoxam affected biological processes including ribosomes, the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, tyrosine metabolism pathway, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and drug metabolism. Overall, our results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the complex interactions between neonicotinoid insecticides and honey bees. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Evaluation of Environmental Risks in the Use of Insecticide in Hashtgerd Area using EIQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyae jala yadollahi Nooshabadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recently, there is an increasing concern about the effects of pesticides on non-target organisms. Residual of pesticides cause environmental pollution and put in danger the human health. The problem is always in contact with pesticides, there are numerous risks related to the environmental and human health threat at different levels of their cycle, including production, sale, use in the field and ultimately for residue in food occurs. This study consider the harmful effects of pesticides in Hashtgerd study area and their potential and environmental risks using EIQ index. Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ is a model based on algebraic equations which by it can be classification chemical pesticides based on environmental hazards and risks to human health and toxins that cause minimal risk are selected. The ultimate purpose of this study was to determine 5 insecticide have been the highest consumption in the region Hashtgerd and then determine the potential environmental risks of them by EIQ index, so that eventually we can identify and eliminate hazardous insecticides. Materials and Methods Hashtgerd study area is one of 609 countries study area that is located in the Alborz province. This area with an extent of about 1170 square km because of the proximity to the metropolis of Tehran and focus a large number of agricultural, industrial and service units has an important economic and political position. The numerical value of the EIQ is average of the three main components include of the potential damage to the health of farm workers, the potential damage to consumers through the direct effect of toxic residues in food products or through ground water contamination and potential negative effects on the environment, including aquatic and terrestrial organisms show. The describes components of the EIQ are contains 11 variables. All input data for the impact of low, medium and high are judged to be harmful than, the one, three or five

  1. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Faso between 2008 and 2010 under the Corus 6015 research program. This review aims to show: (i) the insecticide resistance in B. tabaci as well as in An. gambiae; and (ii) due to this, the impact of selection of resistant populations on malaria vector control strategies. Some measures that could be beneficial for crop protection and vector control strategies in West Africa are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiosensitivity, mutation and tetraploid induction in the gamma-ray-irradiated growing shoots in mulberry, Morus alba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Koitsu

    1976-01-01

    The vigorously developing mulberry shoots on the 1 year old grafted trees of the variety Inchinose were separately exposed to 60 Co γ-ray of 6KR at 120 R/hr and 7.5 KR at 150 R/hr in early July, early August and early September. After the irradiation, all of the irradiated shoots developed axially buds with malformed narrow leaves, and after that, all plants subjected to the irradiation in September and 30% of the July irradiation group and 40% of the August irradiation group both with higher exposure ceased shoot development. This type of radiation damage was large for the plants with higher exposure as compared with those with lower one, and it was also severe for the plants irradiated in July in comparison with those in August. From the ceasing of shoot development the LD 50 value of 150 R/hr irradiation was estimated to be a little more than 7.5 KR. The frequencies of mutation and tetraploid in the grafts produced by the propagation of the axially buds below the leafless portion were high in the grafts with higher exposure than those with lower one, and also the frequencies were high in July irradiation in comparison with August irradiation. It was confirmed that the size of mutation or tetraploid sector was large in the shoots derived from the less advanced axially bud primordia at the time of irradiation than that from the advanced ones. All of tetraploids were the cytochimeras having diploid epidermises over tetraploid internal tissues. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Phage induction by UV and mitomycin C in Pseudomonas mori, the pathogen of bacterial blight of mulberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru

    1979-01-01

    Phage induction by ultraviolet radiation (UV) and mitomycin C (MMC) in some lysogenic strains of Pseudomonas mori, the pathogen of bacterial blight of mulberry, was examined. Among 5 strains tested, in the strains S 6804 and S 6805, phage was induced by both UV and MMC, and in the strain M 5, only by MMC. In the strains S 6807 and S 6808, it was not induced by both these inducers. The rate of phage production in the strain 6805 was highest when it was exposed to UV (15 W UV lamp, 40 cm) for 5 seconds, by which about 90% of the bacteria were killed, and decreased rapidly by further extending the exposure time. The bacteria suspended in 0.02 M magnesium solution were more sensitive in responding to UV than those suspended in nutrient broth, but after the UV treatment, nutrient broth was more favorable than magnesium solution for phage production. The MMC added to nutrient broth induced phage production at the concentration from 0.5 to 5 μg/ml. The strains induced by either UV or MMC their temperate phages after about 3 hours of latent period. The phage induction by UV was almost completely suppressed by 40 minute exposure to fluorescent light (a 15 W fluorescent lamp, 10 cm) or by 5 minute exposure to sunlight, given within 45 minutes after the UV treatment, i.e. within 1/4 of the latent period. Thus, the photoreversion of the UV effect on phage induction was observed in Ps. mori as well as in Ps. pyocyanea and E. coli. (Kaihara, S.)

  4. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32-35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR.

  5. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32–35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR. PMID:27668428

  6. Carboxylesterase-mediated insecticide resistance: Quantitative increase induces broader metabolic resistance than qualitative change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Li, Mei-Xia; Chang, Hai-Jing; Mao, Yun; Zhang, Han-Ying; Lu, Li-Xia; Yan, Shuai-Guo; Lang, Ming-Lin; Liu, Li; Qiao, Chuan-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Carboxylesterases are mainly involved in the mediation of metabolic resistance of many insects to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Carboxylesterases underwent two divergent evolutionary events: (1) quantitative mechanism characterized by the overproduction of carboxylesterase protein; and (2) qualitative mechanism caused by changes in enzymatic properties because of mutation from glycine/alanine to aspartate at the 151 site (G/A151D) or from tryptophan to leucine at the 271 site (W271L), following the numbering of Drosophila melanogaster AChE. Qualitative mechanism has been observed in few species. However, whether this carboxylesterase mutation mechanism is prevalent in insects remains unclear. In this study, wild-type, G/A151D and W271L mutant carboxylesterases from Culex pipiens and Aphis gossypii were subjected to germline transformation and then transferred to D. melanogaster. These germlines were ubiquitously expressed as induced by tub-Gal4. In carboxylesterase activity assay, the introduced mutant carboxylesterase did not enhance the overall carboxylesterase activity of flies. This result indicated that G/A151D or W271L mutation disrupted the original activities of the enzyme. Less than 1.5-fold OP resistance was only observed in flies expressing A. gossypii mutant carboxylesterases compared with those expressing A. gossypii wild-type carboxylesterase. However, transgenic flies universally showed low resistance to OP insecticides compared with non-transgenic flies. The flies expressing A. gossypii W271L mutant esterase exhibited 1.5-fold resistance to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide compared with non-transgenic flies. The present transgenic Drosophila system potentially showed that a quantitative increase in carboxylesterases induced broader resistance of insects to insecticides than a qualitative change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis monogenic strains: screening and interactions with insecticides used against rice pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura M.N.; Dörr, Natália C.; Ribeiro, Ana Paula A.; de Salles, Silvia M.; de Oliveira, Jaime V.; Menezes, Valmir G.; Fiuza, Lidia M.

    2012-01-01

    The screening of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins with high potential to control insect pests has been the goal of numerous research groups. In this study, we evaluated six monogenic Bt strains (Bt dendrolimus HD-37, Bt kurstaki HD-1, Bt kurstaki HD-73, Bt thuringiensis 4412, Bt kurstaki NRD-12 and Bt entomocidus 60.5, which codify the cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1C, cry2A genes respectively) as potential insecticides for the most important insect pests of irrigated rice: Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, Oryzophagus oryzae, Oebalus poecilus and Tibraca limbativentris. We also analyzed their compatibility with chemical insecticides (thiamethoxam, labdacyhalothrin, malathion and fipronil), which are extensively used in rice crops. The bioassay results showed that Bt thuringiensis 4412 and Bt entomocidus 60.5 were the most toxic for the lepidopterans, with a 93% and 82% mortality rate for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. For O. oryzae, the Bt kurstaki NRD-12 (64%) and Bt dendrolimus HD-37 (62%) strains were the most toxic. The Bt dendrolimus HD-37 strain also caused high mortality (82%) to O. poecilus, however the strains assessed to T. limbativentris caused a maximum rate of 5%. The assays for the Bt strains interaction with insecticides revealed the compatibility of the six strains with the four insecticides tested. The results from this study showed the high potential of cry1Aa and cry1Ba genes for genetic engineering of rice plants or the strains to biopesticide formulations. PMID:24031872

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants. PMID:27688974

  9. In-silico determination of insecticidal potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein against Lepidopteran targets using molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab eAhmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340 and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae, using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

  12. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  13. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    M Wojciechowska; P Stepnowski; M Gołębiowski

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resi...

  14. Insecticidal activity of Trichilia claussenii (Meliaceae) fruits against Spodoptera frugiperda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebo, Liliane; Matos, Andrea Pereira; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of the fruits extracts of Trichilia claussenii was carried out and the methanol extract revealed to have strong insecticidal activity. The fractionation of methanol extract of T. claussenii seeds bioassay-guided against Spodoptera frugiperda has led to the identification of the ω-phenylalkyl and alkenyl fatty acids as active compounds in this extract. The structures of the compounds were proposed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  15. Organochlorine insecticide poisoning in Golden Langurs Trachypithecus geei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Pathak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine insecticide poisoning was recorded in three Golden Langurs (Trachypithecus geei in Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS in Kokrajhar district of Assam during the month of December, 2008. The poisoning was due to prolonged ingestion of rubber plant leaves sprayed with the insecticide in a rubber plantation adjacent to the sanctuary. Though no specific gross lesions were observed, histopathologically, centilobular hepatic necrosis, mild renal degeneration, necrotic enteritis, pulmonary congestion and neuronal degeneration were recorded in all three animals.

  16. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA, M.D.; PICANÇO, M.C.; BARBOSA, L.C. de A.; GUEDES, R.N.C.; CAMPOS, M.R. de; SILVA, G.A.; MARTINS, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  17. Impact of some selected insecticides application on soil microbial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A; Razzaque, M A; Rahman, M M

    2008-08-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of selected insecticides used for controlling brinjal shoot and fruit borer on soil microorganisms and to find out the insecticides or nontoxic to soil microorganism the impact of nine selected insecticides on soil microbial respiration was studied in the laboratory. After injection of different insecticides solutions, the soil was incubated in the laboratory at room temperature for 32 days. The amount of CO2 evolved due to soil microbial respiration was determined at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 days of incubation. Flubendiamide, nimbicidine, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin and thiodicarb had stimulatory effect on microbial respiration during the initial period of incubation. Chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan had inhibitory effect on microbial respiration and cypermethrin had no remarkable effect during the early stage of incubation. The negative effect of chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan was temporary, which was disappeared after 4 days of insecticides application. No effect of the selected insecticides on soil microorganisms was observed after 24 or 32 days of incubation.

  18. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  19. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Dissecting the organ specificity of insecticide resistance candidate genes in Anopheles gambiae: known and novel candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Victoria A; Jones, Christopher M; Pignatelli, Patricia; Balabanidou, Vasileia; Vontas, John; Wagstaff, Simon C; Moore, Jonathan D; Ranson, Hilary

    2014-11-25

    The elevated expression of enzymes with insecticide metabolism activity can lead to high levels of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. In this study, adult female mosquitoes from an insecticide susceptible and resistant strain were dissected into four different body parts. RNA from each of these samples was used in microarray analysis to determine the enrichment patterns of the key detoxification gene families within the mosquito and to identify additional candidate insecticide resistance genes that may have been overlooked in previous experiments on whole organisms. A general enrichment in the transcription of genes from the four major detoxification gene families (carboxylesterases, glutathione transferases, UDP glucornyltransferases and cytochrome P450s) was observed in the midgut and malpighian tubules. Yet the subset of P450 genes that have previously been implicated in insecticide resistance in An gambiae, show a surprisingly varied profile of tissue enrichment, confirmed by qPCR and, for three candidates, by immunostaining. A stringent selection process was used to define a list of 105 genes that are significantly (p ≤0.001) over expressed in body parts from the resistant versus susceptible strain. Over half of these, including all the cytochrome P450s on this list, were identified in previous whole organism comparisons between the strains, but several new candidates were detected, notably from comparisons of the transcriptomes from dissected abdomen integuments. The use of RNA extracted from the whole organism to identify candidate insecticide resistance genes has a risk of missing candidates if key genes responsible for the phenotype have restricted expression within the body and/or are over expression only in certain tissues. However, as transcription of genes implicated in metabolic resistance to insecticides is not enriched in any one single organ, comparison of the transcriptome of individual dissected body parts cannot

  1. Plant Materials as an Appropriate Replacement for Reducing Environmental Risk of using Chemical Insecticides (Case Study: Colorado Potato Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram taghizadeh sarokolaei

    2017-10-01

    pest in a completely randomized block design with four replications under field conditions was done. Mortalities were recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 days after spraying insecticides and essential oils. The control plants were treated with water. Data analysis was done in SPSS16 software and the mean of the data was compared with Turkeys' test. Results and discussion Result showed that in this study thiamethoxam had greatest effect on fourth instar larvae of Colorado potato beetle. In 15 cc a.i./ha of thiamethoxam in the environment after 15 days 95 % mortality happen . Imidacloprid and diniteforane after 15 days have 68 and 73.6 percent mortality respectively. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam are two most common Colorado potato beetle insecticides that are used by farmers. Diniteforane is not so common insecticides in country. Also investigated showed that essential oil of S. khuzistanica had greatest effect on fourth instar larvae of Colorado potato beetle. In 15 cc a.i./ha of S. khuzistanica in the environment after 15 days 90.2 % mortality happen . O. basilicum and M. spicata after 15 days have 48 and 46 percent mortality respectively. Data showed that essential oils are highly selective and because of their effect (actopamin receptor usually have no adverse effect on mammals. These compounds in contrast to synthetic carbamates, organophosphouros, and pyretroid that have adverse effect on the environment and people are safe for the environment. Conclusion Therefore, using plant material is effective step for reducing environmental risk of chemical insecticides that used for agricultural crop in country. In order to reduce the environmental hazards caused by the use of chemical pesticides, we can say: 1- Limit the use of chemical pesticides. 2. Use plant materials that are safe for humans and creatures. 3. Promote and educate the use of these compounds among farmers. Acknowledgment Thereby researcher thanks and appreciated from the Faculty of Agricultural

  2. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  3. Determination of the organochlorine insecticide residues in Lonicera japonica Thunb. By gas chromatography%气相色谱法测定金银花中有机氯杀虫剂残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向增旭; 赵维佳; 高山林

    2005-01-01

    Using gas chromatography (GC), the organochlorine insecticide residues were determined in Lonicera japonica Thunb. flowers. The results showed that the amount of organochlorine insecticide in L. japonica flowers collected from Fengqiu in He' nan Province, Pingyi in Shandong Province was less than 0.01 mg·kg-1. The average recoveries added in samples were 93.54% -98.85%, RSD≤6.8%. It shows that the amount of organochlorine insecticide in L. japonica flowers accords with the demands of traditional Chinese medicine production.

  4. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  5. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  7. Insecticidal effects of Ocimum sanctum var. cubensis essential oil on the diseases vector Chrysomya putoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelsy Chil-Núñez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: The blowfly Chrysomya putoria is widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region and, besides transmitting pathogens; they could cause secondary myiasis. Botanical insecticides provide an alternative to synthetic pesticides because the excessive use of synthetic insecticides resulted in a progressive resistance of the pests to these chemicals, diminishing their effectiveness and generating consequences with negative environmental impact. The essential oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum (basil has showed insecticidal activity against some insects but has no reported studies on the activity of this plant against flies. Aims: To evaluate the insecticidal effects of Ocimum sanctum var. cubensis Gomes essential oil on the post embryonic development of Chrysomya putoria. Methods: The colonies of Chrysomya putoria were established and maintained at the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Forense (FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The basil essential oil was tested in six concentrations (4.13, 8.25, 20.63, 41.25, 61.87 and 80,25 mg/mL. Mortality and changes in life cycle were recorded daily. Results: β-caryophyllene, β-selinene and eugenol, were the main constituents of the basil essential oil. The experiments demonstrated that in all concentrations tested, this essential oil shortening the duration of all post embryonic stages having a direct impact in the viability of this fly estimating the LC50 in 7.47 mg/mL of concentration. In addition, the essential oil caused morphological alterations in abdomen, wings and ptilinum at lower concentrations. Conclusions: This essential oil emerge as a good option for the control of the disease vector blowfly Chrysomya putoria.

  8. Homology modelling of Drosophila cytochrome P450 enzymes associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Bakker, Saskia E; Stone, Deborah; Shuttleworth, Sally N; Boundy, Sam; McCart, Caroline; Daborn, Phillip J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2010-10-01

    Overexpression of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1 confers resistance against DDT and a broad range of other insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster Meig. In the absence of crystal structures of CYP6G1 or complexes with its substrates, structural studies rely on homology modelling and ligand docking to understand P450-substrate interactions. Homology models are presented for CYP6G1, a P450 associated with resistance to DDT and neonicotinoids, and two other enzymes associated with insecticide resistance in D. melanogaster, CYP12D1 and CYP6A2. The models are based on a template of the X-ray structure of the phylogenetically related human CYP3A4, which is known for its broad substrate specificity. The model of CYP6G1 has a much smaller active site cavity than the template. The cavity is also 'V'-shaped and is lined with hydrophobic residues, showing high shape and chemical complementarity with the molecular characteristics of DDT. Comparison of the DDT-CYP6G1 complex and a non-resistant CYP6A2 homology model implies that tight-fit recognition of this insecticide is important in CYP6G1. The active site can accommodate differently shaped substrates ranging from imidacloprid to malathion but not the pyrethroids permethrin and cyfluthrin. The CYP6G1, CYP12D1 and CYP6A2 homology models can provide a structural insight into insecticide resistance in flies overexpressing P450 enzymes with broad substrate specificities.

  9. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control.

  10. Removal of chlorpyrifos insecticide in constructed wetlands with different plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara D. de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the remediation of water containing the insecticide chlorpyrifos by using constructed wetlands (CW cultivated with Polygonum punctatum, Cynodon spp. and Mentha aquatica, operated under different hydraulic retention times: 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h. The system efficiency was based on reduction of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos and toxicity of the contaminated water. The results showed that constructed wetlands are an excellent alternative for remediation of the insecticide chlorpyrifos in aqueous medium. It was observed that the average overall removal efficiency of the insecticide was 98.6%, and in the first hydraulic retention time, 24 h, chlorpyrifos was removed to levels below the detection limit in all CW. This result is mainly attributed to adsorption and microbial degradation. For the qualitative standard acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis, for most samples there was a reduction in toxicity greater than 80%. It was reported that the ecotoxicological tests with the effluents of the constructed wetland are a good option as an indicator of the effectiveness of treatments and a promising alternative to complement the physical and chemical analyses.

  11. Synthesis of new α-amino nitriles with insecticidal action on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés G. Rueda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of arboviral pathogens that may cause diseases as dengue fever, chikungunya and zika. The harmful environmental effects of commercial pesticides coalesced with the development of insecticide-resistant populations encourage the discovery and generation of new alternative products as a tool to reduce the incidence of vector-borne diseases. In this work, through the classic three component Strecker reaction of commercial benzaldehydes, cyclic secondary amines and KCN, a new series of nine α-amino nitriles, girgensohnine analogs, has been synthetized and screened for larvicide and adulticide properties against A. aegypti, one of the dominant vectors of dengue, chikungunya and zika in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world. Molecules 3 and 4 were identified as potential larvicidal agents with LC50 values of 50.55 and 69.59 ppm, respectively. Molecule 3 showed 100% of mortality after 2 h of treatment when a concentration of 30 ppm in adulticidal assays was evaluated. Additionally, in order to elucidate the mode of action of these molecules, their acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory properties were evaluated using the Ellman assay. It was found that the molecules possess a weak AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 values between 148.80 and 259.40 μM, indicating that AChE could not be a principal target for insecticide activity. Keywords: Arthropod-borne diseases, Girgensohnine analogs, Strecker reaction, Insecticidal activity, Vector control

  12. Ecotoxicity of binary mixtures of Microcystis aeruginosa and insecticides to Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, J; Janssen, C R; Smagghe, G; De Schamphelaere, K A C

    2014-05-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, mixtures of chemical and natural stressors can occur which may significantly complicate risk assessment approaches. Here, we show that effects of binary combinations of four different insecticides and Microcystis aeruginosa, a toxic cyanobacteria, on Daphnia pulex exhibited distinct interaction patterns. Combinations with chlorpyrifos and tetradifon caused non-interactive effects, tebufenpyrad caused an antagonistic interaction and fenoyxcarb yielded patterns that depended on the reference model used (i.e. synergistic with independent action, additive with concentration addition). Our results demonstrate that interactive effects cannot be generalised across different insecticides, not even for those targeting the same biological pathway (i.e. tebufenpyrad and tetradifon both target oxidative phosphorylation). Also, the concentration addition reference model provided conservative predictions of effects in all investigated combinations for risk assessment. These predictions could, in absence of a full mechanistic understanding, provide a meaningful solution for managing water quality in systems impacted by both insecticides and cyanobacterial blooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioefficacy, dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of selected insecticides in Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas P, Satya; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Ghaste, Manoj S; Lawande, K E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the bioefficacy of selected insecticides against thrips and their pre-harvest intervals (PHI) in onion pertaining to their recommended application rates and maximum residue limits. Profenophos, methomyl and imidacloprid showed comparatively higher bioefficacy against thrips. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS-based residue analysis methods in onion bulbs and composite matrix of bulbs+leaves were thoroughly validated. The residue data for bulb+leaves was assessed with reference to the EU-MRLs applicable for spring onion. Dimethoate was the most stable chemical with PHI of 52.5 days, followed by monocrotophos (24 days) and carbofuran (20.5 days). The PHIs of profenophos, chlorpyrifos, methomyl and cypermethrin were similar and within the range of 10-13 days. Imidacloprid and λ-cyhalothrin had similar PHI of 4.5 days. Spinosad was the fastest-degrading chemical with PHI of 2 days. The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of these insecticides for the management of thrips in onion, help in scheduling their applications in pest management program as per relative PHIs and minimize the residue accumulations at harvest. The dietary exposure was less than the maximum permissible intake for most of the insecticides on all sampling days except for dimethoate and monocrotophos.

  14. THE SIDE-EFFECT OF ORGANIC INSECTICIDE SPINOSAD ON BIOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Telesiński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of spinosad on soil biochemical and microbiological properties. The experiment was carried out on sandy loam with Corg content 10.91 g·kg-l. Spinosad, as Spintor 240 SC was added into soil in dosages: a recommended field dosage, and fivefold, tenfold, and twenty-fivefold higher dosages. The amount of spinosad introduced into soil was between 12.55 and 313.75 g·kg-l. Moreover, soil samples without spinosad supplement were prepared as a reference. Respective Spintor 240 SC doses were converted into 1 kg soil, taking into account 10 cm depth. After application of insecticide water emulsions, soil moisture was brought to 60% maximum holding water capacity. The soil was thoroughly mixed and stored in tightly-closed polyethylene bags at 20 °C for a period 4 weeks. During the experiment dissipation of spinosad, soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, urease and number of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes were assayed. Obtained results showed, that dissipation of spinosad in soil was relatively fast – the DT50 of this insecticide was ranged between 1.11 and 2.21 days. Spinosad residues had different effects on soil microbiological and biochemical properties. However, over time the impact of this insecticide definitely decreased. This indicated that the use of spinosad in organic farming, particularly in the field dosage, does not pose a long-term threat to the soil environment.

  15. Compatibility of endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) protected stages with five selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, P; Morales, J J; Budia, F; Adan, A; Del Estal, P; Viñuela, E

    2007-12-01

    Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid that emerges from the parasitization of economically important noctuid pests. H. didymator also is considered one of the most important native biocontrol agents of noctuids in Spain. Side effects of five insecticides with very different modes of action (fipronil, imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide, pymetrozine, and triflumuron) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain were evaluated on H. didymator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and pupae of the endoparasitoid. Parasitized larvae were topically treated or ingested treated artificial diet. Parasitoid cocoons were topically treated. Host mortality when parasitized larvae were treated, as well as further development of the parasitoid surviving (e.g., percentage of cocoons spun, adult emergence, hosts attacked, and numbered progeny) were determined. Toxicity after treatment of parasitized larvae differed depending on the mode of exposure and insecticide. Fipronil was always highly toxic; imidacloprid killed all host insects by ingestion, but it was less toxic to both host and parasitoids, when administered topically; natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide and triflumuron showed differing degrees of toxicity, and pymetrozine was harmless. Parasitoid cocoons provided effective protection against all the insecticides, except fipronil.

  16. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in a resistant dairy population of Musca domestica L [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-"A" and LC50: LC50-"B" significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies.

  17. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  18. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luis Gustavo; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Trigo, José Roberto; Omoto, Celso

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, spinosad and lufenuron, using insecticide-selective media. Sixteen isolates belonging to 10 phylotypes were obtained, from which four were also associated with the susceptible strain. However, growth of gut bacteria associated with larvae from the susceptible strain was not obtained in any of the insecticide-based selective media tested. Growth of isolates was affected by the concentration of insecticides in the media, and all grew well up to 40 μg/ml. The insecticide-degrading capacity of selected isolates was assessed by GC or LC-MS/MS analyses. In conclusion, resistant strains of S. frugiperda are an excellent reservoir of insecticide-degrading bacteria with bioremediation potential. Moreover, gut-associated bacteria are subjected to the selection pressure imposed by insecticides on their hosts and may influence the metabolization of pesticides in insects. PMID:28358907

  19. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo de Almeida

    Full Text Available The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, spinosad and lufenuron, using insecticide-selective media. Sixteen isolates belonging to 10 phylotypes were obtained, from which four were also associated with the susceptible strain. However, growth of gut bacteria associated with larvae from the susceptible strain was not obtained in any of the insecticide-based selective media tested. Growth of isolates was affected by the concentration of insecticides in the media, and all grew well up to 40 μg/ml. The insecticide-degrading capacity of selected isolates was assessed by GC or LC-MS/MS analyses. In conclusion, resistant strains of S. frugiperda are an excellent reservoir of insecticide-degrading bacteria with bioremediation potential. Moreover, gut-associated bacteria are subjected to the selection pressure imposed by insecticides on their hosts and may influence the metabolization of pesticides in insects.

  20. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  1. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  2. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-04-15

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1-7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  3. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    researchers began to test the idea of attracticides. Protein-hydrolysate baits were first used in Hawaii for the control of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The spray mixture contained protein hydrolysate, sugar, and parathion (Steiner 1952). In 1956, malathion (a fumigant, contact, stomach poison) was combined with protein bait to eradicate the C. capitata from Florida (Steiner et al. 1961). A mixture of technical grade malathion (> 95%) and NuLure (Protein Insecticide Bait 7 or PIB-7) at a ratio of 1:4 (malathion:NuLure) was used to eradicate C. capitata from Brownsville, Texas (Stephenson and McClung 1966). Lopez et al. (1969) also used a malathion-bait combination at the same ratio to control the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), applied at discrete locations; however, they did not elucidate the rationale for their 1:4 ratio. Later, Harris et al. (1971) showed that effectiveness of malathion to kill fruit flies was directly proportional to the ratio of malathion to NuLure; a ratio of 1:4 was more effective than other ratios tested. Thus, flies responding to the attracticide only needed fume exposure, contact, taste, or ingest mixture, whereupon they died in a short time. This may be the reason why the adequacy of the bait in the malathion-bait sprays was not questioned. The main reason for the wide use of malathion is its low mammalian toxicity as well as its low price

  4. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70 and mancozeb (Dithane M-70, insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50 and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL, several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made directly after preparation or mixing with tap and well water and 24 hours later. Tap water exhibited a neutral reaction. A slightly alkaline reaction of well water was mostlikely due to high ammonium content. The suspensions of Antracol WP-70 exhibited slightly alkaline reactions with both water types during 24 hours. The spray liquids of Dithane M-70 mixed with tap or well water had neutral reaction after preparation and slightly alkaline reaction after 24 hours. The emulsions of Actellic-50 showed neutral reaction with both water types, followed by a pH increase in tap water after 24 hours. The solutions of Confidor200-SL had a slightly alkaline reaction after mixing and the pH value increased with both water types after 24 hours. It is therefore recommended to apply these insecticides directly after preparation. Mineral fertilizers considerably reduced pH values of the fungicide and insecticide components in double and triple mixtures, especially Ferticare nutrients which had a moderately acid reaction. Wuxal Super had a neutral reaction with both water types.The mixtures with well water increased pH values, which indicates that water pH does affect the pH value of the mixture. Both individual fertilizers and all mixtures (double and triple with Ferticare had pH values between 2.4 and 6, which allows their active liquids to be stored for 12 to 24 hours. The suspensions (Antracol WP-70, double and triple mixtures, emulsions (Actellic-50 and Actellic-50+Wuxal Super

  5. Enzymes and Inhibitors in Neonicotinoid Insecticide Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Dick, Ryan A.; Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19 and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19 and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI and 4-hydroxy-thiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating the brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites. PMID:19391582

  6. Climate change, agricultural insecticide exposure, and risk for freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattwinkel, Mira; Kühne, Jan-Valentin; Foit, Kaarina; Liess, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    Climate change exerts direct effects on ecosystems but has additional indirect effects due to changes in agricultural practice. These include the increased use of pesticides, changes in the areas that are cultivated, and changes in the crops cultivated. It is well known that pesticides, and in particular insecticides, affect aquatic ecosystems adversely. To implement effective mitigation measures it is necessary to identify areas that are affected currently and those that will be affected in the future. As a consequence, we predicted potential exposure to insecticide (insecticide runoff potential, RP) under current conditions (1990) and under a model scenario of future climate and land use (2090) using a spatially explicit model on a continental scale, with a focus on Europe. Space-for-time substitution was used to predict future levels of insecticide application, intensity of agricultural land use, and cultivated crops. To assess the indirect effects of climate change, evaluation of the risk of insecticide exposure was based on a trait-based, climate-insensitive indicator system (SPEAR, SPEcies At Risk). To this end, RP and landscape characteristics that are relevant for the recovery of affected populations were combined to estimate the ecological risk (ER) of insecticides for freshwater communities. We predicted a strong increase in the application of, and aquatic exposure to, insecticides under the future scenario, especially in central and northern Europe. This, in turn, will result in a severe increase in ER in these regions. Hence, the proportion of stream sites adjacent to arable land that do not meet the requirements for good ecological status as defined by the EU Water Framework Directive will increase (from 33% to 39% for the EU-25 countries), in particular in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries (from 6% to 19%). Such spatially explicit mapping of risk enables the planning of adaptation and mitigation strategies including vegetated buffer strips and

  7. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marcombe

    Full Text Available Dengue is an important mosquito borne viral disease in Martinique Island (French West Indies. The viruses responsible for dengue are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, an indoor day-biting mosquito. The most effective proven method for disease prevention has been by vector control by various chemical or biological means. Unfortunately insecticide resistance has already been observed on the Island and recently showed to significantly reduce the efficacy of vector control interventions. In this study, we investigated the distribution of resistance and the underlying mechanisms in nine Ae. aegypti populations. Statistical multifactorial approach was used to investigate the correlations between insecticide resistance levels, associated mechanisms and environmental factors characterizing the mosquito populations. Bioassays revealed high levels of resistance to temephos and deltamethrin and susceptibility to Bti in the 9 populations tested. Biochemical assays showed elevated detoxification enzyme activities of monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-tranferases in most of the populations. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations, revealed the presence of the "knock-down resistance" V1016I Kdr mutation at high frequency (>87%. Real time quantitative RT-PCR showed the potential involvement of several candidate detoxification genes in insecticide resistance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA performed with variables characterizing Ae. aegypti from Martinique permitted to underline potential links existing between resistance distribution and other variables such as agriculture practices, vector control interventions and urbanization. Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Efficacy, persistence and vector susceptibility to pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS) insecticide for indoor residual spraying in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Khamis A; Thawer, Narjis G; Khatib, Bakari O; Mcha, Juma H; Rashid, Abdallah; Ali, Abdullah S; Jones, Christopher; Bagi, Judit; Magesa, Stephen M; Ramsan, Mahdi M; Garimo, Issa; Greer, George; Reithinger, Richard; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

    2015-12-09

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of households with insecticide is a principal malaria vector control intervention in Zanzibar. In 2006, IRS using the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrine was introduced in Zanzibar. Following detection of pyrethroid resistance in 2010, an insecticide resistance management plan was proposed, and IRS using bendiocarb was started in 2011. In 2014, bendiocarb was replaced by pirimiphos methyl. This study investigated the residual efficacy of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 300CS) sprayed on common surfaces of human dwellings in Zanzibar. The residual activity of Actellic 300CS was determined over 9 months through bioassay tests that measured the mortality of female Anopheles mosquitoes, exposed to sprayed surfaces under a WHO cone. The wall surfaces included; mud wall, oil or water painted walls, lime washed wall, un-plastered cement block wall and stone blocks. Insecticide susceptibility testing was done to investigate the resistance status of local malaria vectors against Actellic 300CS using WHO protocols; Anopheline species were identified using PCR methods. Baseline tests conducted one-day post-IRS revealed 100% mortality on all sprayed surfaces. The residual efficacy of Actellic 300CS was maintained on all sprayed surfaces up to 8 months post-IRS. However, the bioassay test conducted 9 months post-IRS showed the 24 h mortality rate to be ≤80% for lime wash, mud wall, water paint and stone block surfaces. Only oil paint surface retained the recommended residual efficacy beyond 9 months post-IRS, with mortality maintained at ≥97 %. Results of susceptibility tests showed that malaria vectors in Zanzibar were fully (100%) susceptible to Actellic 300CS. The predominant mosquito vector species was An. arabiensis (76.0%) in Pemba and An. gambiae (83.5%) in Unguja. The microencapsulated formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 300CS) is a highly effective and appropriate insecticide for IRS use in Zanzibar as it showed a relatively prolonged

  9. Identification of two acetylcholinesterases in Pardosa pseudoannulata and the sensitivity to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixi; Shao, Ying; Jiang, Feng; Li, Jian; Liu, Zewen

    2014-03-01

    Pardosa pseudoannulata is an important predatory enemy against insect pests, such as rice planthoppers and leafhoppers. In order to understand the insecticide selectivity between P. pseudoannulata and insect pests, two acetylcholinesterase genes, Pp-ace1 and Pp-ace2, were cloned from this natural enemy. The putative proteins encoded by Pp-ace1 and Pp-ace2 showed high similarities to insect AChE1 (63% to Liposcelis entomophila AChE1) and AChE2 (36% to Culex quinquefasciatus AChE2) with specific functional motifs, which indicated that two genes might encode AChE1 and AChE2 proteins respectively. The recombinant proteins by expressing Pp-ace1 and Pp-ace2 genes in insect sf9 cells showed high AChE activities. The kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, of two recombinant AChE proteins were significantly different. The sensitivities to six insecticides were determined in two recombinant AChEs. Pp-AChE1 was more sensitive to all tested insecticides than Pp-AChE2, such as fenobucarb (54 times in Ki ratios), isoprocarb (31 times), carbaryl (13 times) and omethoate (6 times). These results indicated that Pp-AChE1 might be the major synaptic enzyme in the spider. By sequence comparison of P. pseudoannulata and insect AChEs, the key amino acid differences at or close to the functional sites were found. The locations of some key amino acid differences were consistent with the point mutation sites in insect AChEs that were associated with insecticide resistance, such as Phe331 in Pp-AChE2 corresponding to Ser331Phe mutation in Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii AChE2, which might play important roles in insecticide selectivity between P. pseudoannulata and insect pests. Of course, the direct evidences are needed through further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comportamiento morfoagronómico de variedades de morera (Morus alba L. durante el establecimiento Morphoagronomic performance of mulberry (Morus alba L. varieties during the establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En áreas de la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoagronómico de cuatro variedades de morera (Morus alba L. (Criolla, Indonesia, Cubana y Tigreada, durante la etapa de establecimiento de plantas trasplantadas. El material vegetativo (posturas fue aviverado durante 120 días. La dinámica de emergencia de las yemas fue significativamente superior en las variedades Indonesia, Tigreada y Cubana con respecto a la Criolla. La variedad Tigreada alcanzó la mayor tasa promedio de desarrollo de nuevas ramas (0,25 ramas/día, aunque sin diferencias significativas respecto a las restantes variedades. La longitud de las ramas tendió a ser superior en la var. Tigreada (0,89 cm promedio por día, seguida por las variedades Indonesia, Cubana y Criolla (0,77; 0,73 y 0,63 cm/día, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el grosor de las ramas fue mayor en las variedades Cubana y Criolla. La variedad Indonesia se caracterizó por un significativo crecimiento en altura y grosor de la base del tallo principal (154 cm y 14,6 mm respecto al resto de las variedades. Todo ello tuvo una repercusión marcada en la producción de hojas, en lo cual se destacó la variedad Tigreada; le siguieron, aunque con diferencias significativas entre ellas, las variedades Indonesia, Cubana y Criolla. Se concluye que Tigreada e Indonesia resultaron ser las variedades de mejor comportamiento morfoagronómico durante el establecimiento; la primera se caracterizó por un alto potencial de producción de hojas y la segunda por una notable capacidad de acumulación de tejido leñoso.A study was carried out in areas of the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" in order to evaluate the morphoagronomic performance of four mulberry (Morus alba L. varieties (Criolla, Indonesia, Cubana and Tigreada, during the establishment stage of transplanted plants. The vegetative material (seedlings was placed in a nursery for 120 days. The bud emergence dynamics was

  11. Evolutionary changes in gene expression, coding sequence and copy-number at the Cyp6g1 locus contribute to resistance to multiple insecticides in Drosophila.

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    Thomas W R Harrop

    Full Text Available Widespread use of insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in many populations of insects. In some populations, resistance has evolved to multiple pesticides. In Drosophila melanogaster, resistance to multiple classes of insecticide is due to the overexpression of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Overexpression of Cyp6g1 appears to have evolved in parallel in Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster, where it is also associated with insecticide resistance. However, it is not known whether the ability of the CYP6G1 enzyme to provide resistance to multiple insecticides evolved recently in D. melanogaster or if this function is present in all Drosophila species. Here we show that duplication of the Cyp6g1 gene occurred at least four times during the evolution of different Drosophila species, and the ability of CYP6G1 to confer resistance to multiple insecticides exists in D. melanogaster and D. simulans but not in Drosophila willistoni or Drosophila virilis. In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to the duplication affected the activity of the enzyme. All orthologs tested conferred resistance to one or more insecticides, suggesting that CYP6G1 had the capacity to provide resistance to anthropogenic chemicals before they existed. Finally, we show that expression of Cyp6g1 in the Malpighian tubules, which contributes to DDT resistance in D. melanogaster, is specific to the D. melanogaster-D. simulans lineage. Our results suggest that a combination of gene duplication, regulatory changes and protein coding changes has taken place at the Cyp6g1 locus during evolution and this locus may play a role in providing resistance to different environmental toxins in different Drosophila species.

  12. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  13. Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Verma, Sharad; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati

    2015-10-01

    The hexane and ether extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Jatropha curcas were screened for their toxicity against different developmental stages of housefly. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities were analysed at various concentrations (0.78-7.86 mg/cm(2)) of hexane and ether extracts. The lethal concentration values (LC50) of hexane extract of J. curcas leaves were 3.0 and 0.27 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. Similarly, the ether extract of leaf showed the LC50 of 2.20 and 4.53 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly. Least toxicity was observed with hexane root extract of J. curcas with LC50 values of 14.18 and 14.26 mg/cm(2) for adult and larvae of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. The variation in LC50 against housefly pupae was found to be 8.88-13.10 mg/cm(2) at various J. curcas extract concentrations. The GC-MS analysis of J. curcas leaf extract revealed the presence of trans-phytol (60.81 %), squalene (28.58 %), phytol (2.52 %) and nonadecanone (1.06 %) as major components that could be attributed for insecticidal activity of J. curcas extracts.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  15. Study on Soil Mobility of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mörtl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement of two neonicotinoid insecticide active ingredients, clothianidin (CLO and thiamethoxam (TMX, was investigated in different soil types (sand, clay, or loam and in pumice. Elution profiles were determined to explore differences in binding capacity. Soil characterized by high organic matter content retained the ingredients, whereas high clay content resulted in long release of compounds. Decrease in concentration was strongly influenced by soil types: both CLO and TMX were retained in loam and clay soils and showed ready elution through sandy soil and pumice. Elution capability of the active ingredients in sandy soil correlated with their water solubility, indicating approximately 30% higher rapidity for TMX than for CLO. Soil organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (Koc determined were in good agreement with literature values with somewhat lower value for CLO in sandy soil and substantially higher values for TMX in clay soil. High mobility of these neonicotinoid active ingredients in given soil types urges stronger precautionary approach taken during their application.

  16. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalwagy, Manal Ea; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, A A; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas's examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters.

  17. Distribution and toxicity of current-use insecticides in sediment of a lake receiving waters from areas in transition to urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jizhong; Li Huizhen; You Jing

    2012-01-01

    Current-use insecticides including organophosphate (OPs) and synthetic pyrethroid (SPs) insecticides were analyzed in 35 sediment samples collected from Chaohu Lake in China, where a transition from a traditional agricultural to a modern urbanized society is ongoing. Total concentrations of five OPs and eight SPs ranged from 0.029 to 0.681 ng/g dry weight and 0.016–301 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Toxic unit analysis showed that 13% of the sediment samples likely produced over 50% of the mortality for benthic invertebrates. Analysis also showed that cypermethrin was the principal contributor to the toxicity. Spatial distribution evaluation implied that OPs were mainly from non-point sources associated with agricultural activities. Conversely, SPs may have been derived from runoff of inflowing rivers through urban regions, as their concentrations were well-correlated with concentrations of other urban-oriented contaminants. - Highlights: ► Though lower than urban sites, pyrethroid insecticides in Chaohu Lake, China may cause toxicity to benthic invertebrates. ► Concentrations of pyrethroids were well correlated with those of other urban-oriented contaminants, e.g. PAHs and LABs. ► Spatial distribution showed urban runoff was the major source of pyrethroids deposited in the lake sediment. ► Conversely, organophosphate insecticides were mainly associated with agricultural non-point sources. - Evaluation of the distribution, potential toxicity, and input sources of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides in sediment from Chaohu Lake, China.

  18. Seasonal fluctuation in susceptibility to insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Features of genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyo, Takahiro; Oguma, Yuzuru; Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, we conducted an analysis of variance for mortality data sets of isofemale lines (10-286 lines) used in the previous studies. Susceptibility of isofemale lines to the three organophosphate insecticides was continuously distributed within each natural population, ranging from susceptible to resistant. Analysis of variance showed highly significant variation among isofemale lines in susceptibility to each insecticide for each natural population. Significant genetic variances in susceptibility to the three chemicals were estimated for the Katsunuma population; 0.0529-0.2722 for malathion, 0.0492-0.1603 for prothiophos, and 0.0469-0.1696 for fenitrothion. Contrary to the consistent seasonal tendency towards an increase in mean susceptibility in the fall, reported in the previous study, genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates did not change significantly in 1997 but tended to increase by 2- to 5-times in 1998. We tested whether both the observed situations, maintenance and increase in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance, can be generated under circumstances in which the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates tended to decrease, by conducting a simulation analysis, based on the hypothesis that resistant genotypes have lower fitnesses than susceptible ones under the density-independent condition. The simulation analysis generally explained the pattern in the mean susceptibility and genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population of D. melanogaster. It was suggested that the differences in the frequencies of resistance genes in the summer population could affect the patterns in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance in the fall population.

  19. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti from Brazil and the Swiss-Italian border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Tobias; Crespo, Mônica Maria; de Oliveira, Mariana Francelino; de Oliveira, Thaynan Sama Alves; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues; Araújo, Ana Paula; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Lukas; Müller, Pie; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2017-09-19

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are two highly invasive mosquito species, both vectors of several viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. While Ae. aegypti is the primary vector in the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus is increasingly under the public health watch as it has been implicated in arbovirus-transmission in more temperate regions, including continental Europe. Vector control using insecticides is the pillar of most control programmes; hence development of insecticide resistance is of great concern. As part of a Brazilian-Swiss Joint Research Programme we set out to assess whether there are any signs of existing or incipient insecticide resistance primarily against the larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti), but also against currently applied and potentially alternative insecticides in our areas, Recife (Brazil) and the Swiss-Italian border region. Following World Health Organization guidelines, dose-response curves for a range of insecticides were established for both colonized and field caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicides included Bti, two of its toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Vectomax CG®, a formulated combination of Bti and L. sphaericus, and diflubenzuron. In addition to the larvicides, the Swiss-Italian Ae. albopictus populations were also tested against five adulticides (bendiocarb, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, malathion, permethrin and λ-cyhalothrin). Showing a similar dose-response, all mosquito populations were fully susceptible to the larvicides tested and, in particular, to Bti which is currently used both in Brazil and Switzerland. In addition, there were no signs of incipient resistance against Bti as larvae were equally susceptible to the individual toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba. The field-caught Swiss-Italian populations were susceptible to the adulticides tested but DDT mortality rates showed signs of reduced susceptibility. The insecticides currently used for

  20. Insecticide mixtures for mosquito net impregnation against malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel V.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides belonging to the pyrethroid family are the only compounds currently available for the treatment of mosquito nets. Unfortunately, some malaria vector species have developed resistance to pyrethroids and the lack of alternative chemical categories is a great concern. One strategy for resistance management would be to treat mosquito nets with a mixture associating two insecticides having different modes of action. This study presents the results obtained with insecticide mixtures containing several proportions of bifenthrin (a pyrethroid insecticide and carbosulfan (a carbamate insecticide. The mixtures were sprayed on mosquito net samples and their efficacy were tested against a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Africa. A significant synergism was observed with a mixture containing 25 mg/m2 of bifenthrin (half the recommended dosage for treated nets and 6.25 mg/m2 of carbosulfan (about 2 % of the recommended dosage. The observed mortality was significantly more than expected in the absence of any interaction (80 % vs 41 % and the knock-down effect was maintained, providing an effective barrier against susceptible mosquitoes.

  1. Insecticides promote viral outbreaks by altering herbivore competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Chu, Dong; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Carriére, Yves; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-09-01

    While the management of biological invasions is often characterized by a series of single-specieg decisions, invasive species exist within larger food webs. These biotic interactions can alter the impact of control/eradication programs and may cause suppression efforts to inadvertently facilitate invasion spread and impact. We document the rapid replacement of the invasive Bemisia Middle East-Asia Minor I (MEAM1) cryptic biotype by the cryptic Mediterranean (MED) biotype throughout China and demonstrate that MED is more tolerant of insecticides and a better vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than MEAMJ. While MEAM1 usually excludes MED under natural conditions, insecticide application reverses the MEAM1-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to exclude MEAMI. The insecticide-mediated success of MED has led to TYLCV outbreaks throughout China. Our work strongly supports the hypothesis that insecticide use in China reverses the MEAMl-MED competitive hierarchy and allows MED to displace MEAM1 in managed landscapes. By promoting the dominance of a Bemisia species that is a competent viral vector, insecticides thus increase the spread and impact of TYLCV in heterogeneous agroecosystems.

  2. The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Denholm, Ian; Williamson, Martin S; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The first neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, was launched in 1991. Today this class of insecticides comprises at least seven major compounds with a market share of more than 25% of total global insecticide sales. Neonicotinoid insecticides are highly selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and provide farmers with invaluable, highly effective tools against some of the world's most destructive crop pests. These include sucking pests such as aphids, whiteflies, and planthoppers, and also some coleopteran, dipteran and lepidopteran species. Although many insect species are still successfully controlled by neonicotinoids, their popularity has imposed a mounting selection pressure for resistance, and in several species resistance has now reached levels that compromise the efficacy of these insecticides. Research to understand the molecular basis of neonicotinoid resistance has revealed both target-site and metabolic mechanisms conferring resistance. For target-site resistance, field-evolved mutations have only been characterized in two aphid species. Metabolic resistance appears much more common, with the enhanced expression of one or more cytochrome P450s frequently reported in resistant strains. Despite the current scale of resistance, neonicotinoids remain a major component of many pest control programmes, and resistance management strategies, based on mode of action rotation, are of crucial importance in preventing resistance becoming more widespread. In this review we summarize the current status of neonicotinoid resistance, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved, and the implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Repellant and insecticidal activities of shyobunone and isoshyobunone derived from the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ping; Yang, Kai; Zheng, Li-Shi; You, Chun-Xue; Cai, Qian; Wang, Cheng-Fang

    2015-01-01

    It was found that the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes showed insecticidal activity. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil from A. calamus rhizomes, evaluate insecticidal and repellant activity against Lasioderma serricorne (LS) and Tribolium castaneum (TC), and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. Essential oil from A. calamus was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal and repellant activity of the essential oil and isolated compounds was tested using a variety of methods. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be isoshyobunone (15.56%), β-asarone (10.03%), bicyclo[6.1.0]non-1-ene (9.67%), shyobunone (9.60%) and methylisoeugenol (6.69%). Among them, the two active constituents were isolated and identified as shyobunone and isoshyobunone. The essential oil showed contact toxicity against LS and TC with LD50 values of 14.40 and 32.55 μg/adult, respectively. The isolated compounds, shyobunone and isoshyobunone also exhibited strong contact toxicity against LS adults with LD50 values of 20.24 and 24.19 μg/adult, respectively, while the LD50 value of isoshyobunone was 61.90 μg/adult for TC adults. The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone were strongly repellent (98%, 90% and 94%, respectively, at 78.63 nL/cm(2), after 2 h treatment) against TC. The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone possessed insecticidal and repellant activity against LS and TC.

  4. Effects of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) produced by genetically modified maize (Bt maize) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höss, Sebastian; Menzel, Ralph; Gessler, Frank; Nguyen, Hang T.; Jehle, Johannes A.; Traunspurger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The genetically modified maize MON89034 × MON88017 expresses different crystal (Cry) proteins with pesticidal activity against the European corn borer (Cry1.105; Cry2Ab2) and the Western corn root worm (Cry3Bb1). Non-target organisms, such as soil nematodes, might be exposed to the Cry proteins that enter the soil in course of crop growing. Therefore, the risk of those proteins for nematodes was assessed by testing their toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans. All three insecticidal Cry proteins showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on C. elegans reproduction (EC50: 0.12–0.38 μmol L −1 ), however, at concentrations that were far above the expected soil concentrations. Moreover, a reduced toxicity was observed when Cry proteins were added jointly. A C. elegans mutant strain deficient for receptors for the nematicidal Cry5B was also resistant against Cry1.105 and Cry2Ab2, suggesting that these Cry proteins bound to the same or similar receptors as nematicidal Cry proteins and thereby affect the reproduction of C. elegans. -- Highlights: •Insecticidal Cry proteins dose-dependently inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. •Mixture toxicity was lower than expected from concentration-additive single effects. •Genes for MAPK-defense-pathway were up-regulated in presence of Cry protein mixture. •Knock-out strains deficient for Cry5B-receptors showed lower susceptibility to insecticidal Cry proteins. •Toxicity of insecticidal Cry-proteins on C. elegans occurred at concentrations far above expected field concentrations. -- Insecticidal Cry proteins expressed by genetically modified maize act on nematodes via a similar mode of action as nematicidal Cry proteins, however, at concentrations far above expected soil levels

  5. Mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers assembled with apogossypolone amphiphilic starch micelles and doxorubicin hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for tumor combination and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Chen, Mu; Zeng, Yun; Liu, Jiajun; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy for the preparation of mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers (MLDC NCs) with high drug loading and adjustable dual-drug ratio was developed. First, apogossypolone (ApoG2) amphiphilic starch micelles (AASt MCs) were prepared by self-assembly process, and doxorubicin (DOX) hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (DHA NPs) were prepared by DOX absorption with excess HA by electrostatic absorption. MLDC NCs were obtained by adsorption of 8-9 DHA NPs around one AASt MC via electrostatic interaction. UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometers were used to measure the entrapment efficiency and loading efficiency of the two drugs. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering method were used to observe the size distribution and morphology of the particles. The tumor-targeting feature caused by HA-receptor mediation was confirmed by in vitro cell uptake and in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. MLDC NCs were found to possess a mulberry-like shape with a dynamic size of 83.1 ± 6.6 nm. The final encapsulation efficiencies of ApoG2 and DOX in MLDC NCs were 94 ± 1.7% and 87 ± 5.8% with respect to drug-loading capacities of 13.3 ± 1.2% and 13.1 ± 3.7%, respectively. Almost no ApoG2 release was found within 80 h and less than 30% of DOX was released into the outer phase even after 72 h. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed that MLDC NCs had highly efficient targeting and accumulation at the tumor in vivo and was maintained for 96 h after being injected intravenously in mice. Low LD50 for the two drugs in MLDC NCs was found after acute toxicity test. One-fifth normal dosage of the two drugs in MLDC NCs exhibited significantly higher anti-tumor efficiency in reducing tumor size compared with free drugs combination or single drug-loaded nanoparticles individually, indicating that the mulberry-like dual-drug nanoplatform has a great potential in tumor therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Intermediate Syndrome Following Organophosphate Insecticide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chang Yang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate insecticide poisoning can manifest 3 different phases of toxic effects, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome (IMS, and delayed neuropathy. Among them, IMS has been considered as a major contributing factor of organophosphate-related morbidity and mortality because of its frequent occurrence and probable consequence of respiratory failure. Despite a high incidence, the pathophysiology that underlies IMS remains unclear. Previously proposed mechanisms of IMS include different susceptibility of various cholinergic receptors, muscle necrosis, prolonged acetylcholinesterase inhibition, inadequate oxime therapy, downregulation or desensitization of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors, failure of postsynaptic acetylcholine release, and oxidative stress-related myopathy. The clinical manifestations of IMS typically occur within 24 to 96 hours, affecting conscious patients without cholinergic signs, and involve the muscles of respiration, proximal limb muscles, neck flexors, and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves. With appropriate therapy that commonly includes artificial respiration, complete recovery develops 5–18 days later. Patients with atypical manifestations of IMS, especially a relapse or a continuum of acute cholinergic crisis, however, were frequently reported in clinical studies of IMS. The treatment of IMS is mainly supportive. Nevertheless, because IMS generally concurs with severe organophosphate toxicity and persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, early aggressive decontamination, appropriate antidotal therapy, and prompt institution of ventilatory support should be helpful in ameliorating the magnitude and/or the incidence of IMS. Although IMS is well recognized as a disorder of neuromuscular junctions, its exact etiology, incidence, and risk factors are not clearly defined because existing studies are largely small-scale case series and do not employ a consistent and rigorous

  7. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  8. Susceptibility profile of Aedes aegypti from Santiago Island, Cabo Verde, to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hélio Daniel Ribeiro; Paiva, Marcelo Henrique Santos; Silva, Norma Machado; de Araújo, Ana Paula; Camacho, Denise Dos Reis da Rosa de Azevedo; Moura, Aires Januário Fernandes da; Gómez, Lara Ferrero; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo

    2015-12-01

    insecticides used for vector control, deltamethrin and temephos. To our knowledge, this is the first report of temephos resistance in an African A. aegypti population. The low level of temephos resistance was maintained from 2012-2014, which suggested the imposition of selective pressure, although it was not possible to identify the resistance mechanisms involved. These data show that the potential failures in the local mosquito control program are not associated with insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwane, Philippe; Etang, Josiane; Chouaїbou, Mouhamadou; Toto, Jean Claude; Koffi, Alphonsine; Mimpfoundi, Rémy; Simard, Frédéric

    2013-02-22

    Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95) were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S) using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates>98%) and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An. gambiae resulting in heterogeneous resistance profiles, whereas in

  10. Influence on sensitivity to insecticides: a case study of a settled area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monitoring for successful alternative insecticides. There are currently two ... behaviour or modification avoid landing on insecticide .... aquarium fish food18. When they .... National Statistical Office (NSO) Malawi Government 1998 Census. 16.

  11. Mechanistic modeling of insecticide risks to breeding birds in North American agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of ...

  12. Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

  13. The effect of metal pollution on the life history and insecticide resistance phenotype of the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shüné V Oliver

    Full Text Available Metal exposure is one of the commonest anthropogenic pollutants mosquito larvae are exposed to, both in agricultural and urban settings. As members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which contains several major malaria vector species including An. arabiensis, are increasingly adapting to polluted environments, this study examined the effects of larval metal exposure on various life history traits of epidemiological importance. Two laboratory strains of An. arabiensis, SENN (insecticide susceptible and SENN DDT (insecticide resistant, were reared in maximum acceptable toxicity concentrations, (MATC-the highest legally accepted concentration of cadmium chloride, lead nitrate and copper nitrate. Following these exposures, time to pupation, adult size and longevity were determined. Larvae reared in double the MATC were assessed for changes in malathion and deltamethrin tolerance, measured by lethal time bottle bioassay, as well as changes in detoxification enzyme activity. As defence against oxidative stress has previously been demonstrated to affect the expression of insecticide resistance, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assessed. The relative metal toxicity to metal naïve larvae was also assessed. SENN DDT larvae were more tolerant of metal pollution than SENN larvae. Pupation in SENN larvae was significantly reduced by metal exposure, while adult longevity was not affected. SENN DDT showed decreased adult size after larval metal exposure. Adult insecticide tolerance was increased after larval metal exposure, and this effect appeared to be mediated by increased β-esterase, cytochrome P450 and superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest an enzyme-mediated positive link between tolerance to metal pollutants and insecticide resistance in adult mosquitoes. Furthermore, exposure of larvae to metal pollutants may have operational consequences under an insecticide-based vector control scenario by increasing

  14. Efficacy of an insecticide paint against insecticide-susceptible and resistant mosquitoes - Part 1: Laboratory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carnevale Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the urban pest nuisance Culex quinquefasciatus are increasingly resistant to pyrethroids in many African countries. There is a need for new products and strategies. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and insect growth regulator (IGR, pyriproxyfen, was tested under laboratory conditions for 12 months following WHOPES Phase I procedures. Methods Mosquitoes used were laboratory strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus susceptible and resistant to OPs. The paint was applied at two different doses (1 kg/6 m2 and 1 kg/12 m2 on differen